Hajihassan, Zahra; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra
Mitoxantrone is a potent antitumor drug, widely used in the treatment of various cancers. In the present study, we have investigated and compared the affinity of anticancer drug, mitoxantrone, to EDTA-soluble chromatin (SE-chromatin), DNA and histones employing UV/Vis, fluorescence, CD spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and equilibrium dialysis techniques. The results showed that the interaction of mitoxantrone with SE-chromatin proceeds into compaction/aggregation as revealed by reduction in the absorbencies at 608 and 260 nm (hypochromicity) and disappearance of both histones and DNA on the gels. Mitoxantrone interacts strongly with histone proteins in solution making structural changes in the molecule as shown by CD and fluorescence analysis. The binding isotherms demonstrate a positive cooperative binding pattern for the chromatin- mitoxantrone interaction. It is suggested higher binding affinity of mitoxantrone to chromatin compared to DNA implying that the histone proteins may play an important role in the chromatin- mitoxantrone interaction process. PMID:19284573
Hajihassan, Zahra; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra
In the present study, for the first time we have investigated the interaction of anticancer drug mitoxantrone with histone H1 and core histone proteins in solution using fluorescence, UV/Vis, CD spectroscopy and thermal denaturation techniques. The results showed that mitoxantrone reduced the absorbencies of H1 and core histone proteins at 210 nm (hypochromicity) and fluorescence emission intensity was decreased in a dose dependent. Binding of mitoxantrone changed secondary structures of the proteins as circular dichroism analysis confirmed it. Also, mitoxantrone increased the melting temperature of core histones at the final step of denaturation. The results suggest higher affinity of mitoxantrone to histone H1 compared to core histones providing histone proteins as a new target for mitoxantrone action at the chromatin level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patel, Krupa J; Trédan, Olivier; Tannock, Ian F
Pharmacokinetic analyses estimate the mean concentration of drug within a given tissue as a function of time, but do not give information about the spatial distribution of drugs within that tissue. Here, we compare the time-dependent spatial distribution of three anticancer drugs within tumors, heart, kidney, liver and brain. Mice bearing various xenografts were treated with doxorubicin, mitoxantrone or topotecan. At various times after injection, tumors and samples of heart, kidney, liver and brain were excised. Within solid tumors, the distribution of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan was limited to perivascular regions at 10 min after administration and the distance from blood vessels at which drug intensity fell to half was ~25-75 μm. Although drug distribution improved after 3 and 24 h, there remained a significant decrease in drug fluorescence with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels. Drug distribution was relatively uniform in the heart, kidney and liver with substantially greater perivascular drug uptake than in tumors. There was significantly higher total drug fluorescence in the liver than in tumors after 10 min, 3 and 24 h. Little to no drug fluorescence was observed in the brain. There are marked differences in the spatial distributions of three anticancer drugs within tumor tissue and normal tissues over time, with greater exposure to most normal tissues and limited drug distribution to many cells in tumors. Studies of the spatial distribution of drugs are required to complement pharmacokinetic data in order to better understand and predict drug effects and toxicities.
Reis-Mendes, A; Gomes, A S; Carvalho, R A; Carvalho, F; Remião, F; Pinto, M; Bastos, M L; Sousa, E; Costa, V M
Mitoxantrone (MTX) is an antineoplastic agent used to treat several types of cancers and on multiple sclerosis, which shows a high incidence of cardiotoxicity. Still, the underlying mechanisms of MTX cardiotoxicity are poorly understood and the potential toxicity of its metabolites scarcely investigated. Therefore, this work aimed to synthesize the MTX-naphthoquinoxaline metabolite (NAPHT) and to compare its cytotoxicity to the parent compound in 7-day differentiated H9c2 cells using pharmacological relevant concentrations (0.01-5 µM). MTX was more toxic in equivalent concentrations in all cytotoxicity tests performed [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction, neutral red uptake, and lactate dehydrogenase release assays] and times tested (24 and 48 h). Both MTX and NAPHT significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in 7-day differentiated H9c2 cells after a 12-h incubation. However, energetic pathways were affected in a different manner after MTX or NAPHT incubation. ATP increased and lactate levels decreased after a 24-h incubation with MTX, whereas for the same incubation time and concentrations, NAPHT did not cause any significant effect. The increased activity of ATP synthase seems responsible for MTX-induced increases in ATP levels, as oligomycin (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) abrogated this effect on 5 µM MTX-incubated cells. 3-Methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) was the only molecule to give a partial protection against the cytotoxicity produced by MTX or NAPHT. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first broad study on NAPHT cardiotoxicity, and it revealed that the parent drug, MTX, caused a higher disruption in the energetic pathways in a cardiac model in vitro, whereas autophagy is involved in the toxicity of both compounds. In conclusion, NAPHT is claimed to largely contribute to MTX-anticancer properties; therefore, this metabolite should be regarded as a good option for a safer anticancer therapy
Brück, Thomas B; Brück, Dieter W
Mitoxantrone (MH(2)X), an anthraquinone-type anti-cancer agent used clinically in the treatment of human malignancies, is oxidatively activated by the peroxidase/H(2)O(2) enzyme system. In contrast to the enzymatic mechanisms of drug oxidation, the chemical transformations of MH(2)X are not well described. In this study, MH(2)X metabolites, produced by the horseradish, lacto- or lignin peroxidase (respectively HRP, LPO and LIP)/H(2)O(2) system, were investigated by steady-state spectrokinetic and HPLC-MS methods. At an equimolar mitoxantrone/H(2)O(2) ratio, the efficacy of the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of mitoxantrone decreased in the following order: LPO > HRP > LIP, which accorded with the decreasing size of the substrate access channel in the enzyme panel examined. In all cases, the central drug oxidation product was the redox-active cyclic metabolite, hexahydronaphtho-[2,3-f]-quinoxaline-7,12-dione (MH(2)), previously identified in the urine of mitoxantrone-treated patients. As the reaction progressed, data gathered in this study suggests that further oxidation of the MH(2) side-chains occurred, yielding the mono- and dicarboxylic acid derivatives respectively. Based on the available data a further MH(2) derivative is proposed, in which the amino-alkyl side-chain(s) are cyclised. With increasing H(2)O(2) concentrations, these novel MH(2) derivatives were oxidised to additional metabolites, whose spectral properties and MS data indicated a stepwise destruction of the MH(2) chromophore due to an oxidative cleavage of the 9,10-anthracenedione moiety. The novel metabolites extend the known sequence of peroxidase-induced mitoxantrone metabolism, and may contribute to the cytotoxic effects of the drug in vivo. Based on the structural features of the proposed MH(2) oxidation products we elaborate on various biochemical mechanisms, which extend the understanding of mitoxantrone's pharmaceutical action and its clinical effectiveness with a particular focus on
Alexiou, Ch.; Schmid, R.; Jurgons, R.; Bergemann, Ch.; Arnold, W.; Parak, F.G.
The difference between success or failure of chemotherapy depends not only on the drug itself but also on how it is delivered to its target. Biocompatible ferrofluids (FF) are paramagnetic nanoparticles, that may be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents in locoregional tumor therapy, called "magnetic drug targeting". Bound to medical drugs, such magnetic nanoparticles can be enriched in a desired body compartment (tumor) using an external magnetic field, which is focused on the area of the tumor. Through this form of target directed drug application, one attempts to concentrate a pharmacological agent at its site of action in order to minimize unwanted side effects in the organism and to increase its locoregional effectiveness. Tumor bearing rabbits (VX2 squamous cell carcinoma) in the area of the hind limb, were treated by a single intra-arterial injection (A. femoralis) of mitoxantrone bound ferrofluids (FF-MTX), while focusing an external magnetic field (1.7 Tesla) onto the tumor for 60 minutes. Complete tumor remissions could be achieved in these animals in a dose related manner (20% and 50% of the systemic dose of mitoxantrone), without any negative side effects, like e.g. leucocytopenia, alopecia or gastrointestinal disorders. The strong and specific therapeutic efficacy in tumor treatment with mitoxantrone bound ferrofluids may indicate that this system could be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents, like radionuclids, cancer-specific antibodies, anti-angiogenetic factors, genes etc.
Legut, Mateusz; Lipka, Dominik; Filipczak, Nina; Piwoni, Adriana; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Gubernator, Jerzy
This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4°C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes). The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment. PMID:24489469
Liu, Yuling; Xu, Yingqi; Wu, Minghui; Fan, Lijiao; He, Chengwei; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui
Mitoxantrone (MIT) is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES) amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT) micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines). In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. PMID:27471384
Hou, Lin; Feng, Qianhua; Wang, Yating; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Zhenzhong
Multifunctional nanosheets (HA-GO/Pluronic) with targeted chemo-photothermal properties were successfully developed for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). In vitro release profiles displayed that both an acidic environment and a NIR laser could trigger and accelerate the release of a drug, which ensured nanosheets were stable in blood circulation and released MIT within tumor cells under laser irradiation. HA-GO/Pluronic nanosheets were taken up into MCF-7/ADR cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which further facilitated escapement of P-gp efflux. Compared with MIT solution, MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic showed greater cytotoxicity and increase in cellular MIT accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies also revealed that MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic was more potent than MIT/GO/Pluronic and MIT solution. The anticancer efficacy in vivo was evaluated in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR-bearing mice, and inhibition of tumors by MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic with NIR laser irradiation was the most effective among all MIT formulations. In summary, the MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic system had striking functions such as P-gp reversible inhibitor and anticancer efficacy, and could present a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment.
Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamada, Manabu; Kasai, Yasuyo; Miyauchi, Akito; Andoh, Kazumichi
Although cancer diagnoses during pregnancy are rare, they have been increasing with the rise in maternal age and are now a topic of international concern. In some cases, the administration of chemotherapy is unavoidable, though there is a relative paucity of evidence regarding the administration of anticancer drugs during pregnancy. As more cases have gradually accumulated and further research has been conducted, we are beginning to elucidate the appropriate timing for the administration of chemotherapy, the regimens that can be administered with relative safety, various drug options and the effects of these drugs on both the mother and fetus. However, new challenges have arisen, such as the effects of novel anticancer drugs and the desire to bear children during chemotherapy. In this review, we outline the effects of administering cytotoxic anticancer drugs and molecular targeted drugs to pregnant women on both the mother and fetus, as well as the issues regarding patients who desire to bear children while being treated with anticancer drugs.
Pommier, Yves; Leo, Elisabetta; Zhang, HongLiang; Marchand, Christophe
DNA topoisomerases are the targets of important anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Camptothecins and novel noncamptothecins in clinical development (indenoisoquinolines and ARC-111) target eukaryotic type IB topoisomerases (Top1), whereas human type IIA topoisomerases (Top2alpha and Top2beta) are the targets of the widely used anticancer agents etoposide, anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin), and mitoxantrone. Bacterial type II topoisomerases (gyrase and Topo IV) are the targets of quinolones and aminocoumarin antibiotics. This review focuses on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of topoisomerases and their inhibitors. We also discuss the common mechanism of action of topoisomerase poisons by interfacial inhibition and trapping of topoisomerase cleavage complexes.
Chemoresistance is a prevalent issue that accounts for the vast majority of treatment failure outcomes in metastatic cancer. Among the mechanisms of resistance that markedly decrease treatment efficacy, the efflux of drug compounds by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins can impair adequate drug retention by cancer cells required for therapeutic cytotoxic activity. Of note, ABC transporters are capable of effluxing several classes of drugs that are clinical standards, including the anthracyclines such as doxorubicin, as well as anthracenediones such as mitoxantrone. To address this challenge, a spectrum of nanomaterials has been evaluated for improved drug retention and enhanced efficacy. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as a promising nanomaterial platform because they integrate several important properties into a single agent. These include a uniquely faceted truncated octahedral architecture that enables potent drug binding and dispersibility in water, scalably processed ND particles with uniform diameters of approximately 5 nm, and a demonstrated ability to improve drug tolerance while delaying tumor growth in multiple preclinical models, among others. This work describes a ND–mitoxantrone complex that can be rapidly synthesized and mediates marked improvements in drug efficacy. Comprehensive complex characterization reveals a complex with favorable drug delivery properties that is capable of improving drug retention and efficacy in an MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN (MDA-MB-231) triple negative breast cancer cell line that was lentivirally transduced for resistance against mitoxantrone. Findings from this study support the further evaluation of ND–MTX in preclinical dose escalation and safety studies toward potentially clinical validation. PMID:24867631
Despas, Fabien; Roche, Henri; Laurent, Guy
A large number of anticancer drugs have been introduced during the two last decades with significant impact for survival, making cancer a chronic disease in a growing number of indications. However, these drugs are costly, induce adverse effects and their efficacy frequently depends on the dose. For all these reasons, adherence in cancer therapy is critical for an optimal benefit-risk ratio. Patient adherence remains virtually unexplored in many cancers, such as malignant blood diseases. When measured, adherence is poor, especially when the drug is administered as oral and prolonged therapy (hormonotherapy in breast cancer, imatinib). Physician nonadherence represents another form of drug misadministration; poorly documented, its mechanism remains obscure. Adherence may be measured by a panel of methods, each of them displaying limits and pitfalls, suggesting that several complementary methods should be used in the context of prospective studies. Risk factors are age, socio-educative profile, disease stage and physician profile. This review emphasizes some methods to prevent nonadherence. Finally, this review argues for prospective studies, which should integrate a social pharmacology approach, including medicine, psycho-sociology and economics.
Quantitative confocal spectral imaging analysis of mitoxantrone within living K562 cells: intracellular accumulation and distribution of monomers, aggregates, naphtoquinoxaline metabolite, and drug-target complexes.
Feofanov, A; Sharonov, S; Fleury, F; Kudelina, I; Nabiev, I
Confocal spectral imaging (CSI) technique was used for quantitative analysis of the uptake, subcellular localization, and characteristics of localized binding and retention of anticancer agent mitoxantrone (MITOX) within human K562 erythroleukemia cells. The CSI technique enables identification of the state and interactions of the drug within the living cells. Utilizing this unique property of the method, intracellular distributions were examined for monomeric MITOX in polar environment, MITOX bound with hydrophobic cellular structures, naphthoquinoxaline metabolite, and nucleic acid-related complexes of MITOX. The features revealed were compared for the cells treated with 2 microM or 10 microM of MITOX for 1 h and correlated to the known data on antitumor action of the drug. MITOX was found to exhibit high tendency to self-aggregation within intracellular media. The aggregates are concluded to be a determinant of long-term intracellular retention of the drug and a source of persistent intracellular binding of MITOX. Considerable penetration of MITOX in the hydrophobic cytoskeleton structures as well as growing accumulation of MITOX bound to nucleic acids within the nucleus were found to occur in the cells treated with a high concentration of the drug. These effects may be among the factors stimulating and/or accompanying high-dose mitoxantrone-induced programmed cell death or apoptosis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9414243
Kubecova, Martina; Kolostova, Katarina; Pinterova, Daniela; Kacprzak, Grzegorz; Bobek, Vladimir
Cimetidine, H(2) receptor antagonists, is commonly prescribed for gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. Additionally, cimetidine has been shown to have anticancer effects. This review describes the mechanism of antitumor action of cimetidine including its ability to interfere with tumor cell adhesion, angiogenesis and proliferation; its effect on the immune system; as well as inhibition of postoperative immunosuppression. Its anticancer effect is also compared to that of the other H(2) receptor antagonists as well as outcomes of cimetidine in clinical studies in cancer patients.
Hrynchak, Ivanna; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena; Costa, Vera Marisa
Anticancer drugs are presently guarantying more survivors as a result of more powerful drugs or combinations of drugs used in therapy. Thus, it has become more crucial to study and overcome the side effects of these therapies. Cardiotoxicity is one of the most relevant side effects on the long-term cancer survivors, because of its high social and economic impact. Drug metabolism can result in active metabolites or toxic metabolites that can lead to important side effects. The metabolites of anticancer drugs are possible culprits of cardiotoxicity; however, the cardiotoxicity of many of the metabolites in several drug classes was not yet suitably studied so far. On the other hand, the use of prodrugs that are bioactivated through metabolism can be a good alternative to obtain more cardio safe drugs. In this review, the methods to obtain and study metabolites are summarized and their application to the study of a group of anticancer drugs with acknowledged cardiotoxicity is highlighted. In this group of drugs, doxorubicin (DOX, 1), mitoxantrone (MTX, 2), cyclophosphamide (CTX, 3) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 4) are included, as well as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib (5), sunitinib (6) and sorafenib (7). Only with the synthesis and purification of considerable amounts of the metabolites can reliable studies be performed, either in vitro or in vivo that allow accurate conclusions regarding the cardiotoxicity of anticancer drug metabolites and then pharmacological prevention or treatment of the cardiac side effects can be done.
Deng, Liang; Dai, Peihong; Ciro, Anthony; Smee, Donald F.; Djaballah, Hakim; Shuman, Stewart
The bioterror threat of a smallpox outbreak in an unvaccinated population has mobilized efforts to develop new antipoxviral agents. By screening a library of known drugs, we identified 13 compounds that inhibited vaccinia virus replication at noncytotoxic doses. The anticancer drug mitoxantrone is unique among the inhibitors identified in that it has no apparent impact on viral gene expression. Rather, it blocks processing of viral structural proteins and assembly of mature progeny virions. The isolation of mitoxantrone-resistant vaccinia strains underscores that a viral protein is the likely target of the drug. Whole-genome sequencing of mitoxantrone-resistant viruses pinpointed missense mutations in the N-terminal domain of vaccinia DNA ligase. Despite its favorable activity in cell culture, mitoxantrone administered intraperitoneally at the maximum tolerated dose failed to protect mice against a lethal intranasal infection with vaccinia virus. PMID:17928345
de Chaisemartin, L; Loriot, M-A
Much progress has been made in treating human malignancies and there are now multiple treatment options with similar efficacy for nearly every type of cancer. However, the narrow therapeutic index of most chemotherapeutic agents and the severe consequences of undertreatment or overdosing have led to research molecular predictive factors of the toxicity and efficacy of cancer treatments. Genetic factors affecting drug metabolism and transport partly explain interindividual variability in drug response. Pharmacogenetic focuses on the molecular mechanisms involved in drug response, and its ultimate goal is the optimisation of the treatments, that combines the optimal efficacy and the minimal risk of severe side effects. Polymorphisms in genes encoding specific drug-metabolising enzymes can result in individuals in the general population being characterised as low, rapid or even ultra-rapid metabolisers. Phenotyping and genotyping tests are now available that determine or predict the metabolic status of an individual and, thus, enable the evaluation of risk of drug failure or toxicity. Some clinical applications of pharmacogenetics (5-FU, irinotecan, thiopurines) have already been developed in routine medicine resulting in significant improvement in patient treatment. The clinical validation of an increasing number of pharmacogenetic tests, as well as the development of new highly efficient technologies for genotyping (real-time PCR, DNA chips...) should further promote pharmacogenetics in clinical practice and lead to the development of a patient-tailored drug therapy.
Krukemeyer, Manfred Georg; Krenn, Veit; Jakobs, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang
Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a new treatment principle for tumors. Passive MDT (pMDT) uses cytostatics coupled to ferromagnetic nanoparticles, whereas in active MDT (aMDT), extracorporeal magnets are additionally placed over the tumor area. Mitoxantrone-magnetite-dextran composite particles were used to assess the distribution and effect of MDT. We conducted two trials with n = 60 rats transfected with R(1)H rhabdomyosarcoma cells. In the biodistribution trial (n = 36) mitoxantrone concentrations in tumor tissue versus plasma were measured after one or two dose administration for aMDT, pMDT, and uncoupled mitoxantrone. The dose/effect trial (n = 24) assessed change in tumor volume at day 1 and 7 days after administration of 4, 6, or 8 doses of mitoxantrone using aMDT. Mitoxantrone-magnetite-dextran concentration in blood was significantly (p < 0.05) lower when using aMDT and as low as uncoupled mitoxantrone. Concentrations in tumor tissue were always significantly higher using MDT when compared to uncoupled mitoxantrone. Two doses resulted in drug accumulation inside the tumor. Tumor growth was significantly decreased with four doses using aMDT versus no treatment. Tumor size on day 8 versus day 1 was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced after administration of six doses of mitoxantrone-magnetite-dextran. No allergies/toxic reactions were observed. The MDT achieves higher levels of cytostatics in tumor tissue without increased systemic concentrations and succeeds in reducing tumor volume.
Workenhe, Samuel T; Pol, Jonathan G; Lichty, Brian D; Cummings, Derek T; Mossman, Karen L
Although antitumor activity of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 null oncolytic vectors has been validated in murine breast cancer models, oncolytic virus treatment alone is insufficient to break immune tolerance. Thus, we investigated enhancing efficacy through combination therapy with the immunogenic cell death-inducing chemotherapeutic drug, mitoxantrone. Despite a lack of enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro, HSV-1 ICP0 null oncolytic virus KM100 with 5 μmol/L mitoxantrone provided significant survival benefit to BALB/c mice bearing Her2/neu TUBO-derived tumors. This protection was mediated by increased intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils and tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Depletion studies verified that CD8-, CD4-, and Ly6G-expressing cells are essential for enhanced efficacy of the combination therapy. Moreover, the addition of mitoxantrone to KM100 oncolytic virus treatment broke immune tolerance in BALB-neuT mice bearing TUBO-derived tumors. This study suggests that oncolytic viruses in combination with immunogenic cell death-inducing chemotherapeutics enhance the immunogenicity of the tumor-associated antigens, breaking immunologic tolerance established toward these antigens.
Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes
It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind.
Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes
It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind. PMID:22247822
Karikios, D J; Schofield, D; Salkeld, G; Mann, K P; Trotman, J; Stockler, M R
Anticancer drugs are often expensive and are contributing to the growing cost of cancer care. Concerns have been raised about the effect rising costs may have on availability of new anticancer drugs. This study aims to determine the recent changes in the costs of anticancer drugs in Australia. Publicly available expenditure and prices paid by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for anticancer drugs from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. The measures used to determine changes in cost were total PBS expenditure and average price paid by the PBS per prescription for anticancer drugs and for all PBS listed drugs. An estimated monthly price paid for newly listed anticancer drugs was also calculated. Annual PBS expenditure on anticancer drugs rose from A$65 million in 1999-2000 to A$466 million in 2011-2012; an average increase of 19% per annum. The average price paid by the PBS per anticancer drug prescription, adjusted for inflation, increased 133% from A$337 to A$786. The real average annual increase in the price per anticancer drug prescription was more than double that for all other PBS drugs combined (7.6% vs 2.8%, difference 4.8%, 95% confidence interval -0.4% to 10.1%, P = 0.07). The median price for a month's treatment of the new anticancer drugs listed was A$4919 (range A$1003 to A$12 578, 2012 prices). PBS expenditure and the price of anticancer drugs in Australia rose substantially from 2000 to 2012. Dealing with these burgeoning costs will be a major challenge for our health system and for those affected by cancer. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
... to the treatment.If you are using mitoxantrone injection for MS, you should know that it controls MS but does not cure it. Continue to receive treatments even if you feel well. Talk to your doctor if you no longer ...
Ali, Imran; Lone, Mohammad Nadeem; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin
Cancer has been cursed for human beings for long time. Millions people lost their lives due to cancer. Despite of the several anticancer drugs available, cancer cannot be cured; especially at the late stages without showing any side effect. Heterocyclic compounds exhibit exciting medicinal properties including anticancer. Some market selling heterocyclic anticancer drugs include 5-flourouracil, methortrexate, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, etc. Besides, some natural products such as vinblastine and vincristine are also used as anticancer drugs. Overall, heterocyclic moeities have always been core parts in the expansion of anticancer drugs. This article describes the importance of heterocyclic nuclei in the development of anticancer drugs. Besides, the attempts have been made to discuss both naturally occurring and synthetic heterocyclic compounds as anticancer agents. In addition, some market selling anticancer heterocyclic compounds have been described. Moreover, the efforts have been made to discuss the mechanisms of actions and recent advances in heterocyclic compounds as anticancer agents. The current challenges and future prospectives of heterocyclic compounds have also been discussed. Finally, the suggestions for syntheses of effective, selective, fast and human friendly anticancer agents are discussed into the different sections.
Pradeep, Tarikere Palakshan; Barthwal, Ritu
The formation of complex between anti-cancer drug mitoxantrone (MTX) and tetra-molecular parallel G-quadruplex DNA [d-(TTGGGGT)]4 has been studied by solution state one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Mitoxantrone forms a head-to-tail dimer and binds at two opposite grooves of the G-quadruplex. The Job's method of continuous variation and thermal melting studies independently ascertain binding stoichiometry of 4:1 in mitoxantrone:DNA complex. The existence of only four guanine NH peaks corresponding to the four G-quartets during the course of titration shows that C4 symmetry of G-quadruplex is intact upon binding of mitoxantrone. The specific inter molecular short distance contacts between protons of two mitoxantrone molecules of dimer, that is, ring A protons with ring C and side chain methylene protons, confirms the formation of mitoxantrone head-to-tail dimer. The observed 38 Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE) cross peaks between MTX and G-quadruplex DNA indicate formation of a well-defined complex. The three dimensional structure of 4:1 mitoxantrone:[d-(TTGGGGT)]4 complex computed by using experimental distance restraints followed by restrained Molecular Dynamics (rMD) simulations envisages the critical knowledge of specific molecular interactions within ligand-G-quadruplex complex. The findings are of direct interest in development of anti-cancer therapeutic drug based on G-quadruplex stabilization, resulting in telomerase inhibition.
Decosterd, Laurent A; Widmer, Nicolas; Zaman, Khalil; Cardoso, Evelina; Buclin, Thierry; Csajka, Chantal
New oral targeted anticancer therapies are revolutionizing cancer treatment by transforming previously deadly malignancies into chronically manageable conditions. Nevertheless, drug resistance, persistence of cancer stem cells, and adverse drug effects still limit their ability to stabilize or cure malignant diseases in the long term. Response to targeted anticancer therapy is influenced by tumor genetics and by variability in drug concentrations. However, despite a significant inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability, targeted anticancer drugs are essentially licensed at fixed doses. Their therapeutic use could however be optimized by individualization of their dosage, based on blood concentration measurements via the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). TDM can increase the probability of therapeutic responses to targeted anticancer therapies, and would help minimize the risk of major adverse reactions.
Wu, Chyuan-Chuan; Li, Yi-Ching; Wang, Ying-Ren; Li, Tsai-Kun; Chan, Nei-Li
Type II topoisomerases (Top2s) alter DNA topology via the formation of an enzyme-DNA adduct termed cleavage complex, which harbors a transient double-strand break in one DNA to allow the passage of another. Agents targeting human Top2s are clinically active anticancer drugs whose trapping of Top2-mediated DNA breakage effectively induces genome fragmentation and cell death. To understand the structural basis of this drug action, we previously determined the structure of human Top2 β-isoform forming a cleavage complex with the drug etoposide and DNA, and described the insertion of drug into DNA cleavage site and drug-induced decoupling of catalytic groups. By developing a post-crystallization drug replacement procedure that simplifies structural characterization of drug-stabilized cleavage complexes, we have extended the analysis toward other structurally distinct drugs, m-AMSA and mitoxantrone. Besides the expected drug intercalation, a switch in ribose puckering in the 3'-nucleotide of the cleavage site was robustly observed in the new structures, representing a new mechanism for trapping the Top2 cleavage complex. Analysis of drug-binding modes and the conformational landscapes of the drug-binding pockets provide rationalization of the drugs' structural-activity relationships and explain why Top2 mutants exhibit differential effects toward each drug. Drug design guidelines were proposed to facilitate the development of isoform-specific Top2-targeting anticancer agents.
Wu, Chyuan-Chuan; Li, Yi-Ching; Wang, Ying-Ren; Li, Tsai-Kun; Chan, Nei-Li
Type II topoisomerases (Top2s) alter DNA topology via the formation of an enzyme–DNA adduct termed cleavage complex, which harbors a transient double-strand break in one DNA to allow the passage of another. Agents targeting human Top2s are clinically active anticancer drugs whose trapping of Top2-mediated DNA breakage effectively induces genome fragmentation and cell death. To understand the structural basis of this drug action, we previously determined the structure of human Top2 β-isoform forming a cleavage complex with the drug etoposide and DNA, and described the insertion of drug into DNA cleavage site and drug-induced decoupling of catalytic groups. By developing a post-crystallization drug replacement procedure that simplifies structural characterization of drug-stabilized cleavage complexes, we have extended the analysis toward other structurally distinct drugs, m-AMSA and mitoxantrone. Besides the expected drug intercalation, a switch in ribose puckering in the 3′-nucleotide of the cleavage site was robustly observed in the new structures, representing a new mechanism for trapping the Top2 cleavage complex. Analysis of drug-binding modes and the conformational landscapes of the drug-binding pockets provide rationalization of the drugs’ structural-activity relationships and explain why Top2 mutants exhibit differential effects toward each drug. Drug design guidelines were proposed to facilitate the development of isoform-specific Top2-targeting anticancer agents. PMID:24038465
Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Danysz, A
The studies of the effect of solcoseryl on toxicity of selected anticancer drugs were performed in mice. The observed differential influence of solcoseryl was dependent on the type of anticancer drug as well as on the schedule of solcoseryl administration. The protective effect of the biostimulator was noticed exclusively against 5-FU toxicity. The results of our studies could provide possible implications for therapeutic approach.
Juríková, A.; Csach, K.; Koneracká, M.; Závišová, V.; Múčková, M.; Tomašovičová, N.; Lancz, G.; Kopčanský, P.; Timko, M.; Miškuf, J.
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer (PLGA) nanospheres loaded with biocom-patible magnetic fluid as a magnetic carrier and anticancer drug Taxol were prepared by the modified nanoprecipitation method with size of 200-250 nm in diameter. The PLGA polymer was utilized as a capsulation material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Taxol as an important anticancer drug was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. Thermal properties of the drug-polymer system were characterized using thermal analysis methods. It was determined the solubility of Taxol in PLGA nanospheres. Magnetic properties investigated using SQUID magnetometry showed superparamagnetism of the prepared magnetic polymer nanospheres.
Terenzi, Alessio; Pirker, Christine; Keppler, Bernhard K; Berger, Walter
Conventional chemotherapeutics, but also innovative precision anticancer compounds, are commonly perceived to target primarily the cancer cell compartment. However, recently it was discovered that some of these compounds can also exert immunomodulatory activities which might be exploited to synergistically enhance their anticancer effects. One specific phenomenon of the interplay between chemotherapy and the anticancer immune response is the so-called "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). ICD was discovered based on a vaccination effect exerted by cancer cells dying from pretreatment with certain chemotherapeutics, termed ICD inducers, in syngeneic transplantation mouse models. Interestingly, only a minority of drugs is able to trigger ICD without a clear-cut relation to chemical structures or their primary modes-of-action. Nevertheless, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are clearly linked to ICD. With regard to metal drugs, oxaliplatin but not cisplatin is considered a bona fide ICD inducer. Taken into account that several experimental metal compounds are efficient ROS and ER stress mediators, presence of potent ICD inducers within the plethora of novel metal complexes seems feasible and has occasionally been reported. In the light of recent successes in cancer immunotherapy, here we review existing literature regarding anticancer metal drugs and ICD induction. We recommend a more profound investigation of the immunogenic features of experimental anticancer metal drugs.
Ling, Guixia; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui
Novel nanostructured lipid-carrageenan hybrid carriers (NLCCs) were exploited for controlled delivery of water soluble chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone hydrochloride (MTO) with high loading capacity, sustained release property, and potential for improving oral bioavailability and antitumor efficacy. By introducing the negative polymer of carrageenan, MTO was highly incorporated into NLCCs with encapsulation efficiency of 95.8% by electrostatic interaction. In vivo pharmacokinetics of MTO solution (MTO-Sol) and MTO-NLCCs in rats demonstrated that the apparent bioavailability of MTO-NLCCs was increased to approximate 3.5-fold compared to that of MTO-Sol. The cytotoxicity investigations by MTT method indicated that NLCCs could significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy against resistant MCF-7/MX cells. The relative cellular association of MTO-NLCCs was 9.2-fold higher than that of MTO-Sol in breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) over-expressing MCF-7/MX cells, implying that BCRP-mediated drug efflux was diminished by the introduction of NLCCs. The endocytosis inhibition study implied that the NLCCs entered the MCF-7/MX cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis process, which can bypass the efflux of MTO mediated by BCRP. The new developed NLCCs provide an effective strategy for oral delivery of water-soluble MTO with improved encapsulation efficiency, oral bioavailability, and cytotoxicity against resistant breast cancer cells.
Cheetham, Andrew G.; Zhang, Pengcheng; Lin, Yi-an; Lock, Lye Lin; Cui, Honggang
We report here a supramolecular strategy to directly assemble the small molecular hydrophobic anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) into discrete, stable, well-defined nanostructures with a high and quantitative drug loading. Depending on the number of CPTs in the molecular design, the resulting nanostructures can be either nanofibers or nanotubes, and have a fixed CPT loading content ranging from 23% to 38%. We found that formation of nanostructures provides protection for both the CPT drug and the biodegradable linker from the external environment and thus offers a mechanism for controlled release of CPT. Under tumor-relevant conditions, these drug nanostructures can release the bioactive form of CPT and show in vitro efficacy against a number of cancer cell lines. This strategy can be extended to construct nanostructures of other types of anticancer drugs, and thus presents new opportunities for the development of self-delivering drugs for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23379791
Tian, Ming-Yue; Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin; Zhao, Chang-Qi
The studies on the interaction between HSA and drugs have been an interesting research field in life sciences, chemistry and clinical medicine. There are also many metal ions present in blood plasma, thus the research about the effect of metal ions on the interaction between drugs and plasma proteins is crucial. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a familiar metal ion-Cu 2+ on the interaction between an antitumor drug-mitoxantrone (MTO) and human serum albumin (HSA) by using fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, for the first time. The results showed that the quenching efficiency of MTO to HSA is higher with Cu 2+ than that without Cu 2+. In the presence of Cu 2+, the secondary structure of HSA was changed and the α-helix content was increased. The apparent association constant ( KA), the binding sites ( n) and the spatial-distance ( r) between MTO and HSA decreased. These results indicated that Cu 2+ could affect the interaction between MTO and HSA by altering HSA molecular conformation. Further calculation indicated that the binding mode of Cu 2+ in MTO-HSA system was likely to form Cu 2+-HSA complex.
Westman, Erin L; Canova, Marc J; Radhi, Inas J; Koteva, Kalinka; Kireeva, Inga; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard D
Microbes are exposed to compounds produced by members of their ecological niche, including molecules with antibiotic or antineoplastic activities. As a result, even bacteria that do not produce such compounds can harbor the genetic machinery to inactivate or degrade these molecules. Here, we investigated environmental actinomycetes for their ability to inactivate doxorubicin, an aminoglycosylated anthracycline anticancer drug. One strain, Streptomyces WAC04685, inactivates doxorubicin via a deglycosylation mechanism. Activity-based purification of the enzymes responsible for drug inactivation identified the NADH dehydrogenase component of respiratory electron transport complex I, which was confirmed by gene inactivation studies. A mechanism where reduction of the quinone ring of the anthracycline by NADH dehydrogenase leads to deglycosylation is proposed. This work adds anticancer drug inactivation to the enzymatic inactivation portfolio of actinomycetes and offers possibilities for novel applications in drug detoxification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mou, Xiaoyang; Kesari, Santosh; Wen, Patrick Y; Huang, Xudong
Although tremendous progress has been made in basic cancer biology and in the development of novel cancer treatments, cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world. The etiopathogenesis of cancer is complex. Besides genetic predisposition, known environmental factors associated with cancer are: diet, lifestyle, and environmental toxins. Toxicity of drugs and eventual relapse of cancers contribute to high cancer death rates. Current therapeutic interventions for cancer- surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, thermotherapy, etc. are far from being curative for many forms of cancer. Chemotherapy, in particular, though the most commonly used cancer treatment, is usually associated with side effects with varying degrees of severity. The purpose of this brief review is to assemble current literature on some crude drugs and to focus on their beneficial roles and drug targets in cancer therapy and chemo-prevention. Although their pharmacological mechanisms and biochemical roles in cancer biology and tumor chemo-prevention are not fully understood, crude drugs are believed to have nutriceutical effects upon cancer patients. PMID:21394282
Zheng, Suxin; Chen, Yu; Donahue, Christine P.; Wolfe, Michael S.; Varani, Gabriele
Summary Some familial neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mutations that destabilize a putative stem-loop structure within an intronic region of the tau pre-mRNA and alter the production of tau protein isoforms by alternative splicing. Since stabilization of the stem loop reverses the splicing pattern associated with neurodegeneration, small molecules that stabilize this stem loop would provide new ways to dissect the mechanism of neurodegeneration and treat tauopathies. The anti-cancer drug mitoxantrone was recently identified in a high throughput screen to stabilize the tau pre-mRNA stem loop. Here we report the solution structure of the tau mRNA-mitoxantrone complex, validated by the structure-activity relationship of existing mitoxantrone analogs. The structure describes the molecular basis for their interaction with RNA and provides a rational basis to optimize the activity of this new class of RNA-binding molecules. PMID:19477420
Singh, Sukhdev; Sharma, Bhupender; Kanwar, Shamsher S.; Kumar, Ashok
Cancer is a serious concern at present. A large number of patients die each year due to cancer illnesses in spite of several interventions available. Development of an effective and side effects lacking anticancer therapy is the trending research direction in healthcare pharmacy. Chemical entities present in plants proved to be very potential in this regard. Bioactive phytochemicals are preferential as they pretend differentially on cancer cells only, without altering normal cells. Carcinogenesis is a complex process and includes multiple signaling events. Phytochemicals are pleiotropic in their function and target these events in multiple manners; hence they are most suitable candidate for anticancer drug development. Efforts are in progress to develop lead candidates from phytochemicals those can block or retard the growth of cancer without any side effect. Several phytochemicals manifest anticancer function in vitro and in vivo. This article deals with these lead phytomolecules with their action mechanisms on nuclear and cellular factors involved in carcinogenesis. Additionally, druggability parameters and clinical development of anticancer phytomolecules have also been discussed. PMID:27877185
Singh, Sukhdev; Sharma, Bhupender; Kanwar, Shamsher S; Kumar, Ashok
Cancer is a serious concern at present. A large number of patients die each year due to cancer illnesses in spite of several interventions available. Development of an effective and side effects lacking anticancer therapy is the trending research direction in healthcare pharmacy. Chemical entities present in plants proved to be very potential in this regard. Bioactive phytochemicals are preferential as they pretend differentially on cancer cells only, without altering normal cells. Carcinogenesis is a complex process and includes multiple signaling events. Phytochemicals are pleiotropic in their function and target these events in multiple manners; hence they are most suitable candidate for anticancer drug development. Efforts are in progress to develop lead candidates from phytochemicals those can block or retard the growth of cancer without any side effect. Several phytochemicals manifest anticancer function in vitro and in vivo. This article deals with these lead phytomolecules with their action mechanisms on nuclear and cellular factors involved in carcinogenesis. Additionally, druggability parameters and clinical development of anticancer phytomolecules have also been discussed.
Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen
Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.
Cooper, Edwin L; Yao, David
The marine biosphere boasts tremendous biodiversity replete with structurally unique, active and selective secondary metabolites. Bioprospecting for antitumor compounds has been rewarding, and tunicates have been especially successful in yielding prospective cancer therapies. These compounds are now subjected to clinical trials in Europe and the USA. With the ongoing search for potent and specific anticancer drugs, in this article we discuss the unique perspectives, compounds and opportunities afforded by this rich source of potential pharmaceuticals. We discuss marine-derived antitumor drugs, their structures, and their various types and levels of antitumor activities in bench and bedside efforts.
Wang, Hongzhi; Yin, Yuanyuan; Wang, Peiqi; Xiong, Chenyu; Huang, Lingyu; Li, Sijia; Li, Xinyi; Fu, Leilei
Cancer is a deadly disease with increasing incidence and mortality rates and affects the life quality of millions of people per year. The past 15 years have witnessed the rapid development of targeted therapy for cancer treatment, with numerous anticancer drugs, drug targets and related gene mutations been identified. The demand for better anticancer drugs and the advances in database technologies have propelled the development of databases related to anticancer drugs. These databases provide systematic collections of integrative information either directly on anticancer drugs or on a specific type of anticancer drugs with their own emphases on different aspects, such as drug-target interactions, the relationship between mutations in drug targets and drug resistance/sensitivity, drug-drug interactions, natural products with anticancer activity, anticancer peptides, synthetic lethality pairs and histone deacetylase inhibitors. We focus on a holistic view of the current situation and future usage of databases related to anticancer drugs and further discuss their strengths and weaknesses, in the hope of facilitating the discovery of new anticancer drugs with better clinical outcomes.
Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.
Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease. PMID:21461373
Trees have made an enormous phytochemical contribution in anticancer drugs' development more than any other life form. The contributions include alkaloids that are biosynthesized in various ways and yield. Lead alkaloids isolated from the trees are taxol and camptothecins that currently have annual sales in billion dollars. Other important alkaloids isolated from these life forms include rohitukine, harringtonine, acronycine, thalicarpine, usambarensine, ellipticine, and matrines. Studies on their mechanism of action and target on the DNA and protein of cancerous cells aided the development of potent hemisynthesized congeners. The molecules and their congeners passed/are passing a long period of historical development before approved as antineoplastic drugs for cancer chemotherapy. Some of them did not find the application as anticancer drugs due to ineffectiveness in clinical trials; others are generating research interest in the antineoplastic activity at the present and have reached clinical trial stages. Potentials in antineoplastic molecules from trees are high and are hoped to be commensurate with cancer types afflicting human society in the future. PMID:28082790
Lu, Da-Yong; Chen, En-Hong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian
Many clinical cancer therapies are less effective by using one anticancer drug only due to refractory properties of cancer pathogenesis and drug resistance property in advanced cancer patients. A general consensus among clinicians is that anticancer drug cocktail might better control cancer progresses and metastasis than single drug therapeutics in clinical trials. Despite great popularity, the anticancer drug combination dogma has not been established. The complexity of drug combination dogma discovery is more than we can expect now. This article speculates possible routes we can undertake in this matter. The background knowledge of drug combination therapy presently practiced and possible future landscapes and drawbacks of cancer drug combinative therapies are highlighted.
Tan, G; Gyllenhaal, C; Soejarto, D D
Natural Products have been the most significant source of drugs and drug leads in history. Their dominant role in cancer chemotherapeutics is clear with about 74% of anticancer compounds being either natural products, or natural product-derived. The biodiversity of the world provides a resource of unlimited structural diversity for bioprospecting by international drug discovery programs such as the ICBGs and NCDDGs, the latter focusing exclusively on anticancer compounds. However, many sources of natural products remain largely untapped. Technology is gradually overcoming the traditional difficulties encountered in natural products research by improving access to biodiverse resources, and ensuring the compatibility of samples with high throughput procedures. However, the acquisition of predictive biodiversity remains challenging. Plant and organism species may be selected on the basis of potentially useful phytochemical composition by consulting ethnopharmacological, chemosystematic, and ecological information. On the conservation/political front, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is allaying the anxiety surrounding the notion of biopiracy, which has defeated many attempts to discover and develop new natural products for human benefit. As it becomes increasingly evident and important, the CBD fosters cooperation and adaptation to new regulations and collaborative research agreements with source countries. Even as the past inadequacies of combinatorial chemistry are being analyzed, the intrinsic value of natural products as a source of drug leads is being increasingly appreciated. Their rich structural and stereochemical characteristics make them valuable as templates for exploring novel molecular diversity with the aim of synthesizing lead generation libraries with greater biological relevance. This will ensure an ample supply of starting materials for screening against the multitude of potentially "druggable" targets uncovered by genomics technologies
Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.
We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728
Homolya, László; Orbán, Tamás I; Csanády, László; Sarkadi, Balázs
ABC multidrug transporter proteins expel a wide variety of structurally unrelated, mostly hydrophobic compounds from cells. The special role of these transporters both at the physiological barriers and in cancer cells is based on their extremely broad substrate recognition. Since hydrophobic compounds are known to partition into the lipid bilayer and accumulate in membranes, the "classical pump" model for the mechanism of multidrug transporter proteins has been challenged, and alternative models suggesting substrate recognition within the lipid bilayer have been proposed. Although much effort has been made to validate this concept, unambiguous evidence for direct drug extrusion from the plasma membrane has not been provided yet. Here we show a detailed on-line microscopic analysis of cellular extrusion of fluorescent anti-cancer drugs, mitoxantrone and pheophorbide A, by a key human multidrug transporter, ABCG2. Using the fully active GFP-tagged ABCG2 and exploiting the special character of mitoxantrone that gains fluorescence in the lipid environment, we were able to determine transporter-modulated drug concentrations separately in the plasma membrane and the intracellular compartments. Different kinetic models describing the various transport mechanisms were generated and the experimental data were analyzed using these models. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, drug extrusion from the cytoplasm can be excluded, thus, our results indicate that ABCG2 extrudes mitoxantrone directly from the plasma membrane.
Cancer chemotherapy celebrated its fiftieth anniversary last year. It was in 1945 that wartime research on the nitrogen mustards, which uncovered their potential use in the treatment of leukaemias and other cancers, was first made public. Fifty years later, more than sixty drugs have been registered in the USA for the treatment of cancer, but there are still lessons to be learnt. One problem, paradoxically, is that many anticancer agents produce a response in several different classes of the disease. This means that once a new agent has been shown to be effective in one cancer, much effort is devoted to further investigations of the same drug in various combinations for different disorders. While this approach has led to advances in the treatment of many childhood cancers and some rare diseases, a plethora of studies on metastatic colon cancer, for example, has yielded little benefit. 5-fluorouracil continues to be used in trials, yet there is no evidence for an increase in survival. The lesson to be learnt is that many common cancers are not adequately treated by present-day chemotherapy, and most trials of this sort are a waste of time. Significant increases in survival will only occur if the selectivity of present-day anticancer agents can be increased or new classes of more selective agents can be discovered. There are two fundamental problems in drug development: a lack of suitable laboratory tests and the difficulty of conducting early clinical trials. Firstly, no existing laboratory method can accurately predict which chemical will be effective against a particular class of human cancer. At best, tests can demonstrate a general 'anticancer' property. This is well exemplified by the discovery of cisplatin. The fact that cisplatin caused regression in a number of transplanted rodent tumours created no great excitement amongst chemotherapists. It was only later when it was tested clinically against ovarian cancer that results were sufficiently positive to
Midorikawa, Yutaka; Tsuji, Shingo; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki
Stratification of patients for multidrug response is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Genome-based prediction models have great potential for this purpose because the extent of drug sensitivity may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the underlying genetic characteristics of cancer. However, microarray data is difficult to analyze and is not reproducible. Several machine-learning algorithms have therefore been developed in a repeatable manner. Random forests algorithm, which uses an ensemble approach based on classification and regression trees, appears to be superior for predicting multidrug sensitivity. This is because ensemble methods are more effective when there are much more predictors than samples. Here, we review recent advances in the development of classification algorithms using microarray technology for prediction of anticancer sensitivity, discuss the availability of ensemble methods for prediction models, and present data regarding the identification of potential responders to FOLFOX therapy using random forests algorithm.
Debrix, Isabelle; André, Thierry; Flahault, Antoine; Kalu, Ogbe; Gligorov, Joseph; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Milleron, Bernard; Pene, Françoise; Boukari, Yasmine; Becker, Annie
A practice survey was performed in Tenon hospital on 396 consecutive patients treated for solid tumors during 4 weeks in november 2002. 33% of anticancer drugs were off label used. The wording heterogeneity of the different anticancer drugs approved labeling and the lack of anticancer drugs in a number of cancers can explain those results. On one hand, randomised comparative clinical trial, considered as the best level of evidence to obtain a label used, is not always possible in cancerology, especially for rare tumors. One the other hand, pharmaceutical firm are not obliged to asked a label used for an anticancer drugs in spite of high level of evidence. So, label used can not be the own references for anticancer drugs prescribing, therapeutic advanced can be realised and disseminated before their taking into account in the label used.
Hermanson, David L.; Das, Sonia G.; Li, Yunfang
Drug resistance is a serious challenge in cancer treatment and can be acquired through multiple mechanisms. These molecular changes may introduce varied extents of resistance to different therapies and need to be characterized for optimal therapy choice. A recently discovered small molecule, ethyl-2-amino-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate) (CXL017), reveals selective cytotoxicity toward drug-resistant leukemia. A drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia cell line, HL60/MX2, also failed to acquire resistance to CXL017 upon chronic exposure and regained sensitivity toward standard therapies. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for HL60/MX2 cells’ drug resistance and the molecular basis for its resensitization. Results show that the HL60/MX2 cell line has an elevated level of Mcl-1 protein relative to the parental cell line, HL60, and its resensitized cell line, HL60/MX2/CXL017, whereas it has a reduced level of topoisomerase IIβ. Mcl-1 overexpression in HL60/MX2 cells is mainly regulated through phospho-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2–mediated Mcl-1 stabilization, whereas the reduction of topoisomerase IIβ in HL60/MX2 cells is controlled through genetic downregulation. Upregulating Mcl-1 introduces multidrug resistance to standard therapies, whereas its downregulation results in significant cell death. Downregulating topoisomerase IIβ confers resistance specifically to mitoxantrone, not to other topoisomerase II inhibitors. Overall, these data suggest that Mcl-1 overexpression is a critical determinant for cross-resistance to standard therapies, whereas topoisomerase IIβ downregulation is specific to mitoxantrone resistance. PMID:23696245
The purpose of this research study was to gather information about the structure and activity of some anticancer drugs, leading eventually to better drug designs. The following studies were undertaken: (1) The investigation via geometry optimization of the structure of one small lexitropsin, amidinomycin, which is an oligopeptide that binds to the minor groove of B-DNA. (2) Proton affinities of some hydrogen acceptor rings that are present in some lexitropsin were studied in order to estimate their capacities to bind to GC sequences of DNA. (3) Binding power of one of the DNA bases, thymine, to either guanidinium ion as present in netropsin or aminopyrrolidinium ion moiety as is present in anthelvencin was compared in order to determine how much these two groups contributed to the overall binding of netropsin and anthelvencin to the base sequences of DNA. It was found that ab initio calculations on amidinomycin agree well with the experimental results and the proton affinities of imidazole is much higher than the one of oxazole which in turn is much higher than the one of thiazole and a methyl group substitutent increases the proton of imidazole, while a peptidic group decreases it. Also, it was found that the binding of guanidinium and aminopyrrolidinium ions to uracil as a model for thymine is very similar.
Piazza, Gary A; Keeton, Adam B; Tinsley, Heather N; Whitt, Jason D; Gary, Bernard D; Mathew, Bini; Singh, Raj; Grizzle, William E; Reynolds, Robert C
There is compelling evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have antineoplastic activity, but toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and the suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limits their use for cancer chemoprevention. Previous studies as reviewed here suggest that the mechanism for their anticancer properties does not require COX inhibition, but instead involves an off-target effect. In support of this possibility, recent molecular modeling studies have shown that the NSAID sulindac can be chemically modified to selectively design out its COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity. Unexpectedly, certain derivatives that were synthesized based on in silico modeling displayed increased potency to inhibit tumor cell growth. Other experiments have shown that sulindac can inhibit phosphodiesterase to increase intracellular cyclic GMP levels and that this activity is closely associated with its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these studies suggest that COX-independent mechanisms can be targeted to develop safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.
Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Pacheco-Velázquez, Silvia C; López-Ramírez, Sayra Y; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael
Significant efforts have been made for the development of new anticancer drugs (protein kinase or proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal humanized antibodies) with presumably low or negligible side effects and high specificity. However, an in-depth analysis of the side effects of several currently used canonical (platin-based drugs, taxanes, anthracyclines, etoposides, antimetabolites) and new generation anticancer drugs as the first line of clinical treatment reveals significant perturbation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Canonical and new generation drug side effects include decreased (1) intracellular ATP levels, (2) glycolytic/mitochondrial enzyme/transporter activities and/or (3) mitochondrial electrical membrane potentials. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effects of these drugs are markedly attenuated in tumor rho (0) cells, in which functional mitochondria are absent; in addition, several anticancer drugs directly interact with isolated mitochondria affecting their functions. Therefore, several anticancer drugs also target the energy metabolism, and hence, the documented inhibitory effect of anticancer drugs on cancer growth should also be linked to the blocking of ATP supply pathways. These often overlooked effects of canonical and new generation anticancer drugs emphasize the role of energy metabolism in maintaining cancer cells viable and its targeting as a complementary and successful strategy for cancer treatment.
Dosio, Franco; Arpicco, Silvia; Stella, Barbara; Fattal, Elias
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely used in anticancer drug delivery, since it is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic; moreover, HA receptors are overexpressed on many tumor cells. Exploiting this ligand-receptor interaction, the use of HA is now a rapidly-growing platform for targeting CD44-overexpressing cells, to improve anticancer therapies. The rationale underlying approaches, chemical strategies, and recent advances in the use of HA to design drug carriers for delivering anticancer agents, are reviewed. Comprehensive descriptions are given of HA-based drug conjugates, particulate carriers (micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, microparticles), inorganic nanostructures, and hydrogels, with particular emphasis on reports of preclinical/clinical results.
Scott, Latanya. M.; Lawrence, Harshani. R.; Sebti, Saïd. M.; Lawrence, Nicholas. J.; Wu, Jie.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a diverse family of enzymes encoded by 107 genes in the human genome. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs regulate various cellular activities essential for the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. While PTK inhibitors are now used routinely for cancer treatment, the PTP inhibitor development field is still in the discovery phase. In this article, the suitability of targeting PTPs for novel anticancer drug discovery is discussed. Examples are presented for PTPs that have been targeted for anticancer drug discovery as well as potential new PTP targets for novel anticancer drug discovery. PMID:20337577
De Santis, M; Straface, G; Cavaliere, A F; Rosati, P; Batocchi, A P; Caruso, A
Mitoxantrone is an antineoplastic agent considered a potential human teratogen because of its mechanism of action and is classified by the US Food and Drug Administration in pregnancy category risk D. In the literature there are only four cases of women exposed to the drug in late pregnancy. We report the first case of mitoxantrone therapy in the first trimester and during the pregnancy. A 41-year-old woman affected with multiple sclerosis, conceived during therapy and continued mitoxantrone until 29 weeks and 3 days of her pregnancy. She delivered by cesarean section at 39 weeks a growth restricted female baby weighing 1950g without evidence of congenital malformations.
Cai, Yanbin; Shen, Haosheng; Zhan, Jie; Lin, Mingliang; Dai, Liuhan; Ren, Chunhua; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jianfeng; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhimou
Nuclear delivery and accumulation are very important for many anticancer drugs that interact with DNA or its associated enzymes in the nucleus. However, it is very difficult for neutrally and negatively charged anticancer drugs such as 10-hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT). Here we report a simple strategy to construct supramolecular nanomedicines for nuclear delivery of dual synergistic anticancer drugs. Our strategy utilizes the coassembly of a negatively charged HCPT-peptide amphiphile and the positively charged cisplatin. The resulting nanomaterials behave as the "Trojan Horse" that transported soldiers (anticancer drugs) across the walls of the castle (cell and nucleus membranes). Therefore, they show improved inhibition capacity to cancer cells including the drug resistant cancer cell and promote the synergistic tumor suppression property in vivo. We envision that our strategy of constructing nanomaterials by metal chelation would offer new opportunities to develop nanomedicines for combination chemotherapy.
Cummings, J; Ward, T H; Greystoke, A; Ranson, M; Dive, C
Over recent years the role of biomarkers in anticancer drug development has expanded across a spectrum of applications ranging from research tool during early discovery to surrogate endpoint in the clinic. However, in Europe when biomarker measurements are performed on samples collected from subjects entered into clinical trials of new investigational agents, laboratories conducting these analyses become subject to the Clinical Trials Regulations. While these regulations are not specific in their requirements of research laboratories, quality assurance and in particular assay validation are essential. This review, therefore, focuses on a discussion of current thinking in biomarker assay validation. Five categories define the majority of biomarker assays from 'absolute quantitation' to 'categorical'. Validation must therefore take account of both the position of the biomarker in the spectrum towards clinical end point and the level of quantitation inherent in the methodology. Biomarker assay validation should be performed ideally in stages on 'a fit for purpose' basis avoiding unnecessarily dogmatic adherence to rigid guidelines but with careful monitoring of progress at the end of each stage. These principles are illustrated with two specific examples: (a) absolute quantitation of protein biomarkers by mass spectrometry and (b) the M30 and M65 ELISA assays as surrogate end points of cell death.
Phillips, Rachel Huxford
This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs containing the chemotherapeutic pemetrexed (PMX) were synthesized using different binding metals. Zr-based materials could not be stabilized by encapsulation with a lipid bilayer, and Gd-based materials showed that PMX had degraded during synthesis. However, Hf-based NCPs containing 19.7 wt% PMX were stabilized by a lipid coating and showed in vitro efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Enhanced efficacy was observed for formulations containing AA. Additionally, NCP formulations containing the cisplatin prodrug disuccinatocisplatin were prepared; one of these formulations could be stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid layer. Coating with a lipid layer doped with AA rendered this formulation an active targeting agent. The resulting formulation proved more potent than free cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Improved NCP uptake was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays. Finally, a Pt(IV) oxaliplatin prodrug was
Miller, Miles A; Weissleder, Ralph
Imaging is widely used in anticancer drug development, typically for whole-body tracking of labelled drugs to different organs or to assess drug efficacy through volumetric measurements. However, increasing attention has been drawn to pharmacology at the single-cell level. Diverse cell types, including cancer-associated immune cells, physicochemical features of the tumour microenvironment and heterogeneous cell behaviour all affect drug delivery, response and resistance. This Review summarizes developments in the imaging of in vivo anticancer drug action, with a focus on microscopy approaches at the single-cell level and translational lessons for the clinic.
Unoki, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Harris, C.C.
Recent emerging evidence suggests that ING family proteins play roles in carcinogenesis both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes depending on the family members and on cell status. Previous results from non-physiologic overexpression experiments showed that all five family members induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, thus it had been thought until very recently that all of the family members function as tumor suppressor genes. Therefore restoration of ING family proteins in cancer cells has been proposed as a treatment for cancers. However, ING2 knockdown experiments showed unexpected results: ING2 knockdown led to senescence in normal human fibroblast cells and suppressed cancer cell growth. ING2 is also overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and promotes cancer cell invasion through an MMP13 dependent pathway. Additionally, it was reported that ING2 has two isoforms, ING2a and ING2b. Although expression of ING2a predominates compared with ING2b, both isoforms confer resistance against cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to cancer cells, thus knockdown of both isoforms is critical to remove this resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 can function as an oncogene in some specific types of cancer cells, indicating restoration of this gene in cancer cells could cause cancer progression. Because knockdown of ING2 suppresses cancer cell invasion and induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, ING2 may be an anticancer drug target. In this brief review, we discuss possible clinical applications of ING2 with the latest knowledge of molecular targeted therapies. PMID:19442116
Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O.
Drug repositioning (also referred to as drug repurposing), the process of finding new uses of existing drugs, has been gaining popularity in recent years. The availability of several established clinical drug libraries and rapid advances in disease biology, genomics and bioinformatics has accelerated the pace of both activity-based and in silico drug repositioning. Drug repositioning has attracted particular attention from the communities engaged in anticancer drug discovery due to the combination of great demand for new anticancer drugs and the availability of a wide variety of cell- and target-based screening assays. With the successful clinical introduction of a number of non-cancer drugs for cancer treatment, drug repositioning now became a powerful alternative strategy to discover and develop novel anticancer drug candidates from the existing drug space. In this review, recent successful examples of drug repositioning for anticancer drug discovery from non-cancer drugs will be discussed. PMID:25013375
Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O
Drug repositioning (also referred to as drug repurposing), the process of finding new uses of existing drugs, has been gaining popularity in recent years. The availability of several established clinical drug libraries and rapid advances in disease biology, genomics and bioinformatics has accelerated the pace of both activity-based and in silico drug repositioning. Drug repositioning has attracted particular attention from the communities engaged in anticancer drug discovery due to the combination of great demand for new anticancer drugs and the availability of a wide variety of cell- and target-based screening assays. With the successful clinical introduction of a number of non-cancer drugs for cancer treatment, drug repositioning now became a powerful alternative strategy to discover and develop novel anticancer drug candidates from the existing drug space. In this review, recent successful examples of drug repositioning for anticancer drug discovery from non-cancer drugs will be discussed.
Levin, Victor A.; Tonge, Peter J.; Gallo, James M.; Birtwistle, Marc R.; Dar, Arvin C.; Iavarone, Antonio; Paddison, Patrick J.; Heffron, Timothy P.; Elmquist, William F.; Lachowicz, Jean E.; Johnson, Ted W.; White, Forest M.; Sul, Joohee; Smith, Quentin R.; Shen, Wang; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Samala, Ramakrishna; Wen, Patrick Y.; Berry, Donald A.; Petter, Russell C.
Following the first CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, the speakers from the first 4 sessions and organizers of the conference created this White Paper hoping to stimulate more and better CNS anticancer drug discovery and development. The first part of the White Paper reviews, comments, and, in some cases, expands on the 4 session areas critical to new drug development: pharmacological challenges, recent drug approaches, drug targets and discovery, and clinical paths. Following this concise review of the science and clinical aspects of new CNS anticancer drug discovery and development, we discuss, under the rubric “Accelerating Drug Discovery and Development for Brain Tumors,” further reasons why the pharmaceutical industry and academia have failed to develop new anticancer drugs for CNS malignancies and what it will take to change the current status quo and develop the drugs so desperately needed by our patients with malignant CNS tumors. While this White Paper is not a formal roadmap to that end, it should be an educational guide to clinicians and scientists to help move a stagnant field forward. PMID:26403167
Levin, Victor A; Tonge, Peter J; Gallo, James M; Birtwistle, Marc R; Dar, Arvin C; Iavarone, Antonio; Paddison, Patrick J; Heffron, Timothy P; Elmquist, William F; Lachowicz, Jean E; Johnson, Ted W; White, Forest M; Sul, Joohee; Smith, Quentin R; Shen, Wang; Sarkaria, Jann N; Samala, Ramakrishna; Wen, Patrick Y; Berry, Donald A; Petter, Russell C
Following the first CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, the speakers from the first 4 sessions and organizers of the conference created this White Paper hoping to stimulate more and better CNS anticancer drug discovery and development. The first part of the White Paper reviews, comments, and, in some cases, expands on the 4 session areas critical to new drug development: pharmacological challenges, recent drug approaches, drug targets and discovery, and clinical paths. Following this concise review of the science and clinical aspects of new CNS anticancer drug discovery and development, we discuss, under the rubric "Accelerating Drug Discovery and Development for Brain Tumors," further reasons why the pharmaceutical industry and academia have failed to develop new anticancer drugs for CNS malignancies and what it will take to change the current status quo and develop the drugs so desperately needed by our patients with malignant CNS tumors. While this White Paper is not a formal roadmap to that end, it should be an educational guide to clinicians and scientists to help move a stagnant field forward.
Isidori, Marina; Piscitelli, Concetta; Russo, Chiara; Smutná, Marie; Bláha, Luděk
In recent years, the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals - including anticancer drugs - is an emerging issue. Because of the lack of appropriate critical studies about anticancer drug effects in frogs, the aim of the present study was to investigate lethal and teratogenic effects of five anticancer drugs widely used in large quantities, i.e. 5-flourouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, etoposide, and imatinib, in the embryos of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, using FETAX - Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay in Xenopus. None of the studied anticancer drugs induced statistically significant mortality within the concentrations tested (0.01-50mg/L, depending on the studied compound), and no growth inhibition of embryos after a 96-h exposure was observed. Except for cisplatin, the other pharmaceuticals induced an increase of developmental malformations such as abdominal edema, axial flexure, head, eyes, gut and heart malformations with statistically significant effects observed at the highest concentrations tested (50mg/L for 5-flourouracil; 30mg/L for etoposide and 20mg/L for capecitabine and imatinib). The results indicate that anticancer drugs can affect embryogenesis mechanisms.
Seuffert, Linda; Mäder, Uwe; Toyka, Klaus V.
Objective: To assess the therapy-related risk of malignancies in mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included all mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis seen at our department between 1994 and 2007. We collected follow-up information on medically confirmed malignancies, life status, and cause of death, as of 2010. Malignancy rates were compared to the German national cancer registry matched for sex, age, and year of occurrence. Results: Follow-up was completed in 676 of 677 identified patients. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (interquartile range 6.8–11.2), corresponding to 6,220 person-years. Median cumulative mitoxantrone dose was 79.0 mg/m2 (interquartile range 50.8–102.4). Thirty-seven patients (5.5%) were diagnosed with a malignancy after mitoxantrone initiation, revealing a standardized incidence ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.08). Entities included breast cancer (n = 9), colorectal cancer (n = 7), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4, 0.6%), and others (each entity n = 1 or 2). The standardized incidence ratio of colorectal cancer was 2.98 (95% CI 1.20–6.14) and of acute myeloid leukemia 10.44 (95% CI 3.39–24.36). It was not increased for other entities including breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression identified higher age at treatment initiation but neither cumulative mitoxantrone dose (>75 vs ≤75 mg/m2) nor treatment with other immunosuppressive drugs or sex as a risk factor. Fifty-five patients had died, among them 12 of a malignancy and 43 reportedly of other causes. Conclusions: While the overall incidence of malignancies was only mildly increased, the risk of leukemia and colorectal cancer was heightened. If confirmed, posttherapy colonoscopy could become advisable. PMID:27170571
Lin, Fan; Li, Zilin; Hua, Yunfen; Lim, Yoon Pin
Most recently approved anti-cancer drugs by the US FDA are targeted therapeutic agents and this represents an important trend for future anticancer therapy. Unlike conventional chemotherapy that rarely considers individual differences, it is crucial for targeted therapies to identify the beneficial subgroup of patients for the treatment. Currently, genomics and transcriptomics are the major 'omic' analytics used in studies of drug response prediction. However, proteomic profiling excels both in its advantages of directly detecting an instantaneous dynamic of the whole proteome, which contains most current diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Moreover, proteomic profiling improves understanding of the mechanism for drug resistance and helps finding optimal combination therapy. This article reviews the recent success of applications of proteomic analytics in predicting the response to targeted anticancer therapeutics, and discusses the potential avenues and pitfalls of proteomic platforms and techniques used most in the field.
Berlow, Noah; Haider, Saad; Wan, Qian; Geltzeiler, Mathew; Davis, Lara E; Keller, Charles; Pal, Ranadip
A framework for design of personalized cancer therapy requires the ability to predict the sensitivity of a tumor to anticancer drugs. The predictive modeling of tumor sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs has primarily focused on generating functions that map gene expressions and genetic mutation profiles to drug sensitivity. In this paper, we present a new approach for drug sensitivity prediction and combination therapy design based on integrated functional and genomic characterizations. The modeling approach when applied to data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia shows a significant gain in prediction accuracy as compared to elastic net and random forest techniques based on genomic characterizations. Utilizing a Mouse Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma cell culture and a drug screen of 60 targeted drugs, we show that predictive modeling based on functional data alone can also produce high accuracy predictions. The framework also allows us to generate personalized tumor proliferation circuits to gain further insights on the individualized biological pathway.
Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Luo, Liangping; McMahon, Michael T.; Vogelstein, Bert; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Zhou, Shibin; Liu, Guanshu
Image-guided drug delivery is of great clinical interest. Here, we explored a direct way, namely CEST theranostics, to detect diamagnetic anticancer drugs simply through their inherent Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI signal, and demonstrated its application in image-guided drug delivery of nanoparticulate chemotherapeutics. We first screened 22 chemotherapeutic agents and characterized the CEST properties of representative agents and natural analogs in three major categories, i.e., pyrimidine analogs, purine analogs, and antifolates, with respect to chemical structures. Utilizing the inherent CEST MRI signal of gemcitabine, a widely used anticancer drug, the tumor uptake of the i.v.-injected, drug-loaded liposomes was successfully detected in CT26 mouse tumors. Such label-free CEST MRI theranostics provides a new imaging means, potentially with an immediate clinical impact, to monitor the drug delivery in cancer. PMID:26837220
Liang, Lijun; Shen, Jia-Wei; Wang, Qi
In recent years, self-assembled DNA nanotubes have emerged as a type of nano-biomaterials with great potential for biomedical applications. To develop universal nanocarriers for smart and targeted drug delivery from DNA nanotubes, the understanding of interaction mechanism between DNA nanotubes and drugs is essential. In this study, the interactions between anti-cancer drugs and DNA nanotubes were investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. Our simulation results demonstrated that the DNA nanotubes could serve as a good drug delivery material by absorption of anti-cancer drugs with π-π interactions. At high concentration of anti-cancer drugs, most of the drugs could be absorbed by DNA nanotubes. Therefore, it could greatly decrease the aggregation of anti-cancer drugs in aqueous solution. In addition, the stability of DNA nanotubes could be improved with the absorption of anti-cancer drugs. These findings greatly enhance the understanding of the interaction mechanism of DNA nanotubes and anti-cancer drugs. Our study suggests that DNA nanotubes are promising delivery vehicles by strong absorption of anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.
Equivalent drug doses may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response to anticancer therapy. Known determinants that may affect the pharmacological response to a drug are, among others, nongenetic factors, including age, gender, use of comedication, and liver and renal function. Nonetheless, these covariates do not explain all the observed interpatient variability. Differences in genetic constitution among patients have been identified to be important factors that contribute to differences in drug response. Because genetic polymorphism may affect the expression and activity of proteins encoded, it is a key covariate that is responsible for variability in drug metabolism, drug transport, and pharmacodynamic drug effects. We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability. This third part in the series of reviews is focused on genetic variability in phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases, methyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and N-acetyltransferases) and discusses the effects of genetic polymorphism within the genes encoding these enzymes on anticancer drug therapy outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are proposed. PMID:21659608
Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo
The compensation scheme for adverse drug reactions in Japan was implemented more than three decades ago as relief system by regulatory agencies. Because of the high frequency of adverse drug reactions, anticancer drugs have been excluded from coverage by the relief system since its implementation. Requests have recently been made by some patient advocates for the expansion of relief coverage to include anticancer drugs. In response to these requests, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan established a committee to discuss relief from anticancer drug-induced health damages in June 2011. We conducted comprehensive research into the compensation scheme for adverse drug reactions in the world. We also investigated the situation of compensation and the committee for discussing inclusion of anticancer drugs into the relief system in Japan. Many countries including the United States and UK do not have relief or compensation schemes for no-fault compensation. We investigated whether a no-fault compensation system exists in Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland), France, Germany, New Zealand and Taiwan in the world, although they offer different services from Japan. We also reviewed current situation and the fundamental difficulties associated with including anticancer drugs in the systems in Japan. The present study investigated the current situation and the fundamental difficulties associated with including anticancer drugs in the systems in Japan and pointed out part of the reason why the committee could not conclude involvement of anticancer drugs in the relief system.
Rivera-Rodríguez, G R; Alonso, M J; Torres, D
This work presents for the first time the development of novel poly-L-asparagine (PASN) nanocapsules and the in vitro evaluation of their potential as anticancer drug delivery systems. The design of PASN nanocapsules was inspired by the well-known avidity of cancer cells for the amino acid L-asparagine together with the expected ability of this hydrophilic polymer to escape to the mononuclear phagocytic system. Besides, these nanocapsules have an oily reservoir, which enables the efficient encapsulation of lipophilic drugs. PASN nanocapsules were obtained by an emulsification-polymer layer deposition process, which involves using a cationic surfactant as a bridge for the interaction of PASN with the lipid core. PASN nanocapsules showed sizes of around 170-200 nm and negative zeta potential values (around -20 mV to -40 mV). The model anticancer drug docetaxel was efficiently encapsulated (around 75%) and retained within the nanocapsule's structure upon dilution in a simulated physiological medium. Moreover, these nanocapsules exhibited the ability to interact with the NCI-H460 human cancer cells and to enhance the cellular toxicity of the anticancer drug. All these features together with their adequate stability profile render these nanocapsules a new attractive platform for anticancer intracellular drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neuzil, Jiri; Dong, Lan-Feng; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Ralph, Stephen J
Mitochondria have emerged as an intriguing target for anti-cancer drugs, inherent to vast majority if not all types of tumours. Drugs that target mitochondria and exert anti-cancer activity have become a focus of recent research due to their great clinical potential (which has not been harnessed thus far). The exceptional potential of mitochondria as a target for anti-cancer agents has been reinforced by the discouraging finding that even tumours of the same type from individual patients differ in a number of mutations. This is consistent with the idea of personalised therapy, an elusive goal at this stage, in line with the notion that tumours are unlikely to be treated by agents that target only a single gene or a single pathway. This endows mitochondria, an invariant target present in all tumours, with an exceptional momentum. This train of thoughts inspired us to define a class of anti-cancer drugs acting by way of mitochondrial 'destabilisation', termed 'mitocans'. In this communication, we define mitocans (many of which have been known for a long time) and classify them into several classes based on their molecular mode of action. We chose the targets that are of major importance from the point of view of their role in mitochondrial destabilisation by small compounds, some of which are now trialled as anti-cancer agents. The classification starts with targets at the surface of mitochondria and ending up with those in the mitochondrial matrix. The purpose of this review is to present in a concise manner the classification of compounds that hold a considerable promise as potential anti-cancer drugs.
Scientists at NCI have found that a mitochondrial chaperone protein, TRAP1, may act indirectly as a tumor suppressor as well as a novel target for developing anti-cancer drugs. Chaperone proteins, such as TRAP1, help other proteins adapt to stress, but sc
Ueta, E; Tanida, T; Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Osaki, T
The influence of anticancer drugs and irradiation on Candida cell proliferation, adherence to HeLa cells and susceptibility to antifungal drugs (amphotericin B and miconazole) and neutrophils were examined using two Candida albicans strains. After treatment with 5-fluorouracil (25 microg/ml to 250 microg/ml), cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (10 microg/ml to 100 microg/ml), peplomycin (0.5 microg/ml to 5 microg/ml) or 137Cs (20 Gy to 40 Gy) for 3 days or more, surviving Candida cells proliferated more rapidly than did untreated control cells. Anticancer agent-pretreated Candida cells revealed an increased adhesion to HeLa cells corresponding to an increase of binding to the lectins. The concentration of half limited colony formation (IC50) of amphotericin B and miconazole was increased to near two-fold that of the control by pretreatment of Candida cells with the anticancer agents, except peplomycin, which only weakly increased IC50. In addition, the enolase and Candida acid proteinase activities in the culture supernatants were increased by pretreatment with the drugs and irradiation. Correspondingly, surviving Candida cells after these treatments were resistant to neutrophils, with a reduction to half of the killing. These results indicate that anti-cancer drugs and irradiation potentiate the virulence of Candida cells, or they eliminate Candida cells with low virulence, thereby enhancing the risk of oral and systemic candidiasis.
Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F
Metabolic glycoengineering has been used to manipulate the glycochemistry of cell surfaces and thus the cell/cell interaction, cell adhesion, and cell migration. However, potential application of glycoengineering in pharmaceutical sciences has not been studied until recently. Here, we reported that Ac(4)ManNAc, an analog of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc), could affect cell responses to anticancer drugs. Although cells from different tissues and organs responded to Ac(4)ManNAc treatment differently, treated cells with increased sialic acid contents showed dramatically reduced sensitivity (up to 130 times) to anti-cancer drugs as tested on various drugs with distinct chemical structures and acting mechanisms. Neither increased P-glycoprotein activity nor decreased drug uptake was observed during the course of Ac(4)ManNAc treatment. However, greatly altered intracellular drug distributions were observed. Most intracellular daunorubicin was found in the perinuclear region, but not the expected nuclei in the Ac(4)ManNAc treated cells. Since sialoglycoproteins and gangliosides were synthesized in the Golgi, intracellular glycans affected intracellular signal transduction and drug distributions seem to be the main reason for Ac(4)ManNAc affected cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs. It was interesting to find that although Ac(4)ManNAc treated breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) maintained the same sensitivity to 5-Fluorouracil, the IC(50) value of 5-Fluorouracil to the same Ac(4)ManNAc treated normal cells (MCF-10A) was increased by more than 20 times. Thus, this Ac(4)ManNAc treatment enlarged drug response difference between normal and tumor cells provides a unique opportunity to further improve the selectivity and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs.
Prasad, Vinay; De Jesús, Kevin; Mailankody, Sham
Globally, annual spending on anticancer drugs is around US$100 billion, and is predicted to rise to $150 billion by 2020. In the USA, a novel anticancer drug routinely costs more than $100,000 per year of treatment. When adjusted for per capita spending power, however, drugs are most unaffordable in economically developing nations, such as India and China. Not only are launch prices high and rising, but individual drug prices are often escalated during exclusivity periods. High drug prices harm patients - often directly through increased out-of-pocket expenses, which reduce levels of patient compliance and lead to unfavourable outcomes - and harms society - by imposing cumulative price burdens that are unsustainable. Moreover, high drug prices are not readily explained by rational factors, including the extent of benefit patients are likely to derive, the novelty of the agents, or spending on research and development. Herein, we summarize the available empirical evidence on the costs of anticancer drugs, probe the origins and implications of these high costs, and discuss proposed solutions.
Santos, Mónica S F; Franquet-Griell, Helena; Lacorte, Silvia; Madeira, Luis M; Alves, Arminda
Anticancer drugs, used in chemotherapy, have emerged as new water contaminants due to their increasing consumption trends and poor elimination efficiency in conventional water treatment processes. As a result, anticancer drugs have been reported in surface and even drinking waters, posing the environment and human health at risk. However, the occurrence and distribution of anticancer drugs depend on the area studied and the hydrological dynamics, which determine the risk towards the environment. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk of anticancer drugs in Portugal. This work includes an extensive analysis of the consumption trends of 171 anticancer drugs, sold or dispensed in Portugal between 2007 and 2015. The consumption data was processed aiming at the estimation of predicted environmental loads of anticancer drugs and 11 compounds were identified as potentially priority drugs based on an exposure-based approach (PECb> 10 ng L(-1) and/or PECc> 1 ng L(-1)). In a national perspective, mycophenolic acid and mycophenolate mofetil are suspected to pose high risk to aquatic biota. Moderate and low risk was also associated to cyclophosphamide and bicalutamide exposition, respectively. Although no evidences of risk exist yet for the other anticancer drugs, concerns may be associated with long term effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Etessami, Reza; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert; Morere, Jean-François
The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study reported the high prevalence of renal insufficiency in cancer patients. In this special report, we focused on patients with lung cancer, emphasizing some specific findings in this population of patients. Data on patients with lung cancer who were in the IRMA study were analyzed. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulas to estimate the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI) according to the KDOQI-KDIGO definition. Anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and need for dosage adjustment. Of the 445 IRMA lung cancer patients, 14.4% had a serum creatinine (SCR) level > or =110 micromol/L. However, when they were assessed using the formulas, 62.1 and 55.9% had abnormal renal function. Of the 644 anticancer drug prescriptions, 67.5% required dose adjustments for RI or were drugs with no available data, and 78.3% of the patients received at least one such drug. Furthermore, 71.6% received potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Seventy percent of the patients had anemia but prevalence was not significantly associated with the existence of associated renal insufficiency. In the 445 IRMA patients with lung cancer, the prevalence of RI was high in spite of a normal SCR in most cases. Some anticancer drugs such as platinum salts may be nephrotoxic and need dosage adjustment. However, other important drugs such as gemcitabine do not require dose reduction and do not present with a high potential for nephrotoxicity. Lung cancer patients often present with anemia, which was not associated with the presence of RI.
Li, Xin; Xu, Huai-long; Liu, Yong-xi; An, Na; Zhao, Si; Bao, Jin-ku
Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involving the engulfment and degradation of non-essential or abnormal cellular organelles and proteins, is crucial for homeostatic maintenance in living cells. This highly regulated, multi-step process has been implicated in diverse diseases including cancer. Autophagy can function as either a promoter or a suppressor of cancer, which makes it a promising and challenging therapeutic target. Herein, we overview the regulatory mechanisms and dual roles of autophagy in cancer. We also describe some of the representative agents that exert their anticancer effects by regulating autophagy. Additionally, some emerging strategies aimed at modulating autophagy are discussed as having the potential for future anticancer drug discovery. In summary, these findings will provide valuable information to better utilize autophagy in the future development of anticancer therapeutics that meet clinical requirements. PMID:23564085
Zhang, Q I; Wang, Shanshan; Yang, Dexuan; Pan, Kevin; Li, Linna; Yuan, Shoujun
The established urinary antibiotic nitroxoline has recently regained considerable attention, due to its potent activities in inhibiting angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and blocking cancer cell invasion. These features make nitroxoline an excellent candidate for anticancer drug repurposing. To rapidly advance nitroxoline repurposing into clinical trials, the present study performed systemic preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of its anticancer activity, including a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay in vitro and an orthotopic urological tumor assay in vivo. The current study determined that nitroxoline exhibits dose-dependent anti-cancer activity in vitro and in urological tumor orthotopic mouse models. In addition, it was demonstrated that the routine nitroxoline administration regimen used for urinary tract infections was effective and sufficient for urological cancer treatment, and 2 to 4-fold higher doses resulted in obvious enhancement of anticancer efficacy without corresponding increases in toxicity. Furthermore, nitroxoline sulfate, one of the most common metabolites of nitroxoline in the urine, effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This finding increases the feasibility of nitroxoline repurposing for urological cancer treatment. Due to the excellent anticancer activity demonstrated in the present study, and its well-known safety profile and pharmacokinetic properties, nitroxoline has been approved to enter into a phase II clinical trial in China for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatment (registration no. CTR20131716).
ZHANG, QI; WANG, SHANSHAN; YANG, DEXUAN; PAN, KEVIN; LI, LINNA; YUAN, SHOUJUN
The established urinary antibiotic nitroxoline has recently regained considerable attention, due to its potent activities in inhibiting angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and blocking cancer cell invasion. These features make nitroxoline an excellent candidate for anticancer drug repurposing. To rapidly advance nitroxoline repurposing into clinical trials, the present study performed systemic preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of its anticancer activity, including a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay in vitro and an orthotopic urological tumor assay in vivo. The current study determined that nitroxoline exhibits dose-dependent anti-cancer activity in vitro and in urological tumor orthotopic mouse models. In addition, it was demonstrated that the routine nitroxoline administration regimen used for urinary tract infections was effective and sufficient for urological cancer treatment, and 2 to 4-fold higher doses resulted in obvious enhancement of anticancer efficacy without corresponding increases in toxicity. Furthermore, nitroxoline sulfate, one of the most common metabolites of nitroxoline in the urine, effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This finding increases the feasibility of nitroxoline repurposing for urological cancer treatment. Due to the excellent anticancer activity demonstrated in the present study, and its well-known safety profile and pharmacokinetic properties, nitroxoline has been approved to enter into a phase II clinical trial in China for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatment (registration no. CTR20131716). PMID:27123101
Pettit, Robin K
Soil has the largest population of microbes of any habitat, but only about 0.3% of soil microbes are cultivable with current techniques. Cultured soil microbes have been an incredibly productive source of drugs, for example the cancer chemotherapeutics doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin, daunorubicin and mitomycin. Unfortunately, the current yield of new drugs from soil microbes is low due to repeated cultivation of the same small fraction of cultivable microbes. Uncultured soil species represent a tremendous untapped resource of new antineoplastic agents. Methods have recently been developed to access the diversity of secondary metabolites from uncultured soil microbes. Briefly, total DNA is extracted from soil samples, purified, partially digested, and fragments inserted into vectors for expression in readily fermented microbes such as Escherichia coli. Clones expressing enzymatic and antibiotic activities that are encoded by novel sequences have been reported.
Gamelin, E; Boisdron-Celle, M; Morel, A; Capitain, O
Toxic side-effects of cytotoxic drugs is a stumbling-block of chemotherapy due to the fact that their therapeutic index is narrow. New approaches are necessary to individualize the treatments. Pharmacogenetic analysis is facilitated by easy access to the patient genome via simple blood samples, by the large number of known genes of interest coding for drugs targets or metabolism enzymes and by the fact that their polymorphism (SNP) is often known. Presently more focused on the prevention of toxic side-effects, pharmacogenetics already provides a good deal of confirmed data for clinical applications, such as the detection of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency by sequencing, or UGT1A1 7/7 genotype detection in Gilbert's syndrome for the prevention of 5-FU and irinotecan-induced severe toxicities. It must be emphasized that a SNP which is deleterious for enzyme activity is rarely a contraindication for the drug, provided that some precautions are taken and appropriate therapeutic advice is given by experts.
Adams, David J
The past decade has seen an explosion in our understanding of cancer biology and with it many new potential disease targets. Nonetheless, our ability to translate these advances into therapies is poor, with a failure rate approaching 90%. Much discussion has been devoted to this so-called 'Valley of Death' in anticancer drug development, but the problem persists. Could we have overlooked some straightforward explanations to this highly complex problem? Important aspects of tumor physiology, drug pharmacokinetics, preclinical models, drug delivery, and clinical translation are not often emphasized, but could be crucial. This perspective summarizes current views on the problem and suggests feasible alternatives.
Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew
Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines.
Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew
Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines. PMID:21603306
Atwal, Mandeep; Lishman, Emma L.; Austin, Caroline A.
Myeloperoxidase is expressed exclusively in granulocytes and immature myeloid cells and transforms the topoisomerase II (TOP2) poisons etoposide and mitoxantrone to chemical forms that have altered DNA damaging properties. TOP2 poisons are valuable and widely used anticancer drugs, but they are associated with the occurrence of secondary acute myeloid leukemias. These factors have led to the hypothesis that myeloperoxidase inhibition could protect hematopoietic cells from TOP2 poison-mediated genotoxic damage and, therefore, reduce the rate of therapy-related leukemia. We show here that myeloperoxidase activity leads to elevated accumulation of etoposide- and mitoxantrone-induced TOP2A and TOP2B-DNA covalent complexes in cells, which are converted to DNA double-strand breaks. For both drugs, the effect of myeloperoxidase activity was greater for TOP2B than for TOP2A. This is a significant finding because TOP2B has been linked to genetic damage associated with leukemic transformation, including etoposide-induced chromosomal breaks at the MLL and RUNX1 loci. Glutathione depletion, mimicking in vivo conditions experienced during chemotherapy treatment, elicited further MPO-dependent increase in TOP2A and especially TOP2B-DNA complexes and DNA double-strand break formation. Together these results support targeting myeloperoxidase activity to reduce genetic damage leading to therapy-related leukemia, a possibility that is enhanced by the recent development of novel specific myeloperoxidase inhibitors for use in inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil infiltration. PMID:27974636
Chen, Zhanguang; Liu, Guoliang; Chen, Meizhen; Xu, Benjie; Peng, Yurui; Chen, Maohuai; Wu, Mingyao
An in vitro screening model using resonance light scattering (RLS) technique with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent as the reactive probe to target cancer cell was firstly developed. In this model, MTT was reduced by viable cancer cells to produce a purple formazan. Cell viability was proportional to the number of formazan induced strong light scattering signal. The inhibition rate of anticancer drug was found to vary inversely with the H(22)-MTT system RLS intensity. So it was intuitive to see the sequence of the tumor suppressive activity of six anticancer drugs without data processing by RLS/MTT screening spectra. Compared with the traditional MTT method, this method has high sensitivity, low detection limit and quite intuitive screening results which were identical to those obtained from the MTT colorimetric assay.
Boros, L; Cacek, T; Pine, R B; Battaglia, A C
The pharmacokinetic profile of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis is described. Significant characteristics of our patient included lymphoma with liver involvement, tumor lysis syndrome, renal and hepatic failure. Combination chemotherapy consisted of mitoxantrone, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. Mitoxantrone plasma samples were obtained prior to dosing and at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, and 12 h after the intravenous infusion of a 17-mg dose over 20 min. Serum concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration versus time curve was consistent with a three-compartment model. However, rebounds in serum drug concentrations were detected during the last portion of dialysis and after its completion. The gamma elimination half-life could not be determined due to the continued detection of rebounds in drug concentrations throughout the postdialysis sampling period. The alpha and beta distribution phases did not appear to be affected by hemodialysis. The peak mitoxantrone concentration fell within the reported range. Mitoxantrone does not appear to be eliminated by hemodialysis, and dose adjustments are not needed in patients undergoing this procedure.
Benedetti, Michele; Malina, Jaroslav; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Natile, Giovanni
In this article we review the biological activity of analogs of the antitumor drug cisplatin that contain chiral amine ligands. Interaction with DNA and formation of cross-links with adjacent purine bases are considered to be the crucial steps in the antitumor activity of this class of complexes. Because double-helical DNA has a chiral structure, interaction with enantiomeric complexes of platinum should lead to diastereomeric adducts. It has been demonstrated that DNA cross-links of platinum complexes with enantiomeric amine ligands not only can exhibit different conformational features but also can be processed differently by the cellular machinery as a consequence of these conformational differences. These results expand the general knowledge of how the stereochemistry of the platinum-DNA adduct can influence the cell response and contribute to understanding the processes that are crucial for antitumor activity. The steric requirements of the chiral ligands, in terms of configuration and flexibility, are also elucidated. PMID:12426131
Calandrini, Vania; Rossetti, Giulia; Arnesano, Fabio; Natile, Giovanni; Carloni, Paolo
Cisplatin, cis-diamminedichlorido-platinum(II), is an important therapeutic tool in the struggle against different tumors, yet it is plagued with the emergence of resistance mechanisms after repeated administrations. This hampers greatly its efficacy. Overcoming resistance problems requires first and foremost an integrated and systematic understanding of the structural determinants and molecular recognition processes involving the drug and its cellular targets. Here we review a strategy that we have followed for the last few years, based on the combination of modern tools from computational chemistry with experimental biophysical methods. Using hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) simulations, validated by spectroscopic experiments (including NMR, and CD), we have worked out for the first time at atomic level the structural determinants in solution of platinated cellular substrates. These include the copper homeostasis proteins Ctr1, Atox1, and ATP7A. All of these proteins have been suggested to influence the pre-target resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, coupling hybrid QM/MM simulations with classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) and free energy calculations, based on force field parameters refined by the so-called "Force Matching" procedure, we have characterized the structural modifications and the free energy landscape associated with the recognition between platinated DNA and the protein HMGB1, belonging to the chromosomal high-mobility group proteins HMGB that inhibit the repair of platinated DNA. This may alleviate issues relative to on-target resistance process. The elucidation of the mechanisms by which tumors are sensitive or refractory to cisplatin may lead to the discovery of prognostic biomarkers. The approach reviewed here could be straightforwardly extended to other metal-based drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girdler, Fiona; Gascoigne, Karen E; Eyers, Patrick A; Hartmuth, Sonya; Crafter, Claire; Foote, Kevin M; Keen, Nicholas J; Taylor, Stephen S
The Aurora kinases, a family of mitotic regulators, have received much attention as potential targets for novel anti-cancer therapeutics. Several Aurora kinase inhibitors have been described including ZM447439, which prevents chromosome alignment, spindle checkpoint function and cytokinesis. Subsequently, ZM447439-treated cells exit mitosis without dividing and lose viability. Because ZM447439 inhibits both Aurora A and B, we set out to determine which phenotypes are due to inhibition of which kinase. Using molecular genetic approaches, we show that inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity phenocopies ZM447439. Furthermore, a novel ZM compound, which is 100 times more selective for Aurora B over Aurora A in vitro, induces identical phenotypes. Importantly, inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity induces a penetrant anti-proliferative phenotype, indicating that Aurora B is an attractive anti-cancer drug target. Using molecular genetic and chemical-genetic approaches, we also probe the role of Aurora A kinase activity. We show that simultaneous repression of Aurora A plus induction of a catalytic mutant induces a monopolar phenotype. Consistently, another novel ZM-related inhibitor, which is 20 times as potent against Aurora A compared with ZM447439, induces a monopolar phenotype. Expression of a drug-resistant Aurora A mutant reverts this phenotype, demonstrating that Aurora A kinase activity is required for spindle bipolarity in human cells. Because small molecule-mediated inhibition of Aurora A and Aurora B yields distinct phenotypes, our observations indicate that the Auroras may present two avenues for anti-cancer drug discovery.
Wei, Tuo; Chen, Chao; Liu, Juan; Liu, Cheng; Posocco, Paola; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Cheng, Qiang; Huo, Shuaidong; Liang, Zicai; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina; Liang, Xing-Jie; Rocchi, Palma; Peng, Ling
Drug resistance and toxicity constitute challenging hurdles for cancer therapy. The application of nanotechnology for anticancer drug delivery is expected to address these issues and bring new hope for cancer treatment. In this context, we established an original nanomicellar drug delivery system based on an amphiphilic dendrimer (AmDM), which could generate supramolecular micelles to effectively encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with high drug-loading capacity (>40%), thanks to the unique dendritic structure creating large void space for drug accommodation. The resulting AmDM/DOX nanomicelles were able to enhance drug potency and combat doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer models by significantly enhancing cellular uptake while considerably decreasing efflux of the drug. In addition, the AmDM/DOX nanoparticles abolished significantly the toxicity related to the free drug. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the drug delivery system based on nanomicelles formed with the self-assembling amphiphilic dendrimer constitutes a promising and effective drug carrier in cancer therapy.
Tila, Dena; Yazdani-Arazi, Seyede Narjes; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Arami, Sanam; Pourmoazzen, Zhaleh
The aim of this study was the design and evaluation of a novel plasma stable, pH-sensitive niosomal formulation of Mitoxantrone by a modified ethanol injection method. Cholesterol hemisuccinate was added instead of cholesterol in order to produce pH-sensitivity property and using PEG-Poly (monomethyl itaconate)-CholC6 (PEG-PMMI-CholC6) copolymer introduced simultaneously pH-sensitivity and plasma stability properties in prepared niosomes. The pH-sensitivity and cytotoxicity of Mitoxantrone niosomes were evaluated in vitro in phosphate buffer with different pHs as well as using human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3), human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results showed that both cholesterol derivatives bearing formulations had pH-sensitive property and were found to release their contents under mild acidic conditions rapidly. In addition, the PEG-PMMI-CholC6-based niosomes could reserve the pH-sensitivity after incubation in plasma. Both Mitoxantrone-loaded pH-sensitive niosomes showed higher cytotoxicity than the conventional niosomes on OVCAR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. However, both pH-sensitive niosomes exhibited lower cytotoxic effect on HUVEC cell line. Plasma stable, pH-sensitive niosomes could improve the cytotoxic effect and reduce the side effects of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:26417350
Kumar, Rakesh; Lal, Neena
Anti-cancer drug development is a major area of research. Monitoring of response to newer anti-cancer drugs has undergone an evolution from structural imaging modalities to targeting functional metabolic activity at cellular level to better define responsive and non-responsive cancerous tissue. This review article highlights the contribution of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in this field. PET holds a promising role in the future by providing us information pertaining to the drugs effectiveness early in the course of therapy, so that side effects and expenses can be reduced substantially. PET has been used to measure changes in drug induced metabolism, cellular proliferation and tissue perfusion. Also changes induced by immuno-modulating drugs such as apoptosis, telomere activity, growth factor levels and many more can be studied using specific radiolabelled PET tracers whereas conventional imaging modalities which detect changes in tumor size and residual tissue histopathology may not prove useful in such scenario. In future, most PET scanners will be replaced by Hybrid PET-CT scanners, which provide functional and structural information in the same setting. In addition, PET-CT improves characterization of equivocal lesions and decreases interobserver variability. The most important recent patents concerning role of PET in drug development have been presented.
Mei, Lin; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhao, Lingyun; Huang, Laiqiang; Yang, Xiang-Liang; Tang, Jintian; Feng, Si-Shen
Oral chemotherapy is an important topic in the 21st century medicine, which may radically change the current regimen of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. Unfortunately, most anticancer drugs, especially those of high therapeutic efficacy such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are not orally bioavailable due to the gastrointestinal (GI) drug barrier. The molecular basis of the GI barrier has been found mainly due to the multidrug efflux proteins, i.e. P-type glycoproteins (P-gp), which are rich in the epithelial cell membranes in the GI tract. Medical solution for oral chemotherapy is to apply P-gp inhibitors such as cyclosporine A, which, however, suppress the body's immune system either, thus causing medical complication. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology, which is to apply and further develop nanotechnology to solve the problems in drug delivery, may provide a better solution and thus change the way we make drug and the way we take drug. This review is focused on the problems encountered in oral chemotherapy and the pharmaceutical nanotechnology solutions such as prodrugs, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers. Proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo results for oral delivery of anticancer drugs by the various nanocarriers, which can be found so far from the literature, are provided.
For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.
Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.
Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.
Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.
Equivalent drug doses in anticancer chemotherapy may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response reflected by differences in treatment response or in severity of adverse drug reactions. Differences in the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) behavior of a drug contribute to variation in treatment outcome among patients. An important factor responsible for this variability is genetic polymorphism in genes that are involved in PK/PD processes, including drug transporters, phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, and drug targets, and other genes that interfere with drug response. In order to achieve personalized pharmacotherapy, drug dosing and treatment selection based on genotype might help to increase treatment efficacy while reducing unnecessary toxicity. We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability in anticancer drug treatment. This is the second review in the series and is focused on genetic variability in genes encoding drug transporters (ABCB1 and ABCG2) and phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, DPYD, CDA and BLMH) and their associations with anticancer drug treatment outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are presented. PMID:21632461
Kathiravan, Muthu K; Khilare, Madhavi M; Nikoomanesh, Kiana; Chothe, Aparna S; Jain, Kishor S
DNA topoisomerases comprise a major aspect of basic cellular biology and are molecular targets for a variety of drugs like antibiotics, antibacterials and anticancer drugs. They act by inhibiting the topoisomerase molecule from relegating DNA strands after cleavage and convert the topoisomerases molecule into a DNA damaging agent. Though drugs of various categories acting through different mechanisms are available for the treatment, there are still problems associated with the currently available drugs. Therefore, Structural biologists, Structural chemists and Medicinal chemists all around the world have been identifying, designing, synthesizing and evaluating a variety of novel bioactive molecules targeting topoisomerase. This review summarizes types of topoisomerase and drug treating each class along with their structural requirement and activity. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential heterocyles and the possible treatments as well as the current ongoing research status in the field of topoisomerase as dual targeting.
Awasthi, Pamita; Dogra, Shilpa; Barthwal, Ritu
The interaction of mitoxantrone with alternating Poly(dG-dC).Poly(dG-dC) and Poly(dA-dT).Poly(dA-dT) duplex has been studied by absorption, fluorescence and Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at Drug to Phosphate base pair ratios D/P=20.0-0.04. Binding to GC polymer occurs in two distinct modes: partial stacking characterized by red shifts of 18-23nm at D/P=0.2-0.8 and external binding at D/P=1.0-20.0 whereas that to AT polymer occurs externally in the entire range of D/P. The binding constant and number of binding sites is 3.7×10(5)M(-1), 0.3 and 1.3× 10(4)M(-1), 1.5 in GC and AT polymers, respectively at low D/P ratios. CD binding isotherms show breakpoints at D/P=0.1, 0.5 and 0.25, 0.5 in GC and AT polymers, respectively. The intrinsic CD bands indicate that the distortions in GC polymer are significantly higher than that in AT polymer. Docking studies show partial insertion of mitoxantrone rings between to GC base pairs in alternating GC polymer. Side chains of mitoxantrone interact specifically with base pairs and DNA backbone. The studies are relevant to the understanding of suppression or inhibition of DNA cleavage on formation of ternary complex with topoisomerase-II enzyme and hence the anti cancer action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sugitachi, Akio; Otsuka, Koki; Fujisawa, Kentaro; Itabashi, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Yuji; Sasaki, Akira; Ikeda, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Takamori, Yoshimori; Kurozumi, Seiji; Mori, Takatoshi; Wakabayashi, Go
We devised a muco-adhesive anticancer drug delivery system using 70% deacetylated chitin (DAC-70) and cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The adhesive force between the system and human colonic mucosa was measured ex vivo, and a release profile of each drug was examined in vitro. Each system demonstrated a stronger muco-adhesive force at 37 degrees C than that of 25 degrees C. The CDDP-loaded system showed a sustained release of the drug while the 5-FU-loaded system exhibited an initial bursting of the agent. We presume that the release profile of CDDP and 5-FU is closely related to both degradability of the chitin and interactions between the chitin and each drug. The DAC-70/CDDP system would be clinically promising in loco-regional cancer chemotherapy.
Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Gothwal, Avinash; Kesharwani, Prashant; Alsaab, Hashem; Iyer, Arun K; Gupta, Umesh
Dendrimers are novel nanoarchitectures with unique properties including a globular 3D shape, a monodispersed unimicellar nature and a nanometric size range. The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting.
Seib, F. Philipp; Jones, Gregory T.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L.
Silk has traditionally been used as a suture material because of its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. These properties have led to the development of different silk-based material formats for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Although there have been a small number of studies about the use of silk particles for drug delivery, none of these studies have assessed the potential of silk to act as a stimulus-responsive anticancer nanomedicine. This report demonstrates that an acetone precipitation of silk allowed the formation of uniform silk nanoparticles (98 nm diameter, polydispersity index 0.109), with an overall negative surface charge (-33.6 ±5.8 mV), in a single step. Silk nanoparticles were readily loaded with doxorubicin (40 ng doxorubicin/μg silk) and showed pH-dependent release (pH 4.5>> 6.0 > 7.4). In vitro studies with human breast cancer cell lines demonstrated that the silk nanoparticles were not cytotoxic (IC50 >120/μ/ml) and that doxorubicin-loaded silk nanoparticles were able to overcome drug resistance mechanisms. Live cell fluorescence microscopy studies showed endocytic uptake and lysosomal accumulation of silk nanoparticles. In summary, the pH-dependent drug release and lysosomal accumulation of silk nanoparticles demonstrated the ability of drug-loaded silk nanoparticles to serve as a lysosomotropic anticancer nanomedicine. PMID:23625825
Chen, Aiping; Xu, Chun; Li, Min; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Diancheng; Xia, Mao; Meng, Gang; Kang, Bin; Chen, Hongyuan; Wei, Jiwu
Undesirable intracellular vesicular compartmentalization of anticancer drugs in cancer cells is a common cause of chemoresistance. Strategies aimed at circumventing this problem may improve chemotherapeutic efficacy. We report a novel photophysical strategy for controlled-disruption of vesicular sequestration of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), modified with folate, were trapped in acidic vesicles after entering lung cancer cells. Upon irradiation by near-infrared pulsed laser, these vesicles were massively broken by the resulting photoacoustic shockwave, and the vesicle-sequestered contents were released, leading to redistribution of DOX from cytoplasm to the target-containing nucleus. Redistribution resulted in 12-fold decrease of the EC50 of DOX in lung cancer cells, and enhanced antitumor efficacy of low-dose DOX in tumor-bearing mice. Side effects were not observed. These findings provide insights of using nanotechnology to improve cancer chemotherapy, i.e. not only for drug delivery, but also for overcoming intracellular drug-transport hurdles.
Xiao, Zhiyan; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung
Natural products have made significant contribution to cancer chemotherapy over the past decades and remain an indispensable source of molecular and mechanistic diversity for anticancer drug discovery. More often than not, natural products may serve as leads for further drug development rather than as effective anticancer drugs by themselves. Generally, optimization of natural leads into anticancer drugs or drug candidates should not only address drug efficacy, but also improve ADMET profiles and chemical accessibility associated with the natural leads. Optimization strategies involve direct chemical manipulation of functional groups, structure-activity relationship-directed optimization and pharmacophore-oriented molecular design based on the natural templates. Both fundamental medicinal chemistry principles (e.g., bio-isosterism) and state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design techniques (e.g., structure-based design) can be applied to facilitate optimization efforts. In this review, the strategies to optimize natural leads to anticancer drugs or drug candidates are illustrated with examples and described according to their purposes. Furthermore, successful case studies on lead optimization of bioactive compounds performed in the Natural Products Research Laboratories at UNC are highlighted. PMID:26359649
Xiao, Zhiyan; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung
Natural products have made significant contribution to cancer chemotherapy over the past decades and remain an indispensable source of molecular and mechanistic diversity for anticancer drug discovery. More often than not, natural products may serve as leads for further drug development rather than as effective anticancer drugs by themselves. Generally, optimization of natural leads into anticancer drugs or drug candidates should not only address drug efficacy, but also improve absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles and chemical accessibility associated with the natural leads. Optimization strategies involve direct chemical manipulation of functional groups, structure-activity relationship directed optimization and pharmacophore-oriented molecular design based on the natural templates. Both fundamental medicinal chemistry principles (e.g., bioisosterism) and state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design techniques (e.g., structure-based design) can be applied to facilitate optimization efforts. In this review, the strategies to optimize natural leads to anticancer drugs or drug candidates are illustrated with examples and described according to their purposes. Furthermore, successful case studies on lead optimization of bioactive compounds performed in the Natural Products Research Laboratories at UNC are highlighted.
Micale, Nicola; Scarbaci, Kety; Troiano, Valeria; Ettari, Roberta; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria
The identification of the key role of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome in regulated intracellular proteolysis and its importance as a target in many pathological conditions wherein the proteasomal activity is defective (e.g., malignancies, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.) prompted several research groups to the development of specific inhibitors of this multicatalytic complex with the aim of obtaining valid drug candidates. In regard to the anticancer therapy, the peptide boronate bortezomib (Velcade®) represents the first molecule approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma in 2003 and mantle cell lymphoma in 2006. Since then, a plethora of molecules targeting the proteasome have been identified as potential anticancer agents and a few of them reached clinical trials or are already in the market (i.e., carfilzomib; Kyprolis®). In most cases, the design of new proteasome inhibitors (PIs) takes into account a proven peptide or pseudopeptide motif as a base structure and places other chemical entities throughout the peptide skeleton in such a way to create an efficacious network of interactions within the catalytic sites. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth look at the current state of the research in the field of peptide-based PIs, specifically those ones that might find an application as anticancer agents.
Withey, Paul; Momin, Zoya; Bommoju, Anvesh; Hoang, Trung; Rashid, Bazlur
Utilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as more effective drug-delivery agents are being considered due to their ability to easily cross cell membranes, while their high aspect ratio and large surface area provide multiple attachment sites for biocompatible drug complexes. However, excessive bundling of pristine SWCNTs caused by strong attractive Van der Walls forces between CNT sidewalls is a major obstacle. We have successfully dispersed SWCNTs with both polyvinyl alcohol and Pluronic biocompatible polymers, and attached anti-cancer drugs Camptothecin (CPT) and Doxorubicin to form non-covalent CNT-polymer-drug conjugates in aqueous solution. Polymeric dispersion of SWCNTs by both polymers is confirmed by clearly identifiable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence emission peaks of individual (7,5) and (7,6) nanotubes, and drug attachment to form complete complexes verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These complexes, with varying SWCNT and drug concentrations, were tested for effectiveness by exposing them to a line of human embryonic kidney cancer cells and analyzed for cell viability. Preliminary results indicate significant improvement in drug effectiveness on the cancer cells, with more successful internalization due to unaltered SWCNTs as the drug carriers. Supported by the UHCL Faculty Research Support Fund.
Fischer, Peter M
The topics discussed at the conference covered many aspects of cancer research, from the genetic search for new targets, target validation and drug discovery, all the way to preclinical and clinical development of oncology drugs. Here the presentations on new metabolic, angiogenic, cell cycle and other molecular targets, as well as recent developments with experimental drugs with action on some of these targets, are summarised. Particular emphasis is placed on the emerging realisation that changes in the metabolic phenotype lie at the heart of cellular transformation. New insights into the biological links between cancer cell metabolism and the balance between survival and death signalling are likely to lead to the identification of a new category of anticancer targets.
Sánchez-Martínez, Concepción; Gelbert, Lawrence M; Lallena, María José; de Dios, Alfonso
Sustained proliferative capacity is a hallmark of cancer. In mammalian cells proliferation is controlled by the cell cycle, where cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate critical checkpoints. CDK4 and CDK6 are considered highly validated anticancer drug targets due to their essential role regulating cell cycle progression at the G1 restriction point. This review provides an overview of recent advances on cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors in general with special emphasis on CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors and compounds under clinical evaluation. Chemical structures, structure activity relationships, and relevant preclinical properties will be described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Fengfei; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M.; Wu, Erxi
In the past 50 years, thalidomide has undergone a remarkable metamorphosis from a notorious drug inducing birth defects into a highly effective therapy for treating leprosy and multiple myeloma. Today, most notably, thalidomide and its analogs have shown efficacy against a wide variety of diseases, including inflammation and cancer. The mechanism underlying its teratogenicity as well as its anticancer activities has been intensively studied. This review summarizes the biological effects and therapeutic uses of thalidomide and its analogs, and the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide’s action with a focus on its suppression of tumor growth. PMID:23931282
Ranjbari, Javad; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Tabarzad, Maryam; Hejazi, Maryam; Ramezani, Mohammad
Polymeric drug delivery systems in the form of nanocarriers are the most interesting vehicles in anti-cancer therapy. Among different types of biocompatible polymers, carbohydrate-based polymers or polysaccharides are the most common natural polymers with complex structures consisting of long chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units bound by glycosidic linkages. Their appealing properties such as availability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, high chemical reactivity, facile chemical modification and low cost led to their extensive applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields including development of nano-vehicles for delivery of anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Generally, reducing systemic toxicity, increasing short half-lives and tumor localization of agents are the top priorities for a successful cancer therapy. Polysaccharide-based or -coated nanosystems with respect to their advantageous features as well as accumulation in tumor tissue due to enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect can provide promising carrier systems for the delivery of noblest impressive agents. Most challenging factor in cancer therapy was the toxicity of anti-cancer therapeutic agents for normal cells and therefore, targeted delivery of these drugs to the site of action can be considered as an interesting therapeutic strategy. In this regard, several polysaccharides exhibited selective affinity for specific cell types, and so they can act as a targeting agent in drug delivery systems. Accordingly, different aspects of polysaccharide applications in cancer treatment or diagnosis were reviewed in this paper. In this regard, after a brief introduction of polysaccharide structure and their importance, the pharmaceutical usage of carbohydrate-based polymers was considered according to the identity of accompanying active pharmaceutical agents. It was also presented that the carbohydrate based polymers have been extensively considered as promising materials
Jonsson, Bertil; Bergh, Jonas
Between January 2001 and January 2012, 48 new medicinal products for cancer treatment were licensed within the EU, and 77 new indications were granted for products already licensed. In some cases, a major improvement to existing therapies was achieved, for example, trastuzumab in breast cancer. In other cases, new fields for effective drug therapy opened up, such as in chronic myeloid leukemia, and renal-cell carcinoma. In most cases, however, the benefit-risk balance was considered to be only borderline favorable. Based on our assessment of advice procedures for marketing authorization, 'need for speed' seems to be the guiding principle in anticancer drug development. Although, for drugs that make a difference, early licensure is of obvious importance to patients, this is less evident in the case of borderline drugs. Without proper incentives and with hurdles inside and outside companies, a change in drug development cannot be expected; drugs improving benefit-risk modestly over available therapies will be brought forward towards licensure. In this Perspectives article, we discuss some hurdles to biomarker-driven drug development and provide some suggestions to overcome them.
Shi, Changying; Guo, Dandan; Xiao, Kai; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Luo, Juntao
The drug-loading properties of nanocarriers depend on the chemical structures and properties of their building blocks. Here, we customize telodendrimers (linear-dendritic copolymer) to design a nanocarrier with improved in vivo drug delivery characteristics. We do a virtual screen of a library of small molecules to identify the optimal building blocks for precise telodendrimer synthesis using peptide chemistry. With rationally designed telodendrimer architectures, we then optimize the drug binding affinity of a nanocarrier by introducing an optimal drug-binding molecule (DBM) without sacrificing the stability of the nanocarrier. To validate the computational predictions, we synthesize a series of nanocarriers and evaluate systematically for doxorubicin delivery. Rhein-containing nanocarriers have sustained drug release, prolonged circulation, increased tolerated dose, reduced toxicity, effective tumor targeting and superior anticancer effects owing to favourable doxorubicin-binding affinity and improved nanoparticle stability. This study demonstrates the feasibility and versatility of the de novo design of telodendrimer nanocarriers for specific drug molecules, which is a promising approach to transform nanocarrier development for drug delivery. PMID:26158623
Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid
Biodegradable polymers have been used for more than three decades in cancer treatment and have received increased interest in recent years. A range of biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems designed for localized and systemic administration of therapeutic agents as well as tumor-targeting macromolecules has entered into the clinical phase of development, indicating the significance of biodegradable polymers in cancer therapy. This review elaborates upon applications of biodegradable polymers in the delivery and targeting of anti-cancer agents. Design of various drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers has been described. Moreover, the indication of polymers in the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs via passive, active targeting, and localized drug delivery are also covered. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver the payload to the target and can enhance drug availability at desired sites. Systemic toxicity and serious side effects observed with conventional cancer therapeutics can be significantly reduced with targeted polymeric systems. Still, there are many challenges that need to be met with respect to the degradation kinetics of the system, diffusion of drug payload within solid tumors, targeting tumoral tissue and tumor heterogeneity.
Shi, Changying; Guo, Dandan; Xiao, Kai; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Luo, Juntao
The drug-loading properties of nanocarriers depend on the chemical structures and properties of their building blocks. Here we customize telodendrimers (linear dendritic copolymer) to design a nanocarrier with improved in vivo drug delivery characteristics. We do a virtual screen of a library of small molecules to identify the optimal building blocks for precise telodendrimer synthesis using peptide chemistry. With rationally designed telodendrimer architectures, we then optimize the drug-binding affinity of a nanocarrier by introducing an optimal drug-binding molecule (DBM) without sacrificing the stability of the nanocarrier. To validate the computational predictions, we synthesize a series of nanocarriers and evaluate systematically for doxorubicin delivery. Rhein-containing nanocarriers have sustained drug release, prolonged circulation, increased tolerated dose, reduced toxicity, effective tumour targeting and superior anticancer effects owing to favourable doxorubicin-binding affinity and improved nanoparticle stability. This study demonstrates the feasibility and versatility of the de novo design of telodendrimer nanocarriers for specific drug molecules, which is a promising approach to transform nanocarrier development for drug delivery.
Greidanus, J; Willemse, P H; Uges, D R; Oremus, E T; De Langen, Z J; De Vries, E G
With the recent development of reliable portable pumps and safe venous access systems, continuous infusion of chemotherapeutic agents on an out-patient basis has become feasible. Advantages of continuous infusion are the long-term exposure of tumour cells to the drug and the fact that most toxic effects are reduced for doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitoxantrone due to elimination of the high peak plasma levels. Preliminary data for doxorubicin suggest that its antitumour activity is maintained. Pharmacokinetic studies with epirubicin and mitoxantrone showed a linear relationship between drug dose infused and the steady-state plasma level for these drugs. The area under the curve for leukocytes drug level was higher during continuous infusion than after an equitoxic bolus injection of epirubicin and mitoxantrone. Well-randomized clinical trials will be necessary to investigate the role of continuous infusion of antracyclines and mitoxantrone in cancer chemotherapy in the future.
Sharma, Sudha; Doherty, Kevin M; Brosh, Robert M
DNA helicases have essential roles in nucleic acid metabolism by facilitating cellular processes including replication, recombination, DNA repair, and transcription. The vital roles of helicases in these pathways are reflected by their emerging importance in the maintenance of genomic stability. Recently, a number of human diseases with cancer predisposition have been shown to be genetically linked to a specific helicase defect. This has led researchers to further investigate the roles of helicases in cancer biology, and to study the efficacy of targeting human DNA helicases for anti-cancer drug treatment. Helicase-specific inhibition in malignant cells may compromise the high proliferation rates of cancerous tissues. The role of RecQ helicases in response to replicational stress suggests a molecular target for selectively eliminating malignant tumor cells by a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Alternate DNA secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes that may form in regulatory regions of oncogenes or G-rich telomere sequences are potential targets for cancer therapy since these sequence-specific structures are proposed to affect gene expression and telomerase activation, respectively. Small molecule inhibitors of G-quadruplex helicases may be used to regulate cell cycle progression by modulating promotor activation or disrupting telomere maintenance, important processes of cellular transformation. The design of small molecules which deter helicase function at telomeres may provide a molecular target since telomerase activity is necessary for the proliferation of numerous immortal cells. Although evidence suggests that helicases are specifically inhibited by certain DNA binding compounds, another area of promise in anti-cancer therapy is siRNA technology. Specific knockdown of helicase expression can be utilized as a means to sensitize oncogenic proliferating cell lines. This review will address these topics in detail and summarize the current avenues of research in
Fu, CuiXiang; Lin, XiaoXiao; Wang, Jun; Zheng, XiaoQun; Li, XingYi; Lin, ZhengFeng; Lin, GuangYong
In this paper, an injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel composed of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caplactone) (MPEG5000-PCL5000) micelles was developed by a simple method for hydrophobic anticancer drug delivery. By mixing α-CD aqueous solution and MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles, an injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel could be formed under mild condition due to the inclusion complexation between α-CD and MPEG segment of MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel was thereafter characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of α-CD amount on the gelation time, mechanical strength and thixotropic property was studied by a rheometer. Payload of hydrophobic paclitaxel (PTX) to supramolecular hydrogel was achieved by encapsulation of PTX into MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles prior mixing with α-CD aqueous solution. In vitro release study showed that the release behavior of PTX from hydrogel could be modulated by change the α-CD amount in hydrogel. Furthermore, such supramolecular hydrogel could enhance the biological activity of encapsulated PTX compared to free PTX, as indicated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay. All these results indicated that the developed micellar supramolecular hydrogel might be a promising injectable drug delivery system for anticancer therapy.
Tao, Lin; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Yu Yang; Chen, Yu Zong
Recent investigations have suggested that anticancer therapeutics may be enhanced by co-targeting the primary anticancer target and the corresponding drug escape pathways. Whether this strategy confers statistically significant clinical advantage has not been systematically investigated. This question was probed by the evaluation of the clinical status and the multiple targets of 23 approved and 136 clinical trial multi-target anticancer drugs with particular focus on those co-targeting EGFR, HER2, Abl, VEGFR2, mTOR, PI3K, Alk, MEK, KIT, and DNA topoisomerase, and some of the 14, 7, 13, 20, 6, 5, 7, 2, 4 and 10 cancer drug escape pathways respectively. Most of the approved (73.9%) and phase III (75.0%), the majority of the Phase II (62.8%) and I (53.6%), and the minority of the discontinued (35.3%) multi-target drugs were found to co-target cancer drug escape pathways. This suggests that co-targeting anticancer targets and drug escape pathways confer significant clinical advantage and such strategy can be more extensively explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Wen-Chuan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Shun-Jin; Chang, Chao-Sung
Many studies have demonstrated that non-adherence to oral anticancer drugs (OACDs) has challenged treatment efficacy. Otherwise, few validated tools exist to measure patients' adherence to medication regimen in clinical practice. To synthesize previous studies on adherence by cancer patients taking OACDs, especially in targeted therapy, a systematic search of several electronic databases was conducted. We analyzed existing scales' contents for various cancer patients and outcomes of studies assessing adherence. However, a well-validated scale designed particularly for OACD adherence is still lacking. Most adherence scales used in the studies reviewed contain items focused on measuring patients' medication-taking behavior more than their barriers to medication compliance and beliefs. However, non-adherence to OACDs is a complex phenomenon, and drug-taking barriers and patient beliefs significantly affect patients' non-adherence. To understand the key drivers and predisposing factors for non-adherence, we need to develop a well-validated, multidimensional scale.
Mahendar, Porika; Sirisha, Kalam; Kulandaivelu, Umasankar; Shankar, Prakhya Laxmi Jaya; Radhika, Tippani; Sadanandam, Abbagani
The activation of telomerase represents an early step in carcinogenesis. Increased telomerase expression in malignant tumors suggests that telomerase inactivation may represent a potential chemotherapeutic target. In this work, existing anticancer drugs were docked against telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Autodock's scoring function was applied to each of the molecules in order to identify the inhibitor with the strongest pharmacological action. The structural insights provided by this study regarding binding poses and possible interactions, free energies of binding, and drug scores aided in the identification of potential inhibitory compounds. The ranks of the various ligands investigated were based on the final docked energy values. Among nine selected compounds, vindesine, temsirolimus, and cyclosporine were found to be more potent TERT inhibitors than the standard inhibitor, curcumin.
Verbrugghe, M; Verhaeghe, S; Lauwaert, K; Beeckman, D; Van Hecke, A
The use of oral anticancer drugs has increased in modern oncology treatment. The move from intravenous treatments towards oral anticancer drugs has increased the patients' own responsibility to take oral anticancer drugs as being prescribed. High rates of non-adherence to oral anticancer drugs have been reported. A systematic literature review was conducted to gain insight into determinants and associated factors of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients taking oral anticancer therapy. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and Cinahl were systematically searched for studies focusing on determinants and associated factors of medication non-adherence and non-persistence to oral anticancer drugs. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by two independent reviewers. No studies were excluded based on the quality assessment. Twenty-five studies were included and systematically reviewed. The quality of the studies was moderate. Associated factors influencing medication non-adherence and non-persistence to oral anticancer drugs are multifactorial and interrelated. Older and younger age, and the influence of therapy related side effects were found to be predominant factors. Non-adherence and non-persistence to oral anticancer drug therapy are complex phenomena. More qualitative research is needed to facilitate the development of patient tailored complex interventions by exploring patients' needs and underlying processes influencing medication non-adherence and non-persistence to oral anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Hasselt, Johan GC; van Eijkelenburg, Natasha KA; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan HM; Huitema, Alwin DR
Modelling and simulation (M&S)-based approaches have been proposed to support paediatric drug development in order to design and analyze clinical studies efficiently. Development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population is particularly challenging due to ethical and practical constraints. We aimed to review the application of M&S in the development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population, and to identify where M&S-based approaches could provide additional support in paediatric drug development of anti-cancer drugs. A structured literature search on PubMed was performed. The majority of identified M&S-based studies aimed to use population PK modelling approaches to identify determinants of inter-individual variability, in order to optimize dosing regimens and to develop therapeutic drug monitoring strategies. Prospective applications of M&S approaches for PK-bridging studies have scarcely been reported for paediatric oncology. Based on recent developments of M&S in drug development there are several opportunities where M&S could support more informative bridging between children and adults, and increase efficiency of the design and analysis of paediatric clinical trials, which should ultimately lead to further optimization of drug treatment strategies in this population. PMID:23216601
Belka, Mariusz; Bączek, Tomasz
The worldwide scientific community is in agreement that the activities of metabolic enzymes greatly impact the efficacies of anticancer drugs. Elucidation of the influences of these drugs on metabolism, especially that occurring in the liver, appears to be an extremely important step in the development of new anticancer drugs. Considering the continuous need to search for safe and effective chemotherapeutics, studies of the metabolism of new potent drugs are very important and should be included in the modern, innovative drug development pipeline. This article summarizes most of the current metabolic case studies involving anticancer drug development. Firstly, the impacts of diverse metabolic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450, and the utilities of a few model in vitro enzymatic systems are described. Then, different analytical techniques, with particular emphasis on liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry detection and structural elucidation, are discussed. Finally, some computer-aided strategies for decision making in the drug design process are described. Recent advances in drug development, including microdosing, in vitro-in vivo correlation and pharmacologic audit trail, are also discussed in relation to metabolic studies.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24662938
In this study, we have explored the application of the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly technique for improving injectable drug delivery systems of low soluble anticancer drugs (e.g. Camptothecin (CPT), Paclitaxel (PTX) or Doxorubicin (DOX)). For this study, a polyelectrolyte shell encapsulates different types of drug nanocores (e.g. soft core, nanomicelle or solid lipid nanocores).The low soluble drugs tend to crystallize and precipitate in an aqueous medium. This is the reason they cannot be injected and may have low concentrations and low circulation time in the blood. Even though these drugs when present in the cancer microenvironment have high anti-tumor inhibition, the delivery to the tumor site after intravenous administration is a challenge. We have used FDA-approved biopolymers for the process and elaborated formation of 60-90 nm diameter initial cores, which was stabilized by multilayer LbL shells for controlled release and longer circulation. A washless LbL assembly process was applied as an essential advancement in nano-assembly technology using low density nanocore (lipids) and preventing aggregation. This advancement reduced the number of process steps, enhanced drug loading capacity, and prevented the loss of expensive polyelectrolytes. Finally, we elaborated a general nano-encapsulation process, which allowed these three important anticancer drug core-shell nanocapsules with diameters of ca. 100-130 nm (this small size is a record for LbL encapsulation technique) to be stable in the serum and the blood for at least one week, efficient for cancer cell culture studies, injectable to mice with circulation for 4 hrs, and effective in suppressing tumors. This work is divided into three studies. The first study (CHAPTER 4) explores the application of LbL assembly for encapsulating a soft core of albumin protein and CPT anticancer drug. In order to preserve the activity of drug in the core, a unique technique of pH reversal is employed where the first few
Nolte, David; Jeong, Kwan; Turek, John
Living tissue illuminated by short-coherence light can be optically sectioned in three dimensions using coherent detection such as interferometry. We have developed full-field coherence-gated imaging of tissue using digital holography. Two-dimensional image sections from a fixed depth are recorded as interference fringes with a CCD camera located at the optical Fourier plane. Fast Fourier transform of the digital hologram yields the depth-selected image. When the tissue is living, highly dynamic speckle is observed as fluctuating pixel intensities. The temporal autocorrelation functions are directly related to the degree of motility at depth. We have applied the cytoskeletal drugs nocodazole and colchicine to osteogenic sarcoma multicellular spheroids and observed the response holographically. Colchicine is an anticancer drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization and hence prevents spindle formation during mitosis. Nocodazole, on the other hand, depolymerizes microtubules. Both drugs preferentially inhibit rapidly-dividing cancer cells. We observe dose-response using motility as an effective contrast agent. This work opens the possibility for studies of three-dimensional motility as a multiplexed assay for drug discovery.
Joo, Kye-Il; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Yarong; Lee, Chi-Lin; Conti, Peter S.; Wong, Michael K.; Li, Zibo; Wang, Pin
Liposomes constitute one of the most popular nanocarriers for the delivery of cancer therapeutics. However, since their potency is limited by incomplete drug release and inherent instability in the presence of serum components, their poor delivery occurs in certain circumstances. In this study, we address these shortcomings and demonstrate an alternative liposomal formulation, termed crosslinked multilamellar liposome (CML). With its properties of improved sustainable drug release kinetics and enhanced vesicle stability, CML can achieve controlled delivery of cancer therapeutics. CML stably encapsulated the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) in the vesicle and exhibited a remarkably controlled rate of release compared to that of the unilamellar liposome (UL) with the same lipid composition or Doxil-like liposome (DLL). Our imaging study demonstrated that the CMLs were mainly internalized through a caveolin-dependent pathway and were further trafficked through the endosome-lysosome compartments. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that the CML-Dox formulation reduced systemic toxicity and significantly improved therapeutic activity in inhibiting tumor growth compared to that of UL-Dox or DLL-Dox. This drug packaging technology may therefore provide a new treatment option to better manage cancer and other diseases. PMID:23375392
Sato, Junya; Kudo, Kenzo; Hirano, Takahiro; Kuwashima, Takayuki; Yamada, Sonpei; Kijihana, Ichiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Katsuo
Currently, there is a need to reduce the occupational exposure of health care workers to anticancer drugs. Environmental contamination by anticancer drugs and subsequent exposure of health care workers are associated with vaporization of anticancer drugs. Furthermore, carcinomatous unpleasant odor is an additional problem to vaporized anticancer drugs in the field of clinical cancer therapy. We attempted to degrade vaporized anticancer drug and unpleasant odor using a photocatalyst. Cyclophosphamide or unpleasant odors (ammonia, formaldehyde, isovaleric acid, and butyric acid) were vaporized by heating in a closed chamber. Plates of photocatalyst coated with titanium dioxide were placed into the chamber and irradiated by light source. Vaporized cyclophosphamide in the chamber was recovered by bubbling the internal air through acetone and derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride for analysis by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay. Vaporized odors were determined using a gas-detector tube, which changed color depending on the concentration. Following activation of the photocatalyst by a light source, the residual amounts of anticancer drug and unpleasant odor components were significantly decreased compared with when the photocatalyst was not activated without a light source. These results indicate that the photocatalysts can accelerate the degradation of vaporized anticancer drugs and odor components. Air-cleaning equipment using a photocatalyst is expected to be useful in improving the QOL of cancer patients experiencing carcinomatous unpleasant odor, and in reducing occupational exposure of health care workers to anticancer drugs.
Zhou, Shufeng; Chin, Rebecca; Kestell, Philip; Tingle, Malcolm D; Paxton, James W
Aims To investigate the effects of various anticancer drugs on the major metabolic pathways (glucuronidation and 6-methylhydroxylation) of DMXAA in human liver microsomes. Methods The effects of various anticancer drugs at 100 and 500 µm on the formation of DMXAA acyl glucuronide (DMXAA-G) and 6-hydroxymethyl-5-methylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (6-OH-MXAA) in human liver microsomes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). For those anticancer drugs showing significant inhibition of DMXAA metabolism, the inhibition constants (Ki) were determined. The resulting in vitro data were extrapolated to predict in vivo changes in DMXAA pharmacokinetics. Results Vinblastine, vincristine and amsacrine at 500 µm significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited DMXAA glucuronidation (Ki = 319, 350 and 230 µm, respectively), but not 6-methylhydroxylation in human liver microsomes. Daunorubicin and N-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) at 100 and 500 µm showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of DMXAA 6-methylhydroxylation (Ki = 131 and 0.59 µm, respectively), but not glucuronidation. Other drugs such as 5-fluoroucacil, paclitaxel, tirapazamine and methotrexate exhibited little or negligible inhibition of the metabolism of DMXAA. Pre-incubation of microsomes with the anticancer drugs (100 and 500 µm) did not enhance their inhibitory effects on DMXAA metabolism. Prediction of DMXAA–drug interactions in vivo based on these in vitro data indicated that all the anticancer drugs investigated except DACA appear unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics of DMXAA, whereas DACA may increase the plasma AUC of DMXAA by 6%. Conclusions These results indicate that alteration of the pharmacokinetics of DMXAA appears unlikely when used in combination with other common anticancer drugs. However, this does not rule out the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs used concurrently with this combination of anticancer drugs. PMID:11488768
Wu, Junru; Pepe, Jason; Rincon, Mercedes
It has been shown experimentally in cell suspensions that pulsed ultrasound (2.0 MHz) could be used to deliver an anti-cancer drug (Adriamycin hydrochloride) into Jurkat lymphocytes and antibodies (goat anti rabbit IgG and anti mouse IgD) into human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells and Jurkat lymphocytes assisted by encapsulated microbubbles (Optison). When Adriamycin hydrochloride (ADR) was delivered, the delivery efficiency reached 4.80% and control baseline (no ultrasound and no ADR) was 0.17%. When anti-rabbit IgD was delivered, the efficiencies were 34.90% (control baseline was 1.33%) and 32.50% (control baseline was 1.66%) respectively for Jurkat cells and PBMC. When goat anti rabbit IgG was delivered, the efficiencies were 78.60% (control baseline was 1.60%) and 57.50% (control baseline was 11.30%) respectively for Jurkat cells and PBMC.
Macarulla, Teresa; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Tabernero, Josep
Aurora kinases (AK) are the name given to a family of Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. These proteins represent a novel family of kinases crucial for cell cycle control. The cell division process is one of the hallmarks of every living organism. Within the complete cell-cycle process, mitosis constitutes one of the most critical steps. The main purpose of mitosis is to segregate sister chromatics into two daughters cells. It is a complex biologic process, and errors in this mechanism can lead to genomic instability, a condition associated with tumorigenesis. This process is tightly regulated by several proteins, some of them acting as check-points that ultimately ensure the correct temporal and spatial coordination of this critical biologic process. Among this network of mitotic regulators, AK play a critical role in cellular division by controlling chromatid segregation. Three AK family members have been identified in mammalian cells: A, B, and C. These proteins are implicated in several vital events in mitosis. In experimental models, overexpression of AK can induce spindle defects, chromosome mis-segregation, and malignant transformation. Conversely, downregulation of AK expression cause mitotic arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The expression levels of human AK are increased in certain types of cancer including breast, colon, pancreatic, ovarian, and gastric tumors. This observation has lent an interest to this family of kinases as potential drug targets for development of new anticancer therapies. This review focuses in recent progress in the role of AK in tumorogenesis and the development of new anticancer drug against AK proteins. This manuscript also includes some relevant patents as well.
Wang, Ying; Chiu, Jen-Fu
Medicinal inorganic chemistry has been stimulating largely by the success of the anticancer drug, cisplatin. Various metal complexes are currently used as therapeutic agents (e.g., Pt, Au, and Ru) in the treatment of malignant diseases, including several types of cancers. Understanding the mechanism of action of these metal-based drugs is for the design of more effective drugs. Proteomic approaches combined with other biochemical methods can provide comprehensive understanding of responses that are involved in metal-based anticancer drugs-induced cell death, including insights into cytotoxic effects of metal-based anticancer drugs, correlation of protein alterations to drug targets, and prediction of drug resistance and toxicity. This information, when coupled with clinical data, can provide rational basses for the future design and modification of present used metal-based anticancer drugs. PMID:18670610
Kahanda, Dimithree; Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Mcwilliams, Marc A; Boothman, David A; Slinker, Jason D
It is beneficial to develop systems that reproduce complex reactions of biological systems while maintaining control over specific factors involved in such processes. We demonstrated a DNA device for following the repair of DNA damage produced by a redox-cycling anticancer drug, beta-lapachone (β-lap). These chips supported ß-lap-induced biological redox cycle and tracked subsequent DNA damage repair activity with redox-modified DNA monolayers on gold. We observed drug-specific changes in square wave voltammetry from these chips at therapeutic ß-lap concentrations of high statistical significance over drug-free control. We also demonstrated a high correlation of this change with the specific ß-lap-induced redox cycle using rational controls. The concentration dependence of ß-lap revealed significant signal changes at levels of high clinical significance as well as sensitivity to sub-lethal levels of ß-lap. Catalase, an enzyme decomposing peroxide, was found to suppress DNA damage at a NQO1/catalase ratio found in healthy cells, but was clearly overcome at a higher NQO1/catalase ratio consistent with cancer cells. We found that it was necessary to reproduce key features of the cellular environment to observe this activity. Thus, this chip-based platform enabled tracking of ß-lap-induced DNA damage repair when biological criteria were met, providing a unique synthetic platform for uncovering activity normally confined to inside cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sato, Junya; Kikuchi, Satomi; Kudo, Kenzo
Occupational exposure to anticancer drugs is recognized as a risk for healthcare workers. Reducing anticancer drugs in the environment is important to prevent the exposure of individuals to anticancer drugs. However, there are currently no effective degrading agents for all anticancer drugs used in clinical settings. We previously reported the resolution of an anticancer drug with the use of a photocatalyst (TiO2), which acts by absorbing ultraviolet light to degrade organic compounds. In this study, we evaluated anticancer drug degradation using a visible light-driven photocatalyst (Cu/WO3). Anticancer drugs [cyclophosphamide (CPA), paclitaxel (PTX), methotrexate (MTX), irinotecan (CPT-11), cytarabine (Ara-C), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)], were experimentally deposited on a stainless steel plate. The visible light-driven photocatalytic agent (0.075% Cu/WO3 solution) was sprayed onto the plate, and the plate was then left under a fluorescent lamp for 12 h. The anticancer drugs remaining on the plate were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). CPA, PTX, MTX, CPT-11, Ara-C, and 5-FU were found to be degraded by up to 37.7%, >99.0%, 57.1%, 54.6%, 69.5%, and 36.3%, respectively. The visible light-driven photocatalyst was therefore confirmed to degrade anticancer drugs under a fluorescent lamp. The ability of the visible light-driven photocatalyst to degrade multiple chemotherapeutic agents without the need for altering the light source could make it a useful tool for reducing anticancer drug pollution in clinical settings.
Chabner, B A; Wittes, R; Hoth, D; Hubbard, S
The National Cancer Institute since 1955 has been charged with responsibility for discovering new anti-cancer agents and bringing them to clinical trial. These activities are carried out by NCI's Developmental Therapeutics Program, which has established systems for discovery, experimental testing, bulk synthesis, formulation, and toxicological testing of candidate drugs, and by the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, which conducts initial trials to establish safe doses of new agents and to determine their utility in treating specific forms of cancer. These clinical trials are conducted both at NCI in Bethesda, Md., and at selected cancer centers throughout the United States. This paper describes the safeguards that NCI has built into the clinical trials system in the past decade-safeguards that ensure the safety of patients and the accuracy of data collected and at the same time allow efficient testing of each promising new agent in the fight against cancer. Recent improvements in cancer survival leave little doubt that patients are indeed benefiting from extensive efforts to discover and develop new drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:6431482
Mould, DR; Walz, A-C; Lave, T; Gibbs, JP; Frame, B
Anticancer agents often have a narrow therapeutic index (TI), requiring precise dosing to ensure sufficient exposure for clinical activity while minimizing toxicity. These agents frequently have complex pharmacology, and combination therapy may cause schedule-specific effects and interactions. We review anticancer drug development, showing how integration of modeling and simulation throughout development can inform anticancer dose selection, potentially improving the late-phase success rate. This article has a companion article in Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics with practical examples. PMID:26225225
Peters, Christina; Brown, Stuart
Over the past couple of decades, antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) have revolutionized the field of cancer chemotherapy. Unlike conventional treatments that damage healthy tissues upon dose escalation, ADCs utilize monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to specifically bind tumour-associated target antigens and deliver a highly potent cytotoxic agent. The synergistic combination of mAbs conjugated to small-molecule chemotherapeutics, via a stable linker, has given rise to an extremely efficacious class of anti-cancer drugs with an already large and rapidly growing clinical pipeline. The primary objective of this paper is to review current knowledge and latest developments in the field of ADCs. Upon intravenous administration, ADCs bind to their target antigens and are internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis. This facilitates the subsequent release of the cytotoxin, which eventually leads to apoptotic cell death of the cancer cell. The three components of ADCs (mAb, linker and cytotoxin) affect the efficacy and toxicity of the conjugate. Optimizing each one, while enhancing the functionality of the ADC as a whole, has been one of the major considerations of ADC design and development. In addition to these, the choice of clinically relevant targets and the position and number of linkages have also been the key determinants of ADC efficacy. The only marketed ADCs, brentuximab vedotin and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), have demonstrated their use against both haematological and solid malignancies respectively. The success of future ADCs relies on improving target selection, increasing cytotoxin potency, developing innovative linkers and overcoming drug resistance. As more research is conducted to tackle these issues, ADCs are likely to become part of the future of targeted cancer therapeutics. PMID:26182432
Den Otter, Willem; Steerenberg, Peter A; Van der Laan, Jan Willem
Regulatory authorities for medicines in European countries deal with many applications for admission to the market of anticancer drugs. Each application must be supported by preclinical and clinical data, among which testing of the therapeutic activity of drugs in animals is important. Recently, the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) has released a note for guidance on the preclinical evaluation of anticancer medicinal products. This note provides only general statements regarding tests of anticancer drugs in rodents. This stimulates considerations on how to organize and how to evaluate these tests. In this article we describe our considerations regarding these items based on our experience with applications in The Netherlands since 1993.
Kumar, B Sathish; Raghuvanshi, Dushyant Singh; Hasanain, Mohammad; Alam, Sarfaraz; Sarkar, Jayanta; Mitra, Kalyan; Khan, Feroz; Negi, Arvind S
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an estrogen hormone metabolite is a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Presently, it is an investigational drug under various phases of clinical trials alone or in combination therapy. Its anticancer activity has been attributed to its antitubulin, antiangiogenic, pro-apoptotic and ROS induction properties. This anticancer drug candidate has been explored extensively in last twenty years for its detailed chemistry and pharmacology. Present review is an update of its chemistry and biological activity. It also extends an assessment of potential of 2ME2 and its analogues as possible anticancer drug in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Küçükgüzel, Ş Güniz; Coşkun, Göknil P
Cancer is known as abnormal cell division and consisting of a group of diseases on various organ tissues. Many therapies are available in cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc. Without damaging normal tissue, there is a huge need for specified anticancer drugs which have effect only on abnormal cancer cells. Therefore, advances in anticancer drug discovery in treating cancer in the recent years, directed towards to the macromolecular targets. Heterocyclic molecules, such as fluconazole, acetazolamide, etc., have a significant role in health care and pharmaceutical drug design. Thiosemicarbazides (NH2-NH-CSNH2) are the simplest hydrazine derivatives of thiocarbamic acid and are not only transition compounds, but they are also very effective organic compounds. Thiosemicarbazides possess an amide and amine protons, carbonyl and thione carbons. These structures have attracted the attention of the researchers in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Recently, a number of thiosemicarbazides are available commercially as anticancer drugs for novel anticancer drug discovery. Antineoplastic or anticancer drugs prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms. These observations have been guiding the researchers for the development of new thiosemicarbazides that possess anticancer activity.
Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty
The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate.
Khadka, Nawal K.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Ho, Chian Sing; ...
Interactions of the hydrophobic anticancer drug tamoxifen (TAM) with lipid model membranes were studied using calcein-encapsulated vesicle leakage, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) based force spectroscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The addition of TAM enhances membrane permeability, inducing calcein to translocate from the interior to the exterior of lipid vesicles. A large decrease in the FTIR absorption band’s magnitude was observed in the hydrocarbon chain region, suggesting suppressed bond vibrational dynamics. Bilayer thickening was determined from SANS data. Force spectroscopy measurements indicate that the lipid bilayer areamore » compressibility modulus KA is increased by a large amount after the incorporation of TAM. MD simulations show that TAM decreases the lipid area and increases chain order parameters. Moreover, orientational and positional analyses show that TAM exhibits a highly dynamic conformation within the lipid bilayer. Lastly, our detailed experimental and computational studies of TAM interacting with model lipid membranes shed new light on membrane modulation by TAM.« less
Sun, Tao-Li; Wang, Bin; Peng, Yan; Ni, Jing-Man
The purpose of this study is to investigate the intracellular transporters effect and the cytotoxicity of carboxyl nanodiamond (CND) - podophyllotoxin (PPT). Nanodiamond (ND) was treated with mixed carboxylic acid and finally got 64 nm CND by centrifugation, and then it was reacted with PPT to form CND-PPT. UV spectrophotometry was used to calculate the content of PPT in CND-PPT, the particle size distribution and zeta potential were measured by Dynamic laser scattering instrument. CND, PPT, CND-PPT and CND + PPT (physical mixture of CND and PPT) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, at the same time, thermal analysis and element analysis were used to estimate the content of the PPT in CND-PPT. The affect of CND, PPT, CND-PPT on HeLa cell was measured with MTT assay. The results showed that content of PPT combined with CND accounted for about 10%. MTT assay showed that CND has low cytotoxicity and CND-PPT can increase the water soluble of PPT. As a conclusion, CND as a hydrophilic pharmaceutical carrier combined with PPT is able to increase the water solubility of PPT, at low concentration, CND-PPT can enhance the antitumor activity in comparison with PPT, so CND can be used as a potential anticancer drug carrier.
Jin, Ping; Chen, Xiaofei
In recent years, there has been an expansion of the understanding of how epigenetic dysregulation plays a role in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis and treatment resistance. Evidence has focused on two common and well-studied "epigenetic codes", i.e., DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modification, which regulate the transcriptional status in various types of cancer and the corresponding target agents. Aside from "writers" and "erasers", which refer to enzymes that catalyze and remove posttranslational modifications, respectively, "readers" bind to target proteins and recruit "writers" and "erasers" for regulating gene expression. A number of selective and potent anticancer compounds have been reported, some of which are in preclinical or clinical trials that have shown promising results, primarily against malignant neoplasms such as hematologic malignancies, with the subsequent emerging development of both monotherapy and co-administration with traditional cytotoxic medicines against solid tumors. Second-generation epigenetic agents such as EZH2 and BET inhibitors have greatly progressed. Epigenetic dysregulation has also provided feasibility for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress in epigenetics and drug discovery for cancer and certain clinical trials that may provide a perspective for future development.
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V
Recent groundbreaking discoveries have revealed that IGF-1, Ras, MEK, AMPK, TSC1/2, FOXO, PI3K, mTOR, S6K, and NFκB are involved in the aging process. This is remarkable because the same signaling molecules, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, are well-known targets for cancer therapy. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs aimed at some of these targets have been already developed. This arsenal could be potentially employed for anti-aging interventions (given that similar signaling molecules are involved in both cancer and aging). In cancer, intrinsic and acquired resistance, tumor heterogeneity, adaptation, and genetic instability of cancer cells all hinder cancer-directed therapy. But for anti-aging applications, these hurdles are irrelevant. For example, since anti-aging interventions should be aimed at normal postmitotic cells, no selection for resistance is expected. At low doses, certain agents may decelerate aging and age-related diseases. Importantly, deceleration of aging can in turn postpone cancer, which is an age-related disease.
Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty
The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate. PMID:27014725
Philips, Mark R.; Cox, Adrienne D.
Posttranslational modification is critical for the function of the gene products of ras oncogenes, which are frequently mutated in cancer. Ras proteins are modified by farnesyltransferase (FTase), but many related small GTPases that also end in a CAAX motif (where C is cysteine, A is often an aliphatic amino acid, and X is any amino acid) are modified by a closely related enzyme known as geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I). Accordingly, inhibitors for both of these enzymes have been developed, and those active against FTase are in clinical trials. In this issue of the JCI, Sjogren et al. report the development of a mouse strain homozygous for a conditional allele of the gene that encodes GGTase-I (see the related article beginning on page 1294). They found that ablation of the GGTase-I–encoding gene in cells destined to produce lung tumors driven by oncogenic K-Ras resulted in delayed onset and decreased severity of disease, validating in a genetic model the theory that GGTase-I is a good target for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:17476354
Ndinguri, Margaret W.; Solipuram, Rajasree; Gambrell, Robert P.; Aggarwal, Sita; Hansel, William; Hammer, Robert P.
Besides various side effects caused by platinum anticancer drugs, they are not efficiently absorbed by the tumor cells. Two Pt-peptide conjugates; cyclic mPeg-CNGRC-Pt (7) and cyclic mPeg-CNGRC-Pten (8) bearing the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) targeting sequence, a malonoyl linker and low molecular weight miniPEG groups have been synthesized. The platinum ligand was attached to the peptide via the carboxylic end of the malonate group at the end of the peptide. The pegylated peptide is non toxic and highly soluble in water. Platinum conjugates synthesized using the pegylated peptides are also water soluble with reduced or eliminated peptide immunogenicity. The choice of carboplatin as our untargeted platinum complex was due to the fact that malonate linker chelates platinum in a manner similar to carboplatin. Cell toxicity assay and competition assay on the PC-3 cells (CD13 positive receptors) revealed selective delivery and destruction of PC-3 cells using targeted Pt-peptide conjugates 7 and 8 significantly more than untargeted carboplatin. Platinum uptake on PC-3 cells was 12-fold more for conjugate 7 and 3-fold more for conjugate 8 compared to the untargeted carboplatin indicating selectively activation of the CD13 receptors and delivery of the conjugates to CD13 positive cells. Further analysis on effects of conjugates 7 and 8 on PC-3 cells using caspase-3/7, fluorescence microscopy and DNA fragmentation confirmed that the cells were dying by apoptosis. PMID:19775102
Khadka, Nawal K.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Ho, Chian Sing; Katsaras, John; Pan, Jianjun
Interactions of the hydrophobic anticancer drug tamoxifen (TAM) with lipid model membranes were studied using calcein-encapsulated vesicle leakage, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) based force spectroscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The addition of TAM enhances membrane permeability, inducing calcein to translocate from the interior to the exterior of lipid vesicles. A large decrease in the FTIR absorption band’s magnitude was observed in the hydrocarbon chain region, suggesting suppressed bond vibrational dynamics. Bilayer thickening was determined from SANS data. Force spectroscopy measurements indicate that the lipid bilayer area compressibility modulus KA is increased by a large amount after the incorporation of TAM. MD simulations show that TAM decreases the lipid area and increases chain order parameters. Moreover, orientational and positional analyses show that TAM exhibits a highly dynamic conformation within the lipid bilayer. Our detailed experimental and computational studies of TAM interacting with model lipid membranes shed new light on membrane modulation by TAM. PMID:25992727
Crombag, Marie-Rose B.S.; Joerger, Markus; Thürlimann, Beat; Schellens, Jan H.M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Huitema, Alwin D.R.
Background: Elderly patients receiving anticancer drugs may have an increased risk to develop treatment-related toxicities compared to their younger peers. However, a potential pharmacokinetic (PK) basis for this increased risk has not consistently been established yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review the influence of age on the PK of anticancer agents frequently administered to elderly breast cancer patients. Methods: A literature search was performed using the PubMed electronic database, Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) and available drug approval reviews, as published by EMA and FDA. Publications that describe age-related PK profiles of selected anticancer drugs against breast cancer, excluding endocrine compounds, were selected and included. Results: This review presents an overview of the available data that describe the influence of increasing age on the PK of selected anticancer drugs used for the treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions: Selected published data revealed differences in the effect and magnitude of increasing age on the PK of several anticancer drugs. There may be clinically-relevant, age-related PK differences for anthracyclines and platina agents. In the majority of cases, age is not a good surrogate marker for anticancer drug PK, and the physiological state of the individual patient may better be approached by looking at organ function, Charlson Comorbidity Score or geriatric functional assessment. PMID:26729170
Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Kim, Hyo Young; Lee, Yong-Deok; Ha, Jong Seong; Kang, Ji Hee; Jeong, Hansaem; Bang, Duhee; Ko, Young Tag; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Hyukjin; Ahn, Dae-Ro
Nanoparticle delivery systems have been extensively investigated for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs over the past decades. However, it is still a great challenge to overcome the drawbacks of conventional nanoparticle systems such as liposomes and micelles. Various novel nanomaterials consist of natural polymers are proposed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Among them, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has received much attention as an emerging material for preparation of self-assembled nanostructures with precise control of size and shape for tailored uses. In this study, self-assembled mirror DNA tetrahedron nanostructures is developed for tumor-specific delivery of anticancer drugs. l-DNA, a mirror form of natural d-DNA, is utilized for resolving a poor serum stability of natural d-DNA. The mirror DNA nanostructures show identical thermodynamic properties to that of natural d-DNA, while possessing far enhanced serum stability. This unique characteristic results in a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of DNA nanostructures. It is demonstrated that the mirror DNA nanostructures can deliver anticancer drugs selectively to tumors with enhanced cellular and tissue penetration. Furthermore, the mirror DNA nanostructures show greater anticancer effects as compared to that of conventional PEGylated liposomes. Our new approach provides an alternative strategy for tumor-specific delivery of anticancer drugs and highlights the promising potential of the mirror DNA nanostructures as a novel drug delivery platform.
Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo
The cancer therapies currently available do not yet offer fully satisfactory treatments, even in 21st century, and efforts and progress are being made daily in the area of drug development. Anticancer drugs, which play the leading role in cancer therapy, are being developed dynamically around the world, and Japan is not an exception. Looking back on the history of developing anticancer drugs, cytotoxic drugs were the mainstream of drug development until the end of the 20th century. In the 21st century, they have been replaced by molecularly targeted drugs, and thus the development of cytotoxic drugs has been declining rapidly. There were various approaches to the development of anticancer drugs and clinical trial endpoints until the 1980s. In 1991, the "Guidelines for Clinical Evaluation Methods of Anti-Cancer Drugs in Japan" was issued. From 2000 onwards, there was vigorous discussion on the clinical trial endpoints of anticancer drugs in the United States. In conjunction with this discussion, the "Guidelines for Clinical Evaluation Methods of Anti-Cancer Drugs in Japan" was revised in 2005. The revised guidelines required survival data at the time of filing a new drug application (NDA) as a general rule. Around 2005, a bridging strategy was promoted as the "International Conference on Harmonization E5" was promulgated among Japan, the U.S. and EU, resulting in an outflow of clinical trials to overseas, with more non-Japanese survival data generated outside of Japan used for NDAs than Japanese data. Subsequently, the "Guideline for Basic Principles on Global Clinical Trials" was issued in 2007, which promoted the change in the mainstream approach from a bridging strategy to a pivotal, global study involving Japan. Thus, an era of full-fledged globalization in clinical trials began. We believe Japan will need systems to enhance the motivation for anticancer drug development, such as an expedited program or pediatric program, from now on. We hope that the
Wakui, Nobuyuki; Ookubo, Tetuo; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki
The objective of this article is to reduce the preparation time for oral anticancer drugs, reduce the exposure to drug preparations, and develop drug preparation equipment without external drug leaks in a closed state. In the newly developed closed oral drug preparation device, a 10 mL disposable syringe that was replaced with one projection for crushing tablets and a no-processing 30 mL disposable syringe were connected to a three-way stopcock. Using this instrument, Endoxan(®) tablets (principal components: cyclophosphamide) were crushed and suspended in water in a closed state. The drug was prepared to suspension and flowed out via a feeding tube by switching the handle of the three-way stopcock. To assess human exposure to cyclophosphamide, a high-performance volatile organic compound-solvent desorption passive sampler was attached to the preparer's mouth to collect air drifting in the vicinity, and cyclophosphamide levels were subsequently measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Using the developed drug preparation equipment, Endoxan(®) tablets were suspended in a closed state. According to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis, the exposure of the preparer to cyclophosphamide was greatly reduced when using the developed device; cyclophosphamide was detected in only two of the five samples, though only at trace levels. The closed oral drug preparation device may permit the preparation and administration of toxic drugs to patients while greatly reducing the risk of occupational exposure among health-care workers and caregivers.
Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Elgohary, Mayada M; Kamel, Nayra M
Protein-based nanocarriers have gained considerable attention as colloidal carrier systems for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Protein nanocarriers possess various advantages including their low cytotoxicity, abundant renewable sources, high drug-binding capacity, and significant uptake into the targeted tumor cells. Moreover, the unique protein structure offers the possibility of site-specific drug conjugation and tumor targeting using various ligands modifying the surface of protein nanocarriers. In this chapter, we highlight the most important applications of protein nanoparticles (NPs) for the delivery of anticancer drugs. We examine the various techniques that have been utilized for the preparation of anticancer drug-loaded protein NPs. Finally, the current chapter also reviews the major outcomes of the in vitro and in vivo investigations of surface-modified tumor-targeted protein NPs.
Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert
The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.
Almond, Brett Anthony
The safety and efficacy of conventional chemotherapy is limited by its toxicity. The direct intratumoral injection of free or microsphere-loaded antineoplastic drugs is a promising modality for the treatment of solid tumors. Intratumoral chemotherapy delivers high localized doses of cytotoxic drugs to the tumor tissues than does systemic (intravenous) chemotherapy and it decreases systemic drug concentrations and toxicities. The use of drug-loaded microspheres also provides a prolonged release of drug into the surrounding tumor tissues, increasing exposure of the neoplasm to therapeutic levels of the cytotoxic drug. Mitoxantrone and 5-fluorouracil-loaded albumin microspheres were synthesized. The microspheres were synthesized using a suspension crosslinking technique and a glutardehyde crosslinking agent. The particle-size distribution of the microspheres was controlled by adjusting the emulsion energy and the concentration of cellulose acetate butyrate, the emulsion stabilization agent. Both microsphere size and crosslink density (glutaraldehyde concentration) were found to affect the in vitro release of loaded drugs in in vitro infinite sink conditions. The in vivo efficacy and toxicity of intratumoral chemotherapy with free and microsphere-loaded mitoxantrone were evaluated in a 16/C murine mammary adenocarcinoma model. Intratumoral chemotherapy with free mitoxantrone significantly improved survival and decreased toxicity compared to intravenously delivered drug. The efficacy of two size distributions of mitoxantrone-loaded albumin microspheres, corresponding to mean diameters of 5 to 10 mum and 20 to 40 mum, were evaluated delivered both alone and in combination with free mitoxantrone. Intratumoral injection of mitoxantrone-loaded microspheres was found to allow the safe delivery of increased doses compared to free drug. The maximum tolerated doses were approximately 40 mg/kg compared to 12 mg/kg, respectively. Intratumoral chemotherapy using free and
Son, Kyoung Dan; Kim, Young-Jin
Calcium phosphate (CaP) based nanoparticles are considered to be ideal drug carriers for delivery of anticancer drugs because of their excellent biocompatibility and pH responsiveness. However, CaP nanoparticles have the problems of limited drug load capacity, initial burst release, and short-term release. Thus, we prepared the CaP nanocomposites containing anticancer drug such as caffeic acid (CA-NP), chlorogenic acid (CG-NP), or cisplatin (CP-NP) in the presence of alginate as a polymer template to control the release rate of drugs. The drug-loaded CaP nanocomposites exhibited spherical shape with a size of under 100 nm and the size of nanocomposites was hardly affected by the addition of drug. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the insertion of drug into the CaP nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed an initial burst release of drug, followed by a prolonged release, in which the release profile of drugs was depended on the solution pH. In addition, the drug-loaded CaP nanocomposites revealed anticancer activity on human osteosarcoma in a manner dependent on concentration of drugs and time. The drug-loaded CaP nanocomposites can contribute to the development of a new generation of controlled drug release carriers for chemotherapy of cancers.
Hsueh, Chung-Tzu; Selim, Julie H; Tsai, James Y; Hsueh, Chung-Tsen
Liposome, albumin and polymer polyethylene glycol are nanovector formulations successfully developed for anti-cancer drug delivery. There are significant differences in pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity between pre- and post-nanovector modification. The alteration in clinical pharmacology is instrumental for the future development of nanovector-based anticancer therapeutics. We have reviewed the results of clinical studies and translational research in nanovector-based anti-cancer therapeutics in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, including nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel and nanoliposomal irinotecan. Furthermore, we have appraised the ongoing studies incorporating novel agents with nanomedicines in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:27610018
Muddineti, Omkara Swami; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati
Owing to the complexity of cancer pathogenesis, conventional chemotherapy can be an inadequate method of killing cancer cells effectively. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have been widely exploited pre-clinically in recent years. Areas covered: Incorporation of vitamin-E in nanocarriers have the advantage of (1) improving the hydrophobicity of the drug delivery system, thereby improving the solubility of the loaded poorly soluble anticancer drugs, (2) enhancing the biocompatibility of the polymeric drug carriers, and (3) improving the anticancer potential of the chemotherapeutic agents by reversing the cellular drug resistance via simultaneous administration. In addition to being a powerful antioxidant, vitamin E demonstrated its anticancer potential by inducing apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Various vitamin E analogs have proven their ability to cause marked inhibition of drug efflux transporters. Expert opinion: The review discusses the potential of incorporating vitamin E in the polymeric micelles which are designed to carry poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. Current applications of various vitamin E-based polymeric micelles with emphasis on the use of α-tocopherol, D-α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) and its conjugates such as D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-succinate (TPGS) in micellar system is delineated. Advantages of utilizing polymeric micelles for drug delivery and the challenges to treat cancer, including multiple drug resistance have been discussed.
Kaur, Paramjeet; Chaurasia, Chandra S; Davit, Barbara M; Conner, Dale P
The demonstration of bioequivalence (BE) between the test and reference products is an integral part of generic drug approval process. A sound BE study design is pivotal to the successful demonstration of BE of generic drugs to their corresponding reference listed drug product. Generally, BE of systemically acting oral dosage forms is demonstrated in a crossover, single-dose in vivo study in healthy subjects. The determination of BE of solid oral anticancer drug products is associated with its own unique challenges due to the serious safety risks involved. Unlike typical BE study in healthy subjects, the safety issues often necessitate conducting BE studies in cancer patients. Such BE studies of an anticancer drug should be conducted without disturbing the patients' therapeutic dosing regimen. Attributes such as drug permeability and solubility, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimen, and approved therapeutic indication(s) are considered in the BE study design of solid anticancer drug products. To streamline the drug approval process, the Division of Bioequivalence posts the Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products guidances on the FDA public website. The objective of this article is to illustrate the scientific and regulatory considerations in the design of BE studies for generic solid oral anticancer drug products through examples.
Konda, Shyam K; Kelso, Celine; Pumuye, Paul P; Medan, Jelena; Sleebs, Brad E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Phillips, Don R; Collins, J Grant
The ability of a bis-amino mitoxantrone anticancer drug (named WEHI-150) to form covalent adducts with DNA, after activation by formaldehyde, has been studied by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and HPLC. Mass spectrometry results showed that WEHI-150 could form covalent adducts with d(ACGCGCGT)2 that contained one, two or three covalent links to the octanucleotide, whereas the control drugs (daunorubicin and the anthracenediones mitoxantrone and pixantrone) only formed adducts with one covalent link to the octanucleotide. HPLC was used to examine the extent of covalent bond formation of WEHI-150 with d(CGCGCG)2 and d(CG(5Me)CGCG)2. Incubation of WEHI-150 with d(CG(5Me)CGCG)2 in the presence of formaldehyde resulted in the formation of significantly greater amounts of covalent adducts than was observed with d(CGCGCG)2. In order to understand the observed increase of covalent adducts with d(CG(5Me)CGCG)2, an NMR study of the reversible interaction of WEHI-150 at both CpG and (5Me)CpG sites was undertaken. Intermolecular NOEs were observed in the NOESY spectra of d(ACGGCCGT)2 with added WEHI-150 that indicated that the drug selectively intercalated at the CpG sites and from the major groove. In particular, NOEs were observed from the WEHI-150 H2,3 protons to the H1' protons of G3 and G7 and from the H6,7 protons to the H5 protons of C2 and C6. By contrast, intermolecular NOEs were observed between the WEHI-150 H2,3 protons to the H2'' proton of the (5Me)C3 in d(CG(5Me)CGCG)2, and between the drug aliphatic protons and the H1' proton of G4. This demonstrated that WEHI-150 preferentially intercalates at (5Me)CpG sites, compared to CpG sequences, and predominantly via the minor groove at the (5Me)CpG site. The results of this study demonstrate that WEHI-150 is likely to form interstrand DNA cross-links, upon activation by formaldehyde, and consequently exhibit greater cytotoxicity than other current anthracenedione drugs.
Zhao, Yiqiao; Yu, Hua; Zhou, Haiyu; Chen, Meiwan
Mitoxantrone (MIT) is an anticancer agent with photosensitive properties that is commonly used in various cancers. Multidrug resistance (MDR) effect has been an obstacle to using MIT for cancer therapy. Photochemical internalization, on account of photodynamic therapy, has been applied to improve the therapeutic effect of cancers with MDR effect. In this study, an MIT-poly(ε-caprolactone)-pluronic F68-poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (MIT-PFP/PPP) mixed micelles system was applied to reverse the effect of MDR in MCF-7/ADR cells via photochemical reaction when exposed to near-infrared light. MIT-PFP/PPP mixed micelles showed effective interaction with near-infrared light at the wavelength of 660 nm and exerted great cytotoxicity in MCF-7/ADR cells with irradiation. Furthermore, MIT-PFP/PPP mixed micelles could improve reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, decrease P-glycoprotein activity, and increase the cellular uptake of drugs with improved intracellular drug concentrations, which induced cell apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells under irradiation, despite MDR effect, as indicated by the increased level of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. These findings suggested that MIT-PFP/PPP mixed micelles may become a promising strategy to effectively reverse the MDR effect via photodynamic therapy in breast cancer. PMID:28919756
Zhu, Yichen; Lei, Jie; Tian, Ye
As an intrinsic characteristic of many anticancer drugs, low solubility in physiological conditions limits the usage of these active ingredients in clinics. To overcome this bottleneck, we attempt to design and construct a high-performance magnetic-targeted delivery system based on uniform iron oxide hollow spheres. Via a facile one-pot solvothermal route, well-defined iron oxide hollow spheres were prepared with inexpensive inhesion. Compared with previously reported mesoporous Fe3O4 nanoparticles, our iron oxide hollow spheres have a larger void space giving the structures a higher storage capacity for guest molecules. In our present work, camptothecin (CPT) was selected as a model insoluble anticancer drug to confirm the efficiency of drug-loading and chemotherapy in vitro. Detailed anticancer efficacy was further investigated by using MTT assays and microscope imaging methods, indicating that these iron oxide hollow spheres are promising for insoluble drug delivery.
Neophytou, Christiana M.; Constantinou, Andreas I.
Vitamin E isoforms have been extensively studied for their anticancer properties. Novel drug delivery systems (DDS) that include liposomes, nanoparticles, and micelles are actively being developed to improve Vitamin E delivery. Furthermore, several drug delivery systems that incorporate Vitamin E isoforms have been synthesized in order to increase the bioavailability of chemotherapeutic agents or to provide a synergistic effect. D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) is a synthetic derivative of natural alpha-tocopherol which is gaining increasing interest in the development of drug delivery systems and has also shown promising anticancer effect as a single agent. This review provides a summary of the properties and anticancer effects of the most potent Vitamin E isoforms and an overview of the various formulations developed to improve their efficacy, with an emphasis on the use of TPGS in drug delivery approaches. PMID:26137487
Ping, Yuan; Guo, Junling; Ejima, Hirotaka; Chen, Xi; Richardson, Joseph J; Sun, Huanli; Caruso, Frank
A new class of pH-responsive capsules based on metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) for anticancer drug loading, delivery and release is reported. The fabrication of drug-loaded MPN capsules, which is based on the formation of coordination complexes between natural polyphenols and metal ions over a drug-coated template, represents a rapid strategy to engineer robust and versatile drug delivery carriers.
Jeong, Kyeong Weon; Lee, Bo-Young; Kwon, Myung Soon; Jang, Ji-Hye
This study identified the actual conditions for safe anticancer drug management among nurses and the relationship between level of awareness and performance of anticancer drug safety regulations in terms of preparation, administration, and disposal. The respondents were 236 nurses working with chemotherapy in wards and outpatient clinics in five hospitals in and near Seoul. Safety regulations provided for the anticancer drug the Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA, 1999), as modified for an earlier study, were used. The results showed that the level of awareness and performance on the anticancer drug safety regulations indicate their preparation (3.38±0.55, 2.38±0.98), administration (3.52±0.46, 3.17±0.70), general handling and disposal (3.33±0.54, 2.42±0.90) on a scale 0 to 5. Also, there were significant differences in job positions, work experience, type of preparation, and continuing education and a positive relationship between the level of awareness and nursing performance. Thus, nurses should receive continuing education on the handling of anticancer drugs to improve the level of performance following safety regulations.
Riaz, Ufana; Ashraf, S M
The emergence of nanotechnology has changed the scenario of the medical world by revolutionizing the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of cancer. This nanotechnology has been proved miraculous in detecting cancer cells, delivering chemotherapeutic agents and monitoring treatment from non-specific to highly targeted killing of tumor cells. In the past few decades, a number of inorganic materials have been investigated such as calcium phosphate, gold, carbon materials, silicon oxide, iron oxide, and layered double hydroxide (LDH) for examining their efficacy in targeting drug delivery. The reason behind the selection of these inorganic materials was their versatile and unique features efficient in drug delivery, such as wide availability, rich surface functionality, good biocompatibility, potential for target delivery, and controlled release of the drug from these inorganic nanomaterials. Although, the drug-LDH hybrids are found to be quite instrumental because of their application as advanced anti-cancer drug delivery systems, there has not been much research on them. This mini review is set to highlight the advancement made in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as anti-cancer drug delivery agents. Along with the advantages of LDHs as anti-cancer drug delivery agents, the process of interaction of some of the common anti-cancer drugs with LDH has also been discussed.
Multi-targeted hybrids combine two drugs in a single molecule to have greater medicinal effects than its individual components. Recently, a number of anti-cancer drug candidates such as CUDC-101 (Curis) have been designed based on linking properly two selected pharmacophores endowed with activity against different therapeutic targets.
Stuurman, Frederik E; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M
The use of oral anticancer drugs has increased during the last decade, because of patient preference, lower costs, proven efficacy, lack of infusion-related inconveniences, and the opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. Oral administration of anticancer drugs is, however, often hampered by limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variability. Since most anticancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or close to the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can have a negative impact on treatment outcome. This review discusses mechanisms of low bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs and strategies for improvement. The extent of oral bioavailability depends on many factors, including release of the drug from the pharmaceutical dosage form, a drug's stability in the gastrointestinal tract, factors affecting dissolution, the rate of passage through the gut wall, and the pre-systemic metabolism in the gut wall and liver. These factors are divided into pharmaceutical limitations, physiological endogenous limitations, and patient-specific limitations. There are several strategies to reduce or overcome these limitations. First, pharmaceutical adjustment of the formulation or the physicochemical characteristics of the drug can improve the dissolution rate and absorption. Second, pharmacological interventions by combining the drug with inhibitors of transporter proteins and/or pre-systemic metabolizing enzymes can overcome the physiological endogenous limitations. Third, chemical modification of a drug by synthesis of a derivative, salt form, or prodrug could enhance the bioavailability by improving the absorption and bypassing physiological endogenous limitations. Although the bioavailability can be enhanced by various strategies, the development of novel oral products with low solubility or cell membrane permeability remains cumbersome and is often unsuccessful. The main reasons are
The effect of low pH on breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2)-mediated transport of methotrexate, 7-hydroxymethotrexate, methotrexate diglutamate, folic acid, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and resveratrol in in vitro drug transport models.
Breedveld, Pauline; Pluim, Dick; Cipriani, Greta; Dahlhaus, Femke; van Eijndhoven, Maria A J; de Wolf, Cornelia J F; Kuil, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H; Scheffer, George L; Jansen, Gerrit; Borst, Piet; Schellens, Jan H M
Some cellular uptake systems for (anti)folates function optimally at acidic pH. We have tested whether this also applies to efflux from cells by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2), which has been reported to transport folic acid, methotrexate, and methotrexate di- and triglutamate at physiological pH. Using Spodoptera frugiperda-BCRP membrane vesicles, we showed that the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of 1 muM methotrexate by BCRP is 5-fold higher at pH 5.5 than at physiological pH. The transport of methotrexate was saturable at pH 5.5, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.3 +/- 0.2 mM and 44 +/- 2.5 nmol/mg of protein/min, respectively, but was linear with drug concentration at pH 7.3 up to 6 mM methotrexate. In contrast to recent reports, we did not detect transport of methotrexate diglutamate at physiological pH, but we did find transport at pH 5.5. We also found that 7-hydroxy-methotrexate, the major metabolite of methotrexate, is transported by BCRP both at physiological pH and (more efficiently) at low pH. The pH effect was also observed in intact BCRP-overexpressing cells: we found a 3-fold higher level of resistance to both methotrexate and the prototypical BCRP substrate mitoxantrone at pH 6.5 as at physiological pH. Furthermore, with MDCKII-BCRP monolayers, we found that resveratrol, which is a neutral compound at pH < or = 7.4, is efficiently transported by BCRP at pH 6.0, whereas we did not detect active transport at pH 7.4. We conclude that BCRP transports substrate drugs more efficiently at low pH, independent of the dissociation status of the substrate.
Phan, Viet Hong; Tan, Cindy; Rittau, Anneliese; Xu, Hongmei; McLachlan, Andrew J; Clarke, Stephen J
Based on recent emerging evidence of inter-ethnic differences in drug response and toxicity, ethnic diversity in pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics and clinical outcomes are being increasingly investigated. Ultimately, this will promote improved understanding of inter-individual differences in the pharmacokinetics and tolerance of cytotoxic drugs. This article reviews potential explanations for the observed ethnic differences in treatment outcomes and provides clinical data to support this concept. A literature search was implemented on PubMed and PharmGKB to investigate the areas of ethnic differences in pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics and clinical outcomes of cancer therapies. There has been a relative paucity of clinical evidence linking genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes to the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerance of anti-cancer drugs. Future research should focus on studies using large sample sizes, in the hope that they will provide results of high clinical significance. Due to the potential for ethnic differences to impact on both toxicities and benefits of systemic cancer therapies, the development of new therapeutic agents should include patients from diverse geographical ancestries in each phase of drug development.
Canals, Albert; Arribas-Bosacoma, Raquel; Albericio, Fernando; Álvarez, Mercedes; Aymamí, Joan; Coll, Miquel
Variolin B is a rare marine alkaloid that showed promising anti-cancer activity soon after its isolation. It acts as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, although the precise mechanism through which it exerts the cytotoxic effects is still unknown. The crystal structure of a variolin B bound to a DNA forming a pseudo-Holliday junction shows that this compound can also contribute, through intercalative binding, to either the formation or stabilization of multi-stranded DNA forms. PMID:28051169
González, Millie L; Ortiz, Mayra; Hernández, Carmen; Cabán, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Axel; Colón, Jorge L; Báez, Adriana
Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets can intercalate anticancer agents via an ion exchange reaction creating an inorganic delivery system with potential for cancer treatment. ZrP delivery of anticancer agents inside tumor cells was explored in vitro. Internalization and cytotoxicity of ZrP nanoplatelets were studied in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. DOX-loaded ZrP nanoplatelets (DOX@ZrP) uptake was assessed by confocal (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive Oxy- gen Species (ROS) production was analyzed by fluorometric assay, and cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. ZrP nanoplatelets were localized in the endosomes of MCF-7 cells. DOX and ZrP nanoplatelets were co-internalized into MCF-7 cells as detected by CLSM. While ZrP showed limited toxicity to MCF-7 cells, DOX@ZrP was cytotoxic at an IC₅₀ similar to that of free DOX. Meanwhile, DOX lC₅₀ was significantly lower than the equivalent concentration of DOX@ZrP in MCF-10A cells. ZrP did not induce apoptosis in both cell lines. DOX and DOX@ZrP induced significant oxidative stress in both cell models. Results suggest that ZrP nanoplatelets are promising as carriers of anticancer agents into cancer cells.
Wang, Tieli; Pickard, Amanda J; Gallo, James M
The alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is considered the standard-of-care for high-grade astrocytomas -known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)- an aggressive type of tumor with poor prognosis. The therapeutic benefit of TMZ is attributed to formation of DNA adducts involving the methylation of purine bases in DNA. We investigated the effects of TMZ on arginine and lysine amino acids, histone H3 peptides and histone H3 proteins. Chemical modification of amino acids, histone H3 peptide and protein by TMZ was performed in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. The reaction products were examined by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. Our results showed that TMZ following conversion to a methylating cation, can methylate histone H3 peptide and histone H3 protein, suggesting that TMZ exerts its anticancer activity not only through its interaction with DNA, but also through alterations of protein post-translational modifications. The possibility that TMZ can methylate histones involved with epigenetic regulation of protein indicates a potentially unique mechanism of action. The study will contribute to the understanding the anticancer activity of TMZ in order to develop novel targeted molecular strategies to advance the cancer treatment. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Oh, Bo Young; Kim, Kwang Ho; Chung, Soon Sup
Purpose Livin is associated with drug response in several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silencing the livin gene expression on anticancer drug response in colorectal cancer. Methods siRNA was transfected at different concentrations (0, 10, and 30nM) into HCT116 cells, then cells were treated with either 5-fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) or oxaliplatin (L-OHP)/5-FU/LV. Cellular viability and apoptosis were evaluated following silencing of livin gene expression combined with treatment with anticancer drugs. Results Livin gene expression was effectively suppressed by 30nM siRNA compared with control and 10nM siRNA. The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that proliferation was effectively inhibited in cells treated with a combination of both siRNA and an anticancer drug, compared to cells treated with siRNA-Livin or anticancer drug alone. In particular, the combination of 30nM siRNA and L-OHP/5-FU/LV resulted in a 93.8% and 91.4% decrease, compared to untreated control or L-OHP/5-FU/LV alone, respectively. Cellular proliferation was most effectively suppressed by a combination of 30nM of siRNA and L-OHP/5-FU/LV compared to other combinations. Conclusion siRNA-mediated down-regulation of livin gene expression could significantly suppress colon cancer growth and enhance the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs such as 5-FU and L-OHP. The results of this study suggest that silencing livin gene expression in combination with treatment with anticancer drugs might be a novel cancer therapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:27904848
Caraci, Filippo; Crupi, Rosalia; Drago, Filippo; Spina, Edoardo
Different antidepressant drugs are currently used for the treatment of depression in cancer patients, such as second-generation antidepressants and, recently, the extracts of Hypericum perforatum. These agents are susceptible to metabolically-based drug interactions with anticancer drugs. The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic drug interactions between selected anticancer drugs and antidepressants, focusing on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Hypericum extract. SSRIs can cause pharmacokinetic interactions through their in vitro ability to inhibit one or more cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYPs). SSRIs differ in their potential for metabolic drug interactions with anticancer drugs. Fluoxetine and paroxetine are potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 and administration of these SSRIs reduces the clinical benefit of an anticancer drug, such as tamoxifen, by decreasing the formation of active metabolites of this drug. Women with breast cancer who receive paroxetine in combination with tamoxifen are at increased risk for death. Other SSRIs, including citalopram, escitalopram, are weak or negligible inhibitors of CYP2D6 and are less likely to interact with anticancer drugs, while sertraline causes significant inhibition of this isoform only at high doses. Hypericum extract, by inducing both the CYP3A4 and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), can reduce the plasma concentrations of different antineoplastic agents such as imatinib, irinotecan and docetaxel, thus reducing the clinical efficacy of these drugs. Although these interactions are often predictable, the use of fluoxetine, paroxetine and Hypericum extract should be avoided in cancer patients.
Biomarker-driven drug selection plays a central role in cancer drug discovery and development, and in diagnostic strategies to improve the use of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. DNA-modifying anticancer drugs are still used as first line medication, but drawbacks such as resistance and side effects remain an issue. Monitoring the formation and level of DNA modifications induced by anticancer drugs is a potential strategy for stratifying patients and predicting drug efficacy. In this perspective, preclinical and clinical data concerning the relationship between drug-induced DNA adducts and biological response for platinum drugs and combination therapies, nitrogen mustards and half-mustards, hypoxia-activated drugs, reductase-activated drugs, and minor groove binding agents are presented and discussed. Aspects including measurement strategies, identification of adducts, and biological factors that influence the predictive relationship between DNA modification and biological response are addressed. A positive correlation between DNA adduct levels and response was observed for the majority of the studies, demonstrating the high potential of using DNA adducts from anticancer drugs as mechanism-based biomarkers of susceptibility, especially as bioanalysis approaches with higher sensitivity and throughput emerge. PMID:27936622
Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Haque, Ashanul; Saleem, Kishwar
Throughout the history of human civilizations, cancer has been a major health problem. Its treatment has been interesting but challenging to scientists. Glutamic acid and its derivative glutamine are known to play interesting roles in cancer genesis, hence, it was realized that structurally variant glutamic acid derivatives may be designed and developed and, might be having antagonistic effects on cancer. The present article describes the state-of-art of glutamic acid and its derivatives as anticancer agents. Attempts have been made to explore the effectivity of drug-delivery systems based on glutamic acid for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Moreover, efforts have also been made to discuss the mechanism of action of glutamic acid derivatives as anticancer agents, clinical applications of glutamic acid derivatives, as well as recent developments and future perspectives of glutamic acid drug development have also been discussed.
Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Janus, Nicolas; Gligorov, Joseph; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert
The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national, observational study which demonstrated the high prevalence of abnormal renal function in a population of 4684 solid tumor patients. Among them, 50-60% had decreased renal function, and 80% were treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment in case of renal insufficiency (RI) or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Since elderly patients are well-known to have reduced renal function, either due to physiological aging or their disease/medication history, a subgroup analysis of this particular population of patients was performed. In 1553 IRMA patients whose age was > or =65 years, the prevalence of RI was very high in spite of normal serum creatinine values in most cases. Anticancer drugs used may be nephrotoxic or need dosage adjustment in a high number of cases.
Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic
Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.
Karthik, S; Puvvada, Nagaprasad; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Rajput, Shashi; Pathak, Amita; Mandal, Mahitosh; Singh, N D Pradeep
Recently, photoresponsive nanoparticles have received significant attention because of their ability to provide spatial and temporal control over the drug release. In the present work, we report for the first time photoresponsive multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) fabricated using coumarin-based phototrigger and Fe/Si MNPs for controlled delivery of anticancer drug chlorambucil. Further, newly fabricated photoresponsive multifunctional MNPs were also explored for cell luminescence imaging. In vitro biological studies revealed that coumarin tethered Fe/Si MNPs of ~9 nm size efficiently delivered the anticancer drug chlorambucil into cancer cells and thereby improving the drug action to kill the cancer cells upon irradiation. Such multifunctional MNPs with strong fluorescence, good biocompatibility and efficient photocontrolled drug release ability will be of great benefit in the construction of light-activated multifunctional nano drug delivery systems.
Kang, Kyoung Ah; Hyun, Jin Won
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, controls the expression of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative and electrophilic stress to maintain redox homeostasis. However, recent studies demonstrated that, in cancer, aberrant activation of Nrf2 by epigenetic alterations promotes high expression of cytoprotective proteins, which can decrease the efficacy of anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the relationship between oxidative stress, Nrf2, epigenetic modification, and anticancer drug resistance, which should aid in development of new strategies to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:28133507
Kang, Kyoung Ah; Hyun, Jin Won
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, controls the expression of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative and electrophilic stress to maintain redox homeostasis. However, recent studies demonstrated that, in cancer, aberrant activation of Nrf2 by epigenetic alterations promotes high expression of cytoprotective proteins, which can decrease the efficacy of anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the relationship between oxidative stress, Nrf2, epigenetic modification, and anticancer drug resistance, which should aid in development of new strategies to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy.
Bartal, Alexandra; Mátrai, Zoltán; Szucs, Attila; Belinszkaja, Galina; Langmár, Zoltán; Rosta, András
Each aspect of oncological care is widely affected by the spread of oral anticancer agents, which raises several questions in terms of safe medication use and patient adherence. Over the past decade targeted therapies have appeared in clinical practice and revolutionized the pharmacological treatment of malignancies. Regular patient - doctor visits and proper patient education is crucial in order to comply with the therapy previously agreed upon with the oncologist, to increase patient adherence, to detect and to treat adverse effects in early stages. Since the information on the new medicines in Hungarian language is sparse it is the intention of the authors to give an overview of the basic knowledge, patient safety issues, adverse effects and interactions. Official drug information summaries and data on pharmacokinetics, interactions and adverse effects from the literature are reviewed as the basis for this overview.
Wright, Elisé P.; Day, Henry A.; Ibrahim, Ali M.; Kumar, Jeethendra; Boswell, Leo J. E.; Huguin, Camille; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Pors, Klaus; Waller, Zoë A. E.
There are hundreds of ligands which can interact with G-quadruplex DNA, yet very few which target i-motif. To appreciate an understanding between the dynamics between these structures and how they can be affected by intervention with small molecule ligands, more i-motif binding compounds are required. Herein we describe how the drug mitoxantrone can bind, induce folding of and stabilise i-motif forming DNA sequences, even at physiological pH. Additionally, mitoxantrone was found to bind i-motif forming sequences preferentially over double helical DNA. We also describe the stabilisation properties of analogues of mitoxantrone. This offers a new family of ligands with potential for use in experiments into the structure and function of i-motif forming DNA sequences.
Wright, Elisé P.; Day, Henry A.; Ibrahim, Ali M.; Kumar, Jeethendra; Boswell, Leo J. E.; Huguin, Camille; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Pors, Klaus; Waller, Zoë A. E.
There are hundreds of ligands which can interact with G-quadruplex DNA, yet very few which target i-motif. To appreciate an understanding between the dynamics between these structures and how they can be affected by intervention with small molecule ligands, more i-motif binding compounds are required. Herein we describe how the drug mitoxantrone can bind, induce folding of and stabilise i-motif forming DNA sequences, even at physiological pH. Additionally, mitoxantrone was found to bind i-motif forming sequences preferentially over double helical DNA. We also describe the stabilisation properties of analogues of mitoxantrone. This offers a new family of ligands with potential for use in experiments into the structure and function of i-motif forming DNA sequences. PMID:28004744
Chandrashekar, N S; Shobha Rani, R H
Microprocessor controlled transdermal delivery of anticancer drugs 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) was developed and in vitro evaluation was done. Drugs were loaded based on the pharmacokinetics parameters. In vitro diffusion studies were carried at different current density (0.0, 0.1, 0.22, 0.50 mA/cm2). The patches were evaluated for the drug content, thickness, weight, folding endurance, flatness, thumb tack test and adhesive properties all were well with in the specification of transdermal patches with elegant and transparent in appearance. In vitro permeation studies through human cadaver skin showed, passive delivery (0.0 mA/cm2) of 6-MP was low. As the current density was progressively increased, the flux also increased. the flux also increased with 0.1 mA/cm2 for 15-20 min, but it was less than desired flux, 0.2 mA/cm2 for 30 min showed better flux than 0.1 mA/cm2 current, but lag time was more than 4 h, 0.5 mA/cm2 current for more than 1 h, flux was >159 microg/cm2 h which was desired flux for 6-MP. 5-FU flux reached the minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 54 microg/cm2 h with 0.5 mA/cm2 current for 30-45 min, drug concentration were within the therapeutic window in post-current phase. We concluded from Ohm's Law that as the resistance decreases, current increases. Skin resistance decrease with increase in time and current, increase in the drug permeation. Interestingly, for all investigated current densities, as soon as the current was switched off, 5-FU and 6-MP flux decreased fairly, but the controlled drug delivery can be achieved by switching the current for required period of time.
Cai, Yuee; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Nelson G; Shi, Zhi; Qiu, Jiange; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan
Tannins, polyphenols in medicinal plants, have been divided into two groups of hydrolysable and condensed tannins, including gallotannins, ellagitannins, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Potent anticancer activities have been observed in tannins (especially EGCG) with multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of invasion and metastases. Furthermore, the combinational effects of tannins and anticancer drugs have been demonstrated in this review, including chemoprotective, chemosensitive, and antagonizing effects accompanying with anticancer effect. However, the applications of tannins have been hindered due to their poor liposolubility, low bioavailability, off-taste, and shorter half-life time in human body, such as EGCG, gallic acid, and ellagic acid. To tackle these obstacles, novel drug delivery systems have been employed to deliver tannins with the aim of improving their applications, such as gelatin nanoparticles, micelles, nanogold, liposomes, and so on. In this review, the chemical characteristics, anticancer properties, and drug delivery systems of tannins were discussed with an attempt to provide a systemic reference to promote the development of tannins as anticancer agents.
Suganuma, Masami; Saha, Achinto; Fujiki, Hirota
Green tea is now recognized as the most effective cancer preventive beverage. In one study, 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea daily supplemented with tablets of green tea extract limited the recurrence of colorectal polyps in humans to 50%. Thus, cancer patients who consume green tea and take anticancer drugs will have double prevention. We studied the effects of combining (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and anticancer drugs, focusing on inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Numerous anticancer drugs, such as tamoxifen, COX-2 inhibitors, and retinoids were used for the experiments, and the combination of EGCG and COX-2 inhibitors consistently induced the enhancement of apoptosis. To study the mechanism of the enhancement, we paid special attention to the enhanced expressions of DDIT3 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 153, GADD153), GADD45A, and CDKN1A (p21/WAF1/CIP1) genes, based on our previous evidence that a combination of EGCG and sulindac specifically induced upregulated expression of GADD153 and p21 genes in PC-9 lung cancer cells. The synergistic enhancements of apoptosis and GADD153 gene expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells by the combination of EGCG and celecoxib were mediated through the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. This article reviews the synergistic enhancement of apoptosis, gene expression, and anticancer effects using various combinations of EGCG and anticancer drugs, including the combination of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and curcumin. Based on the evidence, we present a new concept: green tea catechins as synergists with anticancer drugs.
Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu
RESPONSE OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS TO MITOXANTRONE TREATMENT IN SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT Ye Zhang1,2, Christopher Edwards3, and Honglu Wu1 1 NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 2 Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX 3 Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR This study explores the changes in growth of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and their response to the treatment of an antineoplastic agent, mitoxantrone, under the simulated microgravity condition. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity and simulated microgravity have been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in various cultured cell models or animals. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on the responses of cells to the treatment of drugs, especially chemotherapy drugs. To test the hypothesis that zero gravity would result in altered regulations of cells in response to antineoplastic agents, we cultured LNCaP cells in either a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactor at the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as control, and treated the cells with mitoxantrone. Cell growth, as well as expressions of oxidative stress related genes, were analyzed after the drug treatment. Compared to static 1g controls, the cells cultured in the simulated microgravity environment did not present significant differences in cell viability, growth rate, or cell cycle distribution. However, after mitoxantrone treatment, a significant proportion of bioreactor cultured cells became apoptotic or was arrested in G2. Several oxidative stress related genes also showed a higher expression level post mitoxantrone treatment. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity may alter the response of LNCaP cells to mitoxantrone treatment. Understanding the mechanisms by which cells respond to drugs differently in an altered gravity environment will be useful for the improvement of cancer treatment on
Pickard, Amanda J.; Diaz, Anthony Joseph; Mura, Hugo; Nyuwen, Lila; Coello, Daniel; Sheva, Saif; Maria, Nava; Gallo, James M.; Wang, Tieli
Background/Aim The alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is considered the standard-of-care for high-grade astrocytomas –known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)– an aggressive type of tumor with poor prognosis. The therapeutic benefit of TMZ is attributed to formation of DNA adducts involving the methylation of purine bases in DNA. We investigated the effects of TMZ on arginine and lysine amino acids, histone H3 peptides and histone H3 proteins. Materials and Methods Chemical modification of amino acids, histone H3 peptide and protein by TMZ was performed in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. The reaction products were examined by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. Results Our results showed that TMZ following conversion to a methylating cation, can methylate histone H3 peptide and histone H3 protein, suggesting that TMZ exerts its anticancer activity not only through its interaction with DNA, but also through alterations of protein post-translational modifications. Conclusion The possibility that TMZ can methylate histones involved with epigenetic regulation of protein indicates a potentially unique mechanism of action. The study will contribute to the understanding the anticancer activity of TMZ in order to develop novel targeted molecular strategies to advance the cancer treatment. PMID:27354585
Mansour, Oula C; Evison, Benny J; Sleebs, Brad E; Watson, Keith G; Nudelman, Abraham; Rephaeli, Ada; Buck, Damian P; Collins, J Grant; Bilardi, Rebecca A; Phillips, Don R; Cutts, Suzanne M
Mitoxantrone is an anticancer agent that acts as a topoisomerase II poison, however, it can also be activated by formaldehyde to form DNA adducts. Pixantrone, a 2-aza-anthracenedione with terminal primary amino groups in its side chains, forms formaldehyde-mediated adducts with DNA more efficiently than mitoxantrone. Molecular modeling studies indicated that extension of the "linker" region of anthracenedione side arms would allow the terminal primary amino greater flexibility and thus access to the guanine residues on the opposite DNA strand. New derivatives based on the pixantrone and mitoxantrone backbones were synthesized, and these incorporated primary amino groups as well as extended side chains. The stability of DNA adducts increased with increasing side chain length of the derivatives. A mitoxantrone derivative bearing extended side chains (7) formed the most stable adducts with ∼100-fold enhanced stability compared to mitoxantrone. This finding is of great interest because long-lived drug-DNA adducts are expected to perturb DNA-dependent functions at all stages of the cell cycle.
Luo, Fang; Gu, Jiangyong; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Xiaojie
Cancer is a complex disease, known medically as malignant neoplasm. Natural products (NPs) play a very important role in anticancer drug discovery and a large number of NPs have been proven to have potential anticancer effects. Compared with newly synthesized chemical compounds, NPs show a favorable profile in terms of their absorption and metabolism in the body with low toxicity. Searching for multi-target natural drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 104 cancer-associated target proteins from the Protein Data Bank. Based on the Universal Natural Products Database, all of the NPs were docked to 104 cancer-associated target proteins. Then we explored the potential of NPs and several herbs in anticancer drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. The NPs with the most potential for anticancer drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between NPs and cancer target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.
Baikar, Supriya; Malpathak, Nutan
A large number of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols and quinones are produced by the plants. These metabolites can be utilized as natural medicines for the reason that they inhibit the activity of DNA topoisomerase which are the clinical targets for anticancer drugs. DNA topoisomerases are the cellular enzymes that change the topological state of DNA through the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands. Synthetic drugs as inhibitors of topoisomerases have been developed and used in the clinical trials but severe side effects are a serious problem for them therefore, there is a need for the development of novel plant-derived natural drugs and their analogs which may serve as appropriate inhibitors with respect to drug designing. The theme for this review is how secondary metabolites or natural products inactivate the action of DNA topoisomerases and open new avenues towards isolation and characterization of compounds for the development of novel drugs with anticancer potential. PMID:22228937
Lee, Ronald F S; Theiner, Sarah; Meibom, Anders; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J
Mass spectrometry imaging is being increasingly used in metal-based anticancer drug development to study elemental and/or molecular drug distributions in different biological systems. The main analytical tools employed are SIMS (especially nanoSIMS), LA-ICP-MSI and MALDI-MSI as well as a combination of complementary imaging techniques. Main challenges are appropriate sample preparation methods, reliable and validated quantification strategies and a trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution. So far, research has mostly focused on the development of analytical methods for imaging with the long term goal to study drug uptake into tumor tissue and toxicity affected organs and to identify cellular targets of metal-based drugs. In this review we cover the technological features of the mass spectrometry imaging methods used and give an overview of the applications in metal-based anticancer drug research as well as some future perspectives.
Lee, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Jungil; Wang, Wenping; Lee, Soyoung; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Wan Sung; Kim, Chang-Joon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Sang Soo; Khang, Dongwoo
As the majority of side effects of current chemotherapies stems from toxicity due to excessive dosing of anticancer drugs, minimizing the amount of drug while maximizing drug efficacy is essential to increase the life-quality of chemotherapy patients. This study demonstrated that the intracellular delivery of amide linked doxorubicin on carbon nanotube can nullify the efflux of cancer cells by achieving prolonged endolysosome delivery and can induce burst release of doxorubicin in an acidic hydrolase environment and, ultimately, can reduce the amount of anticancer drug by 10-fold compared to conventional effective drug dose. The clearance of accumulated carbon nanotubes in the liver was observed after 4 weeks, and analysis of liver toxicity markers showed no significant changes in GOT and GPT levels and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines across both short- and long-term periods.
Qin, Yufang; Chen, Ming; Wang, Haiyun; Zheng, Xiaoqi
Predicting anticancer drug sensitivity can enhance the ability to individualize patient treatment, thus making development of cancer therapies more effective and safe. In this paper, we present a new network flow-based method, which utilizes the topological structure of pathways, for predicting anticancer drug sensitivities. Mutations and copy number alterations of cancer-related genes are assumed to change the pathway activity, and pathway activity difference before and after drug treatment is used as a measure of drug response. In our model, Contributions from different genetic alterations are considered as free parameters, which are optimized by the drug response data from the Cancer Genome Project (CGP). 10-fold cross validation on CGP data set showed that our model achieved comparable prediction results with existing elastic net model using much less input features. PMID:25992881
Tamaro, Ilaria; Genazzani, Armando; Canonico, Pierluigi; Grosa, Giorgio
The potential interactions between rabeprazole, a widely used proton pump inhibitor, and anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, methotrexate, doxorubicin, etoposide) or drugs commonly present in the therapy of oncological patients (fluoxetine and ondansetron), were studied using in vitro human liver microsomes. The interactions between rabeprazole and the anticancer drugs were evaluated by measuring their concentrations in test and control incubations with HPLC-DAD-UV methods. To achieve this aim, nine HPLC-DAD-UV methods were developed using different stationary and mobile phases. The methods were then validated for the following parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. As expected rabeprazole did not significantly inhibit the metabolism of the evaluated drugs in human liver microsomal preparations at the selected concentrations. These results shows that rabeprazole probably could be devoid of pharmacokinetic interactions with common drugs used during chemotherapy.
Current approaches to assessing preclinical anticancer activity do not reliably predict drug efficacy in cancer patients. Most of the compounds that show remarkable anticancer effects in preclinical models actually fail when tested in clinical trials. We blame these failures on the complexity of the disease and on the limitations of the preclinical tools we require for our research. This manuscript argues that this lack of clinical response may also be caused by poor in vitro and in vivo preclinical designs, in which cancer patients' needs are not fully considered. Then, it proposes two patient-oriented tests to assess in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and to help validate drug candidates for clinical evaluation. PMID:25859551
Yu, Xiwei; Hou, Jiahui; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang
It is well known that most anticancer drugs commonly show high toxicity to the DNA of tumor cells and exert effects by combining with the DNA or associated enzymes in the nucleus. Most developed drugs are first delivered into the cytoplasm and then transferred to the nucleus through the membrane pores. Sometimes, the transportation of drugs from cytoplasm to nucleus is not efficient and often results in poor therapeutic effects. In this study, we developed special and novel nanoparticles (NPs) made of chitosan and protamine for targeted nuclear capture of drugs to enhance anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of nuclear targeted-delivery of drugs in NPs were also evaluated by investigating cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on cells. Chitosan-protamine NPs were characterized by good drug entrapment, sustained release, small average particle size, low polydispersity index, and high encapsulation efficiency; and accomplished the efficient nuclear delivery of fluorouracil (5-Fu). Compared with free 5-Fu and 5-Fu-loaded chitosan NPs, treatment of A549 cells and HeLa cells with 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs showed the highest cytotoxicity and further induced the significant apoptosis of cells. In addition, 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs exhibited the best efficiency in inhibiting tumor growth than the other three formulations. 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs enhanced antitumor efficacy through the targeted nuclear capture of drugs and showed promising potential as a nanodelivery system for quickly locating drugs in the nucleus of cells.
Taghizadeh, Bita; Taranejoo, Shahrouz; Monemian, Seyed Ali; Salehi Moghaddam, Zoha; Daliri, Karim; Derakhshankhah, Hossein; Derakhshani, Zaynab
Although several anticancer drugs have been introduced as chemotherapeutic agents, the effective treatment of cancer remains a challenge. Major limitations in the application of anticancer drugs include their nonspecificity, wide biodistribution, short half-life, low concentration in tumor tissue and systemic toxicity. Drug delivery to the tumor site has become feasible in recent years, and recent advances in the development of new drug delivery systems for controlled drug release in tumor tissues with reduced side effects show great promise. In this field, the use of biodegradable polymers as drug carriers has attracted the most attention. However, drug release is still difficult to control even when a polymeric drug carrier is used. The design of pharmaceutical polymers that respond to external stimuli (known as stimuli-responsive polymers) such as temperature, pH, electric or magnetic field, enzymes, ultrasound waves, etc. appears to be a successful approach. In these systems, drug release is triggered by different stimuli. The purpose of this review is to summarize different types of polymeric drug carriers and stimuli, in addition to the combination use of stimuli in order to achieve a better controlled drug release, and it discusses their potential strengths and applications. A survey of the recent literature on various stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems is also provided and perspectives on possible future developments in controlled drug release at tumor site have been discussed.
Tao, Xiaojun; Jin, Shu; Wu, Dehong; Ling, Kai; Yuan, Liming; Lin, Pingfa; Xie, Yongchao; Yang, Xiaoping
We prepared two types of cholesterol hydrophobically modified pullulan nanoparticles (CHP) and carboxyethyl hydrophobically modified pullulan nanoparticles (CHCP) substituted with various degrees of cholesterol, including 3.11, 6.03, 6.91 and 3.46 per polymer, and named CHP−3.11, CHP−6.03, CHP−6.91 and CHCP−3.46. Dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) showed that the pullulan nanoparticles were 80–120 nm depending on the degree of cholesterol substitution. The mean size of CHCP nanoparticles was about 160 nm, with zeta potential −19.9 mV, larger than CHP because of the carboxyethyl group. A greater degree of cholesterol substitution conferred greater nanoparticle hydrophobicity. Drug-loading efficiency depended on nanoparticle hydrophobicity, that is, nanoparticles with the greatest degree of cholesterol substitution (6.91) showed the most drug encapsulation efficiency (90.2%). The amount of drug loading increased and that of drug release decreased with enhanced nanoparticle hydrophobicity. Nanoparticle surface-negative charge disturbed the amount of drug loading and drug release, for an opposite effect relative to nanoparticle hydrophobicity. The drug release in pullulan nanoparticles was higher pH 4.0 than pH 6.8 media. However, the changed drug release amount was not larger for negative-surface nanoparticles than CHP nanoparticles in the acid release media. Drug release of pullulan nanoparticles was further slowed with human serum albumin complexation and was little affected by nanoparticle hydrophobicity and surface negative charge. PMID:28344259
There become problems about a delay on clinical development of anticancer drug in Japan and drug lag. I consider causes and solutions of the problems from a position of drug approval reviewer. I think the drug lag may cause by stating later state in global clinical development or stagnation of clinical trial activities. To prevail against drug lag,it is necessary to attend to multinational clinical studies,and to mature Japanese clinical trial environment and post-market planning. Then, I believe that the most important point is to make a start on early stage of global clinical development.
Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa
The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.
Foulon, V; Schöffski, P; Wolter, P
The steady increase in the use of oral anticancer drugs in modern oncology has created a paradigm shift, challenging traditional attitudes towards cancer care and requiring new concepts of organization of oncology services. Important issues are the prolonged treatment period, management of toxicity, treatment adherence, reimbursement conditions and patient and family education. Although most patients generally prefer oral therapy over intravenous treatment for reasons of convenience, the daily use of oral anticancer drugs can be a challenging commitment for many patients. Reports on adherence and persistence among patients with cancer show that adherence ranges from 16% to 100%, depending on the type of therapy and the measurement/definition of adherence. Apart from demographic, disease and therapy related factors, the determinants that mostly influence (non-)adherence are the satisfaction with care activities performed at the initiation of the drug treatment, and the perceived necessity of treatment. Therefore, patient education addressing these issues is considered the cornerstone of successful oral anticancer treatment. Studies examining the role of different health care providers in the pharmacotherapeutic care of patients with cancer, treated with oral anti-cancer drugs, support the need for a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a maximum benefit for the individual patient and consequently for the whole health system. Limiting adverse events and developing appropriate supportive care are only some aspects that need to be considered in this.
Sharma, Harshita; Kumar, Krishan; Choudhary, Chetan; Mishra, Pawan K; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar
The aim of the study was to prepare chemotherapeutic agent-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of drug, for better therapeutic activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have inherent anticancer properties, hence it was envisaged that by loading the anticancer drug into zinc oxide nanoparticles, enhanced anticancer activity might be observed. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Starch was used as the stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles prepared were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. Further, cell line studies were performed to evaluate cellular uptake and cytotoxicity profile using MCF-7 cells. A hemolysis study was performed to check the acute toxicity of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were found to be 476.4 ± 2.51 nm in size, with low PDI (0.312 ± 0.02) and high entrapment efficiency (> 85%). The nanoparticles were stable, and did not form aggregates on storage in the dispersed form. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that drug-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited higher anticancer activity as compared to either blank zinc oxide nanoparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) alone, or their mixture. A hemolytic test revealed that the prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles caused negligible hemolysis. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with DOX resulted in better uptake of the chemotherapeutic agent, and at the same time, showed low toxicity towards normal cells.
Na, Han-Heom; Noh, Hee-Jung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kang, Yoonsung; Kim, Keun-Cheol
The efficacy of anticancer drugs depends on a variety of signaling pathways, which can be positively or negatively regulated. In this study, we show that SETDB1 HMTase is down-regulated at the transcriptional level by several anticancer drugs, due to its inherent instability. Using RNA sequence analysis, we identified FosB as being regulated by SETDB1 during anticancer drug therapy. FosB expression was increased by treatment with doxorubicin, taxol and siSETDB1. Moreover, FosB was associated with an increased rate of proliferation. Combinatory transfection of siFosB and siSETDB1 was slightly increased compared to transfection of siFosB. Furthermore, FosB was regulated by multiple kinase pathways. ChIP analysis showed that SETDB1 and H3K9me3 interact with a specific region of the FosB promoter. These results suggest that SETDB1- mediated FosB expression is a common molecular phenomenon, and might be a novel pathway responsible for the increase in cell proliferation that frequently occurs during anticancer drug therapy. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 238-243].
Kumar, K. Sathish; Kumar, P. Senthil; Vijayalakshmi, S.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil and 6-thioguanine) in polymeric nanocapsules in the presence and in the absence of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles toward Hep2 cancer cells. Materials and Methods: MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used for quantitative measurements for the anticancer cell activity. Encapsulated drug in polyethylene terephthalate-polylactic acid copolymer (PET-co-PLA) nanocapsules in the presence and absence of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared via the W/O/W emulsification solvent-evaporation method. Morphology of the nanoparticles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Conclusion: The average size of the polymeric nanocapsules, gold nanoparticles, and iron oxide nanoparticles were found to be in range of 230-260, 18 -20 nm, 5-10 nm, respectively. The findings in this study inferred that incorporated drug in polymeric nanocapsules with gold nanoparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles show better anticancer activity when compared with encapsulated drug in polymeric nanocapsules. PMID:21687360
Muhammad, Nafees; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Chengcheng; Zhu, Zhenzhu; Jiao, Yang; Guo, Zijian
Drug resistance and unfavorable pharmacokinetics are the major obstacles for conventional anticancer drugs. A combination of different anticancer drugs into one formulation is a common strategy to alleviate the side effects of individual drugs in clinical practice. Platinum anticancer drugs are the typical defective therapeutic agents for cancer chemotherapy and have poor selectivity for tumor cells. In this study, a nanosystem composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), Pt(IV) prodrug (PPD) and α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) was designed to overcome these defects. The Pt(IV) prodrug, c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CC(CH3)3)2], was prepared by the reaction of oxoplatin with trimethylacetic anhydride and its structure was characterized by X-ray crystallography. The PPD and α-TOS self-assembled with PLGA, forming a dual-drug loaded nanoparticle (DDNP). The surface of the DDNP was decorated with galactosamine (G), giving rise to a G-DDNP that can actively target the liver cancer cells through the overexpressed asialoglycoprotein receptors. The DDNPs and G-DDNPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, and DLS. They are spherical in shape with required polydispersity and suitable mean size (ca. 150 nm). The in vitro cytotoxicity of DDNPs and G-DDNPs was tested against the human SMMC-7721 liver cancer cell line. G-DDNPs are more potent than the corresponding free drugs and untargeted DDNP, showing that some synergistic and tumor-specific effects are achieved by this strategy. The results demonstrate that dual-drug loaded nanoformulations with tumor-targeting function could be effective anticancer agents for conquering the shortcomings related to single-drug chemotherapy.
Lee, Junehawk; Lee, Doheon
Understanding how different genomic mutational landscapes in patients with cancer lead to different responses to anticancer drugs is an important challenge for realizing precision medicine for cancer. Many studies have analyzed the comprehensive anticancer drug-response profiles and genomic profiles of cancer cell lines to identify the relationship between the anticancer drug response and genomic alternations. However, few studies have focused on interpreting these profiles with a network perspective. In this work, we analyzed genomic alterations in cancer cell lines by considering which interactions in the signaling pathway were perturbed by mutations. With our interaction-centric approach, we identified novel interaction/drug response associations for two drugs (afatinib and ixabepilone) for which no gene-centric association could be found. When we compared the performance of classifiers for predicting the responses to 164 drugs, the classifiers trained with interaction-centric features outperformed the classifiers trained with gene-centric features, despite the smaller number of features (p-value = 2.0 × 10(-3)). By incorporating the interaction information from signaling pathways, we revealed associations between genomic alterations and drug responses that could be missed when using a gene-centric approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Chun-Yang; Ma, Yin-Chu; Cao, Zi-Yang; Li, Dong-Dong; Fan, Feng; Wang, Jun-Xia; Tao, Wei; Yang, Xian-Zhu
Recently, micelles, which are self-assembled by amphiphilic copolymers, have attracted tremendous attention as promising drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. Thus, the hydrophobic core of the micelles, which could efficiently encapsulate small molecular drug, will play a significant role for the anticancer efficiency. Unfortunately, the effect of hydrophobicity of micellar core on its anticancer efficiency was rarely reported. Herein, the amphiphilic diblock polymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and polyphosphoester with different side groups (butyl, hexyl, octyl) were synthesized to tune the hydrophobicity of the micellar core. We found that the in vitro cytotoxicity of the DOX-loaded micelles decreased with the increasing hydrophobicity of micellar core due to the drug release rate. However, following systemic delivery, the DOX-loaded micelles with the most hydrophobic core exhibited the most significant inhibition of tumor growth in a MDA-MB-231 tumor model, indicating the importance of hydrophobicity of core on the antitumor efficacy of drug delivery systems.
Ades, F; Zardavas, D; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Eniu, A; Popescu, R; Piccart, M; Parent, F
Demographic changes in the world population will cause a significant increase in the number of new cases of cancer. To handle this challenge, societies will need to adapt how they approach cancer prevention and treatment, with changes to the development and uptake of innovative anticancer drugs playing an important role. However, there are obstacles to implementing innovative drugs in clinical practice. Prior to being incorporated into daily practice, the drug must obtain regulatory and reimbursement approval, succeed in changing the prescription habits of physicians, and ultimately gain the compliance of individual patients. Developing an anticancer drug and bringing it into clinical practice is, therefore, a lengthy and complex process involving multiple partners in several areas. To optimize patient treatment and increase the likelihood of implementing health innovation, it is essential to have an overview of the full process. This review aims to describe the process and discuss the hurdles arising at each step. PMID:25525460
Zhang, Ye; Edwards, Christopher; Wu, Honglu
This study explores the changes in growth of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and their response to the treatment of antineoplastic agent, mitoxantrone, under the simulated microgravity condition. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity and simulated microgravity have been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in various cultured cell models or animals. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on the responses of cells to drugs, especially chemotherapy drugs. To test the hypothesis that zero gravity would result in altered regulation of cells in response to antineoplastic agents, we cultured LNCaP cells for 96 hr either in a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactor at the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as a control. 24 hr after the culture started, mitoxantrone was introduced to the cells at a final concentration of 1 M. The mitoxantrone treatment lasted 72 hr and then the cells were collected for various measurements. Compared to static 1g controls, the cells cultured in the simulated microgravity environment did not show significant differences in cell viability, growth rate, or cell cycle distribution. However, in response to mitoxantrone (1uM), a significant proportion of bioreactor cultured cells (30%) was arrested at G2 phase and a significant number of these cells were apoptotic in comparison to their static controls. The expressions of 84 oxidative stress related genes were analyzed using Qiagen PCR array to identify the possible mechanism underlying the altered responses of bioreactor culture cells to mitoxantrone. Nine out of 84 genes showed higher expression at four hour post mitoxantrone treatment in cells cultured at rotating condition compared to those at static. Taken together, the results reported here indicate that simulated microgravity may alter the responses of LNCaP cells to mitoxantrone treatment. The alteration of oxidative stress pathways
Wei, Wei; Ma, Guang-Hui; Hu, Gang; Yu, Di; McLeish, Tom; Su, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Zhe-Yu
One-pot approach to couple the crystallization of CaCO(3) nanoparticles and the in situ symmetry-breaking assembly of these crystallites into hollow spherical shells was developed under the templating effect of a soluble starch. Further functional study using HP-a as an anticancer drug carrier (DOX) demonstrated its advantages for localizing drug release by the pH value-sensitive structure and enhancing cytotoxicity by increasing cellular uptake, perinuclear accumulation, and nuclear entry.
Mustafa, Rania; Luo, Yu; Wu, Yilun; Guo, Rui; Shi, Xiangyang
In this study, we synthesized dendrimer-functionalized laponite (LAP) nanodisks for loading and delivery of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Firstly, LAP was modified with silane coupling agents and succinic anhydride to render abundant carboxyl groups on the surface of LAP. Then, poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer of generation 2 (G2) were conjugated to form LM-G2 nanodisks. Anticancer drug DOX was then loaded on the LM-G2 with an impressively high drug loading efficiency of 98.4% and could be released in a pH-sensitive and sustained manner. Moreover, cell viability assay results indicate that LM-G2/DOX complexes could more effectively inhibit the proliferation of KB cells (a human epithelial carcinoma cell line) than free DOX at the same drug concentration. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal laser scanning microscope demonstrated that LM-G2/DOX could be uptaken by KB cells more effectively than free DOX. Considering the exceptional high drug loading efficiency and the abundant dendrimer amine groups on the surface that can be further modified, the developed LM-G2 nanodisks may hold a great promise to be used as a novel platform for anticancer drug delivery. PMID:28347091
Kim, Kyu Kwang; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K; Brard, Laurent; Moore, Richard G
Our recent study showed that tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a drug to treat copper overload disorders, can sensitize drug-resistant endometrial cancer cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating anticancer drug doxorubicin. To expand these findings in the present study we explore TM efficacy in combination with a spectrum of ROS-generating anticancer drugs including mitomycin C, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin in ovarian cancer cells as a model system. The effects of TM alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mitomycin C, fenretinide, or 5-fluorouracil were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the induction of apoptosis and ROS generation. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in signaling pathways. TM potentiated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and modulated key regulators of apoptosis (PARP, caspases, JNK and p38 MAPK) in SKOV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. These effects were linked to the increased production of ROS, as shown in SKOV-3 cells. ROS scavenging by ascorbic acid blocked the sensitization of cells by TM. TM also sensitized SKOV-3 to mitomycin C, fenretinide, and 5-fluorouracil. The increased cytotoxicity of these drugs in combination with TM was correlated with the activity of ROS, loss of a pro-survival factor (e.g. XIAP) and the appearance of a pro-apoptotic marker (e.g. PARP cleavage). Our data show that TM increases the efficacy of various anticancer drugs in ovarian cancer cells in a ROS-dependent manner.
Miller, Holly H.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.
A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.
Santini, Daniele; Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Galluzzo, Sara; Vincenzi, Bruno; Tonini, Giuseppe
Bone metastases represent an important problem in the elderly. These patients are exposed to a higher risk of developing skeletal-related events (SREs) with a subsequent decrease in quality of life and survival. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated to reduce and delay the appearance of SREs and to improve the quality of life also in elderly bone metastatic patients. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates exert direct as well as indirect antitumor effect. Interestingly, recent clinical data confirm these results in bone metastatic cancer patients. However, randomized trials restricted to elderly patients with metastatic bone disease and focused to evaluate survival benefits have not yet been planned even if elderly patients, especially multiple myeloma, prostate and lung cancer patients, have been often included in trials. This review will examine in detail the preclinical rationale for using bisphosphonates as anticancer agents in elderly patients and will critically explore the first retrospective and prospective clinical evidences of an increased survival in patients treated with bisphosphonates. Moreover, we will analyze the safety of bisphosphonates in elderly population and discuss the clinical recommendations expressed by the SIOG Society for the use of bisphosphonates in elderly patients. Randomized clinical trials to assess the role of bisphosphonate therapy in the adjuvant setting are currently in progress and will be described in this review. If the results of these ongoing clinical trials will be positive, the indications for bisphosphonates could increase, including also elderly patients.
Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.
Iwamoto, Kazunori; Uehara, Yutaka; Inoue, Yukie; Taguchi, Kyoko; Muraoka, Daisuke; Ogo, Naohisa; Matsuno, Kenji; Asai, Akira
Bendamustine (BENDA), which bears the bis(2-chloroethyl)amino moiety, is an alkylating agent that stops the growth of cancer cells by binding to DNA and interfering with its replication. However, the mechanism of action underlying its excellent clinical efficacy remains unclear. In this work, we report that BENDA inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In an AlphaScreen-based biochemical assay using recombinant human STAT3, binding of STAT3–Src homology 2 (SH2) to the phosphotyrosine (pTyr, pY) peptide was inhibited by BENDA but not by the inactive metabolite dihydroxy bendamustine (HP2). When a single point mutation of C550A or C712A was introduced into recombinant human STAT3, its sensitivity to BENDA was substantially reduced, suggesting that these cysteine residues are important for BENDA to inhibit STAT3. Furthermore, BENDA suppressed the function of cellular STAT3 as a transcriptional activator in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, with constitutively activated STAT3. A competitive pull-down assay using biotinylated BENDA (Bio-BENDA) revealed that BENDA bound tightly to cellular STAT3, presumably through covalent bonds. Therefore, our results suggest that the anticancer effects of BENDA may be associated, at least in part, with its inhibitory effect on the SH2 domain of STAT3. PMID:28125678
Sanacora, Shannon; Urdinez, Joaquin; Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vancurova, Ivana
Bortezomib (BZ) is the first clinically approved proteasome inhibitor that has shown remarkable anticancer activity in patients with hematological malignancies. However, many patients relapse and develop resistance; yet, the molecular mechanisms of BZ resistance are not fully understood. We have recently shown that in solid tumors, BZ unexpectedly increases expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), while it inhibits expression of other NFκB-regulated genes. Since monocytes and macrophages are major producers of IL-8, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that BZ increases the IL-8 expression in human monocytes and macrophages. Here, we show that BZ dramatically increases the IL-8 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated U937 macrophages as well as in unstimulated U937 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while it inhibits expression of IL-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, our results show that the underlying mechanisms involve p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is required for the BZ-induced IL-8 expression. Together, these data suggest that the BZ-increased IL-8 expression in monocytes and macrophages may represent one of the mechanisms responsible for the BZ resistance and indicate that targeting the p38-mediated IL-8 expression could enhance the BZ effectiveness in cancer treatment.
Salehi, H.; Derely, L.; Vegh, A.-G.; Durand, J.-C.; Gergely, C.; Larroque, C.; Fauroux, M.-A.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.
Confocal Raman microscopy, a non-invasive, label-free, and high spatial resolution imaging technique is employed to trace the anticancer drug paclitaxel in living Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. The Raman images were treated by K-mean cluster analysis to detect the drug in cells. Distribution of paclitaxel in cells is verified by calculating the correlation coefficient between the reference spectrum of the drug and the whole Raman image spectra. A time dependent gradual diffusion of paclitaxel all over the cell is observed suggesting a complementary picture of the pharmaceutical action of this drug based on rapid binding of free tubulin to crystallized paclitaxel.
Mejri, Alia; Vardanega, Delphine; Tangour, Bahoueddine; Gharbi, Tijani; Picaud, Fabien
Molecular dynamics simulations have been investigated to study the interactions between single-wall carbon nanotubes and an anticancer agent Pt complex (Cisplatin). The optimized diameter of the vector system has been determined to encapsulate in the best conditions the drug molecules. The simulation results show also that several drug molecules can be adsorbed inside the nanotubes, leading to an increased confinement time. Moreover, our simulations show that the release of the drug near a cell membrane model is favored, opening the way to a natural drug nanocapsule.
Závišová, Vlasta; Koneracká, Martina; Múčková, Marta; Kopčanský, Peter; Tomašovičová, Natália; Lancz, Gábor; Timko, Milan; Pätoprstá, Božena; Bartoš, Peter; Fabián, Martin
We describe the preparation (by nanoprecipitation) and characterization of nanospheres (NPs) for magnetic drug targeting made of a magnetic fluid with poly(ethylene glycol), poly( D, L-lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the anticancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol ®). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation of the drug in the PLGA NPs, which were also characterized in terms of morphology, size (typical diameter 200-250 nm) and colloidal stability in aqueous solutions of NaCl. Drug release and in vivo toxicity experiments of the prepared samples were performed. Their stability, magnetic properties (superparamagnetism), and lethal dose were found to be acceptable for the proposed application in cancer therapy.
Liani-Leibson, K; Har-Vardi, I; Priel, E
Topoisomerase I (topo I) is an essential nuclear enzyme involved in virtually all aspects of gene expression, and is the target of the anti-cancer drugs- camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives. Improvement of the survival rates of young women with cancer has led to the consideration of the effects of long-term chemotherapy on their fertility. The effect of anticancer drugs on ovarian function was previously investigated; however, no reports are available concerning their effect on the endometrium, whose integrity is an important factor in embryo implantation. Here we used a rat animal model to investigate the expression and activity of topo I in the various physiologic phases of the endometrium and the influence of CPT on its integrity and receptivity. The results show, for the first time, that the endometrial topo I level and activity are influenced by the physiologic phases of the endometrium (estrous cycle) and correlate with the estrogen blood concentration. Treatment with the anti-cancer drug CPT caused histological disruption of the endometrium and deleterious effect on its cyclicity. Moreover, CPT treatment significantly reduced the implantation rate of embryos, suggesting alteration in the receptivity of the endometrium. These results suggest that topo I is important for maintaining the normal physiologic cyclicity and functionality of the endometrium in rats. Anti-cancer agents that target topo I severely impair estrous cycle progression and endometrial integrity and receptivity, emphasizing the importance of addressing the effect of chemotherapy on the endometrial functionality.
Song, Sojin; Nguyen, Anh H; Lee, Jong Uk; Cha, Misun; Sim, Sang Jun
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein signaling is crucial for the survival, invasion, and growth of human cancer cells; thus, STAT3 protein is an ideal target for a new drug screening system. Herein, we developed a label-free sensor for anticancer drug-discovery based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shift response by tracking of STAT3 signaling including phosphorylation and dimerization. This enables ultrasensitive monitoring of the molecular interactions that occur on the surface of single gold nanoparticles. The red shift of the LSPR λmax was observed as 3.46 nm and 9.00 nm, respectively, indicating phosphorylation and dimerization of the STAT3 signaling pathway. In screening of anticancer candidates, the system worked well in the presence of STA-21 which inhibits STAT3 dimerization. The LSPR λmax shift in the inhibition condition is three times lower than that in the absence of an inhibitor. Interestingly, the system reveals high specificity, reproducibility and compatibility with real samples (MCF-7 cell line). Therefore, these results demonstrated that this system has strong potential to be an accurate and effective sensor for tracking of signaling pathways and drug screening of anticancer candidates for anticancer therapy.
Lad, Amitkumar N.; Agrawal, Y. K.
The present study involves the development of nanobiosensor to determine toxicological behavior of Mitoxantrone (MTX). Mitoxantrone intercalates with DNA and produces MTX-DNA adduct, resulting in blockade of protein synthesis and excessive production of free radicals in the myocardium eventually leads to cardiac toxicity. Potentiometry was applied to develop an electroanalytical procedure for the determination of MTX and its interaction with DNA immobilized on the electrode surface modified with Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles. The nanobiosensor immersed in MTX solution to monitor MTX-DNA interaction with respect to time and alters the resistance of the nanobiosensor. It was observed that MTX-DNA interaction is fast initially and as time elapses, the change in interaction gets slow due to formation of MTX-DNA adduct. Determination limit of the nanobiosensor is 100-10 ng/ml. This study suggests that the nanobiosensor allows real-time monitoring of the drug-DNA interaction changes by measuring the potential at sensor interface which can prove to be an important tool in drug discovery pipelines and molecular toxicology.
Forezi, Luana da S M; Tolentino, Nathalia M C; de Souza, Alessandra M T; Castro, Helena C; Montenegro, Raquel C; Dantas, Rafael F; Oliveira, Maria E I M; Silva, Floriano P; Barreto, Leilane H; Burbano, Rommel M R; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; de Oliveira, Riethe; Ferreira, Vitor F; Cunha, Anna C; Boechat, Fernanda da C S; de Souza, Maria Cecília B V
As part of a continuing search for new potential anticancer candidates, we describe the synthesis, cytotoxicity and mechanistic evaluation of a series of 4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives as novel anticancer agents. The inhibitory activity of compounds 10-18 was determined against three cancer cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. The screening revealed that derivatives 16b and 17b exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the gastric cancer cell line but was not active against a normal cell line, in contrast to doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapeutic drug in clinical use. Interestingly, no hemolytical activity was observed when the toxicity of 16b and 17b was tested against blood cells. The in silico and in vitro mechanistic evaluation indicated the potential of 16b as a lead for the development of novel anticancer agents against gastric cancer cells.
Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Hmadi, Raed; Kareh, Mike; Tohme, Rita; Darwiche, Nadine
Despite remarkable progress in the discovery and development of novel cancer therapeutics, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the world. For many years, compounds derived from plants have been at the forefront as an important source of anticancer therapies and have played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer because of their availability, and relatively low toxicity when compared with chemotherapy. More than 3000 plant species have been reported to treat cancer and about thirty plant-derived compounds have been isolated so far and have been tested in cancer clinical trials. The mechanisms of action of plant-derived anticancer drugs are numerous and most of them induce apoptotic cell death that may be intrinsic or extrinsic, and caspase and/or p53-dependent or independent mechanisms. Alternative modes of cell death by plant-derived anticancer drugs are emerging and include mainly autophagy, necrosis-like programmed cell death, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence leading to cell death. Considering that the non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs are less reviewed than the apoptotic ones, this paper attempts to focus on such alternative cell death pathways for some representative anticancer plant natural compounds in clinical development. In particular, emphasis will be on some promising polyphenolics such as resveratrol, curcumin, and genistein; alkaloids namely berberine, noscapine, and colchicine; terpenoids such as parthenolide, triptolide, and betulinic acid; and the organosulfur compound sulforaphane. The understanding of non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms induced by these drugs would provide insights into the possibility of exploiting novel molecular pathways and targets of plant-derived compounds for future cancer therapeutics.
Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z
The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.
Eguchi, Haruki; Hirata, Kunio; Kurotani, Reiko; Singh, David J.; Fukumura, Hidenobu; Umemura, Masanari; Hoshino, Yujiro; Lee, Jin; Masuda, Takatsugu; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Itaru; Feng, Xianfeng; Sato, Motohiko; Inoue, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Aoki, Ichio; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Sato, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro
New anticancer agents and modalities for their use are of great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-cancer properties in salen derivatives. We found that an iron salen derivative, i.e., [Fe(salen)]2O, displays ferromagnetic order above room temperature and shows spontaneous field-dependent magnetization and hysteresis. Understanding of this magnetic property is provided by first-principles calculations based on structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. [Fe(salen)]2O exhibited potent anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell types and was readily attracted by even moderate-strength permanent magnets in vitro. We demonstrated that the delivery of [Fe(salen)]2O to melanoma tissues transplanted into the tails of mice using a permanent magnet leads to a robust decrease in tumor size. The local accumulation of [Fe(salen)]2O was visualized by MRI. Thus, [Fe(salen)]2O acted as an anti-cancer and MRI contrast compound that has a pharmacological effect that is delivered in a controlled manner, suggesting new strategies for anti-cancer drug development.
Eguchi, Haruki; Hirata, Kunio; Kurotani, Reiko; ...
New anticancer agents and modalities for their use are of great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-cancer properties in salen derivatives. We found that an iron salen derivative, i.e., [Fe(salen)]2O, displays ferromagnetic order above room temperature and shows spontaneous field-dependent magnetization and hysteresis. Understanding of this magnetic property is provided by first-principles calculations based on structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. [Fe(salen)]2O exhibited potent anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell types and was readily attracted by even moderate-strength permanent magnets in vitro. We demonstrated that the delivery of [Fe(salen)]2O to melanoma tissues transplanted into the tails of micemore » using a permanent magnet leads to a robust decrease in tumor size. The local accumulation of [Fe(salen)]2O was visualized by MRI. Thus, [Fe(salen)]2O acted as an anti-cancer and MRI contrast compound that has a pharmacological effect that is delivered in a controlled manner, suggesting new strategies for anti-cancer drug development.« less
Wong, Yin Kwan; Xu, Chengchao; Kalesh, Karunakaran A; He, Yingke; Lin, Qingsong; Wong, W S Fred; Shen, Han-Ming; Wang, Jigang
Artemisinin and its derivatives (collectively termed as artemisinins) are among the most important and effective antimalarial drugs, with proven safety and efficacy in clinical use. Beyond their antimalarial effects, artemisinins have also been shown to possess selective anticancer properties, demonstrating cytotoxic effects against a wide range of cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. These effects appear to be mediated by artemisinin-induced changes in multiple signaling pathways, interfering simultaneously with multiple hallmarks of cancer. Great strides have been taken to characterize these pathways and to reveal their anticancer mechanisms of action of artemisinin. Moreover, encouraging data have also been obtained from a limited number of clinical trials to support their anticancer property. However, there are several key gaps in knowledge that continue to serve as significant barriers to the repurposing of artemisinins as effective anticancer agents. This review focuses on important and emerging aspects of this field, highlighting breakthroughs in unresolved questions as well as novel techniques and approaches that have been taken in recent studies. We discuss the mechanism of artemisinin activation in cancer, novel and significant findings with regards to artemisinin target proteins and pathways, new understandings in artemisinin-induced cell death mechanisms, as well as the practical issues of repurposing artemisinin. We believe these will be important topics in realizing the potential of artemisinin and its derivatives as safe and potent anticancer agents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Catanzaro, Elena; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Turrini, Eleonora; Sestili, Piero; Fimognari, Carmela
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2 is one of the most efficient cytoprotective rheostats against exogenous or endogenous oxidative insults. At present, the modulation of the Nrf2 pathway represents an interesting and highly explored strategy in the oncological area. Area covered: In this review, we present and discuss the different modulation of the Nrf2 pathway by some natural compounds with a well demonstrated anticancer activity, and critically analyze the challenges associated with the development of an Nrf2-based anticancer strategy. Expert opinion: Many natural compounds with a well-defined anticancer activity are able to modulate this pathway. Both Nrf2 inducers and inhibitors can be useful as anticancer strategy. However, since Nrf2 modulates many networks potentially involved in the detoxification process of anticancer drugs, its activation in cancer cells could lead to chemoresistance. The switch between a beneficial or detrimental role of Nrf2 in cancer cells essentially depends on the tight control of its activity, the specific conditions of tumor microenvironment, and cell type. In line with the paucity of clear data related to the mechanisms underpinning the role of Nrf2 in cancer development and chemoresistance, discovery and development of Nrf2-based strategies is one of the most critical and challenging assignments for fighting cancers.
Gola, A; Orzechowska-Juzwenko, K
Side effects of cytostatics commonly used in the Haematology Clinic are analysed. The toxic action on the host's organs is discussed in L-asparaginase, azathioprine, bleomycine, busulfan, cyclophosphamide, cytosin-arabinoside, daunorubicine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, dichlorplatinum, procarbazine and the vinca alkaloids. In addition to toxic symptoms arising from single organs the most important 21 anticancer drugs are gathered in a table. Metabolism of activation and inactivation are mentioned to interprete symptoms of toxicity. Furthermore, the interactions between commonly administered drugs and carcinostatics which may enhance or suppress their carcinostatic efficacy are exposed. A final survey of possible pharmacological rescue measures, which may improve the tolerance of anticancer drugs by diminishing their toxicity is presented.
Xu, Jianxun; Yudasaka, Masako; Zhang, Minfang; Iijima, Sumio
Single wall carbon canohorn (SWNH) is a new kind of nano-carbon tubule having horn-like structure at its tip. The tube diameters are 2 to 5 nm, and about 2,000 SWNHs assemble to form a spherical aggregate. SWNH is an attractive candidate for drug delivery, especially promising to carry anticancer drug, many of which are not water soluble and highly toxic. We incorporated Docetaxel (Doc), an anticancer drug used for stomach cancer and others, into hydrogen peroxide treated SWNH (SWNHox). By using carboxylic groups on SWNHox, we attached amine-PEO3-biotin, and then streptavidin to biotin. The streptavidin moiety on SWNH makes it easy to attach some other biotinylated molecules, thus we introduced a cancer targeting ligand, anti-tumor associated glycoprotein, to the SWNH system. Due to the targeting effect of the antibody, the cells were effectively killed when they were incubated with the Doc SWNHox-streptavidin-andtibody system.
Verbrugge, Inge; Johnstone, Ricky W; Bots, Michael
The occurrence of epigenetic aberrations in cancer and their role in promoting tumorigenesis has led to the development of various small molecule inhibitors that target epigenetic enzymes. In preclinical settings, many epigenetic inhibitors demonstrate promising activity against a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. The therapeutic efficacy of those inhibitors that have entered the clinic however, is restricted predominantly to hematological malignancies. Here we outline the observed epigenetic aberrations in various types of cancer and the clinical responses to epigenetic drugs. We furthermore discuss strategies to improve the responsiveness of both hematological and solid malignancies to epigenetic drugs.
El Khalifi, M; Bentin, J; Duverger, E; Gharbi, T; Boulahdour, H; Picaud, F
The behavior of confined anticancer carboplatin (CPT) molecules in a single (10, 10) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Our study revealed a very large storage capacity of BNNT. Analysis of the energy profiles depending on the number of confined molecules, and on their spatial organization allowed us to quantify the ability of BNNT to vectorize CPT. Indeed, BNNT despite its small radius presented a large inner volume that favored stable encapsulation of multiple active anticancer molecules. Moreover, in our molecular dynamics simulations, the empty BNNT and the BNNT filled with CPT diffused spontaneously to the cell membrane and were able to passively enter inside lipid bilayers by a lipid-assisted mechanism. This property has been used to deliver naturally anticancer drugs to cellular targets. Using this enhanced drug delivery system, we have provided a definitive solution to the problem of drug release and have thus opened up a new way of targeting cancer cells. Indeed, regardless of the mode of action of the platinum complex towards the cell, the delivery of the drug on site should limit the side effects of the drug.
Kim, Jihoon; Pramanick, Swapan; Lee, Duhwan; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong
Since cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii), received FDA approval for use in cancer treatment in 1978, platinum-based drugs have been one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of tumors in testicles, ovaries, head and neck. However, there are concerns associated with the use of platinum-based anticancer drugs, owing to severe side effects and drug resistance. In order to overcome these limitations, various drug-delivery systems have been developed based on diverse organic and inorganic materials. In particular, the versatility of polymeric materials facilitates the tuning of drug-delivery systems to meet their primary goals. This review focuses on the progress made over the last five years in the application of polymeric nanoparticles for the delivery of platinum-based anticancer drugs. The present article not only describes the fundamental principles underlying the implementation of polymeric nanomaterials in platinum-based drug delivery, but also summarizes concepts and strategies employed in the development of drug-delivery systems.
Bonastre, Julia; Chevalier, Julie; Van der Laan, Chantal; Delibes, Michel; De Pouvourville, Gerard
In DRG-based hospital payment systems, expensive drugs are often funded separately. In France, specific expensive drugs (including a large proportion of anticancer drugs) are fully reimbursed up to national reimbursement tariffs to ensure equity of access. Our objective was to analyse the use of expensive anticancer drugs in public and private hospitals, and between regions. We had access to sales per anticancer drug and per hospital in the year 2008. We used a multilevel model to study the variation in the mean expenditure of expensive anticancer drugs per course of chemotherapy and per hospital. The mean expenditure per course of chemotherapy was €922 [95% CI: 890-954]. At the hospital level, specialisation in chemotherapies for breast cancers was associated with a higher expenditure of anticancer drugs per course for those hospitals with the highest proportion of cancers at this site. There were no differences in the use of expensive drugs between the private and the public hospital sector after controlling for case mix. There were no differences between the mean expenditures per region. The absence of disparities in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between hospitals and regions may indicate that exempting chemotherapies from DRG-based payments and providing additional reimbursement for these drugs has been successful at ensuring equal access to care.
Cho, Younghyun; Lee, Jong Bum; Hong, Jinkee
We demonstrate the generation of systemically releasable anti-cancer drugs from multilayer nanofilms. Nanofilms designed to drug release profiles in programmable fashion are promising new and alternative way for drug delivery. For the nanofilm structure, we synthesized various unique 3-dimensional anti cancer drug incorporated DNA origami structures (hairpin, Y, and X shaped) and assembled with peptide via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method. The key to the successful application of these nanofilms requires a novel approach of the influence of DNA architecture for the drug release from functional nano-sized surface. Herein, we have taken first steps in building and controlling the drug incorporated DNA origami based multilayered nanostructure. Our finding highlights the novel and unique drug release character of LbL systems in serum condition taken full advantages of DNA origami structure. This multilayer thin film dramatically affects not only the release profiles but also the structure stability in protein rich serum condition.
Billy, Frédérique; Clairambault, Jean; Fercoq, Olivier; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Perthame, Benoît
The main two pitfalls of therapeutics in clinical oncology, that limit increasing drug doses, are unwanted toxic side effects on healthy cell populations and occurrence of resistance to drugs in cancer cell populations. Depending on the constraint considered in the control problem at stake, toxicity or drug resistance, we present two different ways to model the evolution of proliferating cell populations, healthy and cancer, under the control of anti-cancer drugs. In the first case, we use a McKendrick age-structured model of the cell cycle, whereas in the second case, we use a model of evolutionary dynamics, physiologically structured according to a continuous phenotype standing for drug resistance. In both cases, we mention how drug targets may be chosen so as to accurately represent the effects of cytotoxic and of cytostatic drugs, separately, and how one may consider the problem of optimisation of combined therapies.
Ivanova, Donika; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Higashi, Tatsuya
Many studies demonstrate that conventional anticancer drugs elevate intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter redox-homeostasis of cancer cells. It is widely accepted that anticancer effect of these chemotherapeutics is due to induction of oxidative stress and ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer. On the other hand, the harmful side effects of conventional anticancer chemotherapy are also due to increased production of ROS and disruption of redox-homeostasis of normal cells and tissues. This article describes the mechanisms for triggering and modulation of apoptosis through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. We try to answer the question: "Is it possible to induce highly specific apoptosis only in cancer cells, without overproduction of ROS, as well as without harmful effects on normal cells and tissues?" The review also suggests a new therapeutic strategy for selective killing of cancer cells, without significant impact on viability of normal cells and tissues, by combining anticancer drugs with redox-modulators, affecting specific signaling pathways and avoiding oxidative stress.
Tomita, Ryoko; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Machida, Kazuyuki; Nishida, Sho; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Nakashima, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi
Metabolomic studies conducted for evaluating cancer pathogenesis and progression by monitoring the amino acids metabolic balance hold great promise for assessing current and future anticancer treatments. We performed a comprehensive quantification of 21 amino acids concentrations in cultured human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells treated with the anticancer drugs 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and cisplatin. A precolumn fluorescence derivatization-HPLC method involving 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate was used. Amino acid concentration data were analyzed by principal-component analysis and partial least-squares multivariate statistical methods to represent samples on two-dimensional graphs. The hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to classify the samples on the score plots. Unlike the cluster analysis approach, the linear discrimination analysis classification successfully distinguished anticancer drug-treated samples from the untreated controls. Moreover, three candidate amino acids (serine, aspartic acid, and methionine) were identified from the loading plots as potential biomarkers. Our proposed method might be able to evaluate the effectiveness of anticancer therapy even in small laboratories or medical institutions.
Ivanova, Donika; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Higashi, Tatsuya
Many studies demonstrate that conventional anticancer drugs elevate intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter redox-homeostasis of cancer cells. It is widely accepted that anticancer effect of these chemotherapeutics is due to induction of oxidative stress and ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer. On the other hand, the harmful side effects of conventional anticancer chemotherapy are also due to increased production of ROS and disruption of redox-homeostasis of normal cells and tissues. This article describes the mechanisms for triggering and modulation of apoptosis through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. We try to answer the question: "Is it possible to induce highly specific apoptosis only in cancer cells, without overproduction of ROS, as well as without harmful effects on normal cells and tissues?" The review also suggests a new therapeutic strategy for selective killing of cancer cells, without significant impact on viability of normal cells and tissues, by combining anticancer drugs with redox-modulators, affecting specific signaling pathways and avoiding oxidative stress. PMID:27647966
Dhar, S.; Nygren, P.; Csoka, K.; Botling, J.; Nilsson, K.; Larsson, R.
Differential drug response in a human cell line panel representing defined types of cytotoxic drug resistance was measured using the non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). In total 37 drugs were analysed; eight topoisomerase II inhibitors, eight anti-metabolites, eight alkylating agents, eight tubulin-active agents and five compounds with other or unknown mechanisms of action, including one topoisomerase I inhibitor. Correlation analysis of log IC50 values obtained from the panel showed a high degree of similarity among the drugs with a similar mechanism of action. The mean percentage of mechanistically similar drugs included among the ten highest correlations, when each drug was compared with the remaining data set, was 100%, 92%, 88% and 52% for the topoisomerase II inhibitors, alkylators, tubulinactive agents and anti-metabolites respectively. Classification of drugs into the four categories representing different mechanisms of action using a probabilistic neural network (PNN) analysis resulted in 29 (91%) correct predictions. The results indicate the feasibility of using a limited number of cell lines for prediction of mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs. The present approach may be well suited for initial classification and evaluation of novel anti-cancer drugs and as a potential tool to guide lead compound optimisation. Images Figure 2 PMID:8826854
Stimphil, Emmanuel; Nagesetti, Abhignyan; Guduru, Rakesh; Stewart, Tiffanie; Rodzinski, Alexandra; Liang, Ping; Khizroev, Sakhrat
In regard to cancer therapy, magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) have proven to be in a class of its own when compared to any other nanoparticle type. Like conventional magnetic nanoparticles, they can be used for externally controlled drug delivery via application of a magnetic field gradient and image-guided delivery. However, unlike conventional nanoparticles, due to the presence of a non-zero magnetoelectric effect, MENs provide a unique mix of important properties to address key challenges in modern cancer therapy: (i) a targeting mechanism driven by a physical force rather than antibody matching, (ii) a high-specificity delivery to enhance the cellular uptake of therapeutic drugs across the cancer cell membranes only, while sparing normal cells, (iii) an externally controlled mechanism to release drugs on demand, and (iv) a capability for image guided precision medicine. These properties separate MEN-based targeted delivery from traditional biotechnology approaches and lay a foundation for the complementary approach of technobiology. The biotechnology approach stems from the underlying biology and exploits bioinformatics to find the right therapy. In contrast, the technobiology approach is geared towards using the physics of molecular-level interactions between cells and nanoparticles to treat cancer at the most fundamental level and thus can be extended to all the cancers. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art and presents an ab initio model to describe the underlying mechanisms of cancer treatment with MENs from the perspective of basic physics.
Kunii, Eiji; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Oguri, Tetsuya; Maeno, Ken; Fukuda, Satoshi; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Takemura, Masaya; Niimi, Akio
The cellular N-methyl-N'-nitroso-guanidine human osteosarcoma transforming gene (c-MET) protein is the receptor tyrosine kinase for hepatocyte growth factor. We recently found that c-MET protein expression and activation were enhanced in the majority of small cell lung cancer cell lines with cytotoxic anticancer drug resistance, and that down-regulation of c-MET reduced resistance to these drugs. Expression of c-MET was studied in three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, including six resistant cell strains to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. To assess the effect of c-MET activation on drug resistance, we studied drug sensitivity in the presence of a novel c-MET inhibitor TAS-115. c-MET expression and activation are also enhanced in some cytotoxic anticancer drug-resistant NSCLC cell lines, and inhibition of c-MET activation by TAS-115 reduced resistance of these cell lines to anticancer drugs. The mechanism of cellular resistance to anticancer drugs via hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET signal activation is not restricted to small cell lung cancer cell lines, and TAS-115 might be able to reverse the drug resistance of these cancer cells. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Chen, Rui; Xu, Liu; Fan, Qin; Li, Man; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Li; Li, Weidong; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Zhipeng
Inhalation administration, compared with intravenous administration, significantly enhances chemotherapeutic drug exposure to the lung tissue and may increase the therapeutic effect for pulmonary anticancer. However, further identification of cancer cells after lung deposition of inhaled drugs is necessary to avoid side effects on normal lung tissue and to maximize drug efficacy. Moreover, as the action site of the major drug was intracellular organelles, drug target to the specific organelle is the final key for accurate drug delivery. Here, we designed a novel multifunctional nanoparticles (MNPs) for pulmonary antitumor and the material was well-designed for hierarchical target involved lung tissue target, cancer cell target, and mitochondrial target. The biodistribution in vivo determined by UHPLC-MS/MS method was employed to verify the drug concentration overwhelmingly increasing in lung tissue through inhaled administration compared with intravenous administration. Cellular uptake assay using A549 cells proved the efficient receptor-mediated cell endocytosis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation showed the location of MNPs in cells was mitochondria. All results confirmed the intelligent material can progressively play hierarchical target functions, which could induce more cell apoptosis related to mitochondrial damage. It provides a smart and efficient nanocarrier platform for hierarchical targeting of pulmonary anticancer drug. So far, this kind of material for pulmonary mitochondrial-target has not been seen in other reports.
Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai
Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy.
Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai
Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy. PMID:25759362
Zhou, Qingyu; Gallo, James M
Progress in an understanding of the genetic basis of cancer coupled to molecular pharmacology of potential new anticancer drugs calls for new approaches that are able to address key issues in the drug development process, including pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships. The incorporation of predictive preclinical PK/PD models into rationally designed early-stage clinical trials offers a promising way to relieve a significant bottleneck in the drug discovery pipeline. The aim of the current review is to discuss some considerations for how quantitative PK and PD analyses for anticancer drugs may be conducted and integrated into a global translational effort, and the importance of examining drug disposition and dynamics in target tissues to support the development of preclinical PK/PD models that can be subsequently extrapolated to predict pharmacologic characteristics in patients. In this article, we describe three different physiologically based (PB) PK modeling approaches, i.e., the whole-body PBPK model, the hybrid PBPK model, and the two-pore model for macromolecules, as well as their applications. General conclusions are that greater effort should be made to generate more clinical data that could validate scaled preclinical PB-PK/PD tumor-based models and, thus, stimulate a framework for preclinical to clinical translation. Finally, given the innovative techniques to measure tissue drug concentrations and associated biomarkers of drug responses, development of predictive PK/PD models will become a standard approach for drug discovery and development.
Amadio, Jessica; Murphy, Cormac D
Fungi belonging to the genus Cunninghamella have enzymes similar to those employed by mammals for the detoxification of xenobiotics, thus they are useful as models of mammalian drug metabolism, and as a source for drug metabolites. We report the transformation of the anti-cancer drug flutamide in Cunninghamella sp. The most predominant phase I metabolites present in the plasma of humans, 2-hydroxyflutamide and 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, were also produced in Cunninghamella cultures. Other phase I and phase II metabolites were also detected using a combination of HPLC, GC-MS and (19)F-NMR.
Adams, David J.
The past decade has seen an explosion in our understanding of cancer biology and with it many new potential disease targets. Yet our ability to translate these advances into therapies is poor, with a failure rate approaching 90%. Much discussion has been devoted to this so-called ‘Valley of Death’ in anticancer drug development, but the problem persists. Could we have overlooked some straight-forward explanations to this highly complex problem? Important aspects of tumor physiology, drug pharmacokinetics, preclinical models, drug delivery, and clinical translation are not often emphasized and could be critical. This perspective summarizes current views on the problem and suggests feasible alternatives. PMID:22410081
Wu, Shangquan; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiarong; Liang, Xin M; Gao, Dayong; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping
Cancer is a serious threat to human health. Although numerous anti-cancer drugs are available clinically, many have shown toxic side effects due to poor tumor-selectivity, and reduced effectiveness due to cancers rapid development of resistance to treatment. The development of new highly efficient and practical methods to quantify cell viability and its change under drug treatment is thus of significant importance in both understanding of anti-cancer mechanism and anti-cancer drug screening. Here, we present an approach of utilizing a nanomechanical fluctuation based highly sensitive microcantilever sensor, which is capable of characterizing the viability of cells and quantitatively screening (within tens of minutes) their responses to a drug with the obvious advantages of a rapid, label-free, quantitative, noninvasive, real-time and in-situ assay. The microcantilever sensor operated in fluctuation mode was used in evaluating the paclitaxel effectiveness on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This study demonstrated that the nanomechanical fluctuations of the microcantilever sensor are sensitive enough to detect the dynamic variation in cellular force which is provided by the cytoskeleton, using cell metabolism as its energy source, and the dynamic instability of microtubules plays an important role in the generation of the force. We propose that cell viability consists of two parts: biological viability and mechanical viability. Our experimental results suggest that paclitaxel has little effect on biological viability, but has a significant effect on mechanical viability. This new method provides a new concept and strategy for the evaluation of cell viability and the screening of anti-cancer drugs.
Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G; Salzano, G; Santini, D; Lamberti, M; Sperlongano, P; Lombardi, A; Abbruzzese, A; Addeo, R
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery was born as a chance for pharmaceutical weapons to be delivered in the body sites where drug action is required. Specifically, the incorporation of anti-cancer agents in nanodevices of 100-300 nm allows their delivery in tissues that have a fenestrated vasculature and a reduced lymphatic drainage. These two features are typical of neoplastic tissues and, therefore, allow the accumulation of nanostructured devices in tumours. An important issue of anti-cancer pharmacological strategies is the overcoming of anatomical barriers such as the bloodbrain- barrier (BBB) that protects brain from toxicological injuries but, at the same time, makes impossible for most of the pharmacological agents with anti-cancer activity to reach tumour cells placed in the brain and derived from either primary tumours or metastases. In fact, only highly lipophilic molecules can passively diffuse through BBB to reach central nervous system (CNS). Another possibility is to use nanotechnological approaches as powerful tools to across BBB, by both prolonging the plasma half-life of the drugs and crossing fenestrations of BBB damaged by brain metastases. Moreover, modifications of nanocarrier surface with specific endogenous or exogenous ligands can promote the crossing of intact BBB as in the case of primary brain tumours. This aim can be achieved through the binding of the nanodevices to carriers or receptors expressed by the endothelial cells of BBB and that can favour the internalization of the nanostructured devices delivering anti-cancer drugs. This review summarizes the most meaningful advances in the field of nanotechnologies for brain delivery of drugs.
Alshahrani, Saad M; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Alalaiwe, Ahmed; Alsulays, Bader B; Anwer, Md Khalid; Al-Shdefat, Ramadan; Imam, Faisal; Shakeel, Faiyaz
Sunitinib malate (SM) is reported as a weakly soluble drug in water due to its poor dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Hence, in the current study, various "self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS)" of SM were prepared, characterized and evaluated for the enhancement of its in vitro dissolution rate and anticancer efficacy. On the basis of solubilization potential of SM in various excipients, "Lauroglycol-90 (oil), Triton-X100 (surfactant) and Transcutol-P (cosurfactant)" were selected for the preparation of SM SNEDDS. SM-loaded SNEDDS were developed by spontaneous emulsification method, characterized and evaluated for "thermodynamic stability, self-nanoemulsification efficiency, droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), surface morphology, refractive index (RI), the percent of transmittance (% T) and drug release profile." In vitro dissolution rate of SM was significantly enhanced from an optimized SNEDDS in comparison with SM suspension. The optimized SNEDDS of SM with droplet size of 42.3 nm, PDI value of 0.174, ZP value of -36.4 mV, RI value of 1.339, % T value of 97.3%, and drug release profile of 95.4% (after 24 h via dialysis membrane) was selected for in vitro anticancer efficacy in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) by MTT assay. MTT assay indicated significant anticancer efficacy of optimized SM SNEDDS against HT-29 cells in comparison with free SM. The results of this study showed the great potential of SNEDDS in the enhancement of in vitro dissolution rate and anticancer efficacy of poorly soluble drug such as SM.
Bakkialakshmi, S.; Chandrakala, D.
The binding of anticancer drugs (i) Uracil (U), (ii) 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and (iii) 5-Chlorouracil (5ClU), to bovine serum albumin (BSA) at two levels of temperature was studied by the fluorescence of quenching method. UV/Vis, time-resolved fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were also made. Binding constants (Ka) and binding sites (n) at various levels of temperature were calculated. The obtained binding sites were found to be equal to one for all the three quenchers (U, 5FU and 5ClU) at two different temperature levels. Thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS have been calculated and were presented in tables. Change in FTIR absorption intensity shows strong binding of anticancer drugs to BSA. Changes in chemical shifts of NMR and fluorescence lifetimes of the drugs indicate the presence of interaction and binding of BSA to anticancer drugs. 1H NMR spectra and SEM photographs also conform this binding.
Zhou, T; Duan, J J; Zhou, G P; Cai, J Y; Huang, Z H; Zeng, Y T; Xu, F
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of depression mood disorder on the incidence of adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. The Hamilton Depression Scale 17 was used to evaluate the depression mood disorder level in 73 cancer patients before chemotherapy. Pharmacists monitored adverse drug reactions during the chemotherapy period. The relationship between depression mood disorder level and the incidence of adverse drug reactions was analysed. The frequency and extent of total adverse drug reactions were not related to depression mood disorder level. The frequency and extent of subjectively experienced adverse drug reactions such as anorexia, nausea and fatigue were related to depression mood disorder level. In conclusion, psychological support and intervention should be provided to cancer patients in order to improve patient adherence and cancer chemotherapy effectiveness, and to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions.
Yu, Xiwei; Hou, Jiahui; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang
It is well known that most anticancer drugs commonly show high toxicity to the DNA of tumor cells and exert effects by combining with the DNA or associated enzymes in the nucleus. Most developed drugs are first delivered into the cytoplasm and then transferred to the nucleus through the membrane pores. Sometimes, the transportation of drugs from cytoplasm to nucleus is not efficient and often results in poor therapeutic effects. In this study, we developed special and novel nanoparticles (NPs) made of chitosan and protamine for targeted nuclear capture of drugs to enhance anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of nuclear targeted-delivery of drugs in NPs were also evaluated by investigating cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on cells. Chitosan–protamine NPs were characterized by good drug entrapment, sustained release, small average particle size, low polydispersity index, and high encapsulation efficiency; and accomplished the efficient nuclear delivery of fluorouracil (5-Fu). Compared with free 5-Fu and 5-Fu-loaded chitosan NPs, treatment of A549 cells and HeLa cells with 5-Fu-loaded chitosan–protamine NPs showed the highest cytotoxicity and further induced the significant apoptosis of cells. In addition, 5-Fu-loaded chitosan–protamine NPs exhibited the best efficiency in inhibiting tumor growth than the other three formulations. 5-Fu-loaded chitosan–protamine NPs enhanced antitumor efficacy through the targeted nuclear capture of drugs and showed promising potential as a nanodelivery system for quickly locating drugs in the nucleus of cells. PMID:27881917
Silveira, C. P.; Paula, A. J.; Apolinário, L. M.; Fávaro, W. J.; Durán, N.
One of the major problems in cancer therapies is the high occurrence of side effects intrinsic of anticancer drugs. Doxorrubicin is a conventional anticancer molecule used to treat a wide range of cancer, such as breast, ovarian and prostate. However, its use is associated with a number of side effects like multidrug resistance and cardiotoxicity. The association with nanomaterials has been considered in the past decade to overcome the high toxicity of these drugs. In this context, mesoporous silica nanoparticles are great candidates to be used as carriers once they are very biocompatible. Taking into account the combination of nanoparticles and doxorrubicin, we treated rats with chemically induced prostate cancer with systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and a thermoreversible block copolymer (Pluronic F-127) containing doxorrubicin. Preliminary results show a possible improvement in tumor conditions proportional to the concentration of the nanoparticles, opening a perspective to use mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carrier for doxorrubicin in prostate cancer treatment.
Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P
Cimetidine, the first H2 receptor antagonist in widespread clinical use, has anti-cancer properties that have been elucidated in a broad range of pre-clinical and clinical studies for a number of different cancer types. These data are summarised and discussed in relation to a number of distinct mechanisms of action. Based on the evidence presented, it is proposed that cimetidine would synergise with a range of other drugs, including existing chemotherapeutics, and that further exploration of the potential of cimetidine as an anti-cancer therapeutic is warranted. Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that cimetidine administration during the peri-operative period may provide a survival benefit in some cancers. A number of possible combinations with other drugs are discussed in the supplementary material accompanying this paper. PMID:25525463
Chen, Shihong; Huang, Ying; O'Barr, Stephen A.; Wong, Rebecca A.; Chow, Moses Sing Sum
Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer. PMID:24876866
Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.
Weng, Qunhong; Wang, Binju; Wang, Xuebin; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Li, Xia; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Jiang, Xiangfen; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri
Developing materials for "Nano-vehicles" with clinically approved drugs encapsulated is envisaged to enhance drug therapeutic effects and reduce the adverse effects. However, design and preparation of the biomaterials that are porous, nontoxic, soluble, and stable in physiological solutions and could be easily functionalized for effective drug deliveries are still challenging. Here, we report an original and simple thermal substitution method to fabricate perfectly water-soluble and porous boron nitride (BN) materials featuring unprecedentedly high hydroxylation degrees. These hydroxylated BNs are biocompatible and can effectively load anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, DOX) up to contents three times exceeding their own weight. The same or even fewer drugs that are loaded on such BN carriers exhibit much higher potency for reducing the viability of LNCaP cancer cells than free drugs.
Popilski, Hen; Stepensky, David
Solid tumors are characterized by complex morphology. Numerous factors relating to the composition of the cells and tumor stroma, vascularization and drainage of fluids affect the local microenvironment within a specific location inside the tumor. As a result, the intratumoral drug/drug delivery system (DDS) disposition following systemic or local administration is non-homogeneous and its complexity reflects the differences in the local microenvironment. Mathematical models can be used to analyze the intratumoral drug/DDS disposition and pharmacological effects and to assist in choice of optimal anticancer treatment strategies. The mathematical models that have been applied by different research groups to describe the intratumoral disposition of anticancer drugs/DDSs are summarized in this article. The properties of these models and of their suitability for prediction of the drug/DDS intratumoral disposition and pharmacological effects are reviewed. Currently available mathematical models appear to neglect some of the major factors that govern the drug/DDS intratumoral disposition, and apparently possess limited prediction capabilities. More sophisticated and detailed mathematical models and their extensive validation are needed for reliable prediction of different treatment scenarios and for optimization of drug treatment in the individual cancer patients.
Roix, Jeffrey J.; Harrison, S. D.; Rainbolt, Elizabeth A.; Meshaw, Kathryn R.; McMurry, Avery S.; Cheung, Peter; Saha, Saurabh
Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10–15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity. PMID:25093583
Barancik, Miroslav; Bohacova, Viera; Gibalova, Lenka; Sedlak, Jan; Sulova, Zdena; Breier, Albert
The drug efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a product of the mdr1 gene, ABCB1 member of ABC transporter family) represents a mechanism by which tumor cells escape death induced by chemotherapeutics. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in mouse leukemia L1210/VCR cells. Parental sensitive mouse leukemia cells L1210, and multidrug-resistant cells, L1210/VCR, which are characterized by the overexpression of P-gp, were used as experimental models. The cells were exposed to 100 μmol/L PTX in the presence or absence of 1.2 μmol/L vincristine (VCR). Western blot analysis indicated a downregulation of P-gp protein expression when multidrug-resistant L1210/VCR cells were exposed to PTX. The effects of PTX on the sensitization of L1210/VCR cells to VCR correlate with the stimulation of apoptosis detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis necrosis kit and proteolytic activation of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 monitored by Western blot analysis. Higher release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2, which could be attenuated by PTX, was found in L1210/VCR than in L1210 cells by gelatin zymography in electrophoretic gel. Exposure of resistant cells to PTX increased the content of phosphorylated Akt kinase. In contrast, the presence of VCR eliminated the effects of PTX on Akt kinase phosphorylation. Taken together, we conclude that PTX induces the sensitization of multidrug-resistant cells to VCR via downregulation of P-gp, stimulation of apoptosis and reduction of MMPs released from drug-resistant L1210/VCR cells. These facts bring new insights into the mechanisms of PTX action on cancer cells. PMID:22312258
Kostjukov, V. V.; Pahomov, V. I.; Andrejuk, D. D.; Davies, D. B.; Evstigneev, M. P.
In aqueous solution the deoxyheptanucleotide, 5'-d(GpCpGpApApGpC), exists as a very stable hairpin structure in equilibrium with small proportions of the single-stranded and duplex forms. Complexation of the anti-cancer drug novantrone (mitoxantrone) with the DNA heptamer was investigated by one- and two-dimensional 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy (2M-TOCSY, 2M-NOESY) and molecular dynamics simulations. The proton chemical shifts of NOV in mixed solutions with the heptamer were measured as a function of concentration and temperature and the equilibrium association parameters were determined for complexation of NOV with the three forms of the heptamer. The spatial structure of the complex of the antibiotic with the hairpin form of the heptamer was built on the basis of 2D-NOE data. The conformational dynamics of the complex and its interaction with the water environment were investigated by molecular dynamics methods. The results suggest that NOV complexes with the hairpin form of the heptamer in solution by intercalation. Complexation of NOV with the hairpin stem results in a disruption of about one half of the intramolecular water bridges of the hairpin, which is considered to be the main reason for the observed decrease in the thermodynamical stability of the hairpin on binding with the ligand.
putatively identified menadione as having reacted with Cys427 by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization ( MALDI ) MS . Preliminary results from LC-ESI- MS ...modification of hstopo Ila by anticancer drugs and chemopreventive agents. To this end, we developed a cysteine footprinting technique using liquid ...chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI- MS ) to assess the differential reactivities of the cysteine residues of hstopo Ila and
we putatively identified menadione as having reacted with Cys427 by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization ( MALDI ) MS . Preliminary results...hstopo IIα by anticancer drugs and chemopreventive agents. To this end, we developed a cysteine footprinting technique using liquid chromatography...electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI- MS ) to assess the differential reactivities of the cysteine residues of hstopo IIα and compared
Zhang, Yao; Ho, Andy; Yue, Jiping; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Wu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong
Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes have become increasingly popular for study over the last two decades. Although ruthenium complexes are currently being investigated in clinical trials, there are still some difficulties with their delivery and associated side effects. Human serum albumin (HSA)-based delivery systems are promising for improving anticancer drug targeting and reducing negative side effects. However, there have been few studies regarding the HSA delivery system for metal-based anticancer compounds and no mention of its structural mechanism. Therefore, we studied the structure and anticancer properties of the ruthenium-based compound [RuCl5(ind)](2-) in complex with HSA. The structure revealed that [RuCl5(ind)](2-) has two binding sites in HSA. In the IB subdomain, [RuCl5(ind)](2-) binds to a new sub-site by coordinating with His-146. In the IIA subdomain, ruthenium (III) of [RuCl5(ind)](2-) binds to the hydrophobic cavity and forms coordination bonds by replacing chlorine atoms with the His-242 and Lys-199 residues of HSA. Interestingly, [RuCl5(ind)](2-), together with HSA, can enhance cytotoxicity by two to five times in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with unbound drug, the HSA-[RuCl5(ind)](2-) complex promotes MGC-803 cell apoptosis and also has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase in MGC-803. In conclusion, this study will guide the rational design and development of ruthenium-containing or ruthenium-centered drugs and an HSA delivery system for ruthenium-based drugs.
Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakao, Shuhei; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki
Naftopidil is clinically for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia, and emerging evidence has pointed to its anticancer effect. To obtain the anticancer drug with the potential greater than that of naftopidil, we have newly synthesized the naftopidil analogue HUHS1015. The present study investigated the mechanism underlying HUHS1015-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells and assessed the possibility for clinical use as an innovative anticancer drug. HUHS1015 reduced cell viability for MKN28 human well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cell line and MKN45 human poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cell line in a concentration (0.3-100 μM)-dependent manner more effectively than cisplatin, a chemo-drug widely used. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V, HUHS1015 significantly increased the population of PI-positive and annexin V-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis and that of PI-positive and annexin V-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, both in the two cell types. HUHS1015 significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-8 in MKN45 cells, while no obvious caspase activation was found in MKN28 cells. HUHS1015 upregulated expression of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNA and protein in MKN45 cells, allowing activation of caspase-8 through TNF receptor and the effector caspase-3. HUHS1015 clearly inhibited tumor growth in mice inoculated with MKN45 cells, with the survival rate higher than that for the anticancer drugs cisplatin, paclitaxel, and irinotecan. The results of the present study show that HUHS1015 induces caspase-independent and caspase-dependent apoptosis of MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells, respectively, and effectively suppresses MKN45 cell proliferation.
Glen, Colin D; Smith, Andrew G; Dubrova, Yuri E
Understanding and estimating the genetic hazards of exposure to chemical mutagens and anticancer drugs in humans requires the development of efficient systems for monitoring germ line mutation. The suitability of a single-molecule PCR-based approach for monitoring mutation induction at the mouse expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus Ms6-hm by chemical mutagens and anticancer drugs has been validated. The frequency of ESTR mutation was evaluated in the germ line of male mice exposed to the well-characterized alkylating agent and mutagen, ethylnitrosourea, and four widely used anticancer drugs, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, and procarbazine. The dose-response of ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation was found to be very close to that previously established using a pedigree-based approach for ESTR mutation detection. Paternal exposure to the clinically relevant doses of bleomycin (15-30 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (40-80 mg/kg), and mitomycin C (2.5-5 mg/kg) led to statistically significant, dose-dependent increases in ESTR mutation frequencies in the germ line of treated male mice. Exposure to procarbazine led to a maximal increase in mutation frequency at 50 mg/kg, with a plateau at the higher concentrations. The results of this study show that the single-molecule PCR technique provides a new and efficient experimental system for monitoring the genetic effects of anticancer drugs, capable of detecting increases in mutation rates at clinically relevant doses of exposure. In addition, this approach dramatically reduces the number of mice needed for the measurement of germ line mutation induction.
Malathi, Divyashanthi Chellathambi; Ponnaluri, Raghunatha Rao
Introduction Although cancer remains a major health problem all over the world, its treatment is limited by affordability of patients in a developing country like India. Information generated from cost analysis studies will be helpful for both the doctors in choosing the correct medicine for their patients and also for policy makers in successfully utilizing the meager resources that are available. Aim The aim of the present observational study was to analyse the price variations of anti-cancer drugs available in India. Materials and Methods The cost of a particular anti-cancer drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same dose and dosage form, was obtained from latest issue of “Current Index of Medical Specialties” (CIMS) January–April, 2016. The difference between the maximum and minimum prices of various brands of the same drug was analysed and percentage variation in the prices was calculated. The results of the study were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results Overall, the price of a total of 23 drugs belonging to 6 different categories available in 52 different formulations were analysed. Among alkylating agents, oxaliplatin (50mg; injection) showed the maximum price variation of 125.02%. In anti-metabolites, methotrexate (2.5mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 75.30%. The maximum price variation among natural products was seen with paclitaxel (260 mg; injection) of 146.98%, among hormonal drugs, was seen with flutamide (250mg; tablet) of 714.24%, among targeted drugs was seen with imatinib mesylate (100mg; film coated tablet) of 5.56% and among supportive drugs, granisetron (1mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 388.68%. Conclusion The average percentage variations of different brands of the same anti-cancer drug in same dose and dosage form manufactured in India is very wide. The government and drug manufacturing companies must direct their efforts in reducing the cost of anti-cancer drugs and
Qin, Lingzhen; Mei, Liling; Shan, Ziyun; Huang, Ying; Pan, Xin; Li, Ge; Gu, Yukun; Wu, Chuanbin
Phytantriol has received increasing amount of attention in drug delivery system, however, the ability of the phytantriol based liquid crystal as a novel embolic agent to provide a sustained release delivery system is yet to be comprehensively demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to prepare a phytantriol-based cubic phase precursor solution loaded with anticancer drug hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT) and evaluate its embolization properties, in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity. Phase behavior of the phytantriol-solvent-water system was investigated by visual inspection and polarized light microscopy, and no phase transition was observed in the presence of HCPT within the studied dose range. Water uptake by the phytantriol matrices was determined gravimetrically, suggesting that the swelling complied with the second order kinetics. In vitro evaluation of embolic efficacy indicated that the isotropic solution displayed a satisfactory embolization effect. In vitro drug release results showed a sustained-release up to 30 days and the release behavior was affected by the initial composition and drug loading. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity and anticancer activity were evaluated by MTT assay. No appreciable mortality was observed for NIH 3T3 cells after 48 h exposure to blank formulations, and the anticancer activity of HCPT-loaded formulations to HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells was strongly dependent on the drug loading and treatment time. Taken together, these results indicate that phytantriol-based cubic phase embolic gelling solution is a promising potential carrier for HCPT delivery to achieve a sustained drug release by vascular embolization, and this technology may be potential for clinical applications.
Li, Fei; Zhou, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hongyu; Jia, Jianbo; Li, Liwen; Zhai, Shumei; Yan, Bing
Repeated administrations of anti-cancer drugs to patients often induce drug resistance. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) facilitates an efficient drug efflux, preventing cellular accumulation of drugs and causing multi-drug resistance (MDR). In this study, we developed a gold-paclitaxel nanoconjugate system to overcome MDR. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with β-cyclodextrin enclosing paclitaxel (PTX) molecules and PEG molecules. GNP conjugates were effectively endocytosed by both drug-sensitive human lung cancer H460 cells and Pgp-overexpressed drug-resistant H460PTX cells. Compared with PTX, PGNPs did not induce the Pgp overexpression in drug-sensitive H460 cells after long-term treatment and also avoided being pumped out of cells by overexpressed Pgp molecules in H460PTX with a 17-fold lower EC50 compared to PTX. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry further confirmed that fluorescent labeled PGNPs (f-PGNPs) maintained a high cellular PTX level in both H460 and H460PTX cells. These results demonstrated that nano-drug conjugates were able to avoid the development of drug resistance in sensitive cells and evade Pgp-mediated drug resistance and to maintain a high cytotoxicity in drug-resistant cancer cells. These findings exemplify a powerful nanotechnological approach to the long-lasting issue of chemotherapy-induced drug resistance. PMID:27467397
Heinrich, Michael; Bremner, Paul
Local and traditional knowledge has been the starting point for many successful drug development projects over the last decades. Here we discuss some examples of anti-cancer drugs which have had enormous impact as anti-cancer agents (camptothecan, taxol and derivatives) and a few examples of drugs currently under various stages of preclinical development. Ethnobotanists investigate the relationship between humans and plants in all its complexity, and such research is generally based on a detailed observation and study of the use a society makes of plants. The requirements of modern research on natural products as, for example, outlined in the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio Convention) and the overall approach in ethnobotanical research are also discussed. Selected phytochemical-pharmacological studies based on traditional plant use are used to highlight the potential of ethnobotany driven anti-cancer research. The link between traditionally used plants and targets of the NF-kappaB pathway is discussed using on an EU-funded, multidisciplinary project as an example. Lastly the potential of chemopreventive agents derived from traditional food plants is briefly addressed.
Oehadian, Amaylia; Koide, Naoki; Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi
autophagy is a pivotal physiological process for survival during starvation, differentiation and normal growth control. It is defined as the process of sequestrating cytoplasmic proteins or even entire organelles into the lytic compartment (lysosome/vacuole). This study investigates the expression of autophagy in Hodgkin lymphoma cells treated with various anti-cancer drugs. Hodgkin's lymphoma cells (HD-My-Z cells) were cultured with various anti-cancer drugs, such as bleomycin, adriamycin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. Autophagy was detected by fluorescent pattern of light chain 3(LC3) proteins and the apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V binding. autophagy was detected in HD-My-Z cells treated with gemcitabine, but not with bleomycin, adriamycin and paclitaxel. Adriamycin exhibited the strongest cytotoxic action, and the cytotoxic action of bleomycin and gemcitabine was less marked compared with adriamycin. Paclitaxel did not cause significant cell death in the cells. autophagy was differentially expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma cells treated with anti-cancer drugs and the expression did not correspond to the apoptotic cell death.
Yang, Tianzhi; Martin, Paige; Fogarty, Brittany; Brown, Alison; Schurman, Kayla; Phipps, Roger; Yin, Viravuth P.; Lockman, Paul
Purpose The blood–brain barrier (BBB) essentially restricts therapeutic drugs from entering into the brain. This study tests the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell derived exosomes can deliver anticancer drug across the BBB for the treatment of brain cancer in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Materials and Methods Four types of exosomes were isolated from brain cell culture media and characterized by particle size, morphology, total protein, and transmembrane protein markers. Transport mechanism, cell uptake, and cytotoxicity of optimized exosome delivery system were tested. Brain distribution of exosome delivered anticancer drugs was evaluated using transgenic zebrafish TG (fli1: GFP) embryos and efficacies of optimized formations were examined in a xenotransplanted zebrafish model of brain cancer model. Results Four exosomes in 30–100 diameters showed different morphologies and exosomes derived from brain endothelial cells expressed more CD63 tetraspanins transmembrane proteins. Optimized exosomes increased the uptake of fluorescent marker via receptor mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in cancer cells. Images of the zebrafish showed exosome delivered anticancer drugs crossed the BBB and entered into the brain. In the brain cancer model, exosome delivered anticancer drugs significantly decreased fluorescent intensity of xenotransplanted cancer cells and tumor growth marker. Conclusions Brain endothelial cell derived exosomes could be potentially used as a carrier for brain delivery of anticancer drug for the treatment of brain cancer. PMID:25609010
Yang, Tianzhi; Martin, Paige; Fogarty, Brittany; Brown, Alison; Schurman, Kayla; Phipps, Roger; Yin, Viravuth P; Lockman, Paul; Bai, Shuhua
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) essentially restricts therapeutic drugs from entering into the brain. This study tests the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell derived exosomes can deliver anticancer drug across the BBB for the treatment of brain cancer in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Four types of exosomes were isolated from brain cell culture media and characterized by particle size, morphology, total protein, and transmembrane protein markers. Transport mechanism, cell uptake, and cytotoxicity of optimized exosome delivery system were tested. Brain distribution of exosome delivered anticancer drugs was evaluated using transgenic zebrafish TG (fli1: GFP) embryos and efficacies of optimized formations were examined in a xenotransplanted zebrafish model of brain cancer model. Four exosomes in 30-100 diameters showed different morphologies and exosomes derived from brain endothelial cells expressed more CD63 tetraspanins transmembrane proteins. Optimized exosomes increased the uptake of fluorescent marker via receptor mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in cancer cells. Images of the zebrafish showed exosome delivered anticancer drugs crossed the BBB and entered into the brain. In the brain cancer model, exosome delivered anticancer drugs significantly decreased fluorescent intensity of xenotransplanted cancer cells and tumor growth marker. Brain endothelial cell derived exosomes could be potentially used as a carrier for brain delivery of anticancer drug for the treatment of brain cancer.
Fouladi, Farnaz; Steffen, Kristine J; Mallik, Sanku
Liposomes are nanocarriers that deliver the payloads at the target site, leading to therapeutic drug concentrations at the diseased site and reduced toxic effects in healthy tissues. Several approaches have been used to enhance the ability of the nanocarrier to target the specific tissues, including ligand-targeted liposomes and stimuli-responsive liposomes. Ligand-targeted liposomes exhibit higher uptake by the target tissue due to the targeting ligand attached to the surface, while the stimuli-responsive liposomes do not release their cargo unless they expose to an endogenous or exogenous stimulant at the target site. In this review, we mainly focus on the liposomes that are responsive to pathologically increased levels of enzymes at the target site. Enzyme-responsive liposomes release their cargo upon contact with the enzyme through several destabilization mechanisms: (1) structural perturbation in the lipid bilayer, (2) removal of a shielding polymer from the surface and increased cellular uptake, (3) cleavage of a lipopeptide or lipopolymer incorporated in the bilayer, and (4) activation of a prodrug in the liposomes.
Lonardi, Sara; Bortolami, Alberto; Stefani, Micaela; Monfardini, Silvio
The increasing number of elderly people in the world population has led to a parallel increase in the number of older cancer patients, with over 45% of all cancers in Europe occurring in patients >70 years of age. The increasing tendency to use oral chemotherapy is thus of interest in the elderly, given that both elderly patients and their physicians prefer to use less complex and toxic regimens when such treatments have equivalent efficacy to more complex regimens. However, data from studies designed to evaluate these therapies in the elderly are currently limited. Factors that must be considered before prescribing oral agents to this subset of patients include age-related physiological changes affecting clinical pharmacology, adherence, the patient's capability to self-administer medications, and safety issues concerning the older patient and his or her caregivers. The idea that elderly patients may benefit from the introduction of oral chemotherapy is very fashionable, but to date there is no proof that this approach is as effective as intravenous therapy in this age group, particularly since randomised trials are lacking. This review discusses these issues and reviews current information about the use of specific oral chemotherapeutic drugs for major neoplastic diseases in the elderly.
Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miura, Yuji; Kami, Masahiro
All-case post-marketing surveillance of newly approved anticancer drugs is usually conducted on all patients in Japan. The present study investigates whether all-case post-marketing surveillance identifies fatal adverse drug reactions undetected before market entry. We examined fatal adverse drug reactions identified via all-case post-marketing surveillance by reviewing the disclosed post-marketing surveillance results, and determined the time points in which the fatal adverse drug reactions were initially reported by reviewing drug labels. We additionally scanned emergency alerts on the Japanese regulatory authority website to assess the relationship between all-case post-marketing surveillance and regulatory action. Twenty-five all-case post-marketing surveillances were performed between January 1999 and December 2009. Eight all-case post-marketing surveillances with final results included information on all fatal cases. Of these, the median number of patients was 1287 (range: 106-4998), the median number of fatal adverse drug reactions was 14.5 (range: 4-23). Of the 111 fatal adverse drug reactions detected in the eight post-marketing surveillances, only 28 (25.0%) and 22 (19.6%) were described on the initial global and the initial Japanese drug label, respectively, and 58 (52.3%) fatal adverse drug reactions were first described in the all-case post-marketing surveillance reports. Despite this, the regulatory authority issued only four warning letters, and two of these were prompted by case reports from the all-case post-marketing surveillance. All-case post-marketing surveillance of newly approved anticancer drugs in Japan was useful for the rigorous compilation of non-specific adverse drug reactions, but it rarely detected clinically significant fatal adverse drug reactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chen, Zhipeng; Zhang, Liujie; Song, Yang; He, Jiayu; Wu, Li; Zhao, Can; Xiao, Yanyu; Li, Wei; Cai, Baochang; Cheng, Haibo; Li, Weidong
The overwhelming majority of drugs exert their pharmacological effects after reaching their target sites of action, however, these target sites are mainly located in the cytosol or intracellular organelles. Consequently, delivering drugs to the specific organelle is the key to achieve maximum therapeutic effects and minimum side-effects. In the work reported here, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated a novel mitochondrial-targeted multifunctional nanoparticles (MNPs) based on chitosan derivatives according to the physiological environment of the tumor and the requirement of mitochondrial targeting drug delivery. The intelligent chitosan nanoparticles possess various functions such as stealth, hepatocyte targeting, multistage pH-response, lysosomal escape and mitochondrial targeting, which lead to targeted drug release after the progressively shedding of functional groups, thus realize the efficient intracellular delivery and mitochondrial localization, inhibit the growth of tumor, elevate the antitumor efficacy, and reduce the toxicity of anticancer drugs. It provides a safe and efficient nanocarrier platform for mitochondria targeting anticancer drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shah, Mohsin; Ullah, Najeeb; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul
Despite several advancements in chemotherapy, cancer is still the second most frequent cause of mortality worldwide. Drug delivery to solid tumors is one of the most challenging aspects in cancer therapy. In pharmaceutical industries biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug carriers have attracted great research interest because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and sustained release of drugs. In our study we prepared poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)-mPEG (P(4HB)-mPEG) nanocarriers for the delivery of cisplatin as anticancer drug to mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. P(4HB) is more suitable candidate to be utilized in pharmaceutical industries due to its wide medical applications. P(4HB) is a homopolymer of 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), and belongs to a diverse class of materials called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) produced by microorganisms inside the cells as energy storage materials. P(4HB) has certain unique properties such as biocompatibility and rapid in vivo degradation, which differentiate it from others PHA based polymers. Novel amorphous amphiphilic block copolymer P(4HB)-mPEG nanocarriers were prepared and characterized. Flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy revealed a suppression effect by the cisplatin loaded nanocarriers on HT22 cell growth, and enhancement of apoptotic process of the cells compared to free drug treated cells. The amorphous polymeric nanocarriers could be effective vehicles for the sustained delivery of toxic anticancer drugs for the therapy of cancer.
Cardoso, Evelina; Csajka, Chantal; Schneider, Marie P; Widmer, Nicolas
The emergence of oral targeted anticancer agents transformed several cancers into chronic conditions with a need for long-term oral treatment. Although cancer is a life-threatening condition, oncology medication adherence-the extent to which a patient follows the drug regimen that is intended by the prescriber-can be suboptimal in the long term, as in any other chronic disease. Poor adherence can impact negatively on clinical outcomes, notably because most of these drugs are given as a standard non-individualized dosage despite marked inter-individual variabilities that can lead to toxic or inefficacious drug concentrations. This has been especially studied with the prototypal drug imatinib. In the context of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), increasingly advocated for oral anticancer treatment optimization, unreported suboptimal adherence affecting drug intake history may lead to significant bias in the concentration interpretation and inappropriate dosage adjustments. In the same way, suboptimal adherence may also bias the results of pharmacokinetic modeling studies, which will affect in turn Bayesian TDM interpretation that relies on such population models. Detailed knowledge of the influence of adherence on plasma concentrations in pharmacokinetic studies or in routine TDM programs is however presently missing in the oncology field. Studies on this topic are therefore eagerly awaited to better pilot the treatment of cancer with the new targeted agents and to find their optimal dosage regimen. Hence, the development and assessment of effective medication adherence programs are warranted for these treatments.
Ueno, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, K; Yanagi, Y; Yamada, Y
During the past 7 years since the enforcement of Japan's first GCP in October 1990, various standards and guidelines have been introduced in Japan. On the other hand, the harmonization of GCP has been the subject of major discussion at ICH in order to allow the mutual acceptance of clinical data from different countries. In order to further improve the reliability and consistency of clinical data and the ethics of clinical trials in Japan, the new GCP was enforced in April 1997. A clinical study is conducted by the sponsor, but will only be successful with the collaboration of trial subjects, medical institutions, heads of medical institutions, investigators, subinvestigators, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory technicians, and other assisting staff. Before the full enforcement of the new GCP, we, as sponsors of clinical trials, carried out a survey of the current status of clinical trials centering on the reactions of medical institutions to the new GCP, future of clinical trials on anti-cancer drugs in Japan, and differences in time from clinical trials to registration in Japan, the United State and Europe. We sent a questionnaire by facsimile to 21 pharmaceutical companies which have developed or are developing anti-cancer drugs and obtained replies from 20 companies (95%) from August 25 to 30, 1997. This paper reports issues concerning clinical trials on anti-cancer drugs based on the results of our survey.
Many small molecules, including bioactive molecules and approved drugs, spontaneously form colloidal aggregates in aqueous solution at micromolar concentrations. Though it is widely accepted that aggregation leads to artifacts in screens for ligands of soluble proteins, the effects of colloid formation in cell-based assays have not been studied. Here, seven anticancer drugs and one diagnostic reagent were found to form colloids in both biochemical buffer and in cell culture media. In cell-based assays, the antiproliferative activities of three of the drugs were substantially reduced when in colloidal form as compared to monomeric form; a new formulation method ensured the presence of drug colloids versus drug monomers in solution. We also found that Evans Blue, a dye classically used to measure vascular permeability and to demonstrate the “enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect” in solid tumors, forms colloids that adsorb albumin, as opposed to older literature that suggested the reverse. PMID:22625864
Oberoi, Rajneet K.; Parrish, Karen E.; Sio, Terence T.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Elmquist, William F.; Sarkaria, Jann N.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal and aggressive brain tumor that is resistant to conventional radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapies. Molecularly targeted agents hold great promise in treating these genetically heterogeneous tumors, yet have produced disappointing results. One reason for the clinical failure of these novel therapies can be the inability of the drugs to achieve effective concentrations in the invasive regions beyond the bulk tumor. In this review, we describe the influence of the blood–brain barrier on the distribution of anticancer drugs to both the tumor core and infiltrative regions of GBM. We further describe potential strategies to overcome these drug delivery limitations. Understanding the key factors that limit drug delivery into brain tumors will guide future development of approaches for enhanced delivery of effective drugs to GBM. PMID:26359209
Talevi, Alan; Gantner, Melisa E; Ruiz, María E
One of the greatest challenges in cancer drug therapy is to maximize the effectiveness of the active agent while reducing its systemic adverse effects. To add more, many widely-used chemoterapeutic agents present unfavorable physicochemical properties (e.g. low solubility, lack of chemical or biological stability) that hamper or limit their therapeutic applications. All these issues may be overcome by designing adequate drug delivery systems; nanocarriers are particularly suitable for this purpose. Nanosystems can be used for targeted-drug release, treatment, diagnostic imaging and therapy monitoring. They allow the formulation of drug delivery systems with user-defined characteristics regarding solubility, biodegradability, particle size, release kinetics and active targeting, among others. This review (Part I) focuses on recent patents published between 2008 and the present day, related to nanospheres, nanocapsules and nanogels applied to anticancer drug therapy. Other nanosystems is covered in a second article (Part II).
Girard, Yvonne K.; Wang, Chunyan; Ravi, Sowndharya; Howell, Mark C.; Mallela, Jaya; Alibrahim, Mahmoud; Green, Ryan; Hellermann, Gary; Mohapatra, Shyam S.; Mohapatra, Subhra
The development of a suitable three dimensional (3D) culture system for anticancer drug development remains an unmet need. Despite progress, a simple, rapid, scalable and inexpensive 3D-tumor model that recapitulates in vivo tumorigenesis is lacking. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of a 3D nanofibrous scaffold produced by electrospinning a mixture of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a block copolymer of polylactic acid (PLA) and mono-methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) designated as 3P. Cancer cells cultured on the 3P scaffold formed tight irregular aggregates similar to in vivo tumors, referred to as tumoroids that depended on the topography and net charge of the scaffold. 3P scaffolds induced tumor cells to undergo the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as demonstrated by up-regulation of vimentin and loss of E-cadherin expression. 3P tumoroids showed higher resistance to anticancer drugs than the same tumor cells grown as monolayers. Inhibition of ERK and PI3K signal pathways prevented EMT and reduced tumoroid formation, diameter and number. Fine needle aspirates, collected from tumor cells implanted in mice when cultured on 3P scaffolds formed tumoroids, but showed decreased sensitivity to anticancer drugs, compared to tumoroids formed by direct seeding. These results show that 3P scaffolds provide an excellent platform for producing tumoroids from tumor cell lines and from biopsies and that the platform can be used to culture patient biopsies, test for anticancer compounds and tailor a personalized cancer treatment. PMID:24146752
Gao, Guangxun; Chen, Liang; Huang, Chuanshu
Discovery of novel cancer chemotherapeutics focuses on screening and identifying compounds that can target 'cancer-specific' biological processes while causing minimal toxicity to non-tumor cells. Alternatively, model organisms with highly conserved cancer-related cellular processes relative to human cells may offer new opportunities for anticancer drug discovery when combined with chemical screening. Some organisms used for chemotherapeutic discovery include yeast, Drosophila, and zebrafish which are similar in important ways relevant to cancer study but offer distinct advantages as well. Here, we describe these model attributes and the rationale for using them in cancer drug screening research.
Imperatore, Concetta; Aiello, Anna; D'Aniello, Filomena; Senese, Maria; Menna, Marialuisa
The present review describes research on novel natural antitumor alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. The structure, origin, and confirmed cytotoxic activity of more than 130 novel alkaloids belonging to several structural families (indoles, pyrroles, pyrazines, quinolines, and pyridoacridines), together with some of their synthetic analogs, are illustrated. Recent discoveries concerning the current state of the potential and/or development of some of them as new drugs, as well as the current knowledge regarding their modes of action, are also summarized. A special emphasis is given to the role of marine invertebrate alkaloids as an important source of leads for anticancer drug discovery.
Golikov, A S; Tikhomirova, A V
In Russia, the incidence of melanoma is increasing steadily. The approved standard of specialized medical care for melanoma of the skin defined the range of drugs, recommended for the provision of quality health care. However, it appears that the most effective innovative and safe medicines are at the same time the most expensive drugs. The most important is the assessment of drug use, taking into account their relative efficacy, safety (risk/benefit) and cost (economic efficiency), which may help to create the conditions for controlling their use. Based on this analysis, it is necessary to introduce drugs on the lists of drugs within the framework of the provision of state guarantees of free medical care to citizens (patients). To analyze the drug use according to the standard of specialized medical care for melanoma of the skin, to perform information retrieval in specialized libraries and databases Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline, as well as in the database of the state register of medicines (GRLS) of Russian Ministry of Health. The nomenclature of drugs was determined according to the standards of specialized medical care for 2006 and 2012, to the data of GRLS; information searches were performed in specialized libraries and databases Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline. Analysis of anticancer drugs for melanoma of the skin consisted of determining of nomenclature of drugs, included in the standard of specialized medicine care. The standard of specialized medicine care for patients with malignant melanoma of the skin (with specialized assistance) (Order dated December 6, 2006 № 828) includes the following anticancer drugs: dacarbazine (alkylating agents), vinblastine (antineoplastic agent - an alkaloid), cisplatin (platinum), lomustine (nitrosoureas), bleomycin (antitumor agent, an antibiotic) . The standard of specialized medical care in melanoma skin generalization or recurrent disease (chemotherapy) (Order of November 7, 2012 № 604n) includes the following anticancer
Lee, Dong Woo; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Seo, Yun Jee; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Jeon, Sang Youl; Ku, Bosung; Kim, Sangjin; Yi, Sang Hyun; Nam, Do-Hyun
Contemporary cancer therapy refers to treatment based on genetic abnormalities found in patient's tumor. However, this approach is faced with numerous challenges, including tumor heterogeneity and molecular evolution, insufficient tumor samples available along with genetic information linking to clinical outcomes, lack of therapeutic drugs containing pharmacogenomic information, and technical limitations of rapid drug efficacy tests with insufficient quantities of primary cancer cells from patients. To address these problems and improve clinical outcomes of current personalized gene-targeted cancer therapy, we have developed a micropillar/microwell chip platform, which is ideally suited for encapsulating primary cancer cells in nanoscale spots of hydrogels on the chip, generating efficacy data with various drugs, eventually allowing for a comparison of the in vitro data obtained from the chip with clinical data as well as gene expression data. As a proof of concept in this study, we have encapsulated a U251 brain cancer cell line and three primary brain cancer cells from patients (448T, 464T, and 775T) in 30 nL droplets of alginate and then tested the therapeutic efficacy of 24 anticancer drugs by measuring their dose responses. As a result, the IC50 values of 24 anticancer drugs obtained from the brain cancer cells clearly showed patient cell-specific efficacy, some of which were well-correlated with their oncogene overexpression (c-Met and FGFR1) as well as the in vivo previous results of the mouse xenograft model with the three primary brain cancer cells.
Lu, Kun-Ying; Li, Rou; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Shen-Chieh; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long
Fucoidan, a sulfated marine polysaccharide, has many potential biological functions, including anticancer activity. Recently, fucoidan has been reported to target P-selectin expressed on metastatic cancer cells. Increasing research attention has been devoted to the developments of fucoidan-based nanomedicine. However, the application of traditional chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles in anticancer drug delivery may be limited due to the deprotonation of chitosan at a pH greater than 6.5. In this study, a mutli-stimuli-responsive nanoparticle self-assembled by fucoidan and a cationic polypeptide (protamine) was developed, and their pH-/enzyme-responsive properties were characterized by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential analysis. Enzymatic digestion and acidic intracellular microenvironment (pH 4.5-5.5) in cancer cells triggered the release of an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) from the nanoparticles. The protamine/fucoidan complex nanoparticles with P-selectin mediated endocytosis, charge conversion and stimuli-tunable release properties showed an improved inhibitory effect against a metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231).
Kamath, Pooja R; Sunil, Dhanya
Cancer is one of the most awful lethal diseases all over the world and the success of its current chemotherapeutic treatment strategies is limited due to several associated drawbacks. The exploration of cancer cell physiology and its microenvironment have exposed the potential of various classes of nanocarriers to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutic agents at the tumor target site. These nanocarriers must evade the immune surveillance system and achieve target selectivity. Besides, they must gain access in to the interior of cancerous cells, evade endosomal entrapment and discharge the drugs in a sustained manner. Chitosan, the second naturally abundant polysaccharide is a biocompatible, biodegradable and mucoadhesive cationic polymer which has been exploited extensively in the last few years in the effective delivery of anticancer chemotherapeutics to the target tumor cells. Therapeutic agent-loaded surface modified chitosan nanoparticles are established to be more stable, permeable and bioactive. This review will provide an up-to-date evidence-based background on recent pharmaceutical advancements in the transformation of chitosan nanoparticles for smart anticancer therapeutic drug delivery.
Chen, Jian; Zhang, Bei; Xia, Fei; Xie, Yunchang; Jiang, Sifan; Su, Rui; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei
Breaking the natural barriers of cell membranes achieves fast entry of therapeutics, which leads to enhanced efficacy and helps overcome multiple drug resistance. Herein, transmembrane delivery of a series of small molecule anticancer drugs was achieved by the construction of artificial transmembrane nanochannels formed by self-assembly of cyclic peptide (cyclo[Gln-(d-Leu-Trp)4-d-Leu], CP) nanotubes (CPNTs) in the lipid bilayers. Our in vitro study in liposomes indicated that the transport of molecules with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm, which is the internal diameter of the CPNTs, could be significantly enhanced by CPNTs in a size-selective and dose-dependent manner. Facilitated uptake of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was also confirmed in the BEL7402 cell line. On the contrary, CPs could facilitate neither the transport across liposomal membranes nor the uptake by cell lines of cytarabine, a counterevidence drug with a size of 1.1 nm. CPs had a very weak anticancer efficacy, but could significantly reduce the IC50 of 5-FU in BEL7402, HeLa and S180 cell lines. Analysis by a q test revealed that a combination of 5-FU and CP had a synergistic effect in BEL7402 at all CP levels, in S180 at CP levels higher than 64 μg mL(-1), but not in HeLa, where an additive effect was observed. Temporarily, intratumoral injection is believed to be the best way for CP administration. In vivo imaging using (125)I radio-labelled CP confirmed that CPNPTs were completely localized in the tumor tissues, and translocation to other tissues was negligible. In vivo anticancer efficacy was studied in the grafted S180 solid tumor model in mice, and the results indicated that tumor growth was greatly inhibited by the combinatory use of 5-FU and CP, and a synergistic effect was observed at CP doses of 0.25 mg per kg bw. It is concluded that facilitated transmembrane delivery of anticancer drugs with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm was achieved, and the synergistic anticancer effect was confirmed both in cell
Tan, Guang-Rong; Feng, Si-Shen; Leong, David T
Docetaxel (DCL) and tamoxifen (TAM) individually are potent drugs in the fight against breast cancer. However when used in combination, they become antagonistic because of differential metabolism of both drugs. We reasoned that by spatially protecting them from metabolizing enzymes with poly (lactide)-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS) nanoparticles (NPs), we might reduce this drug antagonism. We now report that the drug antagonism between DCL and TAM in MCF7 cell line, was significantly reduced when co-delivered in PLA-TPGS NPs. In addition, this effect of NPs attenuated at high drug concentrations. To investigate the role of NPs in the reduction of drug antagonism, we quantified cellular uptake of the fluorescent model drug coumarin 6 (C6) encapsulated in a rigorous permutation of drugs-nanoparticles ratios. NPs carrying C6 exhibited enhanced cellular uptake over their free C6 counterparts at correspondingly low drug concentrations. This led us to conclude that the reduction of drug antagonism by NPs is correlated to cellular uptake and being in NPs therefore protects both drugs until they are released intracellular for therapeutic anti-cancer effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Misiak, Majus; Mantegazza, Francesco; Beretta, Giovanni L
DNA damaging agents including anthracyclines, camptothecins and platinum drugs are among most frequently used drugs in the chemotherapeutic routine. Due to their relatively low selectivity for cancer cells, administration of these drugs is associated with adverse side effects, inherent genotoxicity with risk of developing secondary cancers. Development of new drugs, which could be spared of these drawbacks and characterize by improved antitumor efficacy, remains challenging yet vitally important task. These properties are in large part dictated by the selectivity of interaction between the drug and DNA and in this way the studies aimed at elucidating the complex interactions between ligand and DNA represent a key step in the drug development. Studies of the drug-DNA interactions encompass determination of DNA sequence specificity and mode of DNA binding as well as kinetic, dynamic and structural parameters of binding. Here, we consider the types of interactions between small molecule ligands and polynucleotides, how they are affected by DNA sequence and structure, and what is their significance for the antitumor activity. Based on this knowledge, we discuss the wide array of experimental techniques available to researchers for studying drug-DNA interactions, which include absorption and emission spectroscopies, NMR, magnetic and optical tweezers or atomic force microscopy. We show, using the clinical and experimental anticancer drugs as examples, how these methods provide various types of information and at the same time complement each other to provide full picture of drug- DNA interaction and aid in the development of new drugs.
Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Shivaputra A; Patil, Renukadevi; Keri, Rangappa S; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Balakrishna, Geetha R; Tacke, Matthias
Late transition metal complexes that bear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have seen a speedy growth in their use as both, metal-based drug candidates and potentially active homogeneous catalysts in a plethora of C-C and C-N bond forming reactions. This review article focuses on the recent developments and advances in preparation and characterization of NHC-metal complexes (metal: silver, gold, copper, palladium, nickel and ruthenium) and their biomedical applications. Their design, syntheses and characterization have been reviewed and correlated to their antimicrobial and anticancer efficacies. All these initial discoveries help validate the great potential of NHC-metal derivatives as a class of effective antimicrobial and anticancer agents.
Chwalek, Karolina; Bray, Laura J; Werner, Carsten
Angiogenesis is indispensable for solid tumor expansion, and thus it has become a major target of cancer research and anti-cancer therapies. Deciphering the arcane actions of various cell populations during tumor angiogenesis requires sophisticated research models, which could capture the dynamics and complexity of the process. There is a continuous need for improvement of existing research models, which engages interdisciplinary approaches of tissue engineering with life sciences. Tireless efforts to develop a new model to study tumor angiogenesis result in innovative solutions, which bring us one step closer to decipher the dubious nature of cancer. This review aims to overview the recent developments, current limitations and future challenges in three-dimensional tissue-engineered models for the study of tumor angiogenesis and for the purpose of elucidating novel targets aimed at anti-cancer drug discovery.
Meurette, Olivier; Fontaine, Anne; Rebillard, Amelie; Le Moigne, Gwenaelle; Lamy, Thierry; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese
TRAIL (TNF-alpha-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand) is a promising anticancer agent. In fact, it induces apoptosis in cancer cells and not in most normal cells. Nevertheless, certain cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and this could limit TRAIL's efficiency in cancer therapy. To overcome TRAIL resistance, a combination of TRAIL with chemotherapy could be used in cancer treatment. However, sensitivity of human normal cells to such combinations is not well known. We showed in this study that TRAIL/cisplatin, in contrast to TRAIL/5-fluorouracil, was toxic toward human primary hepatocytes and resting lymphocytes. Furthermore, both combinations are toxic toward PHA-IL2-activated lymphocytes. In contrast, freshly isolated neutrophils are resistant to TRAIL in combination or not with anticancer drugs.
Chen, Y. Z.; Zhang, Yong-Li; Prohofsky, E. W.
One of the binding modes of anticancer and antibiotic drugs bound to DNA is the formation of a cross link, i.e., binding is made through the formation of covalent bonds between a binding drug and DNA. In this work we present a computational method to calculate the binding stability of a drug cross linked to DNA. Our method is based on the modified self-consistent harmonic approach in which the disruption probabil- ity of the cross-linked bonds as well as hydrogen bonds is calculated from a statistical analysis of micro- scopic thermal fluctuational motions. A Morse potential with appropriate parameters is used to model the cross-linked covalent bonds. Our method is applied to an anticancer drug cisplatin-DNA oligomer d(CTCTAGTGCTCAC).d(GTGAGCACTAGAG) complex. We calculated the equilibrium binding constant of a cisplatin bound to this DNA oligomer. Our method can also be used to analyze the effect of drug binding on DNA base-pair thermal stability. We find that, despite the disruption of certain interbase H bonds, the thermal fluctuational opening probability Pop of base pairs in the cisplatin binding region is enhanced by the formation of non-Watson-Crick H bonds as well as cross-linked covalent bonds. Although the entire DNA helix is bent by cisplatin binding, the stability of the base pairs outside the binding region is only slightly affected by this deformation.
Hong, Areum; Lee, Hong Hee; Heo, Chae Eun; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Sunghwan; Kang, Dukjin; Kim, Hugh I.
With the growth of the pharmaceutical industry, structural elucidation of drugs and derivatives using tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) has become essential for drug development and pharmacokinetics studies because of its high sensitivity and low sample requirement. Thus, research seeking to understand fundamental relationships between fragmentation patterns and precursor ion structures in the gas phase has gained attention. In this study, we investigate the fragmentation of the widely used anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX), vinblastine (VBL), and vinorelbine (VRL), complexed by a singly charged proton or alkali metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) in the gas phase. The drug-cation complexes exhibit distinct fragmentation patterns in tandem mass spectra as a function of cation size. The trends in fragmentation patterns are explicable in terms of structures derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and theoretical calculations.
Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; ...
Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigatemore » the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.« less
Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.
Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.
Zhu, Qian; Qi, Haixia; Long, Ziyan; Liu, Shang; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Chunming; Dong, Lei
The difficulty of controlling drug release at an intracellular level remains a key challenge for maximising drug safety and efficacy. We demonstrate herein a new, efficient and convenient approach to extracellularly control the intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX), by designing a delivery system that harnesses the interactions between the system and a particular set of cellular machinery. By simply adding a small-molecule chemical into the cell medium, we could lower the release rate of DOX in the cytosol, and thereby increase its accumulation in the nuclei while decreasing its presence at mitochondria. Delivery of DOX with this system effectively prevented DOX-induced mitochondria damage that is the main mechanism of its toxicity, while exerting the maximum efficacy of this anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The present study sheds light on the design of drug delivery systems for extracellular control of intracellular drug delivery, with immediate therapeutic implications.
Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Urgellés, M.; Marrero-Alonso, J.; Marín, R.; Saavedra, C. J.; Boto, A.; Díaz, M.
We have demonstrated that chemically modified anticancer drugs can provide random laser (RL) when infiltrated in a biological tissue. A fluorescent biomarker has been covalently bound to tamoxifen, which is one of the most frequently used drugs for breast cancer therapy. The light emitted by the drug-dye composite is scattered in tissue, which acts as a gain medium. Both non-coherent and coherent RL regimes have been observed. Moreover, the analysis of power Fourier transforms of coherent RL spectra indicates that the tissues show a dominant random laser cavity length of about 18 µm, similar to the average size of single cells. These results show that RL could be obtained from other drugs, if properly marked with a fluorescent tag, which could be appealing for new forms of combined opto-chemical therapies.
Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.
The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.
Hong, Areum; Lee, Hong Hee; Heo, Chae Eun; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Sunghwan; Kang, Dukjin; Kim, Hugh I.
With the growth of the pharmaceutical industry, structural elucidation of drugs and derivatives using tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) has become essential for drug development and pharmacokinetics studies because of its high sensitivity and low sample requirement. Thus, research seeking to understand fundamental relationships between fragmentation patterns and precursor ion structures in the gas phase has gained attention. In this study, we investigate the fragmentation of the widely used anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX), vinblastine (VBL), and vinorelbine (VRL), complexed by a singly charged proton or alkali metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) in the gas phase. The drug-cation complexes exhibit distinct fragmentation patterns in tandem mass spectra as a function of cation size. The trends in fragmentation patterns are explicable in terms of structures derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and theoretical calculations.
Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.
The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808
Wang, Yuanyuan; Qi, Xin; Li, Dehai; Zhu, Tianjiao; Mo, Xiaomei; Li, Jing
Since the first anthracycline was discovered, many other related compounds have been studied in order to overcome its defects and improve efficacy. In the present paper, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new anthracycline, aspergiolide A (ASP-A), from a marine-derived fungus in vitro and in vivo, and we evaluated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity drug properties in early drug development. We found that ASP-A had activity against topoisomerase II that was comparable to adriamycin. ASP-A decreased the growth of various human cancer cells in vitro and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells via a caspase-dependent pathway. The anticancer efficacy of ASP-A on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts was further assessed in vivo. Results showed that, compared with the vehicle group, ASP-A exhibited significant anticancer activity with less loss of body weight. A pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study revealed that ASP-A was rapidly cleared in a first order reaction kinetics manner, and was enriched in cancer tissue. The maximal tolerable dose (MTD) of ASP-A was more than 400 mg/kg, and ASP-A was not considered to be potentially genotoxic or cardiotoxic, as no significant increase of micronucleus rates or inhibition of the hERG channel was seen. Finally, an uptake and transport assay of ASP-A was performed in monolayers of Caco-2 cells, and ASP-A was shown to be absorbed through the active transport pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that ASP-A has anticancer activity targeting topoisomerase II, with a similar structure and mechanism to adriamycin, but with much lower toxicity. Nonetheless, further molecular structure optimization is necessary.
Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Gautam, Ankur; Nanda, Jagpreet Singh; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Brahmachari, Samir Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.
In this study, we investigated drug profile of 24 anticancer drugs tested against a large number of cell lines in order to understand the relation between drug resistance and altered genomic features of a cancer cell line. We detected frequent mutations, high expression and high copy number variations of certain genes in both drug resistant cell lines and sensitive cell lines. It was observed that a few drugs, like Panobinostat, are effective against almost all types of cell lines, whereas certain drugs are effective against only a limited type of cell lines. Tissue-specific preference of drugs was also seen where a drug is more effective against cell lines belonging to a specific tissue. Genomic features based models have been developed for each anticancer drug and achieved average correlation between predicted and actual growth inhibition of cell lines in the range of 0.43 to 0.78. We hope, our study will throw light in the field of personalized medicine, particularly in designing patient-specific anticancer drugs. In order to serve the scientific community, a webserver, CancerDP, has been developed for predicting priority/potency of an anticancer drug against a cancer cell line using its genomic features (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/cancerdp/). PMID:27030518
A novel application of pattern recognition to the screening of potential anti-cancer drugs is presented. Structural features of 200 drugs previously tested by the National Cancer Institute for activity in the solid tumor adenocarcinoma 755 screening test are input to a master program of pattern recognition methods. The programs were 93.5% accurate in discriminating drugs with positive anti-neoplastic activity versus those with no anti-cancer activity. Extensions to a more rational approach to ’ drug design ’ are also discussed. (Author)
Oh, Jae-Min; Park, Man; Kim, Sang-Tae; Jung, Jin-Young; Kang, Yong-Gu; Choy, Jin-Ho
We have been successful to intercalate anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg2Al(OH)6(NO3)·0.1H2O, through conventional co-precipitation method. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are endowed with great potential for delivery vector, since their cationic layers lead to safe reservation of biofunctional molecules such as drug molecules or genes. And their ion exchangeability and solubility in acidic media (pH<4) give rise to the controlled release of drug molecules. Moreover, it has been partly confirmed that LDH itself is non-toxic and facilitate the cellular permeation. To check the toxicity of LDHs, the osteosarcoma cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63) and the normal one (human fibroblast) were used for in vitro test. The anticancer efficacy of MTX intercalated LDHs (MTX-LDH nanohybrids) was also estimated in vitro by the bioassay such as MTT and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) with the bone cancer cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63). According to the toxicity test results, LDHs do not harm to both the normal and cancer cells upto the concentration of 500 ug/mL. The anticancer efficacy test for the MTX-LDH nanohybrids turn out to be much more effective in cell suppression compared to the MTX itself. According to the cell-line tests, the MTX-LDH shows same drug efficacy to the MTX itself in spite of the low concentration by ˜5000 times. Such a high cancer suppression effect of MTX-LDH hybrid is surely due to the excellent delivery efficiency of inorganic delivery vector, LDHs.
Pédeboscq, Stéphane; L'Azou, Béatrice; Liguoro, Dominique; Pometan, Jean-Paul; Cambar, Jean
Glioblastoma multiforme is a malignant astrocytic tumor characterized by rapid growth, extensive invasiveness and high vascularity. Despite advances in surgical techniques and in the development of new protocols in radio- and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor. Since the clinical response to chemotherapy varies greatly owing to different interindividual gene expression profiles, it would be of considerable interest to develop an in vitro model able to evaluate anticancer drug toxicity and the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies on cells obtained from individual patients. In the protocol for obtaining primary cultures of glioblastoma cells described in this report, a confluent monolayer of cells can be obtained within 1 or 2 weeks. A complementary immunocytochemical assay using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to reliably mark glial cells confirms the glial origin of the cultured cells. A cytotoxicity test based on mitochondrial activity is then used to evaluate in vitro drug efficacy. Cell dedifferentiation as evidenced by loss of GFAP expression after a few passages requires determination of drug toxicity before the fourth passage. Data show a wide range of response to temozolomide (1000 microM) after 72 h with 24-81% cell death depending on patients. Results presented confirm the heterogeneity of response to anticancer drugs between the patients and methods described allow to carry out cytotoxicity studies in order to determine the individualized most effective treatment.
Mascheroni, Pietro; Penta, Raimondo
We investigate the impact of microvascular geometry on the transport of drugs in solid tumors, focusing on the diffusion and consumption phenomena. We embrace recent advances in the asymptotic homogenization literature starting from a double Darcy-double advection-diffusion-reaction system of partial differential equations that is obtained exploiting the sharp length separation between the intercapillary distance and the average tumor size. The geometric information on the microvascular network is encoded into effective hydraulic conductivities and diffusivities, which are numerically computed by solving periodic cell problems on appropriate microscale representative cells. The coefficients are then injected into the macroscale equations, and these are solved for an isolated, vascularized spherical tumor. We consider the effect of vascular tortuosity on the transport of anticancer molecules, focusing on Vinblastine and Doxorubicin dynamics, which are considered as a tracer and as a highly interacting molecule, respectively. The computational model is able to quantify the treatment performance through the analysis of the interstitial drug concentration and the quantity of drug metabolized in the tumor. Our results show that both drug advection and diffusion are dramatically impaired by increasing geometrical complexity of the microvasculature, leading to nonoptimal absorption and delivery of therapeutic agents. However, this effect apparently has a minor role whenever the dynamics are mostly driven by metabolic reactions in the tumor interstitium, eg, for highly interacting molecules. In the latter case, anticancer therapies that aim at regularizing the microvasculature might not play a major role, and different strategies are to be developed.
Fu, Rong-Geng; Sun, Yuan; Sheng, Wen-Bing; Liao, Duan-Fang
The dominant paradigm in drug discovery is to design ligands with maximum selectivity to act on individual drug targets. With the target-based approach, many new chemical entities have been discovered, developed, and further approved as drugs. However, there are a large number of complex diseases such as cancer that cannot be effectively treated or cured only with one medicine to modulate the biological function of a single target. As simultaneous intervention of two (or multiple) cancer progression relevant targets has shown improved therapeutic efficacy, the innovation of multi-targeted drugs has become a promising and prevailing research topic and numerous multi-targeted anticancer agents are currently at various developmental stages. However, most multi-pharmacophore scaffolds are usually discovered by serendipity or screening, while rational design by combining existing pharmacophore scaffolds remains an enormous challenge. In this review, four types of multi-pharmacophore modes are discussed, and the examples from literature will be used to introduce attractive lead compounds with the capability of simultaneously interfering with different enzyme or signaling pathway of cancer progression, which will reveal the trends and insights to help the design of the next generation multi-targeted anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sukhatme, Vidula; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Pantziarka, Pan
Nitroglycerin (NTG), a drug that has been in clinical use for more than a century, has a range of actions which make it of particular interest in an oncological setting. It is generally accepted that the main mechanism of action of NTG is via the production of nitric oxide (NO), which improves cardiac oxygenation via multiple mechanisms including improved blood flow (vasodilation), decreased platelet aggregation, increased erythrocyte O2 release and decreased mitochondrial utilization of oxygen. Its vasoactive properties mean that it has the potential to exploit more fully the enhanced permeability and retention effect in delivering anti-cancer drugs to tumour tissues. Moreover NTG can reduce HIF-1α levels in hypoxic tumour tissues and this may have anti-angiogenic, pro-apoptotic and anti-efflux effects. Additionally NTG may enhance anti-tumour immunity. Pre-clinical and clinical data on these anti-cancer properties of NTG are summarised and discussed. While there is evidence of a positive action as a monotherapy in prostate cancer, there are mixed results in NSCLC where initially positive results have yet to be fully replicated. Based on the evidence presented, a case is made that further exploration of the clinical benefits that may accrue to cancer patients is warranted. Additionally, it is proposed that NTG may synergise with a number of other drugs, including other repurposed drugs, and these are discussed in the supplementary material appended to this paper. PMID:26435741
Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Qi, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Jin
Calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles (CaP-HNPs) have been synthesized in aqueous solution through self-assembly by using two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(acrylate sodium) (PAS)) as dual templates. First, the PAS/Ca(2+) and PDADMAC/PO4(3-) complexes form through electrostatic interactions and then two complexes self-assemble into CaP-HNPs after mixing them together. The as-prepared CaP-HNPs exhibit a spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution, good dispersibility, and high colloidal stability in water. The CaP-HNPs are explored as a nanocarrier for the anticancer drug docetaxel (Dtxl). The CaP-HNPs show excellent biocompatibility, high drug-loading capacity, pH-sensitive drug-release behavior, and high anticancer effect after being loaded with Dtxl. Therefore, the as-prepared CaP-HNPs are promising drug nanocarriers for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Pistone, Alessandro; Grassi, Giovanni; Galvagno, Signorino
Problems associated with the administration of anticancer drugs, such as limited solubility, poor biodistribution,lack of selectivity, and healthy tissue damage, can be overcome by the implementation of drug delivery systems. A wide range of materials, including liposomes, microspheres, polymers and recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been investigated for delivering anticancer drugs on the purpose of reducing the number of necessary administrations, providing more localized and better use of the active agents, and increasing patient compliance. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted particular attention as carriers of biologically relevant molecules due to their unique physical, chemical and physiological properties. The exact relationship between the physical-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes, their cell to-cell interactions, reactivity, and biological/systemic consequences are relevant issues and it is important to know suchinter-relationships beforehand to employ the benefits of these nanomaterials without the hazardous consequences. The purpose of this review is to present highlight of recent developments in the application of carbon nanotubes as cargoes for anti cancer drugs and in the diagnosis of cancer diseases.
Ishiguro, Akihiro; Yagi, Satomi; Uyama, Yoshiaki
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) or biomarker (BM) has the potential to facilitate the development of safer and more effective drugs in terms of their benefit/risk profiles by stratifying population into categories such as responders/non-responders and high-/low-risks to drug-induced serious adverse reactions. In the past decade, practical use of PGx or BM has advanced the field of anti-cancer drug development. To identify the characteristics of the PGx/BM-guided clinical trials for regulatory approval of anti-cancer drugs in Japan, we collected information on design features of 'key trials' in the review reports of anti-cancer drugs that were approved after the implementation of the 'Revised Guideline for the Clinical Evaluation of Anti-cancer drugs' in April 2006. On the basis of the information available on the regulatory review data for the newly approved anti-cancer drugs in Japan, this article aims to explain the limitations and points to consider in the study design of PGx/BM-guided clinical trials.
An, Guohua; Morris, Marilyn E
We conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of mitoxantrone (Novantrone®), a clinically well-established anticancer agent, in mice and developed a mechanism-based PBPK (physiologically based pharmacokinetic) model to describe its disposition. Mitoxantrone concentrations in plasma and six organs (lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and brain) were determined after a 5 mg/kg i.v. dose. We evaluated three different PBPK models in order to characterize our experimental data: model 1 containing Kp values, model 2 incorporating a deep binding compartment, and model 3 incorporating binding of mitoxantrone to DNA and protein. Among the three models, only model 3 with DNA and protein binding captured all the experimental data well. The estimated binding affinity for DNA (K (DNA)) and protein (K (macro)) were 0.0013 and 1.44 μM, respectively. Predicted plasma and tissue AUC values differed from observed values by <19 %, except for heart (60 %). Model 3 was further used to simulate plasma mitoxantrone concentrations in humans for a 12-mg/m(2) dose, using human physiological parameters. The simulated results generally agreed with the observed time course of mitoxantrone plasma concentrations in patients after a standard dose of 12 mg/m(2). In summary, we reported for the first time a mechanism-based PBPK model of mitoxantrone incorporating macromolecule binding which may have clinical applicability in optimizing clinical therapy. Since mitoxantrone is a substrate of the efflux transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1, the incorporation of efflux transporters may also be necessary to characterize the data obtained in low-dose studies.
Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng
The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has attenuated the efficacy of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating MDR in cancer cells by increasing efflux of drugs from cancer cells, hence reducing the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Interestingly, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as AST1306, lapatinib, linsitinib, masitinib, motesanib, nilotinib, telatinib and WHI-P154, have been found to have the capability to overcome anticancer drug resistance by inhibiting ABC transporters in recent years. This review will focus on some of the latest and clinical developments with ABC transporters, TKIs and anticancer drug resistance. PMID:25268163
Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Taylor, David J; Tian, Yanqing; Johnson, Roger H; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Rege, Kaushal
TNFα-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces death selectively in cancer cells. However, subpopulations of cancer cells are either resistant to or can develop resistance to TRAIL-induced death. As a result, strategies that overcome this resistance are currently under investigation. We have recently identified several US FDA-approved drugs with TRAIL-sensitization activity against prostate, breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Mitoxantrone, a previously unknown TRAIL sensitizer identified in the screen, was successfully encapsulated in methoxy-, amine- and carboxyl-terminated PEG-DSPE micelles in order to facilitate delivery of the drug to cancer cells. All three micelle types were extensively characterized for their physicochemical properties and evaluated for their ability to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced death. Our results indicate that micelle-encapsulated mitoxantrone can be advantageously employed in synergistic treatments with TRAIL, leading to a biocompatible delivery system and amplified cell killing activity for combination chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.
He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian
Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer. PMID:25187709
He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian
Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer.
Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu
Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen (1O2). However, 1O2 has a short lifetime (< 40 ns) and cannot diffuse (< 20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ~ 1,800 nm). Thus, 1O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping 1O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an 1O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, 1O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of 1O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anticancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data consistently
Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data
Wang, Cai-xia; Li, Chun-lei; Zhao, Xi; Yang, Han-yu; Wei, Na; Li, Yan-hui; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lan
This study is to compare the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal mitoxantrone (Mit-lipo) and free mitoxantrone (Mit-free). The antineoplastic effect of Mit-lipo was evaluated on PC-3 human xenograft tumor model after repeated intravenous injection at dose levels of 1, 2 and 4 mg x kg(-1). The pharmacokinetic study of Mit-lipo and Mit-free was performed on dogs following a single intravenous injection. The tissue distribution of Mit-lipo and Mit-free was observed on S-180 bearing mice after a single intravenous injection. (1) Pharmacodynamics: Mit-lipo dose-dependently inhibited PC-3 tumor growth at a dose ranging from 1 to 4 mg x kg(-1). The antitumor effect studies showed that Mit-lipo significantly improved the therapeutic effect in comparison with free drug. (2) Pharmacokinetics: in comparison with Mit-free, the AUC and t(1/2) values of Mit-lipo at the same dose level were higher than those of Mit-free in Beagle dogs. The results showed that Mit-lipo had long circulation characteristics. (3) Tissue distribution in S-180 bearing mice: compared to Mit-free, Mit-lipo preferentially accumulated into tumor zones instead of normal tissues. Tumor AUC in Mit-lipo treated animals was 8.7 fold higher than that in mice treated with the same dose of Mit-free. The Cmax values of Mit-lipo in heart, kidney, lung, spleen and intestinal tissue in Mit-lipo were 30.2%, 161.6%, 20.2%, 27.9% and 78.3% lower than those of Mit-free, respectively. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Mit-lipo changed obviously, thus increasing therapeutic effect and improving drug therapeutic index.
Chakraborty, Hirak; Devi, Pukhrambam Grihanjali; Sarkar, Munna; Dasgupta, Dipak
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aureolic acid group of anti-cancer drugs belong to the class of generic drugs. Research with some members of these two groups of drugs in different laboratories has unveiled functions other than those for which they were primarily developed as drugs. Here we have reviewed the molecular mechanism behind the multiple functions of these drugs that might lead to employ them for treatment of diseases in addition to those they are presently employed.
Chen, Jian; Zhang, Bei; Xia, Fei; Xie, Yunchang; Jiang, Sifan; Su, Rui; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei
Breaking the natural barriers of cell membranes achieves fast entry of therapeutics, which leads to enhanced efficacy and helps overcome multiple drug resistance. Herein, transmembrane delivery of a series of small molecule anticancer drugs was achieved by the construction of artificial transmembrane nanochannels formed by self-assembly of cyclic peptide (cyclo[Gln-(d-Leu-Trp)4-d-Leu], CP) nanotubes (CPNTs) in the lipid bilayers. Our in vitro study in liposomes indicated that the transport of molecules with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm, which is the internal diameter of the CPNTs, could be significantly enhanced by CPNTs in a size-selective and dose-dependent manner. Facilitated uptake of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was also confirmed in the BEL7402 cell line. On the contrary, CPs could facilitate neither the transport across liposomal membranes nor the uptake by cell lines of cytarabine, a counterevidence drug with a size of 1.1 nm. CPs had a very weak anticancer efficacy, but could significantly reduce the IC50 of 5-FU in BEL7402, HeLa and S180 cell lines. Analysis by a q test revealed that a combination of 5-FU and CP had a synergistic effect in BEL7402 at all CP levels, in S180 at CP levels higher than 64 μg mL-1, but not in HeLa, where an additive effect was observed. Temporarily, intratumoral injection is believed to be the best way for CP administration. In vivo imaging using 125I radio-labelled CP confirmed that CPNPTs were completely localized in the tumor tissues, and translocation to other tissues was negligible. In vivo anticancer efficacy was studied in the grafted S180 solid tumor model in mice, and the results indicated that tumor growth was greatly inhibited by the combinatory use of 5-FU and CP, and a synergistic effect was observed at CP doses of 0.25 mg per kg bw. It is concluded that facilitated transmembrane delivery of anticancer drugs with sizes smaller than 1.0 nm was achieved, and the synergistic anticancer effect was confirmed both in cell lines
El Khoury, Flaria; Corcos, Laurent; Durand, Stéphanie; Simon, Brigitte; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide. Several anticancer agents are available to treat CRC, but eventually cancer relapse occurs. One major cause of chemotherapy failure is the emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells, suspected to originate from the stem cell compartment. The aim of this study was to ask whether drug resistance was associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. We isolated drug-resistant derivatives of two human CRC cell lines, HT29 and HCT116, using two anticancer drugs with distinct modes of action, oxaliplatin and docetaxel. HT29 cells resistant to oxaliplatin and both HT29 and HCT116 cells resistant to docetaxel were characterized for their expression of genes potentially involved in drug resistance, cell growth and cell division, and by surveying stem cell-like phenotypic traits, including marker genes, the ability to repair cell-wound and to form colonospheres. Among the genes involved in platinum or taxane resistance (MDR1, ABCG2, MRP2 or ATP7B), MDR1 was uniquely overexpressed in all the resistant cells. An increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, in cyclin D1 and in CD26, CD166 cancer stem cell markers, was noted in the resistant cells, together with a higher ability to form larger and more abundant colonospheres. However, many phenotypic traits were selectively altered in either HT29- or in HCT116-resistant cells. Expression of EPHB2, ITGβ-1 or Myc was specifically increased in the HT29-resistant cells, whereas only HCT116-resistant cells efficiently repaired cell- wounds. Taken together, our results show that human CRC cells selected for their resistance to anticancer drugs displayed a few stem cell characteristics, a small fraction of which was shared between cell lines. The occurrence of marked phenotypic differences between HT29- and HCT116-drug resistant cells indicates that the acquired resistance depends mostly on the parental cell characteristics, rather than on the
Huang, Shan; Zhu, Fawei; Qiu, Hangna; Xiao, Qi; Zhou, Quan; Su, Wei; Hu, Baoqing
In this contribution, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for the determination of both the three ruthenium anticancer drugs (1 to 3) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was established based on the CdTe quantum dots (QDs) fluorescence "OFF-ON" mode. Under the experimental conditions, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs can be effectively quenched by ruthenium anticancer drugs because of the surface binding of these drugs on CdTe QDs and the subsequent photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process from CdTe QDs to ruthenium anticancer drugs, which render the system into fluorescence "OFF" status. The system can then be "ON" after the addition of ctDNA which brought the restoration of CdTe QDs fluorescence intensity, since ruthenium anticancer drugs broke away from the surface of CdTe QDs and inserted into double helix structure of ctDNA. The fluorescence quenching effect of the CdTe QDs-ruthenium anticancer drugs systems was mainly concentration dependent, which could be used to detect three ruthenium anticancer drugs. The limits of detection were 5.5 × 10(-8) M for ruthenium anticancer drug 1, 7.0 × 10(-8) M for ruthenium anticancer drug 2, and 7.9× 10(-8) M for ruthenium anticancer drug 3, respectively. The relative restored fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of ctDNA in the range of 1.0 × 10(-8) M ∼ 3.0 × 10(-7) M, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9983 and a limit of detection of 1.1 × 10(-9) M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 1.5 × 10(-7) M ctDNA was 1.5% (n = 5). There was almost no interference to some common chemical compounds, nucleotides, amino acids, and proteins. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ctDNA in three synthetic samples with satisfactory results. The possible reaction mechanism of CdTe QDs fluorescence "OFF-ON" was further investigated. This simple and sensitive approach possessed some potential applications in the investigation of interaction between drug molecules and DNA
The high failure rate of anticancer drug discovery and development has consumed billions of dollars annually. While many explanations have been provided, I believe that misinformation arising from inappropriate cell-based screens has been completely over-looked. Most cell culture experiments are irrelevant to how drugs are subsequently administered to patients. Usually, drug development focuses on growth inhibition rather than cell killing. Drugs are selected based on continuous incubation of cells, then frequently administered to the patient as a bolus. Target identification and validation is often performed by gene suppression that inevitably mimics continuous target inhibition. Drug concentrations in vitro frequently far exceed in vivo concentrations. Studies of drug synergy are performed at sub-optimal concentrations. And the focus on a limited number of cell lines can misrepresent the potential efficacy in a patient population. The intent of this review is to encourage more appropriate experimental design and data interpretation, and to improve drug development in the area of cell-based assays. Application of these principles should greatly enhance the successful translation of novel drugs to the patient.
The high failure rate of anticancer drug discovery and development has consumed billions of dollars annually. While many explanations have been provided, I believe that misinformation arising from inappropriate cell-based screens has been completely over-looked. Most cell culture experiments are irrelevant to how drugs are subsequently administered to patients. Usually, drug development focuses on growth inhibition rather than cell killing. Drugs are selected based on continuous incubation of cells, then frequently administered to the patient as a bolus. Target identification and validation is often performed by gene suppression that inevitably mimics continuous target inhibition. Drug concentrations in vitro frequently far exceed in vivo concentrations. Studies of drug synergy are performed at sub-optimal concentrations. And the focus on a limited number of cell lines can misrepresent the potential efficacy in a patient population. The intent of this review is to encourage more appropriate experimental design and data interpretation, and to improve drug development in the area of cell-based assays. Application of these principles should greatly enhance the successful translation of novel drugs to the patient. PMID:27750219
Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; Kundi, Michael; Žegura, Bojana; Novak, Matjaž; Filipič, Metka; Mišík, Miroslav; Knasmueller, Siegfried; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Žonja, Božo; Česen, Marjeta; Ščančar, Janez; Kosjek, Tina; Heath, Ester
Anticancer drugs are continuously released into hospital and urban wastewaters, where they, most commonly, undergo conventional treatment in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewaters contain complex mixtures of substances including parent compounds, their metabolites and transformation products (TPs). In this study, samples of hospital effluents and WWTP influents and effluents from Slovenia and Spain were analyzed for twenty-two selected anticancer drugs, their metabolites and transformation products. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed on the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, genotoxicity was determined with Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus (MN) assays and in vitro comet assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line (ZFL cells). Sixty of the two hundred-twenty determinations revealed detectable levels of anticancer drug residues. Among the targeted compounds, platinum based were most frequently detected (90%). Furthermore, erlotinib was detected in 80%, cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen in 70% and methotrexate in 60% of the samples. Seven of ten samples were toxic to C. dubia after acute exposure, whereas after chronic exposure all samples reduced reproduction of C. dubia at high sample dilutions. Allium cepa proved insensitive to the potential genotoxicity of the tested samples, while in Tradescantia increased MN frequencies were induced by a hospital effluent and WWTP influents. In ZFL comet assay all but one sample induced a significant increase of DNA strand breaks. Correlations of chemotherapeutics or their TPs were detected for all bioassays except for Allium cepa genotoxicity test, however for each test the highest correlations were found for different substances indicating differential sensitivities of the test organisms.
Little was known about drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) when acute ILD-type events developed in several Japanese patients treated with gefitinib. A better understanding of drug-induced ILD is required, including more reliable data about the incidence of events associated with different treatments and identification of the risk factors for this type of ILD. Recent advances in imaging, molecular examination, and pathology have been used in postmarketing surveillance studies designed and conducted by an independent academic team to define the risk and to increase the amount of evidence about ILD related to various molecularly targeted anticancer agents. These studies may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of drug-induced ILD and appropriate evidence-based strategies that can be used to prevent or manage these events.
Rungnim, Chompoonut; Chanajaree, Rungroj; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hannongbua, Supot; Kungwan, Nawee; Wolschann, Peter; Karpfen, Alfred; Parasuk, Vudhichai
The adsorption of nucleobase-analog anticancer drugs (fluorouracil, thioguanine, and mercaptopurine) on a graphene flake (C54H18) was investigated by shifting the site at which adsorption occurs from one end of the sheet to the other end. The counterpoise-corrected M06-2X/cc-pVDZ binding energies revealed that the binding stability decreases in the sequence thioguanine > mercaptopurine > fluorouracil. We found that adsorption near the middle of the sheet is more favorable than adsorption near the edge due to the edge effect. This edge effect is stronger for the adsorption of thioguanine or mercaptopurine than for fluorouracil adsorption. However, the edge effect reduces the binding energy of the drug to the flake by only a small amount, <5 kcal/mol, depending on the adsorption site and the alignment of the drug at this site.
Ueda, E; Sako, M; Hirota, S
In order to reduce the arterial damage following arterial chemo-infusion, arterial reaction to anti-cancer drugs and Corticosteroid were studied experimentally and clinically. In experiment, chemo-infusions (Mitomycin C, Adriamycin, Cisplatin) with or without Corticosteroid were carried out into the auricular and femoral arteries of rabbits, and the arterial changes were examined angiographically and histopathologically. The histologic examination showed the damages of various degrees characterized by intimal edema with pyknosis of endothelial cells, thrombus formation and detachment of intimal layer. The degree and frequency of the damage increased as the drug dose and concentration increased. However, higher blood flow and Corticosteroid could reduce the damages in some degrees. Clinically, bronchial arterial infusion of Cisplatin with or without Corticosteroid were studied. In conclusion, when angiography following ACI reveals narrowing and/or irregularity of the target artery, reduction of drug concentration and dose as well as elongation of infusion intervals are advised.
Guan, Bo; Zou, Fei; Zhi, Jinfang
Cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (CDDP, cisplatin), a widely used anticancer drug, is successfully loaded onto nanodiamond (ND) by adsorption and complexation. The CDDP-ND composite is characterized by IR spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. CDDP is released from the composite in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) of pH 6.0 at a rate higher than in PBS of pH 7.4. Therefore, it is predicted that the ND vehicle would deliver low concentrations of CDDP in the blood, but release much more drug after integration into the acidic cytoplasm, thereby reducing toxic side effects. The complexation between CDDP and the carboxyl groups on the ND surface is responsible for the pH-responsive release property. The drug released from the composite retains the same cytotoxicity as free CDDP against human cervical cancer cells.
Carlino, Luca; Rastelli, Giulio
Protein kinases play crucial roles in several cell transformation processes and are validated drug targets for many human diseases, including cancer. Nevertheless, most tumors have eluded the effects of inhibition of a single kinase by activating resistance mechanisms and/or alternative pathways and escape mechanisms. In recent years, multitarget approaches directed toward inhibition of kinases and targets of different families have received increasing attention. In particular, co-targeting kinases and bromodomain epigenetic reader proteins has rapidly emerged as a promising approach to cancer drug development. In this manuscript, we will review the recent discoveries that led to the identification and optimization of dual kinase/bromodomain inhibitors. We will analyze and compare the structural features required for dual inhibition and comment on the potential of this approach in anticancer drug discovery. Moreover, we will introduce computational approaches useful for the identification of dual kinase/bromodomain inhibitors and generate ad hoc pharmacophore and docking models.
Vande Voorde, Johan; Vervaeke, Peter; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan
Mycoplasmas may colonize tumor tissue in patients. The cytostatic activity of gemcitabine was dramatically decreased in Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected tumor cell cultures compared with non-infected tumor cell cultures. This mycoplasma-driven drug deamination could be prevented by exogenous administration of the cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor tetrahydrouridine, but also by the natural nucleosides or by a purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor. The M. hyorhinis-encoded CDAHyor gene was cloned, expressed as a recombinant protein and purified. CDAHyor was found to be more catalytically active than its human equivalent and efficiently deaminates (inactivates) cytosine-based anticancer drugs. CDAHyor expression at the tumor site may result in selective drug inactivation and suboptimal therapeutic efficiency.
Goto, Tetsuhiro; Matsubara, Taketo; Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Sasaya, Shouji; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Yutaka; Moriyama, Kenji; Kouchi, Yasuhide
Diarrhea is a side effect of a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) anti-cancer drug-induced intestinal mucosal disorder, which sometimes becomes more severe. Blood diamine oxidase (DAO; EC1. 4. 3. 6) activity is reported to be significantly correlated with activity in the small intestinal mucosal tissue, and to be a reliable indicator of small intestinal mucosal integrity and maturity. Here, we investigated whether blood DAO activity can be a biomarker for the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal disorder caused by 5-FU anti-cancer drugs, both in rats and humans. From results of the rat study, the degree of jejunal mucosal disorder caused by the 5-FU anti-cancer drug was well correlated with a decrease in blood DAO activity. Clinically, 12 out of 28 patients (43%) administered 5-FU anti-cancer drug suffered from diarrhea. The plasma DAO activity within one week of the onset of diarrhea significantly decreased compared with that before the administration. Furthermore, before drug administration, plasma DAO activity in patients suffering from diarrhea was higher than those in patients without diarrhea. Although DAO activity differs by the individual, it is a useful biomarker for estimating the degree of intestinal mucosal disorder, and possibly for estimating manifestations of diarrhea induced by 5-FU anti-cancer drug administration.
Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A
The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.
Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A.; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J.; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F.; Monahan, John E.; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A.; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H.; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K.; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D.; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C.; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E.; Weber, Barbara L.; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L.; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R.; Morrissey, Michael P.; Sellers, William R.; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A.
The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumor biology and therapeutic avenues remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacologic annotation is available1. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number, and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacologic profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Altogether, our results suggest that large, annotated cell line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of “personalized” therapeutic regimens2. PMID:22460905
Valter, Kadri; Chen, Lian; Kruspig, Björn; Maximchik, Polina; Cui, Hengmin; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Gogvadze, Vladimir
Tumor cells dependence on glutamine offers a rationale for their elimination via targeting of glutamine metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate how glutamine deprivation affects the cellular response to conventionally used anticancer drugs. To answer this question, neuroblastoma cells were pre-incubated in a glutamine-free medium and treated with cisplatin or etoposide. Obtained results revealed that glutamine withdrawal affected cellular response to therapeutic drugs in a different manner. Glutamine deprivation suppressed etoposide-induced, but markedly stimulated cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Suppression of etoposide-induced cell death correlated with a downregulation of p53 expression, which, among other functions, regulates the expression of death receptor 5, one of the activators of caspase-8. In contrast, stimulation of cisplatin-induced cell death involved reactive oxygen species-mediated downregulation of FLIP-S, an inhibitor of caspase-8. As a result, the activity of caspase-8 was stimulated causing cleavage of the pro-apoptotic protein Bid, which is involved in the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and the release of pro-apoptotic factors, such as cytochrome c from mitochondria. Thus, suppression of glutamine metabolism can sensitize tumor cells to treatment and could be utilized for anti-cancer therapy. However, it should be done cautiously, since adverse effects may occur when combined with an inappropriate therapeutic drug.
Zhang, Shan; Xu, Jianbin; Chen, Heng; Song, Zhangfa; Wu, Yalan; Dai, Xingyi; Kong, Jie
In this contribution, amphiphilic star copolymers (H40-star-PCL-a-PEG) with an H40 hyperbranched polyester core and poly(ε-caprolactone)-a-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer arms linked with acetal groups are synthesized using ring-opening polymerization and a copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition click reaction. The acid-cleavable acetal groups between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments of the arms endow the amphiphilic star copolymers with pH responsiveness. In aqueous solution, unimolecular micelles can be formed with good stability and a unique acid degradability, as is desirable for anticancer drug carriers. For the model drug of doxorubicin, the in vitro release behavior, intracellular release, and inhibition of proliferation of HeLa cells show that the acid-cleavable unimolecular micelles with anticancer activity can be dissociated in an acidic environment and efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. Due to the acid-cleavable and biodegradable nature, unimolecular micelles from amphiphilic star copolymers are promising for applications in intracellular drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy.
Feng, Shini; Zhang, Huijie; Yan, Ting; Huang, Dandi; Zhi, Chunyi; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiao-Dong
With its unique physical and chemical properties and structural similarity to carbon, boron nitride (BN) has attracted considerable attention and found many applications. Biomedical applications of BN have recently started to emerge, raising great hopes in drug and gene delivery. Here, we developed a targeted anticancer drug delivery system based on folate-conjugated BN nanospheres (BNNS) with receptor-mediated targeting. Folic acid (FA) was successfully grafted onto BNNS via esterification reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that BNNS-FA complexes were non-toxic to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Then, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a commonly used anticancer drug, was loaded onto BNNS-FA complexes. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes were stable at pH 7.4 but effectively released DOX at pH 5.0, which exhibited a pH sensitive and sustained release pattern. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes could be recognized and specifically internalized by HeLa cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes exhibited greater cytotoxicity to HeLa cells than free DOX and BNNS/DOX complexes due to the increased cellular uptake of DOX mediated by the FA receptor. Therefore, BNNS-FA complexes had strong potential for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:27695318
Jung, Bom; Shim, Man-Kyu; Park, Min-Ju; Jang, Eun Hyang; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kim, Jong-Ho
This study presented the development of hydrophobically modified polysialic acid (HPSA) nanoparticles, a novel anticancer drug nanocarrier that increases therapeutic efficacy without causing nonspecific toxicity towards normal cells. HPSA nanoparticles were prepared by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling between N-deacetylated polysialic acid (PSA) and 5β-cholanic acid. The physicochemical characteristics of HPSA nanoparticles (zeta-potential, morphology and size) were measured, and in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of PSA and HPSA nanoparticles were tested in A549 cells. In vivo cancer targeting of HPSA nanoparticles was evaluated by labeling PSA and HPSA nanoparticles with Cy5.5, a near-infrared fluorescent dye, for imaging. HPSA nanoparticles showed improved cancer-targeting ability compared with PSA. Doxorubicin-loaded HPSA (DOX-HPSA) nanoparticles were prepared using a simple dialysis method. An analysis of the in vitro drug-release profile and drug-delivery behavior showed that DOX was effectively released from DOX-HPSA nanoparticles. In vivo cancer therapy with DOX-HPSA nanoparticles in mice showed antitumor effects that resembled those of free DOX. Moreover, DOX-HPSA nanoparticles had low toxicity toward other organs, reflecting their tumor-targeting property. Hence, HPSA nanoparticles are considered a potential nanocarrier for anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Feng, Shini; Zhang, Huijie; Yan, Ting; Huang, Dandi; Zhi, Chunyi; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiao-Dong
With its unique physical and chemical properties and structural similarity to carbon, boron nitride (BN) has attracted considerable attention and found many applications. Biomedical applications of BN have recently started to emerge, raising great hopes in drug and gene delivery. Here, we developed a targeted anticancer drug delivery system based on folate-conjugated BN nanospheres (BNNS) with receptor-mediated targeting. Folic acid (FA) was successfully grafted onto BNNS via esterification reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that BNNS-FA complexes were non-toxic to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Then, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a commonly used anticancer drug, was loaded onto BNNS-FA complexes. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes were stable at pH 7.4 but effectively released DOX at pH 5.0, which exhibited a pH sensitive and sustained release pattern. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes could be recognized and specifically internalized by HeLa cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes exhibited greater cytotoxicity to HeLa cells than free DOX and BNNS/DOX complexes due to the increased cellular uptake of DOX mediated by the FA receptor. Therefore, BNNS-FA complexes had strong potential for targeted cancer therapy.
Shen, Haihui; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Huiyan; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qiwang; Shen, Hong; Liu, Yingchun
Some natural heterocyclic alkaloids containing planar group show potential to complex with specific promoter region of protooncogene for stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure which nowadays promises to be a target in anticancer drug design. However, in view of the polymorphic characteristics and structural complexity of heterocyclic alkaloids, it is desirable to develop high-throughput and low-consumption approach for anticancer drug screening. In this paper, an intensive study on alkaloid ligand/G4 DNA interaction has been conducted, demonstrating that the end-stacking interaction is the favorable binding mode between the oncogene-related Pu22 G4 DNA and the heterocyclic alkaloid ligand. Based on structural feasibility and energy minimization, a ligand displacement assay for screening alkaloid ligand in stabilizing the oncogene target G4 has been developed, which also helps to facilitate the assessment of drug specificity. Coupled with microfluidic-based DNAzyme-catalytic chemiluminescence detection, the approach showed the advantages of high sensitivity, high throughput with low sample and reagent consumptions.
Adiwidjaja, Jeffry; McLachlan, Andrew J; Boddy, Alan V
Curcumin has been extensively studied for its anti-cancer properties. While a diverse array of in vitro and preclinical research support the prospect of curcumin use as an anti-cancer therapeutic, most human studies have failed to meet the intended clinical expectation. Poor systemic availability of orally-administered curcumin may account for this disparity. Areas covered: This descriptive review aims to concisely summarise available clinical studies investigating curcumin pharmacokinetics when administered in different formulations. A critical analysis of pharmacokinetic- and pharmacodynamic-based interactions of curcumin with concomitantly administered drugs is also provided. Expert opinion: The encouraging clinical results of curcumin administration are currently limited to people with colorectal cancer, given that sufficient curcumin concentrations persist in colonic mucosa. Higher parent curcumin systemic exposure, which can be achieved by several newer formulations, has important implications for optimal treatment of cancers other than those in gastrointestinal tract. Curcumin-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are also almost exclusively in the enterocytes, owing to extensive first pass metabolism and poor curcumin bioavailability. Greater scope of these interactions, i.e. modulation of the systemic elimination of co-administered drugs, may be expected from more-bioavailable curcumin formulations. Further studies are still warranted, especially with newer formulations to support the inclusion of curcumin in cancer therapy regimens.
Hu, Jingjing; Su, Yunzhang; Zhang, Hongfeng; Xu, Tongwen; Cheng, Yiyun
In this study, dendrimers was synthesized by introducing functional groups into the interior pockets of fully acetylated dendrimers. NMR techniques including COSY and 2D-NOESY revealed the molecular structures of the synthesized dendrimers and the encapsulation of guest molecule such as methotrexate within their interior pockets. The synthesized polymeric nanocarriers showed much lower cytotoxicity on two cell lines than cationic dendrimers, and exhibited better performance than fully acetylated dendrimers in the sustained release of methotrexate. The results provided a new strategy in the design of non-toxic dendrimers with high performance in the delivery of anti-cancer drugs for clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Otaibi, Jamelah S.; Teesdale Spittle, Paul; El Gogary, Tarek M.
Anthraquinones form the basis of several anticancer drugs. Anthraquinones anticancer drugs carry out their cytotoxic activities through their interaction with DNA, and inhibition of topoisomerase II activity. Anthraquinones (AQ4 and AQ4H) were synthesized and studied along with 1,4-DAAQ by computational and experimental tools. The purpose of this study is to shade more light on mechanism of interaction between anthraquinone DNA affinic agents and different types of DNA. This study will lead to gain of information useful for drug design and development. Molecular structures were optimized using DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G(d). Depending on intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions two conformers of AQ4 were detected and computed as 25.667 kcal/mol apart. Molecular reactivity of the anthraquinone compounds was explored using global and condensed descriptors (electrophilicity and Fukui functions). Molecular docking studies for the inhibition of CDK2 and DNA binding were carried out to explore the anti cancer potency of these drugs. NMR and UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra of anthraquinones/DNA were investigated at the physiological pH. The interaction of the three anthraquinones (AQ4, AQ4H and 1,4-DAAQ) were studied with three DNA (calf thymus DNA, (Poly[dA].Poly[dT]) and (Poly[dG].Poly[dC]). NMR study shows a qualitative pattern of drug/DNA interaction in terms of band shift and broadening. UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra were employed to measure the affinity constants of drug/DNA binding using Scatchard analysis.
Baudouin, Amandine; Fargier, Emilie; Cerruti, Ariane; Dubromel, Amélie; Vantard, Nicolas; Ranchon, Florence; Schwiertz, Vérane; Salles, Gilles; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Thomas, Luc; Bérard, Frédéric; Nancey, Stéphane; Freyer, Gilles; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Rioufol, Catherine
In the context of health expenses control, reimbursement of high-cost medicines with a 'minor' or 'nonexistent' improvement in actual health benefit evaluated by the Haute Autorité de santé is revised by the decree of March 24, 2016 related to the procedure and terms of registration of high-cost pharmaceutical drugs. This study aims to set up the economic impact of this measure. A six months retrospective study was conducted within a French university hospital from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. For each injectable high-cost anticancer drug prescribed to a patient with cancer, the therapeutic indication, its status in relation to the marketing authorization and the associated improvement in actual health benefit were examined. The total costs of these treatments, the cost per type of indication and, in the case of marketing authorization indications, the cost per improvement in actual health benefit were evaluated considering that all drugs affected by the decree would be struck off. Over six months, 4416 high-cost injectable anticancer drugs were prescribed for a total cost of 4.2 million euros. The costs of drugs with a minor or nonexistent improvement in actual benefit and which comparator is not onerous amount 557,564 euros. The reform of modalities of inscription on the list of onerous drugs represents a significant additional cost for health institutions (1.1 million euros for our hospital) and raises the question of the accessibility to these treatments for cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bardin, C; Astier, A; Vulto, A; Sewell, G; Vigneron, J; Trittler, R; Daouphars, M; Paul, M; Trojniak, M; Pinguet, F
Stability studies performed by the pharmaceutical industry are only designed to fulfill licensing requirements. Thus, post-dilution or -reconstitution stability data are frequently limited to 24h only for bacteriological reasons regardless of the true chemical stability which could, in many cases, be longer. In practice, the pharmacy-based centralized preparation may require infusions to be made several days in advance to provide, for example, the filling of ambulatory devices for continuous infusions or batch preparations for dose banding. Furthermore, a non-justified limited stability for expensive products is obviously very costly. Thus, there is a compelling need for additional stability data covering practical uses of anticancer drugs. A European conference consensus was held in France, May 2010, under the auspices of the French Society of Oncology Pharmacy (SFPO) to propose adapted rules on stability in practical situations and guidelines to perform corresponding stability studies. For each anticancer drug, considering their therapeutic index, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) variability, specific clinical use and risks related to degradation products, the classical limit of 10% of degradation can be inappropriate. Therefore, acceptance limits must be clinically relevant and should be defined for each drug individually. Design of stability studies has to reflect the different needs of the clinical practice (preparation for the week-ends, outpatient transportations, implantable devices, dose banding…). It is essential to use validated stability-indicating methods, separating degradation products being formed in the practical use of the drug. Sequential temperature designs should be encouraged to replicate problems seen in daily practice such as rupture of the cold-chain or temperature-cycling between refrigerated storage and ambient in-use conditions. Stressed conditions are recommended to evaluate not only the role of classical variables (p
Morgan, D; Freshney, R I; Darling, J L; Thomas, D G; Celik, F
A method has been developed for measuring the drug sensitivity of human gliomas in short-term culture, using scintillation counting or autofluorography. Cell cultures prepared from malignant astrocytomas were treated with anticancer drugs whilst in exponential growth in microtitration plates. After drug treatment and a recovery period, residual viability was measured by [3H] leucine incorporation followed by scintillation counting or by [35S] methionine incorporation and autofluorography in situ. In 5 glioma cell lines tested against 6 drugs, the microtitration method correlated well with monolayer cloning. Although replicate samples of the same tumour showed little variation in chemosensitivity, there was marked variation between the chemosensitivities of cultures derived from the tumours of different patients. However, as variability between replicates was apparent during drug exposure or shortly after, it is important to allow the assay to run as long as possible after drug removal. It is hoped that this assay may provide the basis of a method for the prediction of in vivo chemosensitivity or the screening of potential chemotherapeutic drugs.
Morgan, D.; Freshney, R. I.; Darling, J. L.; Thomas, D. G.; Celik, F.
A method has been developed for measuring the drug sensitivity of human gliomas in short-term culture, using scintillation counting or autofluorography. Cell cultures prepared from malignant astrocytomas were treated with anticancer drugs whilst in exponential growth in microtitration plates. After drug treatment and a recovery period, residual viability was measured by [3H] leucine incorporation followed by scintillation counting or by [35S] methionine incorporation and autofluorography in situ. In 5 glioma cell lines tested against 6 drugs, the microtitration method correlated well with monolayer cloning. Although replicate samples of the same tumour showed little variation in chemosensitivity, there was marked variation between the chemosensitivities of cultures derived from the tumours of different patients. However, as variability between replicates was apparent during drug exposure or shortly after, it is important to allow the assay to run as long as possible after drug removal. It is hoped that this assay may provide the basis of a method for the prediction of in vivo chemosensitivity or the screening of potential chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:6297528
Cui, Jiwei; Yan, Yan; Such, Georgina K; Liang, Kang; Ochs, Christopher J; Postma, Almar; Caruso, Frank
We report a facile approach to immobilize pH-cleavable polymer-drug conjugates in mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) capsules for intracellular drug delivery. Our design takes advantage of the facile PDA coating to form capsules, the chemical reactivity of PDA films, and the acid-labile groups in polymer side chains for sustained pH-induced drug release. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) was conjugated to thiolated poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA(SH)) with a pH-cleavable hydrazone bond, and then immobilized in PDA capsules via robust thiol-catechol reactions between the polymer-drug conjugate and capsule walls. The loaded Dox showed limited release at physiological pH but significant release (over 85%) at endosomal/lysosomal pH. Cell viability assays showed that Dox-loaded PDA capsules enhanced the efficacy of eradicating HeLa cancer cells compared with free drug under the same assay conditions. The reported method provides a new platform for the application of stimuli-responsive PDA capsules as drug delivery systems.
Senapati, Sudipta; Thakur, Ravi; Verma, Shiv Prakash; Duggal, Shivali; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Das, Parimal; Shripathi, T; Kumar, Mohan; Rana, Dipak; Maiti, Pralay
Hydrophobic anticancer drug, raloxifene hydrochloride (RH) is intercalated into a series of magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with various charge density anions through ion exchange technique for controlled drug delivery. The particle nature of the LDH in presence of drug is determined through electron microscopy and surface morphology. The release of drug from the RH intercalated LDHs was made very fast or sustained by altering the exchangeable anions followed by the modified Freundlich and parabolic diffusion models. The drug release rate is explained from the interactions between the drug and LDHs along with order-disorder structure of drug intercalated LDHs. Nitrate bound LDH exhibits greater interaction with drug and sustained drug delivery against the loosely interacted phosphate bound LDH-drug, which shows fast release. Cell viability through MTT assay suggests drug intercalated LDHs as better drug delivery vehicle for cancer cell line against poor bioavailability of the pure drug. In vivo study with mice indicates the differential tumor healing which becomes fast for greater drug release system but the body weight index clearly hints at damaged organ in the case of fast release system. Histopathological experiment confirms the damaged liver of the mice treated either with pure drug or phosphate bound LDH-drug, fast release system, vis-à-vis normal liver cell morphology for sluggish drug release system with steady healing rate of tumor. These observations clearly demonstrate that nitrate bound LDH nanoparticle is a potential drug delivery vehicle for anticancer drugs without any side effect.
Ishii, Isao; Harada, Yasuo; Kasahara, Tadashi
Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is an FDA-approved classical anthelmintic, but is now attracting particular attention as an anti-cancer drug after recent findings of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines only during glucose starvation, as well as its anti-tumor activity against hypovascular pancreatic cancer cells transplanted in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which PP promotes such preferential toxicity against cancer cells are currently under extensive investigation. PP suppressed the NADH-fumarate reductase system that mediates a reverse reaction of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex II in anaerobic organisms such as parasitic helminthes or mammalian cells under tumor microenvironment-mimicking hypoglycemic/hypoxic conditions, thereby inhibiting efficient ATP production. PP also inhibited the unfolded protein response induced by glucose starvation, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Even under normoglycemic/normoxic conditions, PP suppressed the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex I and thereby STAT3, inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma/erythroleukemia cells. Here, we review accumulating knowledge on its working mechanisms and evaluate PP as a novel anti-cancer drug that targets mitochondrial respiration.
Fucci, Rossella; Santi, Raffaella; Canu, Letizia; Nesi, Gabriella; Mannelli, Massimo; Luconi, Michaela
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare heterogeneous malignancy with poor prognosis. Since radical surgery is the only available treatment, more specific and effective drugs are urgently required. The anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with a decreased cancer prevalence and mortality in several solid tumors, prompting its possible use for ACC treatment. This paper evaluates the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of metformin using the ACC cell model H295R. Metformin treatment significantly reduces cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and associates with a significant inhibition of ERK1/2 and mTOR phosphorylation/activation, as well as with stimulation of AMPK activity. Metformin also triggers the apoptotic pathway, shown by the decreased expression of Bcl-2 and HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70, and enhanced membrane exposure of annexin V, resulting in activation of caspase-3 apoptotic effector. Metformin interferes with the proliferative autocrine loop of IGF2/IGF-1R, which supports adrenal cancer growth. Finally, in the ACC xenograft mouse model, obtained by subcutaneous injection of H295R cells, metformin intraperitoneal administration inhibits tumor growth, confirmed by the significant reduction of Ki67%. Our data suggest that metformin inhibits H295R cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further preclinical studies are necessary to validate the potential anti-cancer effect of metformin in patients affected by ACC. PMID:27391065
Ishii, Isao; Harada, Yasuo; Kasahara, Tadashi
Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is an FDA-approved classical anthelmintic, but is now attracting particular attention as an anti-cancer drug after recent findings of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines only during glucose starvation, as well as its anti-tumor activity against hypovascular pancreatic cancer cells transplanted in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which PP promotes such preferential toxicity against cancer cells are currently under extensive investigation. PP suppressed the NADH-fumarate reductase system that mediates a reverse reaction of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex II in anaerobic organisms such as parasitic helminthes or mammalian cells under tumor microenvironment-mimicking hypoglycemic/hypoxic conditions, thereby inhibiting efficient ATP production. PP also inhibited the unfolded protein response induced by glucose starvation, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Even under normoglycemic/normoxic conditions, PP suppressed the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex I and thereby STAT3, inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma/erythroleukemia cells. Here, we review accumulating knowledge on its working mechanisms and evaluate PP as a novel anti-cancer drug that targets mitochondrial respiration. PMID:23061049
Koneracká, M.; Múčková, M.; Závišová, V.; Tomašovičová, N.; Kopčanský, P.; Timko, M.; Juríková, A.; Csach, K.; Kavečanský, V.; Lancz, G.
In this study, we have prepared PLGA (poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres loaded with biocompatible magnetic fluid and anticancer drug taxol by a modified nanoprecipitation technique and investigated their magnetic properties. A magnetic fluid, MF-PEG, with a biocompatible layer of polyethylene glycol (PEG), was chosen as a magnetic carrier. The PLGA, whose copolymer ratio of D,L-lactide to glycolide is 85:15, was utilized as a capsulation material. Taxol, as an important anticancer drug, was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. The morphology and particle size distributions of the prepared nanospheres were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed a spherical shape of prepared nanospheres with size 250 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis confirmed incorporation of magnetic particles and taxol into the PLGA polymer. The results showed good encapsulation with magnetite content 21.5 wt% and taxol 0.5 wt%. Magnetic properties of magnetic fluids and taxol within the PLGA polymer matrix were investigated by SQUID magnetometry from 4.2 to 300 K. The SQUID measurements showed superparamagnetism of prepared nanospheres with a blocking temperature of 160 K and saturation magnetization 1.4 mT.
Cho, Sang Woo; Na, Wooju; Choi, Minji; Kang, Shin Jung; Lee, Seok-Geun; Choi, Cheol Yong
Autophagy is a cellular process by which damaged organelles and dysfunctional proteins are degraded. Morusin is an anti-cancer drug isolated from the root bark of Morus alba. Morusin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by reducing STAT3 activity. In this study, we examined whether morusin induces autophagy and also examined the effects of autophagy on the morusin-induced apoptosis. Morusin induces LC3-II accumulation and ULK1 activation in HeLa cells. In addition, we found that induction of ULK1 Ser317 phosphorylation and reduction of ULK1 Ser757 phosphorylation occurred simultaneously during morusin-induced autophagy. Consistently, morusin induces autophagy by activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTOR activity. Next, we investigated the role of autophagy in morusin-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy by treating cells with the 3-methyladenine (3-MA) autophagic inhibitor induces high levels of morusin-mediated apoptosis, while treatment of cells with morusin alone induces moderate levels of apoptosis. Cell survival was greatly reduced when cells were treated with morusin and 3-MA. Taken together, morusin induces autophagy, which is an impediment for morusin-induced apoptosis, suggesting combined treatment of morusin with an autophagic inhibitor would increase the efficacy of morusin as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:28401008
Hendriks, Hans R; Govaerts, Anne-Sophie; Fichtner, Iduna; Burtles, Sally; Westwell, Andrew D; Peters, Godefridus J
The European NCI compounds programme, a joint initiative of the EORTC Research Branch, Cancer Research Campaign and the US National Cancer Institute, was initiated in 1993. The objective was to help the NCI in reducing the backlog of in vivo testing of potential anticancer compounds, synthesised in Europe that emerged from the NCI in vitro 60-cell screen. Over a period of more than twenty years the EORTC-Cancer Research Campaign panel reviewed ∼2000 compounds of which 95 were selected for further evaluation. Selected compounds were stepwise developed with clear go/no go decision points using a pharmacologically directed programme. This approach eliminated quickly compounds with unsuitable pharmacological properties. A few compounds went into Phase I clinical evaluation. The lessons learned and many of the principles outlined in the paper can easily be applied to current and future drug discovery and development programmes. Changes in the review panel, restrictions regarding numbers and types of compounds tested in the NCI in vitro screen and the appearance of targeted agents led to the discontinuation of the European NCI programme in 2017 and its transformation into an academic platform of excellence for anticancer drug discovery and development within the EORTC-PAMM group. This group remains open for advice and collaboration with interested parties in the field of cancer pharmacology.
Dovbeshko, G. I.; Repnytska, O. P.; Tryndiak, V. P.; Todor, I. N.
Interaction of DNA and phospholipids from Carcinoma Guerina resistant and sensitive cells of Wistar line rats with anti-cancer drugs - cis-platin and doxorubicin (DOX) have been studied in vivo and in vitro experiments. Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy was applied for registration of conformational changes in DNA and lipids induced by anti-cancer drugs. It has been shown in vivo experiment that doxorubicin influences less structural disordering of the membrane than cis-platin. Cis-platin creates irreversible complex with memebrane phospholipids, strongly interacting with phosophates and carbohydrate chains. Doxorubicin influences the ordering of carbohydrate chains and does not strongly influence phosphate heads. This change seems to be partially reversible. In contrast, in vivo experiment the doxorubicin strongly influences the DNA structure, leading to DNA stabilization and formation of new H-bonds in DNA-doxorubicin complex. We have not registered the interaction of DNA with cis-platin in vivo experiment. Experiment in vitro for cis-platin incubation with phospholipids from cancer cells during 0.5 hour at 37°C has not shown those drastic structural peculiarities that it was observed in vivo experiments.
Koneracká, M; Múčková, M; Závišová, V; Tomašovičová, N; Kopčanský, P; Timko, M; Juríková, A; Csach, K; Kavečanský, V; Lancz, G
In this study, we have prepared PLGA (poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres loaded with biocompatible magnetic fluid and anticancer drug taxol by a modified nanoprecipitation technique and investigated their magnetic properties. A magnetic fluid, MF-PEG, with a biocompatible layer of polyethylene glycol (PEG), was chosen as a magnetic carrier. The PLGA, whose copolymer ratio of D,L-lactide to glycolide is 85:15, was utilized as a capsulation material. Taxol, as an important anticancer drug, was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. The morphology and particle size distributions of the prepared nanospheres were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed a spherical shape of prepared nanospheres with size 250 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis confirmed incorporation of magnetic particles and taxol into the PLGA polymer. The results showed good encapsulation with magnetite content 21.5 wt% and taxol 0.5 wt%. Magnetic properties of magnetic fluids and taxol within the PLGA polymer matrix were investigated by SQUID magnetometry from 4.2 to 300 K. The SQUID measurements showed superparamagnetism of prepared nanospheres with a blocking temperature of 160 K and saturation magnetization 1.4 mT.
Banerjee, Shashwat S.; Chen, Dong-Hwang
A novel magnetic nanocarrier (CD-GAMNPs) was fabricated for targeted anticancer drug delivery by grafting cyclodextrin (CD) onto gum arabic modified magnetic nanoparticles (GAMNPs) using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a linker. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the product had a mean diameter of 17.1 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 44.1 nm. The CD grafting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the amount of CD grafted on the GAMNPs was 16.8 mg g-1. The study on the loading of anticancer drug all-trans-retinoic acid (retinoic acid) revealed that the newly fabricated magnetic nanocarrier possessed a considerably higher adsorption capability as compared to GAMNPs due to the special hydrophobic cavity structure of CD, which could act as a host-guest complex with retinoic acid. Furthermore, it was found that the complexation of CD-GAMNPs with retinoic acid was exothermic and the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) led to the decrease in the inclusion of retinoic acid because the linear structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate made it easier to enter the cavity of CD as compared to less linear retinoic acid. In addition, the in vitro release profile of retinoic acid from CD-GAMNPs was characterized by an initial fast release followed by a delayed release phase.
Kim, MunJu; Gillies, Robert J.; Rejniak, Katarzyna A.
Delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumor tissues, including their interstitial transport and cellular uptake, is a complex process involving various biochemical, mechanical, and biophysical factors. Mathematical modeling provides a means through which to understand this complexity better, as well as to examine interactions between contributing components in a systematic way via computational simulations and quantitative analyses. In this review, we present the current state of mathematical modeling approaches that address phenomena related to drug delivery. We describe how various types of models were used to predict spatio-temporal distributions of drugs within the tumor tissue, to simulate different ways to overcome barriers to drug transport, or to optimize treatment schedules. Finally, we discuss how integration of mathematical modeling with experimental or clinical data can provide better tools to understand the drug delivery process, in particular to examine the specific tissue- or compound-related factors that limit drug penetration through tumors. Such tools will be important in designing new chemotherapy targets and optimal treatment strategies, as well as in developing non-invasive diagnosis to monitor treatment response and detect tumor recurrence. PMID:24303366
Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Masood, Misbah; Saeed, M. A.
The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery. PMID:27348436
Wang, Xiaoqian; Hao, Liying; Zhang, Chaoliang; Chen, Jiao; Zhang, Ping
Targeted drug delivery is urgently needed for cancer therapy, and green synthesis is important for the biomedical use of drug delivery systems in the human body. In this work, we report two targeted delivery systems for anticancer drugs based on tea polyphenol functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (TPGs). The obtained TPGs demonstrated an efficient doxorubicin loading capacity as high as 3.430 × 10(6 )mg g(-1) and 3.932 × 10(4 )mg g(-1), and exhibited pH-triggered release. Furthermore, the kinetic models, adsorption isotherms, and possible loading mechanisms were investigated in details. Compared to TPG1 and free doxorubicin, TPG2 is biocompatible to normal cells even at high concentrations and promotes tumor cells death by delivering the doxorubicin mainly to the nuclei. These results were confirmed using cell viability tests and confocal laser microscopy. Moreover, apoptosis tests showed that the mechanism of cancer cell death induced by TPG1 and TPG2 might follow the similar mechanisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TPGs provide a multifunctional drug delivery system with a greater loading capacity and pH-sensitive drug release for enhanced cancer therapy. The high drug payload capability and enhanced antitumor efficacy demonstrate that we developed systems are promising for various biomedical applications and cancer therapy.
Yang, Chuan; Liu, Shao Qiong; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Gao, Shu Jun; Ke, Xiyu; Chia, Xin Tian; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan
Amphiphilic polycarbonate/PEG copolymer with a star-like architecture was designed to facilitate a unique supramolecular transformation of micelles to vesicles in aqueous solution for the efficient delivery of anticancer drugs. The star-shaped amphipilic block copolymer was synthesized by initiating the ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) from methyl cholate through a combination of metal-free organo-catalytic living ring-opening polymerization and post-polymerization chain-end derivatization strategies. Subsequently, the self-assembly of the star-like polymer in aqueous solution into nanosized vesicles for anti-cancer drug delivery was studied. DOX was physically encapsulated into vesicles by dialysis and drug loading level was significant (22.5% in weight) for DOX. Importantly, DOX-loaded nanoparticles self-assembled from the star-like copolymer exhibited greater kinetic stability and higher DOX loading capacity than micelles prepared from cholesterol-initiated diblock analogue. The advantageous disparity is believed to be due to the transformation of micelles (diblock copolymer) to vesicles (star-like block copolymer) that possess greater core space for drug loading as well as the ability of such supramolecular structures to encapsulate DOX. DOX-loaded vesicles effectively inhibited the proliferation of 4T1, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells, with IC50 values of 10, 1.5 and 1.0mg/L, respectively. DOX-loaded vesicles injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice exhibited enhanced accumulation in tumor tissue due to the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Importantly, DOX-loaded vesicles demonstrated greater tumor growth inhibition than free DOX without causing significant body weight loss or cardiotoxicity. The unique ability of the star-like copolymer emanating from the methyl cholate core provided the requisite modification in the block copolymer interfacial curvature to generate vesicles of high loading capacity for DOX with significant
Bae, Young-Ki; Sung, Jee Young; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Sunshin; Hong, Kyeong Man; Kim, Heung Tae; Choi, Min Sung; Kwon, Jae Young; Shim, Jaegal
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-established target for cancer treatment. EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors, such as gefinitib and erlotinib, have been developed as anti-cancer drugs. Although non-small cell lung carcinoma with an activating EGFR mutation, L858R, responds well to gefinitib and erlotinib, tumors with a doubly mutated EGFR, T790M-L858R, acquire resistance to these drugs. The C. elegans EGFR homolog LET-23 and its downstream signaling pathway have been studied extensively to provide insight into regulatory mechanisms conserved from C. elegans to humans. To develop an in vivo screening system for potential cancer drugs targeting specific EGFR mutants, we expressed three LET-23 chimeras in which the TK domain was replaced with either the human wild-type TK domain (LET-23::hEGFR-TK), a TK domain with the L858R mutation (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]), or a TK domain with the T790M-L858R mutations (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R]) in C. elegans vulval cells using the let-23 promoter. The wild-type hEGFR-TK chimeric protein rescued the let-23 mutant phenotype, and the activating mutant hEGFR-TK chimeras induced a multivulva (Muv) phenotype in a wild-type C. elegans background. The anti-cancer drugs gefitinib and erlotinib suppressed the Muv phenotype in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]-expressing transgenic animals, but not in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] transgenic animals. As a pilot screen, 8,960 small chemicals were tested for Muv suppression, and AG1478 (an EGFR-TK inhibitor) and U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) were identified as potential inhibitors of EGFR-mediated biological function. In conclusion, transgenic C. elegans expressing chimeric LET-23::hEGFR-TK proteins are a model system that can be used in mutation-specific screens for new anti-cancer drugs.
Tsuchiya, M; Nakajima, Y; Waku, T; Hiyoshi, H; Morishita, T; Furumai, R; Hayashi, Y; Kishimoto, H; Kimura, K; Yanagisawa, J
Many types of cancer display heterogeneity in various features, including gene expression and malignant potential. This heterogeneity is associated with drug resistance and cancer progression. Recent studies have shown that the expression of a major protein quality control ubiquitin ligase, carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), is negatively correlated with breast cancer clinicopathological stages and poor overall survival. Here we show that CHIP acts as a capacitor of heterogeneous Bcl-2 expression levels and prevents an increase in the anticancer drug-resistant population in breast cancer cells. CHIP knockdown in breast cancer cells increased variation in Bcl-2 expression levels, an antiapoptotic protein, among the cells. Our results also showed that CHIP knockdown increased the proportion of anticancer drug-resistant cells. These findings suggest that CHIP buffers variation in gene expression levels, affecting resistance to anticancer drugs. In single-cell clones derived from breast cancer cell lines, CHIP knockdown did not alter the variation in Bcl-2 expression levels and the proportion of anticancer drug-resistant cells. In contrast, when clonal cells were treated with a mutagen, the variation in Bcl-2 expression levels and proportion of anticancer drug-resistant cells were altered by CHIP knockdown. These results suggest that CHIP masks genetic variations to suppress heterogeneous Bcl-2 expression levels and prevents augmentation of the anticancer drug-resistant population of breast cancer cells. Because genetic variation is a major driver of heterogeneity, our results suggest that the degree of heterogeneity in expression levels is decided by a balance between genetic variation and the buffering capacity of CHIP.
Jangir, Deepak K.; Mehrotra, Ranjana
Mechanistic understanding of the interaction of drugs with their target molecules is important for better understanding of their mode of action and to improve their efficacy. Carboplatin is a platinum containing anticancer drug, used to treat different type of tumors. In the present work, we applied Raman spectroscopy to study the interaction of carboplatin with DNA at molecular level using different carboplatin-DNA molar ratios. These Raman spectroscopic results provide comprehensive understanding on the carboplatin-DNA interactions and indicate that DNA cross-linked adducts formed by carboplatin are similar to cisplatin adducts. The results indicate that guanine N7 and adenine N7 are the putative sites for carboplatin interaction. It is observed that carboplatin has some affinity toward cytosine in DNA. Phosphate sugar backbone of DNA showed conformation perturbation in DNA which were easily sensible at higher concentrations of carboplatin. Most importantly, carboplatin interaction induces intermediate A- and B-DNA conformations at the cross-linking sites.
Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni
The biguanide drug metformin profoundly affects cell metabolism, causing an impairment of the cell energy balance and triggering a plethora of pleiotropic effects that vary depending on the cellular or environmental context. Interestingly, a decade ago, it was observed that metformin-treated diabetic patients have a significantly lower cancer risk. Although a variety of in vivo and in vitro observations emphasising the role of metformin as anticancer drug have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are perturbed by metformin treatment and that might be relevant to understand its antitumour activities. We focus on the cell-autonomous mechanisms modulating growth and death of cancer cells.
Schneider-Berlin, Kristen R; Bonilla, Tonya D; Rowe, Thomas C
Dequalinium (DEQ), a drug with both antimicrobial and anticancer activity, induced the formation of petite (respiration-deficient) mutants in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DEQ was found to be approximately 50-fold more potent than ethidium bromide (EB) at inducing petites. Analysis of the DEQ-induced petite mutants indicated a complete loss of mitochondrial DNA (<1 copy/cell). Prior to the loss of mtDNA, DEQ caused cleavage of the mtDNA into a population of fragments 30-40kbp in size suggesting that this drug causes petites by inducing a breakdown of mtDNA. The selective effect of DEQ on yeast mtDNA may underlie the antifungal activity of this chemotherapeutic agent.
Lacal, Juan-Carlos; Carnero, Amancio
The Spanish National Cancer Center has launched a new series of cancer conferences devoted to timely themes in oncology. These meetings aim to bring together a maximum of 50 participants, including 20 to 25 speakers along with 25 to 30 participants for in-depth discussion of new results and ideas in frontline cancer research. There is no registration fee to attend, but participants must organize their own travel and accommodation expenses; free communications are presented as posters, but a few may be selected for short (15 min) oral presentations. This particular meeting was organized by Amancio Carnero and David H Beach, and was mostly devoted to state of the art methodologies for the identification of new targets for anticancer drug design, although the development of novel drugs was also discussed.
Lin, Clement; Yang, Danzhou
XR5944 is a potent anticancer drug with a novel DNA binding mode: DNA bis-intercalationg with major groove binding. XR5944 can bind the estrogen response element (ERE) sequence to block ER-ERE binding and inhibit ERα activities, which may be useful for overcoming drug resistance to currently available antiestrogen treatments. This review discusses the progress relating to the structure and function studies of specific DNA recognition of XR5944. The sites of intercalation within a native promoter sequence appear to be different from the ideal binding site and are context- and sequence- dependent. The structural information may provide insights for rational design of improved ERE-specific XR5944 derivatives, as well as of DNA bis-intercalators in general. PMID:25866279
Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni
The biguanide drug metformin profoundly affects cell metabolism, causing an impairment of the cell energy balance and triggering a plethora of pleiotropic effects that vary depending on the cellular or environmental context. Interestingly, a decade ago, it was observed that metformin-treated diabetic patients have a significantly lower cancer risk. Although a variety of in vivo and in vitro observations emphasising the role of metformin as anticancer drug have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are perturbed by metformin treatment and that might be relevant to understand its antitumour activities. We focus on the cell-autonomous mechanisms modulating growth and death of cancer cells. PMID:27875520
Ishida, Seiko; McCormick, Frank; Smith-McCune, Karen; Hanahan, Douglas
SUMMARY Uptake of the anticancer drug cisplatin is mediated by the copper transporter Ctr1 in cultured cells. Here we show in human ovarian tumors that low levels of Ctr1 mRNA are associated with poor clinical response to platinum-based therapy. Using a mouse model of human cervical cancer, we demonstrate that combined treatment with a copper chelator and cisplatin increases cisplatin-DNA adduct levels in cancerous but not in normal tissues, impairs angiogenesis, and improves therapeutic efficacy. The copper chelator also enhances the killing of cultured human cervical and ovarian cancer cells with cisplatin. Our results identify the copper transporter as a therapeutic target, which can be manipulated with copper chelating drugs to selectively enhance the benefits of platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20541702
Venkova, Larisa; Aliper, Alexander; Suntsova, Maria; Kholodenko, Roman; Shepelin, Denis; Borisov, Nicolas; Malakhova, Galina; Vasilov, Raif; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Effective choice of anticancer drugs is important problem of modern medicine. We developed a method termed OncoFinder for the analysis of new type of biomarkers reflecting activation of intracellular signaling and metabolic molecular pathways. These biomarkers may be linked with the sensitivity to anticancer drugs. In this study, we compared the experimental data obtained in our laboratory and in the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDS) project for testing response to anticancer drugs and transcriptomes of various human cell lines. The microarray-based profiling of transcriptomes was performed for the cell lines before the addition of drugs to the medium, and experimental growth inhibition curves were built for each drug, featuring characteristic IC50 values. We assayed here four target drugs - Pazopanib, Sorafenib, Sunitinib and Temsirolimus, and 238 different cell lines, of which 11 were profiled in our laboratory and 227 - in GDS project. Using the OncoFinder-processed transcriptomic data on ∼600 molecular pathways, we identified pathways showing significant correlation between pathway activation strength (PAS) and IC50 values for these drugs. Correlations reflect relationships between response to drug and pathway activation features. We intersected the results and found molecular pathways significantly correlated in both our assay and GDS project. For most of these pathways, we generated molecular models of their interaction with known molecular target(s) of the respective drugs. For the first time, our study uncovered mechanisms underlying cancer cell response to drugs at the high-throughput molecular interactomic level. PMID:26317900
Tian, Kun; Jia, Xu; Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng
Anticancer drugs cause severe side effects on normal tissues and organs due to their nonspecific delivery. Thus, tumor-targeting delivery of anticancer drugs remains a serious challenge in chemotherapy. Here a facile strategy was established for the pH/reductant dual-responsive core-cross-linked (CCL) micelles for tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drug, via in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). In the in vitro controlled release experiments with doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug, the premature drug leakage rate was only 13.4% in the physiological medium within 36 h, while the cumulative release rate in the stimulated tumor microenvironment reached 78.7%, demonstrating the excellent tumor microenvironment responsive controlled release behavior upon acidic medium with high GSH level. As a folate receptor (FR) mediated targeting drug delivery system (DDS), the micelles showed excellent cytocompatibility, and enhanced anticancer efficiency after loading of DOX, compared with free DOX.
Chinsriwongkul, Akhayacatra; Chareanputtakhun, Ponwanit; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-on, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Opanasopit, Praneet
The purpose of this research was to formulate nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the parenteral delivery of an anticancer drug, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The ATRA was incorporated into NLC by the de novo emulsification method. The effect of the formulation factor, i.e., type and oil ratio, initial ATRA concentration on physicochemical properties was determined. The anticancer efficacy of ATRA-loaded NLC on HL-60 and HepG2 cells was also studied. NLC was formulated using a blend of solid lipids (cetyl palmitate) and liquid lipids (soybean oil (S), medium-chain triglyceride (M), S/oleic acid (O; 3:1) and M/O (3:1)) at a weight ratio of 1:1. ATRA-loaded NLC had an average size of less than 200 nm (141.80 to 172.95 nm) with a narrow PDI and negative zeta potential that was within an acceptable range for intravenous injection. The results indicated that oleic acid enhanced the ATRA-loading capacity of NLC. In vitro ATRA release was only approximately 4.06% to 4.34% for 48 h, and no significant difference in ATRA release rate from all NLC formulations in accordance with the composition of the oil phase. Moreover, no burst release of the drug was observed, indicating that NLC could prolong the release of ATRA. The initial drug concentration affected the photodegradation rate but did not affect the release rate. All ATRA-loaded NLC formulations exhibited the photoprotective property. The cytotoxicity results showed that all ATRA-loaded NLC had higher cytotoxicity than the free drug and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to ATRA than HepG2 cells.
Xu, Jing; Luan, Shujuan; Qin, Benkai; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Qi, Peilan; Song, Shiyong
Well-defined biodegradable, pH-sensitive amphiphilic block polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-Hyd-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-Hyd-PLA) which have acid-cleavable linkages in their backbones, were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization initiated from hydrazone-containing macroinitiators. Introducing a hydrazone bond onto the backbone of an amphiphilic copolymer will find a broad-spectrum encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable micelles with average diameters of 100 nm. The mean diameters and size distribution of the hydrazone-containing micelles changed obviously in mildly acidic pH (multiple peaks from 1 to 202 nm appeared under a pH 4.0 condition) than in neutral, while there were no changes in the case of non-sensitive ones. Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were loaded with drug loading content ranging from 2.4 to 3.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, the anticancer drugs released from mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles could also be promoted by the increased acidity. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with the non-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) micelles. Confocal microscopy observation indicated that more DOX were delivered into the nuclei of cells following 6 or 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles. In vivo studies on H22-bearing Swiss mice demonstrated the superior anticancer activity of DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles over free DOX and DOX-loaded mPEG-PLA micelles. These hydrazone-containing pH-responsive degradable micelles provide a useful strategy for antitumor drug delivery.
Cruz-Muñiz, Martha Yumiko; López-Jacome, Luis Esau; Hernández-Durán, Melissa; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Licona-Limón, Paula; Ramos-Balderas, Jose Luis; Martinéz-Vázquez, Mariano; Belmont-Díaz, Javier A; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for recalcitrant infections owing to its high intrinsic tolerance to most antibiotics; therefore, suitable strategies to treat these infections are needed. One plausible approach is the repurposing of drugs that are already in use. Among them, anticancer drugs may be especially useful due their cytotoxic activities and ample similarities between bacterial infections and growing tumours. In this work, the effectiveness of four anticancer drugs on the growth of A. baumannii ATTC BAA-747 was evaluated, including the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil and three DNA crosslinkers, namely cisplatin, mitomycin C (MMC) and merphalan. MMC was the most effective drug, having a minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% of growth in Luria-Bertani medium at ca. 7 µg/mL and completely inhibiting growth at 25 µg/mL. Hence, MMC was tested against a panel of 21 clinical isolates, including 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, 3 of which were sensitive only to colistin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of MMC in all tested strains were found to be similar to those of A. baumannii ATCC BAA-747, and MMC also effectively killed stationary-phase, persister and biofilm cells. Moreover, MMC was able to increase survival of the insect larvae Galleria mellonella against an otherwise lethal A. baumannii infection from 0% to ≥53% for the antibiotic-sensitive A. baumannii ATCC BAA-747 strain and the MDR strains A560 and A578. Therefore, MMC is highly effective at killing the emergent opportunistic pathogen A. baumannii.
Kurzątkowska, Katarzyna; Santiago, Ty; Hepel, Maria
Targeted drug delivery systems using nanoparticle nanocarriers offer remarkable promise for cancer therapy by discriminating against devastating cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs to healthy cells. To aid in the development of new drug nanocarriers, we propose a novel plasmonic nanocarrier grid-enhanced Raman sensor which can be applied for studies and testing of drug loading onto the nanocarriers, attachment of targeting ligands, dynamics of drug release, assessment of nanocarrier stability in biological environment, and general capabilities of the nanocarrier. The plasmonic nanogrid sensor offers strong Raman enhancement due to the overlapping plasmonic fields emanating from the nearest-neighbor gold nanoparticle nanocarriers and creating the enhancement "hot spots". The sensor has been tested for immobilization of an anticancer drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, GEM) which is used in treatment of pancreatic tumors. The drawbacks of currently applied treatment include high systemic toxicity, rapid drug decay, and low efficacy (ca. 20%). Therefore, the development of a targeted GEM delivery system is highly desired. We have demonstrated that the proposed nanocarrier SERS sensor can be utilized to investigate attachment of targeting ligands to nanocarriers (attachment of folic acid ligand recognized by folate receptors of cancer cells is described). Further testing of the nanocarrier SERS sensor involved drug release induced by lowering pH and increasing GSH levels, both occurring in cancer cells. The proposed sensor can be utilized for a variety of drugs and targeting ligands, including those which are Raman inactive, since the linkers can act as the Raman markers, as illustrated with mercaptobenzoic acid and para-aminothiophenol.
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) consist of spherical solid lipid particles in the nanometer size range, which are dispersed in water or in an aqueous surfactant solution. SLN technology represents a promising new approach to deliver hydrophilic as well as lipophilic drugs. The commercialization of SLN technology remains limited despite numerous efforts from researchers. The purpose of this research was to advance SLN preparation methodology by investigating the feasibility of preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles by using three preparation methods namely microemulsion technique, magnetic stirring technique and temperature modulated solidification technique of which the latter two were developed in our laboratory. An anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was incorporated in the SLNs prepared via the temperature modulated solidification process. Optimization of the magnetic stirring process was performed to evaluate how the physicochemical properties of the SLN was influenced by systematically varying process parameters including concentration of the lipid, concentration of the surfactant, type of surfactant, time of stirring and temperature of storage. The results demonstrated 1:2 GMS to tween 80 ratio, 150 ml dispersion medium and 45 min stirring at 4000 RPM speed provided an optimum formulation via the temperature modulated solidification process. SLN dispersions were lyophilized to stabilize the solid lipid nanoparticles and the lyophilizates exhibited good redispersibility. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies. Particle size of SLN dispersion prepared via the three preparation techniques was approximately 66 nm and that of redispersed lyophilizates was below 500 nm. TEM images showed spherical to oval particles that were less dense in the core
Sun, Haotian; Yarovoy, Iven; Capeling, Meghan; Cheng, Chong
Recently, co-delivery of siRNA and anticancer drugs has drawn much attention in the treatment of drug-resistant cancers. Drug resistance is exhibited by cancer cells, which limits the efficacy of chemotherapy. When siRNA and anticancer drugs are delivered into cancer cells simultaneously, the siRNA is expected to silence the genes related to drug resistance, decreasing the drug efflux pumps and activating the cell's apoptosis pathways. In a timeframe following the release of siRNA, the accumulation of the co-delivered anti-cancer drug inside of the cancer cells will increase, resulting in promoted chemotherapeutic effects. Several classes of nanocarriers have been designed based on polymers for co-delivery, including surface-modified polymer nanoparticles (NPs), polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymer nanocapsules, polymer-modified liposomes, and polymer-modified silica and gold NPs. Compared with separate delivery, co-delivery showed significant advantages in the treatment of drug-resistant cancers. This review focuses on polymers in the co-delivery of siRNA and anticancer drugs, and summarizes key advances in the recent several years.
Ashley, Neil Poulton, Joanna
The anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DXR), are potent anti-cancer drugs but they are limited by their clinical toxicity. The mechanisms involved remain poorly understood partly because of the difficulty in determining sub-cellular drug localisation. Using a novel method utilising the fluorescent DNA dye PicoGreen, we found that anthracyclines intercalated not only into nuclear DNA but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Intercalation of mtDNA by anthracyclines may thus contribute to the marked mitochondrial toxicity associated with these drugs. By contrast, ethidium bromide intercalated exclusively into mtDNA, without interacting with nuclear DNA, thereby explaining why mtDNA is the main target for ethidium. By exploiting PicoGreen quenching we also developed a novel assay for quantification of mtDNA levels by flow-cytometry, an approach which should be useful for studies of mitochondrial dysfunction. In summary our PicoGreen assay should be useful to study drug/DNA interactions within live cells, and facilitate therapeutic drug monitoring and kinetic studies in cancer patients.
Gemma, Akihiko; Li, Cai; Sugiyama, Yuka; Matsuda, Kuniko; Seike, Yoko; Kosaihira, Seiji; Minegishi, Yuji; Noro, Rintaro; Nara, Michiya; Seike, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Shionoya, Aki; Kawakami, Akiko; Ogawa, Naoki; Uesaka, Haruka; Kudoh, Shoji
background The effect of current therapies in improving the survival of lung cancer patients remains far from satisfactory. It is consequently desirable to find more appropriate therapeutic opportunities based on informed insights. A molecular pharmacological analysis was undertaken to design an improved chemotherapeutic strategy for advanced lung cancer. Methods We related the cytotoxic activity of each of commonly used anti-cancer agents (docetaxel, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, 5-FU, SN38, cisplatin (CDDP), and carboplatin (CBDCA)) to corresponding expression pattern in each of the cell lines using a modified NCI program. Results We performed gene expression analysis in lung cancer cell lines using cDNA filter and high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We also examined the sensitivity of these cell lines to these drugs via MTT assay. To obtain our reproducible gene-drug sensitivity correlation data, we separately analyzed two sets of lung cancer cell lines, namely 10 and 19. In our gene-drug correlation analyses, gemcitabine consistently belonged to an isolated cluster in a reproducible fashion. On the other hand, docetaxel, paclitaxel, 5-FU, SN-38, CBDCA and CDDP were gathered together into one large cluster. Conclusion These results suggest that chemotherapy regimens including gemcitabine should be evaluated in second-line chemotherapy in cases where the first-line chemotherapy did not include this drug. Gene expression-drug sensitivity correlations, as provided by the NCI program, may yield improved therapeutic options for treatment of specific tumor types. PMID:16813650
Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh; Maghsudi, Maryam
The interaction of anticancer drug cytarabine with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove-binding mode, while the binding constant of UV-vis and the number of binding sites were 4.0 ± 0.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1.39, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drugs with CT-DNA is exothermic. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was employed to measure the conformational change of DNA in the presence of cytarabine. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity for DNA interaction. The molecular modeling results illustrated that cytarabine strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -20.61 KJ mol(-1). This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with biomacromolecules for clarifying the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.
Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Isidori, Marina
The eco-genotoxicity of six anti-neoplastic drugs, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib, belonging to five classes of anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC), was studied applying the in vivo comet assay on cells from whole organisms of Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia. For the first time, this test was performed in C. dubia. In addition, to have a wider genotoxic/mutagenic profile of the anticancer drugs selected, SOS chromotest and Salmonella mutagenicity assay were performed. The comet results showed that all drugs induced DNA damage, in both Cladocerans, with environmental concern; indeed Doxorubicin induced DNA damage in the order of tens of ng L(-1) in both crustaceans, as well as 5-flurouracil in C. dubia and cisplatin in D. magna. In the SOS Chromotest all drugs, except imatinib, were able to activate the repair system in Escherichia coli PQ37 while in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, doxorubicin was the only drug able to cause direct and indirect frameshift and base-pair substitution mutations. Comet assay was the most sensitive tool of genotoxic exposure assessment, able to detect in vivo the adverse effects at concentration lower than those evaluated in vitro by bacterial assays.
Li, Nan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Su, Yue; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu
Through the high affinity of the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) cavity for adamantane moieties, novel polysaccharide-gold nanocluster supramolecular conjugates (HACD-AuNPs) were successfully constructed from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) bearing adamantane moieties and cyclodextrin-grafted hyaluronic acid (HACD). Due to their porous structure, the supramolecular conjugates could serve as a versatile and biocompatible platform for the loading and delivery of various anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX), camptothecin (CPT), irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), and topotecan hydrochloride (TPT), by taking advantage of the controlled association/dissociation of drug molecules from the cavities formed by the HACD skeletons and AuNPs cores as well as by harnessing the efficient targeting of cancer cells by hyaluronic acid. Significantly, the release of anticancer drugs from the drug@HACD-AuNPs system was pH-responsive, with more efficient release occurring under a mildly acidic environment, such as that in a cancer cell. Taking the anticancer drug DOX as an example, cell viability experiments revealed that the DOX@HACD-AuNPs system exhibited similar tumor cell inhibition abilities but lower toxicity than free DOX due to the hyaluronic acid reporter-mediated endocytosis. Therefore, the HACD-AuNPs supramolecular conjugates may possess great potential for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.
Saini, V K; Sewal, R K; Ahmad, Yusra; Medhi, B
Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of anticancer drugs are a worldwide problem and cannot be ignored. Adverse drug reactions can range from nausea, vomiting or any other mild reaction to severe myelosuppression. The study was planned to observe the suspected adverse drug reactions of cancer chemotherapy in patients aged >18 years having cancer attending Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. During the study period, 101 patients of breast cancer and 73 patients of lung cancer were screened for occurrence of adverse drug reactions during their treatment with chemotherapy. About 87.36% patients experienced adverse drug reactions, 90.09% and 83.56% of breast and lung cancer patients experienced at least one adverse drug reaction respectively. In breast cancer patients, 41.58% patients were prescribed fluorouracil+doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide while paclitaxel was prescribed to 22.77% patients. Alopecia (54.94%), nail discolouration (43.96%), dysgeusia (38.46%), anorexia (30.77%), nausea (29.67%), and neuropathy (29.67%) were found to be very common in breast cancer patients treated with single/combined regimen. In lung cancer group of patients, cisplatin with docetaxel, cisplatin with pemetrexed and cisplatin with irinotecan were prescribed to 30.14, 24.65 and 17.81% patients, respectively. Dysgeusia (40.98%), diarrhoea (39.34%), anorexia (32.77%) and constipation (31.15%) and alopecia (31.15%) were commonly observed adverse drug reactions having lung cancer patients. Causality assessments using World Health Organization causality assessment scale showed that observed adverse drug reactions were of probable (64.67%) and possible (35.33%) categories. Alopecia, dysgeusia, anorexia, constipation diarrhoea, nausea, nail discoloration were more prevalent amongst the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Lam, Wing; Gullen, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Zhe; Wei, Ying; Wang, Lihui; Zeiss, Caroline; Beck, Amanda; Cheng, Ee-Chun; Wu, Chunfu; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Zhang, Yixuan
Malformin C, a fungal cyclic pentapeptide, has been claimed to have anti-cancer potential, but no in vivo study was available to substantiate this property. Therefore, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate its anti-cancer effects and toxicity. Our studies showed Malformin C inhibited Colon 38 and HCT 116 cell growth dose-dependently with an IC50 of 0.27±0.07μM and 0.18±0.023μM respectively. This inhibition was explicated by Malformin C’s effect on G2/M arrest. Moreover, we observed up-regulated expression of phospho-histone H2A.X, p53, cleaved CASPASE 3 and LC3 after Malformin C treatment, while the apoptosis assay indicated an increased population of necrotic and late apoptotic cells. In vivo, the pathological study exhibited the acute toxicity of Malformin C at lethal dosage in BDF1 mice might be caused by an acute yet subtle inflammatory response, consistent with elevated IL-6 in the plasma cytokine assay. Further anti-tumor and toxicity experiments proved that 0.3mg/kg injected weekly was the best therapeutic dosage of Malformin C in Colon 38 xenografted BDF1 mice, whereas 0.1mg/kg every other day showed no effect with higher resistance, and 0.9mg/kg per week either led to fatal toxicity in seven-week old mice or displayed no advantage over 0.3mg/kg group in nine-week old mice. Overall, we conclude that Malformin C arrests Colon 38 cells in G2/M phase and induces multiple forms of cell death through necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. Malformin C has potent cell growth inhibition activity, but the therapeutic index is too low to be an anti-cancer drug. PMID:26540166
Kaminska, Kamila K.; Bertrand, Helene C.; Tajima, Hisashi; Stafford, William C.; Cheng, Qing; Chen, Wan; Wells, Geoffrey; Arner, Elias S.J.; Chew, Eng-Hui
Several compounds bearing the indolinone chemical scaffold are known to possess anticancer properties. For example, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is an arylideneindolin-2-one compound. The chemical versatility associated with structural modifications of indolinone compounds underlies the potential to discover additional derivatives possessing anticancer properties. Previously synthesized 3-(2-oxoethylidene)indolin-2-one compounds, also known as supercinnamaldehyde (SCA) compounds in reference to the parent compound 1 [1-methyl-3(2-oxopropylidene)indolin-2-one], bear a nitrogen-linked α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (Michael acceptor) moiety. Here we found that analogs bearing N-substituents, in particular compound 4 and 5 carrying an N-butyl and N-benzyl substituent, respectively, were strongly cytotoxic towards human HCT 116 colorectal and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. These compounds also displayed strong thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibitory activity that was likely attributed to the electrophilicity of the Michael acceptor moiety. Their selectivity towards cellular TrxR inhibition over related antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was mediated through targeting of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the highly accessible C-terminal active site of TrxR. TrxR inhibition mediated by indolin-2-one compounds led to cellular Trx oxidation, increased oxidative stress and activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). These events also led to activation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and cell death with apoptotic features of PARP cleavage and caspase 3 activation. In conclusion, these results suggest that indolin-2-one-based compounds specifically targeting TrxR may serve as novel drug leads for anticancer therapy. PMID:27244886
Oguri, Tetsuya; Kunii, Eiji; Fukuda, Satoshi; Sone, Kazuki; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Takemura, Masaya; Maeno, Ken; Ito, Yutaka; Niimi, Akio
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier family 22 have a critical role in the cellular uptake of anticancer platinum drugs. Recently, we found that a decreased OCT6 expression is associated with a reduced intracellular uptake of cisplatin (CDDP), and concomitant resistance to CDDP. In the present study, we examined whether OCTs directly confer resistance to another platinum drug, oxaliplatin (L-OHP). To address this, we used parental lung cancer cell lines, PC-14 and SBC3; L-OHP-resistant sublines, PC-14/L-OHP and SBC3/L-OHP; and one CDDP-resistant subline PC-14/CDDP, to examine the relationships between the expression of OCTs and intracellular platinum drug concentration or platinum drug resistance. The two L-OHP-resistant sublines showed cross resistance to CDDP and L-OHP, and a decreased expression of OCT6. The intracellular accumulation of L-OHP in PC-14/L-OHP cells was reduced compared with the parental cells. The findings suggested that a reduced OCT6 expression confers platinum drug resistance in the sublines by decreasing the uptake of platinum drugs. Using the PC-14/CDDP cell line engineered to overexpress OCT6, we confirmed that the intracellular L-OHP concentration was increased concomitantly with OCT6 overexpression compared with the parental cell line. Additionally, OCT6 was expressed in a screening panel of lung and colon cancer tissues and matched normal control tissues. Taken together with the previous results, the present findings indicate that OCT6 is directly involved in platinum drug resistance by mediating platinum drug uptake in cancer cells. PMID:27882231
Ilkhani, Hoda; Hughes, Taylor; Li, Jing; Zhong, Chuan Jian; Hepel, Maria
Widely used anti-cancer treatments involving chemotherapeutic drugs result in cancer cell damage due to their strong interaction with DNA. In this work, we have developed laboratory biosensors for screening chemotherapeutic drugs and to aid in the assessment of DNA modification/damage caused by these drugs. The sensors utilize surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods to monitor sensory film modification and observe the drug-DNA reactivity. The self-assembled monolayer protected gold-disk electrode (AuDE) was coated with a reduced graphene oxide (rGO), decorated with plasmonic gold-coated Fe2Ni@Au magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a sequence of the breast cancer gene BRCA1. The nanobiosensors AuDE/SAM/rGO/Fe2Ni@Au/dsDNA were then subjected to the action of a model chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), to assess the DNA modification and its dose dependence. The designed novel nanobiosensors offer SERS/electrochemical transduction, enabling chemically specific and highly sensitive analytical signals generation. The SERS measurements have corroborated the DOX intercalation into the DNA duplex whereas the electrochemical scans have indicated that the DNA modification by DOX proceeds in a concentration dependent manner, with limit of detection LOD=8 µg/mL (S/N=3), with semilog linearity over 3 orders of magnitude. These new biosensors are sensitive to agents that interact with DNA and facilitate the analysis of functional groups for determination of the binding mode. The proposed nanobiosensors can be applied in the first stage of the drug development for testing the interactions of new drugs with DNA before the drug efficacy can be assessed in more expensive testing in vitro and in vivo.
Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu
Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs.
Lee, Sang Joon; Jeong, Young-Il; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Kang, Dae Hwan; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lee, Sam-Gyu; Lee, Hyun Chul
Since cancer cells are normally over-expressed cathepsin B, we synthesized dendrimer-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates using a cathepsin B-cleavable peptide for anticancer drug targeting. Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide was conjugated with the carboxylic acid end groups of a dendrimer, which was then conjugated with MPEG amine and doxorubicin by aid of carbodiimide chemistry (abbreviated as DendGDP). Dendrimer-MPEG-DOX conjugates without Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide linkage was also synthesized for comparison (DendDP). Nanoparticles were then prepared using a dialysis procedure. The synthesized DendGDP was confirmed with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DendDP and DendGDP nanoparticles had a small particle size of less than 200 nm and had a spherical morphology. DendGDP had cathepsin B-sensitive drug release properties while DendDP did not show cathepsin B sensitivity. Further, DendGDP had improved anticancer activity when compared with doxorubicin or DendDP in an in vivo CT26 tumor xenograft model, ie, the volume of the CT26 tumor xenograft was significantly inhibited when compared with xenografts treated with doxorubicin or DendDP nanoparticles. The DendGDP nanoparticles were found to be relatively concentrated in the tumor tissue and revealed stronger fluorescence intensity than at other body sites while doxorubicin and DendDP nanoparticles showed strong fluorescence intensity in the various organs, indicating that DendGDP has cathepsin B sensitivity. DendGDP is sensitive to cathepsin B in tumor cells and can be used as a cathepsin B-responsive drug targeting strategy. We suggest that DendGDP is a promising vehicle for cancer cell targeting.
Anti-cancer drugs have relatively low effective rates and high frequencies of adverse reactions, occasionally leading to cessation of their treatments. Use of pharmacogenomic (PGx) information could be able to select the patients with high-response and less-adverse reactions, resulting in increase of patients' QOL and proper use of drugs. We have been collaborating with National Cancer Center for PGx analysis of anti-cancer drugs including irinotecan and gemcitabine in Japanese cancer patients. Irinotecan, now used for treatments of many cancers, is metabolically activated to SN-38 and then inactivated to SN-38 glucuronide by a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1. In the UGT1A1 gene, two representative genetic polymorphisms, *28 and *6, were detected at 0.138 and 0.167, respectively in 177 Japanese cancer patients. When the patients were homozygotes of *28 or *6, or compound heterozygotes of them, statistically significant decreases were observed in the SN-38 glucuronidation activity and increases in the rate of severe neutropenia, compared to those in the patients without *28 or *6. Our results and papers were cited in the Japanese package inserts of irinotecan. Gemcitabine was inactivated by cytidine deaminase (CDA) into 2'-2'-difluorodeoxyuridine. A CDA polymorphism 208G>A (Ala70Thr) was detected at 0.037 frequency in 256 Japanese cancer patients and associated with reduced gemcitabine clearance as well as increased frequency of severe neutropenia. In the 4 patients suffered from very severe bone marrow toxicities, 3 patients were homozygous CDA*3, suggesting that this polymorphism is exquisite for predicting severe adverse reactions by gemcitabine in Japanese.
Li, Jie; Lei, Kecheng; Wu, Zengrui; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Liu, Jianwen; Cheng, Feixiong; Tang, Yun
As the recent development of high-throughput technologies in cancer pharmacogenomics, there is an urgent need to develop new computational approaches for comprehensive identification of new pharmacogenomic biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, a network-based framework, namely the SMiR-NBI model, was developed to prioritize miRNAs as potential biomarkers characterizing treatment responses of anticancer drugs on the basis of a heterogeneous network connecting drugs, miRNAs and genes. A high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.820 ± 0.013 was yielded during 10-fold cross validation. In addition, high performance was further validated in identifying new anticancer mechanism-of-action for natural products and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Finally, the newly predicted miRNAs for tamoxifen and metformin were experimentally validated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines via qRT-PCR assays. High success rates of 60% and 65% were yielded for tamoxifen and metformin, respectively. Specifically, 11 oncomiRNAs (e.g. miR-20a-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-29a-3p, and miR-146a-5p) from the top 20 predicted miRNAs were experimentally verified as new pharmacogenomic biomarkers for metformin in MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cell lines. In summary, the SMiR-NBI model would provide a powerful tool to identify potential pharmacogenomic biomarkers characterized by miRNAs in the emerging field of precision cancer medicine, which is available at http://lmmd.ecust.edu.cn/database/smir-nbi/. PMID:27329603
Mu, Wenjing; Hu, Chaobo; Zhang, Haibin; Qu, Zengqiang; Cen, Jin; Qiu, Zhixin; Li, Chao; Ren, Haozhen; Li, Yixue; He, Xianghuo; Shi, Xiaolei; Hui, Lijian
Liver and kidney cancers are notorious for drug resistance. Due to the complexity, redundancy and interpatient heterogeneity of resistance mechanisms, most efforts targeting a single pathway were unsuccessful. Novel personalized therapies targeting multiple essential drug resistance pathways in parallel hold a promise for future cancer treatment. Exploiting the multitarget characteristic of microRNAs (miRNAs), we developed a new therapeutic strategy by the combinational use of miRNA and anticancer drugs to increase drug response. By a systems approach, we identified that miR-27b, a miRNA deleted in liver and kidney cancers, sensitizes cancer cells to a broad spectrum of anticancer drugs in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, miR-27b enhances drug response by activating p53-dependent apoptosis and reducing CYP1B1-mediated drug detoxification. Notably, miR-27b promotes drug response specifically in patients carrying p53-wild-type or CYP1B1-high signature. Together, we propose that miR-27b synergizes with anticancer drugs in a defined subgroup of liver and kidney cancer patients. PMID:25698578
Chan, Pan F; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J; Spitzfaden, Claus E; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J; Stavenger, Robert A; Bax, Benjamin D; Gwynn, Michael N
New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a 'pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested.
Chan, Pan F.; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P.; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M.; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J.; Spitzfaden, Claus E.; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J.; Stavenger, Robert A.; Bax, Benjamin D.; Gwynn, Michael N.
New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a ‘pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested. PMID:26640131
Lee, Che-Hsin; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Wang, Bing-Yen; Chang, Wen-Wei
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cells within cancer tissues with tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis properties. CSCs also have been considered as the main cause of cancer recurrence. Targeting CSCs have been suggested as the key for successful treatment against cancer. Tumorsphere cultivation is based on culturing cancer cells onto ultralow attachment surface in serum-free media under the supplementation with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Tumorsphere cultivation is widely used to analyze the self-renewal capability of CSCs and to enrich these cells from bulk cancer cells. This method also provides a reliable platform for screening potential anti-CSC agents. The in vitro anti-proliferation activity of potential agents selected from tumorsphere assay is more translatable into in vivo anti-tumorigenic activity compared with general monolayer culture. Tumorsphere assay can also measure the outcome of clinical trials for potential anti-cancer agents. In addition, tumorsphere assay may be a promising strategy in the innovation of future cancer therapeutica and may help in the screening of anti-cancer small-molecule chemicals. PMID:26527320
Kawaguchi, Makiko; Banno, Kouji; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Yanokura, Megumi; Kuwabara, Yoshiko; Hirao, Nobumaru; Tsukazaki, Katsumi; Nozawa, Shiro
In vitro anticancer drug sensitivity tests have been performed for various types of cancers, and a relationship with clinical response has been observed. The collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) is a new in vitro anticancer drug sensitivity test by Yabushita et al., recently reported to be useful in ovarian cancer. CD-DST allows analysis of a small number of cells, compared to other anticancer drug sensitivity tests. Here, we report a successful analysis of anticancer drug sensitivity by CD-DST using cancerous ascites and pleural fluid samples from 2 patients with advanced ovarian cancer. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of the application of CD-DST in ovarian cancer, and our results suggest that CD-DST could be helpful in the selection of anticancer drugs for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer.
Jia, Mengmeng; Li, Yang; Yang, Xiangrui; Huang, Yuancan; Wu, Hongjie; Huang, Yu; Lin, Jinyan; Li, Yanxiu; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhang, Qiqing
Codelivery of multiple drugs with one kind of drug carriers provided a promising strategy to suppress the drug resistance and achieve the synergistic therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this paper, we successfully developed both methotrexate (MTX) and mitomycin C (MMC) loaded PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) as drug delivery systems, in which MTX, as a folic acid analogue, was also employed as a tumor-targeting ligand. The new drug delivery systems can coordinate the early phase targeting effect with the late-phase anticancer effect. The (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs possessed nanoscaled particle size, narrow particle size distribution, and appropriate multiple drug loading content and simultaneously sustained drug release. In vitro cell viability tests indicated that the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs exhibited concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Moreover, in vitro cellular uptake suggested that the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs could be efficiently taken up by cancer cells by FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. On the other hand, the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs can codelivery MTX and MMC to not only achieve the high accumulation at the tumor site but also more efficiently suppress the tumor cells growth than the delivery of either drug alone, indicating a synergistic effect. In fact, the codelivery of two anticancer drugs with distinct functions and different anticancer mechanisms was key to opening the door to their targeted drug delivery and synergistic anticancer effect. Therefore, the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs as targeted drug codelivery systems might have important potential in clinical implications for combination cancer chemotherapy.
Many pharmaceutical companies worldwide specialize in oncology drug development and marketing. Among them, we have continued to take up the challenge of understanding the metabolism of pyrimidines as essential components of deoxyribonucleic acid for many years, and have provided unique products such as UFT(®) and TS-1 for cancer patients. Using our cumulative experience and knowledge, we are currently developing novel agents such as TAS-114, a dual inhibitor of deoxyuridine triphosphatase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, and TAS-102, a unique pyrimidine derivative inducing deoxyribonucleic acid dysfunction in cancer cells. Regarding molecular-targeted drugs, we have made huge efforts to establish ideal drug discovery platforms for the last several years. For kinase inhibitors, we established three core platforms such as a kinase-directed chemical library, a kinase assay panel and a target selection informatics system. The core platforms were further combined with peripheral technologies to measure essential parameters such as physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicities. Unique drug candidates have been identified at an early stage by assessing all important parameters. Several promising programs are proceeding simultaneously in the clinical or preclinical development stage such as TAS-115, a dual inhibitor of c-Met and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, TAS-2104, a selective Aurora A inhibitor, TAS-117, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, TAS-2985, an irreversible fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor and TAS-2913, a T790M mutant selective epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Other than kinase inhibitors, another drug discovery engine was established based on the fragment-based drug discovery technology. TAS-116, a new class of Hsp-90α/β inhibitor, is one of the products. Taiho's final goal is to provide innovative anticancer drugs together with companion diagnostics that are truly beneficial for patients.
Hsiung, Lo-Chang; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Wang, Chen-Ho; Huang, Yu-Hsu; Kuo, Ching-Te; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lin, Ching-Hung; Wu, Victoria; Chou, Hsien-Yeh; Jong, De-Shien; Lee, Hsinyu; Wo, Andrew M
We present a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based cellular microarray chip for cell-based anticancer drug screening in perfusion microenvironments. Human breast cancer cells, MCF7, were seeded into the chip and patterned via DEP forces onto the planar interdigitated ring electrode (PIRE) arrays. Roughly, only one third of the cell amount was required for the chip compared to that for a 96-well plate control. Drug concentrations (cisplatin or docetaxel) were stably generated by functional integration of a concentration gradient generator (CGG) and an anti-crosstalk valve (ACV) to treat cells for 24 hours. Cell viability was quantified using a dual staining method. Results of cell patterning show substantial uniformity of patterned cells (92 ± 5 cells per PIRE). Furthermore, after 24 hour drug perfusion, no statistical significance in dose-responses between the chip and the 96-well plate controls was found. The IC(50) value from the chip also concurred with the values from the literature. Moreover, the perfusion culture exhibited reproducibility of drug responses of cells on different PIREs in the same chamber. The chip would enable applications where cells are of limited supply, and supplement microfluidic perfusion cultures for clinical practices.
Wang, Wenlong; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Xi; Wang, Jiexin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Le, Yuan
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a kind of non-toxic biological materials with excellent absorbability, biocompatibility and biodegradability, which can be used for drug release, tissue engineering and surgical treatment applications. In this study, we prepared chitosan modified PLA nanoparticles as carriers for encapsulation of docetaxel by anti-solvent precipitation method. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential and composition of the PLA/chitosan were characterized by SEM, DLS, FTIR and XPS. As-prepared PLA/chitosan particles exhibited average size of 250 nm and showed very narrow distribution with polydispersity index of 0.098. Their large surface charge-ability was confirmed by zeta potential value of 53.9 mV. Docetaxel was released from PLA/chitosan nanoparticles with 40% initial burst release in 5 h and 70% cumulative release within 24 h, while from PLA nanoparticles 65% of docetaxel was released in 5h. In vitro drug release study demonstrated that PLA/chitosan nanoparticles prolonged drug release and decreased the burst release over the unmodified PLA nanoparticles. These results illustrated high potential of chitosan modified PLA nanoparticles for usage as anticancer drug carriers.
Rodriguez-Ruiz, Violeta; Maksimenko, Andrei; Anand, Resmi; Monti, Sandra; Agostoni, Valentina; Couvreur, Patrick; Lampropoulou, Maria; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Gref, Ruxandra
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are coordination polymers of interest for biomedical applications. Of particular importance, nanoparticles made of iron(III) trimesate (MIL-100, MIL standing for Material Institut Lavoisier) (nanoMOFs) can be conveniently synthesised under mild and green conditions. They were shown to be biodegradable, biocompatible and efficient to encapsulate a variety of active molecules. We have addressed here the challenges to encapsulate a highly hydrophilic anticancer prodrug, phosphated gemcitabin (Gem-MP) known for its instability and inability to bypass cell membranes. MIL-100 nanoMOFs acted as efficient "nanosponges", soaking Gem-MP from its aqueous solution with almost perfect efficiency (>98%). Maximal loadings reached ∼30 wt% reflecting the strong interaction between the drug and the iron trimesate matrices. Neither degradation nor loss of crystalline structure was observed after the loading process. Storage of the loaded nanoMOFs in water did not result in drug release over three days. However, Gem-MP was released in media containing phosphates, as a consequence to particle degradation. Drug-loaded nanoMOFs were effective against pancreatic PANC-1 cells, in contrast to free drug and empty nanoMOFs. However, an efflux phenomenon could contribute to reduce the efficacy of the nanocarriers. Size optimization and surface modification of the nanoMOFs are expected to further improve these findings.
Guida, Filomena; Battisti, Anna; Gladich, Ivan; Buzzo, Mauro; Marangon, Elena; Giodini, Luciana; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Laio, Alessandro; Berti, Federico
One of the main targets in current clinical oncology is the development of a cheap device capable of monitoring in real-time the concentration of a drug in the blood of a patient. This would allow fine-tuning the dosage according to the patient's metabolism, a key condition to reduce side effects. By using surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy we here show that short peptides designed in silico by a recently developed algorithm are capable of binding the anticancer drug irinotecan (CPT-11) with micromolar affinity. Importantly, the recognition takes place in the denaturating solution used in standard therapeutic drug monitoring to detach the drug from the proteins that are present in human plasma, and some of the peptides are capable of distinguishing CPT-11 from its metabolite SN-38. These results suggest that the in silico design of small artificial peptides is now a viable route for designing sensing units, opening a wide range of applications in diagnostic and clinical areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kang, AhRan; Seo, Hye In; Chung, Bong Geun; Lee, Sang-Hoon
We investigated the effect of anticancer drug-loaded functional polymeric nanoparticles on drug resistance of three-dimensional (3D) breast tumor spheroids. 3D tumor models were built using concave microwells with different diameters (300-700μm) and nanoparticles were prepared using thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-co-acrylic acid (AA). Upon culturing with doxorubicin-loaded PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles for 96hours, the smallest tumor spheroids were extensively disrupted, resulting in a reduction in spheroid diameter. In contrast, the sizes of the largest tumor spheroids were not changed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the circular shape of 3D spheroids treated with doxorubicin-loaded PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles had collapsed severely. Cell viability assays also demonstrated that the largest tumor spheroids cultured with doxorubicin-loaded PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles were highly resistant to the anticancer drug. We confirmed that tight cell-cell contacts within largest tumor spheroids significantly improved the anticancer drug resistance. Therefore, this uniform-sized 3D breast tumor model could be a potentially powerful tool for anticancer drug screening applications. The battle against cancer is a big challenge. With new anti-cancer drugs being developed under the nanotechnology platform, there is a need to have a consistent and reliable testing system that mimics the in-vivo tumor scenario. The authors successfully designed a 3D tumor model using concave microwells to produce different tumor diameters. This will be of value for future drug screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Besse, Jean-Philippe; Latour, Jean-François; Garric, Jeanne
This study considers the implications and research needs arising from anticancer (also referred to as antineoplastic) drugs being released into the aquatic environment, for the entire therapeutic classes used: cytotoxic, cytostatic and endocrine therapy drugs. A categorization approach, based on French consumption amounts, allowed to highlight parent molecules and several metabolites on which further occurrence and ecotoxicological studies should be conducted. Investigations of consumption trends at a national and a local scale show an increase in the use of anticancer drugs between 2004 and 2008, thus leading to increased levels released in the environment. It therefore appears necessary to continue surveying their presence in surface waters and in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Furthermore, due to the rise of anticancer home treatments, most of the prescribed molecules are now available in town pharmacies. Consequently, hospital effluents are no longer the main expected entry route of anticancer drugs into the aquatic environment. Concerning ecotoxicological risks, current knowledge remains insufficient to support a definitive conclusion. Risk posed by cytotoxic molecules is still not well documented and it is not possible to conclude on their long-term effects on non-target organisms. To date, ecotoxicological effects have been assessed using standardized or in vitro assays. Such tests however may not be suitable for anticancer drugs, and further work should focus on full-life cycle or even multigenerational tests. Environmental significance (i.e. occurrence and effects) of cytostatics (protein kinases inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies), if any, is not documented. Protein kinases inhibitors, in particular, deserve further investigation due to their universal mode of action. Finally, concerning endocrine therapy drugs, molecules such as antiestrogen Tamoxifen and its active metabolites, could be of concern. Overall, to accurately assess the
Bennette, Caroline S; Richards, Catherine; Sullivan, Sean D; Ramsey, Scott D
The cost of treating cancer has risen to unprecedented heights, putting tremendous financial pressure on patients, payers, and society. Previous studies have documented the rising prices of cancer drugs at launch, but less critical attention has been paid to the cost of these drugs after launch. We used pharmacy claims for commercially insured individuals to examine trends in postlaunch prices over time for orally administered anticancer drugs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the period 2007-13, inflation-adjusted per patient monthly drug prices increased 5 percent each year. Certain market changes also played a role, with prices rising an additional 10 percent with each supplemental indication approved by the FDA and declining 2 percent with the FDA's approval of a competitor drug. Our findings suggest that there is currently little competitive pressure in the oral anticancer drug market. Policy makers who wish to reduce the costs of anticancer drugs should consider implementing policies that affect prices not only at launch but also later. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Banerjee, Sanchari; Mondal, Shrabani; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.
Ag nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ag) have been synthesized successfully by simultaneously reducing graphene oxide and AgNO3 with hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent. The synthesized rGO-Ag has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the structural properties and finally utilized for the electrochemical detection of anti-cancer drug flutamide (FLT). The prominent peak at the position of around 0.07 V is observed in the voltammogram which indicates the catalytic reduction of NO2 group of FLT by rGO-Ag. The fabricated sensor posses a linear detection range of 0.1 to 0.3 mM with a detection limit as low as 1.16 μM.
Kawanabe, Satoshi; Araki, Yoshie; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy was applied to evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs. A decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of the nucleus in apoptotic cancer cells stained by SYTO 13 dye was detected after treatment with antitumor antibiotics such as doxorubicin or epirubicin. It was confirmed that the change in fluorescence lifetime occurred earlier than morphological changes in the cells. We found that the fluorescence lifetime of the nucleus in the cells treated with epirubicin decreased more rapidly than that of the cells treated with doxorubicin. This implies that epirubicin was more efficacious than doxorubicin in the treatment of cancer cells. The change in fluorescence lifetime was, however, not indicated when the cells were treated with cyclophosphamide. The decrease in fluorescence lifetime was associated with the processes involving caspase activation and chromatin condensation. Therefore, this technique would provide useful information about apoptotic cells, particularly in the early stages.
Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Alvarez, Montserrat; Portilla-Arias, José; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Patil, Rameshwar; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián
PMLA nanoparticles with diameters of 150-250 nm are prepared, and their hydrolytic degradation is studied under physiological conditions. Degradation occurs by hydrolysis of the side chain methyl ester followed by cleavage of the main-chain ester group with methanol and L-malic acid as the final degradation products. No alteration of the cell viability is found after 1 h of incubation, but toxicity increases significantly after 3 d, probably due to the noxious effect of the released methanol. Anticancer drugs temozolomide and doxorubicin are encapsulated in the NPs with 20-40% efficiency, and their release is monitored using in vitro essays. Temozolomide is fully liberated within several hours, whereas doxorubicin is steadily released from the particles over a period of 1 month.
Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J.; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Habtemariam, Abraha; Sadler, Peter J.
Organometallic complexes are effective hydrogenation catalysts for organic reactions. For example, Noyori-type ruthenium complexes catalyse reduction of ketones by transfer of hydride from formate. Here we show that such catalytic reactions can be achieved in cancer cells, offering a new strategy for the design of safe metal-based anticancer drugs. The activity of ruthenium(II) sulfonamido ethyleneamine complexes towards human ovarian cancer cells is enhanced by up to 50 × in the presence of low non-toxic doses of formate. The extent of conversion of coenzyme NAD+ to NADH in cells is dependent on formate concentration. This novel reductive stress mechanism of cell death does not involve apoptosis or perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potentials. In contrast, iridium cyclopentadienyl catalysts cause cancer cell death by oxidative stress. Organometallic complexes therefore have an extraordinary ability to modulate the redox status of cancer cells. PMID:25791197
Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Seong Hwan
Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in multiple cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle. In particular, its over-expression in human cancers is associated with angiogenesis and tumor progression. As a first orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945 exerts anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells by inhibiting the cell cycle and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, CX-4945 reduces angiogenesis via blockade of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α transcription and suppresses the inflammatory interleukin-6 production in human breast cancer cells. These effects are supported by results from mouse xenograft model investigations. Here, we discuss the druggability of CX-4945 and its potential to be developed as an anti-cancer drug in clinical trials.
Zhou, Bin-Bing S; Zhang, Haiying; Damelin, Marc; Geles, Kenneth G; Grindley, Justin C; Dirks, Peter B
The hypothesis that cancer is driven by tumour-initiating cells (popularly known as cancer stem cells) has recently attracted a great deal of attention, owing to the promise of a novel cellular target for the treatment of haematopoietic and solid malignancies. Furthermore, it seems that tumour-initiating cells might be resistant to many conventional cancer therapies, which might explain the limitations of these agents in curing human malignancies. Although much work is still needed to identify and characterize tumour-initiating cells, efforts are now being directed towards identifying therapeutic strategies that could target these cells. This Review considers recent advances in the cancer stem cell field, focusing on the challenges and opportunities for anticancer drug discovery.
Augustin, Yolanda; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kumar, Devinder; Pantziarka, Pan
Artesunate, a semi-synthetic and water-soluble artemisinin-derivative used as an anti-malarial agent, has attracted the attention of cancer researchers due to a broad range of anti-cancer activity including anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory and treatment-sensitisation effects. In addition to pre-clinical evidence in a range of cancers, a recently completed randomised blinded trial in colorectal cancer has provided a positive signal for further clinical investigation. Used perioperatively artesunate appears to reduce the rate of disease recurrence - and the Neo-Art trial, a larger Phase II RCT, is seeking to confirm this positive effect. However, artesunate is a generic medication, and as with other trials of repurposed drugs, the Neo-Art trial does not have commercial sponsorship. In an innovative move, the trial is seeking funds directly from members of the public via a crowd-funding strategy that may have resonance beyond this single trial. PMID:26557887
Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Alvarez, Montserrat; Portilla-Arias, José; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Patil, Rameshwar; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.
PMLA nanoparticles with diameters of 150–250 nm are prepared, and their hydrolytic degradation is studied under physiological conditions. Degradation occurs by hydrolysis of the side chain methyl ester followed by cleavage of the main-chain ester group with methanol and L-malic acid as the final degradation products. No alteration of the cell viability is found after 1 h of incubation, but toxicity increases significantly after 3 d, probably due to the noxious effect of the released methanol. Anticancer drugs temozolomide and doxorubicin are encapsulated in the NPs with 20–40% efficiency, and their release is monitored using in vitro essays. Temozolomide is fully liberated within several hours, whereas doxorubicin is steadily released from the particles over a period of 1 month. PMID:21793213
Calatayud, S; Warner, T D; Mitchell, J A
Modulation of the immune response against tumour cells is emerging as a valuable approach for cancer treatment. Some experimental studies have shown that secretion of colony stimulating factors by cancer cells reduces their tumorigenicity and increases their immunogenicity probably by promoting the cytolitic and antigen presenting activities of leukocytes. We have observed that human colon cancer cells (HT-29) are able to secrete granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor when stimulated with cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). In this study we assessed, for the first time, the effects of several anticancer drugs on colony stimulating factor release or apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Cytokine-induced release of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor was significantly increased by cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine. Taxol only increased macrophage-colony stimulating factor release while reduced that of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. No changes in colony stimulating factor secretion were observed after treatment with methotrexate. Only cisplatin and taxol induced apoptosis in these cells. Secretion of colony stimulating factors by colon cancer cells may contribute to the immune host response against them. Anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine increase colony stimulating factor secretion by cytokine stimulated cancer cells probably through mechanisms different to those leading to cell apoptosis, an effect that may contribute to their anti-neoplasic action. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1316–1321. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600240 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953891
Rouge-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Lassoued, Donia; Bacrie, Joy; Boussier, Nathalie; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Oustric, Stéphane; Bauvin, Eric; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Bertucci, François; Grosclaude, Pascale
General practitioners (GPs) are more and more involved in the treatment of cancer patients but feel not informed enough about anticancer treatments and associated side effects. Better communication with treatment centers is needed. We hypothesized that information sheets could improve communication. This prospective, multicentric, and interventionist study aimed at implementing and assessing therapeutic sheets describing the side effects of anticancer drugs used for digestive and gynecological cancers and their recommended management. GPs' phone interviews were done through three successive phases and two independent cohorts. The first phase (T1; 242 GPs with one patient recently treated) listed their expectations, the second (T2; 158 GPs with one patient beginning treatment) assessed the GPs' opinion regarding the sheets, and the third (T3; responder GPs 4 months after the start of T2) assessed their usefulness in practice. In T1, 94% of GPs declared their need of having information sheets, notably for the management of side effects. Thirty-one one-page sheets were created. In T2, 83.5% gave a favorable opinion about sheets and 80% envisaged their use in the case of side effect. In T3, 56% of GPs whose patient had experienced a side effect had used successfully the sheets for its management, and 21% of patients with side effect were hospitalized. A strong correlation existed between the use of the sheet by GPs and the hospitalization (OR 7.35 in the case of no use vs use). The guideline sheets represent a simple and low-cost solution to help GPs managing drugs' side effects and perhaps decrease the rate of unplanned hospitalizations.
Rizk, Nahla; Christoforou, Nicolas; Lee, Sungmun
Breast cancer is the most common and deadly cancer among women worldwide. Currently, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are useful for cancer treatment; however, strategic planning is critical in order to enhance the anti-cancer properties and reduce the side effects of cancer therapy. Here, we designed multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with two anti-cancer drugs, TGF-β1 antibody and methotrexate, and a cancer-targeting molecule, folic acid. First, optimum size and shape of AuNPs was selected by the highest uptake of AuNPs by MDA-MB-231, a metastatic human breast cancer cell line. It was 100 nm spherical AuNPs (S-AuNPs) that were used for further studies. A fixed amount (900 μl) of S-AuNP (3.8 × 108 particles/ml) was conjugated with folic acid-BSA or methotrexate-BSA. Methotrexate on S-AuNP induced cellular toxicity and the optimum amount of methotrexate-BSA (2.83 mM) was 500 μl. Uptake of S-AuNPs was enhanced by folate conjugation that binds to folate receptors overexpressed by MDA-MB-231 and the optimum uptake was at 500 μl of folic acid-BSA (2.83 mM). TGF-β1 antibody on S-AuNP reduced extracellular TGF-β1 of cancer cells by 30%. Due to their efficacy and tunable properties, we anticipate numerous clinical applications of multifunctional gold nanospheres in treating breast cancer.
Rizk, Nahla; Christoforou, Nicolas; Lee, Sungmun
Breast cancer is the most common and deadly cancer among women worldwide. Currently, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are useful for cancer treatment; however, strategic planning is critical in order to enhance the anti-cancer properties and reduce the side effects of cancer therapy. Here, we designed multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with two anti-cancer drugs, TGF-β1 antibody and methotrexate, and a cancer-targeting molecule, folic acid. First, optimum size and shape of AuNPs was selected by the highest uptake of AuNPs by MDA-MB-231, a metastatic human breast cancer cell line. It was 100 nm spherical AuNPs (S-AuNPs) that were used for further studies. A fixed amount (900 μl) of S-AuNP (3.8 × 10(8) particles/ml) was conjugated with folic acid-BSA or methotrexate-BSA. Methotrexate on S-AuNP induced cellular toxicity and the optimum amount of methotrexate-BSA (2.83 mM) was 500 μl. Uptake of S-AuNPs was enhanced by folate conjugation that binds to folate receptors overexpressed by MDA-MB-231 and the optimum uptake was at 500 μl of folic acid-BSA (2.83 mM). TGF-β1 antibody on S-AuNP reduced extracellular TGF-β1 of cancer cells by 30%. Due to their efficacy and tunable properties, we anticipate numerous clinical applications of multifunctional gold nanospheres in treating breast cancer.
Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Oudard, Stéphane; Janus, Nicolas; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Rixe, Olivier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert
The Renal Insufficiency and Cancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national observational study. The results from this study of nearly 5,000 patients demonstrated the high prevalence of renal impairment in a population of patients with solid tumors. Every cancer patient who presented at oncology departments that participated in the study over at least 1 of 2 predefined periods during 2004 were included. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulae to estimate the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI) according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative-Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definition and stratification. Anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and dosage adjustment. Of the 4,684 patients from the 15 centers, 7.2% had serum creatinine levels >110 micromol/L. However, when they were assessed using Cockcroft-Gault and aMDRD formulae, 57.4% and 52.9% of patients had abnormal renal function or RI, respectively. Of the 7,181 anticancer drug prescriptions, 53.4% required dose adjustments for RI. Of the patients treated, 79.9% received at least 1 such drug. And 80.1% received potentially nephrotoxic drugs. RI was common in patients with cancer, and drug dosage adjustments often were necessary. Renal function should be evaluated in all cancer patients using either the Cockcroft-Gault formula or the aMDRD formula, including patients with normal serum creatinine levels. In patients who are at high risk for drug toxicity, the dosage should be adapted to renal function, and the use of nephrotoxic therapies should be avoided whenever possible. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
Chen, Zhanguang; Song, Tianhe; Peng, Yurui; Chen, Xi; Chen, Junhui; Zhang, Guomin; Qian, Sihua
A novel assay has been developed to detect the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs based on the decreased resonance light scattering (RLS) technique. The proposed method can be used to study those drugs which do not produce a RLS-signal after binding to DNA. RLS was used to monitor the interaction of five anticancer drugs with DNA. The reaction between anticancer drugs and DNA took place in BR buffer solution. From the RLS assay, the sequence of five anticancer drugs activities was as follows: CTX < MTX < Pt < MMC < 5-Fu. Mammary cancer cell DNA (mcDNA) was involved to validate the RLS assay. The results showed that the sensitivities of the five anticancer drugs targeting both mcDNA and ctDNA increased in the same order. However the sensitivity of each drug to mcDNA was higher than that to ctDNA It is a significant innovation of the RLS method to detect the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs and to obtain drug sensitivity, which provides new strategies to screen DNA targeted anticancer drugs.
Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto
Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all of which are beneficial to human health. Due to their ability to modulate the activity of multiple targets involved in carcinogenesis through direct interaction or modulation of gene expression, polyphenols can be employed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, the main problem related to the use of polyphenols as anticancer agents is their poor bioavailability, which might hinder the in vivo effects of the single compound. In fact, polyphenols have a poor absorption and biodistribution, but also a fast metabolism and excretion in the human body. The poor bioavailability of a polyphenol will affect the effective dose delivered to cancer cells. One way to counteract this drawback could be combination treatment with different polyphenols or with polyphenols and other anti-cancer drugs, which can lead to more effective antitumor effects than treatment using only one of the compounds. This report reviews current knowledge on the anticancer effects of combinations of polyphenols or polyphenols and anticancer drugs, with a focus on their ability to modulate multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in cancer. PMID:25918934
Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto
Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all of which are beneficial to human health. Due to their ability to modulate the activity of multiple targets involved in carcinogenesis through direct interaction or modulation of gene expression, polyphenols can be employed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, the main problem related to the use of polyphenols as anticancer agents is their poor bioavailability, which might hinder the in vivo effects of the single compound. In fact, polyphenols have a poor absorption and biodistribution, but also a fast metabolism and excretion in the human body. The poor bioavailability of a polyphenol will affect the effective dose delivered to cancer cells. One way to counteract this drawback could be combination treatment with different polyphenols or with polyphenols and other anti-cancer drugs, which can lead to more effective antitumor effects than treatment using only one of the compounds. This report reviews current knowledge on the anticancer effects of combinations of polyphenols or polyphenols and anticancer drugs, with a focus on their ability to modulate multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in cancer.
Meng, Ying; Yan, Xueying; Wang, Yi
A simple method was developed to synthesize Ag@graphene nanocomposites with rough Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) conjugated with graphene nanosheets, and the nanocomposites could be used as substrates for effective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of fluorescent anticancer drug (Dox) since they could not only enhance the Raman signals but also suppress the fluorescent signals.
Kivistö, K T; Kroemer, H K; Eichelbaum, M
1. Little information is available about the pharmacokinetic interactions of anticancer drugs in man. However, clinically significant drug interactions do occur in cancer chemotherapy, and it is likely that important interactions have not been recognized. 2. Specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been recently shown to be involved in the metabolism of several essential anticancer agents. In particular, enzymes of the CYP3A subfamily play a role in the metabolism of many anticancer drugs, including epipodophyllotoxins, ifosphamide, tamoxifen, taxol and vinca alkaloids. CYP3A4 has been shown to catalyse the activation of the prodrug ifosphamide, raising the possibility that ifosphamide could be activated in tumour tissues containing this enzyme. 3. As examples of recently found, clinically significant interactions, cyclosporin considerably increases plasma doxorubicin and etoposide concentrations. Although cyclosporin and calcium channel blockers may influence the pharmacokinetics of certain anticancer agents by inhibiting their CYP3A mediated metabolism, it is more likely that these P-glycoprotein inhibitors inhibit P-glycoprotein mediated drug elimination. 4. Appropriate caution should be exercised when combining P-glycoprotein inhibitors and potential CYP3A inhibitors with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:8703657
Widmer, Nicolas; Bardin, Christophe; Chatelut, Etienne; Paci, Angelo; Beijnen, Jos; Levêque, Dominique; Veal, Gareth; Astier, Alain
Most of oral targeted therapies are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Oral administration generates a complex step in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of these drugs. Inter-individual PK variability is often large and variability observed in response is influenced not only by the genetic heterogeneity of drug targets, but also by the pharmacogenetic background of the patient (e.g. cytochome P450 and ABC transporter polymorphisms), patient characteristics such as adherence to treatment and environmental factors (drug-drug interactions). Retrospective studies have shown that targeted drug exposure, reflected in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) correlates with treatment response (efficacy/toxicity) in various cancers. Nevertheless levels of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are however heterogeneous among these agents and TDM is still uncommon for the majority of them. Evidence for imatinib currently exists, others are emerging for compounds including nilotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, sorafenib and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Applications for TDM during oral targeted therapies may best be reserved for particular situations including lack of therapeutic response, severe or unexpected toxicities, anticipated drug-drug interactions and/or concerns over adherence treatment. Interpatient PK variability observed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is comparable or slightly lower to that observed with TKIs. There are still few data with these agents in favour of TDM approaches, even if data showed encouraging results with rituximab, cetuximab and bevacizumab. At this time, TDM of mAbs is not yet supported by scientific evidence. Considerable effort should be made for targeted therapies to better define concentration-effect relationships and to perform comparative randomised trials of classic dosing versus pharmacokinetically-guided adaptive dosing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kundu, Tanay; Mitra, Shouvik; Patra, Prasun; Goswami, Arunava; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul
A Gd(III) -based porous metal-organic framework (MOF), Gd-pDBI, has been synthesized using fluorescent linker pDBI (pDBI=(1,4-bis(5-carboxy-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)benzene)), resulting in a three-dimensional interpenetrated structure with a one-dimensional open channel (1.9×1.2 nm) filled with hydrogen-bonded water assemblies. Gd-pDBI exhibits high thermal stability, porosity, excellent water stability, along with organic-solvent and mild acid and base stability with retention of crystallinity. Gd-pDBI was transformed to the nanoscale regime (ca. 140 nm) by mechanical grinding to yield MG-Gd-pDBI with excellent water dispersibility (>90 min), maintaining its porosity and crystallinity. In vitro and in vivo studies on MG-Gd-pDBI revealed its low blood toxicity and highest drug loading (12 wt %) of anticancer drug doxorubicin in MOFs reported to date with pH-responsive cancer-cell-specific drug release.
Stoika, R.; Boiko, N.; Senkiv, Y.; Shlyakhtina, Y.; Panchuk, R.; Finiuk, N.; Filyak, Y.; Bilyy, R.; Kit, Y.; Skorohyd, N.; Klyuchivska, O.; Zaichenko, A.; Mitina, N.; Ryabceva, A.
We compared in vitro action of highly toxic anticancer drug doxorubicin under its delivery to the mammalian tumor cells in free form and after encapsulation in novel bio-functionalized nanoscale polymeric carrier. Such encapsulation was found to enhance significantly drug uptake by the targeted cells, as well as its cytotoxic action. 10 times higher cytotoxicity of the carrier-immobilized doxorubicin comparing to its free form was demonstrated by direct cell counting, and 5 times higher cytotoxicity of encapsulated doxorubicin was shown by FACS analysis. The polymeric carrier itself did not possess significant toxicity in vitro or in vivo (laboratory mice). The carrier protected against negative side effects of doxorubicin in mice with experimental NK/Ly lymphoma. The life duration of tumor-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin-carrier complex was significantly longer than life duration in animals treated with free doxorubicin. Besides, the effective treatment dose of the carrier-delivered doxorubicin in tumor-bearing mice was 10 times lower than such dose of free doxorubicin. Thus, novel nanoscale polymers possess high potential as drug carrier.
Wolf, Matthew B; Baynes, John W
The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is toxic to target cells, but also causes endothelial dysfunction and edema, secondary to oxidative stress in the vascular wall. Thus, the mechanism of action of this drug may involve chemotoxicity to both cancer cells and to the endothelium. Indeed, we found that the permeability of monolayers of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) to albumin was increased by approximately 10-fold above control, following 24-h exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of DOX (up to 1 microM). DOX also caused >4-fold increases in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and large decreases in ATP and reduced glutathione (GSH) in BPAECs, which paralleled the increases in endothelial permeability. A large part of the ATP loss could be attributed to DOX-induced hydrogen peroxide production which inhibited key thiol-enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Depletion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) appeared to be a major factor leading to DOX-induced GSH depletion. At low concentrations, the sulfhydryl reagent, iodoacetate (IA), inhibited GAPDH, caused a decrease in ATP and increased permeability, without inhibiting G6PDH or decreasing GSH. These results, coupled with those of previous work on a related quinone, menadione, suggest that depletion of either GSH or ATP may lead independently to endothelial dysfunction during chemotherapy, contributing to the cardiotoxicity and other systemic side-effects of the drug.
Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R.; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R.; McCormick, Alon V.; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W.
We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX) silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt% of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80–150 nm in size with a loading level of 47–74 weight percent (wt%) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36–59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy. PMID:26505116
Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R; McCormick, Alon V; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W
We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX)-silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt % of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80-150 nm in size with a loading level of 47-74 wt % (wt %) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36-59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy.
Tripisciano, C.; Costa, S.; Kalenczuk, R. J.; Borowiak-Palen, E.
Here, a study on Cisplatin (c is-Diammineplatinum(II) dichloride - CDDP) insertion within multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via capillary forces is presented. The employment of MWCNTs as anticancer drug nano-vectors is suggested by the harmful side effects occurring after the chemotherapeutic treatment due to the lack of selectivity of the chemotherapeutic agents in general. Cisplatin is widely used as a powerful cell-killer but without any cell-specificity. Via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) CDDP clusters inserted into MWCNTs were detected. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed the signal of CDDP constitutive elements. Raman Spectroscopy and InfraRed analysis excluded the presence of the drug on the tubes outer shell. Thermogravimetric (TGA) study was exploited to evaluate the purity of the material and to calculate the amount of CDDP incorporated into the tubes. A time dependent release of CDDP indicated that the outflow took place in the range between 12 and 48 h. After this time ~95% of the drug previously embedded was discharged.
Pantziarka, Pan; Sukhatme, Vidula; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vikas P
Diclofenac (DCF) is a well-known and widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with a range of actions which are of interest in an oncological context. While there has long been an interest in the use of NSAIDs in chemoprevention, there is now emerging evidence that such drugs may have activity in a treatment setting. DCF, which is a potent inhibitor of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthesis, displays a range of effects on the immune system, the angiogenic cascade, chemo- and radio-sensitivity and tumour metabolism. Both pre-clinical and clinical evidence of these effects, in multiple cancer types, is assessed and summarised and relevant mechanisms of action outlined. Based on this evidence the case is made for further clinical investigation of the anticancer effects of DCF, particularly in combination with other agents - with a range of possible multi-drug and multi-modality combinations outlined in the supplementary materials accompanying the main paper. PMID:26823679
Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ehsan; Pincus, Matthew R; Michl, Josef
Since the introduction of chemotherapy in cancer therapy, development of resistance to every new therapeutic has been the universal experience. The growing understanding of cancer genomics, cancer-associated signal transduction pathways, and key protein drivers of cancer has enabled cancer biologists and medicinal chemists to develop targeted molecules to interfere with these pathways to tackle drug resistant cancers. However, to the dismay of oncologists, the clinical use of many of these tools has once again brought to the forefront the inevitable challenge of drug resistance. It is now understood that cancer resistance to different therapies involves multiple challenges that encompass the cancer cell itself as well as host physiology. This review presents small molecule inhibitors and peptides as two therapeutic approaches in anti-cancer drug development. Resistance to selected samples of these novel therapies is described in the context of cell autonomous resistance, the contributions of the tumor microenvironment, and germ line factors. For each approach, advantages and disadvantages are discussed on how to better overcome the inevitable challenge of resistance in cancer treatment.
Caviglia, Claudia; Zór, Kinga; Montini, Lucia; Tilli, Valeria; Canepa, Silvia; Melander, Fredrik; Muhammad, Haseena B; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Raiteri, Roberto; Heiskanen, Arto; Andresen, Thomas L; Emnéus, Jenny
In this work, we have developed a microfluidic cytotoxicity assay for a cell culture and detection platform, which enables both fluid handling and electrochemical/optical detection. The cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs doxorubicin (DOX), oxaliplatin (OX) as well as OX-loaded liposomes, developed for targeted drug delivery, was evaluated using real-time impedance monitoring. The time-dependent effect of DOX on HeLa cells was monitored and found to have a delayed onset of cytotoxicity in microfluidics compared with static culture conditions based on data obtained in our previous study. The result of a fluorescent microscopic annexin V/propidium iodide assay, performed in microfluidics, confirmed the outcome of the real-time impedance assay. In addition, the response of HeLa cells to OX-induced cytotoxicity proved to be slower than toxicity induced by DOX. A difference in the time-dependent cytotoxic response of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) to free OX and OX-loaded liposomes was observed and attributed to incomplete degradation of the liposomes, which results in lower