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Sample records for anticancer drugs mitoxantrone

  1. Studies on the binding affinity of anticancer drug mitoxantrone to chromatin, DNA and histone proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hajihassan, Zahra; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra

    2009-01-01

    Mitoxantrone is a potent antitumor drug, widely used in the treatment of various cancers. In the present study, we have investigated and compared the affinity of anticancer drug, mitoxantrone, to EDTA-soluble chromatin (SE-chromatin), DNA and histones employing UV/Vis, fluorescence, CD spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and equilibrium dialysis techniques. The results showed that the interaction of mitoxantrone with SE-chromatin proceeds into compaction/aggregation as revealed by reduction in the absorbencies at 608 and 260 nm (hypochromicity) and disappearance of both histones and DNA on the gels. Mitoxantrone interacts strongly with histone proteins in solution making structural changes in the molecule as shown by CD and fluorescence analysis. The binding isotherms demonstrate a positive cooperative binding pattern for the chromatin- mitoxantrone interaction. It is suggested higher binding affinity of mitoxantrone to chromatin compared to DNA implying that the histone proteins may play an important role in the chromatin- mitoxantrone interaction process. PMID:19284573

  2. Naphthoquinoxaline metabolite of mitoxantrone is less cardiotoxic than the parent compound and it can be a more cardiosafe drug in anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Reis-Mendes, A; Gomes, A S; Carvalho, R A; Carvalho, F; Remião, F; Pinto, M; Bastos, M L; Sousa, E; Costa, V M

    2017-04-01

    Mitoxantrone (MTX) is an antineoplastic agent used to treat several types of cancers and on multiple sclerosis, which shows a high incidence of cardiotoxicity. Still, the underlying mechanisms of MTX cardiotoxicity are poorly understood and the potential toxicity of its metabolites scarcely investigated. Therefore, this work aimed to synthesize the MTX-naphthoquinoxaline metabolite (NAPHT) and to compare its cytotoxicity to the parent compound in 7-day differentiated H9c2 cells using pharmacological relevant concentrations (0.01-5 µM). MTX was more toxic in equivalent concentrations in all cytotoxicity tests performed [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction, neutral red uptake, and lactate dehydrogenase release assays] and times tested (24 and 48 h). Both MTX and NAPHT significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in 7-day differentiated H9c2 cells after a 12-h incubation. However, energetic pathways were affected in a different manner after MTX or NAPHT incubation. ATP increased and lactate levels decreased after a 24-h incubation with MTX, whereas for the same incubation time and concentrations, NAPHT did not cause any significant effect. The increased activity of ATP synthase seems responsible for MTX-induced increases in ATP levels, as oligomycin (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) abrogated this effect on 5 µM MTX-incubated cells. 3-Methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) was the only molecule to give a partial protection against the cytotoxicity produced by MTX or NAPHT. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first broad study on NAPHT cardiotoxicity, and it revealed that the parent drug, MTX, caused a higher disruption in the energetic pathways in a cardiac model in vitro, whereas autophagy is involved in the toxicity of both compounds. In conclusion, NAPHT is claimed to largely contribute to MTX-anticancer properties; therefore, this metabolite should be regarded as a good option for a safer anticancer therapy

  3. Targeted Tumor Therapy with "Magnetic Drug Targeting": Therapeutic Efficacy of Ferrofluid Bound Mitoxantrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiou, Ch.; Schmid, R.; Jurgons, R.; Bergemann, Ch.; Arnold, W.; Parak, F.G.

    The difference between success or failure of chemotherapy depends not only on the drug itself but also on how it is delivered to its target. Biocompatible ferrofluids (FF) are paramagnetic nanoparticles, that may be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents in locoregional tumor therapy, called "magnetic drug targeting". Bound to medical drugs, such magnetic nanoparticles can be enriched in a desired body compartment (tumor) using an external magnetic field, which is focused on the area of the tumor. Through this form of target directed drug application, one attempts to concentrate a pharmacological agent at its site of action in order to minimize unwanted side effects in the organism and to increase its locoregional effectiveness. Tumor bearing rabbits (VX2 squamous cell carcinoma) in the area of the hind limb, were treated by a single intra-arterial injection (A. femoralis) of mitoxantrone bound ferrofluids (FF-MTX), while focusing an external magnetic field (1.7 Tesla) onto the tumor for 60 minutes. Complete tumor remissions could be achieved in these animals in a dose related manner (20% and 50% of the systemic dose of mitoxantrone), without any negative side effects, like e.g. leucocytopenia, alopecia or gastrointestinal disorders. The strong and specific therapeutic efficacy in tumor treatment with mitoxantrone bound ferrofluids may indicate that this system could be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents, like radionuclids, cancer-specific antibodies, anti-angiogenetic factors, genes etc.

  4. Vitamin E succinate-conjugated F68 micelles for mitoxantrone delivery in enhancing anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuling; Xu, Yingqi; Wu, Minghui; Fan, Lijiao; He, Chengwei; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitoxantrone (MIT) is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES) amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT) micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines). In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. PMID:27471384

  5. Anticancer drugs during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamada, Manabu; Kasai, Yasuyo; Miyauchi, Akito; Andoh, Kazumichi

    2016-09-01

    Although cancer diagnoses during pregnancy are rare, they have been increasing with the rise in maternal age and are now a topic of international concern. In some cases, the administration of chemotherapy is unavoidable, though there is a relative paucity of evidence regarding the administration of anticancer drugs during pregnancy. As more cases have gradually accumulated and further research has been conducted, we are beginning to elucidate the appropriate timing for the administration of chemotherapy, the regimens that can be administered with relative safety, various drug options and the effects of these drugs on both the mother and fetus. However, new challenges have arisen, such as the effects of novel anticancer drugs and the desire to bear children during chemotherapy. In this review, we outline the effects of administering cytotoxic anticancer drugs and molecular targeted drugs to pregnant women on both the mother and fetus, as well as the issues regarding patients who desire to bear children while being treated with anticancer drugs.

  6. Multifunctional hyaluronic acid modified graphene oxide loaded with mitoxantrone for overcoming drug resistance in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lin; Feng, Qianhua; Wang, Yating; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional nanosheets (HA-GO/Pluronic) with targeted chemo-photothermal properties were successfully developed for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). In vitro release profiles displayed that both an acidic environment and a NIR laser could trigger and accelerate the release of a drug, which ensured nanosheets were stable in blood circulation and released MIT within tumor cells under laser irradiation. HA-GO/Pluronic nanosheets were taken up into MCF-7/ADR cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which further facilitated escapement of P-gp efflux. Compared with MIT solution, MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic showed greater cytotoxicity and increase in cellular MIT accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies also revealed that MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic was more potent than MIT/GO/Pluronic and MIT solution. The anticancer efficacy in vivo was evaluated in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR-bearing mice, and inhibition of tumors by MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic with NIR laser irradiation was the most effective among all MIT formulations. In summary, the MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic system had striking functions such as P-gp reversible inhibitor and anticancer efficacy, and could present a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment.

  7. DNA topoisomerases and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves; Leo, Elisabetta; Zhang, HongLiang; Marchand, Christophe

    2010-05-28

    DNA topoisomerases are the targets of important anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Camptothecins and novel noncamptothecins in clinical development (indenoisoquinolines and ARC-111) target eukaryotic type IB topoisomerases (Top1), whereas human type IIA topoisomerases (Top2alpha and Top2beta) are the targets of the widely used anticancer agents etoposide, anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin), and mitoxantrone. Bacterial type II topoisomerases (gyrase and Topo IV) are the targets of quinolones and aminocoumarin antibiotics. This review focuses on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of topoisomerases and their inhibitors. We also discuss the common mechanism of action of topoisomerase poisons by interfacial inhibition and trapping of topoisomerase cleavage complexes.

  8. Nanodiamond–Mitoxantrone Complexes Enhance Drug Retention in Chemoresistant Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a prevalent issue that accounts for the vast majority of treatment failure outcomes in metastatic cancer. Among the mechanisms of resistance that markedly decrease treatment efficacy, the efflux of drug compounds by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins can impair adequate drug retention by cancer cells required for therapeutic cytotoxic activity. Of note, ABC transporters are capable of effluxing several classes of drugs that are clinical standards, including the anthracyclines such as doxorubicin, as well as anthracenediones such as mitoxantrone. To address this challenge, a spectrum of nanomaterials has been evaluated for improved drug retention and enhanced efficacy. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as a promising nanomaterial platform because they integrate several important properties into a single agent. These include a uniquely faceted truncated octahedral architecture that enables potent drug binding and dispersibility in water, scalably processed ND particles with uniform diameters of approximately 5 nm, and a demonstrated ability to improve drug tolerance while delaying tumor growth in multiple preclinical models, among others. This work describes a ND–mitoxantrone complex that can be rapidly synthesized and mediates marked improvements in drug efficacy. Comprehensive complex characterization reveals a complex with favorable drug delivery properties that is capable of improving drug retention and efficacy in an MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN (MDA-MB-231) triple negative breast cancer cell line that was lentivirally transduced for resistance against mitoxantrone. Findings from this study support the further evaluation of ND–MTX in preclinical dose escalation and safety studies toward potentially clinical validation. PMID:24867631

  9. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  10. Quantitative confocal spectral imaging analysis of mitoxantrone within living K562 cells: intracellular accumulation and distribution of monomers, aggregates, naphtoquinoxaline metabolite, and drug-target complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Feofanov, A; Sharonov, S; Fleury, F; Kudelina, I; Nabiev, I

    1997-01-01

    Confocal spectral imaging (CSI) technique was used for quantitative analysis of the uptake, subcellular localization, and characteristics of localized binding and retention of anticancer agent mitoxantrone (MITOX) within human K562 erythroleukemia cells. The CSI technique enables identification of the state and interactions of the drug within the living cells. Utilizing this unique property of the method, intracellular distributions were examined for monomeric MITOX in polar environment, MITOX bound with hydrophobic cellular structures, naphthoquinoxaline metabolite, and nucleic acid-related complexes of MITOX. The features revealed were compared for the cells treated with 2 microM or 10 microM of MITOX for 1 h and correlated to the known data on antitumor action of the drug. MITOX was found to exhibit high tendency to self-aggregation within intracellular media. The aggregates are concluded to be a determinant of long-term intracellular retention of the drug and a source of persistent intracellular binding of MITOX. Considerable penetration of MITOX in the hydrophobic cytoskeleton structures as well as growing accumulation of MITOX bound to nucleic acids within the nucleus were found to occur in the cells treated with a high concentration of the drug. These effects may be among the factors stimulating and/or accompanying high-dose mitoxantrone-induced programmed cell death or apoptosis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9414243

  11. Cimetidine: an anticancer drug?

    PubMed

    Kubecova, Martina; Kolostova, Katarina; Pinterova, Daniela; Kacprzak, Grzegorz; Bobek, Vladimir

    2011-04-18

    Cimetidine, H(2) receptor antagonists, is commonly prescribed for gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. Additionally, cimetidine has been shown to have anticancer effects. This review describes the mechanism of antitumor action of cimetidine including its ability to interfere with tumor cell adhesion, angiogenesis and proliferation; its effect on the immune system; as well as inhibition of postoperative immunosuppression. Its anticancer effect is also compared to that of the other H(2) receptor antagonists as well as outcomes of cimetidine in clinical studies in cancer patients.

  12. The importance of drug metabolites synthesis: the case-study of cardiotoxic anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hrynchak, Ivanna; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena; Costa, Vera Marisa

    2017-04-10

    Anticancer drugs are presently guarantying more survivors as a result of more powerful drugs or combinations of drugs used in therapy. Thus, it has become more crucial to study and overcome the side effects of these therapies. Cardiotoxicity is one of the most relevant side effect on the long-term cancer survivors, because of its high social and economic impact. Drug metabolism can result in active metabolites or toxic metabolites that can lead to important side effects. The metabolites of anticancer drugs are possible culprits of cardiotoxicity; however, the cardiotoxicity of many of the metabolites in several drug classes was not yet suitably studied so far. On the other hand, the use of prodrugs that are bioactivated through metabolism can be a good alternative to obtain more cardio safe drugs. In this review, the methods to obtain and study metabolites are summarized and their application to the study of a group of anticancer drugs with acknowledged cardiotoxicity is highlighted. In this group of drugs, doxorubicin (DOX, 1), mitoxantrone (MTX, 2), cyclophosphamide (CTX, 3), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 4) are included, as well as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib (5), sunitinib (6), and sorafenib (7). Only with the synthesis and purification of considerable amounts of the metabolites can reliable studies be performed, either in vitro or in vivo that allow accurate conclusions regarding the cardiotoxicity of anticancer drug metabolites and then pharmacological prevention or treatment of the cardiac side effects can be done.

  13. Combining oncolytic HSV-1 with immunogenic cell death-inducing drug mitoxantrone breaks cancer immune tolerance and improves therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Workenhe, Samuel T; Pol, Jonathan G; Lichty, Brian D; Cummings, Derek T; Mossman, Karen L

    2013-11-01

    Although antitumor activity of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 null oncolytic vectors has been validated in murine breast cancer models, oncolytic virus treatment alone is insufficient to break immune tolerance. Thus, we investigated enhancing efficacy through combination therapy with the immunogenic cell death-inducing chemotherapeutic drug, mitoxantrone. Despite a lack of enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro, HSV-1 ICP0 null oncolytic virus KM100 with 5 μmol/L mitoxantrone provided significant survival benefit to BALB/c mice bearing Her2/neu TUBO-derived tumors. This protection was mediated by increased intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils and tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Depletion studies verified that CD8-, CD4-, and Ly6G-expressing cells are essential for enhanced efficacy of the combination therapy. Moreover, the addition of mitoxantrone to KM100 oncolytic virus treatment broke immune tolerance in BALB-neuT mice bearing TUBO-derived tumors. This study suggests that oncolytic viruses in combination with immunogenic cell death-inducing chemotherapeutics enhance the immunogenicity of the tumor-associated antigens, breaking immunologic tolerance established toward these antigens.

  14. Serendipity in anticancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2012-01-01

    It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind. PMID:22247822

  15. Serendipity in anticancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2012-01-10

    It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind.

  16. Heterocyclic Scaffolds: Centrality in Anticancer Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Lone, Mohammad Nadeem; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has been cursed for human beings for long time. Millions people lost their lives due to cancer. Despite of the several anticancer drugs available, cancer cannot be cured; especially at the late stages without showing any side effect. Heterocyclic compounds exhibit exciting medicinal properties including anticancer. Some market selling heterocyclic anticancer drugs include 5-flourouracil, methortrexate, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, etc. Besides, some natural products such as vinblastine and vincristine are also used as anticancer drugs. Overall, heterocyclic moeities have always been core parts in the expansion of anticancer drugs. This article describes the importance of heterocyclic nuclei in the development of anticancer drugs. Besides, the attempts have been made to discuss both naturally occurring and synthetic heterocyclic compounds as anticancer agents. In addition, some market selling anticancer heterocyclic compounds have been described. Moreover, the efforts have been made to discuss the mechanisms of actions and recent advances in heterocyclic compounds as anticancer agents. The current challenges and future prospectives of heterocyclic compounds have also been discussed. Finally, the suggestions for syntheses of effective, selective, fast and human friendly anticancer agents are discussed into the different sections.

  17. NMR structure of dual site binding of mitoxantrone dimer to opposite grooves of parallel stranded G-quadruplex [d-(TTGGGGT)]4.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Tarikere Palakshan; Barthwal, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The formation of complex between anti-cancer drug mitoxantrone (MTX) and tetra-molecular parallel G-quadruplex DNA [d-(TTGGGGT)]4 has been studied by solution state one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Mitoxantrone forms a head-to-tail dimer and binds at two opposite grooves of the G-quadruplex. The Job's method of continuous variation and thermal melting studies independently ascertain binding stoichiometry of 4:1 in mitoxantrone:DNA complex. The existence of only four guanine NH peaks corresponding to the four G-quartets during the course of titration shows that C4 symmetry of G-quadruplex is intact upon binding of mitoxantrone. The specific inter molecular short distance contacts between protons of two mitoxantrone molecules of dimer, that is, ring A protons with ring C and side chain methylene protons, confirms the formation of mitoxantrone head-to-tail dimer. The observed 38 Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE) cross peaks between MTX and G-quadruplex DNA indicate formation of a well-defined complex. The three dimensional structure of 4:1 mitoxantrone:[d-(TTGGGGT)]4 complex computed by using experimental distance restraints followed by restrained Molecular Dynamics (rMD) simulations envisages the critical knowledge of specific molecular interactions within ligand-G-quadruplex complex. The findings are of direct interest in development of anti-cancer therapeutic drug based on G-quadruplex stabilization, resulting in telomerase inhibition.

  18. Modulation of anticancer drug toxicity by solcoseryl.

    PubMed

    Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Danysz, A

    1991-01-01

    The studies of the effect of solcoseryl on toxicity of selected anticancer drugs were performed in mice. The observed differential influence of solcoseryl was dependent on the type of anticancer drug as well as on the schedule of solcoseryl administration. The protective effect of the biostimulator was noticed exclusively against 5-FU toxicity. The results of our studies could provide possible implications for therapeutic approach.

  19. Liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Gnad-Vogt, Senta Ulrike; Beyer, Ulrich; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    Among several drug delivery systems, liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer agents represent an advanced and versatile technology. Several formulations of liposomal anthracyclines are approved, e.g. for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) or AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and liposomal daunorubicin). Meanwhile, virtually all anti-cancer drugs have been encapsulated in liposomes using different technologies. This review will summarize preclinical and clinical data of approved and exemplary emerging liposomal anti-cancer agents.

  20. Anticancer metal drugs and immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Alessio; Pirker, Christine; Keppler, Bernhard K; Berger, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutics, but also innovative precision anticancer compounds, are commonly perceived to target primarily the cancer cell compartment. However, recently it was discovered that some of these compounds can also exert immunomodulatory activities which might be exploited to synergistically enhance their anticancer effects. One specific phenomenon of the interplay between chemotherapy and the anticancer immune response is the so-called "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). ICD was discovered based on a vaccination effect exerted by cancer cells dying from pretreatment with certain chemotherapeutics, termed ICD inducers, in syngeneic transplantation mouse models. Interestingly, only a minority of drugs is able to trigger ICD without a clear-cut relation to chemical structures or their primary modes-of-action. Nevertheless, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are clearly linked to ICD. With regard to metal drugs, oxaliplatin but not cisplatin is considered a bona fide ICD inducer. Taken into account that several experimental metal compounds are efficient ROS and ER stress mediators, presence of potent ICD inducers within the plethora of novel metal complexes seems feasible and has occasionally been reported. In the light of recent successes in cancer immunotherapy, here we review existing literature regarding anticancer metal drugs and ICD induction. We recommend a more profound investigation of the immunogenic features of experimental anticancer metal drugs.

  1. Supramolecular Nanostructures Formed by Anticancer Drug Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Andrew G.; Zhang, Pengcheng; Lin, Yi-an; Lock, Lye Lin; Cui, Honggang

    2013-01-01

    We report here a supramolecular strategy to directly assemble the small molecular hydrophobic anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) into discrete, stable, well-defined nanostructures with a high and quantitative drug loading. Depending on the number of CPTs in the molecular design, the resulting nanostructures can be either nanofibers or nanotubes, and have a fixed CPT loading content ranging from 23% to 38%. We found that formation of nanostructures provides protection for both the CPT drug and the biodegradable linker from the external environment and thus offers a mechanism for controlled release of CPT. Under tumor-relevant conditions, these drug nanostructures can release the bioactive form of CPT and show in vitro efficacy against a number of cancer cell lines. This strategy can be extended to construct nanostructures of other types of anticancer drugs, and thus presents new opportunities for the development of self-delivering drugs for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23379791

  2. The effect of Cu 2+ on the interaction between an antitumor drug-mitoxantrone and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ming-Yue; Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin; Zhao, Chang-Qi

    2008-12-01

    The studies on the interaction between HSA and drugs have been an interesting research field in life sciences, chemistry and clinical medicine. There are also many metal ions present in blood plasma, thus the research about the effect of metal ions on the interaction between drugs and plasma proteins is crucial. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a familiar metal ion-Cu 2+ on the interaction between an antitumor drug-mitoxantrone (MTO) and human serum albumin (HSA) by using fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, for the first time. The results showed that the quenching efficiency of MTO to HSA is higher with Cu 2+ than that without Cu 2+. In the presence of Cu 2+, the secondary structure of HSA was changed and the α-helix content was increased. The apparent association constant ( KA), the binding sites ( n) and the spatial-distance ( r) between MTO and HSA decreased. These results indicated that Cu 2+ could affect the interaction between MTO and HSA by altering HSA molecular conformation. Further calculation indicated that the binding mode of Cu 2+ in MTO-HSA system was likely to form Cu 2+-HSA complex.

  3. Crude drugs as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiaoyang; Kesari, Santosh; Wen, Patrick Y; Huang, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Although tremendous progress has been made in basic cancer biology and in the development of novel cancer treatments, cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world. The etiopathogenesis of cancer is complex. Besides genetic predisposition, known environmental factors associated with cancer are: diet, lifestyle, and environmental toxins. Toxicity of drugs and eventual relapse of cancers contribute to high cancer death rates. Current therapeutic interventions for cancer- surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, thermotherapy, etc. are far from being curative for many forms of cancer. Chemotherapy, in particular, though the most commonly used cancer treatment, is usually associated with side effects with varying degrees of severity. The purpose of this brief review is to assemble current literature on some crude drugs and to focus on their beneficial roles and drug targets in cancer therapy and chemo-prevention. Although their pharmacological mechanisms and biochemical roles in cancer biology and tumor chemo-prevention are not fully understood, crude drugs are believed to have nutriceutical effects upon cancer patients. PMID:21394282

  4. Structural basis for stabilization of the tau pre-mRNA splicing regulatory element by novatrone (mitoxantrone)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Suxin; Chen, Yu; Donahue, Christine P.; Wolfe, Michael S.; Varani, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Summary Some familial neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mutations that destabilize a putative stem-loop structure within an intronic region of the tau pre-mRNA and alter the production of tau protein isoforms by alternative splicing. Since stabilization of the stem loop reverses the splicing pattern associated with neurodegeneration, small molecules that stabilize this stem loop would provide new ways to dissect the mechanism of neurodegeneration and treat tauopathies. The anti-cancer drug mitoxantrone was recently identified in a high throughput screen to stabilize the tau pre-mRNA stem loop. Here we report the solution structure of the tau mRNA-mitoxantrone complex, validated by the structure-activity relationship of existing mitoxantrone analogs. The structure describes the molecular basis for their interaction with RNA and provides a rational basis to optimize the activity of this new class of RNA-binding molecules. PMID:19477420

  5. Lead Phytochemicals for Anticancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sukhdev; Sharma, Bhupender; Kanwar, Shamsher S.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a serious concern at present. A large number of patients die each year due to cancer illnesses in spite of several interventions available. Development of an effective and side effects lacking anticancer therapy is the trending research direction in healthcare pharmacy. Chemical entities present in plants proved to be very potential in this regard. Bioactive phytochemicals are preferential as they pretend differentially on cancer cells only, without altering normal cells. Carcinogenesis is a complex process and includes multiple signaling events. Phytochemicals are pleiotropic in their function and target these events in multiple manners; hence they are most suitable candidate for anticancer drug development. Efforts are in progress to develop lead candidates from phytochemicals those can block or retard the growth of cancer without any side effect. Several phytochemicals manifest anticancer function in vitro and in vivo. This article deals with these lead phytomolecules with their action mechanisms on nuclear and cellular factors involved in carcinogenesis. Additionally, druggability parameters and clinical development of anticancer phytomolecules have also been discussed. PMID:27877185

  6. Lead Phytochemicals for Anticancer Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhdev; Sharma, Bhupender; Kanwar, Shamsher S; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a serious concern at present. A large number of patients die each year due to cancer illnesses in spite of several interventions available. Development of an effective and side effects lacking anticancer therapy is the trending research direction in healthcare pharmacy. Chemical entities present in plants proved to be very potential in this regard. Bioactive phytochemicals are preferential as they pretend differentially on cancer cells only, without altering normal cells. Carcinogenesis is a complex process and includes multiple signaling events. Phytochemicals are pleiotropic in their function and target these events in multiple manners; hence they are most suitable candidate for anticancer drug development. Efforts are in progress to develop lead candidates from phytochemicals those can block or retard the growth of cancer without any side effect. Several phytochemicals manifest anticancer function in vitro and in vivo. This article deals with these lead phytomolecules with their action mechanisms on nuclear and cellular factors involved in carcinogenesis. Additionally, druggability parameters and clinical development of anticancer phytomolecules have also been discussed.

  7. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  8. Diving for drugs: tunicate anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edwin L; Yao, David

    2012-06-01

    The marine biosphere boasts tremendous biodiversity replete with structurally unique, active and selective secondary metabolites. Bioprospecting for antitumor compounds has been rewarding, and tunicates have been especially successful in yielding prospective cancer therapies. These compounds are now subjected to clinical trials in Europe and the USA. With the ongoing search for potent and specific anticancer drugs, in this article we discuss the unique perspectives, compounds and opportunities afforded by this rich source of potential pharmaceuticals. We discuss marine-derived antitumor drugs, their structures, and their various types and levels of antitumor activities in bench and bedside efforts.

  9. Current situation and future usage of anticancer drug databases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yin, Yuanyuan; Wang, Peiqi; Xiong, Chenyu; Huang, Lingyu; Li, Sijia; Li, Xinyi; Fu, Leilei

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease with increasing incidence and mortality rates and affects the life quality of millions of people per year. The past 15 years have witnessed the rapid development of targeted therapy for cancer treatment, with numerous anticancer drugs, drug targets and related gene mutations been identified. The demand for better anticancer drugs and the advances in database technologies have propelled the development of databases related to anticancer drugs. These databases provide systematic collections of integrative information either directly on anticancer drugs or on a specific type of anticancer drugs with their own emphases on different aspects, such as drug-target interactions, the relationship between mutations in drug targets and drug resistance/sensitivity, drug-drug interactions, natural products with anticancer activity, anticancer peptides, synthetic lethality pairs and histone deacetylase inhibitors. We focus on a holistic view of the current situation and future usage of databases related to anticancer drugs and further discuss their strengths and weaknesses, in the hope of facilitating the discovery of new anticancer drugs with better clinical outcomes.

  10. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease. PMID:21461373

  11. Anticancer Alkaloids from Trees: Development into Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Isah, Tasiu

    2016-01-01

    Trees have made an enormous phytochemical contribution in anticancer drugs' development more than any other life form. The contributions include alkaloids that are biosynthesized in various ways and yield. Lead alkaloids isolated from the trees are taxol and camptothecins that currently have annual sales in billion dollars. Other important alkaloids isolated from these life forms include rohitukine, harringtonine, acronycine, thalicarpine, usambarensine, ellipticine, and matrines. Studies on their mechanism of action and target on the DNA and protein of cancerous cells aided the development of potent hemisynthesized congeners. The molecules and their congeners passed/are passing a long period of historical development before approved as antineoplastic drugs for cancer chemotherapy. Some of them did not find the application as anticancer drugs due to ineffectiveness in clinical trials; others are generating research interest in the antineoplastic activity at the present and have reached clinical trial stages. Potentials in antineoplastic molecules from trees are high and are hoped to be commensurate with cancer types afflicting human society in the future. PMID:28082790

  12. [Study on the regulation of autophagy against anticancer drugs' toxicity].

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiao-e; Zhu, Yi; He, Qiao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a crucial biological process in eukaryotes, which is involved in cell growth, survival and energy metabolism. It has been confirmed that autophagy mediates toxicity of anticancer drugs, especially in heart, liver and neuron. It is important to understand the function and mechanism of autophagy in anticancer drugs-induced toxicity. Given that autophagy is a double-edged sword in the maintenance of the function of heart, liver and neuron, the autophagy-mediated toxicity are very complicated in the body. We provide a review on the concept of autophagy and current status about autophagy-mediated toxicity of anticancer drugs. The knowledge is crucial in the basic study of anticancer drugs-induced toxicity, and provides some strategies for the development of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer drugs.

  13. Theoretical studies of anticancer drugs, lexitropsins

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, S.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to gather information about the structure and activity of some anticancer drugs, leading eventually to better drug designs. The following studies were undertaken: (1) The investigation via geometry optimization of the structure of one small lexitropsin, amidinomycin, which is an oligopeptide that binds to the minor groove of B-DNA. (2) Proton affinities of some hydrogen acceptor rings that are present in some lexitropsin were studied in order to estimate their capacities to bind to GC sequences of DNA. (3) Binding power of one of the DNA bases, thymine, to either guanidinium ion as present in netropsin or aminopyrrolidinium ion moiety as is present in anthelvencin was compared in order to determine how much these two groups contributed to the overall binding of netropsin and anthelvencin to the base sequences of DNA. It was found that ab initio calculations on amidinomycin agree well with the experimental results and the proton affinities of imidazole is much higher than the one of oxazole which in turn is much higher than the one of thiazole and a methyl group substitutent increases the proton of imidazole, while a peptidic group decreases it. Also, it was found that the binding of guanidinium and aminopyrrolidinium ions to uracil as a model for thymine is very similar.

  14. NSAIDs: Old Drugs Reveal New Anticancer Targets.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Gary A; Keeton, Adam B; Tinsley, Heather N; Whitt, Jason D; Gary, Bernard D; Mathew, Bini; Singh, Raj; Grizzle, William E; Reynolds, Robert C

    2010-05-25

    There is compelling evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have antineoplastic activity, but toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and the suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limits their use for cancer chemoprevention. Previous studies as reviewed here suggest that the mechanism for their anticancer properties does not require COX inhibition, but instead involves an off-target effect. In support of this possibility, recent molecular modeling studies have shown that the NSAID sulindac can be chemically modified to selectively design out its COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity. Unexpectedly, certain derivatives that were synthesized based on in silico modeling displayed increased potency to inhibit tumor cell growth. Other experiments have shown that sulindac can inhibit phosphodiesterase to increase intracellular cyclic GMP levels and that this activity is closely associated with its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these studies suggest that COX-independent mechanisms can be targeted to develop safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.

  15. Hyaluronic acid for anticancer drug and nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    Dosio, Franco; Arpicco, Silvia; Stella, Barbara; Fattal, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely used in anticancer drug delivery, since it is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic; moreover, HA receptors are overexpressed on many tumor cells. Exploiting this ligand-receptor interaction, the use of HA is now a rapidly-growing platform for targeting CD44-overexpressing cells, to improve anticancer therapies. The rationale underlying approaches, chemical strategies, and recent advances in the use of HA to design drug carriers for delivering anticancer agents, are reviewed. Comprehensive descriptions are given of HA-based drug conjugates, particulate carriers (micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, microparticles), inorganic nanostructures, and hydrogels, with particular emphasis on reports of preclinical/clinical results.

  16. Targeting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases for Anticancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya. M.; Lawrence, Harshani. R.; Sebti, Saïd. M.; Lawrence, Nicholas. J.; Wu, Jie.

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a diverse family of enzymes encoded by 107 genes in the human genome. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs regulate various cellular activities essential for the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. While PTK inhibitors are now used routinely for cancer treatment, the PTP inhibitor development field is still in the discovery phase. In this article, the suitability of targeting PTPs for novel anticancer drug discovery is discussed. Examples are presented for PTPs that have been targeted for anticancer drug discovery as well as potential new PTP targets for novel anticancer drug discovery. PMID:20337577

  17. Supramolecular "Trojan Horse" for Nuclear Delivery of Dual Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanbin; Shen, Haosheng; Zhan, Jie; Lin, Mingliang; Dai, Liuhan; Ren, Chunhua; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jianfeng; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhimou

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear delivery and accumulation are very important for many anticancer drugs that interact with DNA or its associated enzymes in the nucleus. However, it is very difficult for neutrally and negatively charged anticancer drugs such as 10-hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT). Here we report a simple strategy to construct supramolecular nanomedicines for nuclear delivery of dual synergistic anticancer drugs. Our strategy utilizes the coassembly of a negatively charged HCPT-peptide amphiphile and the positively charged cisplatin. The resulting nanomaterials behave as the "Trojan Horse" that transported soldiers (anticancer drugs) across the walls of the castle (cell and nucleus membranes). Therefore, they show improved inhibition capacity to cancer cells including the drug resistant cancer cell and promote the synergistic tumor suppression property in vivo. We envision that our strategy of constructing nanomaterials by metal chelation would offer new opportunities to develop nanomedicines for combination chemotherapy.

  18. Nanoscale coordination polymers for anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rachel Huxford

    This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs containing the chemotherapeutic pemetrexed (PMX) were synthesized using different binding metals. Zr-based materials could not be stabilized by encapsulation with a lipid bilayer, and Gd-based materials showed that PMX had degraded during synthesis. However, Hf-based NCPs containing 19.7 wt% PMX were stabilized by a lipid coating and showed in vitro efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Enhanced efficacy was observed for formulations containing AA. Additionally, NCP formulations containing the cisplatin prodrug disuccinatocisplatin were prepared; one of these formulations could be stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid layer. Coating with a lipid layer doped with AA rendered this formulation an active targeting agent. The resulting formulation proved more potent than free cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Improved NCP uptake was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays. Finally, a Pt(IV) oxaliplatin prodrug was

  19. ING Proteins as Potential Anticancer Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Harris, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging evidence suggests that ING family proteins play roles in carcinogenesis both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes depending on the family members and on cell status. Previous results from non-physiologic overexpression experiments showed that all five family members induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, thus it had been thought until very recently that all of the family members function as tumor suppressor genes. Therefore restoration of ING family proteins in cancer cells has been proposed as a treatment for cancers. However, ING2 knockdown experiments showed unexpected results: ING2 knockdown led to senescence in normal human fibroblast cells and suppressed cancer cell growth. ING2 is also overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and promotes cancer cell invasion through an MMP13 dependent pathway. Additionally, it was reported that ING2 has two isoforms, ING2a and ING2b. Although expression of ING2a predominates compared with ING2b, both isoforms confer resistance against cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to cancer cells, thus knockdown of both isoforms is critical to remove this resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 can function as an oncogene in some specific types of cancer cells, indicating restoration of this gene in cancer cells could cause cancer progression. Because knockdown of ING2 suppresses cancer cell invasion and induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, ING2 may be an anticancer drug target. In this brief review, we discuss possible clinical applications of ING2 with the latest knowledge of molecular targeted therapies. PMID:19442116

  20. CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference White Paper

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Victor A.; Tonge, Peter J.; Gallo, James M.; Birtwistle, Marc R.; Dar, Arvin C.; Iavarone, Antonio; Paddison, Patrick J.; Heffron, Timothy P.; Elmquist, William F.; Lachowicz, Jean E.; Johnson, Ted W.; White, Forest M.; Sul, Joohee; Smith, Quentin R.; Shen, Wang; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Samala, Ramakrishna; Wen, Patrick Y.; Berry, Donald A.; Petter, Russell C.

    2015-01-01

    Following the first CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, the speakers from the first 4 sessions and organizers of the conference created this White Paper hoping to stimulate more and better CNS anticancer drug discovery and development. The first part of the White Paper reviews, comments, and, in some cases, expands on the 4 session areas critical to new drug development: pharmacological challenges, recent drug approaches, drug targets and discovery, and clinical paths. Following this concise review of the science and clinical aspects of new CNS anticancer drug discovery and development, we discuss, under the rubric “Accelerating Drug Discovery and Development for Brain Tumors,” further reasons why the pharmaceutical industry and academia have failed to develop new anticancer drugs for CNS malignancies and what it will take to change the current status quo and develop the drugs so desperately needed by our patients with malignant CNS tumors. While this White Paper is not a formal roadmap to that end, it should be an educational guide to clinicians and scientists to help move a stagnant field forward. PMID:26403167

  1. CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference White Paper.

    PubMed

    Levin, Victor A; Tonge, Peter J; Gallo, James M; Birtwistle, Marc R; Dar, Arvin C; Iavarone, Antonio; Paddison, Patrick J; Heffron, Timothy P; Elmquist, William F; Lachowicz, Jean E; Johnson, Ted W; White, Forest M; Sul, Joohee; Smith, Quentin R; Shen, Wang; Sarkaria, Jann N; Samala, Ramakrishna; Wen, Patrick Y; Berry, Donald A; Petter, Russell C

    2015-11-01

    Following the first CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, the speakers from the first 4 sessions and organizers of the conference created this White Paper hoping to stimulate more and better CNS anticancer drug discovery and development. The first part of the White Paper reviews, comments, and, in some cases, expands on the 4 session areas critical to new drug development: pharmacological challenges, recent drug approaches, drug targets and discovery, and clinical paths. Following this concise review of the science and clinical aspects of new CNS anticancer drug discovery and development, we discuss, under the rubric "Accelerating Drug Discovery and Development for Brain Tumors," further reasons why the pharmaceutical industry and academia have failed to develop new anticancer drugs for CNS malignancies and what it will take to change the current status quo and develop the drugs so desperately needed by our patients with malignant CNS tumors. While this White Paper is not a formal roadmap to that end, it should be an educational guide to clinicians and scientists to help move a stagnant field forward.

  2. Teratogenic effects of five anticancer drugs on Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Marina; Piscitelli, Concetta; Russo, Chiara; Smutná, Marie; Bláha, Luděk

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals - including anticancer drugs - is an emerging issue. Because of the lack of appropriate critical studies about anticancer drug effects in frogs, the aim of the present study was to investigate lethal and teratogenic effects of five anticancer drugs widely used in large quantities, i.e. 5-flourouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, etoposide, and imatinib, in the embryos of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, using FETAX - Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay in Xenopus. None of the studied anticancer drugs induced statistically significant mortality within the concentrations tested (0.01-50mg/L, depending on the studied compound), and no growth inhibition of embryos after a 96-h exposure was observed. Except for cisplatin, the other pharmaceuticals induced an increase of developmental malformations such as abdominal edema, axial flexure, head, eyes, gut and heart malformations with statistically significant effects observed at the highest concentrations tested (50mg/L for 5-flourouracil; 30mg/L for etoposide and 20mg/L for capecitabine and imatinib). The results indicate that anticancer drugs can affect embryogenesis mechanisms.

  3. Proteomic profiling predicts drug response to novel targeted anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Li, Zilin; Hua, Yunfen; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2016-01-01

    Most recently approved anti-cancer drugs by the US FDA are targeted therapeutic agents and this represents an important trend for future anticancer therapy. Unlike conventional chemotherapy that rarely considers individual differences, it is crucial for targeted therapies to identify the beneficial subgroup of patients for the treatment. Currently, genomics and transcriptomics are the major 'omic' analytics used in studies of drug response prediction. However, proteomic profiling excels both in its advantages of directly detecting an instantaneous dynamic of the whole proteome, which contains most current diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Moreover, proteomic profiling improves understanding of the mechanism for drug resistance and helps finding optimal combination therapy. This article reviews the recent success of applications of proteomic analytics in predicting the response to targeted anticancer therapeutics, and discusses the potential avenues and pitfalls of proteomic platforms and techniques used most in the field.

  4. Malignancies after mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seuffert, Linda; Mäder, Uwe; Toyka, Klaus V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the therapy-related risk of malignancies in mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included all mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis seen at our department between 1994 and 2007. We collected follow-up information on medically confirmed malignancies, life status, and cause of death, as of 2010. Malignancy rates were compared to the German national cancer registry matched for sex, age, and year of occurrence. Results: Follow-up was completed in 676 of 677 identified patients. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (interquartile range 6.8–11.2), corresponding to 6,220 person-years. Median cumulative mitoxantrone dose was 79.0 mg/m2 (interquartile range 50.8–102.4). Thirty-seven patients (5.5%) were diagnosed with a malignancy after mitoxantrone initiation, revealing a standardized incidence ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.08). Entities included breast cancer (n = 9), colorectal cancer (n = 7), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4, 0.6%), and others (each entity n = 1 or 2). The standardized incidence ratio of colorectal cancer was 2.98 (95% CI 1.20–6.14) and of acute myeloid leukemia 10.44 (95% CI 3.39–24.36). It was not increased for other entities including breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression identified higher age at treatment initiation but neither cumulative mitoxantrone dose (>75 vs ≤75 mg/m2) nor treatment with other immunosuppressive drugs or sex as a risk factor. Fifty-five patients had died, among them 12 of a malignancy and 43 reportedly of other causes. Conclusions: While the overall incidence of malignancies was only mildly increased, the risk of leukemia and colorectal cancer was heightened. If confirmed, posttherapy colonoscopy could become advisable. PMID:27170571

  5. CEST theranostics: label-free MR imaging of anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Luo, Liangping; McMahon, Michael T.; Vogelstein, Bert; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Zhou, Shibin; Liu, Guanshu

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery is of great clinical interest. Here, we explored a direct way, namely CEST theranostics, to detect diamagnetic anticancer drugs simply through their inherent Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI signal, and demonstrated its application in image-guided drug delivery of nanoparticulate chemotherapeutics. We first screened 22 chemotherapeutic agents and characterized the CEST properties of representative agents and natural analogs in three major categories, i.e., pyrimidine analogs, purine analogs, and antifolates, with respect to chemical structures. Utilizing the inherent CEST MRI signal of gemcitabine, a widely used anticancer drug, the tumor uptake of the i.v.-injected, drug-loaded liposomes was successfully detected in CT26 mouse tumors. Such label-free CEST MRI theranostics provides a new imaging means, potentially with an immediate clinical impact, to monitor the drug delivery in cancer. PMID:26837220

  6. Molecular dynamics study on DNA nanotubes as drug delivery vehicle for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijun; Shen, Jia-Wei; Wang, Qi

    2017-02-17

    In recent years, self-assembled DNA nanotubes have emerged as a type of nano-biomaterials with great potential for biomedical applications. To develop universal nanocarriers for smart and targeted drug delivery from DNA nanotubes, the understanding of interaction mechanism between DNA nanotubes and drugs is essential. In this study, the interactions between anti-cancer drugs and DNA nanotubes were investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. Our simulation results demonstrated that the DNA nanotubes could serve as a good drug delivery material by absorption of anti-cancer drugs with π-π interactions. At high concentration of anti-cancer drugs, most of the drugs could be absorbed by DNA nanotubes. Therefore, it could greatly decrease the aggregation of anti-cancer drugs in aqueous solution. In addition, the stability of DNA nanotubes could be improved with the absorption of anti-cancer drugs. These findings greatly enhance the understanding of the interaction mechanism of DNA nanotubes and anti-cancer drugs. Our study suggests that DNA nanotubes are promising delivery vehicles by strong absorption of anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Classification of mitocans, anti-cancer drugs acting on mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Neuzil, Jiri; Dong, Lan-Feng; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Ralph, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as an intriguing target for anti-cancer drugs, inherent to vast majority if not all types of tumours. Drugs that target mitochondria and exert anti-cancer activity have become a focus of recent research due to their great clinical potential (which has not been harnessed thus far). The exceptional potential of mitochondria as a target for anti-cancer agents has been reinforced by the discouraging finding that even tumours of the same type from individual patients differ in a number of mutations. This is consistent with the idea of personalised therapy, an elusive goal at this stage, in line with the notion that tumours are unlikely to be treated by agents that target only a single gene or a single pathway. This endows mitochondria, an invariant target present in all tumours, with an exceptional momentum. This train of thoughts inspired us to define a class of anti-cancer drugs acting by way of mitochondrial 'destabilisation', termed 'mitocans'. In this communication, we define mitocans (many of which have been known for a long time) and classify them into several classes based on their molecular mode of action. We chose the targets that are of major importance from the point of view of their role in mitochondrial destabilisation by small compounds, some of which are now trialled as anti-cancer agents. The classification starts with targets at the surface of mitochondria and ending up with those in the mitochondrial matrix. The purpose of this review is to present in a concise manner the classification of compounds that hold a considerable promise as potential anti-cancer drugs.

  8. Metabolic monosaccharides altered cell responses to anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic glycoengineering has been used to manipulate the glycochemistry of cell surfaces and thus the cell/cell interaction, cell adhesion, and cell migration. However, potential application of glycoengineering in pharmaceutical sciences has not been studied until recently. Here, we reported that Ac(4)ManNAc, an analog of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc), could affect cell responses to anticancer drugs. Although cells from different tissues and organs responded to Ac(4)ManNAc treatment differently, treated cells with increased sialic acid contents showed dramatically reduced sensitivity (up to 130 times) to anti-cancer drugs as tested on various drugs with distinct chemical structures and acting mechanisms. Neither increased P-glycoprotein activity nor decreased drug uptake was observed during the course of Ac(4)ManNAc treatment. However, greatly altered intracellular drug distributions were observed. Most intracellular daunorubicin was found in the perinuclear region, but not the expected nuclei in the Ac(4)ManNAc treated cells. Since sialoglycoproteins and gangliosides were synthesized in the Golgi, intracellular glycans affected intracellular signal transduction and drug distributions seem to be the main reason for Ac(4)ManNAc affected cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs. It was interesting to find that although Ac(4)ManNAc treated breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) maintained the same sensitivity to 5-Fluorouracil, the IC(50) value of 5-Fluorouracil to the same Ac(4)ManNAc treated normal cells (MCF-10A) was increased by more than 20 times. Thus, this Ac(4)ManNAc treatment enlarged drug response difference between normal and tumor cells provides a unique opportunity to further improve the selectivity and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs.

  9. Mitochondrial chaperones may be targets for anti-cancer drugs

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at NCI have found that a mitochondrial chaperone protein, TRAP1, may act indirectly as a tumor suppressor as well as a novel target for developing anti-cancer drugs. Chaperone proteins, such as TRAP1, help other proteins adapt to stress, but sc

  10. The high price of anticancer drugs: origins, implications, barriers, solutions.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay; De Jesús, Kevin; Mailankody, Sham

    2017-03-14

    Globally, annual spending on anticancer drugs is around US$100 billion, and is predicted to rise to $150 billion by 2020. In the USA, a novel anticancer drug routinely costs more than $100,000 per year of treatment. When adjusted for per capita spending power, however, drugs are most unaffordable in economically developing nations, such as India and China. Not only are launch prices high and rising, but individual drug prices are often escalated during exclusivity periods. High drug prices harm patients - often directly through increased out-of-pocket expenses, which reduce levels of patient compliance and lead to unfavourable outcomes - and harms society - by imposing cumulative price burdens that are unsustainable. Moreover, high drug prices are not readily explained by rational factors, including the extent of benefit patients are likely to derive, the novelty of the agents, or spending on research and development. Herein, we summarize the available empirical evidence on the costs of anticancer drugs, probe the origins and implications of these high costs, and discuss proposed solutions.

  11. Lung cancer and renal insufficiency: prevalence and anticancer drug issues.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Etessami, Reza; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert; Morere, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study reported the high prevalence of renal insufficiency in cancer patients. In this special report, we focused on patients with lung cancer, emphasizing some specific findings in this population of patients. Data on patients with lung cancer who were in the IRMA study were analyzed. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulas to estimate the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI) according to the KDOQI-KDIGO definition. Anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and need for dosage adjustment. Of the 445 IRMA lung cancer patients, 14.4% had a serum creatinine (SCR) level > or =110 micromol/L. However, when they were assessed using the formulas, 62.1 and 55.9% had abnormal renal function. Of the 644 anticancer drug prescriptions, 67.5% required dose adjustments for RI or were drugs with no available data, and 78.3% of the patients received at least one such drug. Furthermore, 71.6% received potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Seventy percent of the patients had anemia but prevalence was not significantly associated with the existence of associated renal insufficiency. In the 445 IRMA patients with lung cancer, the prevalence of RI was high in spite of a normal SCR in most cases. Some anticancer drugs such as platinum salts may be nephrotoxic and need dosage adjustment. However, other important drugs such as gemcitabine do not require dose reduction and do not present with a high potential for nephrotoxicity. Lung cancer patients often present with anemia, which was not associated with the presence of RI.

  12. Preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of antibiotic nitroxoline for anticancer drug repurposing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q I; Wang, Shanshan; Yang, Dexuan; Pan, Kevin; Li, Linna; Yuan, Shoujun

    2016-05-01

    The established urinary antibiotic nitroxoline has recently regained considerable attention, due to its potent activities in inhibiting angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and blocking cancer cell invasion. These features make nitroxoline an excellent candidate for anticancer drug repurposing. To rapidly advance nitroxoline repurposing into clinical trials, the present study performed systemic preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of its anticancer activity, including a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay in vitro and an orthotopic urological tumor assay in vivo. The current study determined that nitroxoline exhibits dose-dependent anti-cancer activity in vitro and in urological tumor orthotopic mouse models. In addition, it was demonstrated that the routine nitroxoline administration regimen used for urinary tract infections was effective and sufficient for urological cancer treatment, and 2 to 4-fold higher doses resulted in obvious enhancement of anticancer efficacy without corresponding increases in toxicity. Furthermore, nitroxoline sulfate, one of the most common metabolites of nitroxoline in the urine, effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This finding increases the feasibility of nitroxoline repurposing for urological cancer treatment. Due to the excellent anticancer activity demonstrated in the present study, and its well-known safety profile and pharmacokinetic properties, nitroxoline has been approved to enter into a phase II clinical trial in China for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatment (registration no. CTR20131716).

  13. Preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of antibiotic nitroxoline for anticancer drug repurposing

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, QI; WANG, SHANSHAN; YANG, DEXUAN; PAN, KEVIN; LI, LINNA; YUAN, SHOUJUN

    2016-01-01

    The established urinary antibiotic nitroxoline has recently regained considerable attention, due to its potent activities in inhibiting angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and blocking cancer cell invasion. These features make nitroxoline an excellent candidate for anticancer drug repurposing. To rapidly advance nitroxoline repurposing into clinical trials, the present study performed systemic preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of its anticancer activity, including a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay in vitro and an orthotopic urological tumor assay in vivo. The current study determined that nitroxoline exhibits dose-dependent anti-cancer activity in vitro and in urological tumor orthotopic mouse models. In addition, it was demonstrated that the routine nitroxoline administration regimen used for urinary tract infections was effective and sufficient for urological cancer treatment, and 2 to 4-fold higher doses resulted in obvious enhancement of anticancer efficacy without corresponding increases in toxicity. Furthermore, nitroxoline sulfate, one of the most common metabolites of nitroxoline in the urine, effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This finding increases the feasibility of nitroxoline repurposing for urological cancer treatment. Due to the excellent anticancer activity demonstrated in the present study, and its well-known safety profile and pharmacokinetic properties, nitroxoline has been approved to enter into a phase II clinical trial in China for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatment (registration no. CTR20131716). PMID:27123101

  14. Allometric scaling of pegylated liposomal anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Caron, Whitney P; Clewell, Harvey; Dedrick, Robert; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Davis, Whitney L; Yu, Ning; Tonda, Margaret; Schellens, Jan H; Beijnen, Jos H; Zamboni, William C

    2011-10-01

    Pegylated liposomal formulations contain lipid conjugated to polyethylene glycol. The disposition of encapsulated drug is dictated by the composition of the liposome, thus altering the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the drug. Allometric scaling is based on a power-log relationship between body weight (W) and drug clearance (CL) among mammals and has been used to compare the disposition of nonliposomal drugs across species. The objectives of this study were to use allometric scaling to: (1) compare the disposition of pegylated liposomal drugs across speciesand determine the best scaling model and (2) predict PK parameters of pegylated liposomal drugs in humans. The PK of pegylated liposomal CKD-602 (S-CKD602), doxorubicin (Doxil®), and cisplatin (SPI-077) were compared. PK studies ofS-CKD602, Doxil®, and SPI-077 were performed at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in male and female mice, rats, dogs and patients with refractory solid tumors. The allometric equation used to evaluate the relationship between W and CL in each species was CL = a(W)(m) (a = empirical coefficient; m = allometric exponent). Substitution of physiological variables other than body weight, such as factors representative of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) were evaluated. Dedrick Plots and Maximum Life-Span Potential (MLP) were used to determine scaling feasibility. Standard allometry demonstrated a relationship between clearance of S-CKD602, Doxil®, and SPI-077 and body, spleen, liver, and kidney weights, total monocyte count, and spleen and liver blood flow. However, using scaling to predict CL of these agents in humans often resulted in differences >30%. Despite a strong correlation between body weight and MPS-associated variables with CL among preclinical species, the use of the equations did not predict CL. Thus, new methods of allometric scaling and measures of MPS function need to be developed.

  15. Soil DNA libraries for anticancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Robin K

    2004-07-01

    Soil has the largest population of microbes of any habitat, but only about 0.3% of soil microbes are cultivable with current techniques. Cultured soil microbes have been an incredibly productive source of drugs, for example the cancer chemotherapeutics doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin, daunorubicin and mitomycin. Unfortunately, the current yield of new drugs from soil microbes is low due to repeated cultivation of the same small fraction of cultivable microbes. Uncultured soil species represent a tremendous untapped resource of new antineoplastic agents. Methods have recently been developed to access the diversity of secondary metabolites from uncultured soil microbes. Briefly, total DNA is extracted from soil samples, purified, partially digested, and fragments inserted into vectors for expression in readily fermented microbes such as Escherichia coli. Clones expressing enzymatic and antibiotic activities that are encoded by novel sequences have been reported.

  16. The Valley of Death in anticancer drug development: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Adams, David J

    2012-04-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in our understanding of cancer biology and with it many new potential disease targets. Nonetheless, our ability to translate these advances into therapies is poor, with a failure rate approaching 90%. Much discussion has been devoted to this so-called 'Valley of Death' in anticancer drug development, but the problem persists. Could we have overlooked some straightforward explanations to this highly complex problem? Important aspects of tumor physiology, drug pharmacokinetics, preclinical models, drug delivery, and clinical translation are not often emphasized, but could be crucial. This perspective summarizes current views on the problem and suggests feasible alternatives.

  17. TRAIL-Based Anticancer Drug Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    caspase-8. TWO TYPES OF APOPTOSIS INVOLVE CASPASE-8 Cell death can be initiated by receptor-dependent and -independent signaling, and different cell...8.44 This strategy of combining chemother- apy with biologic or immunotherapy to stimulate apoptosis may prove effective for drug-resistant tumors...exciting new data point to caspase-8- dependent tumor response to chemotherapy in vitro. They suggest that biological manipulation of caspase-8

  18. [Pharmacogenetics of anti-cancer drugs].

    PubMed

    Gamelin, E; Boisdron-Celle, M; Morel, A; Capitain, O

    2007-11-01

    Toxic side-effects of cytotoxic drugs is a stumbling-block of chemotherapy due to the fact that their therapeutic index is narrow. New approaches are necessary to individualize the treatments. Pharmacogenetic analysis is facilitated by easy access to the patient genome via simple blood samples, by the large number of known genes of interest coding for drugs targets or metabolism enzymes and by the fact that their polymorphism (SNP) is often known. Presently more focused on the prevention of toxic side-effects, pharmacogenetics already provides a good deal of confirmed data for clinical applications, such as the detection of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency by sequencing, or UGT1A1 7/7 genotype detection in Gilbert's syndrome for the prevention of 5-FU and irinotecan-induced severe toxicities. It must be emphasized that a SNP which is deleterious for enzyme activity is rarely a contraindication for the drug, provided that some precautions are taken and appropriate therapeutic advice is given by experts.

  19. Microfluidics: Emerging prospects for anti-cancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-11-10

    Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines.

  20. Microfluidics: Emerging prospects for anti-cancer drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines. PMID:21603306

  1. Screen anticancer drug in vitro using resonance light scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanguang; Liu, Guoliang; Chen, Meizhen; Xu, Benjie; Peng, Yurui; Chen, Maohuai; Wu, Mingyao

    2009-02-15

    An in vitro screening model using resonance light scattering (RLS) technique with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent as the reactive probe to target cancer cell was firstly developed. In this model, MTT was reduced by viable cancer cells to produce a purple formazan. Cell viability was proportional to the number of formazan induced strong light scattering signal. The inhibition rate of anticancer drug was found to vary inversely with the H(22)-MTT system RLS intensity. So it was intuitive to see the sequence of the tumor suppressive activity of six anticancer drugs without data processing by RLS/MTT screening spectra. Compared with the traditional MTT method, this method has high sensitivity, low detection limit and quite intuitive screening results which were identical to those obtained from the MTT colorimetric assay.

  2. Chiral discrimination in platinum anticancer drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Michele; Malina, Jaroslav; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Natile, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    In this article we review the biological activity of analogs of the antitumor drug cisplatin that contain chiral amine ligands. Interaction with DNA and formation of cross-links with adjacent purine bases are considered to be the crucial steps in the antitumor activity of this class of complexes. Because double-helical DNA has a chiral structure, interaction with enantiomeric complexes of platinum should lead to diastereomeric adducts. It has been demonstrated that DNA cross-links of platinum complexes with enantiomeric amine ligands not only can exhibit different conformational features but also can be processed differently by the cellular machinery as a consequence of these conformational differences. These results expand the general knowledge of how the stereochemistry of the platinum-DNA adduct can influence the cell response and contribute to understanding the processes that are crucial for antitumor activity. The steric requirements of the chiral ligands, in terms of configuration and flexibility, are also elucidated. PMID:12426131

  3. Myeloperoxidase Enhances Etoposide and Mitoxantrone-Mediated DNA Damage: A Target for Myeloprotection in Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, Mandeep; Lishman, Emma L.; Austin, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is expressed exclusively in granulocytes and immature myeloid cells and transforms the topoisomerase II (TOP2) poisons etoposide and mitoxantrone to chemical forms that have altered DNA damaging properties. TOP2 poisons are valuable and widely used anticancer drugs, but they are associated with the occurrence of secondary acute myeloid leukemias. These factors have led to the hypothesis that myeloperoxidase inhibition could protect hematopoietic cells from TOP2 poison-mediated genotoxic damage and, therefore, reduce the rate of therapy-related leukemia. We show here that myeloperoxidase activity leads to elevated accumulation of etoposide- and mitoxantrone-induced TOP2A and TOP2B-DNA covalent complexes in cells, which are converted to DNA double-strand breaks. For both drugs, the effect of myeloperoxidase activity was greater for TOP2B than for TOP2A. This is a significant finding because TOP2B has been linked to genetic damage associated with leukemic transformation, including etoposide-induced chromosomal breaks at the MLL and RUNX1 loci. Glutathione depletion, mimicking in vivo conditions experienced during chemotherapy treatment, elicited further MPO-dependent increase in TOP2A and especially TOP2B-DNA complexes and DNA double-strand break formation. Together these results support targeting myeloperoxidase activity to reduce genetic damage leading to therapy-related leukemia, a possibility that is enhanced by the recent development of novel specific myeloperoxidase inhibitors for use in inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil infiltration. PMID:27974636

  4. Validating Aurora B as an anti-cancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Girdler, Fiona; Gascoigne, Karen E; Eyers, Patrick A; Hartmuth, Sonya; Crafter, Claire; Foote, Kevin M; Keen, Nicholas J; Taylor, Stephen S

    2006-09-01

    The Aurora kinases, a family of mitotic regulators, have received much attention as potential targets for novel anti-cancer therapeutics. Several Aurora kinase inhibitors have been described including ZM447439, which prevents chromosome alignment, spindle checkpoint function and cytokinesis. Subsequently, ZM447439-treated cells exit mitosis without dividing and lose viability. Because ZM447439 inhibits both Aurora A and B, we set out to determine which phenotypes are due to inhibition of which kinase. Using molecular genetic approaches, we show that inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity phenocopies ZM447439. Furthermore, a novel ZM compound, which is 100 times more selective for Aurora B over Aurora A in vitro, induces identical phenotypes. Importantly, inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity induces a penetrant anti-proliferative phenotype, indicating that Aurora B is an attractive anti-cancer drug target. Using molecular genetic and chemical-genetic approaches, we also probe the role of Aurora A kinase activity. We show that simultaneous repression of Aurora A plus induction of a catalytic mutant induces a monopolar phenotype. Consistently, another novel ZM-related inhibitor, which is 20 times as potent against Aurora A compared with ZM447439, induces a monopolar phenotype. Expression of a drug-resistant Aurora A mutant reverts this phenotype, demonstrating that Aurora A kinase activity is required for spindle bipolarity in human cells. Because small molecule-mediated inhibition of Aurora A and Aurora B yields distinct phenotypes, our observations indicate that the Auroras may present two avenues for anti-cancer drug discovery.

  5. Distribution characteristics of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Boros, L; Cacek, T; Pine, R B; Battaglia, A C

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis is described. Significant characteristics of our patient included lymphoma with liver involvement, tumor lysis syndrome, renal and hepatic failure. Combination chemotherapy consisted of mitoxantrone, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. Mitoxantrone plasma samples were obtained prior to dosing and at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, and 12 h after the intravenous infusion of a 17-mg dose over 20 min. Serum concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration versus time curve was consistent with a three-compartment model. However, rebounds in serum drug concentrations were detected during the last portion of dialysis and after its completion. The gamma elimination half-life could not be determined due to the continued detection of rebounds in drug concentrations throughout the postdialysis sampling period. The alpha and beta distribution phases did not appear to be affected by hemodialysis. The peak mitoxantrone concentration fell within the reported range. Mitoxantrone does not appear to be eliminated by hemodialysis, and dose adjustments are not needed in patients undergoing this procedure.

  6. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  7. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology for oral delivery of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhao, Lingyun; Huang, Laiqiang; Yang, Xiang-Liang; Tang, Jintian; Feng, Si-Shen

    2013-06-15

    Oral chemotherapy is an important topic in the 21st century medicine, which may radically change the current regimen of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. Unfortunately, most anticancer drugs, especially those of high therapeutic efficacy such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are not orally bioavailable due to the gastrointestinal (GI) drug barrier. The molecular basis of the GI barrier has been found mainly due to the multidrug efflux proteins, i.e. P-type glycoproteins (P-gp), which are rich in the epithelial cell membranes in the GI tract. Medical solution for oral chemotherapy is to apply P-gp inhibitors such as cyclosporine A, which, however, suppress the body's immune system either, thus causing medical complication. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology, which is to apply and further develop nanotechnology to solve the problems in drug delivery, may provide a better solution and thus change the way we make drug and the way we take drug. This review is focused on the problems encountered in oral chemotherapy and the pharmaceutical nanotechnology solutions such as prodrugs, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers. Proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo results for oral delivery of anticancer drugs by the various nanocarriers, which can be found so far from the literature, are provided.

  8. PET in anti-cancer drug development and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Lal, Neena

    2007-11-01

    Anti-cancer drug development is a major area of research. Monitoring of response to newer anti-cancer drugs has undergone an evolution from structural imaging modalities to targeting functional metabolic activity at cellular level to better define responsive and non-responsive cancerous tissue. This review article highlights the contribution of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in this field. PET holds a promising role in the future by providing us information pertaining to the drugs effectiveness early in the course of therapy, so that side effects and expenses can be reduced substantially. PET has been used to measure changes in drug induced metabolism, cellular proliferation and tissue perfusion. Also changes induced by immuno-modulating drugs such as apoptosis, telomere activity, growth factor levels and many more can be studied using specific radiolabelled PET tracers whereas conventional imaging modalities which detect changes in tumor size and residual tissue histopathology may not prove useful in such scenario. In future, most PET scanners will be replaced by Hybrid PET-CT scanners, which provide functional and structural information in the same setting. In addition, PET-CT improves characterization of equivocal lesions and decreases interobserver variability. The most important recent patents concerning role of PET in drug development have been presented.

  9. pH-sensitive, polymer modified, plasma stable niosomes: promising carriers for anti-cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tila, Dena; Yazdani-Arazi, Seyede Narjes; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Arami, Sanam; Pourmoazzen, Zhaleh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the design and evaluation of a novel plasma stable, pH-sensitive niosomal formulation of Mitoxantrone by a modified ethanol injection method. Cholesterol hemisuccinate was added instead of cholesterol in order to produce pH-sensitivity property and using PEG-Poly (monomethyl itaconate)-CholC6 (PEG-PMMI-CholC6) copolymer introduced simultaneously pH-sensitivity and plasma stability properties in prepared niosomes. The pH-sensitivity and cytotoxicity of Mitoxantrone niosomes were evaluated in vitro in phosphate buffer with different pHs as well as using human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3), human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results showed that both cholesterol derivatives bearing formulations had pH-sensitive property and were found to release their contents under mild acidic conditions rapidly. In addition, the PEG-PMMI-CholC6-based niosomes could reserve the pH-sensitivity after incubation in plasma. Both Mitoxantrone-loaded pH-sensitive niosomes showed higher cytotoxicity than the conventional niosomes on OVCAR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. However, both pH-sensitive niosomes exhibited lower cytotoxic effect on HUVEC cell line. Plasma stable, pH-sensitive niosomes could improve the cytotoxic effect and reduce the side effects of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:26417350

  10. Topoisomerase as target for antibacterial and anticancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Muthu K; Khilare, Madhavi M; Nikoomanesh, Kiana; Chothe, Aparna S; Jain, Kishor S

    2013-06-01

    DNA topoisomerases comprise a major aspect of basic cellular biology and are molecular targets for a variety of drugs like antibiotics, antibacterials and anticancer drugs. They act by inhibiting the topoisomerase molecule from relegating DNA strands after cleavage and convert the topoisomerases molecule into a DNA damaging agent. Though drugs of various categories acting through different mechanisms are available for the treatment, there are still problems associated with the currently available drugs. Therefore, Structural biologists, Structural chemists and Medicinal chemists all around the world have been identifying, designing, synthesizing and evaluating a variety of novel bioactive molecules targeting topoisomerase. This review summarizes types of topoisomerase and drug treating each class along with their structural requirement and activity. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential heterocyles and the possible treatments as well as the current ongoing research status in the field of topoisomerase as dual targeting.

  11. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  12. Multispectroscopic methods reveal different modes of interaction of anti cancer drug mitoxantrone with Poly(dG-dC).Poly(dG-dC) and Poly(dA-dT).Poly(dA-dT).

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Pamita; Dogra, Shilpa; Barthwal, Ritu

    2013-10-05

    The interaction of mitoxantrone with alternating Poly(dG-dC).Poly(dG-dC) and Poly(dA-dT).Poly(dA-dT) duplex has been studied by absorption, fluorescence and Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at Drug to Phosphate base pair ratios D/P=20.0-0.04. Binding to GC polymer occurs in two distinct modes: partial stacking characterized by red shifts of 18-23nm at D/P=0.2-0.8 and external binding at D/P=1.0-20.0 whereas that to AT polymer occurs externally in the entire range of D/P. The binding constant and number of binding sites is 3.7×10(5)M(-1), 0.3 and 1.3× 10(4)M(-1), 1.5 in GC and AT polymers, respectively at low D/P ratios. CD binding isotherms show breakpoints at D/P=0.1, 0.5 and 0.25, 0.5 in GC and AT polymers, respectively. The intrinsic CD bands indicate that the distortions in GC polymer are significantly higher than that in AT polymer. Docking studies show partial insertion of mitoxantrone rings between to GC base pairs in alternating GC polymer. Side chains of mitoxantrone interact specifically with base pairs and DNA backbone. The studies are relevant to the understanding of suppression or inhibition of DNA cleavage on formation of ternary complex with topoisomerase-II enzyme and hence the anti cancer action.

  13. [A novel anticancer drug delivery system -DAC-70/CDDP].

    PubMed

    Sugitachi, Akio; Otsuka, Koki; Fujisawa, Kentaro; Itabashi, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Yuji; Sasaki, Akira; Ikeda, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Takamori, Yoshimori; Kurozumi, Seiji; Mori, Takatoshi; Wakabayashi, Go

    2007-11-01

    We devised a muco-adhesive anticancer drug delivery system using 70% deacetylated chitin (DAC-70) and cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The adhesive force between the system and human colonic mucosa was measured ex vivo, and a release profile of each drug was examined in vitro. Each system demonstrated a stronger muco-adhesive force at 37 degrees C than that of 25 degrees C. The CDDP-loaded system showed a sustained release of the drug while the 5-FU-loaded system exhibited an initial bursting of the agent. We presume that the release profile of CDDP and 5-FU is closely related to both degradability of the chitin and interactions between the chitin and each drug. The DAC-70/CDDP system would be clinically promising in loco-regional cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Dendrimer nanoarchitectures for cancer diagnosis and anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Gothwal, Avinash; Kesharwani, Prashant; Alsaab, Hashem; Iyer, Arun K; Gupta, Umesh

    2017-02-01

    Dendrimers are novel nanoarchitectures with unique properties including a globular 3D shape, a monodispersed unimicellar nature and a nanometric size range. The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting.

  15. Photoacoustic "nanobombs" fight against undesirable vesicular compartmentalization of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiping; Xu, Chun; Li, Min; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Diancheng; Xia, Mao; Meng, Gang; Kang, Bin; Chen, Hongyuan; Wei, Jiwu

    2015-10-20

    Undesirable intracellular vesicular compartmentalization of anticancer drugs in cancer cells is a common cause of chemoresistance. Strategies aimed at circumventing this problem may improve chemotherapeutic efficacy. We report a novel photophysical strategy for controlled-disruption of vesicular sequestration of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), modified with folate, were trapped in acidic vesicles after entering lung cancer cells. Upon irradiation by near-infrared pulsed laser, these vesicles were massively broken by the resulting photoacoustic shockwave, and the vesicle-sequestered contents were released, leading to redistribution of DOX from cytoplasm to the target-containing nucleus. Redistribution resulted in 12-fold decrease of the EC50 of DOX in lung cancer cells, and enhanced antitumor efficacy of low-dose DOX in tumor-bearing mice. Side effects were not observed. These findings provide insights of using nanotechnology to improve cancer chemotherapy, i.e. not only for drug delivery, but also for overcoming intracellular drug-transport hurdles.

  16. Strategies for the Optimization of Natural Leads to Anticancer Drugs or Drug Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have made significant contribution to cancer chemotherapy over the past decades and remain an indispensable source of molecular and mechanistic diversity for anticancer drug discovery. More often than not, natural products may serve as leads for further drug development rather than as effective anticancer drugs by themselves. Generally, optimization of natural leads into anticancer drugs or drug candidates should not only address drug efficacy, but also improve ADMET profiles and chemical accessibility associated with the natural leads. Optimization strategies involve direct chemical manipulation of functional groups, structure-activity relationship-directed optimization and pharmacophore-oriented molecular design based on the natural templates. Both fundamental medicinal chemistry principles (e.g., bio-isosterism) and state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design techniques (e.g., structure-based design) can be applied to facilitate optimization efforts. In this review, the strategies to optimize natural leads to anticancer drugs or drug candidates are illustrated with examples and described according to their purposes. Furthermore, successful case studies on lead optimization of bioactive compounds performed in the Natural Products Research Laboratories at UNC are highlighted. PMID:26359649

  17. Strategies for the Optimization of Natural Leads to Anticancer Drugs or Drug Candidates.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have made significant contribution to cancer chemotherapy over the past decades and remain an indispensable source of molecular and mechanistic diversity for anticancer drug discovery. More often than not, natural products may serve as leads for further drug development rather than as effective anticancer drugs by themselves. Generally, optimization of natural leads into anticancer drugs or drug candidates should not only address drug efficacy, but also improve absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles and chemical accessibility associated with the natural leads. Optimization strategies involve direct chemical manipulation of functional groups, structure-activity relationship directed optimization and pharmacophore-oriented molecular design based on the natural templates. Both fundamental medicinal chemistry principles (e.g., bioisosterism) and state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design techniques (e.g., structure-based design) can be applied to facilitate optimization efforts. In this review, the strategies to optimize natural leads to anticancer drugs or drug candidates are illustrated with examples and described according to their purposes. Furthermore, successful case studies on lead optimization of bioactive compounds performed in the Natural Products Research Laboratories at UNC are highlighted.

  18. SWCNT-Polymer Nanocomplexes for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withey, Paul; Momin, Zoya; Bommoju, Anvesh; Hoang, Trung; Rashid, Bazlur

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as more effective drug-delivery agents are being considered due to their ability to easily cross cell membranes, while their high aspect ratio and large surface area provide multiple attachment sites for biocompatible drug complexes. However, excessive bundling of pristine SWCNTs caused by strong attractive Van der Walls forces between CNT sidewalls is a major obstacle. We have successfully dispersed SWCNTs with both polyvinyl alcohol and Pluronic biocompatible polymers, and attached anti-cancer drugs Camptothecin (CPT) and Doxorubicin to form non-covalent CNT-polymer-drug conjugates in aqueous solution. Polymeric dispersion of SWCNTs by both polymers is confirmed by clearly identifiable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence emission peaks of individual (7,5) and (7,6) nanotubes, and drug attachment to form complete complexes verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These complexes, with varying SWCNT and drug concentrations, were tested for effectiveness by exposing them to a line of human embryonic kidney cancer cells and analyzed for cell viability. Preliminary results indicate significant improvement in drug effectiveness on the cancer cells, with more successful internalization due to unaltered SWCNTs as the drug carriers. Supported by the UHCL Faculty Research Support Fund.

  19. Peptide-based proteasome inhibitors in anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Micale, Nicola; Scarbaci, Kety; Troiano, Valeria; Ettari, Roberta; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the key role of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome in regulated intracellular proteolysis and its importance as a target in many pathological conditions wherein the proteasomal activity is defective (e.g., malignancies, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.) prompted several research groups to the development of specific inhibitors of this multicatalytic complex with the aim of obtaining valid drug candidates. In regard to the anticancer therapy, the peptide boronate bortezomib (Velcade®) represents the first molecule approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma in 2003 and mantle cell lymphoma in 2006. Since then, a plethora of molecules targeting the proteasome have been identified as potential anticancer agents and a few of them reached clinical trials or are already in the market (i.e., carfilzomib; Kyprolis®). In most cases, the design of new proteasome inhibitors (PIs) takes into account a proven peptide or pseudopeptide motif as a base structure and places other chemical entities throughout the peptide skeleton in such a way to create an efficacious network of interactions within the catalytic sites. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth look at the current state of the research in the field of peptide-based PIs, specifically those ones that might find an application as anticancer agents.

  20. CNIO cancer conference: targeted search for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter M

    2003-06-01

    The topics discussed at the conference covered many aspects of cancer research, from the genetic search for new targets, target validation and drug discovery, all the way to preclinical and clinical development of oncology drugs. Here the presentations on new metabolic, angiogenic, cell cycle and other molecular targets, as well as recent developments with experimental drugs with action on some of these targets, are summarised. Particular emphasis is placed on the emerging realisation that changes in the metabolic phenotype lie at the heart of cellular transformation. New insights into the biological links between cancer cell metabolism and the balance between survival and death signalling are likely to lead to the identification of a new category of anticancer targets.

  1. Thalidomide–A Notorious Sedative to a Wonder Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Fengfei; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M.; Wu, Erxi

    2014-01-01

    In the past 50 years, thalidomide has undergone a remarkable metamorphosis from a notorious drug inducing birth defects into a highly effective therapy for treating leprosy and multiple myeloma. Today, most notably, thalidomide and its analogs have shown efficacy against a wide variety of diseases, including inflammation and cancer. The mechanism underlying its teratogenicity as well as its anticancer activities has been intensively studied. This review summarizes the biological effects and therapeutic uses of thalidomide and its analogs, and the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide’s action with a focus on its suppression of tumor growth. PMID:23931282

  2. Hurdles in anticancer drug development from a regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Bertil; Bergh, Jonas

    2012-02-21

    Between January 2001 and January 2012, 48 new medicinal products for cancer treatment were licensed within the EU, and 77 new indications were granted for products already licensed. In some cases, a major improvement to existing therapies was achieved, for example, trastuzumab in breast cancer. In other cases, new fields for effective drug therapy opened up, such as in chronic myeloid leukemia, and renal-cell carcinoma. In most cases, however, the benefit-risk balance was considered to be only borderline favorable. Based on our assessment of advice procedures for marketing authorization, 'need for speed' seems to be the guiding principle in anticancer drug development. Although, for drugs that make a difference, early licensure is of obvious importance to patients, this is less evident in the case of borderline drugs. Without proper incentives and with hurdles inside and outside companies, a change in drug development cannot be expected; drugs improving benefit-risk modestly over available therapies will be brought forward towards licensure. In this Perspectives article, we discuss some hurdles to biomarker-driven drug development and provide some suggestions to overcome them.

  3. A drug-specific nanocarrier design for efficient anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Changying; Guo, Dandan; Xiao, Kai; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Luo, Juntao

    2015-01-01

    The drug-loading properties of nanocarriers depend on the chemical structures and properties of their building blocks. Here, we customize telodendrimers (linear-dendritic copolymer) to design a nanocarrier with improved in vivo drug delivery characteristics. We do a virtual screen of a library of small molecules to identify the optimal building blocks for precise telodendrimer synthesis using peptide chemistry. With rationally designed telodendrimer architectures, we then optimize the drug binding affinity of a nanocarrier by introducing an optimal drug-binding molecule (DBM) without sacrificing the stability of the nanocarrier. To validate the computational predictions, we synthesize a series of nanocarriers and evaluate systematically for doxorubicin delivery. Rhein-containing nanocarriers have sustained drug release, prolonged circulation, increased tolerated dose, reduced toxicity, effective tumor targeting and superior anticancer effects owing to favourable doxorubicin-binding affinity and improved nanoparticle stability. This study demonstrates the feasibility and versatility of the de novo design of telodendrimer nanocarriers for specific drug molecules, which is a promising approach to transform nanocarrier development for drug delivery. PMID:26158623

  4. A drug-specific nanocarrier design for efficient anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Changying; Guo, Dandan; Xiao, Kai; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Luo, Juntao

    2015-07-01

    The drug-loading properties of nanocarriers depend on the chemical structures and properties of their building blocks. Here we customize telodendrimers (linear dendritic copolymer) to design a nanocarrier with improved in vivo drug delivery characteristics. We do a virtual screen of a library of small molecules to identify the optimal building blocks for precise telodendrimer synthesis using peptide chemistry. With rationally designed telodendrimer architectures, we then optimize the drug-binding affinity of a nanocarrier by introducing an optimal drug-binding molecule (DBM) without sacrificing the stability of the nanocarrier. To validate the computational predictions, we synthesize a series of nanocarriers and evaluate systematically for doxorubicin delivery. Rhein-containing nanocarriers have sustained drug release, prolonged circulation, increased tolerated dose, reduced toxicity, effective tumour targeting and superior anticancer effects owing to favourable doxorubicin-binding affinity and improved nanoparticle stability. This study demonstrates the feasibility and versatility of the de novo design of telodendrimer nanocarriers for specific drug molecules, which is a promising approach to transform nanocarrier development for drug delivery.

  5. DNA helicases as targets for anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudha; Doherty, Kevin M; Brosh, Robert M

    2005-05-01

    DNA helicases have essential roles in nucleic acid metabolism by facilitating cellular processes including replication, recombination, DNA repair, and transcription. The vital roles of helicases in these pathways are reflected by their emerging importance in the maintenance of genomic stability. Recently, a number of human diseases with cancer predisposition have been shown to be genetically linked to a specific helicase defect. This has led researchers to further investigate the roles of helicases in cancer biology, and to study the efficacy of targeting human DNA helicases for anti-cancer drug treatment. Helicase-specific inhibition in malignant cells may compromise the high proliferation rates of cancerous tissues. The role of RecQ helicases in response to replicational stress suggests a molecular target for selectively eliminating malignant tumor cells by a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Alternate DNA secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes that may form in regulatory regions of oncogenes or G-rich telomere sequences are potential targets for cancer therapy since these sequence-specific structures are proposed to affect gene expression and telomerase activation, respectively. Small molecule inhibitors of G-quadruplex helicases may be used to regulate cell cycle progression by modulating promotor activation or disrupting telomere maintenance, important processes of cellular transformation. The design of small molecules which deter helicase function at telomeres may provide a molecular target since telomerase activity is necessary for the proliferation of numerous immortal cells. Although evidence suggests that helicases are specifically inhibited by certain DNA binding compounds, another area of promise in anti-cancer therapy is siRNA technology. Specific knockdown of helicase expression can be utilized as a means to sensitize oncogenic proliferating cell lines. This review will address these topics in detail and summarize the current avenues of research in

  6. Injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel for delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Fu, CuiXiang; Lin, XiaoXiao; Wang, Jun; Zheng, XiaoQun; Li, XingYi; Lin, ZhengFeng; Lin, GuangYong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel composed of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caplactone) (MPEG5000-PCL5000) micelles was developed by a simple method for hydrophobic anticancer drug delivery. By mixing α-CD aqueous solution and MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles, an injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel could be formed under mild condition due to the inclusion complexation between α-CD and MPEG segment of MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel was thereafter characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of α-CD amount on the gelation time, mechanical strength and thixotropic property was studied by a rheometer. Payload of hydrophobic paclitaxel (PTX) to supramolecular hydrogel was achieved by encapsulation of PTX into MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles prior mixing with α-CD aqueous solution. In vitro release study showed that the release behavior of PTX from hydrogel could be modulated by change the α-CD amount in hydrogel. Furthermore, such supramolecular hydrogel could enhance the biological activity of encapsulated PTX compared to free PTX, as indicated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay. All these results indicated that the developed micellar supramolecular hydrogel might be a promising injectable drug delivery system for anticancer therapy.

  7. In silico evaluation of TERT inhibition by anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Mahendar, Porika; Sirisha, Kalam; Kulandaivelu, Umasankar; Shankar, Prakhya Laxmi Jaya; Radhika, Tippani; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2012-10-01

    The activation of telomerase represents an early step in carcinogenesis. Increased telomerase expression in malignant tumors suggests that telomerase inactivation may represent a potential chemotherapeutic target. In this work, existing anticancer drugs were docked against telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Autodock's scoring function was applied to each of the molecules in order to identify the inhibitor with the strongest pharmacological action. The structural insights provided by this study regarding binding poses and possible interactions, free energies of binding, and drug scores aided in the identification of potential inhibitory compounds. The ranks of the various ligands investigated were based on the final docked energy values. Among nine selected compounds, vindesine, temsirolimus, and cyclosporine were found to be more potent TERT inhibitors than the standard inhibitor, curcumin.

  8. Optimizing drug development of anti-cancer drugs in children using modelling and simulation

    PubMed Central

    van Hasselt, Johan GC; van Eijkelenburg, Natasha KA; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan HM; Huitema, Alwin DR

    2013-01-01

    Modelling and simulation (M&S)-based approaches have been proposed to support paediatric drug development in order to design and analyze clinical studies efficiently. Development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population is particularly challenging due to ethical and practical constraints. We aimed to review the application of M&S in the development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population, and to identify where M&S-based approaches could provide additional support in paediatric drug development of anti-cancer drugs. A structured literature search on PubMed was performed. The majority of identified M&S-based studies aimed to use population PK modelling approaches to identify determinants of inter-individual variability, in order to optimize dosing regimens and to develop therapeutic drug monitoring strategies. Prospective applications of M&S approaches for PK-bridging studies have scarcely been reported for paediatric oncology. Based on recent developments of M&S in drug development there are several opportunities where M&S could support more informative bridging between children and adults, and increase efficiency of the design and analysis of paediatric clinical trials, which should ultimately lead to further optimization of drug treatment strategies in this population. PMID:23216601

  9. Nanoformulation for anticancer drug delivery: Enhanced pharmacokinetics and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Gaurav

    In this study, we have explored the application of the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly technique for improving injectable drug delivery systems of low soluble anticancer drugs (e.g. Camptothecin (CPT), Paclitaxel (PTX) or Doxorubicin (DOX)). For this study, a polyelectrolyte shell encapsulates different types of drug nanocores (e.g. soft core, nanomicelle or solid lipid nanocores).The low soluble drugs tend to crystallize and precipitate in an aqueous medium. This is the reason they cannot be injected and may have low concentrations and low circulation time in the blood. Even though these drugs when present in the cancer microenvironment have high anti-tumor inhibition, the delivery to the tumor site after intravenous administration is a challenge. We have used FDA-approved biopolymers for the process and elaborated formation of 60-90 nm diameter initial cores, which was stabilized by multilayer LbL shells for controlled release and longer circulation. A washless LbL assembly process was applied as an essential advancement in nano-assembly technology using low density nanocore (lipids) and preventing aggregation. This advancement reduced the number of process steps, enhanced drug loading capacity, and prevented the loss of expensive polyelectrolytes. Finally, we elaborated a general nano-encapsulation process, which allowed these three important anticancer drug core-shell nanocapsules with diameters of ca. 100-130 nm (this small size is a record for LbL encapsulation technique) to be stable in the serum and the blood for at least one week, efficient for cancer cell culture studies, injectable to mice with circulation for 4 hrs, and effective in suppressing tumors. This work is divided into three studies. The first study (CHAPTER 4) explores the application of LbL assembly for encapsulating a soft core of albumin protein and CPT anticancer drug. In order to preserve the activity of drug in the core, a unique technique of pH reversal is employed where the first few

  10. [An attempt to degradation of anticancer drug and odor in the medical environment by photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Sato, Junya; Kudo, Kenzo; Hirano, Takahiro; Kuwashima, Takayuki; Yamada, Sonpei; Kijihana, Ichiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Katsuo

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a need to reduce the occupational exposure of health care workers to anticancer drugs. Environmental contamination by anticancer drugs and subsequent exposure of health care workers are associated with vaporization of anticancer drugs. Furthermore, carcinomatous unpleasant odor is an additional problem to vaporized anticancer drugs in the field of clinical cancer therapy. We attempted to degrade vaporized anticancer drug and unpleasant odor using a photocatalyst. Cyclophosphamide or unpleasant odors (ammonia, formaldehyde, isovaleric acid, and butyric acid) were vaporized by heating in a closed chamber. Plates of photocatalyst coated with titanium dioxide were placed into the chamber and irradiated by light source. Vaporized cyclophosphamide in the chamber was recovered by bubbling the internal air through acetone and derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride for analysis by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay. Vaporized odors were determined using a gas-detector tube, which changed color depending on the concentration. Following activation of the photocatalyst by a light source, the residual amounts of anticancer drug and unpleasant odor components were significantly decreased compared with when the photocatalyst was not activated without a light source. These results indicate that the photocatalysts can accelerate the degradation of vaporized anticancer drugs and odor components. Air-cleaning equipment using a photocatalyst is expected to be useful in improving the QOL of cancer patients experiencing carcinomatous unpleasant odor, and in reducing occupational exposure of health care workers to anticancer drugs.

  11. Delivery of anticancer drugs and antibodies into cells using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junru; Pepe, Jason; Rincon, Mercedes

    2005-04-01

    It has been shown experimentally in cell suspensions that pulsed ultrasound (2.0 MHz) could be used to deliver an anti-cancer drug (Adriamycin hydrochloride) into Jurkat lymphocytes and antibodies (goat anti rabbit IgG and anti mouse IgD) into human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells and Jurkat lymphocytes assisted by encapsulated microbubbles (Optison). When Adriamycin hydrochloride (ADR) was delivered, the delivery efficiency reached 4.80% and control baseline (no ultrasound and no ADR) was 0.17%. When anti-rabbit IgD was delivered, the efficiencies were 34.90% (control baseline was 1.33%) and 32.50% (control baseline was 1.66%) respectively for Jurkat cells and PBMC. When goat anti rabbit IgG was delivered, the efficiencies were 78.60% (control baseline was 1.60%) and 57.50% (control baseline was 11.30%) respectively for Jurkat cells and PBMC.

  12. Aurora kinase family: a new target for anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Macarulla, Teresa; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Tabernero, Josep

    2008-06-01

    Aurora kinases (AK) are the name given to a family of Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. These proteins represent a novel family of kinases crucial for cell cycle control. The cell division process is one of the hallmarks of every living organism. Within the complete cell-cycle process, mitosis constitutes one of the most critical steps. The main purpose of mitosis is to segregate sister chromatics into two daughters cells. It is a complex biologic process, and errors in this mechanism can lead to genomic instability, a condition associated with tumorigenesis. This process is tightly regulated by several proteins, some of them acting as check-points that ultimately ensure the correct temporal and spatial coordination of this critical biologic process. Among this network of mitotic regulators, AK play a critical role in cellular division by controlling chromatid segregation. Three AK family members have been identified in mammalian cells: A, B, and C. These proteins are implicated in several vital events in mitosis. In experimental models, overexpression of AK can induce spindle defects, chromosome mis-segregation, and malignant transformation. Conversely, downregulation of AK expression cause mitotic arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The expression levels of human AK are increased in certain types of cancer including breast, colon, pancreatic, ovarian, and gastric tumors. This observation has lent an interest to this family of kinases as potential drug targets for development of new anticancer therapies. This review focuses in recent progress in the role of AK in tumorogenesis and the development of new anticancer drug against AK proteins. This manuscript also includes some relevant patents as well.

  13. [Degrading anticancer drugs in the medical environment using a visible light-driven photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Sato, Junya; Kikuchi, Satomi; Kudo, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

      Occupational exposure to anticancer drugs is recognized as a risk for healthcare workers. Reducing anticancer drugs in the environment is important to prevent the exposure of individuals to anticancer drugs. However, there are currently no effective degrading agents for all anticancer drugs used in clinical settings. We previously reported the resolution of an anticancer drug with the use of a photocatalyst (TiO2), which acts by absorbing ultraviolet light to degrade organic compounds. In this study, we evaluated anticancer drug degradation using a visible light-driven photocatalyst (Cu/WO3). Anticancer drugs [cyclophosphamide (CPA), paclitaxel (PTX), methotrexate (MTX), irinotecan (CPT-11), cytarabine (Ara-C), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)], were experimentally deposited on a stainless steel plate. The visible light-driven photocatalytic agent (0.075% Cu/WO3 solution) was sprayed onto the plate, and the plate was then left under a fluorescent lamp for 12 h. The anticancer drugs remaining on the plate were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). CPA, PTX, MTX, CPT-11, Ara-C, and 5-FU were found to be degraded by up to 37.7%, >99.0%, 57.1%, 54.6%, 69.5%, and 36.3%, respectively. The visible light-driven photocatalyst was therefore confirmed to degrade anticancer drugs under a fluorescent lamp. The ability of the visible light-driven photocatalyst to degrade multiple chemotherapeutic agents without the need for altering the light source could make it a useful tool for reducing anticancer drug pollution in clinical settings.

  14. Antibody–drug conjugates as novel anti-cancer chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Christina; Brown, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades, antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) have revolutionized the field of cancer chemotherapy. Unlike conventional treatments that damage healthy tissues upon dose escalation, ADCs utilize monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to specifically bind tumour-associated target antigens and deliver a highly potent cytotoxic agent. The synergistic combination of mAbs conjugated to small-molecule chemotherapeutics, via a stable linker, has given rise to an extremely efficacious class of anti-cancer drugs with an already large and rapidly growing clinical pipeline. The primary objective of this paper is to review current knowledge and latest developments in the field of ADCs. Upon intravenous administration, ADCs bind to their target antigens and are internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis. This facilitates the subsequent release of the cytotoxin, which eventually leads to apoptotic cell death of the cancer cell. The three components of ADCs (mAb, linker and cytotoxin) affect the efficacy and toxicity of the conjugate. Optimizing each one, while enhancing the functionality of the ADC as a whole, has been one of the major considerations of ADC design and development. In addition to these, the choice of clinically relevant targets and the position and number of linkages have also been the key determinants of ADC efficacy. The only marketed ADCs, brentuximab vedotin and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), have demonstrated their use against both haematological and solid malignancies respectively. The success of future ADCs relies on improving target selection, increasing cytotoxin potency, developing innovative linkers and overcoming drug resistance. As more research is conducted to tackle these issues, ADCs are likely to become part of the future of targeted cancer therapeutics. PMID:26182432

  15. Testing therapeutic potency of anticancer drugs in animal studies: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Den Otter, Willem; Steerenberg, Peter A; Van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2002-04-01

    Regulatory authorities for medicines in European countries deal with many applications for admission to the market of anticancer drugs. Each application must be supported by preclinical and clinical data, among which testing of the therapeutic activity of drugs in animals is important. Recently, the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) has released a note for guidance on the preclinical evaluation of anticancer medicinal products. This note provides only general statements regarding tests of anticancer drugs in rodents. This stimulates considerations on how to organize and how to evaluate these tests. In this article we describe our considerations regarding these items based on our experience with applications in The Netherlands since 1993.

  16. Macromolecular Drug Targets in Cancer Treatment and Thiosemicarbazides as Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Küçükgüzel, Ş Güniz; Coşkun, Göknil P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is known as abnormal cell division and consisting of a group of diseases on various organ tissues. Many therapies are available in cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc. Without damaging normal tissue, there is a huge need for specified anticancer drugs which have effect only on abnormal cancer cells. Therefore, advances in anticancer drug discovery in treating cancer in the recent years, directed towards to the macromolecular targets. Heterocyclic molecules, such as fluconazole, acetazolamide, etc., have a significant role in health care and pharmaceutical drug design. Thiosemicarbazides (NH2-NH-CSNH2) are the simplest hydrazine derivatives of thiocarbamic acid and are not only transition compounds, but they are also very effective organic compounds. Thiosemicarbazides possess an amide and amine protons, carbonyl and thione carbons. These structures have attracted the attention of the researchers in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Recently, a number of thiosemicarbazides are available commercially as anticancer drugs for novel anticancer drug discovery. Antineoplastic or anticancer drugs prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms. These observations have been guiding the researchers for the development of new thiosemicarbazides that possess anticancer activity.

  17. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate.

  18. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate. PMID:27014725

  19. Current Status of Epigenetics and Anticancer Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an expansion of the understanding of how epigenetic dysregulation plays a role in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis and treatment resistance. Evidence has focused on two common and well-studied "epigenetic codes", i.e., DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modification, which regulate the transcriptional status in various types of cancer and the corresponding target agents. Aside from "writers" and "erasers", which refer to enzymes that catalyze and remove posttranslational modifications, respectively, "readers" bind to target proteins and recruit "writers" and "erasers" for regulating gene expression. A number of selective and potent anticancer compounds have been reported, some of which are in preclinical or clinical trials that have shown promising results, primarily against malignant neoplasms such as hematologic malignancies, with the subsequent emerging development of both monotherapy and co-administration with traditional cytotoxic medicines against solid tumors. Second-generation epigenetic agents such as EZH2 and BET inhibitors have greatly progressed. Epigenetic dysregulation has also provided feasibility for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress in epigenetics and drug discovery for cancer and certain clinical trials that may provide a perspective for future development.

  20. Selective anti-cancer agents as anti-aging drugs.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-12-01

    Recent groundbreaking discoveries have revealed that IGF-1, Ras, MEK, AMPK, TSC1/2, FOXO, PI3K, mTOR, S6K, and NFκB are involved in the aging process. This is remarkable because the same signaling molecules, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, are well-known targets for cancer therapy. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs aimed at some of these targets have been already developed. This arsenal could be potentially employed for anti-aging interventions (given that similar signaling molecules are involved in both cancer and aging). In cancer, intrinsic and acquired resistance, tumor heterogeneity, adaptation, and genetic instability of cancer cells all hinder cancer-directed therapy. But for anti-aging applications, these hurdles are irrelevant. For example, since anti-aging interventions should be aimed at normal postmitotic cells, no selection for resistance is expected. At low doses, certain agents may decelerate aging and age-related diseases. Importantly, deceleration of aging can in turn postpone cancer, which is an age-related disease.

  1. [Carboxyl nanodiamond as intracellular transporters of anticancer drug--podophyllotoxin].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao-Li; Wang, Bin; Peng, Yan; Ni, Jing-Man

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the intracellular transporters effect and the cytotoxicity of carboxyl nanodiamond (CND) - podophyllotoxin (PPT). Nanodiamond (ND) was treated with mixed carboxylic acid and finally got 64 nm CND by centrifugation, and then it was reacted with PPT to form CND-PPT. UV spectrophotometry was used to calculate the content of PPT in CND-PPT, the particle size distribution and zeta potential were measured by Dynamic laser scattering instrument. CND, PPT, CND-PPT and CND + PPT (physical mixture of CND and PPT) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, at the same time, thermal analysis and element analysis were used to estimate the content of the PPT in CND-PPT. The affect of CND, PPT, CND-PPT on HeLa cell was measured with MTT assay. The results showed that content of PPT combined with CND accounted for about 10%. MTT assay showed that CND has low cytotoxicity and CND-PPT can increase the water soluble of PPT. As a conclusion, CND as a hydrophilic pharmaceutical carrier combined with PPT is able to increase the water solubility of PPT, at low concentration, CND-PPT can enhance the antitumor activity in comparison with PPT, so CND can be used as a potential anticancer drug carrier.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Selected Anticancer Drugs in Elderly Cancer Patients: Focus on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crombag, Marie-Rose B.S.; Joerger, Markus; Thürlimann, Beat; Schellens, Jan H.M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Huitema, Alwin D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients receiving anticancer drugs may have an increased risk to develop treatment-related toxicities compared to their younger peers. However, a potential pharmacokinetic (PK) basis for this increased risk has not consistently been established yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review the influence of age on the PK of anticancer agents frequently administered to elderly breast cancer patients. Methods: A literature search was performed using the PubMed electronic database, Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) and available drug approval reviews, as published by EMA and FDA. Publications that describe age-related PK profiles of selected anticancer drugs against breast cancer, excluding endocrine compounds, were selected and included. Results: This review presents an overview of the available data that describe the influence of increasing age on the PK of selected anticancer drugs used for the treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions: Selected published data revealed differences in the effect and magnitude of increasing age on the PK of several anticancer drugs. There may be clinically-relevant, age-related PK differences for anthracyclines and platina agents. In the majority of cases, age is not a good surrogate marker for anticancer drug PK, and the physiological state of the individual patient may better be approached by looking at organ function, Charlson Comorbidity Score or geriatric functional assessment. PMID:26729170

  3. Self-assembled mirror DNA nanostructures for tumor-specific delivery of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Kim, Hyo Young; Lee, Yong-Deok; Ha, Jong Seong; Kang, Ji Hee; Jeong, Hansaem; Bang, Duhee; Ko, Young Tag; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Hyukjin; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2016-12-10

    Nanoparticle delivery systems have been extensively investigated for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs over the past decades. However, it is still a great challenge to overcome the drawbacks of conventional nanoparticle systems such as liposomes and micelles. Various novel nanomaterials consist of natural polymers are proposed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Among them, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has received much attention as an emerging material for preparation of self-assembled nanostructures with precise control of size and shape for tailored uses. In this study, self-assembled mirror DNA tetrahedron nanostructures is developed for tumor-specific delivery of anticancer drugs. l-DNA, a mirror form of natural d-DNA, is utilized for resolving a poor serum stability of natural d-DNA. The mirror DNA nanostructures show identical thermodynamic properties to that of natural d-DNA, while possessing far enhanced serum stability. This unique characteristic results in a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of DNA nanostructures. It is demonstrated that the mirror DNA nanostructures can deliver anticancer drugs selectively to tumors with enhanced cellular and tissue penetration. Furthermore, the mirror DNA nanostructures show greater anticancer effects as compared to that of conventional PEGylated liposomes. Our new approach provides an alternative strategy for tumor-specific delivery of anticancer drugs and highlights the promising potential of the mirror DNA nanostructures as a novel drug delivery platform.

  4. [The history of developing anticancer Drugs and their evaluation guidelines in Japan].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The cancer therapies currently available do not yet offer fully satisfactory treatments, even in 21st century, and efforts and progress are being made daily in the area of drug development. Anticancer drugs, which play the leading role in cancer therapy, are being developed dynamically around the world, and Japan is not an exception. Looking back on the history of developing anticancer drugs, cytotoxic drugs were the mainstream of drug development until the end of the 20th century. In the 21st century, they have been replaced by molecularly targeted drugs, and thus the development of cytotoxic drugs has been declining rapidly. There were various approaches to the development of anticancer drugs and clinical trial endpoints until the 1980s. In 1991, the "Guidelines for Clinical Evaluation Methods of Anti-Cancer Drugs in Japan" was issued. From 2000 onwards, there was vigorous discussion on the clinical trial endpoints of anticancer drugs in the United States. In conjunction with this discussion, the "Guidelines for Clinical Evaluation Methods of Anti-Cancer Drugs in Japan" was revised in 2005. The revised guidelines required survival data at the time of filing a new drug application (NDA) as a general rule. Around 2005, a bridging strategy was promoted as the "International Conference on Harmonization E5" was promulgated among Japan, the U.S. and EU, resulting in an outflow of clinical trials to overseas, with more non-Japanese survival data generated outside of Japan used for NDAs than Japanese data. Subsequently, the "Guideline for Basic Principles on Global Clinical Trials" was issued in 2007, which promoted the change in the mainstream approach from a bridging strategy to a pivotal, global study involving Japan. Thus, an era of full-fledged globalization in clinical trials began. We believe Japan will need systems to enhance the motivation for anticancer drug development, such as an expedited program or pediatric program, from now on. We hope that the

  5. Implications of protein- and Peptide-based nanoparticles as potential vehicles for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Elgohary, Mayada M; Kamel, Nayra M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based nanocarriers have gained considerable attention as colloidal carrier systems for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Protein nanocarriers possess various advantages including their low cytotoxicity, abundant renewable sources, high drug-binding capacity, and significant uptake into the targeted tumor cells. Moreover, the unique protein structure offers the possibility of site-specific drug conjugation and tumor targeting using various ligands modifying the surface of protein nanocarriers. In this chapter, we highlight the most important applications of protein nanoparticles (NPs) for the delivery of anticancer drugs. We examine the various techniques that have been utilized for the preparation of anticancer drug-loaded protein NPs. Finally, the current chapter also reviews the major outcomes of the in vitro and in vivo investigations of surface-modified tumor-targeted protein NPs.

  6. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  7. Bioequivalence study designs for generic solid oral anticancer drug products: scientific and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjeet; Chaurasia, Chandra S; Davit, Barbara M; Conner, Dale P

    2013-12-01

    The demonstration of bioequivalence (BE) between the test and reference products is an integral part of generic drug approval process. A sound BE study design is pivotal to the successful demonstration of BE of generic drugs to their corresponding reference listed drug product. Generally, BE of systemically acting oral dosage forms is demonstrated in a crossover, single-dose in vivo study in healthy subjects. The determination of BE of solid oral anticancer drug products is associated with its own unique challenges due to the serious safety risks involved. Unlike typical BE study in healthy subjects, the safety issues often necessitate conducting BE studies in cancer patients. Such BE studies of an anticancer drug should be conducted without disturbing the patients' therapeutic dosing regimen. Attributes such as drug permeability and solubility, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimen, and approved therapeutic indication(s) are considered in the BE study design of solid anticancer drug products. To streamline the drug approval process, the Division of Bioequivalence posts the Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products guidances on the FDA public website. The objective of this article is to illustrate the scientific and regulatory considerations in the design of BE studies for generic solid oral anticancer drug products through examples.

  8. Nanovectors for anti-cancer drug delivery in the treatment of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Chung-Tzu; Selim, Julie H; Tsai, James Y; Hsueh, Chung-Tsen

    2016-01-01

    Liposome, albumin and polymer polyethylene glycol are nanovector formulations successfully developed for anti-cancer drug delivery. There are significant differences in pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity between pre- and post-nanovector modification. The alteration in clinical pharmacology is instrumental for the future development of nanovector-based anticancer therapeutics. We have reviewed the results of clinical studies and translational research in nanovector-based anti-cancer therapeutics in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, including nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel and nanoliposomal irinotecan. Furthermore, we have appraised the ongoing studies incorporating novel agents with nanomedicines in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:27610018

  9. Mitoxantrone-loaded albumin microspheres for localized intratumoral chemotherapy of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almond, Brett Anthony

    The safety and efficacy of conventional chemotherapy is limited by its toxicity. The direct intratumoral injection of free or microsphere-loaded antineoplastic drugs is a promising modality for the treatment of solid tumors. Intratumoral chemotherapy delivers high localized doses of cytotoxic drugs to the tumor tissues than does systemic (intravenous) chemotherapy and it decreases systemic drug concentrations and toxicities. The use of drug-loaded microspheres also provides a prolonged release of drug into the surrounding tumor tissues, increasing exposure of the neoplasm to therapeutic levels of the cytotoxic drug. Mitoxantrone and 5-fluorouracil-loaded albumin microspheres were synthesized. The microspheres were synthesized using a suspension crosslinking technique and a glutardehyde crosslinking agent. The particle-size distribution of the microspheres was controlled by adjusting the emulsion energy and the concentration of cellulose acetate butyrate, the emulsion stabilization agent. Both microsphere size and crosslink density (glutaraldehyde concentration) were found to affect the in vitro release of loaded drugs in in vitro infinite sink conditions. The in vivo efficacy and toxicity of intratumoral chemotherapy with free and microsphere-loaded mitoxantrone were evaluated in a 16/C murine mammary adenocarcinoma model. Intratumoral chemotherapy with free mitoxantrone significantly improved survival and decreased toxicity compared to intravenously delivered drug. The efficacy of two size distributions of mitoxantrone-loaded albumin microspheres, corresponding to mean diameters of 5 to 10 mum and 20 to 40 mum, were evaluated delivered both alone and in combination with free mitoxantrone. Intratumoral injection of mitoxantrone-loaded microspheres was found to allow the safe delivery of increased doses compared to free drug. The maximum tolerated doses were approximately 40 mg/kg compared to 12 mg/kg, respectively. Intratumoral chemotherapy using free and

  10. Drug Delivery Innovations for Enhancing the Anticancer Potential of Vitamin E Isoforms and Their Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Neophytou, Christiana M.; Constantinou, Andreas I.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E isoforms have been extensively studied for their anticancer properties. Novel drug delivery systems (DDS) that include liposomes, nanoparticles, and micelles are actively being developed to improve Vitamin E delivery. Furthermore, several drug delivery systems that incorporate Vitamin E isoforms have been synthesized in order to increase the bioavailability of chemotherapeutic agents or to provide a synergistic effect. D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) is a synthetic derivative of natural alpha-tocopherol which is gaining increasing interest in the development of drug delivery systems and has also shown promising anticancer effect as a single agent. This review provides a summary of the properties and anticancer effects of the most potent Vitamin E isoforms and an overview of the various formulations developed to improve their efficacy, with an emphasis on the use of TPGS in drug delivery approaches. PMID:26137487

  11. pH-Responsive Capsules Engineered from Metal-Phenolic Networks for Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ping, Yuan; Guo, Junling; Ejima, Hirotaka; Chen, Xi; Richardson, Joseph J; Sun, Huanli; Caruso, Frank

    2015-05-06

    A new class of pH-responsive capsules based on metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) for anticancer drug loading, delivery and release is reported. The fabrication of drug-loaded MPN capsules, which is based on the formation of coordination complexes between natural polyphenols and metal ions over a drug-coated template, represents a rapid strategy to engineer robust and versatile drug delivery carriers.

  12. Double layered hydroxides as potential anti-cancer drug delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Ufana; Ashraf, S M

    2013-04-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology has changed the scenario of the medical world by revolutionizing the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of cancer. This nanotechnology has been proved miraculous in detecting cancer cells, delivering chemotherapeutic agents and monitoring treatment from non-specific to highly targeted killing of tumor cells. In the past few decades, a number of inorganic materials have been investigated such as calcium phosphate, gold, carbon materials, silicon oxide, iron oxide, and layered double hydroxide (LDH) for examining their efficacy in targeting drug delivery. The reason behind the selection of these inorganic materials was their versatile and unique features efficient in drug delivery, such as wide availability, rich surface functionality, good biocompatibility, potential for target delivery, and controlled release of the drug from these inorganic nanomaterials. Although, the drug-LDH hybrids are found to be quite instrumental because of their application as advanced anti-cancer drug delivery systems, there has not been much research on them. This mini review is set to highlight the advancement made in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as anti-cancer drug delivery agents. Along with the advantages of LDHs as anti-cancer drug delivery agents, the process of interaction of some of the common anti-cancer drugs with LDH has also been discussed.

  13. Oral anticancer drugs: mechanisms of low bioavailability and strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Stuurman, Frederik E; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2013-06-01

    The use of oral anticancer drugs has increased during the last decade, because of patient preference, lower costs, proven efficacy, lack of infusion-related inconveniences, and the opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. Oral administration of anticancer drugs is, however, often hampered by limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variability. Since most anticancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or close to the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can have a negative impact on treatment outcome. This review discusses mechanisms of low bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs and strategies for improvement. The extent of oral bioavailability depends on many factors, including release of the drug from the pharmaceutical dosage form, a drug's stability in the gastrointestinal tract, factors affecting dissolution, the rate of passage through the gut wall, and the pre-systemic metabolism in the gut wall and liver. These factors are divided into pharmaceutical limitations, physiological endogenous limitations, and patient-specific limitations. There are several strategies to reduce or overcome these limitations. First, pharmaceutical adjustment of the formulation or the physicochemical characteristics of the drug can improve the dissolution rate and absorption. Second, pharmacological interventions by combining the drug with inhibitors of transporter proteins and/or pre-systemic metabolizing enzymes can overcome the physiological endogenous limitations. Third, chemical modification of a drug by synthesis of a derivative, salt form, or prodrug could enhance the bioavailability by improving the absorption and bypassing physiological endogenous limitations. Although the bioavailability can be enhanced by various strategies, the development of novel oral products with low solubility or cell membrane permeability remains cumbersome and is often unsuccessful. The main reasons are

  14. Silencing the livin gene enhances the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Bo Young; Kim, Kwang Ho; Chung, Soon Sup

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Livin is associated with drug response in several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silencing the livin gene expression on anticancer drug response in colorectal cancer. Methods siRNA was transfected at different concentrations (0, 10, and 30nM) into HCT116 cells, then cells were treated with either 5-fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) or oxaliplatin (L-OHP)/5-FU/LV. Cellular viability and apoptosis were evaluated following silencing of livin gene expression combined with treatment with anticancer drugs. Results Livin gene expression was effectively suppressed by 30nM siRNA compared with control and 10nM siRNA. The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that proliferation was effectively inhibited in cells treated with a combination of both siRNA and an anticancer drug, compared to cells treated with siRNA-Livin or anticancer drug alone. In particular, the combination of 30nM siRNA and L-OHP/5-FU/LV resulted in a 93.8% and 91.4% decrease, compared to untreated control or L-OHP/5-FU/LV alone, respectively. Cellular proliferation was most effectively suppressed by a combination of 30nM of siRNA and L-OHP/5-FU/LV compared to other combinations. Conclusion siRNA-mediated down-regulation of livin gene expression could significantly suppress colon cancer growth and enhance the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs such as 5-FU and L-OHP. The results of this study suggest that silencing livin gene expression in combination with treatment with anticancer drugs might be a novel cancer therapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:27904848

  15. Intercalative DNA binding of the marine anticancer drug variolin B

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Albert; Arribas-Bosacoma, Raquel; Albericio, Fernando; Álvarez, Mercedes; Aymamí, Joan; Coll, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Variolin B is a rare marine alkaloid that showed promising anti-cancer activity soon after its isolation. It acts as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, although the precise mechanism through which it exerts the cytotoxic effects is still unknown. The crystal structure of a variolin B bound to a DNA forming a pseudo-Holliday junction shows that this compound can also contribute, through intercalative binding, to either the formation or stabilization of multi-stranded DNA forms. PMID:28051169

  16. DNA Adducts from Anticancer Drugs as Candidate Predictive Markers for Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biomarker-driven drug selection plays a central role in cancer drug discovery and development, and in diagnostic strategies to improve the use of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. DNA-modifying anticancer drugs are still used as first line medication, but drawbacks such as resistance and side effects remain an issue. Monitoring the formation and level of DNA modifications induced by anticancer drugs is a potential strategy for stratifying patients and predicting drug efficacy. In this perspective, preclinical and clinical data concerning the relationship between drug-induced DNA adducts and biological response for platinum drugs and combination therapies, nitrogen mustards and half-mustards, hypoxia-activated drugs, reductase-activated drugs, and minor groove binding agents are presented and discussed. Aspects including measurement strategies, identification of adducts, and biological factors that influence the predictive relationship between DNA modification and biological response are addressed. A positive correlation between DNA adduct levels and response was observed for the majority of the studies, demonstrating the high potential of using DNA adducts from anticancer drugs as mechanism-based biomarkers of susceptibility, especially as bioanalysis approaches with higher sensitivity and throughput emerge. PMID:27936622

  17. Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelet Potential for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    González, Millie L; Ortiz, Mayra; Hernández, Carmen; Cabán, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Axel; Colón, Jorge L; Báez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets can intercalate anticancer agents via an ion exchange reaction creating an inorganic delivery system with potential for cancer treatment. ZrP delivery of anticancer agents inside tumor cells was explored in vitro. Internalization and cytotoxicity of ZrP nanoplatelets were studied in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. DOX-loaded ZrP nanoplatelets (DOX@ZrP) uptake was assessed by confocal (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive Oxy- gen Species (ROS) production was analyzed by fluorometric assay, and cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. ZrP nanoplatelets were localized in the endosomes of MCF-7 cells. DOX and ZrP nanoplatelets were co-internalized into MCF-7 cells as detected by CLSM. While ZrP showed limited toxicity to MCF-7 cells, DOX@ZrP was cytotoxic at an IC₅₀ similar to that of free DOX. Meanwhile, DOX lC₅₀ was significantly lower than the equivalent concentration of DOX@ZrP in MCF-10A cells. ZrP did not induce apoptosis in both cell lines. DOX and DOX@ZrP induced significant oxidative stress in both cell models. Results suggest that ZrP nanoplatelets are promising as carriers of anticancer agents into cancer cells.

  18. The effect of low pH on breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2)-mediated transport of methotrexate, 7-hydroxymethotrexate, methotrexate diglutamate, folic acid, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and resveratrol in in vitro drug transport models.

    PubMed

    Breedveld, Pauline; Pluim, Dick; Cipriani, Greta; Dahlhaus, Femke; van Eijndhoven, Maria A J; de Wolf, Cornelia J F; Kuil, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H; Scheffer, George L; Jansen, Gerrit; Borst, Piet; Schellens, Jan H M

    2007-01-01

    Some cellular uptake systems for (anti)folates function optimally at acidic pH. We have tested whether this also applies to efflux from cells by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2), which has been reported to transport folic acid, methotrexate, and methotrexate di- and triglutamate at physiological pH. Using Spodoptera frugiperda-BCRP membrane vesicles, we showed that the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of 1 muM methotrexate by BCRP is 5-fold higher at pH 5.5 than at physiological pH. The transport of methotrexate was saturable at pH 5.5, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.3 +/- 0.2 mM and 44 +/- 2.5 nmol/mg of protein/min, respectively, but was linear with drug concentration at pH 7.3 up to 6 mM methotrexate. In contrast to recent reports, we did not detect transport of methotrexate diglutamate at physiological pH, but we did find transport at pH 5.5. We also found that 7-hydroxy-methotrexate, the major metabolite of methotrexate, is transported by BCRP both at physiological pH and (more efficiently) at low pH. The pH effect was also observed in intact BCRP-overexpressing cells: we found a 3-fold higher level of resistance to both methotrexate and the prototypical BCRP substrate mitoxantrone at pH 6.5 as at physiological pH. Furthermore, with MDCKII-BCRP monolayers, we found that resveratrol, which is a neutral compound at pH < or = 7.4, is efficiently transported by BCRP at pH 6.0, whereas we did not detect active transport at pH 7.4. We conclude that BCRP transports substrate drugs more efficiently at low pH, independent of the dissociation status of the substrate.

  19. Renal insufficiency and anticancer drugs in elderly cancer patients: a subgroup analysis of the IRMA study.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Janus, Nicolas; Gligorov, Joseph; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national, observational study which demonstrated the high prevalence of abnormal renal function in a population of 4684 solid tumor patients. Among them, 50-60% had decreased renal function, and 80% were treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment in case of renal insufficiency (RI) or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Since elderly patients are well-known to have reduced renal function, either due to physiological aging or their disease/medication history, a subgroup analysis of this particular population of patients was performed. In 1553 IRMA patients whose age was > or =65 years, the prevalence of RI was very high in spite of normal serum creatinine values in most cases. Anticancer drugs used may be nephrotoxic or need dosage adjustment in a high number of cases.

  20. Glutamic acid and its derivatives: candidates for rational design of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Haque, Ashanul; Saleem, Kishwar

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the history of human civilizations, cancer has been a major health problem. Its treatment has been interesting but challenging to scientists. Glutamic acid and its derivative glutamine are known to play interesting roles in cancer genesis, hence, it was realized that structurally variant glutamic acid derivatives may be designed and developed and, might be having antagonistic effects on cancer. The present article describes the state-of-art of glutamic acid and its derivatives as anticancer agents. Attempts have been made to explore the effectivity of drug-delivery systems based on glutamic acid for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Moreover, efforts have also been made to discuss the mechanism of action of glutamic acid derivatives as anticancer agents, clinical applications of glutamic acid derivatives, as well as recent developments and future perspectives of glutamic acid drug development have also been discussed.

  1. Photoresponsive coumarin-tethered multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for release of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Karthik, S; Puvvada, Nagaprasad; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Rajput, Shashi; Pathak, Amita; Mandal, Mahitosh; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2013-06-12

    Recently, photoresponsive nanoparticles have received significant attention because of their ability to provide spatial and temporal control over the drug release. In the present work, we report for the first time photoresponsive multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) fabricated using coumarin-based phototrigger and Fe/Si MNPs for controlled delivery of anticancer drug chlorambucil. Further, newly fabricated photoresponsive multifunctional MNPs were also explored for cell luminescence imaging. In vitro biological studies revealed that coumarin tethered Fe/Si MNPs of ~9 nm size efficiently delivered the anticancer drug chlorambucil into cancer cells and thereby improving the drug action to kill the cancer cells upon irradiation. Such multifunctional MNPs with strong fluorescence, good biocompatibility and efficient photocontrolled drug release ability will be of great benefit in the construction of light-activated multifunctional nano drug delivery systems.

  2. Oxidative Stress, Nrf2, and Epigenetic Modification Contribute to Anticancer Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Hyun, Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, controls the expression of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative and electrophilic stress to maintain redox homeostasis. However, recent studies demonstrated that, in cancer, aberrant activation of Nrf2 by epigenetic alterations promotes high expression of cytoprotective proteins, which can decrease the efficacy of anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the relationship between oxidative stress, Nrf2, epigenetic modification, and anticancer drug resistance, which should aid in development of new strategies to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy.

  3. Oxidative Stress, Nrf2, and Epigenetic Modification Contribute to Anticancer Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Hyun, Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, controls the expression of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative and electrophilic stress to maintain redox homeostasis. However, recent studies demonstrated that, in cancer, aberrant activation of Nrf2 by epigenetic alterations promotes high expression of cytoprotective proteins, which can decrease the efficacy of anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the relationship between oxidative stress, Nrf2, epigenetic modification, and anticancer drug resistance, which should aid in development of new strategies to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:28133507

  4. Selective speciation improves efficacy and lowers toxicity of platinum anticancer and vanadium antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Kaitlin A; Hassell, Kelly N; Crans, Debbie C

    2016-12-01

    Improving efficacy and lowering resistance to metal-based drugs can be addressed by consideration of the coordination complex speciation and key reactions important to vanadium antidiabetic drugs or platinum anticancer drugs under biological conditions. The methods of analyses vary depending on the specific metal ion chemistry. The vanadium compounds interconvert readily, whereas the reactions of the platinum compounds are much slower and thus much easier to study. However, the vanadium species are readily differentiated due to vanadium complexes differing in color. For both vanadium and platinum systems, understanding the processes as the compounds, Lipoplatin and Satraplatin, enter cells is needed to better combat the disease; there are many cellular metabolites, which may affect processing and thus the efficacy of the drugs. Examples of two formulations of platinum compounds illustrate how changing the chemistry of the platinum will result in less toxic and better tolerated drugs. The consequence of the much lower toxicity of the drug, can be readily realized because cisplatin administration requires hospital stay whereas Lipoplatin can be done in an outpatient manner. Similarly, the properties of Satraplatin allow for development of an oral drug. These forms of platinum demonstrate that the direct consequence of more selective speciation is lower side effects and cheaper administration of the anticancer agent. Therefore we urge that as the community goes forward in development of new drugs, control of speciation chemistry will be considered as one of the key strategies in the future development of anticancer drugs.

  5. Recent Advances in Anticancer Activities and Drug Delivery Systems of Tannins.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuee; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Nelson G; Shi, Zhi; Qiu, Jiange; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-12-22

    Tannins, polyphenols in medicinal plants, have been divided into two groups of hydrolysable and condensed tannins, including gallotannins, ellagitannins, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Potent anticancer activities have been observed in tannins (especially EGCG) with multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of invasion and metastases. Furthermore, the combinational effects of tannins and anticancer drugs have been demonstrated in this review, including chemoprotective, chemosensitive, and antagonizing effects accompanying with anticancer effect. However, the applications of tannins have been hindered due to their poor liposolubility, low bioavailability, off-taste, and shorter half-life time in human body, such as EGCG, gallic acid, and ellagic acid. To tackle these obstacles, novel drug delivery systems have been employed to deliver tannins with the aim of improving their applications, such as gelatin nanoparticles, micelles, nanogold, liposomes, and so on. In this review, the chemical characteristics, anticancer properties, and drug delivery systems of tannins were discussed with an attempt to provide a systemic reference to promote the development of tannins as anticancer agents.

  6. Microprocessor in controlled transdermal drug delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, N S; Shobha Rani, R H

    2009-12-01

    Microprocessor controlled transdermal delivery of anticancer drugs 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) was developed and in vitro evaluation was done. Drugs were loaded based on the pharmacokinetics parameters. In vitro diffusion studies were carried at different current density (0.0, 0.1, 0.22, 0.50 mA/cm2). The patches were evaluated for the drug content, thickness, weight, folding endurance, flatness, thumb tack test and adhesive properties all were well with in the specification of transdermal patches with elegant and transparent in appearance. In vitro permeation studies through human cadaver skin showed, passive delivery (0.0 mA/cm2) of 6-MP was low. As the current density was progressively increased, the flux also increased. the flux also increased with 0.1 mA/cm2 for 15-20 min, but it was less than desired flux, 0.2 mA/cm2 for 30 min showed better flux than 0.1 mA/cm2 current, but lag time was more than 4 h, 0.5 mA/cm2 current for more than 1 h, flux was >159 microg/cm2 h which was desired flux for 6-MP. 5-FU flux reached the minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 54 microg/cm2 h with 0.5 mA/cm2 current for 30-45 min, drug concentration were within the therapeutic window in post-current phase. We concluded from Ohm's Law that as the resistance decreases, current increases. Skin resistance decrease with increase in time and current, increase in the drug permeation. Interestingly, for all investigated current densities, as soon as the current was switched off, 5-FU and 6-MP flux decreased fairly, but the controlled drug delivery can be achieved by switching the current for required period of time.

  7. New cancer treatment strategy using combination of green tea catechins and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Masami; Saha, Achinto; Fujiki, Hirota

    2011-02-01

    Green tea is now recognized as the most effective cancer preventive beverage. In one study, 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea daily supplemented with tablets of green tea extract limited the recurrence of colorectal polyps in humans to 50%. Thus, cancer patients who consume green tea and take anticancer drugs will have double prevention. We studied the effects of combining (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and anticancer drugs, focusing on inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Numerous anticancer drugs, such as tamoxifen, COX-2 inhibitors, and retinoids were used for the experiments, and the combination of EGCG and COX-2 inhibitors consistently induced the enhancement of apoptosis. To study the mechanism of the enhancement, we paid special attention to the enhanced expressions of DDIT3 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 153, GADD153), GADD45A, and CDKN1A (p21/WAF1/CIP1) genes, based on our previous evidence that a combination of EGCG and sulindac specifically induced upregulated expression of GADD153 and p21 genes in PC-9 lung cancer cells. The synergistic enhancements of apoptosis and GADD153 gene expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells by the combination of EGCG and celecoxib were mediated through the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. This article reviews the synergistic enhancement of apoptosis, gene expression, and anticancer effects using various combinations of EGCG and anticancer drugs, including the combination of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and curcumin. Based on the evidence, we present a new concept: green tea catechins as synergists with anticancer drugs.

  8. Histone Methylation by Temozolomide; A Classic DNA Methylating Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Diaz, Anthony Joseph; Mura, Hugo; Nyuwen, Lila; Coello, Daniel; Sheva, Saif; Maria, Nava; Gallo, James M.; Wang, Tieli

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim The alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is considered the standard-of-care for high-grade astrocytomas –known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)– an aggressive type of tumor with poor prognosis. The therapeutic benefit of TMZ is attributed to formation of DNA adducts involving the methylation of purine bases in DNA. We investigated the effects of TMZ on arginine and lysine amino acids, histone H3 peptides and histone H3 proteins. Materials and Methods Chemical modification of amino acids, histone H3 peptide and protein by TMZ was performed in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. The reaction products were examined by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. Results Our results showed that TMZ following conversion to a methylating cation, can methylate histone H3 peptide and histone H3 protein, suggesting that TMZ exerts its anticancer activity not only through its interaction with DNA, but also through alterations of protein post-translational modifications. Conclusion The possibility that TMZ can methylate histones involved with epigenetic regulation of protein indicates a potentially unique mechanism of action. The study will contribute to the understanding the anticancer activity of TMZ in order to develop novel targeted molecular strategies to advance the cancer treatment. PMID:27354585

  9. Lack of in vitro interactions using human liver microsomes between rabeprazole and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Tamaro, Ilaria; Genazzani, Armando; Canonico, Pierluigi; Grosa, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    The potential interactions between rabeprazole, a widely used proton pump inhibitor, and anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, methotrexate, doxorubicin, etoposide) or drugs commonly present in the therapy of oncological patients (fluoxetine and ondansetron), were studied using in vitro human liver microsomes. The interactions between rabeprazole and the anticancer drugs were evaluated by measuring their concentrations in test and control incubations with HPLC-DAD-UV methods. To achieve this aim, nine HPLC-DAD-UV methods were developed using different stationary and mobile phases. The methods were then validated for the following parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. As expected rabeprazole did not significantly inhibit the metabolism of the evaluated drugs in human liver microsomal preparations at the selected concentrations. These results shows that rabeprazole probably could be devoid of pharmacokinetic interactions with common drugs used during chemotherapy.

  10. A Network Flow-Based Method to Predict Anticancer Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yufang; Chen, Ming; Wang, Haiyun; Zheng, Xiaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Predicting anticancer drug sensitivity can enhance the ability to individualize patient treatment, thus making development of cancer therapies more effective and safe. In this paper, we present a new network flow-based method, which utilizes the topological structure of pathways, for predicting anticancer drug sensitivities. Mutations and copy number alterations of cancer-related genes are assumed to change the pathway activity, and pathway activity difference before and after drug treatment is used as a measure of drug response. In our model, Contributions from different genetic alterations are considered as free parameters, which are optimized by the drug response data from the Cancer Genome Project (CGP). 10-fold cross validation on CGP data set showed that our model achieved comparable prediction results with existing elastic net model using much less input features. PMID:25992881

  11. Application of imaging mass spectrometry approaches to facilitate metal-based anticancer drug research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ronald F S; Theiner, Sarah; Meibom, Anders; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2017-02-03

    Mass spectrometry imaging is being increasingly used in metal-based anticancer drug development to study elemental and/or molecular drug distributions in different biological systems. The main analytical tools employed are SIMS (especially nanoSIMS), LA-ICP-MSI and MALDI-MSI as well as a combination of complementary imaging techniques. Main challenges are appropriate sample preparation methods, reliable and validated quantification strategies and a trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution. So far, research has mostly focused on the development of analytical methods for imaging with the long term goal to study drug uptake into tumor tissue and toxicity affected organs and to identify cellular targets of metal-based drugs. In this review we cover the technological features of the mass spectrometry imaging methods used and give an overview of the applications in metal-based anticancer drug research as well as some future perspectives.

  12. Secondary metabolites as DNA topoisomerase inhibitors: A new era towards designing of anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Baikar, Supriya; Malpathak, Nutan

    2010-01-01

    A large number of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols and quinones are produced by the plants. These metabolites can be utilized as natural medicines for the reason that they inhibit the activity of DNA topoisomerase which are the clinical targets for anticancer drugs. DNA topoisomerases are the cellular enzymes that change the topological state of DNA through the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands. Synthetic drugs as inhibitors of topoisomerases have been developed and used in the clinical trials but severe side effects are a serious problem for them therefore, there is a need for the development of novel plant-derived natural drugs and their analogs which may serve as appropriate inhibitors with respect to drug designing. The theme for this review is how secondary metabolites or natural products inactivate the action of DNA topoisomerases and open new avenues towards isolation and characterization of compounds for the development of novel drugs with anticancer potential. PMID:22228937

  13. Mitoxantrone and Analogues Bind and Stabilize i-Motif Forming DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Elisé P.; Day, Henry A.; Ibrahim, Ali M.; Kumar, Jeethendra; Boswell, Leo J. E.; Huguin, Camille; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Pors, Klaus; Waller, Zoë A. E.

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of ligands which can interact with G-quadruplex DNA, yet very few which target i-motif. To appreciate an understanding between the dynamics between these structures and how they can be affected by intervention with small molecule ligands, more i-motif binding compounds are required. Herein we describe how the drug mitoxantrone can bind, induce folding of and stabilise i-motif forming DNA sequences, even at physiological pH. Additionally, mitoxantrone was found to bind i-motif forming sequences preferentially over double helical DNA. We also describe the stabilisation properties of analogues of mitoxantrone. This offers a new family of ligands with potential for use in experiments into the structure and function of i-motif forming DNA sequences. PMID:28004744

  14. Mitoxantrone and Analogues Bind and Stabilize i-Motif Forming DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Elisé P.; Day, Henry A.; Ibrahim, Ali M.; Kumar, Jeethendra; Boswell, Leo J. E.; Huguin, Camille; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Pors, Klaus; Waller, Zoë A. E.

    2016-12-01

    There are hundreds of ligands which can interact with G-quadruplex DNA, yet very few which target i-motif. To appreciate an understanding between the dynamics between these structures and how they can be affected by intervention with small molecule ligands, more i-motif binding compounds are required. Herein we describe how the drug mitoxantrone can bind, induce folding of and stabilise i-motif forming DNA sequences, even at physiological pH. Additionally, mitoxantrone was found to bind i-motif forming sequences preferentially over double helical DNA. We also describe the stabilisation properties of analogues of mitoxantrone. This offers a new family of ligands with potential for use in experiments into the structure and function of i-motif forming DNA sequences.

  15. Response of Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Mitoxantrone Treatment in Simulated Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu

    2012-07-01

    RESPONSE OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS TO MITOXANTRONE TREATMENT IN SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT Ye Zhang1,2, Christopher Edwards3, and Honglu Wu1 1 NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 2 Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX 3 Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR This study explores the changes in growth of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and their response to the treatment of an antineoplastic agent, mitoxantrone, under the simulated microgravity condition. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity and simulated microgravity have been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in various cultured cell models or animals. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on the responses of cells to the treatment of drugs, especially chemotherapy drugs. To test the hypothesis that zero gravity would result in altered regulations of cells in response to antineoplastic agents, we cultured LNCaP cells in either a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactor at the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as control, and treated the cells with mitoxantrone. Cell growth, as well as expressions of oxidative stress related genes, were analyzed after the drug treatment. Compared to static 1g controls, the cells cultured in the simulated microgravity environment did not present significant differences in cell viability, growth rate, or cell cycle distribution. However, after mitoxantrone treatment, a significant proportion of bioreactor cultured cells became apoptotic or was arrested in G2. Several oxidative stress related genes also showed a higher expression level post mitoxantrone treatment. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity may alter the response of LNCaP cells to mitoxantrone treatment. Understanding the mechanisms by which cells respond to drugs differently in an altered gravity environment will be useful for the improvement of cancer treatment on

  16. Preparation and characterization of novel chitosan-protamine nanoparticles for nucleus-targeted anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiwei; Hou, Jiahui; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang

    It is well known that most anticancer drugs commonly show high toxicity to the DNA of tumor cells and exert effects by combining with the DNA or associated enzymes in the nucleus. Most developed drugs are first delivered into the cytoplasm and then transferred to the nucleus through the membrane pores. Sometimes, the transportation of drugs from cytoplasm to nucleus is not efficient and often results in poor therapeutic effects. In this study, we developed special and novel nanoparticles (NPs) made of chitosan and protamine for targeted nuclear capture of drugs to enhance anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of nuclear targeted-delivery of drugs in NPs were also evaluated by investigating cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on cells. Chitosan-protamine NPs were characterized by good drug entrapment, sustained release, small average particle size, low polydispersity index, and high encapsulation efficiency; and accomplished the efficient nuclear delivery of fluorouracil (5-Fu). Compared with free 5-Fu and 5-Fu-loaded chitosan NPs, treatment of A549 cells and HeLa cells with 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs showed the highest cytotoxicity and further induced the significant apoptosis of cells. In addition, 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs exhibited the best efficiency in inhibiting tumor growth than the other three formulations. 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs enhanced antitumor efficacy through the targeted nuclear capture of drugs and showed promising potential as a nanodelivery system for quickly locating drugs in the nucleus of cells.

  17. Classification of stimuli-responsive polymers as anticancer drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Bita; Taranejoo, Shahrouz; Monemian, Seyed Ali; Salehi Moghaddam, Zoha; Daliri, Karim; Derakhshankhah, Hossein; Derakhshani, Zaynab

    2015-02-01

    Although several anticancer drugs have been introduced as chemotherapeutic agents, the effective treatment of cancer remains a challenge. Major limitations in the application of anticancer drugs include their nonspecificity, wide biodistribution, short half-life, low concentration in tumor tissue and systemic toxicity. Drug delivery to the tumor site has become feasible in recent years, and recent advances in the development of new drug delivery systems for controlled drug release in tumor tissues with reduced side effects show great promise. In this field, the use of biodegradable polymers as drug carriers has attracted the most attention. However, drug release is still difficult to control even when a polymeric drug carrier is used. The design of pharmaceutical polymers that respond to external stimuli (known as stimuli-responsive polymers) such as temperature, pH, electric or magnetic field, enzymes, ultrasound waves, etc. appears to be a successful approach. In these systems, drug release is triggered by different stimuli. The purpose of this review is to summarize different types of polymeric drug carriers and stimuli, in addition to the combination use of stimuli in order to achieve a better controlled drug release, and it discusses their potential strengths and applications. A survey of the recent literature on various stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems is also provided and perspectives on possible future developments in controlled drug release at tumor site have been discussed.

  18. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.

  19. Effects of Particle Hydrophobicity, Surface Charge, Media pH Value and Complexation with Human Serum Albumin on Drug Release Behavior of Mitoxantrone-Loaded Pullulan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiaojun; Jin, Shu; Wu, Dehong; Ling, Kai; Yuan, Liming; Lin, Pingfa; Xie, Yongchao; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    We prepared two types of cholesterol hydrophobically modified pullulan nanoparticles (CHP) and carboxyethyl hydrophobically modified pullulan nanoparticles (CHCP) substituted with various degrees of cholesterol, including 3.11, 6.03, 6.91 and 3.46 per polymer, and named CHP−3.11, CHP−6.03, CHP−6.91 and CHCP−3.46. Dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) showed that the pullulan nanoparticles were 80–120 nm depending on the degree of cholesterol substitution. The mean size of CHCP nanoparticles was about 160 nm, with zeta potential −19.9 mV, larger than CHP because of the carboxyethyl group. A greater degree of cholesterol substitution conferred greater nanoparticle hydrophobicity. Drug-loading efficiency depended on nanoparticle hydrophobicity, that is, nanoparticles with the greatest degree of cholesterol substitution (6.91) showed the most drug encapsulation efficiency (90.2%). The amount of drug loading increased and that of drug release decreased with enhanced nanoparticle hydrophobicity. Nanoparticle surface-negative charge disturbed the amount of drug loading and drug release, for an opposite effect relative to nanoparticle hydrophobicity. The drug release in pullulan nanoparticles was higher pH 4.0 than pH 6.8 media. However, the changed drug release amount was not larger for negative-surface nanoparticles than CHP nanoparticles in the acid release media. Drug release of pullulan nanoparticles was further slowed with human serum albumin complexation and was little affected by nanoparticle hydrophobicity and surface negative charge. PMID:28344259

  20. Development and characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles for the delivery of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Harshita; Kumar, Krishan; Choudhary, Chetan; Mishra, Pawan K; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare chemotherapeutic agent-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of drug, for better therapeutic activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have inherent anticancer properties, hence it was envisaged that by loading the anticancer drug into zinc oxide nanoparticles, enhanced anticancer activity might be observed. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Starch was used as the stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles prepared were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. Further, cell line studies were performed to evaluate cellular uptake and cytotoxicity profile using MCF-7 cells. A hemolysis study was performed to check the acute toxicity of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were found to be 476.4 ± 2.51 nm in size, with low PDI (0.312 ± 0.02) and high entrapment efficiency (> 85%). The nanoparticles were stable, and did not form aggregates on storage in the dispersed form. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that drug-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited higher anticancer activity as compared to either blank zinc oxide nanoparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) alone, or their mixture. A hemolytic test revealed that the prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles caused negligible hemolysis. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with DOX resulted in better uptake of the chemotherapeutic agent, and at the same time, showed low toxicity towards normal cells.

  1. Hurdles and delays in access to anti-cancer drugs in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ades, F; Zardavas, D; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Eniu, A; Popescu, R; Piccart, M; Parent, F

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes in the world population will cause a significant increase in the number of new cases of cancer. To handle this challenge, societies will need to adapt how they approach cancer prevention and treatment, with changes to the development and uptake of innovative anticancer drugs playing an important role. However, there are obstacles to implementing innovative drugs in clinical practice. Prior to being incorporated into daily practice, the drug must obtain regulatory and reimbursement approval, succeed in changing the prescription habits of physicians, and ultimately gain the compliance of individual patients. Developing an anticancer drug and bringing it into clinical practice is, therefore, a lengthy and complex process involving multiple partners in several areas. To optimize patient treatment and increase the likelihood of implementing health innovation, it is essential to have an overview of the full process. This review aims to describe the process and discuss the hurdles arising at each step. PMID:25525460

  2. Effect of hydrophobicity of core on the anticancer efficiency of micelles as drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chun-Yang; Ma, Yin-Chu; Cao, Zi-Yang; Li, Dong-Dong; Fan, Feng; Wang, Jun-Xia; Tao, Wei; Yang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-12-24

    Recently, micelles, which are self-assembled by amphiphilic copolymers, have attracted tremendous attention as promising drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. Thus, the hydrophobic core of the micelles, which could efficiently encapsulate small molecular drug, will play a significant role for the anticancer efficiency. Unfortunately, the effect of hydrophobicity of micellar core on its anticancer efficiency was rarely reported. Herein, the amphiphilic diblock polymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and polyphosphoester with different side groups (butyl, hexyl, octyl) were synthesized to tune the hydrophobicity of the micellar core. We found that the in vitro cytotoxicity of the DOX-loaded micelles decreased with the increasing hydrophobicity of micellar core due to the drug release rate. However, following systemic delivery, the DOX-loaded micelles with the most hydrophobic core exhibited the most significant inhibition of tumor growth in a MDA-MB-231 tumor model, indicating the importance of hydrophobicity of core on the antitumor efficacy of drug delivery systems.

  3. Dendrimer-Functionalized Laponite Nanodisks as a Platform for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Rania; Luo, Yu; Wu, Yilun; Guo, Rui; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized dendrimer-functionalized laponite (LAP) nanodisks for loading and delivery of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Firstly, LAP was modified with silane coupling agents and succinic anhydride to render abundant carboxyl groups on the surface of LAP. Then, poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer of generation 2 (G2) were conjugated to form LM-G2 nanodisks. Anticancer drug DOX was then loaded on the LM-G2 with an impressively high drug loading efficiency of 98.4% and could be released in a pH-sensitive and sustained manner. Moreover, cell viability assay results indicate that LM-G2/DOX complexes could more effectively inhibit the proliferation of KB cells (a human epithelial carcinoma cell line) than free DOX at the same drug concentration. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal laser scanning microscope demonstrated that LM-G2/DOX could be uptaken by KB cells more effectively than free DOX. Considering the exceptional high drug loading efficiency and the abundant dendrimer amine groups on the surface that can be further modified, the developed LM-G2 nanodisks may hold a great promise to be used as a novel platform for anticancer drug delivery.

  4. Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly H.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

  5. Response of Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Mitoxantrone Treatment in Simulated Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Edwards, Christopher; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the changes in growth of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and their response to the treatment of antineoplastic agent, mitoxantrone, under the simulated microgravity condition. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity and simulated microgravity have been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in various cultured cell models or animals. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on the responses of cells to drugs, especially chemotherapy drugs. To test the hypothesis that zero gravity would result in altered regulation of cells in response to antineoplastic agents, we cultured LNCaP cells for 96 hr either in a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactor at the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as a control. 24 hr after the culture started, mitoxantrone was introduced to the cells at a final concentration of 1 M. The mitoxantrone treatment lasted 72 hr and then the cells were collected for various measurements. Compared to static 1g controls, the cells cultured in the simulated microgravity environment did not show significant differences in cell viability, growth rate, or cell cycle distribution. However, in response to mitoxantrone (1uM), a significant proportion of bioreactor cultured cells (30%) was arrested at G2 phase and a significant number of these cells were apoptotic in comparison to their static controls. The expressions of 84 oxidative stress related genes were analyzed using Qiagen PCR array to identify the possible mechanism underlying the altered responses of bioreactor culture cells to mitoxantrone. Nine out of 84 genes showed higher expression at four hour post mitoxantrone treatment in cells cultured at rotating condition compared to those at static. Taken together, the results reported here indicate that simulated microgravity may alter the responses of LNCaP cells to mitoxantrone treatment. The alteration of oxidative stress pathways

  6. Inhibition of STAT3 by Anticancer Drug Bendamustine

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Kazunori; Uehara, Yutaka; Inoue, Yukie; Taguchi, Kyoko; Muraoka, Daisuke; Ogo, Naohisa; Matsuno, Kenji; Asai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Bendamustine (BENDA), which bears the bis(2-chloroethyl)amino moiety, is an alkylating agent that stops the growth of cancer cells by binding to DNA and interfering with its replication. However, the mechanism of action underlying its excellent clinical efficacy remains unclear. In this work, we report that BENDA inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In an AlphaScreen-based biochemical assay using recombinant human STAT3, binding of STAT3–Src homology 2 (SH2) to the phosphotyrosine (pTyr, pY) peptide was inhibited by BENDA but not by the inactive metabolite dihydroxy bendamustine (HP2). When a single point mutation of C550A or C712A was introduced into recombinant human STAT3, its sensitivity to BENDA was substantially reduced, suggesting that these cysteine residues are important for BENDA to inhibit STAT3. Furthermore, BENDA suppressed the function of cellular STAT3 as a transcriptional activator in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, with constitutively activated STAT3. A competitive pull-down assay using biotinylated BENDA (Bio-BENDA) revealed that BENDA bound tightly to cellular STAT3, presumably through covalent bonds. Therefore, our results suggest that the anticancer effects of BENDA may be associated, at least in part, with its inhibitory effect on the SH2 domain of STAT3. PMID:28125678

  7. Are bisphosphonates the suitable anticancer drugs for the elderly?

    PubMed

    Santini, Daniele; Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Galluzzo, Sara; Vincenzi, Bruno; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastases represent an important problem in the elderly. These patients are exposed to a higher risk of developing skeletal-related events (SREs) with a subsequent decrease in quality of life and survival. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated to reduce and delay the appearance of SREs and to improve the quality of life also in elderly bone metastatic patients. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates exert direct as well as indirect antitumor effect. Interestingly, recent clinical data confirm these results in bone metastatic cancer patients. However, randomized trials restricted to elderly patients with metastatic bone disease and focused to evaluate survival benefits have not yet been planned even if elderly patients, especially multiple myeloma, prostate and lung cancer patients, have been often included in trials. This review will examine in detail the preclinical rationale for using bisphosphonates as anticancer agents in elderly patients and will critically explore the first retrospective and prospective clinical evidences of an increased survival in patients treated with bisphosphonates. Moreover, we will analyze the safety of bisphosphonates in elderly population and discuss the clinical recommendations expressed by the SIOG Society for the use of bisphosphonates in elderly patients. Randomized clinical trials to assess the role of bisphosphonate therapy in the adjuvant setting are currently in progress and will be described in this review. If the results of these ongoing clinical trials will be positive, the indications for bisphosphonates could increase, including also elderly patients.

  8. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  9. Anticancer drug bortezomib increases interleukin-8 expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanacora, Shannon; Urdinez, Joaquin; Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vancurova, Ivana

    2015-05-01

    Bortezomib (BZ) is the first clinically approved proteasome inhibitor that has shown remarkable anticancer activity in patients with hematological malignancies. However, many patients relapse and develop resistance; yet, the molecular mechanisms of BZ resistance are not fully understood. We have recently shown that in solid tumors, BZ unexpectedly increases expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), while it inhibits expression of other NFκB-regulated genes. Since monocytes and macrophages are major producers of IL-8, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that BZ increases the IL-8 expression in human monocytes and macrophages. Here, we show that BZ dramatically increases the IL-8 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated U937 macrophages as well as in unstimulated U937 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while it inhibits expression of IL-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, our results show that the underlying mechanisms involve p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is required for the BZ-induced IL-8 expression. Together, these data suggest that the BZ-increased IL-8 expression in monocytes and macrophages may represent one of the mechanisms responsible for the BZ resistance and indicate that targeting the p38-mediated IL-8 expression could enhance the BZ effectiveness in cancer treatment.

  10. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and mechanistic evaluation of 4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives: finding new potential anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Forezi, Luana da S M; Tolentino, Nathalia M C; de Souza, Alessandra M T; Castro, Helena C; Montenegro, Raquel C; Dantas, Rafael F; Oliveira, Maria E I M; Silva, Floriano P; Barreto, Leilane H; Burbano, Rommel M R; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; de Oliveira, Riethe; Ferreira, Vitor F; Cunha, Anna C; Boechat, Fernanda da C S; de Souza, Maria Cecília B V

    2014-05-22

    As part of a continuing search for new potential anticancer candidates, we describe the synthesis, cytotoxicity and mechanistic evaluation of a series of 4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives as novel anticancer agents. The inhibitory activity of compounds 10-18 was determined against three cancer cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. The screening revealed that derivatives 16b and 17b exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the gastric cancer cell line but was not active against a normal cell line, in contrast to doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapeutic drug in clinical use. Interestingly, no hemolytical activity was observed when the toxicity of 16b and 17b was tested against blood cells. The in silico and in vitro mechanistic evaluation indicated the potential of 16b as a lead for the development of novel anticancer agents against gastric cancer cells.

  11. Cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs: beyond apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Hmadi, Raed; Kareh, Mike; Tohme, Rita; Darwiche, Nadine

    2015-12-01

    Despite remarkable progress in the discovery and development of novel cancer therapeutics, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the world. For many years, compounds derived from plants have been at the forefront as an important source of anticancer therapies and have played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer because of their availability, and relatively low toxicity when compared with chemotherapy. More than 3000 plant species have been reported to treat cancer and about thirty plant-derived compounds have been isolated so far and have been tested in cancer clinical trials. The mechanisms of action of plant-derived anticancer drugs are numerous and most of them induce apoptotic cell death that may be intrinsic or extrinsic, and caspase and/or p53-dependent or independent mechanisms. Alternative modes of cell death by plant-derived anticancer drugs are emerging and include mainly autophagy, necrosis-like programmed cell death, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence leading to cell death. Considering that the non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs are less reviewed than the apoptotic ones, this paper attempts to focus on such alternative cell death pathways for some representative anticancer plant natural compounds in clinical development. In particular, emphasis will be on some promising polyphenolics such as resveratrol, curcumin, and genistein; alkaloids namely berberine, noscapine, and colchicine; terpenoids such as parthenolide, triptolide, and betulinic acid; and the organosulfur compound sulforaphane. The understanding of non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms induced by these drugs would provide insights into the possibility of exploiting novel molecular pathways and targets of plant-derived compounds for future cancer therapeutics.

  12. A ferromagnetic compound with anti-cancer proeprties for controlled drug delivery and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eguchi, Haruki; Hirata, Kunio; Kurotani, Reiko; Singh, David J.; Fukumura, Hidenobu; Umemura, Masanari; Hoshino, Yujiro; Lee, Jin; Masuda, Takatsugu; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Itaru; Feng, Xianfeng; Sato, Motohiko; Inoue, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Aoki, Ichio; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Sato, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-17

    New anticancer agents and modalities for their use are of great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-cancer properties in salen derivatives. We found that an iron salen derivative, i.e., [Fe(salen)]2O, displays ferromagnetic order above room temperature and shows spontaneous field-dependent magnetization and hysteresis. Understanding of this magnetic property is provided by first-principles calculations based on structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. [Fe(salen)]2O exhibited potent anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell types and was readily attracted by even moderate-strength permanent magnets in vitro. We demonstrated that the delivery of [Fe(salen)]2O to melanoma tissues transplanted into the tails of mice using a permanent magnet leads to a robust decrease in tumor size. The local accumulation of [Fe(salen)]2O was visualized by MRI. Thus, [Fe(salen)]2O acted as an anti-cancer and MRI contrast compound that has a pharmacological effect that is delivered in a controlled manner, suggesting new strategies for anti-cancer drug development.

  13. A ferromagnetic compound with anti-cancer proeprties for controlled drug delivery and imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Eguchi, Haruki; Hirata, Kunio; Kurotani, Reiko; ...

    2015-03-17

    New anticancer agents and modalities for their use are of great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-cancer properties in salen derivatives. We found that an iron salen derivative, i.e., [Fe(salen)]2O, displays ferromagnetic order above room temperature and shows spontaneous field-dependent magnetization and hysteresis. Understanding of this magnetic property is provided by first-principles calculations based on structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. [Fe(salen)]2O exhibited potent anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell types and was readily attracted by even moderate-strength permanent magnets in vitro. We demonstrated that the delivery of [Fe(salen)]2O to melanoma tissues transplanted into the tails of micemore » using a permanent magnet leads to a robust decrease in tumor size. The local accumulation of [Fe(salen)]2O was visualized by MRI. Thus, [Fe(salen)]2O acted as an anti-cancer and MRI contrast compound that has a pharmacological effect that is delivered in a controlled manner, suggesting new strategies for anti-cancer drug development.« less

  14. Docetaxel-loaded Nanohorn-streptavidin-antibody for Anti-cancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianxun; Yudasaka, Masako; Zhang, Minfang; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-03-01

    Single wall carbon canohorn (SWNH) is a new kind of nano-carbon tubule having horn-like structure at its tip. The tube diameters are 2 to 5 nm, and about 2,000 SWNHs assemble to form a spherical aggregate. SWNH is an attractive candidate for drug delivery, especially promising to carry anticancer drug, many of which are not water soluble and highly toxic. We incorporated Docetaxel (Doc), an anticancer drug used for stomach cancer and others, into hydrogen peroxide treated SWNH (SWNHox). By using carboxylic groups on SWNHox, we attached amine-PEO3-biotin, and then streptavidin to biotin. The streptavidin moiety on SWNH makes it easy to attach some other biotinylated molecules, thus we introduced a cancer targeting ligand, anti-tumor associated glycoprotein, to the SWNH system. Due to the targeting effect of the antibody, the cells were effectively killed when they were incubated with the Doc SWNHox-streptavidin-andtibody system.

  15. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  16. Access to innovation: is there a difference in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between French hospitals?

    PubMed

    Bonastre, Julia; Chevalier, Julie; Van der Laan, Chantal; Delibes, Michel; De Pouvourville, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    In DRG-based hospital payment systems, expensive drugs are often funded separately. In France, specific expensive drugs (including a large proportion of anticancer drugs) are fully reimbursed up to national reimbursement tariffs to ensure equity of access. Our objective was to analyse the use of expensive anticancer drugs in public and private hospitals, and between regions. We had access to sales per anticancer drug and per hospital in the year 2008. We used a multilevel model to study the variation in the mean expenditure of expensive anticancer drugs per course of chemotherapy and per hospital. The mean expenditure per course of chemotherapy was €922 [95% CI: 890-954]. At the hospital level, specialisation in chemotherapies for breast cancers was associated with a higher expenditure of anticancer drugs per course for those hospitals with the highest proportion of cancers at this site. There were no differences in the use of expensive drugs between the private and the public hospital sector after controlling for case mix. There were no differences between the mean expenditures per region. The absence of disparities in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between hospitals and regions may indicate that exempting chemotherapies from DRG-based payments and providing additional reimbursement for these drugs has been successful at ensuring equal access to care.

  17. -based nanobiosensor monitoring toxicological behavior of Mitoxantrone in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lad, Amitkumar N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2014-06-01

    The present study involves the development of nanobiosensor to determine toxicological behavior of Mitoxantrone (MTX). Mitoxantrone intercalates with DNA and produces MTX-DNA adduct, resulting in blockade of protein synthesis and excessive production of free radicals in the myocardium eventually leads to cardiac toxicity. Potentiometry was applied to develop an electroanalytical procedure for the determination of MTX and its interaction with DNA immobilized on the electrode surface modified with Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles. The nanobiosensor immersed in MTX solution to monitor MTX-DNA interaction with respect to time and alters the resistance of the nanobiosensor. It was observed that MTX-DNA interaction is fast initially and as time elapses, the change in interaction gets slow due to formation of MTX-DNA adduct. Determination limit of the nanobiosensor is 100-10 ng/ml. This study suggests that the nanobiosensor allows real-time monitoring of the drug-DNA interaction changes by measuring the potential at sensor interface which can prove to be an important tool in drug discovery pipelines and molecular toxicology.

  18. Polymeric biomaterials for the delivery of platinum-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihoon; Pramanick, Swapan; Lee, Duhwan; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-07-01

    Since cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii), received FDA approval for use in cancer treatment in 1978, platinum-based drugs have been one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of tumors in testicles, ovaries, head and neck. However, there are concerns associated with the use of platinum-based anticancer drugs, owing to severe side effects and drug resistance. In order to overcome these limitations, various drug-delivery systems have been developed based on diverse organic and inorganic materials. In particular, the versatility of polymeric materials facilitates the tuning of drug-delivery systems to meet their primary goals. This review focuses on the progress made over the last five years in the application of polymeric nanoparticles for the delivery of platinum-based anticancer drugs. The present article not only describes the fundamental principles underlying the implementation of polymeric nanomaterials in platinum-based drug delivery, but also summarizes concepts and strategies employed in the development of drug-delivery systems.

  19. Platinum anticancer drugs. From serendipity to rational design.

    PubMed

    Monneret, C

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of cis-platin was serendipitous. In 1965, Rosenberg was looking into the effects of an electric field on the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. He noticed that bacteria ceased to divide when placed in an electric field but what Rosenberg also observed was a 300-fold increase in the size of the bacteria. He attributed this to the fact that somehow the platinum-conducting plates were inducing cell growth but inhibiting cell division. It was later deduced that the platinum species responsible for this was cis-platin. Rosenberg hypothesized that if cis-platin could inhibit bacterial cell division it could also stop tumor cell growth. This conjecture has proven correct and has led to the introduction of cis-platin in cancer therapy. Indeed, in 1978, six years after clinical trials conducted by the NCI and Bristol-Myers-Squibb, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cis-platin under the name of Platinol(®) for treating patients with metastatic testicular or ovarian cancer in combination with other drugs but also for treating bladder cancer. Bristol-Myers Squibb also licensed carboplatin, a second-generation platinum drug with fewer side effects, in 1979. Carboplatin entered the U.S. market as Paraplatin(®) in 1989 for initial treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous platin derivatives have been further developed with more or less success and the third derivative to be approved in 1994 was oxaliplatin under the name of Eloxatin(®). It was the first platin-based drug to be active against metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid. The two others platin-based drugs to be approved were nedaplatin (Aqupla(®)) in Japan and lobaplatin in China, respectively. More recently, a strategy to overcome resistance due to interaction with thiol-containing molecules led to the synthesis of picoplatin in which one of the amines linked to Pt

  20. Promises and challenges of anticancer drugs that target the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Inge; Johnstone, Ricky W; Bots, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence of epigenetic aberrations in cancer and their role in promoting tumorigenesis has led to the development of various small molecule inhibitors that target epigenetic enzymes. In preclinical settings, many epigenetic inhibitors demonstrate promising activity against a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. The therapeutic efficacy of those inhibitors that have entered the clinic however, is restricted predominantly to hematological malignancies. Here we outline the observed epigenetic aberrations in various types of cancer and the clinical responses to epigenetic drugs. We furthermore discuss strategies to improve the responsiveness of both hematological and solid malignancies to epigenetic drugs.

  1. Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Younghyun; Lee, Jong Bum; Hong, Jinkee

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the generation of systemically releasable anti-cancer drugs from multilayer nanofilms. Nanofilms designed to drug release profiles in programmable fashion are promising new and alternative way for drug delivery. For the nanofilm structure, we synthesized various unique 3-dimensional anti cancer drug incorporated DNA origami structures (hairpin, Y, and X shaped) and assembled with peptide via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method. The key to the successful application of these nanofilms requires a novel approach of the influence of DNA architecture for the drug release from functional nano-sized surface. Herein, we have taken first steps in building and controlling the drug incorporated DNA origami based multilayered nanostructure. Our finding highlights the novel and unique drug release character of LbL systems in serum condition taken full advantages of DNA origami structure. This multilayer thin film dramatically affects not only the release profiles but also the structure stability in protein rich serum condition.

  2. Anti-cancer drug characterisation using a human cell line panel representing defined types of drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, S.; Nygren, P.; Csoka, K.; Botling, J.; Nilsson, K.; Larsson, R.

    1996-01-01

    Differential drug response in a human cell line panel representing defined types of cytotoxic drug resistance was measured using the non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). In total 37 drugs were analysed; eight topoisomerase II inhibitors, eight anti-metabolites, eight alkylating agents, eight tubulin-active agents and five compounds with other or unknown mechanisms of action, including one topoisomerase I inhibitor. Correlation analysis of log IC50 values obtained from the panel showed a high degree of similarity among the drugs with a similar mechanism of action. The mean percentage of mechanistically similar drugs included among the ten highest correlations, when each drug was compared with the remaining data set, was 100%, 92%, 88% and 52% for the topoisomerase II inhibitors, alkylators, tubulinactive agents and anti-metabolites respectively. Classification of drugs into the four categories representing different mechanisms of action using a probabilistic neural network (PNN) analysis resulted in 29 (91%) correct predictions. The results indicate the feasibility of using a limited number of cell lines for prediction of mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs. The present approach may be well suited for initial classification and evaluation of novel anti-cancer drugs and as a potential tool to guide lead compound optimisation. Images Figure 2 PMID:8826854

  3. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species - obligatory or not for induction of apoptosis by anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Donika; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that conventional anticancer drugs elevate intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter redox-homeostasis of cancer cells. It is widely accepted that anticancer effect of these chemotherapeutics is due to induction of oxidative stress and ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer. On the other hand, the harmful side effects of conventional anticancer chemotherapy are also due to increased production of ROS and disruption of redox-homeostasis of normal cells and tissues. This article describes the mechanisms for triggering and modulation of apoptosis through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. We try to answer the question: "Is it possible to induce highly specific apoptosis only in cancer cells, without overproduction of ROS, as well as without harmful effects on normal cells and tissues?" The review also suggests a new therapeutic strategy for selective killing of cancer cells, without significant impact on viability of normal cells and tissues, by combining anticancer drugs with redox-modulators, affecting specific signaling pathways and avoiding oxidative stress. PMID:27647966

  4. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species - obligatory or not for induction of apoptosis by anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Donika; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-08-01

    Many studies demonstrate that conventional anticancer drugs elevate intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter redox-homeostasis of cancer cells. It is widely accepted that anticancer effect of these chemotherapeutics is due to induction of oxidative stress and ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer. On the other hand, the harmful side effects of conventional anticancer chemotherapy are also due to increased production of ROS and disruption of redox-homeostasis of normal cells and tissues. This article describes the mechanisms for triggering and modulation of apoptosis through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. We try to answer the question: "Is it possible to induce highly specific apoptosis only in cancer cells, without overproduction of ROS, as well as without harmful effects on normal cells and tissues?" The review also suggests a new therapeutic strategy for selective killing of cancer cells, without significant impact on viability of normal cells and tissues, by combining anticancer drugs with redox-modulators, affecting specific signaling pathways and avoiding oxidative stress.

  5. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic pipeline: translating anticancer drug pharmacology to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingyu; Gallo, James M

    2011-03-01

    Progress in an understanding of the genetic basis of cancer coupled to molecular pharmacology of potential new anticancer drugs calls for new approaches that are able to address key issues in the drug development process, including pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships. The incorporation of predictive preclinical PK/PD models into rationally designed early-stage clinical trials offers a promising way to relieve a significant bottleneck in the drug discovery pipeline. The aim of the current review is to discuss some considerations for how quantitative PK and PD analyses for anticancer drugs may be conducted and integrated into a global translational effort, and the importance of examining drug disposition and dynamics in target tissues to support the development of preclinical PK/PD models that can be subsequently extrapolated to predict pharmacologic characteristics in patients. In this article, we describe three different physiologically based (PB) PK modeling approaches, i.e., the whole-body PBPK model, the hybrid PBPK model, and the two-pore model for macromolecules, as well as their applications. General conclusions are that greater effort should be made to generate more clinical data that could validate scaled preclinical PB-PK/PD tumor-based models and, thus, stimulate a framework for preclinical to clinical translation. Finally, given the innovative techniques to measure tissue drug concentrations and associated biomarkers of drug responses, development of predictive PK/PD models will become a standard approach for drug discovery and development.

  6. A DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug CY190602 with significantly enhanced anticancer potency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy. PMID:25759362

  7. A DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug CY190602 with significantly enhanced anticancer potency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai

    2015-03-09

    Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy.

  8. Nanotech revolution for the anti-cancer drug delivery through blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G; Salzano, G; Santini, D; Lamberti, M; Sperlongano, P; Lombardi, A; Abbruzzese, A; Addeo, R

    2012-03-01

    Nanotechnology-based drug delivery was born as a chance for pharmaceutical weapons to be delivered in the body sites where drug action is required. Specifically, the incorporation of anti-cancer agents in nanodevices of 100-300 nm allows their delivery in tissues that have a fenestrated vasculature and a reduced lymphatic drainage. These two features are typical of neoplastic tissues and, therefore, allow the accumulation of nanostructured devices in tumours. An important issue of anti-cancer pharmacological strategies is the overcoming of anatomical barriers such as the bloodbrain- barrier (BBB) that protects brain from toxicological injuries but, at the same time, makes impossible for most of the pharmacological agents with anti-cancer activity to reach tumour cells placed in the brain and derived from either primary tumours or metastases. In fact, only highly lipophilic molecules can passively diffuse through BBB to reach central nervous system (CNS). Another possibility is to use nanotechnological approaches as powerful tools to across BBB, by both prolonging the plasma half-life of the drugs and crossing fenestrations of BBB damaged by brain metastases. Moreover, modifications of nanocarrier surface with specific endogenous or exogenous ligands can promote the crossing of intact BBB as in the case of primary brain tumours. This aim can be achieved through the binding of the nanodevices to carriers or receptors expressed by the endothelial cells of BBB and that can favour the internalization of the nanostructured devices delivering anti-cancer drugs. This review summarizes the most meaningful advances in the field of nanotechnologies for brain delivery of drugs.

  9. Quantification of cell viability and rapid screening anti-cancer drug utilizing nanomechanical fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangquan; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiarong; Liang, Xin M; Gao, Dayong; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-15

    Cancer is a serious threat to human health. Although numerous anti-cancer drugs are available clinically, many have shown toxic side effects due to poor tumor-selectivity, and reduced effectiveness due to cancers rapid development of resistance to treatment. The development of new highly efficient and practical methods to quantify cell viability and its change under drug treatment is thus of significant importance in both understanding of anti-cancer mechanism and anti-cancer drug screening. Here, we present an approach of utilizing a nanomechanical fluctuation based highly sensitive microcantilever sensor, which is capable of characterizing the viability of cells and quantitatively screening (within tens of minutes) their responses to a drug with the obvious advantages of a rapid, label-free, quantitative, noninvasive, real-time and in-situ assay. The microcantilever sensor operated in fluctuation mode was used in evaluating the paclitaxel effectiveness on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This study demonstrated that the nanomechanical fluctuations of the microcantilever sensor are sensitive enough to detect the dynamic variation in cellular force which is provided by the cytoskeleton, using cell metabolism as its energy source, and the dynamic instability of microtubules plays an important role in the generation of the force. We propose that cell viability consists of two parts: biological viability and mechanical viability. Our experimental results suggest that paclitaxel has little effect on biological viability, but has a significant effect on mechanical viability. This new method provides a new concept and strategy for the evaluation of cell viability and the screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  10. A spectroscopic investigations of anticancer drugs binding to bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Chandrakala, D.

    2012-03-01

    The binding of anticancer drugs (i) Uracil (U), (ii) 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and (iii) 5-Chlorouracil (5ClU), to bovine serum albumin (BSA) at two levels of temperature was studied by the fluorescence of quenching method. UV/Vis, time-resolved fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were also made. Binding constants (Ka) and binding sites (n) at various levels of temperature were calculated. The obtained binding sites were found to be equal to one for all the three quenchers (U, 5FU and 5ClU) at two different temperature levels. Thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS have been calculated and were presented in tables. Change in FTIR absorption intensity shows strong binding of anticancer drugs to BSA. Changes in chemical shifts of NMR and fluorescence lifetimes of the drugs indicate the presence of interaction and binding of BSA to anticancer drugs. 1H NMR spectra and SEM photographs also conform this binding.

  11. Preparation and characterization of novel chitosan–protamine nanoparticles for nucleus-targeted anticancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiwei; Hou, Jiahui; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that most anticancer drugs commonly show high toxicity to the DNA of tumor cells and exert effects by combining with the DNA or associated enzymes in the nucleus. Most developed drugs are first delivered into the cytoplasm and then transferred to the nucleus through the membrane pores. Sometimes, the transportation of drugs from cytoplasm to nucleus is not efficient and often results in poor therapeutic effects. In this study, we developed special and novel nanoparticles (NPs) made of chitosan and protamine for targeted nuclear capture of drugs to enhance anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of nuclear targeted-delivery of drugs in NPs were also evaluated by investigating cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on cells. Chitosan–protamine NPs were characterized by good drug entrapment, sustained release, small average particle size, low polydispersity index, and high encapsulation efficiency; and accomplished the efficient nuclear delivery of fluorouracil (5-Fu). Compared with free 5-Fu and 5-Fu-loaded chitosan NPs, treatment of A549 cells and HeLa cells with 5-Fu-loaded chitosan–protamine NPs showed the highest cytotoxicity and further induced the significant apoptosis of cells. In addition, 5-Fu-loaded chitosan–protamine NPs exhibited the best efficiency in inhibiting tumor growth than the other three formulations. 5-Fu-loaded chitosan–protamine NPs enhanced antitumor efficacy through the targeted nuclear capture of drugs and showed promising potential as a nanodelivery system for quickly locating drugs in the nucleus of cells. PMID:27881917

  12. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Highly water-soluble, porous, and biocompatible boron nitrides for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qunhong; Wang, Binju; Wang, Xuebin; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Li, Xia; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Jiang, Xiangfen; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-06-24

    Developing materials for "Nano-vehicles" with clinically approved drugs encapsulated is envisaged to enhance drug therapeutic effects and reduce the adverse effects. However, design and preparation of the biomaterials that are porous, nontoxic, soluble, and stable in physiological solutions and could be easily functionalized for effective drug deliveries are still challenging. Here, we report an original and simple thermal substitution method to fabricate perfectly water-soluble and porous boron nitride (BN) materials featuring unprecedentedly high hydroxylation degrees. These hydroxylated BNs are biocompatible and can effectively load anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, DOX) up to contents three times exceeding their own weight. The same or even fewer drugs that are loaded on such BN carriers exhibit much higher potency for reducing the viability of LNCaP cancer cells than free drugs.

  14. In vivo nanotoxicology of hybrid systems based on copolymer/silica/anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, C. P.; Paula, A. J.; Apolinário, L. M.; Fávaro, W. J.; Durán, N.

    2015-05-01

    One of the major problems in cancer therapies is the high occurrence of side effects intrinsic of anticancer drugs. Doxorrubicin is a conventional anticancer molecule used to treat a wide range of cancer, such as breast, ovarian and prostate. However, its use is associated with a number of side effects like multidrug resistance and cardiotoxicity. The association with nanomaterials has been considered in the past decade to overcome the high toxicity of these drugs. In this context, mesoporous silica nanoparticles are great candidates to be used as carriers once they are very biocompatible. Taking into account the combination of nanoparticles and doxorrubicin, we treated rats with chemically induced prostate cancer with systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and a thermoreversible block copolymer (Pluronic F-127) containing doxorrubicin. Preliminary results show a possible improvement in tumor conditions proportional to the concentration of the nanoparticles, opening a perspective to use mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carrier for doxorrubicin in prostate cancer treatment.

  15. Repurposing drugs in oncology (ReDO)—cimetidine as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2014-01-01

    Cimetidine, the first H2 receptor antagonist in widespread clinical use, has anti-cancer properties that have been elucidated in a broad range of pre-clinical and clinical studies for a number of different cancer types. These data are summarised and discussed in relation to a number of distinct mechanisms of action. Based on the evidence presented, it is proposed that cimetidine would synergise with a range of other drugs, including existing chemotherapeutics, and that further exploration of the potential of cimetidine as an anti-cancer therapeutic is warranted. Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that cimetidine administration during the peri-operative period may provide a survival benefit in some cancers. A number of possible combinations with other drugs are discussed in the supplementary material accompanying this paper. PMID:25525463

  16. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shihong; Huang, Ying; O'Barr, Stephen A.; Wong, Rebecca A.; Chow, Moses Sing Sum

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer. PMID:24876866

  17. Systematic Repurposing Screening in Xenograft Models Identifies Approved Drugs with Novel Anti-Cancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roix, Jeffrey J.; Harrison, S. D.; Rainbolt, Elizabeth A.; Meshaw, Kathryn R.; McMurry, Avery S.; Cheung, Peter; Saha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10–15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity. PMID:25093583

  18. Folate receptor targeted liposomes encapsulating anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Anumita; Das, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Among all available lipid based nanoparticulate systems, the success of liposomal drug delivery system is evident by the number of liposomal products available in the market or under advanced stages of preclinical and clinical trials. Liposome has the ability to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the targeted tissues or even inside the cancerous cells by enhanced intracellular penetration or improved tumour targeting. In the last decade, folate receptor mediated tumour targeting has emerged as an attractive alternative method of active targeting of cancer cells through liposomes due to its numerous advantages over other targeting methods. Folate receptors, also known as folate binding proteins, allow the binding and internalization of folate or folic acid into the cells by a method called folate receptor mediated endocytosis. They have restricted presence in normal cells and are mostly expressed during malignant transformation. In this review article, folate receptor targeting capability of liposomes has been described. This review article has focussed on the different cancer drugs which have been encapsulated in folate receptor targeted liposomes and their in vitro as well as in vivo efficacies in several tumour models.

  19. Structural basis and anticancer properties of ruthenium-based drug complexed with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Ho, Andy; Yue, Jiping; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Wu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-10-30

    Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes have become increasingly popular for study over the last two decades. Although ruthenium complexes are currently being investigated in clinical trials, there are still some difficulties with their delivery and associated side effects. Human serum albumin (HSA)-based delivery systems are promising for improving anticancer drug targeting and reducing negative side effects. However, there have been few studies regarding the HSA delivery system for metal-based anticancer compounds and no mention of its structural mechanism. Therefore, we studied the structure and anticancer properties of the ruthenium-based compound [RuCl5(ind)](2-) in complex with HSA. The structure revealed that [RuCl5(ind)](2-) has two binding sites in HSA. In the IB subdomain, [RuCl5(ind)](2-) binds to a new sub-site by coordinating with His-146. In the IIA subdomain, ruthenium (III) of [RuCl5(ind)](2-) binds to the hydrophobic cavity and forms coordination bonds by replacing chlorine atoms with the His-242 and Lys-199 residues of HSA. Interestingly, [RuCl5(ind)](2-), together with HSA, can enhance cytotoxicity by two to five times in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with unbound drug, the HSA-[RuCl5(ind)](2-) complex promotes MGC-803 cell apoptosis and also has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase in MGC-803. In conclusion, this study will guide the rational design and development of ruthenium-containing or ruthenium-centered drugs and an HSA delivery system for ruthenium-based drugs.

  20. Variation of Cost among Anti-cancer Drugs Available in Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, Divyashanthi Chellathambi; Ponnaluri, Raghunatha Rao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although cancer remains a major health problem all over the world, its treatment is limited by affordability of patients in a developing country like India. Information generated from cost analysis studies will be helpful for both the doctors in choosing the correct medicine for their patients and also for policy makers in successfully utilizing the meager resources that are available. Aim The aim of the present observational study was to analyse the price variations of anti-cancer drugs available in India. Materials and Methods The cost of a particular anti-cancer drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same dose and dosage form, was obtained from latest issue of “Current Index of Medical Specialties” (CIMS) January–April, 2016. The difference between the maximum and minimum prices of various brands of the same drug was analysed and percentage variation in the prices was calculated. The results of the study were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results Overall, the price of a total of 23 drugs belonging to 6 different categories available in 52 different formulations were analysed. Among alkylating agents, oxaliplatin (50mg; injection) showed the maximum price variation of 125.02%. In anti-metabolites, methotrexate (2.5mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 75.30%. The maximum price variation among natural products was seen with paclitaxel (260 mg; injection) of 146.98%, among hormonal drugs, was seen with flutamide (250mg; tablet) of 714.24%, among targeted drugs was seen with imatinib mesylate (100mg; film coated tablet) of 5.56% and among supportive drugs, granisetron (1mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 388.68%. Conclusion The average percentage variations of different brands of the same anti-cancer drug in same dose and dosage form manufactured in India is very wide. The government and drug manufacturing companies must direct their efforts in reducing the cost of anti-cancer drugs and

  1. Reducing Both Pgp Overexpression and Drug Efflux with Anti-Cancer Gold-Paclitaxel Nanoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hongyu; Jia, Jianbo; Li, Liwen; Zhai, Shumei; Yan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Repeated administrations of anti-cancer drugs to patients often induce drug resistance. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) facilitates an efficient drug efflux, preventing cellular accumulation of drugs and causing multi-drug resistance (MDR). In this study, we developed a gold-paclitaxel nanoconjugate system to overcome MDR. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with β-cyclodextrin enclosing paclitaxel (PTX) molecules and PEG molecules. GNP conjugates were effectively endocytosed by both drug-sensitive human lung cancer H460 cells and Pgp-overexpressed drug-resistant H460PTX cells. Compared with PTX, PGNPs did not induce the Pgp overexpression in drug-sensitive H460 cells after long-term treatment and also avoided being pumped out of cells by overexpressed Pgp molecules in H460PTX with a 17-fold lower EC50 compared to PTX. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry further confirmed that fluorescent labeled PGNPs (f-PGNPs) maintained a high cellular PTX level in both H460 and H460PTX cells. These results demonstrated that nano-drug conjugates were able to avoid the development of drug resistance in sensitive cells and evade Pgp-mediated drug resistance and to maintain a high cytotoxicity in drug-resistant cancer cells. These findings exemplify a powerful nanotechnological approach to the long-lasting issue of chemotherapy-induced drug resistance. PMID:27467397

  2. Potentiation of Anticancer Drugs: Effects of Pentoxifylline on Neoplastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barancik, Miroslav; Bohacova, Viera; Gibalova, Lenka; Sedlak, Jan; Sulova, Zdena; Breier, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The drug efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a product of the mdr1 gene, ABCB1 member of ABC transporter family) represents a mechanism by which tumor cells escape death induced by chemotherapeutics. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in mouse leukemia L1210/VCR cells. Parental sensitive mouse leukemia cells L1210, and multidrug-resistant cells, L1210/VCR, which are characterized by the overexpression of P-gp, were used as experimental models. The cells were exposed to 100 μmol/L PTX in the presence or absence of 1.2 μmol/L vincristine (VCR). Western blot analysis indicated a downregulation of P-gp protein expression when multidrug-resistant L1210/VCR cells were exposed to PTX. The effects of PTX on the sensitization of L1210/VCR cells to VCR correlate with the stimulation of apoptosis detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis necrosis kit and proteolytic activation of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 monitored by Western blot analysis. Higher release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2, which could be attenuated by PTX, was found in L1210/VCR than in L1210 cells by gelatin zymography in electrophoretic gel. Exposure of resistant cells to PTX increased the content of phosphorylated Akt kinase. In contrast, the presence of VCR eliminated the effects of PTX on Akt kinase phosphorylation. Taken together, we conclude that PTX induces the sensitization of multidrug-resistant cells to VCR via downregulation of P-gp, stimulation of apoptosis and reduction of MMPs released from drug-resistant L1210/VCR cells. These facts bring new insights into the mechanisms of PTX action on cancer cells. PMID:22312258

  3. Investigation of the complexation of the anti-cancer drug novantrone with the hairpin structure of the deoxyheptanucleotide 5‧-d(GpCpGpApApGpC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostjukov, V. V.; Pahomov, V. I.; Andrejuk, D. D.; Davies, D. B.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    In aqueous solution the deoxyheptanucleotide, 5'-d(GpCpGpApApGpC), exists as a very stable hairpin structure in equilibrium with small proportions of the single-stranded and duplex forms. Complexation of the anti-cancer drug novantrone (mitoxantrone) with the DNA heptamer was investigated by one- and two-dimensional 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy (2M-TOCSY, 2M-NOESY) and molecular dynamics simulations. The proton chemical shifts of NOV in mixed solutions with the heptamer were measured as a function of concentration and temperature and the equilibrium association parameters were determined for complexation of NOV with the three forms of the heptamer. The spatial structure of the complex of the antibiotic with the hairpin form of the heptamer was built on the basis of 2D-NOE data. The conformational dynamics of the complex and its interaction with the water environment were investigated by molecular dynamics methods. The results suggest that NOV complexes with the hairpin form of the heptamer in solution by intercalation. Complexation of NOV with the hairpin stem results in a disruption of about one half of the intramolecular water bridges of the hairpin, which is considered to be the main reason for the observed decrease in the thermodynamical stability of the hairpin on binding with the ligand.

  4. Exosome Delivered Anticancer Drugs Across the Blood-Brain Barrier for Brain Cancer Therapy in Danio Rerio

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianzhi; Martin, Paige; Fogarty, Brittany; Brown, Alison; Schurman, Kayla; Phipps, Roger; Yin, Viravuth P.; Lockman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The blood–brain barrier (BBB) essentially restricts therapeutic drugs from entering into the brain. This study tests the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell derived exosomes can deliver anticancer drug across the BBB for the treatment of brain cancer in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Materials and Methods Four types of exosomes were isolated from brain cell culture media and characterized by particle size, morphology, total protein, and transmembrane protein markers. Transport mechanism, cell uptake, and cytotoxicity of optimized exosome delivery system were tested. Brain distribution of exosome delivered anticancer drugs was evaluated using transgenic zebrafish TG (fli1: GFP) embryos and efficacies of optimized formations were examined in a xenotransplanted zebrafish model of brain cancer model. Results Four exosomes in 30–100 diameters showed different morphologies and exosomes derived from brain endothelial cells expressed more CD63 tetraspanins transmembrane proteins. Optimized exosomes increased the uptake of fluorescent marker via receptor mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in cancer cells. Images of the zebrafish showed exosome delivered anticancer drugs crossed the BBB and entered into the brain. In the brain cancer model, exosome delivered anticancer drugs significantly decreased fluorescent intensity of xenotransplanted cancer cells and tumor growth marker. Conclusions Brain endothelial cell derived exosomes could be potentially used as a carrier for brain delivery of anticancer drug for the treatment of brain cancer. PMID:25609010

  5. Enzyme-Responsive Liposomes for the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Farnaz; Steffen, Kristine J; Mallik, Sanku

    2017-03-08

    Liposomes are nanocarriers that deliver the payloads at the target site, leading to therapeutic drug concentrations at the diseased site and reduced toxic effects in healthy tissues. Several approaches have been used to enhance the ability of the nanocarrier to target the specific tissues, including ligand-targeted liposomes and stimuli-responsive liposomes. Ligand-targeted liposomes exhibit higher uptake by the target tissue due to the targeting ligand attached to the surface, while the stimuli-responsive liposomes do not release their cargo unless they expose to an endogenous or exogenous stimulant at the target site. In this review, we mainly focus on the liposomes that are responsive to pathologically increased levels of enzymes at the target site. Enzyme-responsive liposomes release their cargo upon contact with the enzyme through several destabilization mechanisms: (1) structural perturbation in the lipid bilayer, (2) removal of a shielding polymer from the surface and increased cellular uptake, (3) cleavage of a lipopeptide or lipopolymer incorporated in the bilayer, and (4) activation of a prodrug in the liposomes.

  6. [Development of anti-cancer drugs under new renewed GCP--from the viewpoint of drug development company developer].

    PubMed

    Ueno, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, K; Yanagi, Y; Yamada, Y

    1998-04-01

    During the past 7 years since the enforcement of Japan's first GCP in October 1990, various standards and guidelines have been introduced in Japan. On the other hand, the harmonization of GCP has been the subject of major discussion at ICH in order to allow the mutual acceptance of clinical data from different countries. In order to further improve the reliability and consistency of clinical data and the ethics of clinical trials in Japan, the new GCP was enforced in April 1997. A clinical study is conducted by the sponsor, but will only be successful with the collaboration of trial subjects, medical institutions, heads of medical institutions, investigators, subinvestigators, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory technicians, and other assisting staff. Before the full enforcement of the new GCP, we, as sponsors of clinical trials, carried out a survey of the current status of clinical trials centering on the reactions of medical institutions to the new GCP, future of clinical trials on anti-cancer drugs in Japan, and differences in time from clinical trials to registration in Japan, the United State and Europe. We sent a questionnaire by facsimile to 21 pharmaceutical companies which have developed or are developing anti-cancer drugs and obtained replies from 20 companies (95%) from August 25 to 30, 1997. This paper reports issues concerning clinical trials on anti-cancer drugs based on the results of our survey.

  7. Applications of nanosystems to anticancer drug therapy (Part I. Nanogels, nanospheres, nanocapsules).

    PubMed

    Talevi, Alan; Gantner, Melisa E; Ruiz, María E

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in cancer drug therapy is to maximize the effectiveness of the active agent while reducing its systemic adverse effects. To add more, many widely-used chemoterapeutic agents present unfavorable physicochemical properties (e.g. low solubility, lack of chemical or biological stability) that hamper or limit their therapeutic applications. All these issues may be overcome by designing adequate drug delivery systems; nanocarriers are particularly suitable for this purpose. Nanosystems can be used for targeted-drug release, treatment, diagnostic imaging and therapy monitoring. They allow the formulation of drug delivery systems with user-defined characteristics regarding solubility, biodegradability, particle size, release kinetics and active targeting, among others. This review (Part I) focuses on recent patents published between 2008 and the present day, related to nanospheres, nanocapsules and nanogels applied to anticancer drug therapy. Other nanosystems is covered in a second article (Part II).

  8. Strategies to improve delivery of anticancer drugs across the blood–brain barrier to treat glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Rajneet K.; Parrish, Karen E.; Sio, Terence T.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Elmquist, William F.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal and aggressive brain tumor that is resistant to conventional radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapies. Molecularly targeted agents hold great promise in treating these genetically heterogeneous tumors, yet have produced disappointing results. One reason for the clinical failure of these novel therapies can be the inability of the drugs to achieve effective concentrations in the invasive regions beyond the bulk tumor. In this review, we describe the influence of the blood–brain barrier on the distribution of anticancer drugs to both the tumor core and infiltrative regions of GBM. We further describe potential strategies to overcome these drug delivery limitations. Understanding the key factors that limit drug delivery into brain tumors will guide future development of approaches for enhanced delivery of effective drugs to GBM. PMID:26359209

  9. A 3D Fibrous Scaffold Inducing Tumoroids: A Platform for Anticancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvonne K.; Wang, Chunyan; Ravi, Sowndharya; Howell, Mark C.; Mallela, Jaya; Alibrahim, Mahmoud; Green, Ryan; Hellermann, Gary; Mohapatra, Shyam S.; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The development of a suitable three dimensional (3D) culture system for anticancer drug development remains an unmet need. Despite progress, a simple, rapid, scalable and inexpensive 3D-tumor model that recapitulates in vivo tumorigenesis is lacking. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of a 3D nanofibrous scaffold produced by electrospinning a mixture of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a block copolymer of polylactic acid (PLA) and mono-methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) designated as 3P. Cancer cells cultured on the 3P scaffold formed tight irregular aggregates similar to in vivo tumors, referred to as tumoroids that depended on the topography and net charge of the scaffold. 3P scaffolds induced tumor cells to undergo the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as demonstrated by up-regulation of vimentin and loss of E-cadherin expression. 3P tumoroids showed higher resistance to anticancer drugs than the same tumor cells grown as monolayers. Inhibition of ERK and PI3K signal pathways prevented EMT and reduced tumoroid formation, diameter and number. Fine needle aspirates, collected from tumor cells implanted in mice when cultured on 3P scaffolds formed tumoroids, but showed decreased sensitivity to anticancer drugs, compared to tumoroids formed by direct seeding. These results show that 3P scaffolds provide an excellent platform for producing tumoroids from tumor cell lines and from biopsies and that the platform can be used to culture patient biopsies, test for anticancer compounds and tailor a personalized cancer treatment. PMID:24146752

  10. Anti-cancer drug discovery: update and comparisons in yeast, Drosophila, and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangxun; Chen, Liang; Huang, Chuanshu

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of novel cancer chemotherapeutics focuses on screening and identifying compounds that can target 'cancer-specific' biological processes while causing minimal toxicity to non-tumor cells. Alternatively, model organisms with highly conserved cancer-related cellular processes relative to human cells may offer new opportunities for anticancer drug discovery when combined with chemical screening. Some organisms used for chemotherapeutic discovery include yeast, Drosophila, and zebrafish which are similar in important ways relevant to cancer study but offer distinct advantages as well. Here, we describe these model attributes and the rationale for using them in cancer drug screening research.

  11. Alkaloids from marine invertebrates as important leads for anticancer drugs discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Concetta; Aiello, Anna; D'Aniello, Filomena; Senese, Maria; Menna, Marialuisa

    2014-12-05

    The present review describes research on novel natural antitumor alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. The structure, origin, and confirmed cytotoxic activity of more than 130 novel alkaloids belonging to several structural families (indoles, pyrroles, pyrazines, quinolines, and pyridoacridines), together with some of their synthetic analogs, are illustrated. Recent discoveries concerning the current state of the potential and/or development of some of them as new drugs, as well as the current knowledge regarding their modes of action, are also summarized. A special emphasis is given to the role of marine invertebrate alkaloids as an important source of leads for anticancer drug discovery.

  12. Anti-cancer Drug Discovery: Update and Comparisons in Yeast, Drosophila, and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guangxun; Chen, Liang; Huang, Chuanshu

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of novel cancer chemotherapeutics focuses on screening and identifying compounds that can target ‘cancer-specific’ biological processes while causing minimal toxicity to non-tumor cells. Alternatively, model organisms with highly conserved cancer-related cellular processes relative to human cells may offer new opportunities for anticancer drug discovery when combined with chemical screening. Some organisms used for chemotherapeutic discovery include yeast, Drosophila, and zebrafish which are similar in important ways relevant to cancer study but offer distinct advantages as well. Here, we describe these model attributes and the rationale for using them in cancer drug screening research. PMID:24993385

  13. Development of a new type of multifunctional fucoidan-based nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun-Ying; Li, Rou; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Shen-Chieh; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2017-06-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated marine polysaccharide, has many potential biological functions, including anticancer activity. Recently, fucoidan has been reported to target P-selectin expressed on metastatic cancer cells. Increasing research attention has been devoted to the developments of fucoidan-based nanomedicine. However, the application of traditional chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles in anticancer drug delivery may be limited due to the deprotonation of chitosan at a pH greater than 6.5. In this study, a mutli-stimuli-responsive nanoparticle self-assembled by fucoidan and a cationic polypeptide (protamine) was developed, and their pH-/enzyme-responsive properties were characterized by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential analysis. Enzymatic digestion and acidic intracellular microenvironment (pH 4.5-5.5) in cancer cells triggered the release of an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) from the nanoparticles. The protamine/fucoidan complex nanoparticles with P-selectin mediated endocytosis, charge conversion and stimuli-tunable release properties showed an improved inhibitory effect against a metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231).

  14. Nano-chitosan particles in anticancer drug delivery: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Pooja R; Sunil, Dhanya

    2017-02-27

    Cancer is one of the most awful lethal diseases all over the world and the success of its current chemotherapeutic treatment strategies is limited due to several associated drawbacks. The exploration of cancer cell physiology and its microenvironment have exposed the potential of various classes of nanocarriers to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutic agents at the tumor target site. These nanocarriers must evade the immune surveillance system and achieve target selectivity. Besides, they must gain access in to the interior of cancerous cells, evade endosomal entrapment and discharge the drugs in a sustained manner. Chitosan, the second naturally abundant polysaccharide is a biocompatible, biodegradable and mucoadhesive cationic polymer which has been exploited extensively in the last few years in the effective delivery of anticancer chemotherapeutics to the target tumor cells. Therapeutic agent-loaded surface modified chitosan nanoparticles are established to be more stable, permeable and bioactive. This review will provide an up-to-date evidence-based background on recent pharmaceutical advancements in the transformation of chitosan nanoparticles for smart anticancer therapeutic drug delivery.

  15. Methods for Elucidation of DNA-Anticancer Drug Interactions and their Applications in the Development of New Drugs.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Majus; Mantegazza, Francesco; Beretta, Giovanni L

    2016-01-01

    DNA damaging agents including anthracyclines, camptothecins and platinum drugs are among most frequently used drugs in the chemotherapeutic routine. Due to their relatively low selectivity for cancer cells, administration of these drugs is associated with adverse side effects, inherent genotoxicity with risk of developing secondary cancers. Development of new drugs, which could be spared of these drawbacks and characterize by improved antitumor efficacy, remains challenging yet vitally important task. These properties are in large part dictated by the selectivity of interaction between the drug and DNA and in this way the studies aimed at elucidating the complex interactions between ligand and DNA represent a key step in the drug development. Studies of the drug-DNA interactions encompass determination of DNA sequence specificity and mode of DNA binding as well as kinetic, dynamic and structural parameters of binding. Here, we consider the types of interactions between small molecule ligands and polynucleotides, how they are affected by DNA sequence and structure, and what is their significance for the antitumor activity. Based on this knowledge, we discuss the wide array of experimental techniques available to researchers for studying drug-DNA interactions, which include absorption and emission spectroscopies, NMR, magnetic and optical tweezers or atomic force microscopy. We show, using the clinical and experimental anticancer drugs as examples, how these methods provide various types of information and at the same time complement each other to provide full picture of drug- DNA interaction and aid in the development of new drugs.

  16. Transmembrane delivery of anticancer drugs through self-assembly of cyclic peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Bei; Xia, Fei; Xie, Yunchang; Jiang, Sifan; Su, Rui; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-04-07

    Breaking the natural barriers of cell membranes achieves fast entry of therapeutics, which leads to enhanced efficacy and helps overcome multiple drug resistance. Herein, transmembrane delivery of a series of small molecule anticancer drugs was achieved by the construction of artificial transmembrane nanochannels formed by self-assembly of cyclic peptide (cyclo[Gln-(d-Leu-Trp)4-d-Leu], CP) nanotubes (CPNTs) in the lipid bilayers. Our in vitro study in liposomes indicated that the transport of molecules with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm, which is the internal diameter of the CPNTs, could be significantly enhanced by CPNTs in a size-selective and dose-dependent manner. Facilitated uptake of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was also confirmed in the BEL7402 cell line. On the contrary, CPs could facilitate neither the transport across liposomal membranes nor the uptake by cell lines of cytarabine, a counterevidence drug with a size of 1.1 nm. CPs had a very weak anticancer efficacy, but could significantly reduce the IC50 of 5-FU in BEL7402, HeLa and S180 cell lines. Analysis by a q test revealed that a combination of 5-FU and CP had a synergistic effect in BEL7402 at all CP levels, in S180 at CP levels higher than 64 μg mL(-1), but not in HeLa, where an additive effect was observed. Temporarily, intratumoral injection is believed to be the best way for CP administration. In vivo imaging using (125)I radio-labelled CP confirmed that CPNPTs were completely localized in the tumor tissues, and translocation to other tissues was negligible. In vivo anticancer efficacy was studied in the grafted S180 solid tumor model in mice, and the results indicated that tumor growth was greatly inhibited by the combinatory use of 5-FU and CP, and a synergistic effect was observed at CP doses of 0.25 mg per kg bw. It is concluded that facilitated transmembrane delivery of anticancer drugs with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm was achieved, and the synergistic anticancer effect was confirmed both in cell

  17. Tissue-engineered 3D tumor angiogenesis models: potential technologies for anti-cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Chwalek, Karolina; Bray, Laura J; Werner, Carsten

    2014-12-15

    Angiogenesis is indispensable for solid tumor expansion, and thus it has become a major target of cancer research and anti-cancer therapies. Deciphering the arcane actions of various cell populations during tumor angiogenesis requires sophisticated research models, which could capture the dynamics and complexity of the process. There is a continuous need for improvement of existing research models, which engages interdisciplinary approaches of tissue engineering with life sciences. Tireless efforts to develop a new model to study tumor angiogenesis result in innovative solutions, which bring us one step closer to decipher the dubious nature of cancer. This review aims to overview the recent developments, current limitations and future challenges in three-dimensional tissue-engineered models for the study of tumor angiogenesis and for the purpose of elucidating novel targets aimed at anti-cancer drug discovery.

  18. N-heterocyclic carbene metal complexes as bio-organometallic antimicrobial and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Shivaputra A; Patil, Renukadevi; Keri, Rangappa S; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Balakrishna, Geetha R; Tacke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Late transition metal complexes that bear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have seen a speedy growth in their use as both, metal-based drug candidates and potentially active homogeneous catalysts in a plethora of C-C and C-N bond forming reactions. This review article focuses on the recent developments and advances in preparation and characterization of NHC-metal complexes (metal: silver, gold, copper, palladium, nickel and ruthenium) and their biomedical applications. Their design, syntheses and characterization have been reviewed and correlated to their antimicrobial and anticancer efficacies. All these initial discoveries help validate the great potential of NHC-metal derivatives as a class of effective antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  19. Binding stability of a cross-linked drug: Calculation of an anticancer drug cisplatin-DNA complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Zhang, Yong-Li; Prohofsky, E. W.

    1997-05-01

    One of the binding modes of anticancer and antibiotic drugs bound to DNA is the formation of a cross link, i.e., binding is made through the formation of covalent bonds between a binding drug and DNA. In this work we present a computational method to calculate the binding stability of a drug cross linked to DNA. Our method is based on the modified self-consistent harmonic approach in which the disruption probabil- ity of the cross-linked bonds as well as hydrogen bonds is calculated from a statistical analysis of micro- scopic thermal fluctuational motions. A Morse potential with appropriate parameters is used to model the cross-linked covalent bonds. Our method is applied to an anticancer drug cisplatin-DNA oligomer d(CTCTAGTGCTCAC).d(GTGAGCACTAGAG) complex. We calculated the equilibrium binding constant of a cisplatin bound to this DNA oligomer. Our method can also be used to analyze the effect of drug binding on DNA base-pair thermal stability. We find that, despite the disruption of certain interbase H bonds, the thermal fluctuational opening probability Pop of base pairs in the cisplatin binding region is enhanced by the formation of non-Watson-Crick H bonds as well as cross-linked covalent bonds. Although the entire DNA helix is bent by cisplatin binding, the stability of the base pairs outside the binding region is only slightly affected by this deformation.

  20. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  1. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  2. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DOE PAGES

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; ...

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigatemore » the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.« less

  3. Random laser in biological tissues impregnated with a fluorescent anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Urgellés, M.; Marrero-Alonso, J.; Marín, R.; Saavedra, C. J.; Boto, A.; Díaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated that chemically modified anticancer drugs can provide random laser (RL) when infiltrated in a biological tissue. A fluorescent biomarker has been covalently bound to tamoxifen, which is one of the most frequently used drugs for breast cancer therapy. The light emitted by the drug-dye composite is scattered in tissue, which acts as a gain medium. Both non-coherent and coherent RL regimes have been observed. Moreover, the analysis of power Fourier transforms of coherent RL spectra indicates that the tissues show a dominant random laser cavity length of about 18 µm, similar to the average size of single cells. These results show that RL could be obtained from other drugs, if properly marked with a fluorescent tag, which could be appealing for new forms of combined opto-chemical therapies.

  4. Extracellular control of intracellular drug release for enhanced safety of anti-cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qian; Qi, Haixia; Long, Ziyan; Liu, Shang; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Chunming; Dong, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The difficulty of controlling drug release at an intracellular level remains a key challenge for maximising drug safety and efficacy. We demonstrate herein a new, efficient and convenient approach to extracellularly control the intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX), by designing a delivery system that harnesses the interactions between the system and a particular set of cellular machinery. By simply adding a small-molecule chemical into the cell medium, we could lower the release rate of DOX in the cytosol, and thereby increase its accumulation in the nuclei while decreasing its presence at mitochondria. Delivery of DOX with this system effectively prevented DOX-induced mitochondria damage that is the main mechanism of its toxicity, while exerting the maximum efficacy of this anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The present study sheds light on the design of drug delivery systems for extracellular control of intracellular drug delivery, with immediate therapeutic implications.

  5. Distinct Fragmentation Pathways of Anticancer Drugs Induced by Charge-Carrying Cations in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Areum; Lee, Hong Hee; Heo, Chae Eun; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Sunghwan; Kang, Dukjin; Kim, Hugh I.

    2016-12-01

    With the growth of the pharmaceutical industry, structural elucidation of drugs and derivatives using tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) has become essential for drug development and pharmacokinetics studies because of its high sensitivity and low sample requirement. Thus, research seeking to understand fundamental relationships between fragmentation patterns and precursor ion structures in the gas phase has gained attention. In this study, we investigate the fragmentation of the widely used anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX), vinblastine (VBL), and vinorelbine (VRL), complexed by a singly charged proton or alkali metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) in the gas phase. The drug-cation complexes exhibit distinct fragmentation patterns in tandem mass spectra as a function of cation size. The trends in fragmentation patterns are explicable in terms of structures derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and theoretical calculations.

  6. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  7. Prioritization of anticancer drugs against a cancer using genomic features of cancer cells: A step towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Gautam, Ankur; Nanda, Jagpreet Singh; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Brahmachari, Samir Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated drug profile of 24 anticancer drugs tested against a large number of cell lines in order to understand the relation between drug resistance and altered genomic features of a cancer cell line. We detected frequent mutations, high expression and high copy number variations of certain genes in both drug resistant cell lines and sensitive cell lines. It was observed that a few drugs, like Panobinostat, are effective against almost all types of cell lines, whereas certain drugs are effective against only a limited type of cell lines. Tissue-specific preference of drugs was also seen where a drug is more effective against cell lines belonging to a specific tissue. Genomic features based models have been developed for each anticancer drug and achieved average correlation between predicted and actual growth inhibition of cell lines in the range of 0.43 to 0.78. We hope, our study will throw light in the field of personalized medicine, particularly in designing patient-specific anticancer drugs. In order to serve the scientific community, a webserver, CancerDP, has been developed for predicting priority/potency of an anticancer drug against a cancer cell line using its genomic features (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/cancerdp/). PMID:27030518

  8. The Application of Pattern Recognition to Screening Prospective Anti-Cancer Drugs: Adenocarcinoma 775 Biological Activity Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A novel application of pattern recognition to the screening of potential anti-cancer drugs is presented. Structural features of 200 drugs previously tested by the National Cancer Institute for activity in the solid tumor adenocarcinoma 755 screening test are input to a master program of pattern recognition methods. The programs were 93.5% accurate in discriminating drugs with positive anti-neoplastic activity versus those with no anti-cancer activity. Extensions to a more rational approach to ’ drug design ’ are also discussed. (Author)

  9. Efficient delivery of anticancer drug MTX through MTX-LDH nanohybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Min; Park, Man; Kim, Sang-Tae; Jung, Jin-Young; Kang, Yong-Gu; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-05-01

    We have been successful to intercalate anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg2Al(OH)6(NO3)·0.1H2O, through conventional co-precipitation method. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are endowed with great potential for delivery vector, since their cationic layers lead to safe reservation of biofunctional molecules such as drug molecules or genes. And their ion exchangeability and solubility in acidic media (pH<4) give rise to the controlled release of drug molecules. Moreover, it has been partly confirmed that LDH itself is non-toxic and facilitate the cellular permeation. To check the toxicity of LDHs, the osteosarcoma cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63) and the normal one (human fibroblast) were used for in vitro test. The anticancer efficacy of MTX intercalated LDHs (MTX-LDH nanohybrids) was also estimated in vitro by the bioassay such as MTT and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) with the bone cancer cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63). According to the toxicity test results, LDHs do not harm to both the normal and cancer cells upto the concentration of 500 ug/mL. The anticancer efficacy test for the MTX-LDH nanohybrids turn out to be much more effective in cell suppression compared to the MTX itself. According to the cell-line tests, the MTX-LDH shows same drug efficacy to the MTX itself in spite of the low concentration by ˜5000 times. Such a high cancer suppression effect of MTX-LDH hybrid is surely due to the excellent delivery efficiency of inorganic delivery vector, LDHs.

  10. Interindividual differences in anticancer drug cytotoxicity in primary human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pédeboscq, Stéphane; L'Azou, Béatrice; Liguoro, Dominique; Pometan, Jean-Paul; Cambar, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a malignant astrocytic tumor characterized by rapid growth, extensive invasiveness and high vascularity. Despite advances in surgical techniques and in the development of new protocols in radio- and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor. Since the clinical response to chemotherapy varies greatly owing to different interindividual gene expression profiles, it would be of considerable interest to develop an in vitro model able to evaluate anticancer drug toxicity and the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies on cells obtained from individual patients. In the protocol for obtaining primary cultures of glioblastoma cells described in this report, a confluent monolayer of cells can be obtained within 1 or 2 weeks. A complementary immunocytochemical assay using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to reliably mark glial cells confirms the glial origin of the cultured cells. A cytotoxicity test based on mitochondrial activity is then used to evaluate in vitro drug efficacy. Cell dedifferentiation as evidenced by loss of GFAP expression after a few passages requires determination of drug toxicity before the fourth passage. Data show a wide range of response to temozolomide (1000 microM) after 72 h with 24-81% cell death depending on patients. Results presented confirm the heterogeneity of response to anticancer drugs between the patients and methods described allow to carry out cytotoxicity studies in order to determine the individualized most effective treatment.

  11. Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)—nitroglycerin as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Sukhatme, Vidula; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Pantziarka, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG), a drug that has been in clinical use for more than a century, has a range of actions which make it of particular interest in an oncological setting. It is generally accepted that the main mechanism of action of NTG is via the production of nitric oxide (NO), which improves cardiac oxygenation via multiple mechanisms including improved blood flow (vasodilation), decreased platelet aggregation, increased erythrocyte O2 release and decreased mitochondrial utilization of oxygen. Its vasoactive properties mean that it has the potential to exploit more fully the enhanced permeability and retention effect in delivering anti-cancer drugs to tumour tissues. Moreover NTG can reduce HIF-1α levels in hypoxic tumour tissues and this may have anti-angiogenic, pro-apoptotic and anti-efflux effects. Additionally NTG may enhance anti-tumour immunity. Pre-clinical and clinical data on these anti-cancer properties of NTG are summarised and discussed. While there is evidence of a positive action as a monotherapy in prostate cancer, there are mixed results in NSCLC where initially positive results have yet to be fully replicated. Based on the evidence presented, a case is made that further exploration of the clinical benefits that may accrue to cancer patients is warranted. Additionally, it is proposed that NTG may synergise with a number of other drugs, including other repurposed drugs, and these are discussed in the supplementary material appended to this paper. PMID:26435741

  12. Recent advances in carbon nanotubes as delivery systems for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Pistone, Alessandro; Grassi, Giovanni; Galvagno, Signorino

    2013-01-01

    Problems associated with the administration of anticancer drugs, such as limited solubility, poor biodistribution,lack of selectivity, and healthy tissue damage, can be overcome by the implementation of drug delivery systems. A wide range of materials, including liposomes, microspheres, polymers and recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been investigated for delivering anticancer drugs on the purpose of reducing the number of necessary administrations, providing more localized and better use of the active agents, and increasing patient compliance. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted particular attention as carriers of biologically relevant molecules due to their unique physical, chemical and physiological properties. The exact relationship between the physical-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes, their cell to-cell interactions, reactivity, and biological/systemic consequences are relevant issues and it is important to know suchinter-relationships beforehand to employ the benefits of these nanomaterials without the hazardous consequences. The purpose of this review is to present highlight of recent developments in the application of carbon nanotubes as cargoes for anti cancer drugs and in the diagnosis of cancer diseases.

  13. The role of the microvascular network structure on diffusion and consumption of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Mascheroni, Pietro; Penta, Raimondo

    2016-12-06

    We investigate the impact of microvascular geometry on the transport of drugs in solid tumors, focusing on the diffusion and consumption phenomena. We embrace recent advances in the asymptotic homogenization literature starting from a double Darcy-double advection-diffusion-reaction system of partial differential equations that is obtained exploiting the sharp length separation between the intercapillary distance and the average tumor size. The geometric information on the microvascular network is encoded into effective hydraulic conductivities and diffusivities, which are numerically computed by solving periodic cell problems on appropriate microscale representative cells. The coefficients are then injected into the macroscale equations, and these are solved for an isolated, vascularized spherical tumor. We consider the effect of vascular tortuosity on the transport of anticancer molecules, focusing on Vinblastine and Doxorubicin dynamics, which are considered as a tracer and as a highly interacting molecule, respectively. The computational model is able to quantify the treatment performance through the analysis of the interstitial drug concentration and the quantity of drug metabolized in the tumor. Our results show that both drug advection and diffusion are dramatically impaired by increasing geometrical complexity of the microvasculature, leading to nonoptimal absorption and delivery of therapeutic agents. However, this effect apparently has a minor role whenever the dynamics are mostly driven by metabolic reactions in the tumor interstitium, eg, for highly interacting molecules. In the latter case, anticancer therapies that aim at regularizing the microvasculature might not play a major role, and different strategies are to be developed.

  14. Characteristics of pharmacogenomics/biomarker-guided clinical trials for regulatory approval of anti-cancer drugs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akihiro; Yagi, Satomi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) or biomarker (BM) has the potential to facilitate the development of safer and more effective drugs in terms of their benefit/risk profiles by stratifying population into categories such as responders/non-responders and high-/low-risks to drug-induced serious adverse reactions. In the past decade, practical use of PGx or BM has advanced the field of anti-cancer drug development. To identify the characteristics of the PGx/BM-guided clinical trials for regulatory approval of anti-cancer drugs in Japan, we collected information on design features of 'key trials' in the review reports of anti-cancer drugs that were approved after the implementation of the 'Revised Guideline for the Clinical Evaluation of Anti-cancer drugs' in April 2006. On the basis of the information available on the regulatory review data for the newly approved anti-cancer drugs in Japan, this article aims to explain the limitations and points to consider in the study design of PGx/BM-guided clinical trials.

  15. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications.

  16. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  17. A sensitive quantum dots-based "OFF-ON" fluorescent sensor for ruthenium anticancer drugs and ctDNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Zhu, Fawei; Qiu, Hangna; Xiao, Qi; Zhou, Quan; Su, Wei; Hu, Baoqing

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for the determination of both the three ruthenium anticancer drugs (1 to 3) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was established based on the CdTe quantum dots (QDs) fluorescence "OFF-ON" mode. Under the experimental conditions, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs can be effectively quenched by ruthenium anticancer drugs because of the surface binding of these drugs on CdTe QDs and the subsequent photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process from CdTe QDs to ruthenium anticancer drugs, which render the system into fluorescence "OFF" status. The system can then be "ON" after the addition of ctDNA which brought the restoration of CdTe QDs fluorescence intensity, since ruthenium anticancer drugs broke away from the surface of CdTe QDs and inserted into double helix structure of ctDNA. The fluorescence quenching effect of the CdTe QDs-ruthenium anticancer drugs systems was mainly concentration dependent, which could be used to detect three ruthenium anticancer drugs. The limits of detection were 5.5 × 10(-8) M for ruthenium anticancer drug 1, 7.0 × 10(-8) M for ruthenium anticancer drug 2, and 7.9× 10(-8) M for ruthenium anticancer drug 3, respectively. The relative restored fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of ctDNA in the range of 1.0 × 10(-8) M ∼ 3.0 × 10(-7) M, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9983 and a limit of detection of 1.1 × 10(-9) M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 1.5 × 10(-7) M ctDNA was 1.5% (n = 5). There was almost no interference to some common chemical compounds, nucleotides, amino acids, and proteins. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ctDNA in three synthetic samples with satisfactory results. The possible reaction mechanism of CdTe QDs fluorescence "OFF-ON" was further investigated. This simple and sensitive approach possessed some potential applications in the investigation of interaction between drug molecules and DNA.

  18. Transmembrane delivery of anticancer drugs through self-assembly of cyclic peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Bei; Xia, Fei; Xie, Yunchang; Jiang, Sifan; Su, Rui; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Breaking the natural barriers of cell membranes achieves fast entry of therapeutics, which leads to enhanced efficacy and helps overcome multiple drug resistance. Herein, transmembrane delivery of a series of small molecule anticancer drugs was achieved by the construction of artificial transmembrane nanochannels formed by self-assembly of cyclic peptide (cyclo[Gln-(d-Leu-Trp)4-d-Leu], CP) nanotubes (CPNTs) in the lipid bilayers. Our in vitro study in liposomes indicated that the transport of molecules with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm, which is the internal diameter of the CPNTs, could be significantly enhanced by CPNTs in a size-selective and dose-dependent manner. Facilitated uptake of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was also confirmed in the BEL7402 cell line. On the contrary, CPs could facilitate neither the transport across liposomal membranes nor the uptake by cell lines of cytarabine, a counterevidence drug with a size of 1.1 nm. CPs had a very weak anticancer efficacy, but could significantly reduce the IC50 of 5-FU in BEL7402, HeLa and S180 cell lines. Analysis by a q test revealed that a combination of 5-FU and CP had a synergistic effect in BEL7402 at all CP levels, in S180 at CP levels higher than 64 μg mL-1, but not in HeLa, where an additive effect was observed. Temporarily, intratumoral injection is believed to be the best way for CP administration. In vivo imaging using 125I radio-labelled CP confirmed that CPNPTs were completely localized in the tumor tissues, and translocation to other tissues was negligible. In vivo anticancer efficacy was studied in the grafted S180 solid tumor model in mice, and the results indicated that tumor growth was greatly inhibited by the combinatory use of 5-FU and CP, and a synergistic effect was observed at CP doses of 0.25 mg per kg bw. It is concluded that facilitated transmembrane delivery of anticancer drugs with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm was achieved, and the synergistic anticancer effect was confirmed both in cell lines

  19. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer.

  20. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of mitoxantrone in mice and scale-up to humans: a semi-mechanistic model incorporating DNA and protein binding.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Morris, Marilyn E

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of mitoxantrone (Novantrone®), a clinically well-established anticancer agent, in mice and developed a mechanism-based PBPK (physiologically based pharmacokinetic) model to describe its disposition. Mitoxantrone concentrations in plasma and six organs (lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and brain) were determined after a 5 mg/kg i.v. dose. We evaluated three different PBPK models in order to characterize our experimental data: model 1 containing Kp values, model 2 incorporating a deep binding compartment, and model 3 incorporating binding of mitoxantrone to DNA and protein. Among the three models, only model 3 with DNA and protein binding captured all the experimental data well. The estimated binding affinity for DNA (K (DNA)) and protein (K (macro)) were 0.0013 and 1.44 μM, respectively. Predicted plasma and tissue AUC values differed from observed values by <19 %, except for heart (60 %). Model 3 was further used to simulate plasma mitoxantrone concentrations in humans for a 12-mg/m(2) dose, using human physiological parameters. The simulated results generally agreed with the observed time course of mitoxantrone plasma concentrations in patients after a standard dose of 12 mg/m(2). In summary, we reported for the first time a mechanism-based PBPK model of mitoxantrone incorporating macromolecule binding which may have clinical applicability in optimizing clinical therapy. Since mitoxantrone is a substrate of the efflux transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1, the incorporation of efflux transporters may also be necessary to characterize the data obtained in low-dose studies.

  1. Sensitizing cancer cells to TRAIL-induced death by micellar delivery of mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Taylor, David J; Tian, Yanqing; Johnson, Roger H; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Rege, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    TNFα-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces death selectively in cancer cells. However, subpopulations of cancer cells are either resistant to or can develop resistance to TRAIL-induced death. As a result, strategies that overcome this resistance are currently under investigation. We have recently identified several US FDA-approved drugs with TRAIL-sensitization activity against prostate, breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Mitoxantrone, a previously unknown TRAIL sensitizer identified in the screen, was successfully encapsulated in methoxy-, amine- and carboxyl-terminated PEG-DSPE micelles in order to facilitate delivery of the drug to cancer cells. All three micelle types were extensively characterized for their physicochemical properties and evaluated for their ability to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced death. Our results indicate that micelle-encapsulated mitoxantrone can be advantageously employed in synergistic treatments with TRAIL, leading to a biocompatible delivery system and amplified cell killing activity for combination chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  2. The status of platinum anticancer drugs in the clinic and in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Wheate, Nial J; Walker, Shonagh; Craig, Gemma E; Oun, Rabbab

    2010-09-21

    Since its approval in 1979 cisplatin has become an important component in chemotherapy regimes for the treatment of ovarian, testicular, lung and bladder cancers, as well as lymphomas, myelomas and melanoma. Unfortunately its continued use is greatly limited by severe dose limiting side effects and intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Over the last 30 years, 23 other platinum-based drugs have entered clinical trials with only two (carboplatin and oxaliplatin) of these gaining international marketing approval, and another three (nedaplatin, lobaplatin and heptaplatin) gaining approval in individual nations. During this time there have been more failures than successes with the development of 14 drugs being halted during clinical trials. Currently there are four drugs in the various phases of clinical trial (satraplatin, picoplatin, Lipoplatin and ProLindac). No new small molecule platinum drug has entered clinical trials since 1999 which is representative of a shift in focus away from drug design and towards drug delivery in the last decade. In this perspective article we update the status of platinum anticancer drugs currently approved for use, those undergoing clinical trials and those discontinued during clinical trials, and discuss the results in the context of where we believe the field will develop over the next decade.

  3. Chemical and toxicological characterisation of anticancer drugs in hospital and municipal wastewaters from Slovenia and Spain.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; Kundi, Michael; Žegura, Bojana; Novak, Matjaž; Filipič, Metka; Mišík, Miroslav; Knasmueller, Siegfried; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Žonja, Božo; Česen, Marjeta; Ščančar, Janez; Kosjek, Tina; Heath, Ester

    2016-12-01

    Anticancer drugs are continuously released into hospital and urban wastewaters, where they, most commonly, undergo conventional treatment in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewaters contain complex mixtures of substances including parent compounds, their metabolites and transformation products (TPs). In this study, samples of hospital effluents and WWTP influents and effluents from Slovenia and Spain were analyzed for twenty-two selected anticancer drugs, their metabolites and transformation products. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed on the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, genotoxicity was determined with Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus (MN) assays and in vitro comet assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line (ZFL cells). Sixty of the two hundred-twenty determinations revealed detectable levels of anticancer drug residues. Among the targeted compounds, platinum based were most frequently detected (90%). Furthermore, erlotinib was detected in 80%, cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen in 70% and methotrexate in 60% of the samples. Seven of ten samples were toxic to C. dubia after acute exposure, whereas after chronic exposure all samples reduced reproduction of C. dubia at high sample dilutions. Allium cepa proved insensitive to the potential genotoxicity of the tested samples, while in Tradescantia increased MN frequencies were induced by a hospital effluent and WWTP influents. In ZFL comet assay all but one sample induced a significant increase of DNA strand breaks. Correlations of chemotherapeutics or their TPs were detected for all bioassays except for Allium cepa genotoxicity test, however for each test the highest correlations were found for different substances indicating differential sensitivities of the test organisms.

  4. [Diamine oxidase as blood biomarker in rats and humans to GI tract toxicity of fluorouracil anti-cancer drugs].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsuhiro; Matsubara, Taketo; Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Sasaya, Shouji; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Yutaka; Moriyama, Kenji; Kouchi, Yasuhide

    2011-05-01

    Diarrhea is a side effect of a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) anti-cancer drug-induced intestinal mucosal disorder, which sometimes becomes more severe. Blood diamine oxidase (DAO; EC1. 4. 3. 6) activity is reported to be significantly correlated with activity in the small intestinal mucosal tissue, and to be a reliable indicator of small intestinal mucosal integrity and maturity. Here, we investigated whether blood DAO activity can be a biomarker for the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal disorder caused by 5-FU anti-cancer drugs, both in rats and humans. From results of the rat study, the degree of jejunal mucosal disorder caused by the 5-FU anti-cancer drug was well correlated with a decrease in blood DAO activity. Clinically, 12 out of 28 patients (43%) administered 5-FU anti-cancer drug suffered from diarrhea. The plasma DAO activity within one week of the onset of diarrhea significantly decreased compared with that before the administration. Furthermore, before drug administration, plasma DAO activity in patients suffering from diarrhea was higher than those in patients without diarrhea. Although DAO activity differs by the individual, it is a useful biomarker for estimating the degree of intestinal mucosal disorder, and possibly for estimating manifestations of diarrhea induced by 5-FU anti-cancer drug administration.

  5. How strong is the edge effect in the adsorption of anticancer drugs on a graphene cluster?

    PubMed

    Rungnim, Chompoonut; Chanajaree, Rungroj; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hannongbua, Supot; Kungwan, Nawee; Wolschann, Peter; Karpfen, Alfred; Parasuk, Vudhichai

    2016-04-01

    The adsorption of nucleobase-analog anticancer drugs (fluorouracil, thioguanine, and mercaptopurine) on a graphene flake (C54H18) was investigated by shifting the site at which adsorption occurs from one end of the sheet to the other end. The counterpoise-corrected M06-2X/cc-pVDZ binding energies revealed that the binding stability decreases in the sequence thioguanine > mercaptopurine > fluorouracil. We found that adsorption near the middle of the sheet is more favorable than adsorption near the edge due to the edge effect. This edge effect is stronger for the adsorption of thioguanine or mercaptopurine than for fluorouracil adsorption. However, the edge effect reduces the binding energy of the drug to the flake by only a small amount, <5 kcal/mol, depending on the adsorption site and the alignment of the drug at this site.

  6. Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases associated with molecular-targeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Akihiko

    2009-02-01

    Little was known about drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) when acute ILD-type events developed in several Japanese patients treated with gefitinib. A better understanding of drug-induced ILD is required, including more reliable data about the incidence of events associated with different treatments and identification of the risk factors for this type of ILD. Recent advances in imaging, molecular examination, and pathology have been used in postmarketing surveillance studies designed and conducted by an independent academic team to define the risk and to increase the amount of evidence about ILD related to various molecularly targeted anticancer agents. These studies may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of drug-induced ILD and appropriate evidence-based strategies that can be used to prevent or manage these events.

  7. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-encoded cytidine deaminase efficiently inactivates cytosine-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Vande Voorde, Johan; Vervaeke, Peter; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasmas may colonize tumor tissue in patients. The cytostatic activity of gemcitabine was dramatically decreased in Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected tumor cell cultures compared with non-infected tumor cell cultures. This mycoplasma-driven drug deamination could be prevented by exogenous administration of the cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor tetrahydrouridine, but also by the natural nucleosides or by a purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor. The M. hyorhinis-encoded CDAHyor gene was cloned, expressed as a recombinant protein and purified. CDAHyor was found to be more catalytically active than its human equivalent and efficiently deaminates (inactivates) cytosine-based anticancer drugs. CDAHyor expression at the tumor site may result in selective drug inactivation and suboptimal therapeutic efficiency.

  8. [Experimental and clinical study of arterial damage induced by anti-cancer drug infusion].

    PubMed

    Ueda, E; Sako, M; Hirota, S

    1992-07-25

    In order to reduce the arterial damage following arterial chemo-infusion, arterial reaction to anti-cancer drugs and Corticosteroid were studied experimentally and clinically. In experiment, chemo-infusions (Mitomycin C, Adriamycin, Cisplatin) with or without Corticosteroid were carried out into the auricular and femoral arteries of rabbits, and the arterial changes were examined angiographically and histopathologically. The histologic examination showed the damages of various degrees characterized by intimal edema with pyknosis of endothelial cells, thrombus formation and detachment of intimal layer. The degree and frequency of the damage increased as the drug dose and concentration increased. However, higher blood flow and Corticosteroid could reduce the damages in some degrees. Clinically, bronchial arterial infusion of Cisplatin with or without Corticosteroid were studied. In conclusion, when angiography following ACI reveals narrowing and/or irregularity of the target artery, reduction of drug concentration and dose as well as elongation of infusion intervals are advised.

  9. Microfluidic-based G-quadruplex ligand displacement assay for alkaloid anticancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haihui; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Huiyan; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qiwang; Shen, Hong; Liu, Yingchun

    2017-02-05

    Some natural heterocyclic alkaloids containing planar group show potential to complex with specific promoter region of protooncogene for stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure which nowadays promises to be a target in anticancer drug design. However, in view of the polymorphic characteristics and structural complexity of heterocyclic alkaloids, it is desirable to develop high-throughput and low-consumption approach for anticancer drug screening. In this paper, an intensive study on alkaloid ligand/G4 DNA interaction has been conducted, demonstrating that the end-stacking interaction is the favorable binding mode between the oncogene-related Pu22 G4 DNA and the heterocyclic alkaloid ligand. Based on structural feasibility and energy minimization, a ligand displacement assay for screening alkaloid ligand in stabilizing the oncogene target G4 has been developed, which also helps to facilitate the assessment of drug specificity. Coupled with microfluidic-based DNAzyme-catalytic chemiluminescence detection, the approach showed the advantages of high sensitivity, high throughput with low sample and reagent consumptions.

  10. Acid-Cleavable Unimolecular Micelles from Amphiphilic Star Copolymers for Triggered Release of Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Xu, Jianbin; Chen, Heng; Song, Zhangfa; Wu, Yalan; Dai, Xingyi; Kong, Jie

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, amphiphilic star copolymers (H40-star-PCL-a-PEG) with an H40 hyperbranched polyester core and poly(ε-caprolactone)-a-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer arms linked with acetal groups are synthesized using ring-opening polymerization and a copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition click reaction. The acid-cleavable acetal groups between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments of the arms endow the amphiphilic star copolymers with pH responsiveness. In aqueous solution, unimolecular micelles can be formed with good stability and a unique acid degradability, as is desirable for anticancer drug carriers. For the model drug of doxorubicin, the in vitro release behavior, intracellular release, and inhibition of proliferation of HeLa cells show that the acid-cleavable unimolecular micelles with anticancer activity can be dissociated in an acidic environment and efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. Due to the acid-cleavable and biodegradable nature, unimolecular micelles from amphiphilic star copolymers are promising for applications in intracellular drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy.

  11. Contrasting effects of glutamine deprivation on apoptosis induced by conventionally used anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Valter, Kadri; Chen, Lian; Kruspig, Björn; Maximchik, Polina; Cui, Hengmin; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Gogvadze, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    Tumor cells dependence on glutamine offers a rationale for their elimination via targeting of glutamine metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate how glutamine deprivation affects the cellular response to conventionally used anticancer drugs. To answer this question, neuroblastoma cells were pre-incubated in a glutamine-free medium and treated with cisplatin or etoposide. Obtained results revealed that glutamine withdrawal affected cellular response to therapeutic drugs in a different manner. Glutamine deprivation suppressed etoposide-induced, but markedly stimulated cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Suppression of etoposide-induced cell death correlated with a downregulation of p53 expression, which, among other functions, regulates the expression of death receptor 5, one of the activators of caspase-8. In contrast, stimulation of cisplatin-induced cell death involved reactive oxygen species-mediated downregulation of FLIP-S, an inhibitor of caspase-8. As a result, the activity of caspase-8 was stimulated causing cleavage of the pro-apoptotic protein Bid, which is involved in the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and the release of pro-apoptotic factors, such as cytochrome c from mitochondria. Thus, suppression of glutamine metabolism can sensitize tumor cells to treatment and could be utilized for anti-cancer therapy. However, it should be done cautiously, since adverse effects may occur when combined with an inappropriate therapeutic drug.

  12. Folate-conjugated boron nitride nanospheres for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shini; Zhang, Huijie; Yan, Ting; Huang, Dandi; Zhi, Chunyi; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    With its unique physical and chemical properties and structural similarity to carbon, boron nitride (BN) has attracted considerable attention and found many applications. Biomedical applications of BN have recently started to emerge, raising great hopes in drug and gene delivery. Here, we developed a targeted anticancer drug delivery system based on folate-conjugated BN nanospheres (BNNS) with receptor-mediated targeting. Folic acid (FA) was successfully grafted onto BNNS via esterification reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that BNNS-FA complexes were non-toxic to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Then, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a commonly used anticancer drug, was loaded onto BNNS-FA complexes. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes were stable at pH 7.4 but effectively released DOX at pH 5.0, which exhibited a pH sensitive and sustained release pattern. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes could be recognized and specifically internalized by HeLa cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes exhibited greater cytotoxicity to HeLa cells than free DOX and BNNS/DOX complexes due to the increased cellular uptake of DOX mediated by the FA receptor. Therefore, BNNS-FA complexes had strong potential for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:27695318

  13. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A

    2012-03-28

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

  14. Interaction of anthraquinone anti-cancer drugs with DNA:Experimental and computational quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, Jamelah S.; Teesdale Spittle, Paul; El Gogary, Tarek M.

    2017-01-01

    Anthraquinones form the basis of several anticancer drugs. Anthraquinones anticancer drugs carry out their cytotoxic activities through their interaction with DNA, and inhibition of topoisomerase II activity. Anthraquinones (AQ4 and AQ4H) were synthesized and studied along with 1,4-DAAQ by computational and experimental tools. The purpose of this study is to shade more light on mechanism of interaction between anthraquinone DNA affinic agents and different types of DNA. This study will lead to gain of information useful for drug design and development. Molecular structures were optimized using DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G(d). Depending on intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions two conformers of AQ4 were detected and computed as 25.667 kcal/mol apart. Molecular reactivity of the anthraquinone compounds was explored using global and condensed descriptors (electrophilicity and Fukui functions). Molecular docking studies for the inhibition of CDK2 and DNA binding were carried out to explore the anti cancer potency of these drugs. NMR and UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra of anthraquinones/DNA were investigated at the physiological pH. The interaction of the three anthraquinones (AQ4, AQ4H and 1,4-DAAQ) were studied with three DNA (calf thymus DNA, (Poly[dA].Poly[dT]) and (Poly[dG].Poly[dC]). NMR study shows a qualitative pattern of drug/DNA interaction in terms of band shift and broadening. UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra were employed to measure the affinity constants of drug/DNA binding using Scatchard analysis.

  15. Layered double hydroxides as effective carrier for anticancer drugs and tailoring of release rate through interlayer anions.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Sudipta; Thakur, Ravi; Verma, Shiv Prakash; Duggal, Shivali; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Das, Parimal; Shripathi, T; Kumar, Mohan; Rana, Dipak; Maiti, Pralay

    2016-02-28

    Hydrophobic anticancer drug, raloxifene hydrochloride (RH) is intercalated into a series of magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with various charge density anions through ion exchange technique for controlled drug delivery. The particle nature of the LDH in presence of drug is determined through electron microscopy and surface morphology. The release of drug from the RH intercalated LDHs was made very fast or sustained by altering the exchangeable anions followed by the modified Freundlich and parabolic diffusion models. The drug release rate is explained from the interactions between the drug and LDHs along with order-disorder structure of drug intercalated LDHs. Nitrate bound LDH exhibits greater interaction with drug and sustained drug delivery against the loosely interacted phosphate bound LDH-drug, which shows fast release. Cell viability through MTT assay suggests drug intercalated LDHs as better drug delivery vehicle for cancer cell line against poor bioavailability of the pure drug. In vivo study with mice indicates the differential tumor healing which becomes fast for greater drug release system but the body weight index clearly hints at damaged organ in the case of fast release system. Histopathological experiment confirms the damaged liver of the mice treated either with pure drug or phosphate bound LDH-drug, fast release system, vis-à-vis normal liver cell morphology for sluggish drug release system with steady healing rate of tumor. These observations clearly demonstrate that nitrate bound LDH nanoparticle is a potential drug delivery vehicle for anticancer drugs without any side effect.

  16. Assay of anticancer drugs in tissue culture: cell cultures of biopsies from human astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D; Freshney, R I; Darling, J L; Thomas, D G; Celik, F

    1983-02-01

    A method has been developed for measuring the drug sensitivity of human gliomas in short-term culture, using scintillation counting or autofluorography. Cell cultures prepared from malignant astrocytomas were treated with anticancer drugs whilst in exponential growth in microtitration plates. After drug treatment and a recovery period, residual viability was measured by [3H] leucine incorporation followed by scintillation counting or by [35S] methionine incorporation and autofluorography in situ. In 5 glioma cell lines tested against 6 drugs, the microtitration method correlated well with monolayer cloning. Although replicate samples of the same tumour showed little variation in chemosensitivity, there was marked variation between the chemosensitivities of cultures derived from the tumours of different patients. However, as variability between replicates was apparent during drug exposure or shortly after, it is important to allow the assay to run as long as possible after drug removal. It is hoped that this assay may provide the basis of a method for the prediction of in vivo chemosensitivity or the screening of potential chemotherapeutic drugs.

  17. Assay of anticancer drugs in tissue culture: cell cultures of biopsies from human astrocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D.; Freshney, R. I.; Darling, J. L.; Thomas, D. G.; Celik, F.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed for measuring the drug sensitivity of human gliomas in short-term culture, using scintillation counting or autofluorography. Cell cultures prepared from malignant astrocytomas were treated with anticancer drugs whilst in exponential growth in microtitration plates. After drug treatment and a recovery period, residual viability was measured by [3H] leucine incorporation followed by scintillation counting or by [35S] methionine incorporation and autofluorography in situ. In 5 glioma cell lines tested against 6 drugs, the microtitration method correlated well with monolayer cloning. Although replicate samples of the same tumour showed little variation in chemosensitivity, there was marked variation between the chemosensitivities of cultures derived from the tumours of different patients. However, as variability between replicates was apparent during drug exposure or shortly after, it is important to allow the assay to run as long as possible after drug removal. It is hoped that this assay may provide the basis of a method for the prediction of in vivo chemosensitivity or the screening of potential chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:6297528

  18. Solubilization of two structurally related anticancer drugs: XK-469 and PPA.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Tabibi, S Esmail; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of a solubilization technique is determined by the physical-chemical properties of the drug. This study investigates the solubilization on two structurally related anticancer drugs, XK-469 and PPA. XK-469 is much less polar than PPA with an intrinsic solubility of 0.000274 mg/mL, which is about 10,000 fold less than that of PPA. Fortunately, its physical-chemical properties make it much more formulatable. An ionizable drug can be solubilized by pH adjustment with cosolvency, micellization, or complexation. Both XK-469 and PPA are weak acids with pKa values of 2.7 and 2.9, respectively. Thus, they can be solubilized by pH adjustment. At pH 4.55, neither cosolvency, micellization nor complexation has much effect on the solubility of PPA. However, these techniques can significantly increase the solubility of XK-469. In fact, the solubility of XK-469 in 20% HPbetaCD at pH 4.55 is 5.85 mg/mL, which is more than 20,000 times greater than its intrinsic solubility. With the solubilization descriptors obtained from the experimental data for both unionized and ionized drug species at pH 1.0 and pH 4.55, the solubility of each drug at any pH and excipient concentration can be estimated. Then, a solubilization technique can be chosen for preparing a desired final drug concentration.

  19. Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Doxorubicine Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Masood, Misbah; Saeed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery. PMID:27348436

  20. High efficient anti-cancer drug delivery systems using tea polyphenols reduced and functionalized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Hao, Liying; Zhang, Chaoliang; Chen, Jiao; Zhang, Ping

    2017-03-01

    Targeted drug delivery is urgently needed for cancer therapy, and green synthesis is important for the biomedical use of drug delivery systems in the human body. In this work, we report two targeted delivery systems for anticancer drugs based on tea polyphenol functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (TPGs). The obtained TPGs demonstrated an efficient doxorubicin loading capacity as high as 3.430 × 10(6 )mg g(-1) and 3.932 × 10(4 )mg g(-1), and exhibited pH-triggered release. Furthermore, the kinetic models, adsorption isotherms, and possible loading mechanisms were investigated in details. Compared to TPG1 and free doxorubicin, TPG2 is biocompatible to normal cells even at high concentrations and promotes tumor cells death by delivering the doxorubicin mainly to the nuclei. These results were confirmed using cell viability tests and confocal laser microscopy. Moreover, apoptosis tests showed that the mechanism of cancer cell death induced by TPG1 and TPG2 might follow the similar mechanisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TPGs provide a multifunctional drug delivery system with a greater loading capacity and pH-sensitive drug release for enhanced cancer therapy. The high drug payload capability and enhanced antitumor efficacy demonstrate that we developed systems are promising for various biomedical applications and cancer therapy.

  1. Encapsulation of anticancer drug and magnetic particles in biodegradable polymer nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Koneracká, M; Múčková, M; Závišová, V; Tomašovičová, N; Kopčanský, P; Timko, M; Juríková, A; Csach, K; Kavečanský, V; Lancz, G

    2008-05-21

    In this study, we have prepared PLGA (poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres loaded with biocompatible magnetic fluid and anticancer drug taxol by a modified nanoprecipitation technique and investigated their magnetic properties. A magnetic fluid, MF-PEG, with a biocompatible layer of polyethylene glycol (PEG), was chosen as a magnetic carrier. The PLGA, whose copolymer ratio of D,L-lactide to glycolide is 85:15, was utilized as a capsulation material. Taxol, as an important anticancer drug, was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. The morphology and particle size distributions of the prepared nanospheres were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed a spherical shape of prepared nanospheres with size 250 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis confirmed incorporation of magnetic particles and taxol into the PLGA polymer. The results showed good encapsulation with magnetite content 21.5 wt% and taxol 0.5 wt%. Magnetic properties of magnetic fluids and taxol within the PLGA polymer matrix were investigated by SQUID magnetometry from 4.2 to 300 K. The SQUID measurements showed superparamagnetism of prepared nanospheres with a blocking temperature of 160 K and saturation magnetization 1.4 mT.

  2. Structure transition in lipids and nucleic acids of tumor cells under anticancer drugs applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbeshko, G. I.; Repnytska, O. P.; Tryndiak, V. P.; Todor, I. N.

    2003-12-01

    Interaction of DNA and phospholipids from Carcinoma Guerina resistant and sensitive cells of Wistar line rats with anti-cancer drugs - cis-platin and doxorubicin (DOX) have been studied in vivo and in vitro experiments. Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy was applied for registration of conformational changes in DNA and lipids induced by anti-cancer drugs. It has been shown in vivo experiment that doxorubicin influences less structural disordering of the membrane than cis-platin. Cis-platin creates irreversible complex with memebrane phospholipids, strongly interacting with phosophates and carbohydrate chains. Doxorubicin influences the ordering of carbohydrate chains and does not strongly influence phosphate heads. This change seems to be partially reversible. In contrast, in vivo experiment the doxorubicin strongly influences the DNA structure, leading to DNA stabilization and formation of new H-bonds in DNA-doxorubicin complex. We have not registered the interaction of DNA with cis-platin in vivo experiment. Experiment in vitro for cis-platin incubation with phospholipids from cancer cells during 0.5 hour at 37°C has not shown those drastic structural peculiarities that it was observed in vivo experiments.

  3. Reprofiling a classical anthelmintic, pyrvinium pamoate, as an anti-cancer drug targeting mitochondrial respiration

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Isao; Harada, Yasuo; Kasahara, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is an FDA-approved classical anthelmintic, but is now attracting particular attention as an anti-cancer drug after recent findings of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines only during glucose starvation, as well as its anti-tumor activity against hypovascular pancreatic cancer cells transplanted in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which PP promotes such preferential toxicity against cancer cells are currently under extensive investigation. PP suppressed the NADH-fumarate reductase system that mediates a reverse reaction of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex II in anaerobic organisms such as parasitic helminthes or mammalian cells under tumor microenvironment-mimicking hypoglycemic/hypoxic conditions, thereby inhibiting efficient ATP production. PP also inhibited the unfolded protein response induced by glucose starvation, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Even under normoglycemic/normoxic conditions, PP suppressed the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex I and thereby STAT3, inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma/erythroleukemia cells. Here, we review accumulating knowledge on its working mechanisms and evaluate PP as a novel anti-cancer drug that targets mitochondrial respiration. PMID:23061049

  4. Autophagy inhibits cell death induced by the anti-cancer drug morusin

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sang Woo; Na, Wooju; Choi, Minji; Kang, Shin Jung; Lee, Seok-Geun; Choi, Cheol Yong

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular process by which damaged organelles and dysfunctional proteins are degraded. Morusin is an anti-cancer drug isolated from the root bark of Morus alba. Morusin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by reducing STAT3 activity. In this study, we examined whether morusin induces autophagy and also examined the effects of autophagy on the morusin-induced apoptosis. Morusin induces LC3-II accumulation and ULK1 activation in HeLa cells. In addition, we found that induction of ULK1 Ser317 phosphorylation and reduction of ULK1 Ser757 phosphorylation occurred simultaneously during morusin-induced autophagy. Consistently, morusin induces autophagy by activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTOR activity. Next, we investigated the role of autophagy in morusin-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy by treating cells with the 3-methyladenine (3-MA) autophagic inhibitor induces high levels of morusin-mediated apoptosis, while treatment of cells with morusin alone induces moderate levels of apoptosis. Cell survival was greatly reduced when cells were treated with morusin and 3-MA. Taken together, morusin induces autophagy, which is an impediment for morusin-induced apoptosis, suggesting combined treatment of morusin with an autophagic inhibitor would increase the efficacy of morusin as an anti-cancer drug.

  5. Metformin as a new anti-cancer drug in adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fucci, Rossella; Santi, Raffaella; Canu, Letizia; Nesi, Gabriella; Mannelli, Massimo; Luconi, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare heterogeneous malignancy with poor prognosis. Since radical surgery is the only available treatment, more specific and effective drugs are urgently required. The anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with a decreased cancer prevalence and mortality in several solid tumors, prompting its possible use for ACC treatment. This paper evaluates the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of metformin using the ACC cell model H295R. Metformin treatment significantly reduces cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and associates with a significant inhibition of ERK1/2 and mTOR phosphorylation/activation, as well as with stimulation of AMPK activity. Metformin also triggers the apoptotic pathway, shown by the decreased expression of Bcl-2 and HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70, and enhanced membrane exposure of annexin V, resulting in activation of caspase-3 apoptotic effector. Metformin interferes with the proliferative autocrine loop of IGF2/IGF-1R, which supports adrenal cancer growth. Finally, in the ACC xenograft mouse model, obtained by subcutaneous injection of H295R cells, metformin intraperitoneal administration inhibits tumor growth, confirmed by the significant reduction of Ki67%. Our data suggest that metformin inhibits H295R cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further preclinical studies are necessary to validate the potential anti-cancer effect of metformin in patients affected by ACC. PMID:27391065

  6. Reprofiling a classical anthelmintic, pyrvinium pamoate, as an anti-cancer drug targeting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Isao; Harada, Yasuo; Kasahara, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is an FDA-approved classical anthelmintic, but is now attracting particular attention as an anti-cancer drug after recent findings of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines only during glucose starvation, as well as its anti-tumor activity against hypovascular pancreatic cancer cells transplanted in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which PP promotes such preferential toxicity against cancer cells are currently under extensive investigation. PP suppressed the NADH-fumarate reductase system that mediates a reverse reaction of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex II in anaerobic organisms such as parasitic helminthes or mammalian cells under tumor microenvironment-mimicking hypoglycemic/hypoxic conditions, thereby inhibiting efficient ATP production. PP also inhibited the unfolded protein response induced by glucose starvation, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Even under normoglycemic/normoxic conditions, PP suppressed the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex I and thereby STAT3, inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma/erythroleukemia cells. Here, we review accumulating knowledge on its working mechanisms and evaluate PP as a novel anti-cancer drug that targets mitochondrial respiration.

  7. Structure-directing star-shaped block copolymers: supramolecular vesicles for the delivery of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan; Liu, Shao Qiong; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Gao, Shu Jun; Ke, Xiyu; Chia, Xin Tian; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2015-06-28

    Amphiphilic polycarbonate/PEG copolymer with a star-like architecture was designed to facilitate a unique supramolecular transformation of micelles to vesicles in aqueous solution for the efficient delivery of anticancer drugs. The star-shaped amphipilic block copolymer was synthesized by initiating the ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) from methyl cholate through a combination of metal-free organo-catalytic living ring-opening polymerization and post-polymerization chain-end derivatization strategies. Subsequently, the self-assembly of the star-like polymer in aqueous solution into nanosized vesicles for anti-cancer drug delivery was studied. DOX was physically encapsulated into vesicles by dialysis and drug loading level was significant (22.5% in weight) for DOX. Importantly, DOX-loaded nanoparticles self-assembled from the star-like copolymer exhibited greater kinetic stability and higher DOX loading capacity than micelles prepared from cholesterol-initiated diblock analogue. The advantageous disparity is believed to be due to the transformation of micelles (diblock copolymer) to vesicles (star-like block copolymer) that possess greater core space for drug loading as well as the ability of such supramolecular structures to encapsulate DOX. DOX-loaded vesicles effectively inhibited the proliferation of 4T1, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells, with IC50 values of 10, 1.5 and 1.0mg/L, respectively. DOX-loaded vesicles injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice exhibited enhanced accumulation in tumor tissue due to the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Importantly, DOX-loaded vesicles demonstrated greater tumor growth inhibition than free DOX without causing significant body weight loss or cardiotoxicity. The unique ability of the star-like copolymer emanating from the methyl cholate core provided the requisite modification in the block copolymer interfacial curvature to generate vesicles of high loading capacity for DOX with significant

  8. Combinatorial high-throughput experimental and bioinformatic approach identifies molecular pathways linked with the sensitivity to anticancer target drugs

    PubMed Central

    Venkova, Larisa; Aliper, Alexander; Suntsova, Maria; Kholodenko, Roman; Shepelin, Denis; Borisov, Nicolas; Malakhova, Galina; Vasilov, Raif; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Effective choice of anticancer drugs is important problem of modern medicine. We developed a method termed OncoFinder for the analysis of new type of biomarkers reflecting activation of intracellular signaling and metabolic molecular pathways. These biomarkers may be linked with the sensitivity to anticancer drugs. In this study, we compared the experimental data obtained in our laboratory and in the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDS) project for testing response to anticancer drugs and transcriptomes of various human cell lines. The microarray-based profiling of transcriptomes was performed for the cell lines before the addition of drugs to the medium, and experimental growth inhibition curves were built for each drug, featuring characteristic IC50 values. We assayed here four target drugs - Pazopanib, Sorafenib, Sunitinib and Temsirolimus, and 238 different cell lines, of which 11 were profiled in our laboratory and 227 - in GDS project. Using the OncoFinder-processed transcriptomic data on ∼600 molecular pathways, we identified pathways showing significant correlation between pathway activation strength (PAS) and IC50 values for these drugs. Correlations reflect relationships between response to drug and pathway activation features. We intersected the results and found molecular pathways significantly correlated in both our assay and GDS project. For most of these pathways, we generated molecular models of their interaction with known molecular target(s) of the respective drugs. For the first time, our study uncovered mechanisms underlying cancer cell response to drugs at the high-throughput molecular interactomic level. PMID:26317900

  9. Targeted search for anticancer drugs--CNIO cancer conference. 16-18 March, Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lacal, Juan-Carlos; Carnero, Amancio

    2003-05-01

    The Spanish National Cancer Center has launched a new series of cancer conferences devoted to timely themes in oncology. These meetings aim to bring together a maximum of 50 participants, including 20 to 25 speakers along with 25 to 30 participants for in-depth discussion of new results and ideas in frontline cancer research. There is no registration fee to attend, but participants must organize their own travel and accommodation expenses; free communications are presented as posters, but a few may be selected for short (15 min) oral presentations. This particular meeting was organized by Amancio Carnero and David H Beach, and was mostly devoted to state of the art methodologies for the identification of new targets for anticancer drug design, although the development of novel drugs was also discussed.

  10. The cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying the activity of metformin as an anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-12-06

    The biguanide drug metformin profoundly affects cell metabolism, causing an impairment of the cell energy balance and triggering a plethora of pleiotropic effects that vary depending on the cellular or environmental context. Interestingly, a decade ago, it was observed that metformin-treated diabetic patients have a significantly lower cancer risk. Although a variety of in vivo and in vitro observations emphasising the role of metformin as anticancer drug have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are perturbed by metformin treatment and that might be relevant to understand its antitumour activities. We focus on the cell-autonomous mechanisms modulating growth and death of cancer cells.

  11. The cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying the activity of metformin as an anticancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    The biguanide drug metformin profoundly affects cell metabolism, causing an impairment of the cell energy balance and triggering a plethora of pleiotropic effects that vary depending on the cellular or environmental context. Interestingly, a decade ago, it was observed that metformin-treated diabetic patients have a significantly lower cancer risk. Although a variety of in vivo and in vitro observations emphasising the role of metformin as anticancer drug have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are perturbed by metformin treatment and that might be relevant to understand its antitumour activities. We focus on the cell-autonomous mechanisms modulating growth and death of cancer cells. PMID:27875520

  12. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of DNA adducts of a platinum containing anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangir, Deepak K.; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2014-09-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the interaction of drugs with their target molecules is important for better understanding of their mode of action and to improve their efficacy. Carboplatin is a platinum containing anticancer drug, used to treat different type of tumors. In the present work, we applied Raman spectroscopy to study the interaction of carboplatin with DNA at molecular level using different carboplatin-DNA molar ratios. These Raman spectroscopic results provide comprehensive understanding on the carboplatin-DNA interactions and indicate that DNA cross-linked adducts formed by carboplatin are similar to cisplatin adducts. The results indicate that guanine N7 and adenine N7 are the putative sites for carboplatin interaction. It is observed that carboplatin has some affinity toward cytosine in DNA. Phosphate sugar backbone of DNA showed conformation perturbation in DNA which were easily sensible at higher concentrations of carboplatin. Most importantly, carboplatin interaction induces intermediate A- and B-DNA conformations at the cross-linking sites.

  13. DNA Recognition by a Novel Bis-Intercalator, Potent Anticancer Drug XR5944

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Clement; Yang, Danzhou

    2016-01-01

    XR5944 is a potent anticancer drug with a novel DNA binding mode: DNA bis-intercalationg with major groove binding. XR5944 can bind the estrogen response element (ERE) sequence to block ER-ERE binding and inhibit ERα activities, which may be useful for overcoming drug resistance to currently available antiestrogen treatments. This review discusses the progress relating to the structure and function studies of specific DNA recognition of XR5944. The sites of intercalation within a native promoter sequence appear to be different from the ideal binding site and are context- and sequence- dependent. The structural information may provide insights for rational design of improved ERE-specific XR5944 derivatives, as well as of DNA bis-intercalators in general. PMID:25866279

  14. Enhancing tumor-specific uptake of the anticancer drug cisplatin with a copper chelator

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Seiko; McCormick, Frank; Smith-McCune, Karen; Hanahan, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Uptake of the anticancer drug cisplatin is mediated by the copper transporter Ctr1 in cultured cells. Here we show in human ovarian tumors that low levels of Ctr1 mRNA are associated with poor clinical response to platinum-based therapy. Using a mouse model of human cervical cancer, we demonstrate that combined treatment with a copper chelator and cisplatin increases cisplatin-DNA adduct levels in cancerous but not in normal tissues, impairs angiogenesis, and improves therapeutic efficacy. The copper chelator also enhances the killing of cultured human cervical and ovarian cancer cells with cisplatin. Our results identify the copper transporter as a therapeutic target, which can be manipulated with copper chelating drugs to selectively enhance the benefits of platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20541702

  15. Backbone-hydrazone-containing biodegradable copolymeric micelles for anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Luan, Shujuan; Qin, Benkai; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Qi, Peilan; Song, Shiyong

    2016-11-01

    Well-defined biodegradable, pH-sensitive amphiphilic block polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-Hyd-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-Hyd-PLA) which have acid-cleavable linkages in their backbones, were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization initiated from hydrazone-containing macroinitiators. Introducing a hydrazone bond onto the backbone of an amphiphilic copolymer will find a broad-spectrum encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable micelles with average diameters of 100 nm. The mean diameters and size distribution of the hydrazone-containing micelles changed obviously in mildly acidic pH (multiple peaks from 1 to 202 nm appeared under a pH 4.0 condition) than in neutral, while there were no changes in the case of non-sensitive ones. Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were loaded with drug loading content ranging from 2.4 to 3.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, the anticancer drugs released from mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles could also be promoted by the increased acidity. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with the non-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) micelles. Confocal microscopy observation indicated that more DOX were delivered into the nuclei of cells following 6 or 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles. In vivo studies on H22-bearing Swiss mice demonstrated the superior anticancer activity of DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles over free DOX and DOX-loaded mPEG-PLA micelles. These hydrazone-containing pH-responsive degradable micelles provide a useful strategy for antitumor drug delivery.

  16. Repurposing the anticancer drug mitomycin C for the treatment of persistent Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Muñiz, Martha Yumiko; López-Jacome, Luis Esau; Hernández-Durán, Melissa; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Licona-Limón, Paula; Ramos-Balderas, Jose Luis; Martinéz-Vázquez, Mariano; Belmont-Díaz, Javier A; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for recalcitrant infections owing to its high intrinsic tolerance to most antibiotics; therefore, suitable strategies to treat these infections are needed. One plausible approach is the repurposing of drugs that are already in use. Among them, anticancer drugs may be especially useful due their cytotoxic activities and ample similarities between bacterial infections and growing tumours. In this work, the effectiveness of four anticancer drugs on the growth of A. baumannii ATTC BAA-747 was evaluated, including the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil and three DNA crosslinkers, namely cisplatin, mitomycin C (MMC) and merphalan. MMC was the most effective drug, having a minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% of growth in Luria-Bertani medium at ca. 7 µg/mL and completely inhibiting growth at 25 µg/mL. Hence, MMC was tested against a panel of 21 clinical isolates, including 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, 3 of which were sensitive only to colistin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of MMC in all tested strains were found to be similar to those of A. baumannii ATCC BAA-747, and MMC also effectively killed stationary-phase, persister and biofilm cells. Moreover, MMC was able to increase survival of the insect larvae Galleria mellonella against an otherwise lethal A. baumannii infection from 0% to ≥53% for the antibiotic-sensitive A. baumannii ATCC BAA-747 strain and the MDR strains A560 and A578. Therefore, MMC is highly effective at killing the emergent opportunistic pathogen A. baumannii.

  17. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for parenteral delivery of an anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Chinsriwongkul, Akhayacatra; Chareanputtakhun, Ponwanit; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-on, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the parenteral delivery of an anticancer drug, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The ATRA was incorporated into NLC by the de novo emulsification method. The effect of the formulation factor, i.e., type and oil ratio, initial ATRA concentration on physicochemical properties was determined. The anticancer efficacy of ATRA-loaded NLC on HL-60 and HepG2 cells was also studied. NLC was formulated using a blend of solid lipids (cetyl palmitate) and liquid lipids (soybean oil (S), medium-chain triglyceride (M), S/oleic acid (O; 3:1) and M/O (3:1)) at a weight ratio of 1:1. ATRA-loaded NLC had an average size of less than 200 nm (141.80 to 172.95 nm) with a narrow PDI and negative zeta potential that was within an acceptable range for intravenous injection. The results indicated that oleic acid enhanced the ATRA-loading capacity of NLC. In vitro ATRA release was only approximately 4.06% to 4.34% for 48 h, and no significant difference in ATRA release rate from all NLC formulations in accordance with the composition of the oil phase. Moreover, no burst release of the drug was observed, indicating that NLC could prolong the release of ATRA. The initial drug concentration affected the photodegradation rate but did not affect the release rate. All ATRA-loaded NLC formulations exhibited the photoprotective property. The cytotoxicity results showed that all ATRA-loaded NLC had higher cytotoxicity than the free drug and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to ATRA than HepG2 cells.

  18. Plasmonic nanocarrier grid-enhanced Raman sensor for studies of anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kurzątkowska, Katarzyna; Santiago, Ty; Hepel, Maria

    2017-05-15

    Targeted drug delivery systems using nanoparticle nanocarriers offer remarkable promise for cancer therapy by discriminating against devastating cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs to healthy cells. To aid in the development of new drug nanocarriers, we propose a novel plasmonic nanocarrier grid-enhanced Raman sensor which can be applied for studies and testing of drug loading onto the nanocarriers, attachment of targeting ligands, dynamics of drug release, assessment of nanocarrier stability in biological environment, and general capabilities of the nanocarrier. The plasmonic nanogrid sensor offers strong Raman enhancement due to the overlapping plasmonic fields emanating from the nearest-neighbor gold nanoparticle nanocarriers and creating the enhancement "hot spots". The sensor has been tested for immobilization of an anticancer drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, GEM) which is used in treatment of pancreatic tumors. The drawbacks of currently applied treatment include high systemic toxicity, rapid drug decay, and low efficacy (ca. 20%). Therefore, the development of a targeted GEM delivery system is highly desired. We have demonstrated that the proposed nanocarrier SERS sensor can be utilized to investigate attachment of targeting ligands to nanocarriers (attachment of folic acid ligand recognized by folate receptors of cancer cells is described). Further testing of the nanocarrier SERS sensor involved drug release induced by lowering pH and increasing GSH levels, both occurring in cancer cells. The proposed sensor can be utilized for a variety of drugs and targeting ligands, including those which are Raman inactive, since the linkers can act as the Raman markers, as illustrated with mercaptobenzoic acid and para-aminothiophenol.

  19. Development, Characterization and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a potential Anticancer Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Meghavi

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) consist of spherical solid lipid particles in the nanometer size range, which are dispersed in water or in an aqueous surfactant solution. SLN technology represents a promising new approach to deliver hydrophilic as well as lipophilic drugs. The commercialization of SLN technology remains limited despite numerous efforts from researchers. The purpose of this research was to advance SLN preparation methodology by investigating the feasibility of preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles by using three preparation methods namely microemulsion technique, magnetic stirring technique and temperature modulated solidification technique of which the latter two were developed in our laboratory. An anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was incorporated in the SLNs prepared via the temperature modulated solidification process. Optimization of the magnetic stirring process was performed to evaluate how the physicochemical properties of the SLN was influenced by systematically varying process parameters including concentration of the lipid, concentration of the surfactant, type of surfactant, time of stirring and temperature of storage. The results demonstrated 1:2 GMS to tween 80 ratio, 150 ml dispersion medium and 45 min stirring at 4000 RPM speed provided an optimum formulation via the temperature modulated solidification process. SLN dispersions were lyophilized to stabilize the solid lipid nanoparticles and the lyophilizates exhibited good redispersibility. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies. Particle size of SLN dispersion prepared via the three preparation techniques was approximately 66 nm and that of redispersed lyophilizates was below 500 nm. TEM images showed spherical to oval particles that were less dense in the core

  20. Polymers in the Co-delivery of siRNA and Anticancer Drugs for the Treatment of Drug-resistant Cancers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haotian; Yarovoy, Iven; Capeling, Meghan; Cheng, Chong

    2017-04-01

    Recently, co-delivery of siRNA and anticancer drugs has drawn much attention in the treatment of drug-resistant cancers. Drug resistance is exhibited by cancer cells, which limits the efficacy of chemotherapy. When siRNA and anticancer drugs are delivered into cancer cells simultaneously, the siRNA is expected to silence the genes related to drug resistance, decreasing the drug efflux pumps and activating the cell's apoptosis pathways. In a timeframe following the release of siRNA, the accumulation of the co-delivered anti-cancer drug inside of the cancer cells will increase, resulting in promoted chemotherapeutic effects. Several classes of nanocarriers have been designed based on polymers for co-delivery, including surface-modified polymer nanoparticles (NPs), polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymer nanocapsules, polymer-modified liposomes, and polymer-modified silica and gold NPs. Compared with separate delivery, co-delivery showed significant advantages in the treatment of drug-resistant cancers. This review focuses on polymers in the co-delivery of siRNA and anticancer drugs, and summarizes key advances in the recent several years.

  1. Anticancer drug clustering in lung cancer based on gene expression profiles and sensitivity database

    PubMed Central

    Gemma, Akihiko; Li, Cai; Sugiyama, Yuka; Matsuda, Kuniko; Seike, Yoko; Kosaihira, Seiji; Minegishi, Yuji; Noro, Rintaro; Nara, Michiya; Seike, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Shionoya, Aki; Kawakami, Akiko; Ogawa, Naoki; Uesaka, Haruka; Kudoh, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    background The effect of current therapies in improving the survival of lung cancer patients remains far from satisfactory. It is consequently desirable to find more appropriate therapeutic opportunities based on informed insights. A molecular pharmacological analysis was undertaken to design an improved chemotherapeutic strategy for advanced lung cancer. Methods We related the cytotoxic activity of each of commonly used anti-cancer agents (docetaxel, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, 5-FU, SN38, cisplatin (CDDP), and carboplatin (CBDCA)) to corresponding expression pattern in each of the cell lines using a modified NCI program. Results We performed gene expression analysis in lung cancer cell lines using cDNA filter and high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We also examined the sensitivity of these cell lines to these drugs via MTT assay. To obtain our reproducible gene-drug sensitivity correlation data, we separately analyzed two sets of lung cancer cell lines, namely 10 and 19. In our gene-drug correlation analyses, gemcitabine consistently belonged to an isolated cluster in a reproducible fashion. On the other hand, docetaxel, paclitaxel, 5-FU, SN-38, CBDCA and CDDP were gathered together into one large cluster. Conclusion These results suggest that chemotherapy regimens including gemcitabine should be evaluated in second-line chemotherapy in cases where the first-line chemotherapy did not include this drug. Gene expression-drug sensitivity correlations, as provided by the NCI program, may yield improved therapeutic options for treatment of specific tumor types. PMID:16813650

  2. Eco-genotoxicity of six anticancer drugs using comet assay in daphnids.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Isidori, Marina

    2015-04-09

    The eco-genotoxicity of six anti-neoplastic drugs, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib, belonging to five classes of anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC), was studied applying the in vivo comet assay on cells from whole organisms of Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia. For the first time, this test was performed in C. dubia. In addition, to have a wider genotoxic/mutagenic profile of the anticancer drugs selected, SOS chromotest and Salmonella mutagenicity assay were performed. The comet results showed that all drugs induced DNA damage, in both Cladocerans, with environmental concern; indeed Doxorubicin induced DNA damage in the order of tens of ng L(-1) in both crustaceans, as well as 5-flurouracil in C. dubia and cisplatin in D. magna. In the SOS Chromotest all drugs, except imatinib, were able to activate the repair system in Escherichia coli PQ37 while in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, doxorubicin was the only drug able to cause direct and indirect frameshift and base-pair substitution mutations. Comet assay was the most sensitive tool of genotoxic exposure assessment, able to detect in vivo the adverse effects at concentration lower than those evaluated in vitro by bacterial assays.

  3. DNA-binding study of anticancer drug cytarabine by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh; Maghsudi, Maryam

    2017-01-02

    The interaction of anticancer drug cytarabine with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove-binding mode, while the binding constant of UV-vis and the number of binding sites were 4.0 ± 0.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1.39, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drugs with CT-DNA is exothermic. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was employed to measure the conformational change of DNA in the presence of cytarabine. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity for DNA interaction. The molecular modeling results illustrated that cytarabine strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -20.61 KJ mol(-1). This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with biomacromolecules for clarifying the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA is a direct target of anti-cancer anthracycline drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Neil Poulton, Joanna

    2009-01-16

    The anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DXR), are potent anti-cancer drugs but they are limited by their clinical toxicity. The mechanisms involved remain poorly understood partly because of the difficulty in determining sub-cellular drug localisation. Using a novel method utilising the fluorescent DNA dye PicoGreen, we found that anthracyclines intercalated not only into nuclear DNA but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Intercalation of mtDNA by anthracyclines may thus contribute to the marked mitochondrial toxicity associated with these drugs. By contrast, ethidium bromide intercalated exclusively into mtDNA, without interacting with nuclear DNA, thereby explaining why mtDNA is the main target for ethidium. By exploiting PicoGreen quenching we also developed a novel assay for quantification of mtDNA levels by flow-cytometry, an approach which should be useful for studies of mitochondrial dysfunction. In summary our PicoGreen assay should be useful to study drug/DNA interactions within live cells, and facilitate therapeutic drug monitoring and kinetic studies in cancer patients.

  5. Polysaccharide-Gold Nanocluster Supramolecular Conjugates as a Versatile Platform for the Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Su, Yue; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2014-02-01

    Through the high affinity of the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) cavity for adamantane moieties, novel polysaccharide-gold nanocluster supramolecular conjugates (HACD-AuNPs) were successfully constructed from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) bearing adamantane moieties and cyclodextrin-grafted hyaluronic acid (HACD). Due to their porous structure, the supramolecular conjugates could serve as a versatile and biocompatible platform for the loading and delivery of various anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX), camptothecin (CPT), irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), and topotecan hydrochloride (TPT), by taking advantage of the controlled association/dissociation of drug molecules from the cavities formed by the HACD skeletons and AuNPs cores as well as by harnessing the efficient targeting of cancer cells by hyaluronic acid. Significantly, the release of anticancer drugs from the drug@HACD-AuNPs system was pH-responsive, with more efficient release occurring under a mildly acidic environment, such as that in a cancer cell. Taking the anticancer drug DOX as an example, cell viability experiments revealed that the DOX@HACD-AuNPs system exhibited similar tumor cell inhibition abilities but lower toxicity than free DOX due to the hyaluronic acid reporter-mediated endocytosis. Therefore, the HACD-AuNPs supramolecular conjugates may possess great potential for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

  6. Prospective Observational Study of Adverse Drug Reactions of Anticancer Drugs Used in Cancer Treatment in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Sewal, R K; Ahmad, Yusra; Medhi, B

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of anticancer drugs are a worldwide problem and cannot be ignored. Adverse drug reactions can range from nausea, vomiting or any other mild reaction to severe myelosuppression. The study was planned to observe the suspected adverse drug reactions of cancer chemotherapy in patients aged >18 years having cancer attending Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. During the study period, 101 patients of breast cancer and 73 patients of lung cancer were screened for occurrence of adverse drug reactions during their treatment with chemotherapy. About 87.36% patients experienced adverse drug reactions, 90.09% and 83.56% of breast and lung cancer patients experienced at least one adverse drug reaction respectively. In breast cancer patients, 41.58% patients were prescribed fluorouracil+doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide while paclitaxel was prescribed to 22.77% patients. Alopecia (54.94%), nail discolouration (43.96%), dysgeusia (38.46%), anorexia (30.77%), nausea (29.67%), and neuropathy (29.67%) were found to be very common in breast cancer patients treated with single/combined regimen. In lung cancer group of patients, cisplatin with docetaxel, cisplatin with pemetrexed and cisplatin with irinotecan were prescribed to 30.14, 24.65 and 17.81% patients, respectively. Dysgeusia (40.98%), diarrhoea (39.34%), anorexia (32.77%) and constipation (31.15%) and alopecia (31.15%) were commonly observed adverse drug reactions having lung cancer patients. Causality assessments using World Health Organization causality assessment scale showed that observed adverse drug reactions were of probable (64.67%) and possible (35.33%) categories. Alopecia, dysgeusia, anorexia, constipation diarrhoea, nausea, nail discoloration were more prevalent amongst the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  7. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs.

  8. Organic cation transporter 6 directly confers resistance to anticancer platinum drugs

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, Tetsuya; Kunii, Eiji; Fukuda, Satoshi; Sone, Kazuki; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Takemura, Masaya; Maeno, Ken; Ito, Yutaka; Niimi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier family 22 have a critical role in the cellular uptake of anticancer platinum drugs. Recently, we found that a decreased OCT6 expression is associated with a reduced intracellular uptake of cisplatin (CDDP), and concomitant resistance to CDDP. In the present study, we examined whether OCTs directly confer resistance to another platinum drug, oxaliplatin (L-OHP). To address this, we used parental lung cancer cell lines, PC-14 and SBC3; L-OHP-resistant sublines, PC-14/L-OHP and SBC3/L-OHP; and one CDDP-resistant subline PC-14/CDDP, to examine the relationships between the expression of OCTs and intracellular platinum drug concentration or platinum drug resistance. The two L-OHP-resistant sublines showed cross resistance to CDDP and L-OHP, and a decreased expression of OCT6. The intracellular accumulation of L-OHP in PC-14/L-OHP cells was reduced compared with the parental cells. The findings suggested that a reduced OCT6 expression confers platinum drug resistance in the sublines by decreasing the uptake of platinum drugs. Using the PC-14/CDDP cell line engineered to overexpress OCT6, we confirmed that the intracellular L-OHP concentration was increased concomitantly with OCT6 overexpression compared with the parental cell line. Additionally, OCT6 was expressed in a screening panel of lung and colon cancer tissues and matched normal control tissues. Taken together with the previous results, the present findings indicate that OCT6 is directly involved in platinum drug resistance by mediating platinum drug uptake in cancer cells. PMID:27882231

  9. Nanostructured SERS-electrochemical biosensors for testing of anticancer drug interactions with DNA.

    PubMed

    Ilkhani, Hoda; Hughes, Taylor; Li, Jing; Zhong, Chuan Jian; Hepel, Maria

    2016-06-15

    Widely used anti-cancer treatments involving chemotherapeutic drugs result in cancer cell damage due to their strong interaction with DNA. In this work, we have developed laboratory biosensors for screening chemotherapeutic drugs and to aid in the assessment of DNA modification/damage caused by these drugs. The sensors utilize surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods to monitor sensory film modification and observe the drug-DNA reactivity. The self-assembled monolayer protected gold-disk electrode (AuDE) was coated with a reduced graphene oxide (rGO), decorated with plasmonic gold-coated Fe2Ni@Au magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a sequence of the breast cancer gene BRCA1. The nanobiosensors AuDE/SAM/rGO/Fe2Ni@Au/dsDNA were then subjected to the action of a model chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), to assess the DNA modification and its dose dependence. The designed novel nanobiosensors offer SERS/electrochemical transduction, enabling chemically specific and highly sensitive analytical signals generation. The SERS measurements have corroborated the DOX intercalation into the DNA duplex whereas the electrochemical scans have indicated that the DNA modification by DOX proceeds in a concentration dependent manner, with limit of detection LOD=8 µg/mL (S/N=3), with semilog linearity over 3 orders of magnitude. These new biosensors are sensitive to agents that interact with DNA and facilitate the analysis of functional groups for determination of the binding mode. The proposed nanobiosensors can be applied in the first stage of the drug development for testing the interactions of new drugs with DNA before the drug efficacy can be assessed in more expensive testing in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Indolin-2-one compounds targeting thioredoxin reductase as potential anticancer drug leads

    PubMed Central

    Kaminska, Kamila K.; Bertrand, Helene C.; Tajima, Hisashi; Stafford, William C.; Cheng, Qing; Chen, Wan; Wells, Geoffrey; Arner, Elias S.J.; Chew, Eng-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds bearing the indolinone chemical scaffold are known to possess anticancer properties. For example, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is an arylideneindolin-2-one compound. The chemical versatility associated with structural modifications of indolinone compounds underlies the potential to discover additional derivatives possessing anticancer properties. Previously synthesized 3-(2-oxoethylidene)indolin-2-one compounds, also known as supercinnamaldehyde (SCA) compounds in reference to the parent compound 1 [1-methyl-3(2-oxopropylidene)indolin-2-one], bear a nitrogen-linked α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (Michael acceptor) moiety. Here we found that analogs bearing N-substituents, in particular compound 4 and 5 carrying an N-butyl and N-benzyl substituent, respectively, were strongly cytotoxic towards human HCT 116 colorectal and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. These compounds also displayed strong thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibitory activity that was likely attributed to the electrophilicity of the Michael acceptor moiety. Their selectivity towards cellular TrxR inhibition over related antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was mediated through targeting of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the highly accessible C-terminal active site of TrxR. TrxR inhibition mediated by indolin-2-one compounds led to cellular Trx oxidation, increased oxidative stress and activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). These events also led to activation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and cell death with apoptotic features of PARP cleavage and caspase 3 activation. In conclusion, these results suggest that indolin-2-one-based compounds specifically targeting TrxR may serve as novel drug leads for anticancer therapy. PMID:27244886

  11. Study of Malformin C, a Fungal Source Cyclic Pentapeptide, as an Anti-Cancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wing; Gullen, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Zhe; Wei, Ying; Wang, Lihui; Zeiss, Caroline; Beck, Amanda; Cheng, Ee-Chun; Wu, Chunfu; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Zhang, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Malformin C, a fungal cyclic pentapeptide, has been claimed to have anti-cancer potential, but no in vivo study was available to substantiate this property. Therefore, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate its anti-cancer effects and toxicity. Our studies showed Malformin C inhibited Colon 38 and HCT 116 cell growth dose-dependently with an IC50 of 0.27±0.07μM and 0.18±0.023μM respectively. This inhibition was explicated by Malformin C’s effect on G2/M arrest. Moreover, we observed up-regulated expression of phospho-histone H2A.X, p53, cleaved CASPASE 3 and LC3 after Malformin C treatment, while the apoptosis assay indicated an increased population of necrotic and late apoptotic cells. In vivo, the pathological study exhibited the acute toxicity of Malformin C at lethal dosage in BDF1 mice might be caused by an acute yet subtle inflammatory response, consistent with elevated IL-6 in the plasma cytokine assay. Further anti-tumor and toxicity experiments proved that 0.3mg/kg injected weekly was the best therapeutic dosage of Malformin C in Colon 38 xenografted BDF1 mice, whereas 0.1mg/kg every other day showed no effect with higher resistance, and 0.9mg/kg per week either led to fatal toxicity in seven-week old mice or displayed no advantage over 0.3mg/kg group in nine-week old mice. Overall, we conclude that Malformin C arrests Colon 38 cells in G2/M phase and induces multiple forms of cell death through necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. Malformin C has potent cell growth inhibition activity, but the therapeutic index is too low to be an anti-cancer drug. PMID:26540166

  12. [Pharmacogenomic research for avoiding adverse reactions by anti-cancer drugs].

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro

    2011-02-01

    Anti-cancer drugs have relatively low effective rates and high frequencies of adverse reactions, occasionally leading to cessation of their treatments. Use of pharmacogenomic (PGx) information could be able to select the patients with high-response and less-adverse reactions, resulting in increase of patients' QOL and proper use of drugs. We have been collaborating with National Cancer Center for PGx analysis of anti-cancer drugs including irinotecan and gemcitabine in Japanese cancer patients. Irinotecan, now used for treatments of many cancers, is metabolically activated to SN-38 and then inactivated to SN-38 glucuronide by a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1. In the UGT1A1 gene, two representative genetic polymorphisms, *28 and *6, were detected at 0.138 and 0.167, respectively in 177 Japanese cancer patients. When the patients were homozygotes of *28 or *6, or compound heterozygotes of them, statistically significant decreases were observed in the SN-38 glucuronidation activity and increases in the rate of severe neutropenia, compared to those in the patients without *28 or *6. Our results and papers were cited in the Japanese package inserts of irinotecan. Gemcitabine was inactivated by cytidine deaminase (CDA) into 2'-2'-difluorodeoxyuridine. A CDA polymorphism 208G>A (Ala70Thr) was detected at 0.037 frequency in 256 Japanese cancer patients and associated with reduced gemcitabine clearance as well as increased frequency of severe neutropenia. In the 4 patients suffered from very severe bone marrow toxicities, 3 patients were homozygous CDA*3, suggesting that this polymorphism is exquisite for predicting severe adverse reactions by gemcitabine in Japanese.

  13. Network-based identification of microRNAs as potential pharmacogenomic biomarkers for anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lei, Kecheng; Wu, Zengrui; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Liu, Jianwen; Cheng, Feixiong; Tang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    As the recent development of high-throughput technologies in cancer pharmacogenomics, there is an urgent need to develop new computational approaches for comprehensive identification of new pharmacogenomic biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, a network-based framework, namely the SMiR-NBI model, was developed to prioritize miRNAs as potential biomarkers characterizing treatment responses of anticancer drugs on the basis of a heterogeneous network connecting drugs, miRNAs and genes. A high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.820 ± 0.013 was yielded during 10-fold cross validation. In addition, high performance was further validated in identifying new anticancer mechanism-of-action for natural products and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Finally, the newly predicted miRNAs for tamoxifen and metformin were experimentally validated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines via qRT-PCR assays. High success rates of 60% and 65% were yielded for tamoxifen and metformin, respectively. Specifically, 11 oncomiRNAs (e.g. miR-20a-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-29a-3p, and miR-146a-5p) from the top 20 predicted miRNAs were experimentally verified as new pharmacogenomic biomarkers for metformin in MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cell lines. In summary, the SMiR-NBI model would provide a powerful tool to identify potential pharmacogenomic biomarkers characterized by miRNAs in the emerging field of precision cancer medicine, which is available at http://lmmd.ecust.edu.cn/database/smir-nbi/. PMID:27329603

  14. miR-27b synergizes with anticancer drugs via p53 activation and CYP1B1 suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Wenjing; Hu, Chaobo; Zhang, Haibin; Qu, Zengqiang; Cen, Jin; Qiu, Zhixin; Li, Chao; Ren, Haozhen; Li, Yixue; He, Xianghuo; Shi, Xiaolei; Hui, Lijian

    2015-01-01

    Liver and kidney cancers are notorious for drug resistance. Due to the complexity, redundancy and interpatient heterogeneity of resistance mechanisms, most efforts targeting a single pathway were unsuccessful. Novel personalized therapies targeting multiple essential drug resistance pathways in parallel hold a promise for future cancer treatment. Exploiting the multitarget characteristic of microRNAs (miRNAs), we developed a new therapeutic strategy by the combinational use of miRNA and anticancer drugs to increase drug response. By a systems approach, we identified that miR-27b, a miRNA deleted in liver and kidney cancers, sensitizes cancer cells to a broad spectrum of anticancer drugs in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, miR-27b enhances drug response by activating p53-dependent apoptosis and reducing CYP1B1-mediated drug detoxification. Notably, miR-27b promotes drug response specifically in patients carrying p53-wild-type or CYP1B1-high signature. Together, we propose that miR-27b synergizes with anticancer drugs in a defined subgroup of liver and kidney cancer patients. PMID:25698578

  15. Successful analysis of anticancer drug sensitivity by CD-DST using pleural fluid and ascites from patients with advanced ovarian cancer: case reports.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Banno, Kouji; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Yanokura, Megumi; Kuwabara, Yoshiko; Hirao, Nobumaru; Tsukazaki, Katsumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    In vitro anticancer drug sensitivity tests have been performed for various types of cancers, and a relationship with clinical response has been observed. The collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) is a new in vitro anticancer drug sensitivity test by Yabushita et al., recently reported to be useful in ovarian cancer. CD-DST allows analysis of a small number of cells, compared to other anticancer drug sensitivity tests. Here, we report a successful analysis of anticancer drug sensitivity by CD-DST using cancerous ascites and pleural fluid samples from 2 patients with advanced ovarian cancer. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of the application of CD-DST in ovarian cancer, and our results suggest that CD-DST could be helpful in the selection of anticancer drugs for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer.

  16. Structural basis of DNA gyrase inhibition by antibacterial QPT-1, anticancer drug etoposide and moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pan F; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J; Spitzfaden, Claus E; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J; Stavenger, Robert A; Bax, Benjamin D; Gwynn, Michael N

    2015-12-07

    New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a 'pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested.

  17. Structural basis of DNA gyrase inhibition by antibacterial QPT-1, anticancer drug etoposide and moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pan F.; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P.; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M.; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J.; Spitzfaden, Claus E.; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J.; Stavenger, Robert A.; Bax, Benjamin D.; Gwynn, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a ‘pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested. PMID:26640131

  18. Tumorsphere as an effective in vitro platform for screening anti-cancer stem cell drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Che-Hsin; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Wang, Bing-Yen; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cells within cancer tissues with tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis properties. CSCs also have been considered as the main cause of cancer recurrence. Targeting CSCs have been suggested as the key for successful treatment against cancer. Tumorsphere cultivation is based on culturing cancer cells onto ultralow attachment surface in serum-free media under the supplementation with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Tumorsphere cultivation is widely used to analyze the self-renewal capability of CSCs and to enrich these cells from bulk cancer cells. This method also provides a reliable platform for screening potential anti-CSC agents. The in vitro anti-proliferation activity of potential agents selected from tumorsphere assay is more translatable into in vivo anti-tumorigenic activity compared with general monolayer culture. Tumorsphere assay can also measure the outcome of clinical trials for potential anti-cancer agents. In addition, tumorsphere assay may be a promising strategy in the innovation of future cancer therapeutica and may help in the screening of anti-cancer small-molecule chemicals. PMID:26527320

  19. New challenges and inspired answers for anticancer drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2013-10-01

    Many pharmaceutical companies worldwide specialize in oncology drug development and marketing. Among them, we have continued to take up the challenge of understanding the metabolism of pyrimidines as essential components of deoxyribonucleic acid for many years, and have provided unique products such as UFT(®) and TS-1 for cancer patients. Using our cumulative experience and knowledge, we are currently developing novel agents such as TAS-114, a dual inhibitor of deoxyuridine triphosphatase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, and TAS-102, a unique pyrimidine derivative inducing deoxyribonucleic acid dysfunction in cancer cells. Regarding molecular-targeted drugs, we have made huge efforts to establish ideal drug discovery platforms for the last several years. For kinase inhibitors, we established three core platforms such as a kinase-directed chemical library, a kinase assay panel and a target selection informatics system. The core platforms were further combined with peripheral technologies to measure essential parameters such as physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicities. Unique drug candidates have been identified at an early stage by assessing all important parameters. Several promising programs are proceeding simultaneously in the clinical or preclinical development stage such as TAS-115, a dual inhibitor of c-Met and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, TAS-2104, a selective Aurora A inhibitor, TAS-117, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, TAS-2985, an irreversible fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor and TAS-2913, a T790M mutant selective epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Other than kinase inhibitors, another drug discovery engine was established based on the fragment-based drug discovery technology. TAS-116, a new class of Hsp-90α/β inhibitor, is one of the products. Taiho's final goal is to provide innovative anticancer drugs together with companion diagnostics that are truly beneficial for patients.

  20. Poly(lactic acid)/chitosan hybrid nanoparticles for controlled release of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Xi; Wang, Jiexin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Le, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a kind of non-toxic biological materials with excellent absorbability, biocompatibility and biodegradability, which can be used for drug release, tissue engineering and surgical treatment applications. In this study, we prepared chitosan modified PLA nanoparticles as carriers for encapsulation of docetaxel by anti-solvent precipitation method. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential and composition of the PLA/chitosan were characterized by SEM, DLS, FTIR and XPS. As-prepared PLA/chitosan particles exhibited average size of 250 nm and showed very narrow distribution with polydispersity index of 0.098. Their large surface charge-ability was confirmed by zeta potential value of 53.9 mV. Docetaxel was released from PLA/chitosan nanoparticles with 40% initial burst release in 5 h and 70% cumulative release within 24 h, while from PLA nanoparticles 65% of docetaxel was released in 5h. In vitro drug release study demonstrated that PLA/chitosan nanoparticles prolonged drug release and decreased the burst release over the unmodified PLA nanoparticles. These results illustrated high potential of chitosan modified PLA nanoparticles for usage as anticancer drug carriers.

  1. Anticancer drugs in surface waters: what can we say about the occurrence and environmental significance of cytotoxic, cytostatic and endocrine therapy drugs?

    PubMed

    Besse, Jean-Philippe; Latour, Jean-François; Garric, Jeanne

    2012-02-01

    This study considers the implications and research needs arising from anticancer (also referred to as antineoplastic) drugs being released into the aquatic environment, for the entire therapeutic classes used: cytotoxic, cytostatic and endocrine therapy drugs. A categorization approach, based on French consumption amounts, allowed to highlight parent molecules and several metabolites on which further occurrence and ecotoxicological studies should be conducted. Investigations of consumption trends at a national and a local scale show an increase in the use of anticancer drugs between 2004 and 2008, thus leading to increased levels released in the environment. It therefore appears necessary to continue surveying their presence in surface waters and in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Furthermore, due to the rise of anticancer home treatments, most of the prescribed molecules are now available in town pharmacies. Consequently, hospital effluents are no longer the main expected entry route of anticancer drugs into the aquatic environment. Concerning ecotoxicological risks, current knowledge remains insufficient to support a definitive conclusion. Risk posed by cytotoxic molecules is still not well documented and it is not possible to conclude on their long-term effects on non-target organisms. To date, ecotoxicological effects have been assessed using standardized or in vitro assays. Such tests however may not be suitable for anticancer drugs, and further work should focus on full-life cycle or even multigenerational tests. Environmental significance (i.e. occurrence and effects) of cytostatics (protein kinases inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies), if any, is not documented. Protein kinases inhibitors, in particular, deserve further investigation due to their universal mode of action. Finally, concerning endocrine therapy drugs, molecules such as antiestrogen Tamoxifen and its active metabolites, could be of concern. Overall, to accurately assess the

  2. Poly(methyl malate) Nanoparticles: Formation, Degradation, and Encapsulation of Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Alvarez, Montserrat; Portilla-Arias, José; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Patil, Rameshwar; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.

    2012-01-01

    PMLA nanoparticles with diameters of 150–250 nm are prepared, and their hydrolytic degradation is studied under physiological conditions. Degradation occurs by hydrolysis of the side chain methyl ester followed by cleavage of the main-chain ester group with methanol and L-malic acid as the final degradation products. No alteration of the cell viability is found after 1 h of incubation, but toxicity increases significantly after 3 d, probably due to the noxious effect of the released methanol. Anticancer drugs temozolomide and doxorubicin are encapsulated in the NPs with 20–40% efficiency, and their release is monitored using in vitro essays. Temozolomide is fully liberated within several hours, whereas doxorubicin is steadily released from the particles over a period of 1 month. PMID:21793213

  3. The wisdom of crowds and the repurposing of artesunate as an anticancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Yolanda; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kumar, Devinder; Pantziarka, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a semi-synthetic and water-soluble artemisinin-derivative used as an anti-malarial agent, has attracted the attention of cancer researchers due to a broad range of anti-cancer activity including anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory and treatment-sensitisation effects. In addition to pre-clinical evidence in a range of cancers, a recently completed randomised blinded trial in colorectal cancer has provided a positive signal for further clinical investigation. Used perioperatively artesunate appears to reduce the rate of disease recurrence - and the Neo-Art trial, a larger Phase II RCT, is seeking to confirm this positive effect. However, artesunate is a generic medication, and as with other trials of repurposed drugs, the Neo-Art trial does not have commercial sponsorship. In an innovative move, the trial is seeking funds directly from members of the public via a crowd-funding strategy that may have resonance beyond this single trial. PMID:26557887

  4. Poly(methyl malate) nanoparticles: formation, degradation, and encapsulation of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Alvarez, Montserrat; Portilla-Arias, José; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Patil, Rameshwar; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián

    2011-10-10

    PMLA nanoparticles with diameters of 150-250 nm are prepared, and their hydrolytic degradation is studied under physiological conditions. Degradation occurs by hydrolysis of the side chain methyl ester followed by cleavage of the main-chain ester group with methanol and L-malic acid as the final degradation products. No alteration of the cell viability is found after 1 h of incubation, but toxicity increases significantly after 3 d, probably due to the noxious effect of the released methanol. Anticancer drugs temozolomide and doxorubicin are encapsulated in the NPs with 20-40% efficiency, and their release is monitored using in vitro essays. Temozolomide is fully liberated within several hours, whereas doxorubicin is steadily released from the particles over a period of 1 month.

  5. Optimization of anti-cancer drugs and a targeting molecule on multifunctional gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, Nahla; Christoforou, Nicolas; Lee, Sungmun

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common and deadly cancer among women worldwide. Currently, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are useful for cancer treatment; however, strategic planning is critical in order to enhance the anti-cancer properties and reduce the side effects of cancer therapy. Here, we designed multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with two anti-cancer drugs, TGF-β1 antibody and methotrexate, and a cancer-targeting molecule, folic acid. First, optimum size and shape of AuNPs was selected by the highest uptake of AuNPs by MDA-MB-231, a metastatic human breast cancer cell line. It was 100 nm spherical AuNPs (S-AuNPs) that were used for further studies. A fixed amount (900 μl) of S-AuNP (3.8 × 108 particles/ml) was conjugated with folic acid-BSA or methotrexate-BSA. Methotrexate on S-AuNP induced cellular toxicity and the optimum amount of methotrexate-BSA (2.83 mM) was 500 μl. Uptake of S-AuNPs was enhanced by folate conjugation that binds to folate receptors overexpressed by MDA-MB-231 and the optimum uptake was at 500 μl of folic acid-BSA (2.83 mM). TGF-β1 antibody on S-AuNP reduced extracellular TGF-β1 of cancer cells by 30%. Due to their efficacy and tunable properties, we anticipate numerous clinical applications of multifunctional gold nanospheres in treating breast cancer.

  6. Modulation of colony stimulating factor release and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, S; Warner, T D; Mitchell, J A

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of the immune response against tumour cells is emerging as a valuable approach for cancer treatment. Some experimental studies have shown that secretion of colony stimulating factors by cancer cells reduces their tumorigenicity and increases their immunogenicity probably by promoting the cytolitic and antigen presenting activities of leukocytes. We have observed that human colon cancer cells (HT-29) are able to secrete granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor when stimulated with cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). In this study we assessed, for the first time, the effects of several anticancer drugs on colony stimulating factor release or apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Cytokine-induced release of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor was significantly increased by cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine. Taxol only increased macrophage-colony stimulating factor release while reduced that of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. No changes in colony stimulating factor secretion were observed after treatment with methotrexate. Only cisplatin and taxol induced apoptosis in these cells. Secretion of colony stimulating factors by colon cancer cells may contribute to the immune host response against them. Anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine increase colony stimulating factor secretion by cytokine stimulated cancer cells probably through mechanisms different to those leading to cell apoptosis, an effect that may contribute to their anti-neoplasic action. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1316–1321. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600240 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953891

  7. A new way to detect the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs based on the decreased resonance light scattering signal and its potential application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanguang; Song, Tianhe; Peng, Yurui; Chen, Xi; Chen, Junhui; Zhang, Guomin; Qian, Sihua

    2011-10-07

    A novel assay has been developed to detect the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs based on the decreased resonance light scattering (RLS) technique. The proposed method can be used to study those drugs which do not produce a RLS-signal after binding to DNA. RLS was used to monitor the interaction of five anticancer drugs with DNA. The reaction between anticancer drugs and DNA took place in BR buffer solution. From the RLS assay, the sequence of five anticancer drugs activities was as follows: CTX < MTX < Pt < MMC < 5-Fu. Mammary cancer cell DNA (mcDNA) was involved to validate the RLS assay. The results showed that the sensitivities of the five anticancer drugs targeting both mcDNA and ctDNA increased in the same order. However the sensitivity of each drug to mcDNA was higher than that to ctDNA It is a significant innovation of the RLS method to detect the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs and to obtain drug sensitivity, which provides new strategies to screen DNA targeted anticancer drugs.

  8. In vitro and in vivo antitumoral effects of combinations of polyphenols, or polyphenols and anticancer drugs: perspectives on cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2015-04-24

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all of which are beneficial to human health. Due to their ability to modulate the activity of multiple targets involved in carcinogenesis through direct interaction or modulation of gene expression, polyphenols can be employed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, the main problem related to the use of polyphenols as anticancer agents is their poor bioavailability, which might hinder the in vivo effects of the single compound. In fact, polyphenols have a poor absorption and biodistribution, but also a fast metabolism and excretion in the human body. The poor bioavailability of a polyphenol will affect the effective dose delivered to cancer cells. One way to counteract this drawback could be combination treatment with different polyphenols or with polyphenols and other anti-cancer drugs, which can lead to more effective antitumor effects than treatment using only one of the compounds. This report reviews current knowledge on the anticancer effects of combinations of polyphenols or polyphenols and anticancer drugs, with a focus on their ability to modulate multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in cancer.

  9. In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumoral Effects of Combinations of Polyphenols, or Polyphenols and Anticancer Drugs: Perspectives on Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all of which are beneficial to human health. Due to their ability to modulate the activity of multiple targets involved in carcinogenesis through direct interaction or modulation of gene expression, polyphenols can be employed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, the main problem related to the use of polyphenols as anticancer agents is their poor bioavailability, which might hinder the in vivo effects of the single compound. In fact, polyphenols have a poor absorption and biodistribution, but also a fast metabolism and excretion in the human body. The poor bioavailability of a polyphenol will affect the effective dose delivered to cancer cells. One way to counteract this drawback could be combination treatment with different polyphenols or with polyphenols and other anti-cancer drugs, which can lead to more effective antitumor effects than treatment using only one of the compounds. This report reviews current knowledge on the anticancer effects of combinations of polyphenols or polyphenols and anticancer drugs, with a focus on their ability to modulate multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in cancer. PMID:25918934

  10. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of anticancer agents: implications for drug interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Kivistö, K T; Kroemer, H K; Eichelbaum, M

    1995-01-01

    1. Little information is available about the pharmacokinetic interactions of anticancer drugs in man. However, clinically significant drug interactions do occur in cancer chemotherapy, and it is likely that important interactions have not been recognized. 2. Specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been recently shown to be involved in the metabolism of several essential anticancer agents. In particular, enzymes of the CYP3A subfamily play a role in the metabolism of many anticancer drugs, including epipodophyllotoxins, ifosphamide, tamoxifen, taxol and vinca alkaloids. CYP3A4 has been shown to catalyse the activation of the prodrug ifosphamide, raising the possibility that ifosphamide could be activated in tumour tissues containing this enzyme. 3. As examples of recently found, clinically significant interactions, cyclosporin considerably increases plasma doxorubicin and etoposide concentrations. Although cyclosporin and calcium channel blockers may influence the pharmacokinetics of certain anticancer agents by inhibiting their CYP3A mediated metabolism, it is more likely that these P-glycoprotein inhibitors inhibit P-glycoprotein mediated drug elimination. 4. Appropriate caution should be exercised when combining P-glycoprotein inhibitors and potential CYP3A inhibitors with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:8703657

  11. A simple preparation of Ag@graphene nanocomposites for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of fluorescent anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ying; Yan, Xueying; Wang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    A simple method was developed to synthesize Ag@graphene nanocomposites with rough Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) conjugated with graphene nanosheets, and the nanocomposites could be used as substrates for effective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of fluorescent anticancer drug (Dox) since they could not only enhance the Raman signals but also suppress the fluorescent signals.

  12. The anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, causes oxidant stress-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew B; Baynes, John W

    2006-02-01

    The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is toxic to target cells, but also causes endothelial dysfunction and edema, secondary to oxidative stress in the vascular wall. Thus, the mechanism of action of this drug may involve chemotoxicity to both cancer cells and to the endothelium. Indeed, we found that the permeability of monolayers of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) to albumin was increased by approximately 10-fold above control, following 24-h exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of DOX (up to 1 microM). DOX also caused >4-fold increases in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and large decreases in ATP and reduced glutathione (GSH) in BPAECs, which paralleled the increases in endothelial permeability. A large part of the ATP loss could be attributed to DOX-induced hydrogen peroxide production which inhibited key thiol-enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Depletion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) appeared to be a major factor leading to DOX-induced GSH depletion. At low concentrations, the sulfhydryl reagent, iodoacetate (IA), inhibited GAPDH, caused a decrease in ATP and increased permeability, without inhibiting G6PDH or decreasing GSH. These results, coupled with those of previous work on a related quinone, menadione, suggest that depletion of either GSH or ATP may lead independently to endothelial dysfunction during chemotherapy, contributing to the cardiotoxicity and other systemic side-effects of the drug.

  13. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anti-cancer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R.; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R.; McCormick, Alon V.; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX) silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt% of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80–150 nm in size with a loading level of 47–74 weight percent (wt%) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36–59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy. PMID:26505116

  14. Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)—diclofenac as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Sukhatme, Vidula; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2016-01-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a well-known and widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with a range of actions which are of interest in an oncological context. While there has long been an interest in the use of NSAIDs in chemoprevention, there is now emerging evidence that such drugs may have activity in a treatment setting. DCF, which is a potent inhibitor of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthesis, displays a range of effects on the immune system, the angiogenic cascade, chemo- and radio-sensitivity and tumour metabolism. Both pre-clinical and clinical evidence of these effects, in multiple cancer types, is assessed and summarised and relevant mechanisms of action outlined. Based on this evidence the case is made for further clinical investigation of the anticancer effects of DCF, particularly in combination with other agents - with a range of possible multi-drug and multi-modality combinations outlined in the supplementary materials accompanying the main paper. PMID:26823679

  15. Enhanced cytotoxicity of anticancer drug delivered by novel nanoscale polymeric carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoika, R.; Boiko, N.; Senkiv, Y.; Shlyakhtina, Y.; Panchuk, R.; Finiuk, N.; Filyak, Y.; Bilyy, R.; Kit, Y.; Skorohyd, N.; Klyuchivska, O.; Zaichenko, A.; Mitina, N.; Ryabceva, A.

    2013-04-01

    We compared in vitro action of highly toxic anticancer drug doxorubicin under its delivery to the mammalian tumor cells in free form and after encapsulation in novel bio-functionalized nanoscale polymeric carrier. Such encapsulation was found to enhance significantly drug uptake by the targeted cells, as well as its cytotoxic action. 10 times higher cytotoxicity of the carrier-immobilized doxorubicin comparing to its free form was demonstrated by direct cell counting, and 5 times higher cytotoxicity of encapsulated doxorubicin was shown by FACS analysis. The polymeric carrier itself did not possess significant toxicity in vitro or in vivo (laboratory mice). The carrier protected against negative side effects of doxorubicin in mice with experimental NK/Ly lymphoma. The life duration of tumor-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin-carrier complex was significantly longer than life duration in animals treated with free doxorubicin. Besides, the effective treatment dose of the carrier-delivered doxorubicin in tumor-bearing mice was 10 times lower than such dose of free doxorubicin. Thus, novel nanoscale polymers possess high potential as drug carrier.

  16. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel-Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anticancer Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R; McCormick, Alon V; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W

    2015-12-07

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX)-silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt % of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80-150 nm in size with a loading level of 47-74 wt % (wt %) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36-59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy.

  17. Mechanical downsizing of a gadolinium(III)-based metal-organic framework for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Tanay; Mitra, Shouvik; Patra, Prasun; Goswami, Arunava; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2014-08-11

    A Gd(III) -based porous metal-organic framework (MOF), Gd-pDBI, has been synthesized using fluorescent linker pDBI (pDBI=(1,4-bis(5-carboxy-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)benzene)), resulting in a three-dimensional interpenetrated structure with a one-dimensional open channel (1.9×1.2 nm) filled with hydrogen-bonded water assemblies. Gd-pDBI exhibits high thermal stability, porosity, excellent water stability, along with organic-solvent and mild acid and base stability with retention of crystallinity. Gd-pDBI was transformed to the nanoscale regime (ca. 140 nm) by mechanical grinding to yield MG-Gd-pDBI with excellent water dispersibility (>90 min), maintaining its porosity and crystallinity. In vitro and in vivo studies on MG-Gd-pDBI revealed its low blood toxicity and highest drug loading (12 wt %) of anticancer drug doxorubicin in MOFs reported to date with pH-responsive cancer-cell-specific drug release.

  18. Tumor-targeting peptides and small molecules as anti-cancer agents to overcome drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ehsan; Pincus, Matthew R; Michl, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of chemotherapy in cancer therapy, development of resistance to every new therapeutic has been the universal experience. The growing understanding of cancer genomics, cancer-associated signal transduction pathways, and key protein drivers of cancer has enabled cancer biologists and medicinal chemists to develop targeted molecules to interfere with these pathways to tackle drug resistant cancers. However, to the dismay of oncologists, the clinical use of many of these tools has once again brought to the forefront the inevitable challenge of drug resistance. It is now understood that cancer resistance to different therapies involves multiple challenges that encompass the cancer cell itself as well as host physiology. This review presents small molecule inhibitors and peptides as two therapeutic approaches in anti-cancer drug development. Resistance to selected samples of these novel therapies is described in the context of cell autonomous resistance, the contributions of the tumor microenvironment, and germ line factors. For each approach, advantages and disadvantages are discussed on how to better overcome the inevitable challenge of resistance in cancer treatment.

  19. A Comprehensive Review on Cyclodextrin-Based Carriers for Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Cytotoxic Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents have poor aqueous solubility. These molecules are associated with poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which makes the formulation difficult. An important approach in this regard is the use of combination of cyclodextrin and nanotechnology in delivery system. This paper provides an overview of limitations associated with anticancer drugs, their complexation with cyclodextrins, loading/encapsulating the complexed drugs into carriers, and various approaches used for the delivery. The present review article aims to assess the utility of cyclodextrin-based carriers like liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, micelles, millirods, and siRNA for delivery of antineoplastic agents. These systems based on cyclodextrin complexation and nanotechnology will camouflage the undesirable properties of drug and lead to synergistic or additive effect. Cyclodextrin-based nanotechnology seems to provide better therapeutic effect and sustain long life of healthy and recovered cells. Still, considerable study on delivery system and administration routes of cyclodextrin-based carriers is necessary with respect to their pharmacokinetics and toxicology to substantiate their safety and efficiency. In future, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents. PMID:26582104

  20. Microvesicle removal of anticancer drugs contributes to drug resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Kohan, Hamed Gilzad; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G.; Sudha, Thangirala; Sell, Stewart; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Boroujerdi, Mehdi; Davis, Paul J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2016-01-01

    High mortality in pancreatic cancer patients is partly due to resistance to chemotherapy. We describe that human pancreatic cancer cells acquire drug resistance by a novel mechanism in which they expel and remove chemotherapeutic drugs from the microenvironment via microvesicles (MVs). Using human pancreatic cancer cells that exhibit varied sensitivity to gemcitabine (GEM), we show that GEM exposure triggers the cancer cells to release MVs in an amount that correlates with that cell line's sensitivity to GEM. The importance of MV-release in gaining drug resistance in GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer cells was confirmed when the inhibition of MV-release sensitized the cells to GEM treatment, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, MVs remove drugs that are internalized into the cells and that are in the microenvironment. The differences between the drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines tested here are explained based on the variable content of influx/efflux proteins present on MVs, which directly dictates the ability of MVs either to trap GEM or to allow GEM to flow back to the microenvironment. PMID:27391262

  1. miR-335 Targets SIAH2 and Confers Sensitivity to Anti-Cancer Drugs by Increasing the Expression of HDAC3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmi; Kim, Hyuna; Park, Deokbum; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in response to anti-cancer drugs. The decreased expression of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell line is responsible for the resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms associated with regulation of HDAC3 expression. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation, induced the expression of HDAC3 in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Ubiquitination of HDAC3 was observed in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. HDAC3 showed an interaction with SIAH2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, that has increased expression in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miRNA array analysis showed the decreased expression of miR-335 in these cells. Targetscan analysis predicted the binding of miR-335 to the 3′-UTR of SIAH2. miR-335-mediated increased sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs was associated with its effect on HDAC3 and SIAH2 expression. miR-335 exerted apoptotic effects and inhibited ubiquitination of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miR-335 negatively regulated the invasion, migration, and growth rate of cancer cells. The mouse xenograft model showed that miR-335 negatively regulated the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. The down-regulation of SIAH2 conferred sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. The results of the study indicated that the miR-335/SIAH2/HDAC3 axis regulates the response to anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25997740

  2. Enhancing cell nucleus accumulation and DNA cleavage activity of anti-cancer drug via graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Wu, Congyu; Zhou, Xuejiao; Han, Ting; Xin, Xiaozhen; Wu, Jiaying; Zhang, Jingyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2013-10-04

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) maintain the intrinsic layered structural motif of graphene but with smaller lateral size and abundant periphery carboxylic groups, and are more compatible with biological system, thus are promising nanomaterials for therapeutic applications. Here we show that GQDs have a superb ability in drug delivery and anti-cancer activity boost without any pre-modification due to their unique structural properties. They could efficiently deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to the nucleus through DOX/GQD conjugates, because the conjugates assume different cellular and nuclear internalization pathways comparing to free DOX. Also, the conjugates could enhance DNA cleavage activity of DOX markedly. This enhancement combining with efficient nuclear delivery improved cytotoxicity of DOX dramatically. Furthermore, the DOX/GQD conjugates could also increase the nuclear uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX to drug-resistant cancer cells indicating that the conjugates may be capable to increase chemotherapy efficacy of anti-cancer drugs that are suboptimal due to the drug resistance.

  3. Drug-Drug Molecular Salt Hydrate of an Anticancer Drug Gefitinib and a Loop Diuretic Drug Furosemide: An Alternative for Multidrug Treatment.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Shridhar H; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Patwadkar, Manjusha V; Badiger, Manohar V; Gonnade, Rajesh G

    2015-12-01

    A 1:1 monohydrate salt containing gefitinib, an orally administrated chemotherapy treatment for lung and breast cancers and furosemide, a loop diuretic drug, commonly used in the treatment of hypertension and edema, has been prepared. The molecular salt crystallized in triclinic P-1 space group. The C-O bond lengths (~1.26 Å) in the COOH group show that proton transfer has occurred from furosemide to morpholine moiety of the gefitinib suggesting cocrystal to be ionic. The morpholine moiety of the gefitinib showed significant conformational change because of its involvement in conformation dictating the strong N-H···O hydrogen bonding interaction. The strong hydrogen bonding interaction between gefitinib and furosemide places their benzene rings in stacking mode to facilitate the generation of π-stack dimers. The neighboring dimers are bridged to each other via water molecule through N-H···O, C-H···O, O-H···N, and O-H···O interactions. The remarkable stability of the salt hydrate could be attributed to the strong hydrogen bonding interactions in the crystal structure. Interestingly, release of water from the lattice at 140°C produced new anhydrous salt that has better solubility and dissolution rate than salt hydrate. The drug-drug molecular salt may have some bearing on the treatment of patient suffering from anticancer and hypertension.

  4. A smart magnetic nanoplatform for synergistic anticancer therapy: manoeuvring mussel-inspired functional magnetic nanoparticles for pH responsive anticancer drug delivery and hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, Arathyram Ramachandra Kurup; Ghavaminejad, Amin; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeongju; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-10-01

    We report the versatile design of a smart nanoplatform for thermo-chemotherapy treatment of cancer. For the first time in the literature, our design takes advantage of the outstanding properties of mussel-inspired multiple catecholic groups - presenting a unique copolymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dopamine methacrylamide) p(HEMA-co-DMA) to surface functionalize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as well as to conjugate borate containing anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ) in a pH-dependent manner for the synergistic anticancer treatment. The unique multiple anchoring groups can be used to substantially improve the affinity of the ligands to the surfaces of the nanoparticles to form ultrastable iron oxide nanoparticles with control over their hydrodynamic diameter and interfacial chemistry. Thus the BTZ-incorporated-bio-inspired-smart magnetic nanoplatform will act as a hyperthermic agent that delivers heat when an alternating magnetic field is applied while the BTZ-bound catechol moieties act as chemotherapeutic agents in a cancer environment by providing pH-dependent drug release for the synergistic thermo-chemotherapy application. The anticancer efficacy of these bio-inspired multifunctional smart magnetic nanoparticles was tested both in vitro and in vivo and found that these unique magnetic nanoplatforms can be established to endow for the next generation of nanomedicine for efficient and safe cancer therapy.We report the versatile design of a smart nanoplatform for thermo-chemotherapy treatment of cancer. For the first time in the literature, our design takes advantage of the outstanding properties of mussel-inspired multiple catecholic groups - presenting a unique copolymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dopamine methacrylamide) p(HEMA-co-DMA) to surface functionalize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as well as to conjugate borate containing anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ) in a pH-dependent manner for the synergistic

  5. Nanoparticulated docetaxel exerts enhanced anticancer efficacy and overcomes existing limitations of traditional drugs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinhyang; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jae Hee; Ju, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Intae; Kim, Kab-Sig; Lee, Joo-Hwan; Son, Woo-Chan; Lee, Jung Shin; Jung, Joohee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticulation of insoluble drugs improves dissolution rate, resulting in increased bioavailability that leads to increased stability, better efficacy, and reduced toxicity of drugs. Docetaxel (DTX), under the trade name Taxotere™, is one of the representative anticancer chemotherapeutic agents of this era. However, this highly lipophilic and insoluble drug has many adverse effects. Our novel and widely applicable nanoparticulation using fat and supercritical fluid (NUFS™) technology enabled successful nanoscale particulation of DTX (Nufs-DTX). Nufs-DTX showed enhanced dissolution rate and increased aqueous stability in water. After confirming the preserved mechanism of action of DTX, which targets microtubules, we showed that Nufs-DTX exhibited similar effects in proliferation and clonogenic assays using A549 cells. Interestingly, we observed that Nufs-DTX had a greater in vivo tumor growth delay effect on an A549 xenograft model than Taxotere™, which was in agreement with the improved drug accumulation in tumors according to the biodistribution result, and was caused by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Although both Nufs-DTX and Taxotere™ showed negative results for our administration dose in the hematologic toxicity test, Nufs-DTX showed much less toxicity than Taxotere™ in edema, paralysis, and paw-withdrawal latency on a hot plate analysis that are regarded as indicators of fluid retention, peripheral neuropathy, and thermal threshold, respectively, for toxicological tests. In summary, compared with Taxotere™, Nufs-DTX, which was generated by our new platform technology using lipid, supercritical fluid, and carbon dioxide (CO2), maintained its biochemical properties as a cytotoxic agent and had better tumor targeting ability, better in vivo therapeutic effect, and less toxicity, thereby overcoming the current hurdles of traditional drugs.

  6. Increase in E-selectin expression in umbilical vein endothelial cells by anticancer drugs and inhibition by cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Jin; Ozawa, Soji; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Imaeda, Yoshihiro; Umemoto, Shunji; Matsumoto, Sumio; Ueda, Masakazu

    2009-12-01

    E-selectin is expressed on the surfaces of stimulated vascular endothelial cells and is sometimes involved in cancer cell metastasis. The H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine inhibits the increase in E-selectin expression on vascular endothelial cells that is induced by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and cimetidine. It also inhibits the adhesion of sialyl-Lewis-antigen-positive cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells, ultimately inhibiting hematogenous metastasis. Anticancer drugs are essential to cancer therapy, but whether they can alter the expression of E-selectin in vascular endothelial cells remains unclear. Whether cimetidine inhibits the expression of E-selectin in the same manner in the presence or absence of anticancer drugs also remains unknown. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin (DXR), cisplatin (CDDP), or IL-1beta and with or without cimetidine. The expression of E-selectin at the mRNA and protein levels was then determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The E-selectin mRNA level increased in cells exposed to 5-FU, DXR, or CDDP, but the addition of cimetidine had no effect on the E-selectin mRNA level. The expression of E-selectin protein was also significantly higher after the addition of 5-FU, DXR, or CDDP, compared with that of a negative control. However, when cimetidine was added prior to the addition of 5-FU, DXR, or CDDP, the expression of E-selectin was significantly suppressed. Thus, cimetidine significantly inhibited the expression of E-selectin at the protein level without affecting its expression at the mRNA level in cells treated with anticancer drugs. In conclusion, anticancer drugs increased the expression of E-selectin and this increase was inhibited by cimetidine. These findings suggest that the administration of cimetidine during treatment with anticancer drugs might be useful for preventing

  7. Effective combination treatment of lung cancer cells by single vehicular delivery of siRNA and different anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xue, Shanshan; Sun, Jinghua; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ping; Ji, Liangnian; Mao, Zongwan

    In recent years, lung cancer has become one of the fastest growing cancers in the world. Thus, the development of efficient combination therapy to treat lung cancer has attracted significant attention in the cancer therapy field. In this article, we developed a single vehicle drug delivery system, based on quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA; target Bcl-2) and different anticancer drugs (carboplatin, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin) simultaneously for treating A549 lung cancer cells efficiently by combination therapy. The QD nanoparticles were conjugated with l-arginine (l-Arg) and different kinds of hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins (HP-α-CDs, HP-β-CDs, and HP-γ-CDs) on the surface to form the delivery nanocarriers (QD nanocarriers). They were able to not only bind and transport the siRNA through electrostatic interactions with l-Arg residues but also accommodate various disparate anticancer drugs using different HP-CD modifications. Compared with free drug treatments, the use of QD nanocarriers to deliver Bcl-2 siRNA and different anticancer drugs simultaneously exerted a threefold to fourfold increase in cytotoxicity in A549 cells, which greatly improved the treatment efficacy through combined action. Furthermore, the QD nanocarriers could be used as a probe for real-time imaging of the drug delivery and release because of their strong fluorescence properties. These findings indicate that multifunctional QD nanocarriers hold great promise as a powerful tool for combination therapy for lung cancer.

  8. Synergistically enhanced selective intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carrier comprising folic acid-conjugated hydrogels containing magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haneul; Jo, Ara; Baek, Seulgi; Lim, Daeun; Park, Soon-Yong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Chung, Jin Woong; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2017-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery has long been extensively researched since drug delivery and release at the diseased site with minimum dosage realizes the effective therapy without adverse side effects. In this work, to achieve enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carriers for efficient chemo-therapy, we have designed targeted multifunctional anticancer drug carrier hydrogels. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel core containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were prepared using precipitation polymerization, and further polymerized with amine-functionalized copolymer shell to facilitate the conjugation of targeting ligand. Then, folic acid, specific targeting ligand for cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), was conjugated on the hydrogel surface, yielding the ligand conjugated hybrid hydrogels. We revealed that enhanced intracellular uptake by HeLa cells in vitro was enabled by both magnetic attraction and receptor-mediated endocytosis, which were contributed by MNP and folic acid, respectively. Furthermore, site-specific uptake of the developed carrier was confirmed by incubating with several other cell lines. Based on synergistically enhanced intracellular uptake, efficient cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of HeLa cells incubated with anticancer drug loaded hybrid hydrogels were successfully achieved. The developed dual-targeted hybrid hydrogels are expected to provide a platform for the next generation intelligent drug delivery systems. PMID:28106163

  9. Synergistically enhanced selective intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carrier comprising folic acid-conjugated hydrogels containing magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Haneul; Jo, Ara; Baek, Seulgi; Lim, Daeun; Park, Soon-Yong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Chung, Jin Woong; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2017-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery has long been extensively researched since drug delivery and release at the diseased site with minimum dosage realizes the effective therapy without adverse side effects. In this work, to achieve enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carriers for efficient chemo-therapy, we have designed targeted multifunctional anticancer drug carrier hydrogels. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel core containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were prepared using precipitation polymerization, and further polymerized with amine-functionalized copolymer shell to facilitate the conjugation of targeting ligand. Then, folic acid, specific targeting ligand for cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), was conjugated on the hydrogel surface, yielding the ligand conjugated hybrid hydrogels. We revealed that enhanced intracellular uptake by HeLa cells in vitro was enabled by both magnetic attraction and receptor-mediated endocytosis, which were contributed by MNP and folic acid, respectively. Furthermore, site-specific uptake of the developed carrier was confirmed by incubating with several other cell lines. Based on synergistically enhanced intracellular uptake, efficient cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of HeLa cells incubated with anticancer drug loaded hybrid hydrogels were successfully achieved. The developed dual-targeted hybrid hydrogels are expected to provide a platform for the next generation intelligent drug delivery systems.

  10. Effective combination treatment of lung cancer cells by single vehicular delivery of siRNA and different anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xue, Shanshan; Sun, Jinghua; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ping; Ji, Liangnian; Mao, Zongwan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, lung cancer has become one of the fastest growing cancers in the world. Thus, the development of efficient combination therapy to treat lung cancer has attracted significant attention in the cancer therapy field. In this article, we developed a single vehicle drug delivery system, based on quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA; target Bcl-2) and different anticancer drugs (carboplatin, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin) simultaneously for treating A549 lung cancer cells efficiently by combination therapy. The QD nanoparticles were conjugated with l-arginine (l-Arg) and different kinds of hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins (HP-α-CDs, HP-β-CDs, and HP-γ-CDs) on the surface to form the delivery nanocarriers (QD nanocarriers). They were able to not only bind and transport the siRNA through electrostatic interactions with l-Arg residues but also accommodate various disparate anticancer drugs using different HP-CD modifications. Compared with free drug treatments, the use of QD nanocarriers to deliver Bcl-2 siRNA and different anticancer drugs simultaneously exerted a threefold to fourfold increase in cytotoxicity in A549 cells, which greatly improved the treatment efficacy through combined action. Furthermore, the QD nanocarriers could be used as a probe for real-time imaging of the drug delivery and release because of their strong fluorescence properties. These findings indicate that multifunctional QD nanocarriers hold great promise as a powerful tool for combination therapy for lung cancer. PMID:27695321

  11. Curcumin and its promise as an anticancer drug: An analysis of its anticancer and antifungal effects in cancer and associated complications from invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; He, Zheng-Min; Wang, Feng-Ling; Zhang, Zheng-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-zhen; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Chen, Wei-Dong

    2016-02-05

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are important complications of cancer, and they have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Effective anti-infection therapy is necessary to inhibit significant deterioration from these infections. However, they are difficult to treat, and increasing antifungal drug resistance often leads to a relapse. Curcumin, a natural component that is isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa plants, has attracted great interest among many scientists studying solid cancers over the last half century. Interestingly, curcumin provides an ideal alternative to current therapies because of its relatively safe profile, even at high doses. To date, curcumin's potent antifungal activity against different strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Trichosporon and Paracoccidioides have been reported, indicating that curcumin anticancer drugs may also possess an antifungal role, helping cancer patients to resist IFI complications. The aim of this review is to discuss curcumin's dual pharmacological activities regarding its applications as a natural anticancer and antifungal agent. These dual pharmacological activities are expected to lead to clinical trials and to improve infection survival among cancer patients.

  12. Biomaterial-based regional chemotherapy: Local anticancer drug delivery to enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side-effects.

    PubMed

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2016-05-01

    Since the majority of anticancer pharmacological agents affect not only cancer tissue but also normal cells, chemotherapy is usually accompanied with severe side effects. Regional chemotherapy, as the alternative version of conventional treatment, leads to the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and, simultaneously, reduction of toxic effects to healthy tissues. This paper provides an insight into different approaches of local delivery of chemotherapeutics, such as the injection of anticancer agents directly into tumor tissue, the use of injectable in situ forming drug carriers or injectable platforms in a form of implants. The wide range of biomaterials used as reservoirs of anticancer drugs is described, i.e. poly(ethylene glycol) and its copolymers, polyurethanes, poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, chitosan, cellulose, cyclodextrins, silk, conducting polymers, modified titanium surfaces, calcium phosphate based biomaterials, silicone and silica implants, as well as carbon nanotubes and graphene. To emphasize the applicability of regional chemotherapy in cancer treatment, the commercially available products approved by the relevant health agencies are presented.

  13. miktoarm polymer: controlled synthesis, characterization, and application as anticancer drug carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenjing; Nie, Shuyu; Xiong, Di; Guo, Xindong; Wang, Jufang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-05-01

    Amphiphilic A2(BC)2 miktoarm star polymers [poly(ɛ-caprolactone)]2-[poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)- b- poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)]2 [(PCL)2(PDEA- b-PPEGMA)2] were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values were extremely low (0.0024 to 0.0043 mg/mL), depending on the architecture of the polymers. The self-assembled empty and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were spherical in morphologies, and the average sizes were about 63 and 110 nm. The release of DOX at pH 5.0 was much faster than that at pH 6.5 and pH 7.4. Moreover, DOX-loaded micelles could effectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells HepG2 with IC50 of 2.0 μg/mL. Intracellular uptake demonstrated that DOX was delivered into the cells effectively after the cells were incubated with DOX-loaded micelles. Therefore, the pH-sensitive (PCL)2(PDEA- b-PPEGMA)2 micelles could be a prospective candidate as anticancer drug carrier for hydrophobic drugs with sustained release behavior.

  14. The human organic cation transporter OCT1 mediates high affinity uptake of the anticancer drug daunorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Emil; Brosseau, Nicolas; Carmona, Euridice; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Ramotar, Dindial

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines such as daunorubicin are anticancer agents that are transported into cells, and exert cytotoxicity by blocking DNA metabolism. Although there is evidence for active uptake of anthracyclines into cells, the specific transporter involved in this process has not been identified. Using the high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell line TOV2223G, we show that OCT1 mediated the high affinity (Km ~ 5 μM) uptake of daunorubicin into the cells, and that micromolar amounts of choline completely abolished the drug entry. OCT1 downregulation by shRNA impaired daunorubicin uptake into the TOV2223G cells, and these cells were significantly more resistant to the drug in comparison to the control shRNA. Transfection of HEK293T cells, which accommodated the ectopic expression of OCT1, with a plasmid expressing OCT1-EYFP showed that the transporter was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane. These transfected cells exhibited an increase in the uptake of daunorubicin in comparison to control cells transfected with an empty EYFP vector. Furthermore, a variant of OCT1, OCT1-D474C-EYFP, failed to enhance daunorubicin uptake. This is the first report demonstrating that human OCT1 is involved in the high affinity transport of anthracyclines. We postulate that OCT1 defects may contribute to the resistance of cancer cells treated with anthracyclines. PMID:26861753

  15. Modulation of Epigenetic Targets for Anticancer Therapy: Clinicopathological Relevance, Structural Data and Drug Discovery Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Andreol, Federico; Barbosa, Arménio Jorge Moura; Daniele Parenti, Marco; Rio, Alberto Del

    2013-01-01

    Research on cancer epigenetics has flourished in the last decade. Nevertheless growing evidence point on the importance to understand the mechanisms by which epigenetic changes regulate the genesis and progression of cancer growth. Several epigenetic targets have been discovered and are currently under validation for new anticancer therapies. Drug discovery approaches aiming to target these epigenetic enzymes with small-molecules inhibitors have produced the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes and many other compounds are now entering the pipeline as new candidate epidrugs. The most studied targets can be ascribed to histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases, although several other classes of enzymes are able to operate post-translational modifications to histone tails are also likely to represent new frontiers for therapeutic interventions. By acknowledging that the field of cancer epigenetics is evolving with an impressive rate of new findings, with this review we aim to provide a current overview of pre-clinical applications of small-molecules for cancer pathologies, combining them with the current knowledge of epigenetic targets in terms of available structural data and drug design perspectives. PMID:23016851

  16. Shotgun ecotoxicoproteomics of Daphnia pulex: biochemical effects of the anticancer drug tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Borgatta, Myriam; Hernandez, Céline; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Chèvre, Nathalie; Waridel, Patrice

    2015-01-02

    Among pollutants released into the environment by human activities, residues of pharmaceuticals are an increasing matter of concern because of their potential impact on ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze differences of protein expression resulting from acute (2 days) and middle-term (7 days) exposure of aquatic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex to the anticancer drug tamoxifen. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry shotgun approach, about 4000 proteins could be identified, providing the largest proteomics data set of D. pulex published up to now. Considering both time points and tested concentrations, 189 proteins showed a significant fold change. The identity of regulated proteins suggested a decrease in translation, an increase in protein degradation and changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as the major effects of the drug. Besides these impacted processes, which reflect a general stress response of the organism, some other regulated proteins play a role in Daphnia reproduction. These latter results are in accordance with our previous observations of the impact of tamoxifen on D. pulex reproduction and illustrate the potential of ecotoxicoproteomics to unravel links between xenobiotic effects at the biochemical and organismal levels. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001257.

  17. Activation of the anticancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide by cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants.

    PubMed

    Vredenburg, Galvin; den Braver-Sewradj, Shalenie; van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M A; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vos, J Chris

    2015-01-05

    Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and ifosfamide (IFA) are widely used anticancer agents that require metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. While 4-hydroxylation yields DNA-alkylating and cytotoxic metabolites, N-dechloroethylation results in the generation of neuro- and nephrotoxic byproducts. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies (GDEPT) have been suggested to facilitate local CPA and IFA bioactivation by expressing CYP enzymes within the tumor cells, thereby increasing efficacy. We screened bacterial CYP BM3 mutants, previously engineered to metabolize drug-like compounds, for their ability to catalyze 4-hydroxylation of CPA and IFA. Two CYP BM3 mutants showed very rapid initial bioactivation of CPA and IFA, followed by a slower phase of product formation. N-dechloroethylation by these mutants was very low (IFA) to undetectable (CPA). Using purified CYP BM3 as an extracellular bioactivation tool, cytotoxicity of CPA and IFA metabolism was confirmed in U2OS cells. This novel application of CYP BM3 possibly provides a clean and catalytically efficient alternative to liver microsomes or S9 for the study of CYP-mediated drug toxicity. To our knowledge, the observed rate of CPA and IFA 4-hydroxylation by these CYP BM3 mutants is the fastest reported to date, and might be of potential interest for CPA and IFA GDEPT.

  18. The new generation drug candidate molecules: Spectral, electrochemical, DNA-binding and anticancer activity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gölcü, Ayşegül; Muslu, Harun; Kılıçaslan, Derya; Çeşme, Mustafa; Eren, Özge; Ataş, Fatma; Demirtaş, İbrahim

    2016-09-01

    The new generation drug candidate molecules [Cu(5-Fu)2Cl2H2O] (NGDCM1) and [Zn(5-Fu)2(CH3COO)2] (NGDCM2) were obtained from the reaction of copper(II) and zinc(II) salts with the anticancer drug 5-fluoracil (5-Fu). These compounds have been characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Thermal behavior of the compounds were also investigated. The electrochemical properties of the compounds have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the NGDCM1 and NGDCM2 has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to fish sperm double strand DNA (FSdsDNA) with UV spectroscopy. UV studies of the interaction of the 5-Fu and metal derivatives with FSdsDNA have shown that these compounds can bind to FSdsDNA. The binding constants of the compounds with FSdsDNA have also been calculated. Thermal decomposition of the compounds lead to the formation of CuO and ZnO as final products. The effect of proliferation 5-Fu, NGDCM1 and NGDCM2 were examined on the HeLa cells using real-time cell analyzer with three different concentrations.

  19. Origanum majorana Attenuates Nephrotoxicity of Cisplatin Anticancer Drug through Ameliorating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Desouky, Shreen; Marzouk, Mohamed; Sayed, Amany A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that cisplatin is an important anticancer drug, its clinical utilization is limited by nephrotoxicity during long term medication. Combined cisplatin chemotherapy with plant extracts can diminish toxicity and enhance the antitumor efficacy of the drug. This study evaluated the effect of Originum majorana ethanolic extract (OMEE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups as follows: a control group, a group treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg body weight), and a group that received both cisplatin and OMEE (500 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Cisplatin induced a significant increase in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels. However, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly diminished. Conversely, OMEE significantly modulated the renal and oxidative markers negatively impacted by cisplatin. OMEE significantly reduced the effects of cisplatin-induced changes in renal and oxidative markers, possibly through its free radical scavenging activity. Thus, OMEE may be combined with cisplatin to alleviate nephrotoxicity in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27164131

  20. Origanum majorana Attenuates Nephrotoxicity of Cisplatin Anticancer Drug through Ameliorating Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amel M; Desouky, Shreen; Marzouk, Mohamed; Sayed, Amany A

    2016-05-05

    Despite the fact that cisplatin is an important anticancer drug, its clinical utilization is limited by nephrotoxicity during long term medication. Combined cisplatin chemotherapy with plant extracts can diminish toxicity and enhance the antitumor efficacy of the drug. This study evaluated the effect of Originum majorana ethanolic extract (OMEE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups as follows: a control group, a group treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg body weight), and a group that received both cisplatin and OMEE (500 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Cisplatin induced a significant increase in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels. However, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly diminished. Conversely, OMEE significantly modulated the renal and oxidative markers negatively impacted by cisplatin. OMEE significantly reduced the effects of cisplatin-induced changes in renal and oxidative markers, possibly through its free radical scavenging activity. Thus, OMEE may be combined with cisplatin to alleviate nephrotoxicity in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Targeting Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: A New Approach in Anti-cancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Robert D.; Njar, Vincent C.O.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) represent a large class of heme-containing enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of multitudes of substrates both endogenous and exogenous. Until recently, however, CYPs have been largely overlooked in cancer drug development, acknowledged only for their role in Phase I metabolism of chemotherapeutics. The first successful strategy targeting CYP enzymes in cancer therapy was the development of potent inhibitors of CYP19 (aromatase) for the treatment of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors ushered in a new era in hormone ablation therapy for estrogen dependent cancers, and have paved the way for similar strategies (i.e. inhibition of CYP17) that combat androgen dependent prostate cancer. Identification of CYPs involved in the inactivation of anti-cancer metabolites of Vitamin D3 and Vitamin A has triggered development of agents that target these enzymes as well. The discovery of the over-expression of exogenous metabolizing CYPs, such as CYP1B1, in cancer cells has roused interest in the development of inhibitors for chemoprevention and of prodrugs designed to be activated by CYPs only in cancer cells. Finally, the expression of CYPs within tumors has been utilized in the development of bioreductive molecules that are activated by CYPs only under hypoxic conditions. This review offers the first comprehensive analysis of strategies in drug development that either inhibit or exploit CYP enzymes for the treatment of cancer. PMID:17544277

  2. Novel 3-D cell culture system for in vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs under anchorage-independent conditions.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Ayako; Abe, Natsuki; Saruhashi, Koichiro; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Nishino, Taito

    2016-12-01

    Anticancer drug discovery efforts have used 2-D cell-based assay models, which fail to forecast in vivo efficacy and result in a lower success rate of clinical approval. Recent 3-D cell culture models are expected to bridge the gap between 2-D and in vivo models. However, 3-D cell culture methods that are available for practical anticancer drug screening have not yet been fully attained. In this study, we screened several polymers for their ability to suspend cells or cell spheroids homogeneously in a liquid medium without changing the viscosity behavior, and identified gellan gum (FP001), as the most potent polymer. FP001 promoted cell dispersion in the medium and improved the proliferation of a wide range of cancer cell lines under low attachment conditions by inhibiting the formation of large-sized spheroids. In addition, cancer cells cultured with FP001-containing medium were more susceptible to inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling than those cultured under attachment conditions. We also showed that ligands of the EGF receptor family clearly enhance proliferation of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells under anchorage-independent conditions with FP001. Consistent with this result, the cells grown with FP001 showed higher EGF receptor content compared with cells cultured under attachment conditions. In conclusion, we developed a novel 3-D cell culture system that is available for high throughput screening of anticancer agents, and is suitable for evaluation of molecular-targeted anticancer drugs. Three-dimensional cell culture using FP001 will be of value in the development of useful technologies for anticancer drug discovery.

  3. Interaction of anticancer drug clofarabine with human serum albumin and human α-1 acid glycoprotein. Spectroscopic and molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Nusrat, Saima; Alam, Parvez; Zaidi, Nida; Khan, Mohsin Vahid; Zaman, Masihuz; Shahein, Yasser E; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-02-20

    The binding interaction between clofarabine, an important anticancer drug and two important carrier proteins found abundantly in human plasma, Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and α-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) was investigated by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results obtained from fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of HSA and AAG is quenched by clofarabine and the static mode of fluorescence quenching is operative. UV-vis spectroscopy deciphered the formation of ground state complex between anticancer drug and the two studied proteins. Clofarabine was found to bind at 298K with both AAG and HSA with the binding constant of 8.128×10(3) and 4.120×10(3) for AAG and HSA, respectively. There is stronger interaction of clofarabine with AAG as compared to HSA. The Gibbs free energy change was found to be negative for the interaction of clofarabine with AAG and HSA indicating that the binding process is spontaneous. Binding of clofarabine with HSA and AAG induced ordered structures in both proteins and lead to molecular compaction. Clofarabine binds to HSA near to drug site II. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main bonding forces between HSA-clofarabine and AAG-clofarabine as revealed by docking results. This study suggests the importance of binding of anticancer drug to AAG spatially in the diseases like cancers where the plasma concentration of AAG increases many folds. Design of drug dosage can be adjusted accordingly to achieve optimal treatment outcome.

  4. Prediction and Early Evaluation of Anticancer Therapy Response: From Imaging of Drug Efflux Pumps to Targeted Therapy Response.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingqing; Li, Zheng; Li, Shaoshun

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) describes the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy and has been ascribed to the overexpression of drug efflux pumps. Molecular imaging of drug efflux pumps is helpful to identify the patients who may be resistant to the chemotherapy and thus will avoid the unnecessary treatment and increase the therapeutic effectiveness. Imaging probes targeting drug efflux pumps can non-invasively evaluate the Pgp function and play an important role in identification of MDR, prediction of response, and monitoring MDR modulation. On the other hand, new anticancer agents based on molecular targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and angiogenic factor receptor may potentially be combined with chemotherapeutic drugs to overcome the MDR. Imaging of molecular targets visualize treatment response of patients at molecular level vividly and help to select right patients for certain targeted anticancer therapy. Among all the imaging modalities, nuclear imaging including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has the greatest promise for rapid translation to the clinic and can realize quantitative visualization of biochemical processes in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the nuclear imaging probes utilized for predicting and evaluating the early anticancer therapy response.99mTc labeled agents and PET based radiopharmaceuticals like 18F-Paclitaxel, 11C-Verapamil for drug efflux pumps imaging will be discussed here. Moreover, molecular imaging probes used for targeted therapy response evaluation like 18F-Tamoxifen,89Zr-Trastuzumab will also be introduced in this review.

  5. Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Melatonin and New-generation Anticancer Drugs Against Leukemia Lymphocytes But Not Normal Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Ivanova, Donika; Bakalova, Rumiana; Aoki, Ichio; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrates specific sensitization of leukemia lymphocytes towards anticancer drugs using melatonin and clarifies the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for induction of apoptosis. The study covers four conventional and 11 new-generation anticancer drugs. Four parameters were analyzed simultaneously in leukemia and normal lymphocytes treated with drug, melatonin, or their combination: cell viability, induction of apoptosis, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and level of protein-carbonyl products. Almost all investigated combinations of melatonin with new-generation anticancer drugs were characterized by synergistic cytotoxicity towards leukemia lymphocytes, while the combinations with conventional drugs exhibited additive or antagonistic effects on cell viability. In leukemia lymphocytes, the additive cytotoxicity of doxorubicin plus melatonin was accompanied by low levels of ROS and protein-carbonyl products, as well as by suppression of apoptosis. In normal lymphocytes, none of the studied parameters changed significantly compared to cells treated with doxorubicin only. The combinations of everolimus plus melatonin and barasertib plus melatonin exhibited impressive synergistic cytotoxic effects on leukemia lymphocytes but did not affect the viability of normal lymphocytes. In leukemia cells, the synergistic cytotoxicity was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis but a decrease of ROS to a level below that of the control. In normal lymphocytes, these combinations did not affect the level of ROS nor of protein-carbonyl products, and did not induce apoptosis. The data suggest that melatonin is a promising supplementary component in chemotherapy which allows the therapeutic doses of anticancer drugs to be reduced, minimizing their side-effects.

  6. Overview on the current status of virtual high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry approaches in multi-target anticancer drug discovery; Part I.

    PubMed

    Geromichalos, George D; Alifieris, Constantinos E; Geromichalou, Elena G; Trafalis, Dimitrios T

    2016-01-01

    Conventional drug design embraces the "one gene, one drug, one disease" philosophy. Nowadays, new generation of anti- cancer drugs, able to inhibit more than one pathway, is believed to play a major role in contemporary anticancer drug research. In this way, polypharmacology, focusing on multi-target drugs, has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery. A number of recent successful drugs have in part or in whole emerged from a structure-based research approach. Many advances including crystallography and informatics are behind these successes. Increasing insight into the genetics and molecular biology of cancer has resulted in the identification of an increasing number of potential molecular targets, for anticancer drug discovery and development. These targets can be approached through exploitation of emerging structural biology, "rational" drug design, screening of chemical libraries, or a combination of these methods. The result is the rapid discovery of new anticancer drugs. In this article we discuss the application of molecular modeling, molecular docking and virtual high-throughput screening to multi-targeted anticancer drug discovery. Efforts have been made to employ in silico methods for facilitating the search and design of selective multi-target agents. These computer aided molecular design methods have shown promising potential in facilitating drug discovery directed at selective multiple targets and is expected to contribute to intelligent lead anticancer drugs.

  7. Dual drug delivery of tamoxifen and quercetin: Regulated metabolism for anticancer treatment with nanosponges.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Jacob N; Stevens, David M; Beezer, Dain B; Kravitz, Ariel; Harth, Eva

    2015-12-28

    We report the synthesis and encapsulation of polyester nanosponge particles (NPs) co-loaded with tamoxifen (TAM) and quercetin (QT) to investigate the loading, release and in vitro metabolism of a dual drug formulation. The NPs are made in two variations, 4% and 8% crosslinking densities, to evaluate the effects on metabolism and release kinetics. The NP-4% formulation with a particle size of 89.3 ± 14.8 nm was found to have loading percentages of 6.91 ± 0.13% TAM and 7.72 ± 0.15% QT after targeting 10% (w/w) each. The NP-8% formulation with a particle size of 91.5 ± 9.8 nm was found to have loading percentages of 7.26 ± 0.10% TAM and 7.80 ± 0.12% QT. The stability of the formulation was established in simulated gastrointestinal fluids, and the metabolism of TAM was shown to be reduced 2-fold and 3-fold for NP-4%s and NP-8%s, respectively, while QT metabolism was reduced 3 and 4-fold. The implications for improved bioavailability of the NP formulations were supported by cytotoxicity results that showed a similar efficacy to free dual drug formulations and even enhanced anti-cancer effects in the recovery condition. This work demonstrates the suitability of the nanosponges not only as a dual release drug delivery system but also enabling a regulated metabolism through the capacity of a nanonetwork. The variation in crosslinking enables a dual release with tailored release kinetics and suggests improved bioavailability aided by a reduced metabolism.

  8. Encapsulation of anticancer drug by hydrogen-bonded multilayers of tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Martinez-Lopez, Claudia; Catledge, Shane; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2014-12-14

    Tannic acid (TA)-based multilayer assemblies have attracted increasing interest for biomedical applications. Here we explore properties of TA-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (TA-PVPON) hydrogen-bonded multilayers for drug encapsulation and long-term storage. We demonstrate that the small molecular weight anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), can be successfully loaded into (TA-PVPON) capsules with high encapsulation efficiency. We have also found that the encapsulated DOX can be efficiently stored inside the capsules for the pH range from pH = 7.4 to pH = 5. We show that the chemical and functional stability of TA at neutral and basic pH values is achieved through complexation with PVPON. The UV-vis spectrophotometry and in situ ellipsometry analyses of the hydrogen bonding interactions between TA and PVPON at different pH values reveal pH-dependent behavior of TA-PVPON capsules for the pH range from pH = 7.4 to pH = 5. Increasing deposition pH value from pH = 5 to pH = 7.4 leads to a 2-fold decrease in capsule thickness. However, this trend is reversed when salt concentration of the deposition solutions is increased from 0.01 M to 0.1 M NaCl. We have also demonstrated that the permeability of (TA-PVPON) capsules prepared using low salt deposition conditions and pH = 7.4 can be increased 2-fold by exposure of the capsules to 0.1 M NaCl salt solutions at the same pH. Our work opens new perspectives for design of novel polymer carriers for controlled drug delivery in cancer therapy.

  9. NMR investigation of the effect of caffeine on the hetero-association of an anticancer drug with a vitamin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, M. P.; Evstigneev, V. P.; Davies, D. B.

    2006-12-01

    The complexation between an anti-cancer drug Daunomycin (DAU) and a Vitamin B 2 derivative, flavin-mononucleotide (FMN), in the presence of a third type of aromatic molecule, caffeine (CAF), in aqueous solution has been studied by NMR spectroscopy. Ternary mixtures of the drug, vitamin and caffeine have been analysed quantitatively taking into account all possible complexation reactions between the aromatic molecules in solution. The results show that complexation between DAU and FMN decreases on addition of CAF which suggests that caffeine at physiological concentrations in vivo may affect the biological synergism of drug and vitamin.

  10. Polymer-Chlorambucil Drug Conjugates: A Dynamic Platform of Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Saha, Biswajit; Haldar, Ujjal; De, Priyadarsi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, polymer drug conjugates (PDCs) have attracted considerable attention in the treatment of cancer. In this work, a simple strategy has been developed to make PDCs of an antitumor alkylating agent, chlorambucil, using a biocompatible disulphide linker. Chlorambucil-based chain transfer agent was used to prepare various homopolymers and block copolymers in a controlled fashion via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Chlorambucil conjugated block copolymer, poly(polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate), formed nanoaggregates in aqueous solutions, which are characterized by dynamic light scattering and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the simplicity of the design is exemplified by performing a release study of chlorambucil under reducing condition by using D,L-dithiothreitol.

  11. Inside the biochemical pathways of thymidylate synthase perturbed by anticancer drugs: Novel strategies to overcome cancer chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Taddia, Laura; D'Arca, Domenico; Ferrari, Stefania; Marraccini, Chiara; Severi, Leda; Ponterini, Glauco; Assaraf, Yahuda G; Marverti, Gaetano; Costi, Maria Paola

    2015-11-01

    Our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of antitumor agents and the precise mechanisms underlying drug resistance is that these two processes are directly linked. Moreover, it is often possible to delineate chemoresistance mechanisms based on the specific mechanism of action of a given anticancer drug. A more holistic approach to the chemoresistance problem suggests that entire metabolic pathways, rather than single enzyme targets may better explain and educate us about the complexity of the cellular responses upon cytotoxic drug administration. Drugs, which target thymidylate synthase and folate-dependent enzymes, represent an important therapeutic arm in the treatment of various human malignancies. However, prolonged patient treatment often provokes drug resistance phenomena that render the chemotherapeutic treatment highly ineffective. Hence, strategies to overcome drug resistance are primarily designed to achieve either enhanced intracellular drug accumulation, to avoid the upregulation of folate-dependent enzymes, and to circumvent the impairment of DNA repair enzymes which are also responsible for cross-resistance to various anticancer drugs. The current clinical practice based on drug combination therapeutic regimens represents the most effective approach to counteract drug resistance. In the current paper, we review the molecular aspects of the activity of TS-targeting drugs and describe how such mechanisms are related to the emergence of clinical drug resistance. We also discuss the current possibilities to overcome drug resistance by using a molecular mechanistic approach based on medicinal chemistry methods focusing on rational structural modifications of novel antitumor agents. This paper also focuses on the importance of the modulation of metabolic pathways upon drug administration, their analysis and the assessment of their putative roles in the networks involved using a meta-analysis approach. The present review describes the main

  12. Multifunctional Nanoprobes for Cancer Cell Targeting, Imaging and Anticancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkov, Pavel; Laronze-Cochard, Marie; Sapi, Janos; Sidorov, Lev N.; Nabiev, Igor

    The diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been greatly improved with recent developments in bio-nanotechnology, including engineering of multifunctional probes. One of the promising nanoscale tools for cancer imaging is fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), whose small size and unique optical properties allow them to penetrate into cells and ensure highly sensitive optical diagnosis of cancer at the cellular level. Furthermore, novel multi-functional probes have been developed in which QDs are conjugated with one or several functional molecules, including targeting moieties and therapeutic agents. Here, the strategy for engineering novel nanocarriers for controlled nucleus-targeted antitumor drug delivery and real-time imaging by single- or two-photon microscopy is described. A triple multifunctional nanoprobe is being developed that consists of a nitrogen-based heterocyclic derivative, an anticancer agent interacting with a DNA in living cells; a recognized molecule serving as a vector responsible for targeted delivery of the probe into cancer cells; and photoluminescent QDs providing the imaging capability of the probe. Subsequent optimization of the multifunctional nanoprobe will offer new possibilities for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Ultrasound and pH Dually Responsive Polymer Vesicles for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenqin; Du, Jianzhong

    2013-07-01

    Recently, smart polymer vesicles have attracted increasing interest due to their endless potential applications such as tunable delivery vehicles for the treatment of degenerative diseases. However, the evolution of stimuli-responsive vesicles from bench to bedside still seems far away for the limitations of current stimuli forms such as temperature, light, redox, etc. Since ultrasound combined with chemotherapy has been widely used in tumor treatment and the pH in tumor tissues is relatively low, we designed herein a novel polymer vesicle that respond to both physical (ultrasound) and chemical (pH) stimuli based on a PEO-b-P(DEA-stat-TMA) block copolymer, where PEO is short for poly(ethylene oxide), DEA for 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and TMA for (2-tetrahydrofuranyloxy)ethyl methacrylate. These dually responsive vesicles show noncytotoxicity below 250 μg/mL and can encapsulate anticancer drugs, exhibiting retarded release profile and controllable release rate when subjected to ultrasound radiation or varying pH in tris buffer at 37°C.

  14. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb)=dIp,a(Meb)/d[Meb]=19.65μAμM(-1)), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb)=19nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06-3μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb.

  15. Spectral and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug Flutamide by density functional theoretical method.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, G; Sundaraganesan, N

    2014-01-03

    A comprehensive screening of the more recent DFT theoretical approach to structural analysis is presented in this section of theoretical structural analysis. The chemical name of 2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide is usually called as Flutamide (In the present study it is abbreviated as FLT) and is an important and efficacious drug in the treatment of anti-cancer resistant. The molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, electronic and NMR spectral interpretation of Flutamide have been studied with the aid of density functional theory method (DFT). The vibrational assignments of the normal modes were performed on the basis of the PED calculations using the VEDA 4 program. Comparison of computational results with X-ray diffraction results of Flutamide allowed the evaluation of structure predictions and confirmed B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as accurate for structure determination. Application of scaling factors for IR and Raman frequency predictions showed good agreement with experimental values. This is supported the assignment of the major contributors of the vibration modes of the title compound. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its bioactivity, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The comparison of measured FTIR, FT-Raman, and UV-Visible data to calculated values allowed assignment of major spectral features of the title molecule. Besides, Frontier molecular orbital analyze was also investigated using theoretical calculations.

  16. Spectral and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug Flutamide by density functional theoretical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, G.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive screening of the more recent DFT theoretical approach to structural analysis is presented in this section of theoretical structural analysis. The chemical name of 2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide is usually called as Flutamide (In the present study it is abbreviated as FLT) and is an important and efficacious drug in the treatment of anti-cancer resistant. The molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, electronic and NMR spectral interpretation of Flutamide have been studied with the aid of density functional theory method (DFT). The vibrational assignments of the normal modes were performed on the basis of the PED calculations using the VEDA 4 program. Comparison of computational results with X-ray diffraction results of Flutamide allowed the evaluation of structure predictions and confirmed B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as accurate for structure determination. Application of scaling factors for IR and Raman frequency predictions showed good agreement with experimental values. This is supported the assignment of the major contributors of the vibration modes of the title compound. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its bioactivity, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The comparison of measured FTIR, FT-Raman, and UV-Visible data to calculated values allowed assignment of major spectral features of the title molecule. Besides, Frontier molecular orbital analyze was also investigated using theoretical calculations.

  17. LPA signaling through LPA receptors regulates cellular functions of endothelial cells treated with anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shiori; Araki, Mutsumi; Ishii, Shuhei; Hirane, Miku; Fukushima, Kaori; Tomimatsu, Ayaka; Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-10-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via LPA receptors provides a variety of cellular functions, including angiogenesis. In this study, to assess an involvement of LPA receptors in cell motile activities of endothelial cells during chemotherapy, F-2 cells were treated with cisplatin (CDDP) and doxorubicin (DOX) at a concentration of 0.01 μM every 24 h for at least 1 month. The treatment of CDDP and DOX inhibited the expression levels of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1), Lpar2, and Lpar3 genes in F-2 cells. The cell motile activities of CDDP and DOX treated cells were relatively lower than those of untreated cells. Next, we investigated whether cancer cells could stimulate the cell motile activities of F-2 cells treated with CDDP and DOX. For cell motility assay, CDDP- and DOX-treated cells were co-cultured with pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. The cell motile activities of CDDP- and DOX-treated cells were significantly enhanced by the existence of PANC-1 cells, correlating with the LPA receptor expressions. In addition, the elevated cell motile activities were suppressed by the pretreatment of an autotaxin inhibitor S32826. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA receptors may regulate the cell motile activities of F-2 cells treated with anticancer drugs.

  18. Targeting anticancer drug delivery to pancreatic cancer cells using a fucose-bound nanoparticle approach.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Makoto; Takimoto, Rishu; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Hirakawa, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumito; Sato, Tsutomu; Iyama, Satoshi; Osuga, Takahiro; Miyanishi, Koji; Takada, Kohichi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapies, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a dismal prognosis. New strategies to improve treatment and survival are therefore urgently required. Numerous fucosylated antigens in sera serve as tumor markers for cancer detection and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Increased expression of fucosyltransferases has also been reported for pancreatic cancer. These enzymes accelerate malignant transformation through fucosylation of sialylated precursors, suggesting a crucial requirement for fucose by pancreatic cancer cells. With this in mind, we developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specifically to cancer cells. L-fucose-bound liposomes containing Cy5.5 or Cisplatin were effectively delivered into CA19-9 expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Excess L-fucose decreased the efficiency of Cy5.5 introduction by L-fucose-bound liposomes, suggesting L-fucose-receptor-mediated delivery. Intravenously injected L-fucose-bound liposomes carrying Cisplatin were successfully delivered to pancreatic cancer cells, mediating efficient tumor growth inhibition as well as prolonging survival in mouse xenograft models. This modality represents a new strategy for pancreatic cancer cell-targeting therapy.

  19. Application of NMR and UV spectroscopy in the study of interactions between anticancer drugs and their phospholipid carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentak, Danuta; Sułkowska, Anna; Sułkowski, Wiesław W.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to encapsulate two drugs: 1-β- D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) with the amphiphilic properties and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with the hydrophobic properties into liposomes prepared by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV) from L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC). Both drugs are used together in the anticancer multidrug therapy. We studied the competition for their encapsulation in liposomes by the use of two spectroscopies: 1H NMR and UV on the basis of the analysis of the signals of each drug in the liposome-drug system. We concluded that the mREV method allows us to obtain liposomes which may transport more than one drug simultaneously. The NMR and UV studies of the drug competitive encapsulation and transport in liposomes formed from DPPC by the mREV method should be the basis for the analysis of the changes which may occur in vivo.

  20. Training data selection method for prediction of anticancer drug effects using a genetic algorithm with local search.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miyabe, Yota; Yokouchi, Hisatake

    2011-01-01

    Here, we propose a training data selection method using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the effects of anticancer drugs. Conventionally, SVM is used for distinguishing between several types of data. However, in the method proposed here, the SVM is used to distinguish areas with only one or two types of data. The proposed method treats training data selection as an optimization problem and involves application of a genetic algorithm (GA). Moreover, GA with local search was applied to find the solution as the target problem was difficult to find. The composition method of GA for proposed method was examined. To determine its effectiveness, the proposed method was applied to an artificial anticancer drug data set. The verification results showed that the proposed method can be used to create a verifiable and predictable discriminant function by training data selection.

  1. Three-Arm, Biotin-Tagged Carbazole-Dicyanovinyl-Chlorambucil Conjugate: Simultaneous Tumor Targeting, Sensing, and Photoresponsive Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Yarra; Karthik, S; Rajesh, Y; Mandal, Mahitosh; Jana, Avijit; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2016-12-19

    The design, synthesis, and in vitro biological studies of a biotin-carbazole-dicyanovinyl-chlorambucil conjugate (Bio-CBZ-DCV-CBL; 6) are reported. This conjugate (6) is a multifunctional single-molecule appliance composed of a thiol-sensor DCV functionality, a CBZ-derived phototrigger as well as fluorescent reporter, and CBL as the anticancer drug, and Bio as the cancer-targeting ligand. In conjugate 6, the DCV bond undergoes a thiol-ene click reaction at pH<7 with intracellular thiols, thereby shutting down internal charge transfer between the donor CBZ and acceptor DCV units, resulting in a change of the fluorescence color from green to blue, and thereby, sensing the tumor microenvironment. Subsequent photoirradiation results in release of the anticancer drug CBL in a controlled manner.

  2. XRD, vibrational spectra and quantum chemical studies of an anticancer drug: 6-Mercaptopurine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-07-01

    The single crystal of the hydrated anticancer drug, 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP), has been grown by slow evaporation technique under room temperature. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using Laser Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range of 3300-100 and 4000-400 cm-1. The single crystal X-ray studies shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N classical hydrogen bonds leading to a hydrogen bonded ensemble. This classical hydrogen bonds were further connected through O-H⋯S hydrogen bond to form two primary ring R44(16) and R44(12) motifs. These two primary ring motifs are interlinked with each other to build a ladder like structure. These ladders are connected through N-H⋯N hydrogen bond along c-axis of the unit cell through chain C(5) motifs. Further, the strength of the hydrogen bonds is studied through vibrational spectral measurements. The shifting of bands due to the intermolecular interactions was also analyzed in the solid crystalline state. Geometrical optimizations of the drug molecule were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using the B3LYP function and Hartree-Fock (HF) level with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The optimized molecular geometry and computed vibrational spectra are compared with experimental results which show significant agreement. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electro-negativity and chemical potential of the molecule are carried out by HOMO-LUMO plot. In which, the frontier orbitals has lower band gap value indicating the possible pharmaceutical activity of the molecule.

  3. SynLethDB: synthetic lethality database toward discovery of selective and sensitive anticancer drug targets.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-04

    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a type of genetic interaction between two genes such that simultaneous perturbations of the two genes result in cell death or a dramatic decrease of cell viability, while a perturbation of either gene alone is not lethal. SL reflects the biologically endogenous difference between cancer cells and normal cells, and thus the inhibition of SL partners of genes with cancer-specific mutations could selectively kill cancer cells but spare normal cells. Therefore, SL is emerging as a promising anticancer strategy that could potentially overcome the drawbacks of traditional chemotherapies by reducing severe side effects. Researchers have developed experimental technologies and computational prediction methods to identify SL gene pairs on human and a few model species. However, there has not been a comprehensive database dedicated to collecting SL pairs and related knowledge. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive database, SynLethDB (http://histone.sce.ntu.edu.sg/SynLethDB/), which contains SL pairs collected from biochemical assays, other related databases, computational predictions and text mining results on human and four model species, i.e. mouse, fruit fly, worm and yeast. For each SL pair, a confidence score was calculated by integrating individual scores derived from different evidence sources. We also developed a statistical analysis module to estimate the druggability and sensitivity of cancer cells upon drug treatments targeting human SL partners, based on large-scale genomic data, gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity profiles on more than 1000 cancer cell lines. To help users access and mine the wealth of the data, we developed other practical functionalities, such as search and filtering, orthology search, gene set enrichment analysis. Furthermore, a user-friendly web interface has been implemented to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. With the integrated data sets and analytics functionalities, SynLethDB would

  4. Binding of an anticancer drug, axitinib to human serum albumin: Fluorescence quenching and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Tayyab, Saad; Izzudin, Mohamad Mirza; Kabir, Md Zahirul; Feroz, Shevin R; Tee, Wei-Ven; Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Alias, Zazali

    2016-09-01

    Binding characteristics of a promising anticancer drug, axitinib (AXT) to human serum albumin (HSA), the major transport protein in human blood circulation, were studied using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as molecular docking analysis. A gradual decrease in the Stern-Volmer quenching constant with increasing temperature revealed the static mode of the protein fluorescence quenching upon AXT addition, thus confirmed AXT-HSA complex formation. This was also confirmed from alteration in the UV-vis spectrum of HSA upon AXT addition. Fluorescence quenching titration results demonstrated moderately strong binding affinity between AXT and HSA based on the binding constant value (1.08±0.06×10(5)M(-1)), obtained in 10mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH7.4 at 25°C. The sign and magnitude of the enthalpy change (∆H=-8.38kJmol(-1)) as well as the entropy change (∆S=+68.21Jmol(-1)K(-1)) clearly suggested involvement of both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in AXT-HSA complex formation. These results were well supported by molecular docking results. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results indicated significant microenvironmental changes around Trp and Tyr residues of HSA upon complexation with AXT. AXT binding to the protein produced significant alterations in both secondary and tertiary structures of HSA, as revealed from the far-UV and the near-UV CD spectral results. Competitive drug displacement results obtained with phenylbutazone (site I marker), ketoprofen (site II marker) and hemin (site III marker) along with molecular docking results suggested Sudlow's site I, located in subdomain IIA of HSA, as the preferred binding site of AXT.

  5. Folate-conjugated chitosan-polylactide nanoparticles for enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengtang; Wan, Ying; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Jiliang

    2013-12-01

    Chitosan was conjugated with folic acid (FA) and the resulting chitosan derivatives with a FA-substitution degree of around 6 % was used to synthesize FA-conjugated chitosan-polylactide (FA-CH-PLA) copolymers to build a drug carrier with active targeting characteristics for the anticancer drug of paclitaxel (PTX). Selected FA-CH-PLAs with various polylactide percentages of about 40 wt% or lower were employed to fabricate nanoparticles using sodium tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker, and different types of nanoparticles were endued with similar average particle-sizes located in a range between 100 and 200 nm. Certain types of PTX-loaded FA-CH-PLA nanoparticles having encapsulation efficiency of around 90 % and initial load of about 12 % were able to release PTX in a controlled manner with significant regulation by polylactide content in FA-CH-PLAs. Targeting characteristic of achieved nanoparticles was confirmed using FA-receptor-expressed MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The uptake of PTX revealed that optimized FA-CH-PLA nanoparticles with an equivalent PTX-dose of around 1 μg/mL could have more than sixfold increasing abilities to facilitate intracellular paclitaxel accumulation in MCF-7 cells after 24 h treatment as compared to free PTX. At a relatively safe equivalent PTX-dose for normal MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells, the obtained results from Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that optimized PTX-loaded FA-CH-PLA nanoparticles had more than threefold increasing abilities to induce MCF-7 cell apoptosis in comparison to free PTX.

  6. Host-guest interaction induced supramolecular amphiphilic star architecture and uniform nanovesicle formation for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Ling; Liu, Kerh Li; Wen, Yuting; Song, Xia; Li, Jun

    2016-01-21

    A star polymer of poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) with adamantyl end-terminals extended from an α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) core is designed. It subsequently self-assembles to form controllable and uniform nanovesicles induced by host-guest interactions between heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-CD and the adamantyl ends. The nanovesicles are suitable for loading and intracellular delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin.

  7. Methylselenocysteine - a Promising Antiangiogenic Agent for Overcoming Drug Delivery Barriers in Solid Malignancies for Therapeutic Synergy with Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Arup

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Despite progress, chemotherapeutic response in solid malignancies has remained limited. While initial results of the use of antiangiogenic agents in combination chemotherapy indicated an enhanced therapeutic response, recent data indicates that the surviving cancer is not only able to surmount therapy, but is actually able to adapt a more aggressive metastatic phenotype. Thus, selecting an antiangiogenic agent that is less likely to lead to tumor resurgence is a key to future therapeutic success of antiangiogenic agents, in a combinatorial setting. Areas covered Against the broad spectrum of currently used antiangiogenic agents in the clinic, the putative benefits of the use of organo selenium (Se) compounds, such as methylselenocysteine (MSC), are discussed in this reiew. Expert opinion MSC, being part of the mammalian physiology, is a well tolerated, versatile and economical antiangiogenic agent. It down regulates multiple key upstream tumor survival markers, and enhances tumor drug delivery, at a given systemic dose of an anticancer agent, while protecting normal tissue from cytotoxic adverse effects. Further clinical trials, especially in poorly differentiated cancers, are warranted. PMID:21473705

  8. Dysoxylum binectariferum bark as a new source of anticancer drug camptothecin: bioactivity-guided isolation and LCMS-based quantification.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shreyans K; Meena, Samdarshi; Gupta, Ajai P; Kushwaha, Manoj; Uma Shaanker, R; Jaglan, Sundeep; Bharate, Sandip B; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2014-07-15

    Camptothecin (CPT, 1) is a potent anticancer natural product which led to the discovery of two clinically used anticancer drugs topotecan and irinotecan. These two drugs are semisynthetic analogs of CPT, and thus the commercial production of CPT as a raw material from various plant sources and tissue culture methods is highly demanding. In the present study, the Dysoxylum binectariferum bark, was identified as an alternative source of CPT, through bioassay-guided isolation. The barks showed presence of CPT (1) and its 9-methoxy analog 2, whereas CPT alkaloids were not present in seeds and leaves. This is the first report on isolation of CPT alkaloids from Meliaceae family. An efficient chromatography-free protocol for enrichment and isolation of CPT from D. binectariferum has been established, which was able to enrich CPT up to 21% in the crude extract. The LCMS (MRM)-based quantification method revealed the presence of 0.105% of CPT in dry barks of D. binectariferum. The discovery of CPT from D. binectariferum bark will certainly create a global interest in cultivation of this plant as a new crop for commercial production of CPT. Isolation of anticancer drug CPT from this plant, indicates that along with rohitukine, CPT and 9-methoxy CPT also contributes significantly to the cytotoxicity of D. binectariferum.

  9. Non conventional biological treatment based on Trametes versicolor for the elimination of recalcitrant anticancer drugs in hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Cruz-Morató, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2015-10-01

    This work presents a study about the elimination of anticancer drugs, a group of pollutants considered recalcitrant during conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, using a biological treatment based on the fungus Trametes versicolor. A 10-L fluidized bed bioreactor inoculated with this fungus was set up in order to evaluate the removal of 10 selected anticancer drugs in real hospital wastewater. Almost all the tested anticancer drugs were completely removed from the wastewater at the end of the batch experiment (8 days) with the exception of Ifosfamide and Tamoxifen. These two recalcitrant compounds, together with Cyclophosphamide, were selected for further studies to test their degradability by T. versicolor under optimal growth conditions. Cyclophosphamide and Ifosfamide were inalterable during batch experiments both at high and low concentration, whereas Tamoxifen exhibited a decrease in its concentration along the treatment. Two positional isomers of a hydroxylated form of Tamoxifen were identified during this experiment using a high resolution mass spectrometry based on ultra-high performance chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap detector (LTQ-Velos Orbitrap). Finally the identified transformation products of Tamoxifen were monitored in the bioreactor run with real hospital wastewater.

  10. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianhua; Han, Jie; Xiao, Hao; Qiao, Jinping; Han, Mei

    2016-12-14

    Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  11. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianhua; Han, Jie; Xiao, Hao; Qiao, Jinping; Han, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects. PMID:27983622

  12. Cytochrome P450 1B1 gene polymorphisms as predictors of anticancer drug activity: studies with in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Laroche-Clary, Audrey; Le Morvan, Valérie; Yamori, Takao; Robert, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is found in tumor tissue and is suspected to play a role in oncogenesis and drug resistance. CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of developing lung and other cancers. They may be associated with tumor response to anticancer drugs. We have determined 4 frequent nonsynonymous gene polymorphisms of CYP1B1 in the human tumor cell lines panels of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR): rs10012 (R48G), rs1056827 (A119S), rs1056836 (L432V), and rs1800440 (N453S). Numerous anticancer drugs have been tested against these panels that offer the opportunity to detect associations between gene polymorphisms and drug sensitivity. CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were in marked linkage disequilibrium. The L432V allelic variants were significantly associated with reduced sensitivity to DNA-interacting anticancer agents, alkylators, camptothecins, topoisomerase II inhibitors, and some antimetabolites. For instance, in the NCI panel, cell lines homozygous for the V432 allele were globally 2-fold resistant to alkylating agents (P = 5 × 10(-10)) and 4.5-fold to camptothecins (P = 6.6 × 10(-9)) than cell lines homozygous for the L432 allele. Similar features were exhibited by the JFCR panel. Cell lines homozygous for the V432 allele were globally less sensitive to DNA-interfering drugs than cell lines having at least 1 common allele. There was no significant association between mRNA expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1B1 genotype, and no significant association between CYP1B1 mRNA expression and drug cytotoxicity. These observations open the way to clinical studies exploring the role of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms for predicting tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  13. Overview on the current status on virtual high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry approaches in multi-target anticancer drug discovery; Part II.

    PubMed

    Geromichalos, George D; Alifieris, Constantinos E; Geromichalou, Elena G; Trafalis, Dimitrios T

    2016-01-01

    Conventional drug design embraces the "one gene, one drug, one disease" philosophy. Nowadays, new generation of anticancer drugs, able to inhibit more than one pathway, is believed to play a major role in contemporary anticancer drug research. In this way, polypharmacology, focusing on multi-target drugs, has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery. A number of recent successful drugs have in part or in whole emerged from a structure-based research approach. Many advances including crystallography and informatics are behind these successes. In this part II we will review the role and methodology of ligand-, structure- and fragment-based computer-aided drug design computer aided drug desing (CADD), virtual high throughput screening (vHTS), de novo drug design, fragment-based design and structure-based molecular docking, homology modeling, combinatorial chemistry and library design, pharmacophore model chemistry and informatics in modern drug discovery.

  14. Annular phased array transducer for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drug efficacy on small animals.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Tamara; Secomski, Wojciech; Byra, Michał; Postema, Michiel; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    A technique using pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to destroy deep-seated solid tumors is a promising noninvasive therapeutic approach. A main purpose of this study was to design and test a HIFU transducer suitable for preclinical studies of efficacy of tested, anti-cancer drugs, activated by HIFU beams, in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors implanted to various organs of small animals at the depth of the order of 1-2cm under the skin. To allow focusing of the beam, generated by such transducer, within treated tissue at different depths, a spherical, 2-MHz, 29-mm diameter annular phased array transducer was designed and built. To prove its potential for preclinical studies on small animals, multiple thermal lesions were induced in a pork loin ex vivo by heating beams of the same: 6W, or 12W, or 18W acoustic power and 25mm, 30mm, and 35mm focal lengths. Time delay for each annulus was controlled electronically to provide beam focusing within tissue at the depths of 10mm, 15mm, and 20mm. The exposure time required to induce local necrosis was determined at different depths using thermocouples. Location and extent of thermal lesions determined from numerical simulations were compared with those measured using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and verified by a digital caliper after cutting the tested tissue samples. Quantitative analysis of the results showed that the location and extent of necrotic lesions on the magnetic resonance images are consistent with those predicted numerically and measured by caliper. The edges of lesions were clearly outlined although on ultrasound images they were fuzzy. This allows to conclude that the use of the transducer designed offers an effective noninvasive tool not only to induce local necrotic lesions within treated tissue without damaging the surrounding tissue structures but also to test various chemotherapeutics activated by the HIFU beams in preclinical studies on small animals.

  15. Epothilones as lead structures for new anticancer drugs--pharmacology, fermentation, and structure-activity-relationships.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Memmert, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Epothilones (Epo's) A and B are naturally occurring microtubule-stabilizers, which inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro at low nM or sub-nM concentrations. In contrast to taxol (paclitaxel, Taxol) epothilones are also active against different types of multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines in vitro and against multidrug-resistant tumors in vivo. Their attractive preclinical profile has made epothilones important lead structures in the search for improved cytotoxic anticancer drugs and Epo B (EPO906, patupilone) is currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials. Numerous synthetic and semisynthetic analogs have been prepared since the absolute stereochemistry of epothilones was first disclosed in mid-1996 and their in vitro biological activity has been determined. Apart from generating a wealth of SAR information, these efforts have led to the identification of at least six compounds (in addition to Epo B), which are currently at various stages of clinical evaluation in humans. The most advanced of these compounds, Epo B lactam BMS-247550 (ixabepilone), has recently obtained FDA approval for the treatment of metastatic and advanced breast cancer. This chapter will first provide a summary of the basic features of the biological profile of Epo B in vitro and in vivo. This will be followed by a review of the processes that have been developed for the fermentative production of Epo B. The main part of the chapter will focus on the most relevant aspects of the epothilone SAR with regard to effects on tubulin polymerization, in vitro antiproliferative activity, and in vivo antitumor activity. Particular emphasis will be placed on work conducted in the authors' own laboratories, but data from other groups will also be included. In a final section, the current status of those epothilone analogs undergoing clinical development will be briefly discussed.

  16. First inter-laboratory comparison exercise for the determination of anticancer drugs in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Heath, Ester; Česen, Marjeta; Negreira, Noelia; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Blahova, Lucie; Nguyen, Tung Viet; Adahchour, Mohamed; Ruebel, Achim; Llewellyn, Neville; Ščančar, Janez; Novaković, Srdjan; Mislej, Vesna; Stražar, Marjeta; Barceló, Damià; Kosjek, Tina

    2016-08-01

    The results of an inter-laboratory comparison exercise to determine cytostatic anticancer drug residues in surface water, hospital wastewater and wastewater treatment plant effluent are reported. To obtain a critical number of participants, an invitation was sent out to potential laboratories identified to have the necessary knowledge and instrumentation. Nine laboratories worldwide confirmed their participation in the exercise. The compounds selected (based on the extent of use and laboratories capabilities) included cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, etoposide, methotrexate and cisplatinum. Samples of spiked waste (hospital and wastewater treatment plant effluent) and surface water, and additional non-spiked hospital wastewater, were prepared by the organising laboratory (Jožef Stefan Institute) and sent out to each participant partner for analysis. All analytical methods included solid phase extraction (SPE) and the use of surrogate/internal standards for quantification. Chemical analysis was performed using either liquid or gas chromatography mass (MS) or tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry. Cisplatinum was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A required minimum contribution of five laboratories meant that only cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate and etoposide could be included in the statistical evaluation. z-score and Q test revealed 3 and 4 outliers using classical and robust approach, respectively. The smallest absolute differences between the spiked values and the measured values were observed in the surface water matrix. The highest within-laboratory repeatability was observed for methotrexate in all three matrices (CV ≤ 12 %). Overall, inter-laboratory reproducibility was poor for all compounds and matrices (CV 27-143 %) with the only exception being methotrexate measured in the spiked hospital wastewater (CV = 8 %). Random and total errors were identified by means of Youden

  17. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM): an alternative predictive model in acute toxicological studies for anti-cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    KUE, Chin Siang; TAN, Kae Yi; LAM, May Lynn; LEE, Hong Boon

    2015-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD50) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD50 values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson’s correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r2=0.42 − 0.68, P<0.005–0.05) between the ideal LD50 values obtained using the CAM model with LD50 values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs. PMID:25736707

  18. Evaluation by quantitative image analysis of anticancer drug activity on multicellular spheroids grown in 3D matrices

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aurélie; Russo, Adrien; Vidal, Guillaume; Demange, Elise; Pannetier, Pauline; Souguir, Zied; Lagarde, Jean-Michel; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological evaluation of anticancer drugs using 3D in vitro models provides invaluable information for predicting in vivo activity. Artificial matrices are currently available that scale up and increase the power of such 3D models. The aim of the present study was to propose an efficient and robust imaging and analysis pipeline to assess with quantitative parameters the efficacy of a particular cytotoxic drug. HCT116 colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cell multispheres were grown in a 3D physiological hyaluronic acid matrix. 3D microscopy was performed with structured illumination, whereas image processing and feature extraction were performed with custom analysis tools. This procedure makes it possible to automatically detect spheres in a large volume of matrix in 96-well plates. It was used to evaluate drug efficacy in HCT116 spheres treated with different concentrations of topotecan, a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor. Following automatic detection and quantification, changes in cluster size distribution with a topotecan concentration-dependent increase of small clusters according to drug cytotoxicity were observed. Quantitative image analysis is thus an effective means to evaluate and quantify the cytotoxic and cytostatic activities of anticancer drugs on 3D multicellular models grown in a physiological matrix. PMID:28105152

  19. Targeted anti-cancer prodrug based on carbon nanotube with photodynamic therapeutic effect and pH-triggered drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianquan; Zeng, Fang; Xu, Jiangsheng; Wu, Shuizhu

    2013-09-01

    Herein, we describe a multifunctional anti-cancer prodrug system based on water-dispersible carbon nanotube (CNT); this prodrug system features active targeting, pH-triggered drug release, and photodynamic therapeutic properties. For this prodrug system (with the size of 100-300 nm), an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was incorporated onto CNT via a cleavable hydrazone bond; and a targeting ligand (folic acid) was also coupled onto CNT. This prodrug can preferably enter folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells and undergo intracellular release of the drug triggered by the reduced pH. The targeted CNT-based prodrug system can cause lower cell viability toward FR-positive cells compared to the non-targeted ones. Moreover, the CNT carrier exhibits photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) action; and the cell viability of FR-positive cancer cells can be further reduced upon light irradiation. The dual effects of pH-triggered drug release and PDT increase the therapeutic efficacy of the DOX-CNT prodrug. This study may offer some useful insights on designing and improving the applicability of CNT for other drug delivery systems.

  20. Sandwich-like mesoporous silica flakes for anticancer drug transport-Synthesis, characterization and kinetics release study.

    PubMed

    Mijowska, E; Cendrowski, K; Barylak, M; Konicki, W

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the technology of synthesis, characterization and release kinetics of anticancer drug molecules from sandwich-like mesoporous silica nanoflakes. Mesoporous silica nanoflakes are a very attractive material due to their versatility, low cytotoxicity, large surface area, high pore volume and unique feature of containing parallel pores openon both sides. Nanosilica flakes were prepared through the formation of a mesoporous silica layer on a graphene oxide surface. After graphene oxide removal, the silica nanostructures were filled by an anticancer drug-methotrexate. Release kinetics studies were performed in different temperatures, imitating the conditions in living organisms. Release data was analyzed using the zero-order model, first-order model, Higuchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The optical properties of samples, and the kinetics of drug release from the nanostructure, were examined by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Data obtained from long term studies showed that the system can serve as an anticancer drug carrier system, since a significant amount of methotrexate was loaded to the material and released. The mechanism of MTX release from mesoporous silica nanoflakes appeared to be a parallel processes of diffusion through water-filled mesopores and degradation of the mSiO2 matrix. Physical and chemical characterization was undertaken by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray dispersion spectroscopy (EDX). The specific surface area of the samples was measured through the adsorption of N2 isotherm, interpreted with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller model (BET). TGA and UV-vis analyses were conducted in order to estimate the amount of the released drug.

  1. Tyrosine kinase, aurora kinase and leucine aminopeptidase as attractive drug targets in anticancer therapy - characterisation of their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ziemska, Joanna; Solecka, Jolanta

    Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These include receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGFR enzymes) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src enzymes), type A, B and C Aurora kinases and aminopeptidases, especially leucine aminopeptidase. We discuss classification of these enzymes, biochemistry as well as their role in the cell cycle under normal conditions and during cancerogenesis. Further on, the work describes enzyme inhibitors that are under in vitro, preclinical, clinical studies as well as drugs available on the market. Both, chemical structures of discovered inhibitors and the role of chemical moieties in novel drug design are discussed. Described enzymes play essential role in cell cycle, especially in mitosis (Aurora kinases), cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis (tyrosine kinases) as well as G1/S transition (leucine aminopeptidase). In cancer cells, they are overexpressed and only their inhibition may stop tumor progression. This review presents the clinical outcomes of selected inhibitors and argues the safety of drug usage in human volunteers. Clinical studies of EGFR and Src kinase inhibitors in different tumors clearly show the need for molecular selection of patients (to those with mutations in genes coding EGFR and Src) to achieve positive clinical response. Current data indicates the great necessity for new anticancer treatment and actions to limit off-target activity.

  2. Mitoxantrone as a contributing factor in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Bagan, J V; Bagan, L; Poveda, R; Scully, C

    2016-03-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is usually initiated by dental surgery, but is occasionally exacerbated by other antiresorptive (denosumab) and anti-angiogenic therapies, and in such cases is currently termed medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). The case of a 58-year-old female with breast cancer who developed multiple and ultimately fatal metastases despite 3 years of treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and intravenous bisphosphonates, is presented herein. Her malignant disease worsened and she was started on mitoxantrone. She developed a severe adverse reaction to this drug soon after starting treatment. As well as diarrhoea and vomiting, she had a very aggressive gingival inflammation with multiple ulcerations in both jaws and wide areas of necrotic bone, affecting the attached gingiva, and seemingly unrelated to dental plaque. These ulcerations and the exposed necrotic bone persisted for more that 6 months, until her death. This report describes a case in which severe gingival ulcerations that occurred after mitoxantrone treatment for metastatic breast cancer were a local factor that initiated MRONJ.

  3. Applying the Fe(III) binding property of a chemical transferrin mimetic to Ti(IV) anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Parks, Timothy B; Cruz, Yahaira M; Tinoco, Arthur D

    2014-02-03

    As an endogenous serum protein binder of Ti(IV), transferrin (Tf) serves as an excellent vehicle to stabilize the hydrolysis prone metal ion and successfully transport it into cells. This transporting role is thought to be central to Ti(IV)'s anticancer function, but efforts to synthesize Ti(IV) compounds targeting transferrin have not produced a drug. Nonetheless, the Ti(IV) transferrin complex (Ti2Tf) greatly informs on a new Ti(IV)-based anticancer drug design strategy. Ti2Tf interferes with cellular uptake of Fe(III), which is particularly detrimental to cancer cells because of their higher requirement for iron. Ti(IV) compounds of chemical transferrin mimetic (cTfm) ligands were designed to facilitate Ti(IV) activity by attenuating Fe(III) intracellular levels. In having a higher affinity for Fe(III) than Ti(IV), these ligands feature the appropriate balance between stability and lability to effectively transport Ti(IV) into cancer cells, release Ti(IV) via displacement by Fe(III), and deplete the intracellular Fe(III) levels. The cTfm ligand N,N'-di(o-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) was selected to explore the feasibility of the design strategy. Kinetic studies on the Fe(III) displacement process revealed that Ti(IV) can be transported and released into cells by HBED on a physiologically relevant time scale. Cell viability studies using A549 cancerous and MRC5 normal human lung cells and testing the cytotoxicity of HBED and its Ti(IV), Fe(III), and Ga(III) compounds demonstrate the importance of Fe(III) depletion in the proposed drug design strategy and the specificity of the strategy for Ti(IV) activity. The readily derivatized cTfm ligands demonstrate great promise for improved Ti(IV) anticancer drugs.

  4. Mapping Novel Metabolic Nodes Targeted by Anti-Cancer Drugs that Impair Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsay S; Yan, Peter; Bateman, Leslie A; Nomura, Daniel K

    2017-03-08

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor-negative subtypes of breast cancers that show the worst prognoses and lack targeted therapies. Here, we have coupled the screening of ∼400 anticancer agents that are under development or in the clinic with chemoproteomic and metabolomic profiling to identify novel metabolic mechanisms for agents that impair TNBC pathogenicity. We identify 20 anticancer compounds that significantly impaired cell survival across multiple types of TNBC cells. Among these 20 leads, the phytoestrogenic natural product licochalcone A was of interest, since TNBCs are unresponsive to estrogenic therapies, indicating that licochalcone A was likely acting through another target. Using chemoproteomic profiling approaches, we reveal that licochalcone A impairs TNBC pathogenicity, not through modulating estrogen receptor activity but rather through inhibiting prostaglandin reductase 1, a metabolic enzyme involved in leukotriene B4 inactivation. We also more broadly performed metabolomic profiling to map additional metabolic mechanisms of compounds that impair TNBC pathogenicity. Overlaying lipidomic profiling with drug responses, we find that deubiquitinase inhibitors cause dramatic elevations in acyl carnitine levels, which impair mitochondrial respiration and contribute to TNBC pathogenic impairments. We thus put forth two unique metabolic nodes that are targeted by drugs or drug candidates that impair TNBC pathogenicity. Our results also showcase the utility of coupling drug screens with chemoproteomic and metabolomic profiling to uncover unique metabolic drivers of TNBC pathogenicity.

  5. Review on the binding of anticancer drug doxorubicin with DNA and tRNA: Structural models and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, D; Bourassa, P; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-05-01

    In this review, we have compared the results of multiple spectroscopic studies and molecular modeling of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) bindings to DNA and tRNA. DOX was intercalated into DNA duplex, while tRNA binding is via major and minor grooves. DOX-DNA intercalation is close to A-7, C-5, *C-19 (H-bonding with DOX NH2 group), G-6, T-8 and T-18 with the free binding energy of -4.99kcal/mol. DOX-tRNA groove bindings are near A-29, A-31, A-38, C-25, C-27, C-28, *G-30 (H-bonding) and U-41 with the free binding energy of -4.44kcal/mol. Drug intercalation induced a partial B to A-DNA transition, while tRNA remained in A-family structure. The structural differences observed between DOX bindings to DNA and tRNA can be the main reasons for drug antitumor activity. The results of in vitro MTT assay on SKC01 colon carcinoma are consistent with the observed DNA structural changes. Future research should be focused on finding suitable nanocarriers for delivery of DOX in vivo in order to exploit the full capacity of this very important anticancer drug.

  6. Host-guest interaction induced supramolecular amphiphilic star architecture and uniform nanovesicle formation for anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing-Ling; Liu, Kerh Li; Wen, Yuting; Song, Xia; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A star polymer of poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) with adamantyl end-terminals extended from an α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) core is designed. It subsequently self-assembles to form controllable and uniform nanovesicles induced by host-guest interactions between heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-CD and the adamantyl ends. The nanovesicles are suitable for loading and intracellular delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin.A star polymer of poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) with adamantyl end-terminals extended from an α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) core is designed. It subsequently self-assembles to form controllable and uniform nanovesicles induced by host-guest interactions between heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-CD and the adamantyl ends. The nanovesicles are suitable for loading and intracellular delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Polymer synthesis, characterization, preparation of drug-loaded nanovesicles, intracellular drug release and cytotoxicity assays, TEM and DLS measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06744h

  7. Photophysical characterization of anticancer drug valrubicin in rHDL nanoparticles and its use as an imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sunil; Chib, Rahul; Raut, Sangram; Bermudez, Jaclyn; Sabnis, Nirupama; Duggal, Divya; Kimball, Joseph D; Lacko, Andras G; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles are target-specific drug delivery agents that are increasingly used in cancer therapy to enhance bioavailability and to reduce off target toxicity of anti-cancer agents. Valrubicin is an anti-cancer drug, currently approved only for vesicular bladder cancer treatment because of its poor water solubility. On the other hand, valrubicin carrying reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles appear ideally suited for extended applications, including systemic cancer chemotherapy. We determined selected fluorescence properties of the free (unencapsulated) drug vs. valrubicin incorporated into rHDL nanoparticles. We have found that upon encapsulation into rHDL nanoparticles the quantum yield of valrubicin fluorescence increased six fold while its fluorescence lifetime increased about 2 fold. Accordingly, these and potassium iodide (KI) quenching data suggest that upon incorporation, valrubicin is localized deep in the interior of the nanoparticle, inside the lipid matrix. Fluorescence anisotropy of the rHDL valrubicin nanoparticles was also found to be high along with extended rotational correlation time. The fluorescence of valrubicin could also be utilized to assess its distribution upon delivery to prostate cancer (PC3) cells. Overall the fluorescence properties of the rHDL: valrubicin complex reveal valuable novel characteristics of this drug delivery vehicle that may be particularly applicable when used in systemic (intravenous) therapy.

  8. Hollow superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoshells as a hydrophobic anticancer drug carrier: intracelluar pH-dependent drug release and enhanced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Yuan, Jing; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Lee, Siu-Fung; Sham, Kathy W Y; Cheng, Christopher H K; Au, Doris W T; Teng, Gao-Jun; Ahuja, Anil T; Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2012-09-21

    With curcumin and doxorubicin (DOX) base as model drugs, intracellular delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs by hollow structured superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoshells (hydrodynamic diameter: 191.9 ± 2.6 nm) was studied in glioblastoma U-87 MG cells. SPIO nanoshell-based encapsulation provided a stable aqueous dispersion of the curcumin. After the SPIO nanoshells were internalized by U-87 MG cells, they localized at the acidic compartments of endosomes and lysosomes. In endosome/lysosome-mimicking buffers with a pH of 4.5-5.5, pH-dependent drug release was observed from curcumin or DOX loaded SPIO nanoshells (curcumin/SPIO or DOX/SPIO). Compared with the free drug, the intracellular curcumin content delivered via curcumin/SPIO was 30 fold higher. Increased intracellular drug content for DOX base delivered via DOX/SPIO was also confirmed, along with a fast intracellular DOX release that was attributed to its protonation in the acidic environment. DOX/SPIO enhanced caspase-3 activity by twofold compared with free DOX base. The concentration that induced 50% cytotoxic effect (CC(50)) was 0.05 ± 0.03 μg ml(-1) for DOX/SPIO, while it was 0.13 ± 0.02 μg ml(-1) for free DOX base. These results suggested SPIO nanoshells might be a promising intracellular carrier for hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

  9. Combination Anticancer Nanopreparations of Novel Proapoptotic Drug, TRAIL and siRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Robert D.

    . The addition of TNFa-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) bound to the surface of the micelle creates a combination micelle with excellent cytotoxic effects. TRAIL has been shown to be an effective apoptosis inducing ligand in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies. TRAIL receptors are preferentially expressed on many cancer cell types as compared to healthy cells making this ligand an intriguing potential therapy. The combination of TRAIL and PIP3-PH inhibitors in a micellar delivery system has the potential to create a powerful anti-cancer therapeutic. Including modified siRNA to down regulate cancer defense mechanisms can further sensitize the cell to apoptosis. siRNA delivery has been shown to be a difficult task. Rapid metabolism and clearance in the blood hinders their ability to reach the tumor. Additionally, their large size and negative charge prevents them from crossing the cell membrane to reach their location of action. Reversibly conjugating a modified siRNA to a lipid thereby creating an siRNA-S-S-PE, allows for their incorporation into PEG-PE micelles. These mixed micelles have been shown to protect the siRNA and successfully transfect cells. This study aimed to combine the aforementioned therapeutics into a multifunctional PEG-PE based micelle delivery system. Novel proapoptotic drugs targeting the PIP3-PH binding domain have been successfully incorporated into the lipid core of the micelle. These drugs were able to effectively sensitize the cell to the effects of surface-bound TRAIL. Additionally, siRNA targeting the anti-apoptotic protein survivin was shown to be incorporated into the micelles and further sensitize the tumor to the effects of the above compounds. Lastly, conjugating transferrin (TF) to the surface of the micelle was shown increase the tumor cell targeting and cytotoxicity in vitro. Critical evaluation of this system was performed along the following specific aims: (1) characterization of PIP3-PH inhibition and cytotoxicity of

  10. An amphiphilic graft copolymer-based nanoparticle platform for reduction-responsive anticancer and antimalarial drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Nussbaumer, Martin G.; Schwertz, Geoffrey; Schwab, Anatol; Witschel, Matthias C.; Schäfer, Anja; Diederich, François; Rottmann, Matthias; Palivan, Cornelia G.; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous solubility, high systemic toxicity, and metabolic instability. Smart nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems provide means of solving these problems at once. Herein, we present such a smart nanoparticle platform based on self-assembled, reduction-responsive amphiphilic graft copolymers, which were successfully synthesized through thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between thiolated hydrophilic block and pyridyl disulfide functionalized hydrophobic block. These amphiphilic graft copolymers self-assembled into nanoparticles with mean diameters of about 30-50 nm and readily incorporated hydrophobic guest molecules. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to study nanoparticle stability and triggered release of a model compound in detail. Long-term colloidal stability and model compound retention within the nanoparticles was found when analyzed in cell media at body temperature. In contrast, rapid, complete reduction-triggered disassembly and model compound release was achieved within a physiological reducing environment. The synthesized copolymers revealed no intrinsic cellular toxicity up to 1 mg mL-1. Drug-loaded reduction-sensitive nanoparticles delivered a hydrophobic model anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to cancer cells (HeLa cells) and an experimental, metabolically unstable antimalarial drug (the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) inhibitor (+/-)-1) to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), with higher efficacy compared to similar, non-sensitive drug-loaded nanoparticles. These responsive copolymer-based nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as smart nanocarrier platform for various drugs to be applied to different diseases, due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrophobic block, and the protein-repellent hydrophilic block.Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous

  11. Possible Anticancer Mechanisms of Some Costus speciosus Active Ingredients Concerning Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    El-Far, Ali H.; Badria, Faried A.; Shaheen, Hazem M.

    2016-01-01

    Costus speciosus is native to South East Asia, especially found in India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Malaysia. C. speciosus have numerous therapeutic potentials against a wide variety of complains. The therapeutic properties of C. speciosus are attributed to the presence of various ingredients such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, sterols and sesquiterpenes. This review presented the past, present, and the future status of C. speciosus active ingredients to propose a future use as a potential anticancer agent. All possible up-regulation of cellular apoptotic molecules as p53, p21, p27, caspases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and others attribute to the anticancer activity of C. speciosus along the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic agents such as Akt, Bcl2, NFκB, STAT3, JAK, MMPs, actin, surviving and vimentin. Eventually, we recommend further investigation of different C. speciosus extracts, using some active ingredients and evaluate the anticancer effect of these chemicals against different cancers. PMID:27515456

  12. An amphiphilic graft copolymer-based nanoparticle platform for reduction-responsive anticancer and antimalarial drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Schwertz, Geoffrey; Schwab, Anatol; Witschel, Matthias C; Schäfer, Anja; Diederich, François; Rottmann, Matthias; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-08-21

    Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous solubility, high systemic toxicity, and metabolic instability. Smart nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems provide means of solving these problems at once. Herein, we present such a smart nanoparticle platform based on self-assembled, reduction-responsive amphiphilic graft copolymers, which were successfully synthesized through thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between thiolated hydrophilic block and pyridyl disulfide functionalized hydrophobic block. These amphiphilic graft copolymers self-assembled into nanoparticles with mean diameters of about 30-50 nm and readily incorporated hydrophobic guest molecules. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to study nanoparticle stability and triggered release of a model compound in detail. Long-term colloidal stability and model compound retention within the nanoparticles was found when analyzed in cell media at body temperature. In contrast, rapid, complete reduction-triggered disassembly and model compound release was achieved within a physiological reducing environment. The synthesized copolymers revealed no intrinsic cellular toxicity up to 1 mg mL(-1). Drug-loaded reduction-sensitive nanoparticles delivered a hydrophobic model anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to cancer cells (HeLa cells) and an experimental, metabolically unstable antimalarial drug (the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) inhibitor (±)-1) to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), with higher efficacy compared to similar, non-sensitive drug-loaded nanoparticles. These responsive copolymer-based nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as smart nanocarrier platform for various drugs to be applied to different diseases, due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrophobic block, and the protein-repellent hydrophilic block.

  13. Importance of Kier-Hall topological indices in the QSAR of anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sisir; Bagchi, Manish C

    2012-06-01

    , the structural model of an assembled entity (e.g. a molecule consisting of atoms) may be defined as the pattern of relationship among its parts as distinct from the values associated with them. Constitutional formulae of molecules are graphs where vertices represent the set of atoms and edges represent chemical bonds. The pattern of connectedness of atoms in a molecule is preserved by constitutional graphs. A graph (more correctly a non-directed graph) G = [V, E] consists of a finite non-empty set V of points together with a prescribed set E of unordered pairs of distinct points of V. Thus the mathematical characterization of structures represents structural invariants having successful applications in chemical documentation, characterization of molecular branching, enumeration of molecular constitutional associated with a particular empirical formula, calculation of quantum chemical parameters for the generation of quantitative structure-property-activity correlations. Kier developed a number of structural invariants which are now-a-days called as topological indices with wide range of practical applications for QSAR and drug design. The present paper is restricted to the review of Kier-Hall topological indices for QSAR and anticancer drug design for 2,5-bis(1-aziridinyl) 1,4-benzoquinone (BABQ), pyridopyrimidine, 4-anilinoquinazoline and 2-Phenylindoles compounds utilizing various statistical multivariate regression analyses.

  14. Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Agents via a Dual Function Nanocarrier with an Interfacial Drug-Interactive Motif

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a dual-function drug carrier, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derivatized farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS). Here we report that incorporation of a drug-interactive motif (Fmoc) into PEG5k–FTS2 led to further improvement in both drug loading capacity and formulation stability. Doxorubicin (DOX) formulated in PEG5k–Fmoc–FTS2 showed sustained release kinetics slower than those of DOX loaded in PEG5k–FTS2. The maximum tolerated dose of DOX- or paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEG5k–Fmoc–FTS2 was significantly higher than that of the free drug. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies showed that DOX/PEG5k–Fmoc–FTS2 mixed micelles were able to retain DOX in the bloodstream for a significant amount of time and efficiently deliver the drug to tumor sites. More importantly, drug (DOX or PTX)-loaded PEG5k–Fmoc–FTS2 led to superior antitumor activity over other treatments including drugs formulated in PEG5k–FTS2 in breast cancer and prostate cancer models. Our improved dual function carrier with a built-in drug-interactive motif represents a simple and effective system for targeted delivery of anticancer agents. PMID:25325795

  15. Oxidative stress-induced protein damage inhibits DNA repair and determines mutation risk and anticancer drug effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Elizabeth; Brem, Reto; Karran, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between sun exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer risk is well established. Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV; wavelengths 280-400 nm) is firmly implicated in skin cancer development. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protects against cancer by removing potentially mutagenic DNA lesions induced by UVB (280-320 nm). How the 20-fold more abundant UVA (320-400 mn) component of solar UV radiation increases skin cancer risk is not understood. We demonstrate here that the contribution of UVA to the effects of UV radiation on cultured human cells is largely independent of its ability to damage DNA. Instead, the effects of UVA reflect the induction of oxidative stress that causes extensive protein oxidation. Because NER proteins are among those damaged, UVA irradiation inhibits NER and increases the cells’ susceptibility to mutation by UVB. NER inhibition is a common consequence of oxidative stress. Exposure to chemical oxidants, treatment with drugs that deplete cellular antioxidants, and interventions that interfere with glucose metabolism to disrupt the supply of cellular reducing power all inhibit NER. Tumor cells are often in a condition of oxidative stress and one effect of the NER inhibition that results from stress-induced protein oxidation is an increased sensitivity to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Statement of implication: Since NER is both a defence against cancer a significant determinant of cell survival after treatment with anticancer drugs, its attenuation by protein damage under conditions of oxidative-stress has implications for both cancer risk and for the effectiveness of anticancer therapy. PMID:27106867

  16. ATP-Responsive and Near-Infrared-Emissive Nanocarriers for Anticancer Drug Delivery and Real-Time Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chenggen; Chen, Yulei; Zhu, Sha; Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Peijian; Tang, Xin; Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Lu, Yue; Xiao, Xuanzhong; Shen, Qun-Dong; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive and imaging-guided drug delivery systems hold vast promise for enhancement of therapeutic efficacy. Here we report an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-responsive and near-infrared (NIR)-emissive conjugated polymer-based nanocarrier for the controlled release of anticancer drugs and real-time imaging. We demonstrate that the conjugated polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with phenylboronic acid tags on surface as binding sites for ATP could be converted to the water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolytes in an ATP-rich environment, which promotes the disassembly of the drug carrier and subsequent release of the cargo. In vivo studies validate that this formulation exhibits promising capability for inhibition of tumor growth. We also evaluate the metabolism process by monitoring the fluorescence signal of the conjugated polymer through the in vivo NIR imaging. PMID:27217838

  17. Gold Nanorods Conjugated with Doxorubicin and cRGD for Combined Anticancer Drug Delivery and PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuling; Hong, Hao; Matson, Vyara Z.; Javadi, Alireza; Xu, Wenjin; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Engle, Jonathan W.; Nickles, Robert J.; Cai, Weibo; Steeber, Douglas A.; Gong, Shaoqin

    2012-01-01

    A multifunctional gold nanorod (GNR)-based nanoplatform for targeted anticancer drug delivery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumors was developed and characterized. An anti-cancer drug (i.e., doxorubicin (DOX)) was covalently conjugated onto PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) GNR nanocarriers via a hydrazone bond to achieve pH-sensitive controlled drug release. Tumor-targeting ligands (i.e., the cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptides, cRGD) and 64Cu-chelators (i.e., 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N''-triacetic acid (NOTA)) were conjugated onto the distal ends of the PEG arms to achieve active tumor-targeting and PET imaging, respectively. Based on flow cytometry analysis, cRGD-conjugated nanocarriers (i.e., GNR-DOX-cRGD) exhibited a higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity than non-targeted ones (i.e., GNR-DOX) in vitro. However, GNR-DOX-cRGD and GNR-DOX nanocarriers had similar in vivo biodistribution according to in vivo PET imaging and biodistribution studies. Due to the unique optical properties of GNRs, this multifunctional GNR-based nanoplatform can potentially be optimized for combined cancer therapies (chemotherapy and photothermal therapy) and multimodality imaging (PET, optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT), etc.). PMID:22916075

  18. [Classification of anticancer drugs with different mechanisms based on amino-acid consumption profiling in culture media].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaofei; Wang, Longxing; Yang, Qianxu; Xiao, Hongbin

    2011-04-01

    An approach for quantitative determination of amino-acid consumption profiling in culture media by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed and validated, using o-phthalic dicarboxaldehyde (OPA) as the derivatizing reagent and norvaline as the internal standard. Mobile phase A was 10 mmol/L Na2HPO4Na2B4O7 buffer (pH 7.95), and mobile phase B was acetonitrile-methanol-water (45:45:10, v/v/v). The linear elution program was 5% B at the start and 52% B at the end in 35 min. The 17 free amino-acids (FAAs) were separated satisfactorily in 33 min. Following HeLa cells incubation in conditioned medias of taxol (4 micromol/L) and mitomycin (75 micromol/L), respectively, with control for 24 h, the media 17 amino-acid consumption profilings were determined, and then analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis based on Matlab7.1 software platform. Relation analysis performed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that in comparison with the control group, the media amino-acid consumption profiling can distinguish the two anticancer drugs with different mechanisms, which provides a new perspective for the pre-classification of drug action mechanisms during the screening of new anticancer drugs. Meanwhile, the idea from the outer into the inner has convenient and economic characteristics.

  19. Endogenous stimuli-sensitive multistage polymeric micelleplex anticancer drug delivery system for efficient tumor penetration and cellular internalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Li, Hui; Zha, Zengshi; Han, Yu; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-10-28

    To efficiently deliver anticancer drugs to the entire tumor tissue and cancer cells, an endogenous stimuli-sensitive multistage polymeric micelleplex drug delivery system is developed via electrostatic complexation between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly[(N'-dimethylmaleoyl-2-aminoethyl)aspartamide]-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PAsp(EDA-DM)-b-PCL) triblock copolymer micelles and cisplatin prodrug (Pt(IV))-conjugated cationic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM-Pt(IV)). The micelleplexes maintain structural stability at pH 7.4 ensuring long blood circulation and high tumor accumulation level, while they exhibit triggered release of secondary PAMAM-Pt(IV) dendrimer nanocarriers at tumoral acidity (≈pH 6.8) due to acid-labile charge-reversal properties of PAsp(EDA-DM) component under mildly acidic condition. The released PAMAM delivery nanocarriers with small size and slightly positive charges exhibit significantly deep tumor tissue penetration and efficient cellular internalization, followed by release of active cisplatin anticancer drug in intracellular reducing medium. In vivo investigation reveals that the Pt(IV)-loading micelleplexes significantly suppress tumor growth via intravenous injection due to synergistic effect of long circulation in bloodstream, high tumor accumulation, deep tumor tissue penetration, and efficient cellular internalization. Thus, the micelleplexes with stimuli-responsive multistage release feature show great potentials for better therapeutic efficacy of cancer especially through enhanced tumor penetration and cellular internalization.

  20. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  1. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  2. Physical and spectral characterization of the human cyclin A gene and its interactions with anthracycline anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huixin; Wang, Xiaohui; Yu, Haijia; Fu, Manliang; Qu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Yongchen; Ren, Jinsong

    2007-02-01

    Over expression of cyclin A in human tumors has been linked to cancer by various experimental lines of evidence. However, physical and spectral characterization of the human cyclin A gene and its interactions with anticancer drugs have not been reported. Our gene sequence analysis, singular value decomposition method and melting studies in the presence of antitumor agents, daunomycin, doxorubicin and Hoechst 33258 showed that cyclin A gene had both AT-rich and GC-rich domains. For a ligand with unknown DNA binding specificity, this gene sequence can be used to differentiate its DNA binding preference.

  3. The amplification effect of functionalized gold nanoparticles on the binding of anticancer drug dacarbazine to DNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qin; Wang, Xuemei; Fu, Degang

    2008-11-01

    The promising application of functionalized gold nanoparticles to amplify the performance of biosensors and relevant biomolecular recognition processes has been explored in this paper. Our observations illustrate the apparent enhancement effect of the gold nanoparticles on the electrochemical response of the anticancer drug dacarbazine (DTIC) binding to DNA and DNA bases, indicating that these functionalized gold nanoparticles could readily facilitate the specific interactions between DTIC and DNA/DNA bases. This raises the potential valuable applications of these biocompatible nanoparticles in the promising biosensors and biomedical engineering.

  4. Quantitative High-Throughput Drug Screening Identifies Novel Classes of Drugs with Anticancer Activity in Thyroid Cancer Cells: Opportunities for Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisa; He, Mei; Zhang, Yaqin; Nilubol, Naris; Shen, Min

    2012-01-01

    Context: Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis and targets for thyroid cancer and other cancers, developing a new anticancer chemical agent remains an expensive and long process. An alternative approach is the exploitation of clinically used and/or bioactive compounds. Objective: Our objective was to identify agents with an anticancer effect in thyroid cancer cell lines using quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS). Design: We used the newly assembled National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomic Center's pharmaceutical collection, which contains 2816 clinically approved drugs and bioactive compounds to perform qHTS. Results: Multiple agents, across a variety of therapeutic categories and with different modes of action, were found to have an antiproliferative effect. We found the following therapeutic categories were the most enriched categories with antiproliferative activity: cardiotonic and antiobesity agents. Sixteen agents had an efficacy of greater than 60% and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the nanomolar range. We validated the results of the qHTS using two agents (bortezomib and ouabain) in additional cell lines representing different histological subtypes of thyroid cancer and with different mutations (BRAF V600E, RET/PTC1, p53, PTEN). Both agents induced apoptosis, and ouabain also caused cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to use qHTS of a large drug library to identify candidate drugs for anticancer therapy. Our results indicate such a screening approach can lead to the discovery of novel agents in different therapeutic categories and drugs with nonclassic chemotherapy mode of action. Our approach could lead to drug repurposing and accelerate clinical trials of compounds with well-established pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles. PMID:22170715

  5. Identifying anti-cancer drug response related genes using an integrative analysis of transcriptomic and genomic variations with cell line-based drug perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunqin; Ma, Qin; Wei, Jia; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical responses to anti-cancer therapies often only benefit a defined subset of patients. Predicting the best treatment strategy hinges on our ability to effectively translate genomic data into actionable information on drug responses. Results To achieve this goal, we compiled a comprehensive collection of baseline cancer genome data and drug response information derived from a large panel of cancer cell lines. This data set was applied to identify the signature genes relevant to drug sensitivity and their resistance by integrating CNVs and the gene expression of cell lines with in vitro drug responses. We presented an efficient in-silico pipeline for integrating heterogeneous cell line data sources with the simultaneous modeling of drug response values across all the drugs and cell lines. Potential signature genes correlated with drug response (sensitive or resistant) in different cancer types were identified. Using signature genes, our collaborative filtering-based drug response prediction model outperformed the 44 algorithms submitted to the DREAM competition on breast cancer cells. The functions of the identified drug response related signature genes were carefully analyzed at the pathway level and the synthetic lethality level. Furthermore, we validated these signature genes by applying them to the classification of the different subtypes of the TCGA tumor samples, and further uncovered their in vivo implications using clinical patient data. Conclusions Our work may have promise in translating genomic data into customized marker genes relevant to the response of specific drugs for a specific cancer type of individual patients. PMID:26824188

  6. Localization and molecular interactions of mitoxantrone within living K562 cells as probed by confocal spectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Feofanov, A; Sharonov, S; Kudelina, I; Fleury, F; Nabiev, I

    1997-01-01

    Studying mechanisms of drug antitumor action is complicated by the lack of noninvasive methods enabling direct monitoring of the state and interactions of the drugs within intact viable cells. Here we present a confocal spectral imaging (CSI) technique as a method of overcoming this problem. We applied this method to the examination of localization and interactions of mitoxantrone (1, 4-dihydroxy-5, 8-bis-[([2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]ethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione dihydrochloride), a potent antitumor drug, in living K562 cells. A two-dimensional set of fluorescence spectra of mitoxantrone (MITOX) recorded with micron resolution within a drug-treated cell was analyzed to reveal formation of drug-target complexes and to create the maps of their intracellular distribution. The analysis was based on detailed in vitro modeling of drug-target (DNA, RNA, DNA topoisomerase II) interactions and environmental effects affecting drug fluorescence. MITOX exposed to aqueous intracellular environment, MITOX bound to hydrophobic cellular structures, complexes of MITOX with nucleic acids, as well as the naphtoquinoxaline metabolite of MITOX were simultaneously detected and mapped in K562 cells. These states and complexes are known to be immediately related to the antitumor action of the drug. The results obtained present a basis for the subsequent quantitative analysis of concentration and time-dependent accumulation of free and bound MITOX within different compartments of living cancer cells. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:9414242

  7. Polymer-drug compatibility: a guide to the development of delivery systems for the anticancer agent, ellipticine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jubo; Xiao, Yuehua; Allen, Christine

    2004-01-01

    To establish a method for predicting polymer-drug compatibility as a means to guide formulation development, we carried out physicochemical analyses of polymer-drug pairs and compared the difference in total and partial solubility parameters of polymer and drug. For these studies, we employed a range of biodegradable polymers and the anticancer agent Ellipticine as the model drug. The partial and total solubility parameters for the polymer and drug were calculated using the group contribution method. Drug-polymer pairs with different enthalpy of mixing values were analyzed by physicochemical techniques including X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared. Polymers identified to be compatible [i.e., polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly-beta-benzyl-L-aspartate (PBLA)] and incompatible [i.e., poly (d,l-lactide (PLA)], by the above mentioned methods, were used to formulate Ellipticine. Specifically, Ellipticine was loaded into PBLA, PCL, and PLA films using a solvent casting method to produce a local drug formulation; while, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-b-polycaprolactone (PCL) and PEO-b-poly (d,l-lactide) (PLA) copolymer micelles were prepared by both dialysis and dry down methods resulting in a formulation for systemic administration. The drug release profiles for all formulations and the drug loading efficiency for the micelle formulations were also measured. In this way, we compared formulation characteristics with predictions from physicochemical analyses and comparison of total and partial solubility parameters. Overall, a good correlation was obtained between drug formulation characteristics and findings from our polymer-drug compatibility studies. Further optimization of the PEO-b-PCL micelle formulation for Ellipticine was also performed.

  8. Anticancer drugs induce hypomethylation of the acetylcholinesterase promoter via a phosphorylated-p38-DNMT1-AChE pathway in apoptotic hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xi, Qiliang; Gao, Ning; Yang, Yang; Ye, Weiyuan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Gening; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, plays an essential role in eliminating excessive, damaged or harmful cells. Previous work has demonstrated that anticancer drugs induce cell apoptosis by inducing cytotoxicity. In recent years, several reports demonstrated modulated expression of DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a variety of tumors. In this study, we showed that the expression of DNMT1 was decreased and the methylation of CpGs in the promoter of AChE was reduced in anticancer drugs-induced apoptotic hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Silencing of DNMT1 expression by AZA or RNA interference (RNAi) restored AChE production and inhibition of AChE expression by RNAi protected HCC cells from anticancer drugs-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the regulation of AChE by DNMT1 was involved in the phosphorylated p38 pathway in anticancer drugs-induced apoptosis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining showed that P-p38, DNMT1 and AChE were aberrantly expressed in a subset of HCC tumors. Taken together, we demonstrated the regulation of AChE by DNMT1 and further, we found that this regulation was involved in the phosphorylated p38 pathway in anticancer drugs-induced apoptosis.

  9. Alterations of DNA repair genes in the NCI-60 cell lines and their predictive value for anticancer drug activity

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Fabricio G.; Matuo, Renata; Tang, Sai-Wen; Rajapakse, Vinodh N.; Luna, Augustin; Sander, Chris; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Paul H.G.; Doroshow, James H.; Reinhold, William C.; Pommier, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function of DNA repair (DNAR) genes is associated with genomic instability and cancer predisposition; it also makes cancer cells reliant on a reduced set of DNAR pathways to resist DNA-targeted therapy, which remains the core of the anticancer armamentarium. Because the landscape of DNAR defects across numerous types of cancers and its relation with drug activity have not been systematically examined, we took advantage of the unique drug and genomic databases of the US National Cancer Institute cancer cell lines (the NCI-60) to characterize 260 DNAR genes with respect to deleterious mutations and expression down-regulation; 169 genes exhibited a total of 549 function-affecting alterations, with 39 of them scoring as putative knockouts across 31 cell lines. Those mutations were compared to tumor samples from 12 studies of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). Based on this compendium of alterations, we determined which DNAR genomic alterations predicted drug response for 20,195 compounds present in the NCI-60 drug database. Among 242 DNA damaging agents, 202 showed associations with at least one DNAR genomic signature. In addition to SLFN11, the Fanconi anemia-scaffolding gene SLX4 (FANCP/BTBD12) stood out among the genes most significantly related with DNA synthesis and topoisomerase inhibitors. Depletion and complementation experiments validated the causal relationship between SLX4 defects and sensitivity to raltitrexed and cytarabine in addition to camptothecin. Therefore, we propose new rational uses for existing anticancer drugs based on a comprehensive analysis of DNAR genomic parameters. PMID:25758781

  10. A strategy for integrating essential three-dimensional microphysiological systems of human organs for realistic anticancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Heylman, Christopher; Sobrino, Agua; Shirure, Venktesh S; Hughes, Christopher Cw; George, Steven C

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Despite some success, traditional anticancer drugs developed to reduce tumor growth face important limitations primarily due to undesirable bone marrow and cardiovascular toxicity. Many drugs fail in clinical development after showing promise in preclinical trials, suggesting that the available in vitro and animal models are poor predictors of drug efficacy and toxicity in humans. Thus, novel models that more accurately mimic the biology of human organs are necessary for high-throughput drug screening. Three-dimensional (3D) microphysiological systems can utilize induced pluripotent stem cell technology, tissue engineering, and microfabrication techniques to develop tissue models of human tumors, cardiac muscle, and bone marrow on the order of 1 mm(3) in size. A functional network of human capillaries and microvessels to overcome diffusion limitations in nutrient delivery and waste removal can also nourish the 3D microphysiological tissues. Importantly, the 3D microphysiological tissues are grown on optically clear platforms that offer non-invasive and non-destructive image acquisition with subcellular resolution in real time. Such systems offer a new paradigm for high-throughput drug screening and will significantly improve the efficiency of identifying new drugs for cancer treatment that minimize cardiac and bone marrow toxicity.

  11. A strategy for integrating essential 3D microphysiological systems of human organs for realistic anti-cancer drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Heylman, Christopher; Sobrino, Agua; Shirure, Venktesh S.; Hughes, Christopher C.W.; George, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Despite some success, traditional anti-cancer drugs developed to reduce tumor growth face important limitations primarily due to undesirable bone marrow and cardiovascular toxicity. Many drugs showing promise in preclinical trials fail during clinical development, suggesting that the available in vitro and animal models are poor predictors of drug efficacy and toxicity in humans. Hence, there exists a great need for developing novel platforms that more accurately mimic the biology of human organs, and thus provide a reliable model for high-throughput drug screening. 3D microphysiological systems can utilize induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, tissue engineering, and microfabrication techniques to develop tissue models of human tumors, cardiac muscle, and bone marrow on the order of 1 mm3 in size. A functional network of human capillaries and microvessels to overcome diffusion limitations in nutrient delivery and waste removal can also nourish the 3D microphysiological tissues. Importantly, the 3D microphysiological tissues are grown on optically clear platforms that offer non-invasive and non-destructive image acquisition with sub-cellular resolution in real time. Such systems offer a new paradigm for high-throughput drug screening, and will significantly improve the efficiency of identifying new drugs for cancer treatment, that minimize cardiac and bone marrow toxicity. PMID:24740872

  12. Preparation of hierarchical mesoporous CaCO3 by a facile binary solvent approach as anticancer drug carrier for etoposide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To develop a nontoxic system for targeting therapy, a new highly ordered hierarchical mesoporous calcium carbonate nanospheres (CCNSs) as small drug carriers has been synthesized by a mild and facile binary solvent approach under the normal temperature and pressure. The hierarchical structure by multistage self-assembled strategy was confirmed by TEM and SEM, and a possible formation process was proposed. Due to the large fraction of voids inside the nanospheres which provides space for physical absorption, the CCNSs can stably encapsulate the anticancer drug etoposide with the drug loading efficiency as high as 39.7 wt.%, and etoposide-loaded CCNS (ECCNS) nanoparticles can dispersed well in the cell culture. Besides, the drug release behavior investigated at three different pH values showed that the release of etoposide from CCNSs was pH-sensitive. MTT assay showed that compared with free etoposide, ECCNSs exhibited a higher cell inhibition ratio against SGC-7901 cells and also decreased the toxicity of etoposide to HEK 293 T cells. The CLSM image showed that ECCNSs exhibited a high efficiency of intracellular delivery, especially in nuclear invasion. The apoptosis test revealed that etoposide entrapped in CCNSs could enhance the delivery efficiencies of drug to achieve an improved inhibition effect on cell growth. These results clearly implied that the CCNSs are a promising drug delivery system for etoposide in cancer therapy. PMID:23849350

  13. Flavaglines: potent anticancer drugs that target prohibitins and the helicase eIF4A.

    PubMed

    Basmadjian, Christine; Thuaud, Frédéric; Ribeiro, Nigel; Désaubry, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Flavaglines are complex natural products that are found in several medicinal plants of Southeast Asia in the genus Aglaia; these compounds have shown exceptional anticancer and cytoprotective activities. This review describes the significance of flavaglines as a new class of pharmacological agents and presents recent developments in their synthesis, structure-activity relationships, identification of their molecular targets and modes of action. Flavaglines display a unique profile of anticancer activities that are mediated by two classes of unrelated proteins: prohibitins and the translation initiation factor eIF4A. The identification of these molecular targets is expected to accelerate advancement toward clinical studies. The selectivity of cytotoxicity towards cancer cells has been shown to be due to an inhibition of the transcription factor HSF1 and an upregulation of the tumor suppressor TXNIP. In addition, flavaglines display potent anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities; however, the mechanisms underlying these activities are yet to be elucidated.

  14. Anticancer drugs exert differential apoptotic and cytotoxic effects on glioblastoma primary cultures with various EGFR and bcl-2 profiles.

    PubMed

    Pédeboscq, Stéphane; L'Azou, Béatrice; Passagne, Isabelle; De Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Liguoro, Dominique; Pometan, Jean-Paul; Cambar, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects induced on glioblastoma cells by various anticancer agents that possess different mechanisms of action (alkylating drugs, anti-EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor receptor), proteasome inhibitor). Primary cell cultures were obtained from patients who underwent surgery for their glioblastoma. The cytotoxic effects of drugs were determined by MTT (dimethylthiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and apoptosis was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial potential by flow cytometry. Biological markers (EGFR, bcl-2) were studied by a immunoblotting technique to find out predictive markers of response. We found a large interindividual sensitivity, thus confirming the interest of the primary cultures. New proteasome inhibitor bortezomib had considerable cytotoxic and apoptotic potential in glioblastoma, even at very low concentrations. Moreover, the characterization of patients' cells for EGFR and bcl-2 status could constitute an interest, with the evaluation of other markers, in the study of expected chemotherapy response.

  15. A first principles study of pristine and Al-doped boron nitride nanotubes interacting with platinum-based anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerzadeh, Ehsan; Noorizadeh, Siamak

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of cis-platin and neda-platin, two conventional platinum-based anticancer drugs, with pristine [8,8] and Al-doped [8,0] boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The obtained results indicate that cis-platin and neda-platin weakly interact with pristine zig zag or armchair BNNTs with a little dependency on the adsorbing positions; while both cis-platin and neda-platin are preferentially adsorbed onto the Al atom of the Al-doped BNNT with considerable adsorption energies. Therefore the Al-doped-BNNT might be an efficient carrier for delivery of these drugs in nanomedicine domain. The electronic structures of the stable configurations are also investigated through both DOS and PDOS spectra. The obtained results introduce the Al-doped-BNNT as an efficient carrier for delivery of cis-platin and neda-platin in nanomedicine domain.

  16. FTIR spectral signature of anticancer drug effects on PC-3 cancer cells: is there any influence of the cell cycle?

    PubMed

    Derenne, Allison; Mignolet, Alix; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2013-07-21

    FTIR spectroscopy was recently demonstrated to be a useful tool to obtain a unique fingerprint of several anticancer drugs. While cell responses to anticancer drugs are related to their "mode of action", it is obvious that some of the drugs used in the previous studies affect the cell cycle. For example, antimicrotubules disable the mitotic apparatus by disrupting the formation or the depolymerisation of microtubules. Cells are thus mostly blocked in the G2/M phase. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the changes observed in the cell spectra due to treatments could be related to the cell cycle. The aim of the present study is to examine this hypothesis and to investigate whether spectral variations induced by a treatment reflect the cell cycle behaviour or the metabolic perturbations induced by the drug. To answer this question, a method was developed that allows an unambiguous identification of the cell cycle phase for each individual cell. This method is based on the superimposition of three types of images: visible, infrared and propidium iodide fluorescence images. Propidium iodide intercalates the bases of the DNA. As the DNA amount in a cell is correlated with the cell cycle phase, the exact phase of each individual cell could be identified. On IR images, mean spectra corresponding to single cells were calculated and associated with the cycle stage defined using fluorescence images. Statistical analyses were applied on these IR spectra, first in order to compare spectra of cells from different stages of the cycle and second, to investigate to what extent the modifications related to the cell cycle contribute to the spectral variations due to paclitaxel treatment. Results demonstrate that the FTIR cell cycle signature is very small with respect to the changes induced by paclitaxel.

  17. [Evaluation of the Association of Hand-Foot Syndrome with Anticancer Drugs Using the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Databases].

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sayaka; Matsui, Toshinobu; Abe, Junko; Umetsu, Ryogo; Kato, Yamato; Ueda, Natsumi; Hane, Yuuki; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare lists hand-foot syndrome as a serious adverse drug event. Therefore, we evaluated its association with anticancer drug therapy using case reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). In addition, we calculated the reporting odds ratio (ROR) of anticancer drugs potentially associated with hand-foot syndrome, and applied the Weibull shape parameter to time-to-event data from JADER. We found that JADER contained 338224 reports from April 2004 to November 2014, while FAERS contained 5821354 reports from January 2004 to June 2014. In JADER, the RORs [95% confidence interval (CI)] of hand-foot syndrome for capecitabine, tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil, fluorouracil, sorafenib, and regorafenib were 63.60 (95%CI, 56.19-71.99), 1.30 (95%CI, 0.89-1.89), 0.48 (95%CI, 0.30-0.77), 26.10 (95%CI, 22.86-29.80), and 133.27 (95%CI, 112.85-157.39), respectively. Adverse event symptoms of hand-foot syndrome were observed with most anticancer drugs, which carry warnings of the propensity to cause these effects in their drug information literature. The time-to-event analysis using the Weibull shape parameter revealed differences in the time-dependency of the adverse events of each drug. Therefore, anticancer drugs should be used carefully in clinical practice, and patients may require careful monitoring for symptoms of hand-foot syndrome.

  18. Spectral characterization of the binding and conformational changes of serum albumins upon interaction with an anticancer drug, anastrozole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punith, Reeta; Seetharamappa, J.

    2012-06-01

    The present study employed different optical spectroscopic techniques viz., fluorescence, FTIR, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of interaction of an anticancer drug, anastrozole (AZ) with transport proteins viz., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The drug, AZ quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of protein and the analysis of results revealed the presence of dynamic quenching mechanism. The binding characteristics of drug-protein were computed. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were calculated to be +92.99 kJ/mol and +159.18 J/mol/K for AZ-BSA and, +99.43 kJ/mol and +159.19 J/mol/K for AZ-HSA, respectively. These results indicated that the hydrophobic forces stabilized the interaction between the drug and protein. CD, FTIR, absorption, synchronous and 3D fluorescence results indicated that the binding of AZ to protein induced structural perturbation in both serum albumins. The distance, r between the drug and protein was calculated based on the theory of Förster's resonance energy transfer and found to be 5.9 and 6.24 nm, respectively for AZ-BSA and AZ-HSA.

  19. Effects of Anticancer Drug on Chromosome Instability (CIN) and New Clinical Implications for Tumor-Suppressing Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sheung; Lee, Nicholas CO; Kouprina, Natalay; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kagansky, Alex; Bates, Susan; Trepel, Jane B.; Pommier, Yves; Sackett, Dan; Larionov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Whole-chromosomal instability (CIN), manifested as unequal chromosome distribution during cell division, is a distinguishing feature of most cancer types. CIN is generally considered to drive tumorigenesis, but a threshold level exists whereby further increases in CIN frequency in fact hinder tumor growth. While this attribute is appealing for therapeutic exploitation, drugs that increase CIN beyond this therapeutic threshold are currently limited. In our previous work, we developed a quantitative assay for measuring CIN based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. Here, we used this assay to rank 62 different anticancer drugs with respect to their effects on chromosome transmission fidelity. Drugs with various mechanisms of action such as antimicrotubule activity, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, mitotic checkpoint inhibition, and targeting of DNA replication and damage responses were included in the analysis. Ranking of the drugs based on their ability to induce HAC loss revealed that paclitaxel, gemcitabine, dactylolide, LMP400, talazoparib, olaparib, peloruside A, GW843682, VX-680, and cisplatin were the top ten drugs demonstrating HAC loss at a high frequency. Therefore, identification of currently used compounds that greatly increase chromosome mis-segregation rates should expedite the development of new therapeutic strategies to target and leverage the CIN phenotype in cancer cells. PMID:26837770

  20. Synthesis and Properties of Star HPMA Copolymer Nanocarriers Synthesised by RAFT Polymerisation Designed for Selective Anticancer Drug Delivery and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Janoušková, Olga; Kostka, Libor; Ulbrich, Karel; Etrych, Tomáš

    2015-06-01

    High-molecular-weight star polymer drug nanocarriers intended for the treatment and/or visualisation of solid tumours were synthesised, and their physico-chemical and preliminary in vitro biological properties were determined. The water-soluble star polymer carriers were prepared by the grafting of poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers by hetero-telechelic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers, synthesised by the controlled radical Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerisation. The well-defined star copolymers with Mw values ranging from 2 · 10(5) to 6 · 10(5) showing a low dispersity (approximately 1.2) were prepared in a high yield. A model anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was bound to the star polymer through a hydrazone bond, enabling the pH-controlled drug release in the target tumour tissue. The activated polymer arm ends of the star copolymer carrier enable a one-point attachment for the targeting ligands and/or a labelling moiety. In this study, the model TAMRA fluorescent dye was used to prove the feasibility of the polymer carrier visualisation by optical imaging in vitro. The tailor-made structure of the star polymer carriers should facilitate the synthesis of targeted polymer-drug conjugates, even polymer theranostics, for simultaneous tumour drug delivery and imaging.

  1. Increased sensitivity to anticancer drugs and decreased inflammatory response in mice lacking the multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Wijnholds, J; Evers, R; van Leusden, M R; Mol, C A; Zaman, G J; Mayer, U; Beijnen, J H; van der Valk, M; Krimpenfort, P; Borst, P

    1997-11-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) mediates the cellular excretion of many drugs, glutathione S-conjugates (GS-X) of lipophilic xenobiotics and endogenous cysteinyl leukotrienes. Increased MRP levels in tumor cells can cause multidrug resistance (MDR) by decreasing the intracellular drug concentration. The physiological role or roles of MRP remain ill-defined, however. We have generated MRP-deficient mice by using embryonic stem cell technology. Mice homozygous for the mrp mutant allele, mrp-/-, are viable and fertile, but their response to an inflammatory stimulus is impaired. We attribute this defect to a decreased secretion of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from leukotriene-synthesizing cells. Moreover, the mrp-/- mice are hypersensitive to the anticancer drug etoposide. The phenotype of mrp-/- mice is consistent with a role for MRP as the main LTC4-exporter in leukotriene-synthesizing cells, and as an important drug exporter in drug-sensitive cells. Our results suggest that this ubiquitous GS-X pump is dispensable in mice, making treatment of MDR with MRP-specific reversal agents potentially feasible.

  2. [Combination of trastuzumab, aromatase inhibitor and anti-cancer drugs obtained a good prognosis for an inoperable stage III B breast cancer patient with giant skin ulceration].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Noriyoshi; Konishi, Juichiro

    2012-04-01

    A 68-year-old woman who had an inoperable, ER-positive, PgR-positive and HER2-positive advanced breast cancer with giant skin ulceration has been treated with the combination of trastuzumab, aromatase inhibitor and anti-cancer drugs. She was thus well-controll for over 9 years. Trastuzumab was administered more than 400 times, but no cardiac toxicity has been observed. The synergistic efficacy of the combination of trastuzumab and anti-cancer drugs was already proven, but it has recently been reported that concurrent treatment of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy improves the prognoses of triple positive breast cancer patients.

  3. Recent advances in the development of dual VEGFR and c-Met small molecule inhibitors as anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Xiangdong; Jiang, Yingnan; Guo, Mingrui; Zhang, Shouyue; Li, Jingjing; He, Jun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jinhui; Ouyang, Liang

    2016-01-27

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) is a very important receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that can induce angiogenesis, increase cell growth and metastasis, reduce apoptosis, alter cytoskeletal function, and affect other biologic changes. Moreover, it is identified to be deregulated in varieties of human cancers. Therefore, VEGFR turn out to be a remarkable target of significant types of anticancer drugs in clinical trials. On the other side, c-Met is the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and a receptor tyrosine kinase. Previous studies have shown that c-Met elicits many different signaling pathways mediating cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Furthermore, the correlation between aberrant signaling of the HGF/c-Met pathway and aggressive tumor growth, poor prognosis in cancer patients has been established. Recent reports had shown that c-Met/HGF and VEGFR/VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) can act synergistically in the progression of many diseases. They were also found to be over expressed in many human cancers. Thus, in a variety of malignancies, VEGFR and c-Met receptor tyrosine kinases have acted as therapeutic targets. With the development of molecular biology techniques, further understanding of the human tumor disease pathogenesis and interrelated signaling pathways known to tumor cells, using a single target inhibitors have been difficult to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. At this point, with respect to the combination of two inhibitors, a single compound which is able to inhibit both VEGFR and c-Met may put forward the advantage of raising anticancer activity. With the strong interest in these compounds, this review represents a renewal of previous works on the development of dual VEGFR and c-Met small molecule inhibitors as novel anti-cancer agents. Newly collection derivatives have been mainly describing in their biological profiles and chemical structures.

  4. First Evidence of the Liposome-Mediated Deintercalation of Anticancer Drug Doxorubicin from the Drug-DNA Complex: A Spectroscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Adhikari, Chandan; Nayak, Debasis; Chakraborty, Anjan

    2016-01-12

    Biocompatible liposomes were used for the first time to study the deintercalation process of a prominent anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), from doxorubicin-intercalated DNA (DOX-DNA complex) under controlled experimental conditions. The study revealed that anionic liposomes (DMPG liposomes) appeared to be the most effective to bring in the highest percentage of drug release while cationic liposomes (DOTAP liposomes) scored the lowest percentage of release. The drug release was primarily attributed to the electrostatic interaction between liposomes and drug molecules. Apart from this interaction, changes in the hydrophobicity of the medium upon addition of liposomes to the DNA-drug solution accompanied by lipoplex formation between DNA and liposomes were also attributed to the observed deintercalation. The CD and the time-resolved rotational relaxation studies confirmed that lipoplex formation took place between liposomes and DNA owing to electrostatic interaction. The confocal study revealed that in the postrelease period, DOX binds with liposomes. The reason behind the binding is electrostatic interaction as well as the unique bilayer structure of liposomes which helps it to act as a "hydrophobic sink" for DOX. The study overall highlighted a novel strategy for deintercalation of drug using biocompatible liposomes, as the release of the drug can be controlled over a period of time by varying the concentration and composition of the liposomes.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity analysis of a novel cellulose based drug carrier for the controlled delivery of 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anirudhan, Thayyath S.; Nima, Jayachandran; Divya, Peethambaran L.

    2015-11-01

    The present investigation concerns the development and evaluation of a novel drug delivery system, aminated-glycidylmethacrylate grafted cellulose-grafted polymethacrylic acid-succinyl cyclodextrin (Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD) for the controlled release of 5-Fluorouracil, an anticancer drug. The prepared drug carrier was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Binding kinetics and isotherm studies of 5-FU onto Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD were found to follow pseudo-second-order and Langmuir model respectively. Maximum binding capacity of drug carrier was found to be 149.09 mg g-1 at 37 °C. Swelling studies, in vitro release kinetics, drug loading efficiency and encapsulation efficiency of Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD were studied. The release kinetics was analyzed using Ritger-Peppas equation at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity analysis on MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) cells indicated that the drug carrier shows sustained and controlled release of drug to the target site. Hence, it is evident from this investigation that Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD could be a promising carrier for 5-FU.

  6. Polymer micelle formulation for the proteasome inhibitor drug carfilzomib: Anticancer efficacy and pharmacokinetic studies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Eun; Chun, Se-Eun; Reichel, Derek; Min, Jee Sun; Lee, Su-Chan; Han, Songhee; Ryoo, Gongmi; Oh, Yunseok; Park, Shin-Hyung; Ryu, Heon-Min; Kim, Kyung Bo; Lee, Ho-Young; Bae, Soo Kyung; Bae, Younsoo

    2017-01-01

    Carfilzomib (CFZ) is a peptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Despite the remarkable efficacy of CFZ against MM, the clinical trials in patients with solid cancers yielded rather disappointing results with minimal clinical benefits. Rapid degradation of CFZ in vivo and its poor penetration to tumor sites are considered to be major factors limiting its efficacy against solid cancers. We previously reported that polymer micelles (PMs) composed of biodegradable block copolymers poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL) can improve the metabolic stability of CFZ in vitro. Here, we prepared the CFZ-loaded PM, PEG-PCL-deoxycholic acid (CFZ-PM) and assessed its in vivo anticancer efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiles. Despite in vitro metabolic protection of CFZ, CFZ-PM did not display in vivo anticancer efficacy in mice bearing human lung cancer xenograft (H460) superior to that of the clinically used cyclodextrin-based CFZ (CFZ-CD) formulation. The plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of CFZ-PM were also comparable to those of CFZ-CD and the residual tumors that persisted in xenograft mice receiving CFZ-PM displayed an incomplete proteasome inhibition. In summary, our results showed that despite its favorable in vitro performances, the current CFZ-PM formulation did not improve in vivo anticancer efficacy and accessibility of active CFZ to solid cancer tissues over CFZ-CD. Careful consideration of the current results and potential confounding factors may provide valuable insights into the future efforts to validate the potential of CFZ-based therapy for solid cancer and to develop effective CFZ delivery strategies that can be used to treat solid cancers. PMID:28273121

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor A Ligands as Anticancer Drugs Targeting Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen. PMID:21133850

  8. Development of a high-throughput three-dimensional invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Nikki A; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-β1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

  9. Efficient ferrocifen anticancer drug and Bcl-2 gene therapy using lipid nanocapsules on human melanoma xenograft in mouse.

    PubMed

    Resnier, Pauline; Galopin, Natacha; Sibiril, Yann; Clavreul, Anne; Cayon, Jérôme; Briganti, Alessandro; Legras, Pierre; Vessières, Anne; Montier, Tristan; Jaouen, Gérard; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Passirani, Catherine

    2017-01-31

    Metastatic melanoma has been described as a highly aggressive cancer with low sensibility to chemotherapeutic agents. New types of drug, such as metal-based drugs (ferrocifens) have emerged and could represent an alternative for melanoma treatment since they show interesting anticancer potential. Furthermore, molecular analysis has evidenced the role of apoptosis in the low sensibility of melanomas and especially of the key regulator, Bcl-2. The objective of this study was to combine two strategies in the same lipid nanocapsules (LNCs): i) gene therapy to modulate anti-apoptotic proteins by the use of Bcl-2 siRNA, and ii) ferrocifens as a new type of anticancer agent. The efficient gene silencing with LNCs was verified by the specific extinction of Bcl-2 in melanoma cells. The cellular toxicity of ferrocifens (ferrociphenol (FcDiOH) or Ansa-FcDiOH) was demonstrated, showing higher efficacy than dacarbazine. Interestingly, the association of siBcl-2 LNCs with Ansa-FcDiOH demonstrated a significant effect on melanoma cell viability. Moreover, the co-encapsulation of siRNA and ferrocifens was successfully performed into LNCs for animal experiments. A reduction of tumor volume and mass was proved after siBcl-2 LNC treatment and Ansa-FcDiOH LNC treatment, individually (around 25%). Finally, the association of both components into the same LNCs increased the reduction of tumor volume to about 50% compared to the control group. In conclusion, LNCs appeared to provide a promising tool for the co-encapsulation of a metal-based drug and siRNA.

  10. Development of a High-Throughput Three-Dimensional Invasion Assay for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nikki A.; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S.; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-β1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:24349367

  11. Structural Analysis of Thymidylate Synthase from Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus with the Anticancer Drug Raltitrexed

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Mi; Yeo, Hyun Ku; Park, Young Woo; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a highly infectious human herpesvirus that causes Kaposi’s sarcoma. KSHV encodes functional thymidylate synthase, which is a target for anticancer drugs such as raltitrexed or 5-fluorouracil. Thymidylate synthase catalyzes the conversion of 2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (dUMP) to thymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP) using 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (mTHF) as a co-substrate. The crystal structures of thymidylate synthase from KSHV (apo), complexes with dUMP (binary), and complexes with both dUMP and raltitrexed (ternary) were determined at 1.7 Å, 2.0 Å, and 2.4 Å, respectively. While the ternary complex structures of human thymidylate synthase and E. coli thymidylate synthase had a closed conformation, the ternary complex structure of KSHV thymidylate synthase was observed in an open conformation, similar to that of rat thymidylate synthase. The complex structures of KSHV thymidylate synthase did not have a covalent bond between the sulfhydryl group of Cys219 and C6 atom of dUMP, unlike the human thymidylate synthase. The catalytic Cys residue demonstrated a dual conformation in the apo structure, and its sulfhydryl group was oriented toward the C6 atom of dUMP with no covalent bond upon ligand binding in the complex structures. These structural data provide the potential use of antifolates such as raltitrexed as a viral induced anticancer drug and structural basis to design drugs for targeting the thymidylate synthase of KSHV. PMID:27936107

  12. The Human Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 and Mimics are Potential Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Kengo; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Isogai, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a critical role in innate host defense against microbial pathogens in many organisms. The human cathelicidin, LL-37, has a net positive charge and is amphiphilic, and can eliminate pathogenic microbes directly via electrostatic attraction toward negatively charged bacterial membranes. A number of studies have shown that LL-37 participates in various host immune systems, such as inflammatory responses and tissue repair, in addition to its antibacterial properties. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that it is also involved in the regulation of cancer. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that human LL-37 is involved in carcinogenesis via multiple reporters, such as FPR2 (FPRL1), epidermal growth factor receptor, and ERBb2, although LL-37 and its fragments and analogs also show anticancer effects in various cancer cell lines. This discrepancy can be attributed to peptide-based factors, host membrane-based factors, and signal regulation. Here, we describe the association between AMPs and cancer with a focus on anticancer peptide functions and selectivity in an effort to understand potential therapeutic implications. PMID:26175965

  13. Synthesis and characterization of smart N-isopropylacrylamide-based magnetic nanocomposites containing doxorubicin anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Motaali, Soheila; Pashaeiasl, Maryam; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, magnetic and thermo/pH-sensitive (multiresponsive) nanocomposites based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) were synthesized and characterized. Nanocomposites were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization of NIPAAM as thermosensitive monomer and N,N-dimethyl-aminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) as pH-sensitive monomer in the presence of methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linking agent. Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer drug, was loaded into these nanocomposites via equilibrium swelling method. Thermo/pH-sensitive cross-linked poly (NIPAAM-DMAEMA)-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The volume of the loaded drug and drug release amount was determined by UV measurements. The results showed that this thermo/pH-sensitive magnetic nanocomposite has a high drug-loading efficiency. Doxorubicin was released at 40 °C and pH 5.8 more than the 37 °C and pH 7.4.

  14. Enhanced anticancer potency using an acid-responsive ZnO-incorporated liposomal drug-delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahmad, Rafiq; Ko, Hyun Ah; Khang, Gilson; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2015-02-01

    The development of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers is becoming important in chemotherapy. Liposomes, with an appropriate triggering mechanism, can efficiently deliver their encapsulated cargo in a controlled manner. We explored the use of acid-sensitive zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) as modulators of the responsive properties of liposomes. Nanocomplexes formed by the incorporation of ZNPs in liposomes (ZNP-liposomes) were designed to demonstrate the pH-responsive release of a drug (daunorubicin) without premature drug leakage and with the maintenance of the relevant therapeutic concentrations. The nanocomplexes were spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution and showed a high drug-encapsulating efficiency. Under acidic conditions, the ZNP-liposome nanocomplexes released the loaded drug more rapidly than bare liposomes. Using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and an MTT assay, we demonstrated that these nanocomplexes were readily taken up by cancer cells, resulting in significantly enhanced cytotoxicity. On exposure to the acidic conditions inside cancer cells, the ZNPs rapidly decomposed, releasing the entrapped drug molecules from the ZNP-liposome nanocomplexes, producing widespread cytotoxic effects. The incorporated ZNPs were multimodal in that they not only resulted in a pH-responsive drug-delivery system, but they also had a synergistic chemo-photodynamic anticancer action. This design provides a significant step towards the development of multimodal liposome structures.The development of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers is becoming important in chemotherapy. Liposomes, with an appropriate triggering mechanism, can efficiently deliver their encapsulated cargo in a controlled manner. We explored the use of acid-sensitive zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) as modulators of the responsive properties of liposomes. Nanocomplexes formed by the incorporation of ZNPs in liposomes (ZNP-liposomes) were designed to demonstrate the pH-responsive release of a drug

  15. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main extracellular matrix (ECM) enzymes in collagen degradation, as a target for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Matejczyk, Marzena; Rosochacki, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The main group of enzymes responsible for the collagen and other protein degradation in extracellular matrix (ECM) are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collagen is the main structural component of connective tissue and its degradation is a very important process in the development, morphogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. Typical structure of MMPs consists of several distinct domains. MMP family can be divided into six groups: collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type MMPs, and other non-classified MMPs. MMPs and their inhibitors have multiple biological functions in all stages of cancer development: from initiation to outgrowth of clinically relevant metastases and likewise in apoptosis and angiogenesis. MMPs and their inhibitors are extensively examined as potential anticancer drugs. MMP inhibitors can be divided into two main groups: synthetic and natural inhibitors. Selected synthetic inhibitors are in clinical trials on humans, e.g. synthetic peptides, non-peptidic molecules, chemically modified tetracyclines, and bisphosphonates. Natural MMP inhibitors are mainly isoflavonoids and shark cartilage.

  16. Tuning the metabolism of the anticancer drug cisplatin with chemoprotective agents to improve its safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sooriyaarachchi, Melani; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Narendran, Aru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous in vivo studies have shown that the severe toxic side-effects of intravenously administered cisplatin can be significantly reduced by the co-administration of sulfur-containing ‘chemoprotective agents’. Using a metallomics approach, a likely biochemical basis for these potentially useful observations was only recently uncovered and appears to involve the reaction of chemoprotective agents with cisplatin-derived Pt-species in human plasma to form novel platinum–sulfur complexes (PSC's). We here reveal aspects of the structure of two PSC's and establish the identification of an optimal chemoprotective agent to ameliorate the toxic side-effects of cisplatin, while leaving its antineoplastic activity largely intact, as a feasible research strategy to transform cisplatin into a safer and more effective anticancer drug. PMID:27722429

  17. Incidence of anticancer drugs in an aquatic urban system: from hospital effluents through urban wastewater to natural environment.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Climent, L; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Barceló, D

    2014-10-01

    The presence of 10 anticancer drugs was studied along the entire urban water cycle -from hospital effluents through urban wastewater treatment plant till surface waters- and their potential environmental risk was assessed. Azathioprine, etoposide, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, tamoxifen and ciprofloxacin were detected in hospital effluent and in the urban influent of the sewage treatment plant although most of them were totally eliminated after WWTP. Only cyclophosphamide, tamoxifen and ciprofloxacin were found in both WWTP effluent and in the receiving river at a concentration range between nd-20 ng L(-1), 25-38 ng L(-1) and 7-103 ng L(-1) respectively. Tamoxifen and ciprofloxacin, commonly used for veterinary practices, were also detected in the river upstream the sewage discharge. In addition, they both were considered to pose a potential risk to the environment based on the levels found in the WWTP effluent together with their ecotoxicological impact in selected organisms.

  18. Raman endoscopy for real time monitoring of anticancer drug treatment in colorectal tumors of live model mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, Akinori; Ishigaki, Mika; Andriana, Bibin Bintan; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the capability of a miniaturized Raman endoscope (mRE) system to monitor the advancement of colorectal tumors in live model mice. The endoscope is narrow enough to observe the inside of the mouse colon under anesthesia. The mRE system allows to observe the tissues and to apply a miniaturized Raman probe for the measurement at any targeted point within the colon. Raman spectroscopy allows obtaining information about molecular composition without damaging the tissue (i.e., noninvasively). Continuous monitoring of the same tumor is carried out to study molecular alterations along with its advancement. The Raman spectra measured before and after the anticancer drug (5-FU) treatment indicated spectral changes in the tumor tissue. It suggests that the tumor is not cured but supposedly transformed to another tumor type after the treatment.

  19. Interaction of celecoxib with different anti-cancer drugs is antagonistic in breast but not in other cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    El-Awady, Raafat A.; Saleh, Ekram M.; Ezz, Marwa; Elsayed, Abeer M.

    2011-09-15

    Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, is being investigated for enhancement of chemotherapy efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study investigates the ability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to sensitize cells from different origins to several chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of the drug's mechanism of action and sequence of administration are also investigated. The sensitivity, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage of five different cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, HepG2, MCF7 and U251) to 5-FU, cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide {+-} celecoxib following different incubation schedules were analyzed. We found antagonism between celecoxib and the four drugs in the breast cancer cells MCF7 following all incubation schedules and between celecoxib and doxorubicin in all cell lines except for two combinations in HCT116 cells. Celecoxib with the other three drugs in the remaining four cell lines resulted in variable interactions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that celecoxib exerts different molecular effects in different cells. In some lines, it abrogates the drug-induced G2/M arrest enhancing pre-mature entry into mitosis with damaged DNA thus increasing apoptosis and resulting in synergism. In other cells, it enhances drug-induced G2/M arrest allowing time to repair drug-induced DNA damage before entry into mitosis and decreasing cell death resulting in antagonism. In some synergistic combinations, celecoxib-induced abrogation of G2/M arrest was not associated with apoptosis but permanent arrest in G1 phase. These results, if confirmed in-vivo, indicate that celecoxib is not a suitable chemosensitizer for breast cancer or with doxorubicin for other cancers. Moreover, combination of celecoxib with other drugs should be tailored to the tumor type, drug and administration schedule. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Celecoxib may enhance effects of anticancer drugs. > Its combination with four drugs was tested in five cancer cell

  20. Anticancer drug clustering based on proteomic profiles and a sensitivity database in a lung cancer cell line panel

    PubMed Central

    HINO, MITSUNORI; MATSUDA, KUNIKO; MIYANAGA, AKIHIKO; KURIBAYASI, HIDEHIKO; MIZUTANI, HIDEAKI; NORO, RINTARO; MINEGISHI, YUJI; OKANO, TETSUYA; SEIKE, MASAHIRO; KAWAKAMI, AKIKO; YOSHIMURA, AKINOBU; OGAWA, NAOKI; UESAKA, HARUKA; KUDOH, SHOJI; GEMMA, AKIHIKO

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we performed a molecular pharmacological study that applied a combination of DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling and drug sensitivity tests in vitro with a view to designing an improved chemotherapeutic strategy for advanced lung cancer. Utilizing recent key technological advances in proteomics, particularly antibody array-based methodologies, the current study aimed to examine the benefit of protein expression profiling in an analogous molecular pharmacological context. We performed protein expression analysis in a panel of lung cancer cell lines via an antibody array approach. Using a modified NCI program, we related cell line-specific proteomic profiles to the previously determined cytotoxic activity of a selection of commonly used anticancer agents, namely docetaxel, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), SN38, cisplatin (CDDP) and carboplatin (CBDCA). In addition, we compared these results with those obtained from our prior DNA microarray-based transcriptomic study. In our expression-drug correlation analysis using antibody array, gemcitabine consistently belonged to an isolated cluster. Docetaxel, paclitaxel, 5-FU, SN38, CBDCA and CDDP were gathered together into one large cluster. These results coincided with those generated by the prior transcriptomic study. Various genes were commonly listed that differentiated gemcitabine from the others. The identified factors associated with drug sensitivities were different between both analyses. Our proteomic profiling data provided confirmation of the previous transcript expression-drug sensitivity correlation analysis. These results suggest that chemotherapy regimens that include gemcitabine should be evaluated in second-line chemotherapy in cases where the first-line chemotherapy did not include this drug. Protein expression-drug sensitivity correlations in lung cancer cells in vitro may provide useful information in determining the most appropriate therapeutic options

  1. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of potential anti-cancer drug, combretastatin-A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajan, D.; Abraham, Jose P.; Hubert Joe, I.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Aubard, J.; Faurskov Nielsen, O.

    2008-10-01

    Combretastatin-A1, a potential anti-cancer drug in advanced preclinical development possessing the 'selective' anti-cancer activity specifically targeting the blood vessels supplying malignant tumors while other drugs tend to attack both healthy and diseased cells, is subjected to vibrational spectral investigation using NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR and SERS. The geometry and vibrational spectrum of combretastatin-A1 have been computed using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational analysis shows that the molecule is having similar geometric behavior as that of cis-stilbene, and has undergone steric repulsion resulting in phenyl ring twisting with respect to the ethylenic bridge. Vibrational analysis is used to investigate the lowering of asymmetric and symmetric stretching modes and enhancement of infrared band intensities of C sbnd H stretching modes of Me2 in CA1 may be attributed to the electronic effects caused by back donation from the oxygen atom. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of CA1 is 2.165 × 10 -30 esu, predicted for the first time in this new class of compounds which is 9.6 times that of urea. Analysis of phenyl ring modes shows that C sbnd C stretching mode 8 and aromatic C sbnd H in-plane bending modes are found equally active as strong bands in both IR and Raman which can be interpreted as the evidence of intramolecular charge transfer between OH and OCH 3 groups via conjugated ring path which is responsible for hyperpolarizability enhancement leading to NLO activity. The SERS spectral investigations have been performed to predict the adsorption geometry of the compound on the silver surface and the phenyl ring Ph2 is found to possess a flat orientation on the metal surface.

  2. Development of LSPR and SPR sensor for the detection of an anti-cancer drug for chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sandy Shuo; Bolduc, Olivier R.; Colin, Damien Y.; Pelletier, Joelle N.; Masson, Jean-François

    2012-03-01

    The anti-cancer drug, methotrexate (MTX) as a strong inhibitor of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) has been studied in localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) competitive binding assays with folic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles (FA AuNP). The latter with a diameter of 15 nm were prepared in a simple step with sequential characterization using UV-Vis, FTIR, and Raman. A LSPR competitive binding assay between different concentrations of MTX and FA AuNP for hDHFR in solution was designed to quantify MTX by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Sensitivity of the assay was optimized with respect to both concentrations of the enzyme and FA. The detection and quantification of spiked MTX was demonstrated in phosphate buffer saline and in fetal bovine serum accompanied by solid-phase extraction treatment of the serum. In addition, this assay could also provide as a screening tool for potential inhibitors of hDHFR. In another perspective, MTX was measured in a competitive binding assay with FA AuNP for histidine-tagged hDHFR immobilized on a SPR sensitive surface. In this case, FA AuNP offer a secondary amplification of the analytical response which is indirectly proportional to the concentration of MTX. This alternative approach could contribute to the realization of direct detection of MTX in complex biological fluids. A comparison of characteristics and analytical parameters such as sensitivity, dynamic range and limit of detection between the LSPR and SPR sensing platforms will also be presented. Both assays offer potential in tackling real biological samples for the purpose of monitoring and validating anti-cancer drug levels in human serum during chemotherapy.

  3. Highly efficient nuclear delivery of anti-cancer drugs using a bio-functionalized reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin Ting; Ma, Xiao Qing; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-04-01

    Targeted drug delivery has become important, attractive and challenging in biomedical science and applications. Anti-HER2 antibody-conjugated poly-l-lysine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (anti-HER2-rGO-PLL) nanocarriers were prepared to efficiently deliver doxorubicin targeting at the nucleus of HER2 over-expressing cancer cells. The polycationic PLL was first covalently grafted to graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets followed by reduction to obtain rGO-PLL with high drug loading and good colloidal stability. The anti-HER2 antibodies were subsequently conjugated to the amino groups of PLL to achieve excellent cell uptake capability. Cellular uptake of anti-HER2-rGO-PLL into MCF7/HER2 cells is significantly higher than that of rGO-PLL due to the specific targeting of anti-HER2 to HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Additionally the anti-HER2-rGO-PLL enables a fast accumulation of DOX inside the nucleus, its subcellular site of action. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements clearly reveal a seven fold improvement in the anticancer efficacy for anti-HER2-rGO-PLL/DOX in comparison to rGO-PLL/DOX. The enhanced anticancer efficacy could be ascribed to the different intracellular DOX distributions resulted from the different internalization routes that are energy-dependent macropinocytosis and energy-independent direct penetration by anti-HER2-rGO-PLL and rGO-PLL, respectively. The results demonstrate that anti-HER2 conjugated rGO-PLL developed is a promising vehicle for efficient nuclear delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to HER2 over-expressing tumours.

  4. Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)—Propranolol as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Sukhatme, Vidula; Meheus, Lydie; Rooman, Ilse; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2016-01-01

    Propranolol (PRO) is a well-known and widely used non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (beta-blocker), with a range of actions which are of interest in an oncological context. PRO displays effects on cellular proliferation and invasion, on the immune system, on the angiogenic cascade, and on tumour cell sensitivity to existing treatments. Both pre-clinical and clinical evidence of these effects, in multiple cancer types, is assessed and summarised and relevant mechanisms of action outlined. In particular there is evidence that PRO is effective at multiple points in the metastatic cascade, particularly in the context of the post-surgical wound response. Based on this evidence the case is made for further clinical investigation of the anticancer effects of PRO, particularly in combination with other agents. A number of trials are on-going, in different treatment settings for various cancers. PMID:27899953

  5. Visible light-induced singlet oxygen-mediated intracellular disassembly of polymeric micelles co-loaded with a photosensitizer and an anticancer drug for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Gurusamy; Lee, Junseok; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-06-21

    Herein, we report a biocompatible amphiphilic block copolymer micelle bearing a singlet oxygen-sensitive vinyldithioether cleavable linker at the core-shell junction, which undergoes singlet oxygen-mediated photocleavage in the presence of visible light. The micelle facilitates the light-responsive release of singlet oxygen and an anticancer drug for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

  6. New generation of β-cyclodextrin-chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated quantum dots loaded with anticancer drug for tumor-target drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chang; Li, Ruixin; Guo, Jin; Ding, Li; Zhong, Wenying

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to report the drug delivery system that can integrate the functional building blocks for optical pH-sensing, cancer cell imaging and controlled drug release into a single nanoparticle. The CD/SAHA-QDs-CS/FA nanoparticles were prepared by in-situ immobilization of ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in β-cyclodextrin (CD) and chitosan (CS) polymer loaded with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Synthetic CD/SAHA-QDs-CS/FA nanoparticles were approximately 100 nm in size and with blue fluorescence. The drug encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles was 22.36 % and the encapsulated drug was released via a controlled release mechanism after a 9 h plateau was reached. The efficiency of the drug release in tumor microenvironments (pH 5.3 buffer solutions) was higher than that in physiological pH 7.4. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results showed that the blank nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and therefore can be used as the fluorescence tracer, and the SAHA-encapsulated nanoparticles expressed an anticancer effect. Confocal microscopy and in vivo imaging studies showed that the developed nanoparticles had cytotoxicity in resistant cancer cells and preferentially accumulated in tumors. CD/SAHA-QDs-CS/FA nanoparticles with excellent long-term optical properties have great prospects for the development of targeting tracers and anti-tumor biomedical research.

  7. Rho Kinase Inhibitor Y-27632 Facilitates Recovery from Experimental Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Anti-Cancer Drug Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    James, Sarah E.; Dunham, Mayisha; Carrion-Jones, Monica; Murashov, Alexander; Lu, Qun

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs have neurotoxicity associated with treatment, which can become a dose-limiting problem when clinical presentation is severe. However, there is no effective therapy to circumvent the neurotoxicity of anti-cancer drug treatment. In this study, we utilized a newly designed mouse model of cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy to determine both the severity of neurotoxicity induced by drug treatment and the effectiveness of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 in post-treatment recovery. Sensory nerve conduction studies revealed a significant increase in mean distal (peak) latency with cisplatin treatment, indicating a deterioration of sensory nerve function. Also, hind paw touch sensitivity decreased steadily with increasing cumulative dose of cisplatin. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the sural nerve using neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated abnormal nerve fiber morphology in cisplatin-treated mice. Remarkably, post-treatment with Y-27632 improved the sural nerve distal (peak) latency and sensory threshold to return to pre-treatment levels. Sural nerve histology worsened in the absence of Y-27632 during recovery. These studies suggest that Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 can initiate regeneration of damaged nerves following cisplatin treatment. PMID:20060419

  8. Structural Characterization of Anticancer Drug Paclitaxel and Its Metabolites Using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Hee; Hong, Areum; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Sunghwan; Kim, Won Jong; Kim, Hugh I.

    2016-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is a popular anticancer drug used in the treatment of various types of cancers. PTX is metabolized in the human liver by cytochrome P450 to two structural isomers, 3'- p-hydroxypaclitaxel (3 p-OHP) and 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel (6α-OHP). Analyzing PTX and its two metabolites, 3 p-OHP and 6α-OHP, is crucial for understanding general pharmacokinetics, drug activity, and drug resistance. In this study, electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS) and collision induced dissociation (CID) are utilized for the identification and characterization of PTX and its metabolites. Ion mobility distributions of 3 p-OHP and 6α-OHP indicate that hydroxylation of PTX at different sites yields distinct gas phase structures. Addition of monovalent alkali metal and silver metal cations enhances the distinct dissociation patterns of these structural isomers. The differences observed in the CID patterns of metalated PTX and its two metabolites are investigated further by evaluating their gas-phase structures. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the observed structural changes and dissociation pathways are the result of the interactions between the metal cation and the hydroxyl substituents in PTX metabolites.

  9. Smart pH/Redox Dual-Responsive Nanogels for On-Demand Intracellular Anticancer Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Wang, Qin; Huang, Shan; Xiao, Ai; Li, Fuying; Gan, Lu; Yang, Xiangliang

    2016-03-01

    Efficient accumulation and intracellular drug release in cancer cells remain a crucial challenge in developing ideal anticancer drug delivery systems. Here, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-ss-acrylic acid (P(NIPAM-ss-AA)) nanogels based on NIPAM and AA cross-linked by N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BAC) were constructed by precipitation polymerization. The nanogels exhibited pH/redox dual responsive doxorubicin (DOX) release behavior in vitro and in tumor cells, in which DOX release from nanogels was accelerated in lysosomal pH (pH 4.5) and cytosolic reduction (10 mM GSH) conditions. Moreover, intracellular tracking of DOX-loaded nanogels confirmed that after the nanogels and the loaded DOX entered the cells simultaneously mainly via lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis, DOX-loaded nanogels were transported to lysosomes and then the loaded DOX was released to nucleus triggered by lysosomal pH and cytoplasmic high GSH. MTT analysis showed that DOX-loaded nanogels could efficiently inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that DOX-loaded nanogels were accumulated and penetrated in tumor tissues more efficiently than free DOX. Meanwhile, DOX-loaded nanogels exhibited stronger tumor inhibition activity and fewer side effects. This study indicated that pH/redox dual-responsive nanogels might present a prospective platform for intracellular drug controlled release in cancer therapy.

  10. MRI-detectable polymeric micelles incorporating platinum anticancer drugs enhance survival in an advanced hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Vinh, Nguyen Quoc; Naka, Shigeyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Murayama, Hiroyuki; Kaida, Sachiko; Kataoka, Kazunori; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Tani, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most intractable and lethal cancers; most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages with underlying liver dysfunction and are frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The development of tumor-targeting systems may improve treatment outcomes. Nanomedicine platforms are of particular interest for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficiency, and they include polymeric micelles, which enable targeting of multiple drugs to solid tumors, including imaging and therapeutic agents. This allows concurrent diagnosis, targeting strategy validation, and efficacy assessment. We used polymeric micelles containing the T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium-diethylenetriaminpentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and the parent complex of the anticancer drug oxaliplatin [(1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt)] for simultaneous imaging and therapy in an orthotopic rat model of HCC. The Gd-DTPA/DACHPt-loaded micelles were injected into the hepatic artery, and magnetic resonance imaging performance and antitumor activity against HCC, as well as adverse drug reactions were assessed. After a single administration, the micelles achieved strong and specific tumor contrast enhancement, induced high levels of tumor apoptosis, and significantly suppressed tumor size and growth. Moreover, the micelles did not induce severe adverse reactions and significantly improved survival outcomes in comparison to oxaliplatin or saline controls. Our results suggest that Gd-DTPA/DACHPt-loaded micelles are a promising approach for effective diagnosis and treatment of advanced HCC.

  11. [Optimizing good use and costs of anticancer drugs: A French inter regional study of the Observatory of Cancer].

    PubMed

    Grudé, Françoise; Bessard, Réjane; Bourgeois, Hugues; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Gamelin, Erik; Metges, Jean-Philippe; Riché, Christian; Vidal, Anne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    Optimizing the care management of patients is a major issue for our society. In Brittany-Pays-de-la-Loire (almost 10% of French population), an observatory of cancer has been created in 2003. Its main objective was the follow-up of expensive drugs. The knowledge of the use of these drugs in clinical practice has led to development of a thesaurus of good use. Thus, regular exchanges between clinicians have almost totally reduced not medically justified prescriptions by the thesaurus after and before administration to patient. The thesaurus has given away to national guidelines from 2007. For example, in these two regions, optimization of the use of gemcitabine and bevacizumab has allowed to save respectively 2.5 millions euros between 2005 and 2008 and 3 millions euros between 2009 and 2010 (breast cancer only). Optimizing the use of anticancer drugs has allowed a real health economy without any bad impact on patient management. Respecting medical ethics, the main objective remains to optimize health care. This highly participation of clinicians currently allows to reflect together on the relevance of the last chemotherapy.

  12. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment.

  13. Ten years of marketing approvals of anticancer drugs in Europe: regulatory policy and guidance documents need to find a balance between different pressures

    PubMed Central

    Apolone, G; Joppi, R; Bertele', V; Garattini, S

    2005-01-01

    Despite important progress in understanding the molecular factors underlying the development of cancer and the improvement in response rates with new drugs, long-term survival is still disappointing for most common solid tumours. This might be because very little of the modest gain for patients is the result of the new compounds discovered and marketed recently. An assessment of the regulatory agencies' performance may suggest improvements. The present analysis summarizes and evaluates the type of studies and end points used by the EMEA to approve new anticancer drugs, and discusses the application of current regulations. This report is based on the information available on the EMEA web site. We identified current regulatory requirements for anticancer drugs promulgated by the agency and retrieved them in the relevant directory; information about empirical evidence supporting the approval of drugs for solid cancers through the centralised procedure were retrieved from the European Public Assessment Report (EPAR). We surveyed documents for drug applications and later extensions from January 1995, when EMEA was set up, to December 2004. We identified 14 anticancer drugs for 27 different indications (14 new applications and 13 extensions). Overall, 48 clinical studies were used as the basis for approval; randomised comparative (clinical) trial (RCT) and Response Rate were the study design and end points most frequently adopted (respectively, 25 out of 48 and 30 out of 48). In 13 cases, the EPAR explicitly reported differences between arms in terms of survival: the range was 0–3.7 months, and the mean and median differences were 1.5 and 1.2 months. The majority of studies (13 out of 27, 48%) involved the evaluation of complete and/or partial tumour responses, with regard to the end points supporting the 27 indications. Despite the recommendations of the current EMEA guidance documents, new anticancer agents are still often approved on the basis of small single arm

  14. Preparation, characterization and in-vivo evaluation of microemulsions containing tamoxifen citrate anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Faranak; Farhadian, Nafiseh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Biriaee, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a new nanocarrier for oral delivery of tamoxifen citrate (TMC) as a lipophilic oral administrated drug. This drug has low oral bioavailability due to its low aqueous solubility. To enhance the solubility of this drug, the microemulsion system was applied in form of oil-in-water. Sesame oil and Tween 80 were used as drug solvent oil and surfactant, respectively. Two different formulations were prepared for this purpose. The first formulation contained edible glycerin as co-surfactant and the second formulation contained Span 80 as a mixed surfactant. The results of characterization showed that the mean droplet size of drug-free samples was in the range of 16.64-64.62nm with a PDI value of <0.5. In a period of 6months after the preparation of samples, no phase sedimentation was observed, which confirmed the high stability of samples. TMC with a mass ratio of 1% was loaded in the selected samples. No significant size enlargement and drug precipitation were observed 6months after drug loading. In addition, the drug release profile at experimental environments in buffers with pH=7.4 and 5.5 showed that in the first 24h, 85.79 and 100% of the drug were released through the first formulation and 76.63 and 66.42% through the second formulation, respectively. The in-vivo results in BALB/c female mice showed that taking microemulsion form of drug caused a significant reduction in the growth rate of cancerous tumor and weight loss of the mice compared to the consumption of commercial drug tablets. The results confirmed that the new formulation of TMC could be useful for breast cancer treatment.

  15. Repurposing some older drugs that cross the blood–brain barrier and have potential anticancer activity to provide new treatment options for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Head, Richard; Cosgrove, Leah; Martin, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a brain neoplasm with limited 5‐year survival rates. Developments of new treatment regimens that improve patient survival in patients with glioblastoma are needed. It is likely that a number of existing drugs used in other conditions have potential anticancer effects that offer significant survival benefit to glioblastoma patients. Identification of such drugs could provide a novel treatment paradigm. PMID:26374633

  16. A water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia attenuates the small intestinal injury induced by anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, Naoki; Ishii, Satomi; Myojin, Yuki; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Hayama, Minoru; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (MAK) is able to protect the small intestine against damage induced by anti-cancer drugs. Six-week-old male B6C3F1/Crlj mice were fed a basal diet (MF) alone or with various doses of MAK or Agarics blazei Murrill (AGA) beginning one week before treatment with the anti-cancer drugs. Mice were sacrificed 3.5 days after injection of the anti-cancer drug, the small intestine was removed and tissue specimens were examined for the regeneration of small intestinal crypts. In experiment 1, the number of regenerative crypts after the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) intravenously (250 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (250 or 500 mg/kg) was compared after treatment with MAK or AGA. MAK protected against 5FU-induced small intestinal injury whereas AGA did not. In experiment 2, we investigated the protective effect of MAK against small intestinal injury induced by the anti-cancer drugs: UFT (tegafur with uracil; 1,000 mg/kg, orally), cisplatin (CDDP; 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), cyclophosphamide (CPA; 250 mg/kg, orally) and gefitinib (Iressa; 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, orally). UFT and CDDP decreased the number of regenerative crypts, but treatment with MAK attenuated the extent of UFT- or CDDP-induced small intestinal injury. CPA or Iressa plus MAK up-regulated crypt regeneration. The present results indicate that MAK ameliorates the small intestinal injury caused by several anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that MAK is a potential preventive agent against this common adverse effect of chemotherapy.

  17. Development of anticancer drugs based on the hallmarks of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bailón-Moscoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Cancer remains a public health problem with a high unmet medical demand. However, in recent decades, the knowledge of several functional molecular and biological traits that distinguish tumor cells from normal cells, known as the hallmarks of cancer as described by Hannahan and Weinberg, has led to new and modern therapeutic approaches against this disease. Most cancer drugs are deliberately developed for specific molecular targets that involve these hallmarks. In this review, we address the currently available cancer drugs and development of new drugs from the perspective of their interaction with these hallmarks as well as the pathways and mechanisms involved.

  18. Inhibition of DNA Topoisomerase Type IIα (TOP2A) by Mitoxantrone and Its Halogenated Derivatives: A Combined Density Functional and Molecular Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    Abu Saleh, Md.; Solayman, Md.; Hoque, Mohammad Mazharol; Khan, Mohammad A. K.; Sarwar, Mohammed G.; Halim, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mitoxantrone and its halogenated derivatives have been designed by density functional theory (DFT) to explore their structural and thermodynamical properties. The performance of these drugs was also evaluated to inhibit DNA topoisomerase type IIα (TOP2A) by molecular docking calculation. Noncovalent interactions play significant role in improving the performance of halogenated drugs. The combined quantum and molecular mechanics calculations revealed that CF3 containing drug shows better preference in inhibiting the TOP2A compared to other modified drugs. PMID:27088089

  19. Long non-coding RNAs in anti-cancer drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin-nan; Wei, Chen-chen; Wang, Zhao-xia; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the basic treatments for cancers; however, drug resistance is mainly responsible for the failure of clinical treatment. The mechanism of drug resistance is complicated because of interaction among various factors including drug efflux, DNA damage repair, apoptosis and targets mutation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been a focus of research in the field of bioscience, and the latest studies have revealed that lncRNAs play essential roles in drug resistance in breast cancer, gastric cancer and lung cancer, et al. Dysregulation of multiple targets and pathways by lncRNAs results in the occurrence of chemoresistance. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying lncRNA-mediated resistance to chemotherapy and the therapeutic potential of lncRNAs in future cancer treatment. PMID:27713133

  20. Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Hypertension-Exacerbated Cardiotoxicity of Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Robin K.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their recognized cardiotoxic effects, anthracyclines remain an essential component in many anticancer regimens due to their superior antitumor efficacy. Epidemiologic data revealed that about one-third of cancer patients have hypertension, which is the most common comorbidity in cancer registries. The purpose of this review is to assess whether anthracycline chemotherapy exacerbates cardiotoxicity in patients with hypertension. A link between hypertension comorbidity and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) was first suggested in 1979. Subsequent preclinical and clinical studies have supported the notion that hypertension is a major risk factor for AIC, along with the cumulative anthracycline dosage. There are several common or overlapping pathological mechanisms in AIC and hypertension, such as oxidative stress. Current evidence supports the utility of cardioprotective modalities as adjunct treatment prior to and during anthracycline chemotherapy. Several promising cardioprotective approaches against AIC pathologies include dexrazoxane, early hypertension management, and dietary supplementation of nitrate with beetroot juice or other medicinal botanical derivatives (e.g., visnagin and Danshen), which have both antihypertensive and anti-AIC properties. Future research is warranted to further elucidate the mechanisms of hypertension and AIC comorbidity and to conduct well-controlled clinical trials for identifying effective clinical strategies to improve long-term prognoses in this subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27829985

  1. Application of Nanotechnology in the Targeted Release of Anticancer Drugs in Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    performed on the mice. Iron oxide particle in the size range of MagNaGels are known as Ultrasmall Super - Paramagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO) particles and...localize the MagNaGel nanoparticles in an orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse model by MRI, mice were Injected intraperitoneally with ovarian cancer cells...Organs were harvested and drug levels determined. Relative nanoparticle distribution by MRI images were correlated with drug levels. 15

  2. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of liposomes as potential carriers of anticancer drugs: spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-05-01

    Vesicle size and composition are a critical parameter for determining the circulation half-life of liposomes. Size influences the degree of drug encapsulation in liposomes. The geometry, size, and properties of liposomes in an aqueous environment have to be described to enable potential applications of liposome systems as drug carriers. The characteristics of multiple thermotropic phase transitions are also an important consideration in liposomes used for analytical and bioanalytical purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of liposomes which accommodate hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs used in cancer therapy. The studied liposomes were prepared with the involvement of the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV). The prepared liposomes had a diameter of 70-150 nm. The analyzed compounds were 1-β- d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide. In literature, there is no information about simultaneous incorporation of cytarabine, ifosfamide, and cyclophosphamide, in spite of the fact that these drugs have been used for more than 30 years. A combination of the examined drugs is used in CODOX-M/IVAC therapy. CODOX-M/IVAC (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) is one of the currently preferred intensive-dose chemotherapy regimens for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The present research demonstrates the pioneering studies of incorporation of ifosfamide into liposome vesicles, location of and competition between the analyzed drugs and liposome vesicles. The applied methods were nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  3. Targeted conjugation of breast anticancer drug tamoxifen and its metabolites with synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Sanyakamdhorn, S; Agudelo, D; Bekale, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-09-01

    Conjugation of antitumor drug tamoxifen and its metabolites, 4-hydroxytamxifen and ednoxifen with synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), methoxypoly (ethylene glycol) polyamidoamine (mPEG-PAMAM-G3) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM-G4) dendrimers was studied in aqueous solution at pH 7.4. Multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were used to characterize the drug binding process to synthetic polymers. Structural analysis showed that drug-polymer binding occurs via both H-bonding and hydrophobic contacts. The order of binding is PAMAM-G4>mPEG-PAMAM-G3>PEG-6000 with 4-hydroxttamoxifen forming more stable conjugate than tamoxifen and endoxifen. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant changes in carrier morphology with major changes in the shape of the polymer aggregate as drug encapsulation occurred. Modeling also showed that drug is located in the surface and in the internal cavities of PAMAM with the free binding energy of -3.79 for tamoxifen, -3.70 for 4-hydroxytamoxifen and -3.69kcal/mol for endoxifen, indicating of spontaneous drug-polymer interaction at room temperature.

  4. Targeted and controlled anticancer drug delivery and release with magnetoelectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodzinski, Alexandra; Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hadjikhani, Ali; Stewart, Tiffanie; Stimphil, Emmanuel; Runowicz, Carolyn; Cote, Richard; Altman, Norman; Datar, Ram; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2016-02-01

    It is a challenge to eradicate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We used magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) to control drug delivery and release. The physics is due to electric-field interactions (i) between MENs and a drug and (ii) between drug-loaded MENs and cells. MENs distinguish cancer cells from normal cells through the membrane’s electric properties; cancer cells have a significantly smaller threshold field to induce electroporation. In vitro and in vivo studies (nude mice with SKOV-3 xenografts) showed that (i) drug (paclitaxel (PTX)) could be attached to MENs (30-nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 nanostructures) through surface functionalization to avoid its premature release, (ii) drug-loaded MENs could be delivered into cancer cells via application of a d.c. field (~100 Oe), and (iii) the drug could be released off MENs on demand via application of an a.c. field (~50 Oe, 100 Hz). The cell lysate content was measured with scanning probe microscopy and spectrophotometry. MENs and control ferromagnetic and polymer nanoparticles conjugated with HER2-neu antibodies, all loaded with PTX were weekly administrated intravenously. Only the mice treated with PTX-loaded MENs (15/200 μg) in a field for three months were completely cured, as confirmed through infrared imaging and post-euthanasia histology studies via energy-dispersive spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry.

  5. Targeted and controlled anticancer drug delivery and release with magnetoelectric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rodzinski, Alexandra; Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hadjikhani, Ali; Stewart, Tiffanie; Stimphil, Emmanuel; Runowicz, Carolyn; Cote, Richard; Altman, Norman; Datar, Ram; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to eradicate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We used magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) to control drug delivery and release. The physics is due to electric-field interactions (i) between MENs and a drug and (ii) between drug-loaded MENs and cells. MENs distinguish cancer cells from normal cells through the membrane’s electric properties; cancer cells have a significantly smaller threshold field to induce electroporation. In vitro and in vivo studies (nude mice with SKOV-3 xenografts) showed that (i) drug (paclitaxel (PTX)) could be attached to MENs (30-nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 nanostructures) through surface functionalization to avoid its premature release, (ii) drug-loaded MENs could be delivered into cancer cells via application of a d.c. field (~100 Oe), and (iii) the drug could be released off MENs on demand via application of an a.c. field (~50 Oe, 100 Hz). The cell lysate content was measured with scanning probe microscopy and spectrophotometry. MENs and control ferromagnetic and polymer nanoparticles conjugated with HER2-neu antibodies, all loaded with PTX were weekly administrated intravenously. Only the mice treated with PTX-loaded MENs (15/200 μg) in a field for three months were completely cured, as confirmed through infrared imaging and post-euthanasia histology studies via energy-dispersive spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry. PMID:26875783

  6. One-step bulk preparation of calcium carbonate nanotubes and its application in anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Sun, Dong-Mei; Qian, Wen-Yu; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen-Rui; Li, Kun; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-06-01

    Bulk fabrication of ordered hollow structural particles (HSPs) with large surface area and high biocompatibility simultaneously is critical for the practical application of HSPs in biosensing and drug delivery. In this article, we describe a smart approach for batch synthesis of calcium carbonate nanotubes (CCNTs) based on supported liquid membrane (SLM) with large surface area, excellent structural stability, prominent biocompatibility, and acid degradability. The products were characterized by transmission electron micrograph, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy, zeta potential, and particle size distribution. The results showed that the tube-like structure facilitated podophyllotoxin (PPT) diffusion into the cavity of hollow structure, and the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of CCNTs for PPT are as high as 38.5 and 64.4 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release study showed that PPT was released from the CCNTs in a pH-controlled and time-dependent manner. The treatment of HEK 293T and SGC 7901 cells demonstrated that PPT-loaded CCNTs were less toxic to normal cells and more effective in antitumor potency compared with free drugs. In addition, PPT-loaded CCNTs also enhanced the apoptotic process on tumor cells compared with the free drugs. This study not only provides a new kind of biocompatible and pH-sensitive nanomaterial as the feasible drug container and carrier but more importantly establishes a facile approach to synthesize novel hollow structural particles on a large scale based on SLM technology.

  7. Single pre-treatment with hypericin, a St. John's wort secondary metabolite, attenuates cisplatin- and mitoxantrone-induced cell death in A2780, A2780cis and HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Jendželovská, Zuzana; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Hiľovská, Lucia; Kovaľ, Ján; Mikeš, Jaromír; Fedoročko, Peter

    2014-10-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum L.) is a commonly used natural antidepressant responsible for the altered toxicity of some anticancer agents. These interactions have been primarily attributed to the hyperforin-mediated induction of some pharmacokinetic mechanisms. However, as previously demonstrated by our group, hypericin induces the expression of two ABC transporters: multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Because cisplatin (CDDP) and mitoxantrone (MTX) are potential substrates of ABC transporters, we investigated the effect of 24h hypericin pre-treatment on the cytotoxicity of CDDP and MTX in human cancer cell lines. CDDP-sensitive and -resistant ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines A2780/A2780cis, together with HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and ABCG2-over-expressing cBCRP subclone, were used in our experiments. We present CDDP cytotoxicity attenuated by hypericin pre-treatment in both A2780 and A2780cis cells and MTX cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells. In contrast, hypericin potentiated MTX-induced death in cBCRP cells. Interestingly, hypericin did not restore cell proliferation in rescued cells. Nevertheless, hypericin did increase the expression of MRP1 transporter in A2780 and A2780cis cells indicating the impact of hypericin on certain resistance mechanisms. Additionally, our results indicate that hypericin may be the potential substrate of BCRP transporter. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the ability of hypericin to affect the onset and/or progress of CDDP- and MTX-induced cell death, despite strong cell cycle arrest. Thus, hypericin represents another SJW metabolite that might be able to affect the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs and that could interact with ABC transporters, particularly with BCRP.

  8. Biomimetic synthesis of sericin and silica hybrid colloidosomes for stimuli-responsive anti-cancer drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Cai, Yurong; Sun, Ning; Li, Ruijing; Li, Wenhua; Kundu, Subhas C; Kong, Xiangdong; Yao, Juming

    2017-03-01

    Colloidosomes are becoming popular due to their significant flexibility with respect to microcapsule functionality. This study reports a facile approach for synthesizing silica colloidosomes by using sericin microcapsule as the matrix in an environment-friendly method. The silica colloid arrangement on the sericin microcapsules are orchestrated by altering the reaction parameters. Doxorubicin (DOX), used as a hydrophilic anti-cancer drug model, is encapsulated into the colloidosomes in a mild aqueous solution and becomes stimuli-responsive to different external environments, including pH values, protease, and ionic strength are also observed. Colloidosomes with sub-monolayers, close-packed monolayers, and close-packed multi-layered SiO2 colloid shells can be fabricated under the optimized reaction conditions. A flexible DOX release from colloidosomes can be obtained via modulating the SiO2 colloid layer arrangement and thickness. The close-packed and multi-layered SiO2 colloid shells can best protect the colloidosomes and delay the rapid cargo release. MG-63 cells are killed when doxorubicin is released from the microcapsules due to degradation in the microenvironment of cancer cells. The drug release period is prolonged as SiO2 shell thickness and integrity increase. This work suggests that the hybrid colloidosomes can be effective in a bioactive molecule delivery system.

  9. Ridaifen G, tamoxifen analog, is a potent anticancer drug working through a combinatorial association with multiple cellular factors.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kentaro; Kamisuki, Shinji; Uetake, Shoko; Mizusawa, Akihito; Ota, Nozomi; Sasaki, Tatsuki; Tsukuda, Senko; Kusayanagi, Tomoe; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Morohashi, Kengo; Yamori, Takao; Dan, Shingo; Shiina, Isamu; Sugawara, Fumio

    2015-09-15

    Ridaifen-G (RID-G), a tamoxifen analog that we previously synthesized, has potent growth inhibitory activity against various cancer cell lines. Tamoxifen is an anticancer drug known to act on an estrogen receptor (ER) and other proteins. However, our previous studies interestingly suggested that the mechanism of action of RID-G was different from that of tamoxifen. In order to investigate the molecular mode of action of RID-G, we developed a novel chemical genetic approach that combined a phage display screen with a statistical analysis of drug potency and gene expression profiles in thirty-nine cancer cell lines. Application of this method to RID-G revealed that three proteins, calmodulin (CaM), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1), and zinc finger protein 638 (ZNF638) were the candidates of direct targets of RID-G. Moreover, cell lines susceptible to RID-G show similar expression profiles of RID-G target genes. These results suggest that RID-G involves CaM, hnRNP A2/B1, and ZNF638 in its growth inhibitory activity.

  10. Determination of gallium originated from a gallium-based anticancer drug in human urine using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Darya G; Seregina, Irina F; Foteeva, Lidia S; Pukhov, Vladimir V; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Bolshov, Mikhail A

    2011-05-01

    Urine analysis gives an insight into the excretion of the administered drug which is related to its reactivity and toxicity. In this work, the capability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure ultratrace metal levels was utilized for rapid assaying of gallium originating from the novel gallium anticancer drug, tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (GaQ(3)), in human urine. Sample dilution with 1% (v/v) HNO(3) as the only required pre-treatment was shown to prevent contamination of the sample introduction system and to reduce polyatomic interferences from sample components. The origin of the blank signal at masses of gallium isotopes, 71 and 69, was investigated using high-resolution ICP-MS and attributed, respectively, to the formation of (36)Ar(35)Cl(+) and (40)Ar(31)P(+) ions and, tentatively, to a triplet of doubly charged ions of Ba, La, and Ce. The accuracy and precision performance was tested by evaluating a set of parameters for analytical method validation. The developed assay has been applied for the determination of gallium in urine samples spiked with GaQ(3). The achieved recoveries (95-102%) and quantification limit of 0.2 μg L(-1) emphasize the practical applicability of the presented analytical approach to monitor renal elimination of GaQ(3) at all dose levels in clinical trials that are currently in progress.

  11. Conformational Selection and Induced Fit Mechanisms in the Binding of an Anticancer Drug to the c-Src Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morando, Maria Agnese; Saladino, Giorgio; D’Amelio, Nicola; Pucheta-Martinez, Encarna; Lovera, Silvia; Lelli, Moreno; López-Méndez, Blanca; Marenchino, Marco; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the conformational changes associated with the binding of small ligands to their biological targets is a fascinating and meaningful question in chemistry, biology and drug discovery. One of the most studied and important is the so-called “DFG-flip” of tyrosine kinases. The conserved three amino-acid DFG motif undergoes an “in to out” movement resulting in a particular inactive conformation to which “type II” kinase inhibitors, such as the anti-cancer drug Imatinib, bind. Despite many studies, the details of this prototypical conformational change are still debated. Here we combine various NMR experiments and surface plasmon resonance with enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations to shed light into the conformational dynamics associated with the binding of Imatinib to the proto-oncogene c-Src. We find that both conformational selection and induced fit play a role in the binding mechanism, reconciling opposing views held in the literature. Moreover, an external binding pose and local unfolding (cracking) of the aG helix are observed. PMID:27087366

  12. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  13. LIMITING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-CANCER DRUG RESISTANCE IN A SPATIAL MODEL OF MICROMETASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ami B.; Rejniak, Katarzyna A.; Gevertz, Jana L.

    2016-01-01

    While chemoresistance in primary tumors is well-studied, much less is known about the influence of systemic chemotherapy on the development of drug resistance at metastatic sites. In this work, we use a hybrid spatial model of tumor response to a DNA damaging drug to study how the development of chemoresistance in micrometastases depends on the drug dosing schedule. We separately consider cell populations that harbor pre-existing resistance to the drug, and those that acquire resistance during the course of treatment. For each of these independent scenarios, we consider one hypothetical cell line that is responsive to metronomic chemotherapy, and another that with high probability cannot be eradicated by a metronomic protocol. Motivated by experimental work on ovarian cancer xenografts, we consider all possible combinations of a one week treatment protocol, repeated for three weeks, and constrained by the total weekly drug dose. Simulations reveal a small number of fractionated-dose protocols that are at least as effective as metronomic therapy in eradicating micrometastases with acquired resistance (weak or strong), while also being at least as effective on those that harbor weakly pre-existing resistant cells. Given the responsiveness of very different theoretical cell lines to these few fractionated-dose protocols, these may represent more effective ways to schedule chemotherapy with the goal of limiting metastatic tumor progression. PMID:27775375

  14. Boron Nitride Nanoparticles with a Petal-Like Surface as Anticancer Drug-Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukova, Irina V; Zhitnyak, Irina Y; Kovalskii, Andrey M; Matveev, Andrei T; Lebedev, Oleg I; Li, Xia; Gloushankova, Natalia A; Golberg, Dmitri; Shtansky, Dmitry V

    2015-08-12

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have a great potential as nanosized drug-delivery carriers. Such systems must safely deliver the drug to the site of the tumor without drug leakage, effectively penetrate inside cancer cells, and provide intracellular drug release. Herein we developed an original and simple method aimed at the fabrication of spherical boron nitride NPs (BNNPs), 100-200 nm in diameter, with peculiar petal-like surfaces via chemical vapor deposition. Such structures were found to be able to absorb a large amount of antitumor drug-killing tumor cells. They revealed low cytotoxicity and rapid cellular uptake. BNNPs were saturated with doxorubicin (DOX) and then dispersed. The BNNPs loaded with DOX (BNNPs-DOX) were stable at neutral pH but effectively released DOX at pH 4.5-5.5. MTT assay and cell growth testing showed that the BNNPs-DOX nanocarriers had been toxic for IAR-6-1 cells. BNNPs loaded with DOX penetrated into the neoplastic IAR-6-1 cells using endocytic pathways, and then DOX released into the cytoplasm and cell nuclei and resulted in cell death.

  15. Fluorescence Characterization of Gold Modified Liposomes with Antisense N-myc DNA Bound to the Magnetisable Particles with Encapsulated Anticancer Drugs (Doxorubicin, Ellipticine and Etoposide)

    PubMed Central

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Kopel, Pavel; Kremplova, Monika; Masarik, Michal; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Liposome-based drug delivery systems hold great potential for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to design a nanodevice for targeted anchoring of liposomes (with and without cholesterol) with encapsulated anticancer drugs and antisense N-myc gene oligonucleotide attached to its surface. To meet this main aim, liposomes with encapsulated doxorubicin, ellipticine and etoposide were prepared. They were further characterized by measuring their fluorescence intensity, whereas the encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 16%. The hybridization process of individual oligonucleotides forming the nanoconstruct was investigated spectrophotometrically and electrochemically. The concentrations of ellipticine, doxorubicin and etoposide attached to the nanoconstruct in gold nanoparticle-modified liposomes were found to be 14, 5 and 2 µg·mL−1, respectively. The study succeeded in demonstrating that liposomes are suitable for the transport of anticancer drugs and the antisense oligonucleotide, which can block the expression of the N-myc gene. PMID:26927112

  16. Retrovolution: HIV-driven evolution of cellular genes and improvement of anticancer drug activation.

    PubMed

    Rossolillo, Paola; Winter, Flore; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Negroni, Matteo

    2012-08-01

    In evolution strategies aimed at isolating molecules with new functions, screening for the desired phenotype is generally performed in vitro or in bacteria. When the final goal of the strategy is the modification of the human cell, the mutants selected with these preliminary screenings may fail to confer the desired phenotype, due to the complex networks that regulate gene expression in higher eukaryotes. We developed a system where, by mimicking successive infection cycles with HIV-1 derived vectors containing the gene target of the evolution in their genome, libraries of gene mutants are generated in the human cell, where they can be directly screened. As a proof of concept we created a library of mutants of the human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) gene, involved in the activation of nucleoside analogues used in cancer treatment, with the aim of isolating a variant sensitizing cancer cells to the chemotherapy compound Gemcitabine, to be used in gene therapy for anti-cancer approaches or as a poorly immunogenic negative selection marker for cell transplantation approaches. We describe the isolation of a dCK mutant, G12, inducing a 300-fold sensitization to Gemcitabine in cells originally resistant to the prodrug (Messa 10K), an effect 60 times stronger than the one induced by the wt enzyme. The phenotype is observed in different tumour cell lines irrespective of the insertion site of the transgene and is due to a change in specificity of the mutated kinase in favour of the nucleoside analogue. The mutations characterizing G12 are distant from the active site of the enzyme and are unpredictable on a rational basis, fully validating the pragmatic approach followed. Besides the potential interest of the G12 dCK variant for therapeutic purposes, the methodology developed is of interest for a large panel of applications in biotechnology and basic research.

  17. Retrovolution: HIV–Driven Evolution of Cellular Genes and Improvement of Anticancer Drug Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rossolillo, Paola; Winter, Flore; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Negroni, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    In evolution strategies aimed at isolating molecules with new functions, screening for the desired phenotype is generally performed in vitro or in bacteria. When the final goal of the strategy is the modification of the human cell, the mutants selected with these preliminary screenings may fail to confer the desired phenotype, due to the complex networks that regulate gene expression in higher eukaryotes. We developed a system where, by mimicking successive infection cycles with HIV-1 derived vectors containing the gene target of the evolution in their genome, libraries of gene mutants are generated in the human cell, where they can be directly screened. As a proof of concept we created a library of mutants of the human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) gene, involved in the activation of nucleoside analogues used in cancer treatment, with the aim of isolating a variant sensitizing cancer cells to the chemotherapy compound Gemcitabine, to be used in gene therapy for anti-cancer approaches or as a poorly immunogenic negative selection marker for cell transplantation approaches. We describe the isolation of a dCK mutant, G12, inducing a 300-fold sensitization to Gemcitabine in cells originally resistant to the prodrug (Messa 10K), an effect 60 times stronger than the one induced by the wt enzyme. The phenotype is observed in different tumour cell lines irrespective of the insertion site of the transgene and is due to a change in specificity of the mutated kinase in favour of the nucleoside analogue. The mutations characterizing G12 are distant from the active site of the enzyme and are unpredictable on a rational basis, fully validating the pragmatic approach followed. Besides the potential interest of the G12 dCK variant for therapeutic purposes, the methodology developed is of interest for a large panel of applications in biotechnology and basic research. PMID:22927829

  18. Screening Anti-Cancer Drugs against Tubulin using Catch-and-Release Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Darestani, Reza; Winter, Philip; Kitova, Elena N.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Tubulin, which is the building block of microtubules, plays an important role in cell division. This critical role makes tubulin an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat cancer. Currently, there is no general binding assay for tubulin-drug interactions. The present work describes the application of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay to investigate the binding of colchicinoid drugs to αβ-tubulin dimers extracted from porcine brain. Proof-of-concept experiments using positive (ligands with known affinities) and negative (non-binders) controls were performed to establish the reliability of the assay. The assay was then used to screen a library of seven colchicinoid analogues to test their binding to tubulin and to rank their affinities.

  19. The aspect ratio effect of drug nanocrystals on cellular internalization efficiency, uptake mechanisms, and in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Baishun; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yu, Caitong; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigated the aspect ratio (AR) effect of anticancer drug nanocrystals (NCs) on their cellular internalization efficiency, uptake mechanisms, biodistributions as well as in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficiencies. Both confocal imaging and flow cytometry show that shorter NCs with AR = 1.3 have a much faster cellular uptake rate and a much higher anticancer efficacy than longer NCs. All NCs with different ARs were found to enter the cells via an energy-dependent clathrin-mediated pathway. In vivo experiments indicate that NCs with higher ARs have a shorter half-life and are more easily captured by the liver, while the corresponding tumor uptake decreased. We also observed that NCs with the smallest AR have the highest therapeutic efficacy with appreciably less weight loss. These results would assist in the future design of drug NCs and may lead to the development of new drug nanostructures for biomedical applications.In this paper, we investigated the aspect ratio (AR) effect of anticancer drug nanocrystals (NCs) on their cellular internalization efficiency, uptake mechanisms, biodistributions as well as in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficiencies. Both confocal imaging and flow cytometry show that shorter NCs with AR = 1.3 have a much faster cellular uptake rate and a much higher anticancer efficacy than longer NCs. All NCs with different ARs were found to enter the cells via an energy-dependent clathrin-mediated pathway. In vivo experiments indicate that NCs with higher ARs have a shorter half-life and are more easily captured by the liver, while the corresponding tumor uptake decreased. We also observed that NCs with the smallest AR have the highest therapeutic efficacy with appreciably less weight loss. These results would assist in the future design of drug NCs and may lead to the development of new drug nanostructures for biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06743f

  20. Tribenzyltin carboxylates as anticancer drug candidates: Effect on the cytotoxicity, motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Anasamy, Theebaa; Thy, Chun Keng; Lo, Kong Mun; Chee, Chin Fei; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Chung, Lip Yong

    2017-01-05

    This study seeks to investigate the relationship between the structural modification and bioactivity of a series of tribenzyltin complexes with different ligands and substitutions. Complexation with the N,N-diisopropylcarbamothioylsulfanylacetate or isonicotinate ligands enhanced the anticancer properties of tribenzyltin compounds via delayed cancer cell-cycle progression, caspase-dependent apoptosis induction, and significant reduction in cell motility, migration and invasion. Halogenation of the benzyl ring improved the anticancer effects of the tribenzyltin compounds with the N,N-diisopropylcarbamothioylsulfanylacetate ligand. These compounds also demonstrated far greater anticancer effects and selectivity than cisplatin and doxorubicin, which provides a rationale for their further development as anticancer agents.

  1. Anticancer Drug Camptothecin Test in 3D Hydrogel Networks with HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jun; Susan Sun, Xiuzhi; Yang, Zhilong; Cao, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Development of a biomimetic 3D culture system for drug screening is necessary to fully understand the in vivo environment. Previously, a self-assembling peptide hydrogel has been reported; the hydrogel exhibited physiological properties superior to a 3D cell culture matrix. In this work, further research using H9e hydrogel with HeLa cells was carried out considering H9e hydrogel’s interaction with camptothecin, a hydrophobic drug. According to AFM images, a PGworks solution triggered H9e hydrogel fiber aggregation and forms a 3D matrix suitable for cell culture. Dynamic rheological studies showed that camptothecin was encapsulated within the hydrogel network concurrently with peptide self-assembly without permanently destroying the hydrogel’s architecture and remodeling ability. Fluorescence measurement indicated negligible interaction between the fluorophore part of camptothecin and the hydrogel, especially at concentration 0.25 and 0.5 wt%. Using a dialysis method, we found that H9e hydrogel could not significantly inhibit the diffusion of camptothecin encapsulated inside the hydrogel matrix. In the cell culture experiment, HeLa cells were simultaneously embedded in the H9e hydrogel with the initialization of hydrogelation. Most importantly, cell viability data after camptothecin treatment showed responses that were drug-dose dependent but unaffected by the H9e hydrogel concentration, indicating that the hydrogel did not inhibit the drug. PMID:28145436

  2. Fabrication of biodendrimeric β-cyclodextrin via click reaction with potency of anticancer drug delivery agent.

    PubMed

    Toomari, Yousef; Namazi, Hassan; Entezami, Ali Akbar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was the synthesis of biodendrimeric β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the secondary face with encapsulation efficacy, with β-CDs moiety to preserve the biocompatibility properties, also particularly growth their loading capacity for drugs with certain size. The new dendrimer, having 14 β-CD residues attached to the core β-CD in secondary face (11), was prepared through click reaction. The encapsulation property of the prepared compound was evaluated by methotrexate (MTX) drug molecule. Characterization of compound 11 was performed with (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FTIR and its supramolecular inclusion complex structure was determined using FTIR, DLS, DSC and SEM techniques. In vitro cytotoxicity test results showed that compound 11 has very low or no cytotoxic effect on T47D cancer cells. In vitro drug release study at pHs 3, 5 and 7.4 showed that the release process was noticeably pH dependent and the dendrimer could be used as an appropriate controlled drug delivery system (DDS) for cancer treatment.

  3. Electronic structure of an anticancer drug DC81 and its interaction with DNA base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Gargi; Sharma, Dipendra; Dwivedi, K. K.; Dwivedi, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    The drug, 8-Hydroxy-7-methoxy-pyrrolo-[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-5-one, commonly christened as DC81 belongs to the pyrrolo-[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDs) family. It is a member of the group of naturally occurring antitumour antibiotics produced by various Streptomyces species. The antitumour activity of DC81 is attributed to its sequence specific interaction with G-C rich DNA region in particular, for Pu-G-Pu motifs. In the present paper, physico-chemical properties DC81 have been carried out using an ab-initio method, HF/6-31G(d,p) with GAMESS program. MEP, HOMO and LUMO surfaces have been scanned. Ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, global hardness and softness of the drug have been calculated. Further, drug-DNA interactions have been examined using modified second order perturbation theory along with multicentred-multipole expansion technique. Results have been discussed in the light of other theoretical and experimental observations. Efforts have been made to elucidate the binding patterns and thereby biological properties of the drug.

  4. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Scholarship ($1500), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory...Yeast Genetics Course, Cold Spring Harbor , New York, July 22-Aug. 11, 2003 Keystone Symposia travel scholarship ($1000), New Advances in Drug Discovery...Chemotherapeutics, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 28-Oct. 1, 2004 Courses Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Yeast Genetics Course, Cold Spring Harbor , New

  5. Aggregation properties and structural studies of anticancer drug Irinotecan in DMSO solution based on NMR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amelio, N.; Aroulmoji, V.; Toraldo, A.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Anbarasan, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Irinotecan is an antitumor drug mostly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Its efficacy is influenced by the chemical state of the molecule undergoing chemical equilibria, metabolic changes and photodegradation. In this work, we describe the chemical equilibria of the drug in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The energetic barrier for hindered rotation around the bond connecting the piperidino—piperidino moiety with the camptothecin-like fragment was evaluated. Furthermore, we showed how the molecule aggregates in DMSO solution forming dimeric species able to prevent its degradation. The equilibrium constant for self-aggregation was determined by NMR based on the assumption of the isodesmic model. The formation of a dimer was highlighted by NMR diffusion ordered spectroscopy (NMR-DOSY) experiments at the concentrations used. Structural features of the complex were inferred by NOE and 13C chemical shift data. Molecular modelling of the complex driven by experimental data, lead to a structure implying the formation of two hydrogen bonds involving the lactone ring whose opening is one of the main causes of drug degradation. This species is probably responsible for the improved stability of the drug at concentrations higher than 1 mM.

  6. Molecular combo of photodynamic therapeutic agent silicon(iv) phthalocyanine and anticancer drug cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jiafei; Zhang, Yangmiao; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhang, Changli; Guo, Zijian

    2009-02-28

    The combination of a red light PDT agent and a Pt(ii)-based chemotherapeutic drug at the molecular level maintains the intrinsic functions of each unit; the conjugated complexes exhibit remarkable photocytoxicity and demonstrate potential to serve as agents for DNA-targeting PDT as well as red light photochemotherapy.

  7. TGI-Simulator: a visual tool to support the preclinical phase of the drug discovery process by assessing in silico the effect of an anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Nadia; Magni, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents TGI-Simulator, a software tool designed to show, through a 2-D graphical animation, the simulated time effect of an anticancer drug on a tumor mass by exploiting the well-known Tumor Growth Inhibition (TGI) model published by Simeoni et al. [1]. Simeoni TGI model is a mathematical model routinely used by pharma companies and researchers during the drug development process. The application is based on a Java graphical user interface (GUI) including a self installing differential equation solver implemented in Ma