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Sample records for anticancer platinum complexes

  1. Anticancer activity assessment of two novel binuclear platinum (II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Ahmadi, Shamseddin; Aseman, Marzieh Dadkhah; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Rashidi, Mehdi; Asadi, Zahra; Erfani, Nasrollah; Ghasemi, Atiyeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Niazi, Ali; Bahaoddini, Aminollah; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, two binuclear Pt (II) complexes, containing cis, cis-[Me2Pt (μ-NN) (μ-dppm) PtMe2] (1), and cis,cis-[Me2Pt(μ-NN)(μ dppm) Pt((CH2)4)] (2) in which NN=phthalazine and dppm=bis (diphenylphosphino) methane were evaluated for their anticancer activities and DNA/purine nucleotide binding properties. These Pt (II) complexes, with the non-classical structures, demonstrated a significant anticancer activity against Jurkat and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and Caspase-III activity suggest that these complexes were capable to stimulate an apoptotic mechanism of cell death in the cancer cells. Using different biophysical techniques and docking simulation analysis, we indicated that these complexes were also capable to interact efficiently with DNA via a non-intercalative mechanism. According to our results, substitution of cyclopentane (in complex 2) with two methyl groups (in complex 1) results in significant improvement of the complex ability to interact with DNA and subsequently to induce the anticancer activity. Overall, these binuclear Pt (II) complexes are promising group of the non-classical potential anticancer agents which can be considered as molecular templates in designing of highly efficient platinum anticancer drugs.

  2. Tuning the activity of platinum(IV) anticancer complexes through asymmetric acylation.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Fei; Tian, Quan; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Fang, Wanru; Tan, Emelyn Sue Qing; Leong, David Tai; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-09-13

    Platinum(II) anticancer drug cisplatin is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use but is limited by its high toxicity and severe side effects. Platinum(IV) anticancer prodrugs can overcome these limitations by resisting premature aquation and binding to essential plasma proteins. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed a link between the efficacy of platinum(IV) complexes with the nature of their axial ligands, which can be modified to enhance the properties of the prodrug. The existing paradigm of employing platinum(IV) complexes with symmetrical axial carboxylate ligands does not fully exploit their vast potential. A new approach was conceived to control properties of platinum(IV) prodrugs using contrasting axial ligands via sequential acylation. We report a novel class of asymmetric platinum(IV) carboxylates based on the cisplatin template containing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ligands on the same scaffold designed to improve their aqueous properties and enhance their efficacy against cancer cells in vitro.

  3. Development of Platinum(iv) Complexes as Anticancer Prodrugs: the Story so Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-06-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg some forty years ago brought about a paradigm shift in the field of medicinal chemistry and challenged conventional thinking regarding the role of potentially toxic heavy metals in drugs. Platinum(II)-based anticancer drugs have since become some of the most effective and widely-used drugs in a clinician's arsenal and have saved countless lives. However, they are limited by high toxicity, severe side-effects and the incidence of drug resistance. In recent years, attention has shifted to stable platinum(IV) complexes as anticancer prodrugs. By exploiting the unique chemical and structural attributes of their scaffolds, these platinum(IV) prodrugs offer new strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells. This review summarizes the development of anticancer platinum(IV) prodrugs to date and some of the exciting strategies that utilise the platinum(IV) construct as targeted chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.

  4. Polyamide platinum anticancer complexes designed to target specific DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, David; Wheate, Nial J; Ralph, Stephen F; Howard, Warren A; Tor, Yitzhak; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R

    2006-07-24

    Two new platinum complexes, trans-chlorodiammine[N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-[4-(N-methylimidazole-2-carboxamido)-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamido]-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamide]platinum(II) chloride (DJ1953-2) and trans-chlorodiammine[N-(6-aminohexyl)-4-[4-(N-methylimidazole-2-carboxamido)-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamido]-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamide]platinum(II) chloride (DJ1953-6) have been synthesized as proof-of-concept molecules in the design of agents that can specifically target genes in DNA. Coordinate covalent binding to DNA was demonstrated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Using circular dichroism, these complexes were found to show greater DNA binding affinity to the target sequence: d(CATTGTCAGAC)(2), than toward either d(GTCTGTCAATG)(2,) which contains different flanking sequences, or d(CATTGAGAGAC)(2), which contains a double base pair mismatch sequence. DJ1953-2 unwinds the DNA helix by around 13 degrees , but neither metal complex significantly affects the DNA melting temperature. Unlike simple DNA minor groove binders, DJ1953-2 is able to inhibit, in vitro, RNA synthesis. The cytotoxicity of both metal complexes in the L1210 murine leukaemia cell line was also determined, with DJ1953-6 (34 microM) more active than DJ1953-2 (>50 microM). These results demonstrate the potential of polyamide platinum complexes and provide the structural basis for designer agents that are able to recognize biologically relevant sequences and prevent DNA transcription and replication.

  5. Recent Advances in Platinum (IV) Complex-Based Delivery Systems to Improve Platinum (II) Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaopeng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2015-11-01

    Cisplatin and its platinum (Pt) (II) derivatives play a key role in the fight against various human cancers such as testicular, ovarian, head and neck, lung tumors. However, their application in clinic is limited due to dose- dependent toxicities and acquired drug resistances, which have prompted extensive research effort toward the development of more effective Pt (II) delivery strategies. The synthesis of Pt (IV) complex is one such an area of intense research fields, which involves their in vivo conversion into active Pt (II) molecules under the reducing intracellular environment, and has demonstrated encouraging preclinical and clinical outcomes. Compared with Pt (II) complexes, Pt (IV) complexes not only exhibit an increased stability and reduced side effects, but also facilitate the intravenous-to-oral switch in cancer chemotherapy. The overview briefly analyzes statuses of Pt (II) complex that are in clinical use, and then focuses on the development of Pt (IV) complexes. Finally, recent advances in Pt (IV) complexes in combination with nanocarriers are highlighted, addressing the shortcomings of Pt (IV) complexes, such as their instability in blood and irreversibly binding to plasma proteins and nonspecific distribution, and taking advantage of passive and active targeting effect to improve Pt (II) anticancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. De novo generation of singlet oxygen and ammine ligands by photoactivation of a platinum anticancer complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Farrer, Nicola J; Li, Huilin; Butler, Jennifer S; McQuitty, Ruth J; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wang, Fuyi; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-12-16

    Worth the excitement: Highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are generated by photoactivation of the anticancer platinum(IV) complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)2 (MA)(Py)] (MA=methylamine, Py=pyridine). Singlet oxygen is formed from the hydroxido ligands and not from dissolved oxygen, and ammine ligands are products from the conversion of azido ligands to nitrenes. Both processes can induce oxidation of guanine.

  7. Anticancer and DNA binding activities of platinum (IV) complexes; importance of leaving group departure rate.

    PubMed

    Pouryasin, Zahra; Yousefi, Reza; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Rashidi, Mehdi; Hamidizadeh, Peyman; Alavianmehr, Mohammad-Mehdi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2014-03-01

    The two six-coordinate Pt(IV) complexes, containing bidentate nitrogen donor/methyl ligands with general formula [Pt(X)2Me2((t)bu2bpy)], where (t)bu2bpy = 4,4'-ditert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine and X = Cl (C1) or Br (C2), serving as the leaving groups were synthesized for evaluation of their anticancer activities and DNA binding properties. To examine anticancer activities of the synthetic complexes, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining method were performed. The binding properties of these complexes to DNA and purine nucleotides were examined, using different spectroscopic techniques. These complexes demonstrated significant anticancer activities against three cancer cell lines Jurkat, K562, and MCF-7. On the basis of the results of EB/AO staining, C1 and C2 were also capable to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These complexes comprise halide leaving groups, displaying different departure rates; accordingly, they demonstrated slightly dissimilar anticancer activity and significantly different DNA/purine nucleotide binding properties. The results of DNA interaction studies of these complexes suggest a mixed-binding mode, comprising partial intercalation and groove binding. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the newly synthesized Pt(IV) complexes are promising class of the potential anticancer agents which can be considered as molecular templates in designing novel platinum anticancer drugs. This study also highlights the importance of leaving group in anticancer activity and DNA binding properties of Pt(IV) complexes.

  8. Novel platinum(IV) complexes conjugated with a wogonin derivative as multi-targeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaodong; Xu, Gang; Chen, Feihong; Fang, Lei; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-04-15

    Platinum-based complexes like cisplatin and oxaliplatin are well known the mainstay of chemotherapy regimens on clinic. Wogonin, a natural product that possesses wide biological activities, is now in phase I clinical test as an anticancer agent in China. Herein reported are a series of novel Pt(IV) complexes that conjugated a wogonin derivative (compound 3) to the axial position via a linker group. After being tethered to the platinum(IV) complexes, the wogonin derivative provided multiple anticancer effects, especially in compound 10, a fusion containing wogonin and cisplatin units. Compound 10 not only inherited the genotoxicity from cisplatin, but also obtained the COX inhibitory property from the wogonin derivative. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that compound 10 caused the accumulation of ROS, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and then activated the p53 pathway. Overall, the research demonstrates that the "integrative" prodrug can be an effective strategy to promote the anticancer potency of Pt-based drugs for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Nukolova, Natalia V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum–polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs. PMID:24113520

  10. Amide Coupling Reaction for the Synthesis of Bispyridine-based Ligands and Their Complexation to Platinum as Dinuclear Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Michael G.; Johnson, Ben W.; Sutcliffe, Oliver B.; Brown, Sarah D.; Wheate, Nial J.

    2014-01-01

    Amide coupling reactions can be used to synthesize bispyridine-based ligands for use as bridging linkers in multinuclear platinum anticancer drugs. Isonicotinic acid, or its derivatives, are coupled to variable length diaminoalkane chains under an inert atmosphere in anhydrous DMF or DMSO with the use of a weak base, triethylamine, and a coupling agent, 1-propylphosphonic anhydride. The products precipitate from solution upon formation or can be precipitated by the addition of water. If desired, the ligands can be further purified by recrystallization from hot water. Dinuclear platinum complex synthesis using the bispyridine ligands is done in hot water using transplatin. The most informative of the chemical characterization techniques to determine the structure and gross purity of both the bispyridine ligands and the final platinum complexes is 1H NMR with particular analysis of the aromatic region of the spectra (7-9 ppm). The platinum complexes have potential application as anticancer agents and the synthesis method can be modified to produce trinuclear and other multinuclear complexes with different hydrogen bonding functionality in the bridging ligand. PMID:24893964

  11. Cellular accumulation, lipophilicity and photocytotoxicity of diazido platinum(IV) anticancer complexes.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Ana M; McQuitty, Ruth J; Mackay, Fiona S; Zhao, Yao; Woods, Julie A; Sadler, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    The lipophilicity of ten photoactivatable platinum(IV) diazido prodrugs of formula trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)2 (R)(R')] (where R and R' are NH3 , methylamine, ethylamine, pyridine, 2-picoline, 3-picoline or thiazole) has been determined by their retention times on reversed-phase HPLC. The lipophilicity of the complexes shows a linear dependence on the lipophilicity (partition coefficient) of the ligands. Accumulation of platinum in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells after one hour drug exposure in the dark is compared with their cytotoxic potency on activation with UVA (365 nm) and to their lipophilicity. No correlation between lipophilicity and intracellular accumulation of platinum was observed, perhaps suggesting involvement of active transport and favoured influx of selected structures. Furthermore, no correlation between platinum accumulation and photocytotoxicity was observed in A2780 cancer cells, implying that the type of intracellular damage induced by these complexes plays a key role in their cytotoxic effects.

  12. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Anticancer Complex Conjugated to the RNA Ligand Guanidinoneomycin.

    PubMed

    Shaili, Evyenia; Fernández-Giménez, Marta; Rodríguez-Astor, Savina; Gandioso, Albert; Sandín, Lluís; García-Vélez, Carlos; Massaguer, Anna; Clarkson, Guy J; Woods, Julie A; Sadler, Peter J; Marchán, Vicente

    2015-12-07

    A photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex, trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)(succ)(py)2 ] (succ=succinylate, py=pyridine), has been conjugated to guanidinoneomycin to study the effect of this guanidinum-rich compound on the photoactivation, intracellular accumulation and phototoxicity of the pro-drug. Surprisingly, trifluoroacetic acid treatment causes the replacement of an azido ligand and the axial hydroxide ligand by trifluoroacetate, as shown by NMR spectroscopy, MS and X-ray crystallography. Photoactivation of the platinum-guanidinoneomycin conjugate in the presence of 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) led to the formation of trans-[Pt(N3 )(py)2 (5'-GMP)](+) , as does the parent platinum(IV) complex. Binding of the platinum(II) photoproduct {PtN3 (py)2 }(+) to guanine nucleobases in a short single-stranded oligonucleotide was also observed. Finally, cellular uptake studies showed that guanidinoneomycin conjugation improved the intracellular accumulation of the platinum(IV) pro-drug in two cancer cell lines, particularly in SK-MEL-28 cells. Notably, the higher phototoxicity of the conjugate in SK-MEL-28 cells than in DU-145 cells suggests a degree of selectivity towards the malignant melanoma cell line.

  13. Anticancer platinum (IV) prodrugs with novel modes of activity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Fei; Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Jothibasu, Ramasamy; Ang, Wee Han

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, the search for improved platinum drugs based on the classical platinum (II)-diam(m)ine pharmacophore has yielded only a handful of successful candidates. New methodologies centred on platinum (IV) complexes, with better stability and expanded coordination spheres, offer the possibility of overcoming limitations inherent to platinum (II) drugs. In this review, novel strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells using platinum (IV) constructs are discussed. These approaches exploit the unique electrochemical characteristics and structural attributes of platinum (IV) complexes as a means of developing anticancer prodrugs that can target and selectively destroy cancer cells. Anticancer platinum (IV) prodrugs represent promising new strategies as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in the ongoing battle against cancer.

  14. In vitro anticancer activity evaluation of new cationic platinum(II) complexes based on imidazole moiety.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Isabella; Facchetti, Giorgio; Lucchini, Giorgio; Castiglioni, Elisa; Marchianò, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola

    2017-03-15

    The development and the synthesis of cationic platinum(II) complexes were realized and their cytotoxic activity was tested on triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line and in two cell lines poorly responsive to cisplatin (DLD-1 and MCF-7). The complex 2c resulted the most potent cytotoxic agent in MDA-MB-231 (IC50=61.9µM) and more effective than cisplatin on both DLD-1 (IC50=57.4µM) and MCF-7 (IC50=79.9µM) cell lines. 2c showed different cellular uptake and pharmacodynamic properties than cisplatin, interfering with the progression of the M phase of the cell cycle. Thus, 2c represents a lead compound of a new class of cytotoxic agents with promising antitumor activity.

  15. Novel Anticancer Platinum(IV) Complexes with Adamantylamine: Their Efficiency and Innovative Chemotherapy Strategies Modifying Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kozubík, Alois; Vaculová, Alena; Souček, Karel; Vondráček, Jan; Turánek, Jaroslav; Hofmanová, Jiřina

    2008-01-01

    The impressive impact of cisplatin on cancer on one side and severe side effects, as well as the development of drug resistance during treatment on the other side, were the factors motivating scientists to design and synthesize new more potent analogues lacking disadvantages of cisplatin. Platinum(IV) complexes represent one of the perspective groups of platinum-based drugs. In this review, we summarize recent findings on both in vitro and in vivo effects of platinum(IV) complexes with adamantylamine. Based on a literary overview of the mechanisms of activity of platinum-based cytostatics, we discuss opportunities for modulating the effects of novel platinum complexes through interactions with apoptotic signaling pathways and with cellular lipids, including modulations of the mitochondrial cell death pathway, oxidative stress, signaling of death ligands, lipid metabolism/signaling, or intercellular communication. These approaches might significantly enhance the efficacy of both novel and established platinum-based cytostatics. PMID:18414587

  16. Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application

    PubMed Central

    Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P.; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

  17. Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application.

    PubMed

    Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-01-01

    Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs.

  18. Facile preparation of mono-, di- and mixed-carboxylato platinum(IV) complexes for versatile anticancer prodrug design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jenny Z; Bonnitcha, Paul; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Klein, Alice V; Najajreh, Yousef; Gibson, Dan; Hambley, Trevor W

    2013-01-28

    Facile strategies were developed for the versatile functionalization of platinum(IV) axial sites, allowing for easy accessibility to unsymmetric mono- and mixed-carboxylato, as well as symmetric di-substituted platinum(IV) complexes. The first method involves the direct oxidation and carboxylation of the platinum(II) center using an appropriate peroxide and the carboxylate of choice to firstly yield a monocarboxylato monohydroxido platinum(IV) complex. This platinum(IV) intermediate can undergo further carboxylation to give rise to a mixed-carboxylato platinum(IV) complex. The second method involves the activation of the carboxylate of choice by a common carbodiimide coupling reagent, and its reaction with a dihydroxido platinum(IV) precursor to give the monocarboxylato platinum(IV) complex. Uronium salts can be employed to promote efficient dicarboxylation of the dihydroxido platinum(IV) precursor. Lastly, an axial azide pendant group was demonstrated to be suitable for orthogonal "click" conjugation reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Diazido mixed-amine platinum(IV) anticancer complexes activatable by visible-light form novel DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Woods, Julie A; Farrer, Nicola J; Robinson, Kim S; Pracharova, Jitka; Kasparkova, Jana; Novakova, Olga; Li, Huilin; Salassa, Luca; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Song, Lijiang; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-07-15

    Platinum diam(m)ine complexes, such as cisplatin, are successful anticancer drugs, but suffer from problems of resistance and side-effects. Photoactivatable Pt(IV) prodrugs offer the potential of targeted drug release and new mechanisms of action. We report the synthesis, X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic properties of photoactivatable diazido complexes trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Py)] (1; MA=methylamine, Py=pyridine) and trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Tz)] (2; Tz=thiazole), and interpret their photophysical properties by TD-DFT modelling. The orientation of the azido groups is highly dependent on H bonding and crystal packing, as shown by polymorphs 1p and 1q. Complexes 1 and 2 are stable in the dark towards hydrolysis and glutathione reduction, but undergo rapid photoreduction with UVA or blue light with minimal amine photodissociation. They are over an order of magnitude more potent towards HaCaT keratinocytes, A2780 ovarian, and OE19 oesophageal carcinoma cells than cisplatin and show particular potency towards cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780cis). Analysis of binding to calf-thymus (CT), plasmids, oligonucleotide DNA and individual nucleotides reveals that photoactivated 1 and 2 form both mono- and bifunctional DNA lesions, with preference for G and C, similar to transplatin, but with significantly larger unwinding angles and a higher percentage of interstrand cross-links, with evidence for DNA strand cross-linking further supported by a comet assay. DNA lesions of 1 and 2 on a 50 bp duplex were not recognised by HMGB1 protein, in contrast to cisplatin-type lesions. The photo-induced platination reactions of DNA by 1 and 2 show similarities with the products of the dark reactions of the Pt(II) compounds trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Py)] (5) and trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Tz)] (6). Following photoactivation, complex 2 reacted most rapidly with CT DNA, followed by 1, whereas the dark reactions of 5 and 6 with DNA were comparatively slow

  20. Diazido Mixed-Amine Platinum(IV) Anticancer Complexes Activatable by Visible-Light Form Novel DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Woods, Julie A; Farrer, Nicola J; Robinson, Kim S; Pracharova, Jitka; Kasparkova, Jana; Novakova, Olga; Li, Huilin; Salassa, Luca; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Song, Lijiang; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Platinum diam(m)ine complexes, such as cisplatin, are successful anticancer drugs, but suffer from problems of resistance and side-effects. Photoactivatable PtIV prodrugs offer the potential of targeted drug release and new mechanisms of action. We report the synthesis, X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic properties of photoactivatable diazido complexes trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Py)] (1; MA=methylamine, Py=pyridine) and trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Tz)] (2; Tz=thiazole), and interpret their photophysical properties by TD-DFT modelling. The orientation of the azido groups is highly dependent on H bonding and crystal packing, as shown by polymorphs 1 p and 1 q. Complexes 1 and 2 are stable in the dark towards hydrolysis and glutathione reduction, but undergo rapid photoreduction with UVA or blue light with minimal amine photodissociation. They are over an order of magnitude more potent towards HaCaT keratinocytes, A2780 ovarian, and OE19 oesophageal carcinoma cells than cisplatin and show particular potency towards cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780cis). Analysis of binding to calf-thymus (CT), plasmids, oligonucleotide DNA and individual nucleotides reveals that photoactivated 1 and 2 form both mono- and bifunctional DNA lesions, with preference for G and C, similar to transplatin, but with significantly larger unwinding angles and a higher percentage of interstrand cross-links, with evidence for DNA strand cross-linking further supported by a comet assay. DNA lesions of 1 and 2 on a 50 bp duplex were not recognised by HMGB1 protein, in contrast to cisplatin-type lesions. The photo-induced platination reactions of DNA by 1 and 2 show similarities with the products of the dark reactions of the PtII compounds trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Py)] (5) and trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Tz)] (6). Following photoactivation, complex 2 reacted most rapidly with CT DNA, followed by 1, whereas the dark reactions of 5 and 6 with DNA were comparatively slow

  1. Monofunctional and Higher-Valent Platinum Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum compounds represent one of the great success stories of metals in medicine. Following the serendipitous discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin by Rosenberg, a large number of cisplatin variants have been prepared and tested for their ability to kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. These efforts continue today with increased realization that new strategies are needed to overcome issues of toxicity and resistance inherent to treatment by the approved platinum anticancer agents. One approach has been the use of so-called “non-traditional” platinum(II) and platinum(IV) compounds that violate the structure-activity relationships that governed platinum drug-development research for many years. Another is the use of specialized drug delivery strategies. Here we describe recent developments from our laboratory involving monofunctional platinum(II) complexes together with an historical account of the manner by which we came to investigate these compounds and their relationship to previously studied molecules. We also discuss work carried out using platinum(IV) prodrugs and the development of nanoconstructs designed to deliver them in vivo. PMID:23738524

  2. Interaction of Some Non-Platinum Metal Anticancer Complexes With Nucleotides and DNA and The Two-Pole Complementary Principle (TPCP) Arising Therefrom

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Maolin

    1998-01-01

    The binding modes of some non-platinum metal anticancer complexes, Cp2TiCl2, Cp2ZrCl2, (CH3)2SnCl2, (C2H5)2SnCl2, (C2H5)2SnCl2(phen) (phen=Phenanthroline) and cis-RuIICl2(DMSO)3 (DMSO) (cis-RDT) with nucleotides and DNA in aqueous solution at physiological pH values were investigated by various modern techniques. 5'-dGMP with Cp2TiCl2 or cis-RDT forms chelate complexes in which both N7 and phosphate of dGMP bind to the metal center. Whereas Cp2ZrCl2 and all the diorganotin compounds can bind dGMP only via the phosphate group. The investigations of the interactions between Cp2TiCl2 or (C2H5)2SnCl2 and DNA indicate that there are two types of binding sites on DNA for Cp2TiCl2, i.e., the base nitrogen rings and the phosphate group, while (C2H5)2SnCl2 can bind to DNA only via the phosphate group. At last, by carefully comparing and analysing the binding modes-activity relationships of the above anticancer complexes and other non-platinum and platinum anticancer complexes, a hypothesis named “Two-Pole Complementary Principle” was put forward. PMID:18475823

  3. Platinum, palladium, gold and ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents: Current clinical uses, cytotoxicity studies and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Tatjana; Rilak, Ana; Bugarčić, Živadin D

    2017-04-18

    Metallodrugs offer potential for unique mechanism of drug action based on the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, the types and number of coordinated ligands and the coordination geometry. This review illustrates notable recent progress in the field of medicinal bioinorganic chemistry as many new approaches to the design of innovative metal-based anticancer drugs are emerging. Current research addressing the problems associated with platinum drugs has focused on other metal-based therapeutics that have different modes of action and on prodrug and targeting strategies in an effort to diminish the side-effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. Examples of metal compounds and chelating agents currently in clinical use, clinical trials or preclinical development are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculation of lipophilicity of a large, diverse dataset of anticancer platinum complexes and the relation to cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Steven P; Hall, Matthew D; Platts, James A

    2007-10-18

    A quantitative structure--property relationship (QPSR) for the octanol--water partition of platinum complexes was constructed using molecular descriptors derived from density functional (DFT) calculations. A dataset of partition data for 64 complexes, consisting of 43 square-planar platinum(II) and 21 octahedral platinum(IV) complexes, was drawn from literature sources. Not only does this dataset include considerable structural diversity of complexes considered but also a variety of techniques for the measurement of partition coefficients. These data were modeled using descriptors drawn from electrostatic potentials and hardness/softness indices projected onto molecular surfaces. This required initial descriptor selection using a genetic algorithm approach, followed by partial least-squares regression against log Po/w data. In this way, a statistically robust model was constructed, with errors of similar size to the variation in log Po/w from multiple experimental measurements. Implications of lipophilicity for cellular accumulation of Pt-based drugs, and hence for design of new drugs, are discussed, as is the uptake of metabolites of cisplatin.

  5. Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) anticancer complexes featuring a dichloroacetate moiety in the leaving group

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiping; Su, Jia; Jiang, Jing; Li, Xingyao; Ye, Qingsong; Zhou, Hongyu; Chen, Jialin; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) complexes of 3-dichoroacetoxylcyclobutane-1, 1-dicarboxylate have been prepared in the present study and characterized by elemental analysis and IR, HPLC-MS and 1H, 13C-NMR. The complexes exist in equilibrium between two position isomeric forms and undergo hydrolysis reaction in aqueous solution, releasing the platinum pharmacophores and dichloroacetate which is a small-molecular cell apoptosis inducer. Both complexes were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic profile in A549, SGC-7901 and SK-OV-3 caner cells as well as in BEAS-2B normal cells. They exhibit markedly cytoxicity toward cancer cells by selectively inducing the apoptosis of cancer cells, whereas leaving normal cells less affected. They have also the ability to overcome the resistance of SK-OV-3 cancer cells to cisplatin. Our findings offer an alternative novel way to develop platinum drugs which can both overcome the drug resistance and selectively target tumor cells. PMID:23955304

  6. Specific Conformational Change in Giant DNA Caused by Anticancer Tetrazolato-Bridged Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes: Middle-Length Alkyl Substituents Exhibit Minimum Effect.

    PubMed

    Komeda, Seiji; Yoneyama, Hiroki; Uemura, Masako; Muramatsu, Akira; Okamoto, Naoto; Konishi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Akimitsu; Fukuda, Wakao; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Kanbe, Toshio; Harusawa, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2017-01-17

    -based anticancer drugs. In addition, the markedly high ability of these complexes to induce DNA compaction and their high intracellular accumulation emphasized the difference in mechanism of action from platinum-based anticancer drugs.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of new platinum(II) complexes with some thione ligands in the presence of triethylphosphine.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Mohammed Yagoub; Altaf, Muhammed; Ahmad, Saeed; Bhatia, Gaurav; Singh, Jatinder; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2017-10-06

    Seven new platinum(II) complexes (1-7) of triethylphosphine (Et3P) and thiones (L) with general formula, cis-[Pt(Et3P)2(L)2]Cl2 were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C & (31)P) measurements. The analytical and spectroscopic data suggested the formation of the desired complexes. The complexes were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity against four cell lines: Hela (human cervical adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), and HTC15 (human colon carcinoma). The anticancer activity values of compounds 1-6 are much better than cisplatin and carboplatin as indicated by their IC50 values.

  8. PEPTIDE TARGETING OF PLATINUM ANTI-CANCER DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Ndinguri, Margaret W.; Solipuram, Rajasree; Gambrell, Robert P.; Aggarwal, Sita; Hansel, William; Hammer, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Besides various side effects caused by platinum anticancer drugs, they are not efficiently absorbed by the tumor cells. Two Pt-peptide conjugates; cyclic mPeg-CNGRC-Pt (7) and cyclic mPeg-CNGRC-Pten (8) bearing the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) targeting sequence, a malonoyl linker and low molecular weight miniPEG groups have been synthesized. The platinum ligand was attached to the peptide via the carboxylic end of the malonate group at the end of the peptide. The pegylated peptide is non toxic and highly soluble in water. Platinum conjugates synthesized using the pegylated peptides are also water soluble with reduced or eliminated peptide immunogenicity. The choice of carboplatin as our untargeted platinum complex was due to the fact that malonate linker chelates platinum in a manner similar to carboplatin. Cell toxicity assay and competition assay on the PC-3 cells (CD13 positive receptors) revealed selective delivery and destruction of PC-3 cells using targeted Pt-peptide conjugates 7 and 8 significantly more than untargeted carboplatin. Platinum uptake on PC-3 cells was 12-fold more for conjugate 7 and 3-fold more for conjugate 8 compared to the untargeted carboplatin indicating selectively activation of the CD13 receptors and delivery of the conjugates to CD13 positive cells. Further analysis on effects of conjugates 7 and 8 on PC-3 cells using caspase-3/7, fluorescence microscopy and DNA fragmentation confirmed that the cells were dying by apoptosis. PMID:19775102

  9. Chiral discrimination in platinum anticancer drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Michele; Malina, Jaroslav; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Natile, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    In this article we review the biological activity of analogs of the antitumor drug cisplatin that contain chiral amine ligands. Interaction with DNA and formation of cross-links with adjacent purine bases are considered to be the crucial steps in the antitumor activity of this class of complexes. Because double-helical DNA has a chiral structure, interaction with enantiomeric complexes of platinum should lead to diastereomeric adducts. It has been demonstrated that DNA cross-links of platinum complexes with enantiomeric amine ligands not only can exhibit different conformational features but also can be processed differently by the cellular machinery as a consequence of these conformational differences. These results expand the general knowledge of how the stereochemistry of the platinum-DNA adduct can influence the cell response and contribute to understanding the processes that are crucial for antitumor activity. The steric requirements of the chiral ligands, in terms of configuration and flexibility, are also elucidated. PMID:12426131

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel platinum complexes of imidazolyl-containing bisphosphonates as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Lv, Gaochao; Cao, Yang; Chen, Liping; Yang, Hui; Luo, Shineng; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Four novel platinum complexes, [Pt(en)]2ZL (1), [Pt(en)]2IPrBP (2), [Pt(en)]2MIBP (3) and [Pt(en)]2EIBP (4) [en = ethylenediamine; ZL = 1-hydroxy-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethane-1,1-diylbisphosphonic acid, commonly known as zoledronic acid; IPrBP = 1-hydroxy-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propane-1,1-diylbisphosphonic acid; MIBP = 1-hydroxy-2-(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethane-1,1-diylbisphosphonic acid; EIBP = 1-hydroxy-2-(2-ethyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethane-1,1-diylbisphosphonic acid], were prepared and evaluated against five human cancer cell lines, including U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2. While exhibiting lower efficacy on the inhibition of cancer cell lines than cisplatin (CDDP), four complexes showed higher cytotoxicity than the corresponding ligands and relatively stronger cytotoxic effect on the hepatoma cell lines HepG2, and the complex 1 showed higher cytotoxicity than others on the whole. These complexes have better selectivity than the corresponding ligands in inhibiting hepatocarcinoma cells rather than normal liver cells, and the selective inhibitory effect of the complex 1 at the high concentration (100 μM) is better than that at the low concentration. Morphology studies exhibited typical characteristics of cell apoptosis and the cell cycle distribution analysis indicated that the complexes can inhibit cancer cells by inducing the cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, exhibiting a similar mechanism of action to CDDP. The binding interaction of complex with DNA has been explored by circular dichroism (CD) and UV-Vis absorption spectra, demonstrating these new complexes have moderate binding affinity for DNA.

  11. Cyclometalated Iminophosphorane Gold(III) and Platinum(II) Complexes. A Highly Permeable Cationic Platinum(II) Compound with Promising Anticancer Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New organometallic gold(III) and platinum(II) complexes containing iminophosphorane ligands are described. Most of them are more cytotoxic to a number of human cancer cell lines than cisplatin. Cationic Pt(II) derivatives 4 and 5, which differ only in the anion, Hg2Cl62– or PF6– respectively, display almost identical IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range (25–335-fold more active than cisplatin on these cell lines). The gold compounds induced mainly caspase-independent cell death, as previously reported for related cycloaurated compounds containing IM ligands. Cycloplatinated compounds 3, 4, and 5 can also activate alternative caspase-independent mechanisms of death. However, at short incubation times cell death seems to be mainly caspase dependent, suggesting that the main mechanism of cell death for these compounds is apoptosis. Mercury-free compound 5 does not interact with plasmid (pBR322) DNA or with calf thymus DNA. Permeability studies of 5 by two different assays, in vitro Caco-2 monolayers and a rat perfusion model, have revealed a high permeability profile for this compound (comparable to that of metoprolol or caffeine) and an estimated oral fraction absorbed of 100%, which potentially makes it a good candidate for oral administration. PMID:26147404

  12. Cyclometalated Iminophosphorane Gold(III) and Platinum(II) Complexes. A Highly Permeable Cationic Platinum(II) Compound with Promising Anticancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Frik, Malgorzata; Fernández-Gallardo, Jacob; Gonzalo, Oscar; Mangas-Sanjuan, Víctor; González-Alvarez, Marta; Serrano del Valle, Alfonso; Hu, Chunhua; González-Alvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Marzo, Isabel; Contel, María

    2015-08-13

    New organometallic gold(III) and platinum(II) complexes containing iminophosphorane ligands are described. Most of them are more cytotoxic to a number of human cancer cell lines than cisplatin. Cationic Pt(II) derivatives 4 and 5, which differ only in the anion, Hg2Cl6(2-) or PF6(-) respectively, display almost identical IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range (25-335-fold more active than cisplatin on these cell lines). The gold compounds induced mainly caspase-independent cell death, as previously reported for related cycloaurated compounds containing IM ligands. Cycloplatinated compounds 3, 4, and 5 can also activate alternative caspase-independent mechanisms of death. However, at short incubation times cell death seems to be mainly caspase dependent, suggesting that the main mechanism of cell death for these compounds is apoptosis. Mercury-free compound 5 does not interact with plasmid (pBR322) DNA or with calf thymus DNA. Permeability studies of 5 by two different assays, in vitro Caco-2 monolayers and a rat perfusion model, have revealed a high permeability profile for this compound (comparable to that of metoprolol or caffeine) and an estimated oral fraction absorbed of 100%, which potentially makes it a good candidate for oral administration.

  13. A dual-targeting, p53-independent, apoptosis-inducing platinum(II) anticancer complex, [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Wilson, Justin J; Lin, Wei; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic index and cellular mechanism of action of [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl, a monocationic, square-planar platinum(II) complex, are reported. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl was used to treat several cell lines, including wild type and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780CP70) and non-proliferating lung carcinoma cells (A549). [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl selectively kills cancer cells over healthy cells and exhibits no cross-resistance with cisplatin. The mechanism of cell killing was established through detailed cell-based assays. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl exhibits dual-threat capabilities, targeting nuclear DNA and mitochondria simultaneously. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl induces DNA damage, leading to p53 enrichment, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarisation, and caspase-mediated apoptosis. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl also accumulates in the mitochondria, resulting in direct mitochondrial damage. Flow cytometric studies demonstrated that [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl has no significant effect on cell cycle progression. Remarkably, p53-status is a not a determinant of [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl activity. In p53-null cells, [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl induces cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction. Cancers with p53-null status could therefore be targeted using [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl.

  14. Characteristic effect of an anticancer dinuclear platinum(II) complex on the higher-order structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Kida, Naoko; Katsuda, Yousuke; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Komeda, Seiji; Sato, Takaji; Saito, Yoshihiro; Chikuma, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mari; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-06-01

    It is known that a 1,2,3-triazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, [{cis-Pt(NH(3))(2)}(2)(micro-OH)(micro-1,2,3-ta-N (1),N (2))](NO(3))(2) (AMTA), shows high in vitro cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines and circumvents cross-resistance to cisplatin. In the present study, we examined a dose- and time-dependent effect of AMTA on the higher-order structure of a large DNA, T4 phage DNA (166 kbp), by adapting single-molecule observation with fluorescence microscopy. It was found that AMTA induces the shrinking of DNA into a compact state with a much higher potency than cisplatin. From a quantitative analysis of the Brownian motion of individual DNA molecules in solution, it became clear that the density of a DNA segment in the compact state is about 2,000 times greater than that in the absence of AMTA. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that AMTA causes a transition from the B to the C form in the secondary structure of DNA, which is characterized by fast and slow processes. Electrophoretic measurements indicated that the binding of AMTA to supercoiled DNA induces unwinding of the double helix. Our results indicate that AMTA acts on DNA through both electrostatic interaction and coordination binding; the former causes a fast change in the secondary structure from the B to the C form, whereas the latter promotes shrinking in the higher-order structure as a relatively slow kinetic process. The shrinking effect of AMTA on DNA is attributable to the possible increase in the number of bridges along a DNA molecule. It is concluded that AMTA interacts with DNA in a manner markedly different from that of cisplatin.

  15. A Novel Class of Bis- and Tris-Chelate Diam(m)inebis(dicarboxylato)platinum(IV) Complexes as Potential Anticancer Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Varbanov, Hristo P.; Göschl, Simone; Heffeter, Petra; Theiner, Sarah; Roller, Alexander; Jensen, Frank; Jakupec, Michael A.; Berger, Walter; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2015-01-01

    A novel class of platinum(IV) complexes of the type [Pt(Am)-(R(COO)2)2], where Am is a chelating diamine or two monodentate am(m)ine ligands and R(COO)2 is a chelating dicarboxylato moiety, was synthesized. For this purpose, the reaction between the corresponding tetrahydroxidoplatinum(IV) precursors and various dicarboxylic acids, such as oxalic, malonic, 3-methylmalonic, and cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid, was utilized. All new compounds were characterized in detail, using 1D and 2D NMR techniques, ESI-MS, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, TGA, and X-ray diffraction. Their in vitro cytotoxicity was determined in a panel of human tumor cell lines (CH1, SW480 and A549) by means of the MTT colorimetric assay. Furthermore, the lipophilicity and redox properties of the novel complexes were evaluated in order to better understand their pharmacological behavior. The most promising drug candidate, 4b (Pt(DACH)(mal)2), demonstrated low in vivo toxicity but profound anticancer activity against both the L1210 leukemia and CT-26 colon carcinoma models. PMID:25032896

  16. A novel class of bis- and tris-chelate diam(m)inebis(dicarboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes as potential anticancer prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Varbanov, Hristo P; Göschl, Simone; Heffeter, Petra; Theiner, Sarah; Roller, Alexander; Jensen, Frank; Jakupec, Michael A; Berger, Walter; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2014-08-14

    A novel class of platinum(IV) complexes of the type [Pt(Am)(R(COO)2)2], where Am is a chelating diamine or two monodentate am(m)ine ligands and R(COO)2 is a chelating dicarboxylato moiety, was synthesized. For this purpose, the reaction between the corresponding tetrahydroxidoplatinum(IV) precursors and various dicarboxylic acids, such as oxalic, malonic, 3-methylmalonic, and cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid, was utilized. All new compounds were characterized in detail, using 1D and 2D NMR techniques, ESI-MS, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, TGA, and X-ray diffraction. Their in vitro cytotoxicity was determined in a panel of human tumor cell lines (CH1, SW480 and A549) by means of the MTT colorimetric assay. Furthermore, the lipophilicity and redox properties of the novel complexes were evaluated in order to better understand their pharmacological behavior. The most promising drug candidate, 4b (Pt(DACH)(mal)2), demonstrated low in vivo toxicity but profound anticancer activity against both the L1210 leukemia and CT-26 colon carcinoma models.

  17. Finely Tuned Asymmetric Platinum(IV) Anticancer Complexes: Structure-Activity Relationship and Application as Orally Available Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Yap, Siew Qi; Chin, Chee Fei; Hong Thng, Agnes Hwee; Pang, Yi Yun; Ho, Han Kiat; Ang, Wee Han

    2017-02-20

    Platinum(IV) bis-carboxylates are highly versatile prodrug scaffolds with different axial ligands that can be functionalized while keeping the platinum(II) pharmacophore intact. Using a sequential acylation strategy, we developed a class of Pt(IV) prodrugs of cisplatin with contrasting lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands. We investigated their stability, reduction rates, lipophilicity, aqueous solubility, and antiproliferative efficacies, and assessed for correlations among the parameters that could be useful in drug design. We showed that compounds with high lipophilicity result in better antiproliferative effects in vitro and in vivo, with one of the three compounds tested showing better efficacy than satraplatin against an animal model of colorectal cancer, owing to its higher solubility and lower reduction rates. Our asymmetric Pt(IV) prodrugs may pave the way for a highly predictable, fine-tuned class of orally available Pt(IV) prodrugs for the treatment of colorectal cancer. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Internalization of Ineffective Platinum Complex in Nanocapsules Renders It Cytotoxic.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Oldrich; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Medrikova, Zdenka; Burdikova, Jana; Stuchlikova, Olga; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-02-18

    Anticancer therapy by platinum complexes, based on nanocarrier-based delivery, may offer a new approach to improve the efficacy and tolerability of the platinum family of anticancer drugs. The original rules for the design of new anticancer platinum drugs were affected by the fact that, although cisplatin (cis-[PtCl2 (NH3)2) was an anticancer drug, its isomer transplatin was not cytotoxic. For the first time, it is demonstrated that simple encapsulation of an inactive platinum compound in phospholipid bilayers transforms it into an efficient cytotoxic agent. Notably, the encapsulation of transplatin makes it possible to overcome the resistance mechanisms operating in cancer cells treated with cisplatin and prevents inactivation of transplatin in the extracellular environment. It is also shown that transplatin delivered to the cells in nanocapsules, in contrast to free (nonencapsulated) complex, forms cytotoxic cross-links on DNA.

  19. Effects of histidin-2-ylidene vs. imidazol-2-ylidene ligands on the anticancer and antivascular activity of complexes of ruthenium, iridium, platinum, and gold.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Florian; Donnelly, Kate; Muenzner, Julienne K; Rehm, Tobias; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Albrecht, Martin; Schobert, Rainer; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Couples of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of ruthenium, iridium, platinum, and gold, each differing only in the carbene ligand being either 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene (IM) or 1,3-dimethyl-N-boc-O-methylhistidin-2-ylidene (HIS), were assessed for their antiproliferative effect on seven cancer cell lines, their interaction with DNA, their cell cycle interference, and their vascular disrupting properties. In MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays only the platinum complexes were cytotoxic at single-digit micromolar IC50 concentrations with the (HIS)Pt complex being on average twice as active as the (IM)Pt complex. The former was highly efficacious against cisplatin-resistant HT-29 colon carcinoma cells where the latter had no effect. Both Pt complexes were accumulated by cancer cells and bound to double-helical DNA equally well. Only the (HIS)Pt complex modified the electrophoretic mobility of circular DNA in vitro due to the HIS ligand causing greater morphological changes to the DNA. Both platinum complexes induced accumulation of 518A2 melanoma cells in G2/M and S phase of the cell cycle. A disruption of blood vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs was observed for both platinum complexes and the (IM)gold complex. The (HIS)platinum complex was as active as cisplatin in tumor xenografted mice while being tolerated better. We found that the HIS ligand may augment the cytotoxicity of certain antitumoral metal fragments in two ways: by acting as a transmembrane carrier increasing the cellular accumulation of the complex, and by initiating a pronounced distortion and unwinding of DNA. We identified a new (HIS)platinum complex which was highly cytotoxic against cancer cells including cisplatin-resistant ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The first example of MEEKC–ICP-MS coupling and its application for the analysis of anticancer platinum complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bytzek, Anna K.; Reithofer, Michael R.; Galanski, Markus; Groessl, Michael; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.

    2010-01-01

    MEEKC is a powerful electrodriven separation technique with many applications in different disciplines, including medicinal chemistry; however the coupling to highly sensitive and selective mass spectrometric detectors was limited due to the ion suppressive effect of the surfactant SDS. Herein, the first example of the coupling of MEEKC to ICP-MS is presented and an MEEKC method for the separation of Pt(II) and Pt(IV) anticancer drugs and drug candidates was developed. Different compositions of microemulsions were evaluated and the data were compared to those collected with standard ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy (UV/vis) detection. The MEEKC–ICP-MS system was found to be more sensitive than MEEKC–UV/vis and the analysis of UV/vis silent compounds is now achievable. Furthermore, the migration behavior of the Pt(II) and Pt(IV) compounds under investigation is correlated to their differences in structure. PMID:20349510

  1. Oxidation of 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol by platinum(IV) anticancer prodrug and model complex: kinetic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuying; Shen, Shigang; Liu, Dongzhi; Shi, Tiesheng

    2012-06-07

    Thioredoxins are small redox proteins and have the active sites of Cys-Xaa-Yaa-Cys; they are overexpressed by many different cancer cells. Cisplatin and Pt(II) analogues could bind to the active sites and inhibit the activities of the proteins, as demonstrated by other researchers. Platinum(IV) anticancer drugs are often regarded as prodrugs, but their interactions with thioredoxins have not been studied. In this work, 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (dithiol) was chosen as a model compound for the active sites of thioredoxins, and its reactions with cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl(4)] and trans-[PtCl(2)(CN)(4)](2-) (cisplatin prodrug and a model complex) were studied. The pK(a) values for the dithiol were characterized to be 8.7 ± 0.2 and 9.6 ± 0.2 at 25.0 °C and an ionic strength of 1.0 M. The reaction kinetics was followed by a stopped-flow spectrophotometer over a wide pH range. An overall second-order rate law was established, -d[Pt(IV)]/dt = k'[Pt(IV)][dithiol], where k' stands for the observed second-order rate constants. Values of k' increased several orders of magnitude when the solution pH was increased from 3 to 9. A stoichiometry of Δ[Pt(IV)]/Δ[dithiol] = 1:1 derived for the reduction process and product analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that the dithiol was oxidized to form an intramolecular disulfide, coinciding with the nature of thioredoxin proteins. All of the reaction features are rationalized in terms of a reaction mechanism, involving three parallel rate-determining steps depending on the pH of the reaction medium. Rate constants for the rate-determining steps were evaluated. It can be concluded that Pt(IV) anticancer prodrugs can oxidize the reduced thioredoxins, and the oxidation mechanism is similar to those of the oxidations of biologically important reductants by some reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite and chloramines.

  2. Comparison of the effects of the oral anticancer platinum(IV) complexes oxoplatin and metabolite cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) on global gene expression of NCI-H526 cells

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Ulsperger, Ernst; Geissler, Klaus; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Platinum(IV) coordination complexes like oxoplatin (cis,cis,trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum[IV]) show high stability and therefore can be utilized orally for outpatient care. Although oxoplatin is capable of binding directly to DNA after prolonged incubation, platinum(IV) agents are considered to be largely inert prodrugs that are converted to highly cytotoxic platinum(II) compounds by reducing substances, enzymes, or microenviron-mental conditions. Reaction of oxoplatin with 0.1 M hydrogen chloride mimicking gastric acid yields cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) (DATCP[IV]), which exhibits two-fold increased activity. The presence of chlorides as ligands in the axial position results in a high reduction potential that favors transformation to platinum(II) complexes. In this study, the intracellular effect of the highly reactive tetrachlorido derivative was investigated in comparison with an equipotent dose of cisplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes and concerned cellular pathways between DATCP(IV) and cisplatin. Application of DATCP(IV) resulted in extensive downregulation of protein and ATP synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and glycolysis, in contrast to cisplatin, which preferentially targeted glutathione conjugation, pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids and a range of carbohydrates. Thus, the oxoplatin metabolite DATCP(IV) constitutes a potent cytotoxic derivative that may be produced by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in larger solid tumors, depending on the respective pharmaceutical formulation of oxoplatin. Furthermore, DATCP(IV) exhibits intracellular effects that are clearly different from the expected reduced product cisplatin(II). In conclusion, activation of the platinum(IV) complex oxoplatin seems to involve the generation of a cytotoxic

  3. Comparison of the effects of the oral anticancer platinum(IV) complexes oxoplatin and metabolite cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) on global gene expression of NCI-H526 cells.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Ulsperger, Ernst; Geissler, Klaus; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Platinum(IV) coordination complexes like oxoplatin (cis,cis,trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum[IV]) show high stability and therefore can be utilized orally for outpatient care. Although oxoplatin is capable of binding directly to DNA after prolonged incubation, platinum(IV) agents are considered to be largely inert prodrugs that are converted to highly cytotoxic platinum(II) compounds by reducing substances, enzymes, or microenviron-mental conditions. Reaction of oxoplatin with 0.1 M hydrogen chloride mimicking gastric acid yields cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) (DATCP[IV]), which exhibits two-fold increased activity. The presence of chlorides as ligands in the axial position results in a high reduction potential that favors transformation to platinum(II) complexes. In this study, the intracellular effect of the highly reactive tetrachlorido derivative was investigated in comparison with an equipotent dose of cisplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes and concerned cellular pathways between DATCP(IV) and cisplatin. Application of DATCP(IV) resulted in extensive downregulation of protein and ATP synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and glycolysis, in contrast to cisplatin, which preferentially targeted glutathione conjugation, pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids and a range of carbohydrates. Thus, the oxoplatin metabolite DATCP(IV) constitutes a potent cytotoxic derivative that may be produced by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in larger solid tumors, depending on the respective pharmaceutical formulation of oxoplatin. Furthermore, DATCP(IV) exhibits intracellular effects that are clearly different from the expected reduced product cisplatin(II). In conclusion, activation of the platinum(IV) complex oxoplatin seems to involve the generation of a cytotoxic

  4. Functionalization of Platinum Complexes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xiaohui; Guo, Zijian

    2015-09-15

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs are the mainstay of chemotherapy regimens in clinic. Nevertheless, the efficacy of platinum drugs is badly affected by serious systemic toxicities and drug resistance, and the pharmacokinetics of most platinum drugs is largely unknown. In recent years, a keen interest in functionalizing platinum complexes with bioactive molecules, targeting groups, photosensitizers, fluorophores, or nanomaterials has been sparked among chemical and biomedical researchers. The motivation for functionalization comes from some of the following demands: to improve the tumor selectivity or minimize the systemic toxicity of the drugs, to enhance the cellular accumulation of the drugs, to overcome the tumor resistance to the drugs, to visualize the drug molecules in vitro or in vivo, to achieve a synergistic anticancer effect between different therapeutic modalities, or to add extra functionality to the drugs. In this Account, we present different strategies being used for functionalizing platinum complexes, including conjugation with bisphosphonates, peptides, receptor-specific ligands, polymers, nanoparticles, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, metal chelators, or photosensitizers. Among them, bisphosphonates, peptides, and receptor-specific ligands are used for actively targeted drug delivery, polymers and nanoparticles are for passively targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents are for theranostic purposes, metal chelators are for the treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and photosensitizers are for photodynamic therapy of cancers. The rationales behind these designs are explained and justified at the molecular or cellular level, associating with the requirements for diagnosis, therapy, and visualization of biological processes. To illustrate the wide range of opportunities and challenges that are emerging in this realm, representative examples of targeted drug delivery systems, anticancer conjugates

  5. Novel palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes with 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl-N-(4-bromo-phenyl)-amine: structural studies and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghani, Nour T; Mansour, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    [MLCl(2)] (L = (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-N-(4-bromo-phenyl)-amine; M = Pd & Pt) and [PdL(OH(2))(2)]∙2X∙zH(2)O (X = Br, I, z = 2; X = SCN, z = 1; X = NO(3), z = 0) complexes have been synthesized as potential anticancer compounds and their structures were elucidated using elemental analysis, spectral, thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. The benzimidazole (L) crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/c with a = 8.6660(3) Å, b = 16.6739(7) Å, c = 9.8611(4) Å and β = 113.505(3) ° and forms an infinite chain structure with a trans-zigzag type along the crystallographic axis "a", through the intermolecular H-bond. FT-IR and (1)H NMR studies revealed that the ligand L is coordinated to the metal ion via the pyridine-type nitrogen (N(py)) of the benzimidazole ring and secondary amino group (NH(sec)). Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, and (1)H NMR of the benzimidazole L and its complexes were carried out by DFT/B3LYP method combined with 6-31G(d) and LANL2DZ basis sets. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) were performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The benzimidazole L, in comparison to its metal complexes was screened for its antibacterial activity. The complexes showed cyctotoxic effects against human breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocarcinoma (HepG(2)) and colon carcinoma cells (HCT). The platinum complex (6) exhibited a moderate antitumor activity against MCF7 with IC(50) = 10.2 μM comparing to that reported for cis-platin 9.91 μM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Platinum(II)-Acyclovir Complexes: Synthesis, Antiviral and Antitumour Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coluccia, M.; Boccarelli, A.; Cermelli, C.; Portolani, M.; Natile, G.

    1995-01-01

    A platinum(II) complex with the antiviral drug acyclovir was synthesized and its antiviral and anticancer properties were investigated in comparison to those of acyclovir and cisplatin. The platinum-acyclovir complex maintained the antiviral activity of the parent drug acyclovir, though showing a minor efficacy on a molar basis (ID50  =   7.85 and 1.02 μΜ for platinum-acyclovir and cisplatin, respectively). As anticancer agent, the platinum-acyclovir complex was markedly less potent than cisplatin on a mole-equivalent basis, but it was as effective as cisplatin when equitoxic dosages were administered in vivo to P388 leukaemia-bearing mice (%T/C = 209 and 211 for platinum-acyclovir and cisplatin, respectively). The platinum-acyclovir complex was also active against a cisplatin-resistant subline of the P388 leukaemia (%T/C = 140), thus suggesting a different mechanism of action. The DNA interaction properties (sequence specificity and interstrand cross-linking ability) of platinum-acyclovir were also investigated in comparison to those of cisplatin and [Pt(dien)Cl]+, an antitumour-inactive platinum-triamine compound. The results of this study point to a potential new drug endowed, at the same time, with antiviral and anticancer activity and characterized by DNA interaction properties different from those of cisplatin. PMID:18472776

  7. Metal chelates as anti-cancer agents. II cytotoxic action of palladium and platinum complexes of 6-mercaptopurine and thioguanine.

    PubMed

    Das, M; Livingstone, S E

    1978-08-01

    The metal complexes Pd(MP)2.2H2O, Pt(MP)2H2O (MPH=6-mercaptopurine), Pt(AMP2.3H2O and Pd3(AMP)4Cl2(AMPH).4H2O (AMPH=thioguanine) have been isolated. They were screened for anti-tumour activity in the L-1210 lymphoid leukaemia test system in mice. All 4 show marked anti-tumour activity, the complex Pt(AMP)2.3H2O giving a T/C of 185 at the optimum dosage. However, the anti-tumour activity of the metal complexes is somewhat less than that shown by the parent purines under the same conditions.

  8. In Vitro Anticancer Evaluation of Platinum(II/IV) Complexes with Diisoamyl Ester of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-propanoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zmejkovski, Bojana B; Pantelić, Nebojša; Filipović, Lana; Aranđelović, Sandra; Radulović, Siniša; Sabo, Tibor J; Kaluđerović, Goran N

    2017-01-01

    Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes [PtCln{(S,S)-(i-Am)2eddip}] (n = 2, 4: 1, 2, respectively; (S,S)-(i-Am)2eddip = O,O'-diisoamyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-propanoate) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Quantum chemical calculations were used to predict formed isomers of 1 and 2. Furthermore, reduction of 2 with ascorbic acid was followed by time-dependant 13C NMR spectroscopy in order to enable assignation of the formed isomers for complex 1. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined for 1 and 2 on a panel of five human tumor cell lines derived from cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), alveolar basal adenocarcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-453), colorectal cancer (LS 174), erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562), as well as one non-malignant human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), using MTT assay. Both complexes exhibited high (2 against K562: IC50 = 5.4 μM), more active than cisplatin, to moderate activity (1). Both complexes caused considerable decrease of cell number in K562 cells in G1, S and G2 phases, concordantly increasing subpopulation in sub-G1 fraction. Morphological analysis of K562 cell death induced by platinum(II/IV) complexes indicate apoptosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. [Formylation of porphyrin platinum complexes].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, V D; Konovalenko, L I; Nagaeva, E A; Mironov, A F

    2005-01-01

    The formylation reaction of platinum complexes of beta-unsubstituted porphyrins was studied. The interaction of deuteroporphyrin IX derivatives with the Vilsmeyer reagent led to the selective formylation of their macrocycles in the beta position. The resulting formyl derivatives of the porphyrins are of interest for fluorescent immunoassay.

  10. Multiple states of stalled T7 RNA polymerase at DNA lesions generated by platinum anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yongwon; Lippard, Stephen J

    2003-12-26

    Transcription inhibition by DNA adducts of cisplatin is considered to be one of the major routes by which this anticancer drug kills cancer cells. Stalled RNA polymerases at platinum-DNA lesions evoke various cellular responses such as nucleotide excision repair, polymerase degradation, and apoptosis. T7 RNA polymerase and site-specifically platinated DNA templates immobilized on a solid support were used to study stalled transcription elongation complexes. In vitro transcription studies were performed in both a promoter-dependent and -independent manner. An elongation complex is strongly blocked by cisplatin 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG) and 1,3-intrastrand d(GpTpG) cross-links located on the template strand. Polymerase action is inhibited at multiple sites in the vicinity of the platinum lesion, the nature of which can be altered by the choice and concentration of NTPs. The [(1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)Pt]2+ DNA adducts formed by oxaliplatin, which carries a stereochemically more demanding spectator ligand than the ammine groups in cisplatin, also strongly block the polymerase with measurable differences compared with cis-[(NH3)2Pt]2+ lesions. Elongation complexes stopped at sites of platinum damage were isolated and characterized. The stalled polymerase can be dissociated from the DNA by subsequent polymerases initiated from the same template. We also discovered that a polymerase stalled at the platinum-DNA lesion can resume transcription after the platinum adduct is chemically removed from the template.

  11. New imidoyl-indazole platinum (II) complexes as potential anticancer agents: Synthesis, evaluation of cytotoxicity, cell death and experimental-theoretical DNA interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alan R; Espinosa-Bustos, Christian; Faúndez, Mario; Meléndez, Jaime; Jaque, Pablo; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Aguirre, Adam; Rojas, Rene S; Salas, Cristian O

    2017-09-01

    Four new neutral N,N imidoyl-indazole ligands (L1, L3, L6, L7) and six new Pt(II)-based complexes (C1-5 and C7) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Additionally, compounds L6, L7, C3, C5 and C7 were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. An evaluation of cytotoxicity and cell death in vitro for both ligands and complexes was performed by colorimetric assay and flow cytometry, in four cancer cell lines and VERO cells as the control, respectively. Cytotoxicity and selectivity demonstrated by each compound were dependent on the cancer cell line assayed. IC50 values of complexes C1-5 and C7 were lower than those exhibited for the reference drug cisplatin, and selectivity of these complexes was in general terms greater than cisplatin on three cancer cell lines studied. In HL60 cells, complexes C1 and C5 exhibited the lowest values of IC50 and were almost five times more selective than cisplatin. Flow cytometry results suggest that each complex predominantly induced necrosis, and its variant necroptosis, instead of apoptosis in all cancer cell lines studied. DNA binding assays, using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV-visible spectrophotometry studies, displayed a strong interaction only between C4 and DNA. In fact, theoretical calculations showed that C4-DNA binding complex was the most thermodynamic favorable interaction among the complexes in study. Overall, induction of cell death by dependent and independent-DNA-metal compound interactions were possible using imidoyl-indazole Pt(II) complexes as anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro anticancer activity of octahedral platinum(IV) complexes with cyclohexyl-functionalized ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate-type ligands.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Jelena M; Vucićević, Ljubica; Grgurić-Sipka, Sanja; Janjetović, Kristina; Kaluderović, Goran N; Misirkić, Maja; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Popadić, Dusan; Paschke, Reinhard; Trajković, Vladimir; Sabo, Tibor J

    2010-06-07

    The present study describes the synthesis and anticancer activity of novel octahedral Pt(IV) complexes with cyclohexyl functionalized ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate-type ligands. Molecular mechanics calculations and density functional theory analysis revealed that s-cis is the preferred geometry of these Pt(IV) complexes with tetradentate-coordinated (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoate. The viability of cancer cell lines (U251 human glioma, C6 rat glioma, L929 mouse fibrosarcoma, and B16 human melanoma) was assessed by measuring mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Cell-cycle distribution, oxidative stress, caspase activation, and induction of autophagy were analyzed by flow cytometry using appropriate fluorescent reporter dyes. The cytotoxic activity of novel Pt(IV) complexes against various cancer cell lines (IC(50) range: 1.9-8.7 microM) was higher than that of cisplatin (IC(50) range: 10.9-67.0 microM) and proceeded through completely different mechanisms. Cisplatin induced caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with the cytoprotective autophagic response. In contrast, the new Pt(IV) complexes caused rapid, caspase-independent, oxidative stress-mediated non-apoptotic cell death characterized by massive cytoplasmic vacuolization, cell membrane damage, and the absence of protective autophagy.

  13. Advances in cobalt complexes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Catherine R; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan

    2015-08-21

    The evolution of resistance to traditional platinum-based anticancer drugs has compelled researchers to investigate the cytostatic properties of alternative transition metal-based compounds. The anticancer potential of cobalt complexes has been extensively studied over the last three decades, and much time has been devoted to understanding their mechanisms of action. This perspective catalogues the development of antiproliferative cobalt complexes, and provides an in depth analysis of their mode of action. Early studies on simple cobalt coordination complexes, Schiff base complexes, and cobalt-carbonyl clusters will be documented. The physiologically relevant redox properties of cobalt will be highlighted and the role this plays in the preparation of hypoxia selective prodrugs and imaging agents will be discussed. The use of cobalt-containing cobalamin as a cancer specific delivery agent for cytotoxins will also be described. The work summarised in this perspective shows that the biochemical and biophysical properties of cobalt-containing compounds can be fine-tuned to produce new generations of anticancer agents with clinically relevant efficacies.

  14. Morpholine or methylpiperazine and salicylaldimine based heteroleptic square planner platinum (II) complexes: In vitro anticancer study and growth retardation effect on E. coli.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Faiz-Ur; Ali, Amjad; Khan, Inam Ullah; Duong, Hong-Quan; Yu, Shang-Bo; Lin, Yue-Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Zhan-Ting; Zhang, Dan-Wei

    2017-05-05

    Morpholine and methylpiperazine are among the most important structural parts of different drugs including organic chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study we incorporated these entities as co-ligand and a series of structurally related mono- and di-metallic square planner Pt(II) complexes (Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(morpholine)Cl C1a-C3a, Pt(II)(salicylaldimine) (methylpiperazine)Cl C1b-C3b, di-metallic Pt(II)2(bis-salicylaldimine)(morpholine)2Cl2C4a and Pt(II)2(bis-salicylaldimine)(methylpiperazine)2Cl2C4b were prepared. These complexes were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, (19)F, 2D NOESY NMR, HR ESI-MS and elemental analyses, while structures of C2a, C3a and C4b were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. All these complexes were studied for their in vitro cytotoxic effect on breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. All these complexes showed considerable cytotoxic effect on these tested cancer cell lines comparable to cisplatin. Moreover three complexes C1a, C4a and C1b were studied in details. Time- and dose-dependent study was performed for C1a, C4a and C1b. These complexes induced the expression of p53 that suppresses cancer cell growth. Induction of PUMA gene and repression of MYC oncogene suggested that these complexes targeted different genes to suppress cancer progression. TUNEL assay showed induction of apoptosis and invasion analysis showed reduction in invasion ability of breast cancer cells treated with C1a, C4a or C1b. Importantly, these novel complexes suppressed the expression of EMT and metastasis promoter genes. Similarly these complexes induced autophagy by enhancing the expression of autophagy related genes such as beclin, atg-5 and atg-7. The E. coli growth retardation study showed stronger growth inhibitory effects and subsequently resulted in filamentous morphology of bacterial cells. Gel electrophoresis study proved the interaction of these complexes with DNA. All these analysis revealed anticancer potencies

  15. Side-on binding of p-sulphonatocalix[4]arene to the dinuclear platinum complex trans-[{PtCl(NH3)2}2mu-dpzm]2+ and its implications for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wheate, Nial J; Abbott, Grainne M; Tate, Rothwelle J; Clements, Carol J; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Johnston, Blair F

    2009-03-01

    The utility of p-sulphonatocalix[4]arene (s-CX[4]) as a drug delivery vehicle for multinuclear platinum anticancer agents, using trans-[{PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)mu-dpzm](2+) (di-Pt; where dpzm=4,4'-dipyrazolylmethane) as a model complex, has been examined using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, molecular modelling and in vitro growth inhibition assays. s-CX[4] binds di-Pt in a side-on fashion in a ratio of 1:1, with the dpzm ligand of the metal complex located within the s-CX[4] cavity with binding further stabilised by ion-ion interactions and hydrogen bonding between the metal complex am(m)ine groups and the s-CX[4] sulphate groups. Partial encapsulation of di-Pt within the cavity does not prevent binding of 5'-guanosine monophosphate to the metal complex. When bound to two individual guanosine molecules, di-Pt also remains partially bound by s-CX[4]. The cytotoxicity of free di-Pt and s-CX[4] and their host guest complex was examined using in vitro growth inhibition assays in the A2780 and A2780cis human ovarian cancer cell lines. Free di-Pt has an IC(50) of 100 and 60 microM, respectively, in the cell lines, which is significantly less active than cisplatin (1.9 and 8.1 microM, respectively). s-CX[4] displays no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 1.5mM and does not affect the cytotoxicity of di-Pt, probably because its low binding constant to the metal complex (6.8 x 10(4)M(-1)) means the host-guest complex is mostly disassociated at biologically relevant concentrations.

  16. Antitumor effect of arabinogalactan and platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Starkov, A K; Zamay, T N; Savchenko, A A; Ingevatkin, E V; Titova, N M; Kolovskaya, O S; Luzan, N A; Silkin, P P; Kuznetsova, S A

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of antitumor properties of platinum-arabinogalactan complex. We showed the ability of the complex to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is found that the distribution of the platinum-arabinogalactan complex is not specific only for tumor cells in mice. The complex was found in all tissues and organs examined (ascites cells, embryonic cells, kidney, and liver). The mechanism of action of the arabinogalactan-platinum complex may be similar to cisplatin as the complex is able to accumulate in tumor cells.

  17. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Complex Targeting Genomic DNA and Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Novakova, Olga; Křikavová, Radka; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-11-23

    We report toxic effects of a photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex conjugated with suberoyl-bis-hydroxamic acid in tumor cells. The conjugate exerts, after photoactivation, two functions: activity as both a platinum(II) anticancer drug and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in cancer cells. This approach relies on the use of a Pt(IV) pro-drug, acting by two independent mechanisms of biological action in a cooperative manner, which can be selectively photoactivated to a cytotoxic species in and around a tumor, thereby increasing selectivity towards cancer cells. These results suggest that this strategy is a valuable route to design new platinum agents with higher efficacy for photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy.

  18. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Searching for the magic bullet: anticancer platinum drugs which can be accumulated or activated in the tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2007-01-01

    Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are anticancer drugs, which are efficiently used in the clinics all over the world. Besides a remarkable therapeutic efficacy in a series of solid tumors and outstanding activity of cisplatin against testicular germ-cell cancer, the platinum-based therapy is in part accompanied by a set of severe toxic side-effects. The design of platinum complexes being equipped with an exclusive selectivity for the tumoral tissue and exhibiting a lack of systemic toxicity ('magic bullets') is the great hope in the fight against cancer and also a motor within the expanding field of bioinorganic chemistry. In this review article, two promising strategies, namely accumulation and activation of tumor inhibiting platinum complexes specifically at the tumor site is presented, demonstrating a stepwise approach towards the 'magic bullet' concept propagated by Paul Ehrlich.

  20. Nanocrystalline carbonate-apatites: role of Ca/P ratio on the upload and release of anticancer platinum bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Iafisco, Michele; Palazzo, Barbara; Martra, Gianmario; Margiotta, Nicola; Piccinonna, Sara; Natile, Giovanni; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Roveri, Norberto

    2012-01-07

    In the present study two nanocrystalline apatites have been investigated as bone-specific drug delivery devices to be used for treatment of bone tumors either by local implantation or by injection. In order to assess how the Ca/P ratio can influence the adsorption and release of anticancer platinum-bisphosphonate complexes, two kinds of apatite nanocrystals having different Ca/P ratios but similar morphologies, degree of crystallinity, and surface areas have been synthesized and characterized. The two platinum-bisphosphonate complexes considered were the bis-{ethylenediamineplatinum(ii)}-2-amino-1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diyl-bisphosphonate and the bis-{ethylenediamineplatinum(ii)}medronate. The Ca/P ratio plays an important role in the adsorption as well as in the release of the two drugs. In fact, the apatite with a higher Ca/P ratio showed greater affinity for both platinum complexes. Also the chemical structure of the two Pt complexes appreciably affects their affinity towards as well as their release from the two kinds of apatites. In particular, the platinum complex whose bisphosphonate contains a free aminic group showed greater upload and smaller release. The cytotoxicity of the Pt complexes released from the apatite was tested against human cervical, colon, and lung cancer cells as well as against osteosarcoma cells. In agreement with previous work, the Pt complexes released were found to be more cytotoxic than the unmodified complexes.

  1. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl

    2015-06-15

    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  2. Unusual DNA binding modes for metal anticancer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Ana M.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    DNA is believed to be the primary target for many metal-based drugs. For example, platinum-based anticancer drugs can form specific lesions on DNA that induce apoptosis. New platinum drugs can be designed that have novel modes of interaction with DNA, such as the trinuclear platinum complex BBR3464. Also it is possible to design inert platinum(IV) pro-drugs which are non-toxic in the dark, but lethal when irradiated with certain wavelengths of light. This gives rise to novel DNA lesions which are not as readily repaired as those induced by cisplatin, and provides the basis for a new type of photoactivated chemotherapy. Finally, newly emerging ruthenium(II) organometallic complexes not only bind to DNA coordinatively, but also by H-bonding and hydrophibic interactions triggered by the introduction of extended arene rings into their versatile structures. Intriguingly osmium (the heavier congener of ruthenium) reacts differently with DNA but can also give rise to highly cytotoxic organometallic complexes. PMID:19344743

  3. The RING heterodimer BRCA1-BARD1 is a ubiquitin ligase inactivated by the platinum-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Atipairin, Apichart; Canyuk, Bhutorn; Ratanaphan, Adisorn

    2011-02-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility protein 1 (BRCA1) participates in the maintenance of cells genomic integrity through DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint, protein ubiquitination, and transcriptional regulation. The N-terminus of BRCA1 contains a RING domain that preferentially forms a heterodimeric complex with BARD1. The BRCA1-BARD1 RING complex has an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that plays an essential role in response to DNA damage. Preclinical and clinical studies have recently revealed that structural changes to the heterodimer result in alterations to the BRCA1-mediated DNA repair pathways in cancer cells, and lead to hypersensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents. It is of interest to approach the BRCA1 RING domain as a potentially molecular target for platinum-based drugs for cancer therapy. A previous study has shown that the anticancer drug cisplatin formed intramolecular and intermolecular BRCA1 adducts in which His117 was the primary platinum-binding site, and conferred conformational changes and induced thermostability. Here, we have studied the functional consequence of the in vitro platination of the BRCA1 RING domain by a number of platinum complexes. The BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase activity was inhibited by transplatin > cisplatin > oxaliplatin > carboplatin in that order. The consequences of the binding of the platinum complexes on the reactivity of the BRCA1 were also discussed. The data raised the possibility of selectively targeting the BRCA1 DNA repair for cancer therapy.

  4. Nanocrystalline carbonate-apatites: role of Ca/P ratio on the upload and release of anticancer platinum bisphosphonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafisco, Michele; Palazzo, Barbara; Martra, Gianmario; Margiotta, Nicola; Piccinonna, Sara; Natile, Giovanni; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Roveri, Norberto

    2011-12-01

    In the present study two nanocrystalline apatites have been investigated as bone-specific drug delivery devices to be used for treatment of bone tumors either by local implantation or by injection. In order to assess how the Ca/P ratio can influence the adsorption and release of anticancer platinum-bisphosphonate complexes, two kinds of apatite nanocrystals having different Ca/P ratios but similar morphologies, degree of crystallinity, and surface areas have been synthesized and characterized. The two platinum-bisphosphonate complexes considered were the bis-{ethylenediamineplatinum(ii)}-2-amino-1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diyl-bisphosphonate and the bis-{ethylenediamineplatinum(ii)}medronate. The Ca/P ratio plays an important role in the adsorption as well as in the release of the two drugs. In fact, the apatite with a higher Ca/P ratio showed greater affinity for both platinum complexes. Also the chemical structure of the two Pt complexes appreciably affects their affinity towards as well as their release from the two kinds of apatites. In particular, the platinum complex whose bisphosphonate contains a free aminic group showed greater upload and smaller release. The cytotoxicity of the Pt complexes released from the apatite was tested against human cervical, colon, and lung cancer cells as well as against osteosarcoma cells. In agreement with previous work, the Pt complexes released were found to be more cytotoxic than the unmodified complexes.In the present study two nanocrystalline apatites have been investigated as bone-specific drug delivery devices to be used for treatment of bone tumors either by local implantation or by injection. In order to assess how the Ca/P ratio can influence the adsorption and release of anticancer platinum-bisphosphonate complexes, two kinds of apatite nanocrystals having different Ca/P ratios but similar morphologies, degree of crystallinity, and surface areas have been synthesized and characterized. The two platinum

  5. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  6. Synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR studies of novel bicyclic antitumor platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Julia; Delgado, Aida; Montaña, Ángel M; Mesas, Juan M; Alegre, María-Teresa; Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Avilés, Francesc-Xavier

    2014-08-18

    The present study describes the synthesis, anticancer activity and SAR studies of novel platinum(IV) complexes having 1,2-bis(aminomethyl)carbobicyclic or oxabicyclic carrier ligands, bearing chlorido and/or hydroxido ligands in axial position and chlorido or malonato ligands in equatorial position (labile ligands). These complexes were synthetized with the aim of obtaining new anticancer principles more soluble in water and therefore more bioavailable. Several substitution patterns on the platinum atom have been designed in order to evaluate their antiproliferative activity and to establish structure-activity relationship rules. The synthesis of platinum(IV) complexes with axial hydroxyl ligands on the platinum(IV) were carried out by reaction of K2Pt(OH)2Cl4 with the corresponding diamines. The complexes with axial chlorido ligands on the platinum(IV) atom were synthesized by direct reaction of diamines with K2PtCl6. Carboxylated complexes were synthesized by the substitution reaction of equatorial chlorido ligands by silver dicarboxylates. The most actives complexes were those having malonate as a labile ligand, no matter of the structure of the carrier ligand. Regarding the influence of the structure of the non-labile 1,4-diamine carrier ligand on the cytotoxicity, it was found that the complexes having the more lipophilic and symmetrical bicyclo[2.2.2]octane framework were much more active than those having an oxygen or methylene bridge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Transferring the Concept of Multinuclearity to Ruthenium Complexes for Improvement of Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ferri, Maria G.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Mendoza, Marco A.; Groessl, Michael; Egger, Alexander E.; Eichinger, Rene E.; Mangrum, John B.; Farrell, Nicholas P.; Maruszak, Magdalena; Bednarski, Patrick J.; Klein, Franz; Jakupec, Michael A.; Nazarov, Alexey A.; Severin, Kay; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2010-01-01

    Multinuclear platinum anticancer complexes are a proven option to overcome resistance of established anticancer compounds. Transferring this concept to ruthenium complexes led to the synthesis of dinuclear Ru(II)–arene compounds containing a bis(pyridinone)alkane ligand linker. A pronounced influence of the spacer length on the in vitro anticancer activity was found, which is correlated to the lipophilicity of the complexes. IC50 values in the same dimension as for established platinum drugs were found in human tumor cell lines. No cross-resistance to oxoplatin, a cisplatin prodrug, was observed for the most active complex in three resistant cell lines; in fact, a 10-fold reversal of sensitivity in two of the oxoplatin-resistant lines was found. (Bio)analytical characterization of the representative examples showed that the ruthenium complexes hydrolyze rapidly, forming predominantly diaqua species that exhibit affinity toward transferrin and DNA, indicating that both proteins and nucleobases are potential targets. PMID:19170599

  8. Transferring the concept of multinuclearity to ruthenium complexes for improvement of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Ferri, Maria G; Hartinger, Christian G; Mendoza, Marco A; Groessl, Michael; Egger, Alexander E; Eichinger, Rene E; Mangrum, John B; Farrell, Nicholas P; Maruszak, Magdalena; Bednarski, Patrick J; Klein, Franz; Jakupec, Michael A; Nazarov, Alexey A; Severin, Kay; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2009-02-26

    Multinuclear platinum anticancer complexes are a proven option to overcome resistance of established anticancer compounds. Transferring this concept to ruthenium complexes led to the synthesis of dinuclear Ru(II)-arene compounds containing a bis(pyridinone)alkane ligand linker. A pronounced influence of the spacer length on the in vitro anticancer activity was found, which is correlated to the lipophilicity of the complexes. IC(50) values in the same dimension as for established platinum drugs were found in human tumor cell lines. No cross-resistance to oxoplatin, a cisplatin prodrug, was observed for the most active complex in three resistant cell lines; in fact, a 10-fold reversal of sensitivity in two of the oxoplatin-resistant lines was found. (Bio)analytical characterization of the representative examples showed that the ruthenium complexes hydrolyze rapidly, forming predominantly diaqua species that exhibit affinity toward transferrin and DNA, indicating that both proteins and nucleobases are potential targets.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism for reduction of anticancer-active tetrachloroam(m)ine platinum(IV) compounds by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Lemma, K; Berglund, J; Farrell, N; Elding, L I

    2000-06-01

    Glutathione (GSH) reduction of the anticancer-active platinum(IV) compounds trans-[PtCl4(NH3)(thiazole)] (1), trans-[PtCl4(cha)(NH3)] (2), cis-[PtCl4(cha)(NH3)] (3) (cha=cyclohexylamine), and cis-[PtCl4(NH3)2] (4) has been investigated at 25 degrees C in a 1.0 M aqueous medium at pH 2.0-5.0 (1) and 4.5-6.8 (2-4) using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The redox reactions follow the second-order rate law d[Pt(IV)]/dt=k[GSH]tot[Pt(IV)], where k is a pH-dependent rate constant and [GSH]tot the total concentration of glutathione. The reduction takes place via parallel reactions between the platinum(IV) complexes and the various protolytic species of glutathione. The pH dependence of the redox kinetics is ascribed to displacement of these protolytic equilibria. The thiolate species GS is the major reductant under the reaction conditions used. The second-order rate constants for reduction of compounds 1-4 by GS- are (1.43 +/- 0.01) x 10(7), (3.86 +/- 0.03) x 10(6), (1.83 +/- 0.01) x 10(6), and (1.18 +/- 0.01) x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Rate constants for reduction of 1 by the protonated species GSH are more than five orders of magnitude smaller. The mechanism for the reductive elimination reactions of the Pt(IV) compounds is proposed to involve an attack by glutathione on one of the mutually trans coordinated chloride ligands, leading to two-electron transfer via a chloride-bridged activated complex. The kinetics results together with literature data indicate that platinum(IV) complexes with a trans Cl-Pt-Cl axis are reduced rapidly by glutathione as well as by ascorbate. In agreement with this observation, cytotoxicity profiles for such complexes are very similar to those for the corresponding platinum(II) product complexes. The rapid reduction within 1 s of the platinum(IV) compounds with a trans Cl-Pt-C1 axis to their platinum(II) analogs does not seem to support the strategy of using kinetic inertness as a parameter to increase anticancer activity, at least for

  10. Organic cation transporter 6 directly confers resistance to anticancer platinum drugs

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, Tetsuya; Kunii, Eiji; Fukuda, Satoshi; Sone, Kazuki; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Takemura, Masaya; Maeno, Ken; Ito, Yutaka; Niimi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier family 22 have a critical role in the cellular uptake of anticancer platinum drugs. Recently, we found that a decreased OCT6 expression is associated with a reduced intracellular uptake of cisplatin (CDDP), and concomitant resistance to CDDP. In the present study, we examined whether OCTs directly confer resistance to another platinum drug, oxaliplatin (L-OHP). To address this, we used parental lung cancer cell lines, PC-14 and SBC3; L-OHP-resistant sublines, PC-14/L-OHP and SBC3/L-OHP; and one CDDP-resistant subline PC-14/CDDP, to examine the relationships between the expression of OCTs and intracellular platinum drug concentration or platinum drug resistance. The two L-OHP-resistant sublines showed cross resistance to CDDP and L-OHP, and a decreased expression of OCT6. The intracellular accumulation of L-OHP in PC-14/L-OHP cells was reduced compared with the parental cells. The findings suggested that a reduced OCT6 expression confers platinum drug resistance in the sublines by decreasing the uptake of platinum drugs. Using the PC-14/CDDP cell line engineered to overexpress OCT6, we confirmed that the intracellular L-OHP concentration was increased concomitantly with OCT6 overexpression compared with the parental cell line. Additionally, OCT6 was expressed in a screening panel of lung and colon cancer tissues and matched normal control tissues. Taken together with the previous results, the present findings indicate that OCT6 is directly involved in platinum drug resistance by mediating platinum drug uptake in cancer cells. PMID:27882231

  11. Polymeric biomaterials for the delivery of platinum-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihoon; Pramanick, Swapan; Lee, Duhwan; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-07-01

    Since cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii), received FDA approval for use in cancer treatment in 1978, platinum-based drugs have been one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of tumors in testicles, ovaries, head and neck. However, there are concerns associated with the use of platinum-based anticancer drugs, owing to severe side effects and drug resistance. In order to overcome these limitations, various drug-delivery systems have been developed based on diverse organic and inorganic materials. In particular, the versatility of polymeric materials facilitates the tuning of drug-delivery systems to meet their primary goals. This review focuses on the progress made over the last five years in the application of polymeric nanoparticles for the delivery of platinum-based anticancer drugs. The present article not only describes the fundamental principles underlying the implementation of polymeric nanomaterials in platinum-based drug delivery, but also summarizes concepts and strategies employed in the development of drug-delivery systems.

  12. Noncovalent interactions between a trinuclear monofunctional platinum complex and human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yongmei; He, Weijiang; Guo, Zijian

    2011-12-19

    Interactions between platinum complexes and human serum albumin (HSA) play crucial roles in the metabolism, distribution, and efficacy of platinum-based anticancer drugs. Polynuclear monofunctional platinum(II) complexes represent a new class of anticancer agents that display distinct molecular characters of pharmacological action from those of cisplatin. In this study, the interaction between a trinuclear monofunctional platinum(II) complex, [Pt(3)LCl(3)](ClO(4))(3) (L = N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3,5-tris(aminomethyl)benzene) (1), and HSA was investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular docking, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The spectroscopic and thermodynamic data show that the interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being 14.6 kJ mol(-1) and 145.5 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. The reactive sites of HSA to complex 1 mainly locate within its hydrophobic cavity in domain II. Noncovalent actions such as π-π stacking and hydrophobic bonding are the primary contributors to the interaction between HSA and complex 1, which is different from the scenario for cisplatin in similar conditions. The results suggest that the connection between complex 1 and HSA is reversible, and therefore the cytotoxic activity of the complex could be preserved during blood circulation.

  13. Induction of immunogenic cell death by chemotherapeutic platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ong, Wendy Wei Fang; Ang, Wee Han

    2015-05-26

    There is compelling evidence suggesting that the immune-modulating effects of many conventional chemotherapeutics, including platinum-based agents, play a crucial role in achieving clinical response. One way in which chemotherapeutics can engage a tumor-specific immune response is by triggering an immunogenic mode of tumor cell death (ICD), which then acts as an "anticancer vaccine". In spite of being a mainstay of chemotherapy, there has not been a systematic attempt to screen both existing and upcoming Pt agents for their ICD ability. A library of chemotherapeutically active Pt agents was evaluated in an in vitro phagocytosis assay, and no correlation between cytotoxicity and phagocytosis was observed. A Pt(II) N-heterocyclic carbene complex was found to display the characteristic hallmarks of a type II ICD inducer, namely focused oxidative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calreticulin exposure, and both HMGB1 and ATP release, and thus identified as the first small-molecule immuno-chemotherapeutic agent.

  14. DNA interactions of new antitumor aminophosphine platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Neplechová, K; Kaspárková, J; Vrána, O; Nováková, O; Habtemariam, A; Watchman, B; Sadler, P J; Brabec, V

    1999-07-01

    Mechanistic studies are presented of a novel class of aminophosphine platinum(II) complexes as potential anticancer agents. These new agents, which have demonstrated activity against murine and human tumor cells including those resistant to cisplatin are cis-[PtCl2(Me2N(CH2)3PPh2-P)2] (Com1) and cis-[PtCl(C6H11NH(CH2)2PPh2-N,P)(C6H11NH(CH2) 2PPh2-P)] (Com2). We studied modifications of natural and synthetic DNAs in cell-free media by Com1 and Com2 by various biomedical and biophysical methods and compared the results with those obtained when DNA was modified by cisplatin. The results indicated that Com1 and Com2 coordinated to DNA faster than cisplatin. Bifunctional Com1 formed DNA adducts coordinating to single adenine or guanine residues or by forming cross-links between these residues. In comparison with cisplatin, Com1 formed the adducts more frequently at adenine residues and also formed fewer bidentate lesions. The monofunctional Com2 only formed DNA monodentate adducts at guanine residues. In addition, Com1 terminated DNA synthesis in vitro more efficiently than cisplatin whereas Com2 blocked DNA synthesis only slightly. DNA unwinding studies, measurements of circular dichroism spectra, immunochemical analysis, and studies of the B-Z transition in DNA revealed conformational alterations induced by the adducts of Com1, which were distinctly different from those induced by cisplatin. Com2 had little influence on DNA conformation. It is suggested that the activity profile of aminophosphine platinum(II) complexes, which is different from that of cisplatin and related analogs, might be associated with the specific DNA binding properties of this new class of platinum(II) compounds.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and DNA binding studies of platinum(II) complexes with benzimidazole derivative ligands.

    PubMed

    Tarı, Özden; Gümüş, Fatma; Açık, Leyla; Aydın, Betül

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and evaluate plasmid DNA interaction of new platinum(II) complexes with some 2-substituted benzimidazole derivatives as carrier ligands which may have potent anticancer activity and low toxicity. Twelve benzimidazole derivatives carrying indole, 2-/or 3-/or 4-methoxyphenyl, 4-methylphenyl, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl, 4-methoxybenzyl, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl, 3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylthio or dimethylamino ethyl groups in their position 2 and twelve platinum(II) complexes with these carrier ligands were synthesized. The chemical structure of the platinum complexes have been characterized by their elemental analysis and FIR, (1)H NMR and mass spectra and their (1)H NMR and FIR spectra were interpreted by comparison with those of the ligands. The interaction of all the ligands and their complexes with plasmid DNA and their restriction endonuclease reactions by BamHI and HindIII enzymes were studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. It was determined that complex 1 [dichloro-di(2-(1H-indole-3-yl)benzimidazole)platinum(II)·2H2O] has stronger interaction than carboplatin and complex 10 [dichloro-di(2-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)benzimidazole)platinum(II)·2H2O] has stronger interaction than both carboplatin and cisplatin with plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Copper binding modulates the platination of human copper chaperone Atox1 by antitumor trans-platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhaoyong; Guo, Wei; Tian, Changlin; Wang, Fuyi; Liu, Yangzhong

    2014-03-01

    The transport system of platinum-based anticancer agents is crucial for drug sensitivity. Increasing evidence indicates that the copper transport system is also involved in the cellular influx and efflux of platinum drugs. The copper chaperone Atox1 has been shown to bind to cisplatin in vitro and in cells. Previous results reveal that copper binding promotes the reaction between Atox1 and cisplatin. Here, we have performed detailed solution NMR and ESI-MS experiments to investigate the effect of Cu(i) binding on the reactions of Atox1 with two antitumor active trans-platinum agents, trans-EE and trans-PtTz. Results indicate that, similar to the reaction of cisplatin, copper coordination also enhances the platination of Atox1 by two trans-platinum complexes, and platinum binds to the copper coordinating residues. However, copper binding promotes the trans-platinum transfer from Atox1 to dithiothreitol (DTT). This result is in contrast to the reaction of Atox1 with cisplatin, in which the presence of copper largely suppresses the platination of DTT. Additionally, both apo- and Cu(I)-Atox1 react faster with trans-platinum complexes than with cisplatin, however, less protein aggregation is observed in the reaction of trans-platinum complexes. These results indicate that the roles of Atox1 in the regulation of cellular trafficking of platinum drugs are dependent on the coordination configurations.

  17. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB proteins-platinated DNA interactions correlates with cytotoxic effectiveness of the platinum complexes

    PubMed Central

    Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is the target responsible for anticancer activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Their activity is mediated by altered signals related to programmed cell death and the activation of various signaling pathways. An example is activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). Binding of NF-κB proteins to their consensus sequences in DNA (κB sites) is the key biochemical activity responsible for the biological functions of NF-κB. Using gel-mobility-shift assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we examined the interactions of NF-κB proteins with oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing κB site damaged by DNA adducts of three platinum complexes. These complexes markedly differed in their toxic effects in tumor cells and comprised highly cytotoxic trinuclear platinum(II) complex BBR3464, less cytotoxic conventional cisplatin and ineffective transplatin. The results indicate that structurally different DNA adducts of these platinum complexes exhibit a different efficiency to affect the affinity of the platinated DNA (κB sites) to NF-κB proteins. Our results support the hypothesis that structural perturbations induced in DNA by platinum(II) complexes correlate with their higher efficiency to inhibit binding of NF-κB proteins to their κB sites and cytotoxicity as well. However, the full generalization of this hypothesis will require to evaluate a larger series of platinum(II) complexes. PMID:27574114

  18. Organoiridium Complexes: Anticancer Agents and Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar IrI complexes, such as Crabtree’s hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl IrIII complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d6 IrIII centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong σ-donor C∧C-chelating ligands can even stabilize IrIV and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar IrI complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to PtII anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich IrIII anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cpx)Ir(L∧L′)Z]0/n+ (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L∧L′ = chelated C∧N or N∧N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form IrIII-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium

  19. Organoiridium complexes: anticancer agents and catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Sadler, Peter J

    2014-04-15

    Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar Ir(I) complexes, such as Crabtree's hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Ir(III) complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d(6) Ir(III) centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong σ-donor C^C-chelating ligands can even stabilize Ir(IV) and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar Ir(I) complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to Pt(II) anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich Ir(III) anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cp(x))Ir(L^L')Z](0/n+) (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L^L' = chelated C^N or N^N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form Ir(III)-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium

  20. Interactions of platinum metals and their complexes in biological systems.

    PubMed Central

    LeRoy, A F

    1975-01-01

    Platinum-metal oxidation catalysts are to be introduced in exhaust systems of many 1975 model-year automobiles in the U.S. to meet Clean Air Act standards. Small quantities of finely divided catalyst have been found issuing from prototype systems; platinum and palladium compounds may be found also. Although platinum exhibits a remarkable resistance to oxidation and chemical attack, it reacts chemically under some conditions producing coordination complex compounds. Palladium reacts more readily than platinum. Some platinum-metal complexes interact with biological systems as bacteriostatic, bacteriocidal, viricidal, and immunosuppressive agents. Workers chronically exposed to platinum complexes often develop asthma-like respiratory distress and skin reactions called platinosis. Platinum complexes used alone and in combination therapy with other drugs have recently emerged as effective agents in cancer chemotherapy. Understanding toxic and favorable interactions of metal species with living organisms requires basic information on quantities and chemical characteristics of complexes at trace concentrations in biological materials. Some basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data are presented to characterize the chemical behavior of the complex cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] used therapeutically. A brief discussion of platinum at manogram levels in biological tissue is discussed. PMID:50943

  1. Interactions of platinum metals and their complexes in biological systems.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, A F

    1975-04-01

    Platinum-metal oxidation catalysts are to be introduced in exhaust systems of many 1975 model-year automobiles in the U.S. to meet Clean Air Act standards. Small quantities of finely divided catalyst have been found issuing from prototype systems; platinum and palladium compounds may be found also. Although platinum exhibits a remarkable resistance to oxidation and chemical attack, it reacts chemically under some conditions producing coordination complex compounds. Palladium reacts more readily than platinum. Some platinum-metal complexes interact with biological systems as bacteriostatic, bacteriocidal, viricidal, and immunosuppressive agents. Workers chronically exposed to platinum complexes often develop asthma-like respiratory distress and skin reactions called platinosis. Platinum complexes used alone and in combination therapy with other drugs have recently emerged as effective agents in cancer chemotherapy. Understanding toxic and favorable interactions of metal species with living organisms requires basic information on quantities and chemical characteristics of complexes at trace concentrations in biological materials. Some basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data are presented to characterize the chemical behavior of the complex cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] used therapeutically. A brief discussion of platinum at manogram levels in biological tissue is discussed.

  2. Design, modeling, synthesis and biological activity evaluation of camptothecin-linked platinum anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Raffaella; Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Artali, Roberto; Tinelli, Stella; Colangelo, Donato; Zunino, Franco; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Beretta, Giovanni Luca; Zaffaroni, Nadia

    2013-05-01

    The design, modeling, synthesis and biological activity evaluation of two hybrid agents formed by 7-oxyiminomethylcamptothecin derivatives and diaminedichloro-platinum (II) complex are reported. The compounds showed growth inhibitory activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines, including sublines resistant to topotecan and platinum compounds. The derivatives were active in all the tested cell lines, and compound 1b, the most active one, was able to overcome cisplatin resistance in the osteosarcoma U2OS/Pt cell line. Platinum-containing camptothecins produced platinum-DNA adducts and topoisomerase I-mediated DNA damage with cleavage pattern and persistence similar to SN38, the active principle of irinotecan. Compound 1b exhibited an appreciable antitumor activity in vivo against human H460 tumor xenograft, comparable to that of irinotecan at lower well-tolerated dose levels and superior to cisplatin. The results support the interpretation that the diaminedichloro-platinum (II) complex conjugated via an oxyiminomethyl linker at the 7-position of the camptothecin resulted in a new class of effective antitumor compounds.

  3. Multi-platinum anti-cancer agents. Substitution-inert compounds for tumor selectivity and new targets.

    PubMed

    Farrell, N P

    2015-12-21

    This tutorial review summarizes chemical, biophysical and cellular biological properties of formally substitution-inert "non-covalent" polynuclear platinum complexes (PPCs). We demonstrate how modulation of the pharmacological factors affecting platinum compound cytotoxicity such as cellular accumulation, reactivity toward extracellular and intracellular sulfur-ligand nucleophiles and consequences of DNA binding is achieved to afford a profile of biological activity distinct from that of covalently-binding agents. The DNA binding of substitution-inert complexes is achieved by molecular recognition through minor groove spanning and backbone tracking of the phosphate clamp. In this situation, the square-planar tetra-am(m)ine Pt(ii) coordination units hydrogen bond to phosphate oxygen OP atoms to form bidentate N-O-N motifs. The modular nature of the polynuclear compounds results in high-affinity binding to DNA and very efficient nuclear condensation. These combined effects distinguish the phosphate clamp as a third mode of ligand-DNA binding, discrete from intercalation and minor-groove binding. The cellular consequences mirror those of the biophysical studies and a significant portion of nuclear DNA is compacted, a unique effect different from mitosis, senescence or apoptosis. Substitution-inert PPCs display cytotoxicity similar to cisplatin in a wide range of cell lines, and sensitivity is indifferent to p53 status. Cellular accumulation is mediated through binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) allowing for possibilities of tumor selectivity as well as disruption of HSPG function, opening new targets for platinum antitumor agents. The combined properties show that covalently-binding chemotypes are not the unique arbiters of cytotoxicity and antitumor activity and meaningful antitumor profiles can be achieved even in the absence of Pt-DNA bond formation. These dual properties make the substitution-inert compounds a unique class of inherently dual

  4. Synthesis and characterization of new platinum(II) and platinum(IV) triphyrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaoli; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Ikeda, Shinya; Okujima, Tetsuo; Mori, Shigeki; Uno, Hidemitsu; Yamada, Hiroko

    2013-02-18

    Metalation of 6,13,20,21-tetrakis(4-methylphenyl)-22H-tribenzo[14]triphyrin(2.1.1) with PtCl(2) gave a platinum(II) complex having a square-planar coordination structure with two pyrrolic nitrogen atoms and two chloride ions, with a saddle-shaped macrocycle. This platinum(II) complex was easily oxidized by air to an octahedral platinum(IV) complex coordinated by three pyrrolic nitrogen atoms as a tridentate monoanionic cyclic ligand and three chloride ions. When platinum(II) triphyrin was crystallized in air, an oxygen atom was incorporated between two α-carbon atoms of the pyrroles as an oxygen bridge to intercept the 14π aromatic system.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of novel platinum containing anticancer agent BP-C1 studied in rabbits using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Navolotskii, Denis V; Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Fedoros, Elena I; Panchenko, Andrey V

    2015-09-01

    A method of platinum quantification in whole blood samples after microwave digestion using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed. The following analytical figures of merit have been established: limit of detection 1.1 µg/L for blood samples, dynamic range 3.6-200 µg/L, intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, n = 9) did not exceed 5%. Spiked samples were analyzed for method validation. The method was used for pharmacokinetics studies of a novel anti-cancer drug BP-С1, a complex of cis-configured platinum and benzene-poly-carboxylic acids. Main pharmacokinetic parameters (area under curve, maximum concentration, clearance, half-life times for α- and β-phase) were estimated for two dosage forms of BP-C1 0.05 and 0.125 mass %. Pharmacokinetic curves were assessed for single and course administration. Studies were performed using rabbits (n = 6) as a model. BP-C1 was injected intramuscularly. The study established dose proportionality of the tested dosage forms and suggested clinical dosing schedule: 5 days of injections followed by 2 days' break. Platinum tissue distribution was studied in tissue samples collected 20 days after the last injection. Predominant platinum accumulation was observed in kidneys, liver, and muscles near injection site. 'Slow' phase of platinum excretion kinetics may be related to the muscles at the injection site.

  6. 2-Deoxyglucose conjugated platinum (II) complexes for targeted therapy: design, synthesis, and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Mi, Qian; Ma, Yuru; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Liu, Pengxing; Mi, Yi; Fu, Xuegang; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-11-01

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit an elevated rate of glycolysis over normal cells. To target the Warburg effect, we designed a new series of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) conjugated platinum (II) complexes for glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated anticancer drug delivery. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a comparative molecular docking analysis utilizing the latest GLUT1 protein crystal structure. The key binding site for 2-DG as GLUT1's substrate was identified with molecular dynamics simulation, and the docking study demonstrated that the 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes can be recognized by the same binding site as potential GLUT1 substrate. The conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity study with seven human cancer cell lines. The results of this study revealed that 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes are GLUT1 transportable substrates and exhibit improved cytotoxicities in cancer cell lines that over express GLUT1 when compared to the clinical drug, Oxaliplatin. The correlation between GLUT1 expression and antitumor effects are also confirmed. The study provides fundamental information supporting the potential of the 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes as lead compounds for further pharmaceutical R&D.

  7. Conjugation of vitamin E analog α-TOS to Pt(IV) complexes for dual-targeting anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Song, Ying; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-03-07

    We report two platinum(IV) complexes conjugated with a vitamin E analog, α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS). One of the conjugates displays the activity of both cisplatin and α-TOS in cancer cells, causing damage to DNA and mitochondria simultaneously. Accordingly, it serves as a promising dual-targeting anticancer agent.

  8. Conjugation of Vitamin E Analog α-TOS to Pt(IV) Complexes for Dual-Targeting Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Song, Ying

    2014-01-01

    We report two platinum(IV) complexes conjugated with a vitamin E analog, α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS). One of the conjugates displays the activity of both cisplatin and αTOS in cancer cells, causing damage to DNA and mitochondria simultaneously. Accordingly, it serves as promising dual-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:24452361

  9. Raman and infrared spectroscopy, DFT calculations, and vibrational assignment of the anticancer agent picoplatin: performance of long-range corrected/hybrid functionals for a platinum(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Malik, Magdalena; Wysokiński, Rafał; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Helios, Katarzyna; Michalska, Danuta

    2014-08-28

    Picoplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)(2-picoline)], is a new promising anticancer agent undergoing clinical trials, which reveals high efficacy against many tumors and greatly reduced toxicity, in comparison to cisplatin. In this work, we present for the first time the Fourier-transform Raman and infrared spectra of picoplatin, in the region of 3500-50 cm(-1). The comprehensive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, the nature of Pt-ligand bonding, vibrational frequencies, and intensities were performed by employing different DFT methods, including hybrid (PBE0, mPW1PW, and B3LYP) and long-range-corrected hybrid density functionals (LC-ωPBE, CAM-B3LYP). Various effective core potentials (ECP) and basis sets have been used. In the prediction of the molecular structure of picoplatin, the best results have been obtained by LC-ωPBE, followed by PBE0, mPW1PW, and CAM-B3LYP density functionals, while the least accurate is B3LYP. The use of the LanL2TZ(f) ECP/basis set for Pt, in conjunction with all tested DFT methods, improves the calculated geometry of the title complex. The PBE0, mPW1PW, and CAM-B3LYP methods have shown the best performance in the calculations of the frequencies of Pt-ligand vibrations. A clear-cut assignment of all the bands in the IR and Raman spectra have been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution (PED). The nature of the "vibrational signatures" of picoplatin have been determined. These results are indispensable for further investigation on drug-target interactions using vibrational spectroscopy.

  10. Association of a Platinum Complex to a G-Quadruplex Ligand Enhances Telomere Disruption.

    PubMed

    Charif, Razan; Granotier-Beckers, Christine; Bertrand, Hélène Charlotte; Poupon, Joël; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Boussin, François D; Bombard, Sophie

    2017-08-21

    Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes against illegitimate recombination and repair. They can be targets for G-quadruplex ligands and platinum complexes due to their repeated G-rich sequences. Protection of telomeres is ensured by a complex of six proteins, including TRF2, which inhibits the DNA damage response pathway. We analyzed telomere modifications induced in cancer cells by the experimental hybrid platinum complex, Pt-MPQ, comprising both an ethylene diamine monofunctional platinum complex and a G-quadruplex recognition moiety (MPQ). Pt-MPQ promotes the displacement of two telomeric proteins (TRF2 and TRF1) from telomeres, as well as the formation of telomere damage and telomere sister losses, whereas the control compound MPQ does not. This suggests that the platinum moiety potentiates the targeting of the G-quadruplex ligand to telomeres, opening a new perspective for telomere biology and anticancer therapy. Interestingly, the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, which has no specific affinity for G-quadruplex structures, partially induces the TRF2 delocalization from telomeres but produces less telomeric DNA damage, suggesting that this TRF2 displacement could be independent of G-quadruplex recognition.

  11. Cytotoxicity of cyclometalated platinum complexes based on tridentate NCN and CNN-coordinating ligands: remarkable coordination dependence.

    PubMed

    Vezzu, Dileep A K; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua; Huo, Shouquan

    2014-05-01

    A series of cyclometalated platinum complexes with diverse coordination patterns and geometries were screened for their anticancer activity. It was discovered that the N^C^N-coordinated platinum complex based on 1,3-di(pyridyl)benzene displayed much higher cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells NCI-H522, HCC827, and NCI-H1299, and human prostate cancer cell RV1 than cisplatin. In a sharp contrast, the C^N^N-coordinated platinum complex based on 6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine was ineffective on these cancer cells. This remarkable difference in cytotoxicity displayed by N^C^N- and C^N^N-coordinated platinum complexes was related to the trans effect of the carbon donor in the cyclometalated platinum complexes, which played a crucial role in facilitating the dissociation of the chloride ligand to create an active binding site. The DNA binding was studied for the N^C^N-coordinated platinum complex using electrophoresis and emission titration. The cellular uptake observed by fluorescent microscope showed that the complex is largely concentrated in the cytoplasm. The possible pathways for the cell apoptosis were studied by western blot analysis and the activation of PARP via caspase 7 was observed.

  12. Cellular and biomolecular responses of human ovarian cancer cells to cytostatic dinuclear platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Miaoxin; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Jianhui; Fan, Damin; Zhang, Yangmiao; Zhang, Junfeng; Guo, Zijian

    2011-03-01

    Polynuclear platinum(II) complexes represent a class of potential anticancer agents that have shown promising pharmacological properties in preclinical studies. The nature of cellular responses induced by these complexes, however, is poorly understood. In this research, the cellular responses of human ovarian cancer COC1 cells to dinuclear platinum(II) complexes {[cis-Pt(NH₃)₂Cl]₂L¹}(NO₃)₂ (1) and {[cis-Pt(NH₃)₂Cl]₂L²}(NO₃)₂ (2) (L¹ = α,α'-diamino-p-xylene, L² = 4,4'-methylenedianiline) has been studied using cisplatin as a reference. The effect of platinum complexes on the proliferation, death mode, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell cycle progression has been examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The activation of cell cycle checkpoint kinases (CHK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) of the cells by the complexes has also been analyzed using phospho-specific flow cytometry. Complex 1 is more cytotoxic than complex 2 and cisplatin at most concentrations; complex 2 and cisplatin are comparably cytotoxic. These complexes kill the cells through an apoptotic or apoptosis-like pathway characterized by exposure of phosphatidylserine and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Complex 1 shows the strongest inductive effect on the morphological changes of the cells, followed by cisplatin and complex 2. Complexes 1 and 2 arrest the cell cycle in G2 or M phase, while cisplatin arrests the cell cycle in S phase. The influence of these complexes on CHK1/2, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK varies with the dose of the drugs or reaction time. Activation of phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-p38 MAPK by these complexes is closely related to the cytostatic activity. The results demonstrate that dinuclear platinum(II) complexes can induce some cellular responses different from those caused by cisplatin.

  13. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of DNA adducts of a platinum containing anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangir, Deepak K.; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2014-09-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the interaction of drugs with their target molecules is important for better understanding of their mode of action and to improve their efficacy. Carboplatin is a platinum containing anticancer drug, used to treat different type of tumors. In the present work, we applied Raman spectroscopy to study the interaction of carboplatin with DNA at molecular level using different carboplatin-DNA molar ratios. These Raman spectroscopic results provide comprehensive understanding on the carboplatin-DNA interactions and indicate that DNA cross-linked adducts formed by carboplatin are similar to cisplatin adducts. The results indicate that guanine N7 and adenine N7 are the putative sites for carboplatin interaction. It is observed that carboplatin has some affinity toward cytosine in DNA. Phosphate sugar backbone of DNA showed conformation perturbation in DNA which were easily sensible at higher concentrations of carboplatin. Most importantly, carboplatin interaction induces intermediate A- and B-DNA conformations at the cross-linking sites.

  14. Ruthenium versus platinum: interactions of anticancer metallodrugs with duplex oligonucleotides characterised by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Michael; Tsybin, Yury O; Hartinger, Christian G; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2010-06-01

    The binding of the ruthenium-based anticancer drug candidates KP1019, NAMI-A and RAPTA-T towards different double-stranded oligonucleotides was probed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and compared with that of the widely used platinum-based chemotherapeutics cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. It was found that the extent of adduct formation decreased in the following order: cisplatin > oxaliplatin > NAMI-A > RAPTA-T > carboplatin > KP1019. In addition to the characterisation of the adducts formed with the DNA models, the binding sites of the metallodrugs on the oligonucleotides were elucidated employing top-down tandem mass spectrometry and were found to be similar for all the metallodrugs studied, irrespective of the sequence of the oligonucleotide. A strong preference for guanine residues was established.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of two novel isomerism anticancer platinum compounds.

    PubMed

    He, Donglin; Yin, Shuhui; Han, Fuguo; Zhu, Jingjie; Shi, Yun; Tong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Qingfei

    2016-11-01

    LLC-0601(S,S) and LLC-0601(R,R) are two novel synthesized isomerism platinum compounds both with encouraging anticancer activity. However, the previous study showed that toxicity of LLC-0601(R,R) was much higher than that of LLC-0601(S,S) with higher body weight loss and mortality rate of tested rats. This paper is focused on the comparison of the two compounds with their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in rats and tissue distribution in mice after intravenous administration. The atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) method was successfully developed and applied for the determination of platinum in plasma and tissues. The results showed that main PK parameters such as half-life, AUC and MRT of the two compounds had no significant difference after intravenous administration to rats (p  > 0.05). The tissue distribution after intravenous administration to mice showed that the concentration of LLC-0601(R,R) in heart at 0.083 h was higher than that of LLC-0601(S,S) (p  < 0.05) and it was the same case for AUC5min-4 h (p  < 0.05). Different distribution of the two compounds in heart was possibly the main reason of different toxicity and more in-depth research on the metabolites and other mechanism are needed to investigate the toxicity.

  16. Novel platinum(IV) complexes induce rapid tumor cell death in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaludjerović, Goran N; Miljković, Djordje; Momcilović, Miljana; Djinović, Vesna M; Mostarica Stojković, Marija; Sabo, Tibor J; Trajković, Vladimir

    2005-09-01

    The anticancer activity of platinum complexes has been known since the discovery of classical Pt(II)-based drug cisplatin. However, Pt(IV) complexes have greater inertness than corresponding Pt(II) complexes, thus allowing the oral administration and reducing the toxicity associated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Here, we describe the in vitro antitumor activity of some novel Pt(IV)-based agents against mouse fibrosarcoma L929 cells and human astrocytoma U251 cells. The cytotoxicity of 2 Pt(IV) complexes with bidentate ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-3-propanoato esters was found to be markedly higher than that of their Pt(II) counterparts and comparable to the antitumor action of cisplatin. In contrast to cisplatin, which caused oxidative stress-independent apoptotic cell death of tumor cells, these Pt(IV) complexes induced oxygen radical-mediated tumor cell necrosis. Importantly, the cytotoxic action of novel Pt(IV) complexes was markedly more rapid than that of cisplatin, indicating their potential usefulness in anticancer therapy.

  17. Platinum(IV) Carboxylate Prodrug Complexes as Versatile Platforms for Targeted Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jun Xiang; Yap, Siew Qi; Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Chin, Chee Fei; Ang, Wee Han

    2015-01-01

    Kinetically-inert Pt(IV) carboxylate complexes have emerged in recent years as candidates for the development of next-generation platinum anticancer drugs. Being native prodrugs of clinically-important Pt(II) chemotherapeutic agents, the Pt(IV) scaffold can be exploited to incorporate additional functionalities while keeping the Pt(II) pharmacophore intact. This mini-review examines recent work performed to illuminate the mechanism of Pt(IV) prodrug activation and their use as versatile platforms for targeted chemotherapy.

  18. Novel platinum-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Dioscorea bulbifera: anticancer and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sougata; Nitnavare, Rahul; Dewle, Ankush; Tomar, Geetanjali B; Chippalkatti, Rohan; More, Piyush; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, Sangeeta; Bellare, Jayesh; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants serve as rich sources of diverse bioactive phytochemicals that might even take part in bioreduction and stabilization of phytogenic nanoparticles with immense therapeutic properties. Herein, we report for the first time the rapid efficient synthesis of novel platinum-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-PdNPs) along with individual platinum (PtNPs) and palladium (PdNPs) nanoparticles using a medicinal plant, Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed monodispersed PtNPs of size 2-5 nm, while PdNPs and Pt-PdNPs between 10 and 25 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed 30.88% ± 1.73% elemental Pt and 68.96% ± 1.48% elemental Pd in the bimetallic nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated strong peaks at 3,373 cm(-1), attributed to hydroxyl group of polyphenolic compounds in DBTE that might play a key role in bioreduction in addition to the sharp peaks at 2,937, 1,647, 1,518, and 1,024 cm(-1), associated with C-H stretching, N-H bending in primary amines, N-O stretching in nitro group, and C-C stretch, respectively. Anticancer activity against HeLa cells showed that Pt-PdNPs exhibited more pronounced cell death of 74.25% compared to individual PtNPs (12.6%) or PdNPs (33.15%). Further, Pt-PdNPs showed an enhanced scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals.

  19. Anti-cancer palladium complexes: a focus on PdX2L2, palladacycles and related complexes.

    PubMed

    Kapdi, Anant R; Fairlamb, Ian J S

    2014-07-07

    Much success has been achieved with platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents, i.e. through interactions with DNA. The long-term application of Pt complexes is thwarted by issues, leading scientists to examine other metals such as palladium which could exhibit complementary modes of action (given emphasis wherever known). Over the last 10 years several research groups have focused on the application of an eclectic array of palladium complexes (of the type PdX2L2, palladacycles and related structures) as potential anti-cancer agents. This review therefore provides readers with an up to date account of the advances that have taken place over the past several decades.

  20. The molecular shape and the field similarities as criteria to interpret SAR studies for fragment-based design of platinum(IV) anticancer agents. Correlation of physicochemical properties with cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Julia; Montaña, Ángel M

    2016-09-01

    Molecular shape similarity and field similarity have been used to interpret, in a qualitative way, the structure-activity relationships in a selected series of platinum(IV) complexes with anticancer activity. MM and QM calculations have been used to estimate the electron density, electrostatic potential maps, partial charges, dipolar moments and other parameters to correlate the stereo-electronic properties with the differential biological activity of complexes. Extended Electron Distribution (XED) field similarity has been also evaluated for the free 1,4-diamino carrier ligands, in a fragment-based drug design approach, comparing Connolly solvent excluded surface, hydrophobicity field surface, Van der Waals field surface, nucleophilicity field surface, electrophilicity field surface and the extended electron-distribution maxima field points. A consistency has been found when comparing the stereo-electronic properties of the studied series of platinum(IV) complexes and/or the free ligands evaluated and their in vitro anticancer activity.

  1. Comparative studies of oxaliplatin-based platinum(iv) complexes in different in vitro and in vivo tumor models.

    PubMed

    Göschl, Simone; Schreiber-Brynzak, Ekaterina; Pichler, Verena; Cseh, Klaudia; Heffeter, Petra; Jungwirth, Ute; Jakupec, Michael A; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2017-03-22

    Using platinum(iv) prodrugs of clinically established platinum(ii) compounds is a strategy to overcome side effects and acquired resistances. We studied four oxaliplatin-derived platinum(iv) complexes with varying axial ligands in various in vitro and in vivo settings. The ability to interfere with DNA (pUC19) in the presence and absence of a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) was investigated in cell-free experiments. Cytotoxicity was compared under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in monolayer cultures and multicellular spheroids of colon carcinoma cell lines. Effects on the cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometry, and the capacity of inducing apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. The anti-cancer activity of one complex was studied in vivo in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice, and the platinum levels in various organs and the tumor after treatment were quantified. The results demonstrate that modification of the axial ligands can improve the cytotoxic potency. The complexes are able to interfere with plasmid DNA, which is enhanced by co-incubation with a reducing agent, and cause cell cycle perturbations. At higher concentrations, they induce apoptosis, but generate only low levels of reactive oxygen species. Two of the complexes increase the life span of leukemia (L1210) bearing mice, and one showed effects similar to oxaliplatin in a CT26 solid tumor model, despite the low platinum levels in the tumor. As in the case of oxaliplatin, activity in the latter model depends on an intact immune system. These findings show new perspectives for the development of platinum(iv) prodrugs of the anticancer agent oxaliplatin, combining bioreductive properties and immunogenic aspects.

  2. MRI-detectable polymeric micelles incorporating platinum anticancer drugs enhance survival in an advanced hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Vinh, Nguyen Quoc; Naka, Shigeyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Murayama, Hiroyuki; Kaida, Sachiko; Kataoka, Kazunori; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Tani, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most intractable and lethal cancers; most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages with underlying liver dysfunction and are frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The development of tumor-targeting systems may improve treatment outcomes. Nanomedicine platforms are of particular interest for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficiency, and they include polymeric micelles, which enable targeting of multiple drugs to solid tumors, including imaging and therapeutic agents. This allows concurrent diagnosis, targeting strategy validation, and efficacy assessment. We used polymeric micelles containing the T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium-diethylenetriaminpentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and the parent complex of the anticancer drug oxaliplatin [(1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt)] for simultaneous imaging and therapy in an orthotopic rat model of HCC. The Gd-DTPA/DACHPt-loaded micelles were injected into the hepatic artery, and magnetic resonance imaging performance and antitumor activity against HCC, as well as adverse drug reactions were assessed. After a single administration, the micelles achieved strong and specific tumor contrast enhancement, induced high levels of tumor apoptosis, and significantly suppressed tumor size and growth. Moreover, the micelles did not induce severe adverse reactions and significantly improved survival outcomes in comparison to oxaliplatin or saline controls. Our results suggest that Gd-DTPA/DACHPt-loaded micelles are a promising approach for effective diagnosis and treatment of advanced HCC.

  3. Design of Enzymatically Cleavable Prodrugs of a Potent Platinum-Containing Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Song; Pickard, Amanda J.; Kucera, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a versatile synthetic approach, a new class of potential ester prodrugs of highly potent, but systemically too toxic, platinum–acridine anticancer agents was generated. The new hybrids contain a hydroxyl group, which has been masked with a cleavable lipophilic acyl moiety. Both butanoic (butyric) and bulkier 2-propanepentanoic (valproic) esters were introduced. The goals of this design were to improve the drug-like properties (e.g., logD) and to reduce the systemic toxicity of the pharmacophore. Two distinct pathways by which the target compounds undergo effective ester hydrolysis, the proposed activating step, have been confirmed: platinum-assisted, self-immolative ester cleavage in a low-chloride environment (LC-ESMS, NMR spectroscopy) and enzymatic cleavage by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCES-2) (LC-ESMS). The valproic acid ester derivatives are the first example of a metal-containing agent cleavable by the pro-drug-converting enzyme. They show excellent chemical stability and reduced systemic toxicity. Preliminary results from screening in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, NCI-H1435) suggest that the mechanism of the valproic esters may involve intracellular deesterification. PMID:25303639

  4. A dual-emissive ionic liquid based on an anionic platinum(ii) complex.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Masaki; Ohara, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako

    2015-09-07

    An ionic liquid fabricated from an anionic cyclometalated platinum(ii) complex and an imidazolium cation exhibits dual emission from the monomeric and aggregated forms of the platinum complex anions, leading to temperature-dependent color changes of luminescence.

  5. Effect of thioethers on DNA platination by trans-platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chan; Huang, Rongrong; Ding, Yi; Sletten, Einar; Arnesano, Fabio; Losacco, Maurizio; Natile, Giovanni; Liu, Yangzhong

    2011-09-05

    Increasing evidence indicates that sulfur-containing molecules can play important roles in the activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Although nuclear DNA is retained to be the ultimate target, these platinum compounds can readily react with a variety of other substrates containing a soft donor atom, such as proteins, peptides, and low molecular weight biomolecules, before reaching DNA. In a recent study it was demonstrated that the DNA platination rate of a trans-geometry antitumor drug was dramatically enhanced by methionine binding, thus suggesting that the thioether could serve as a catalyst for DNA platination. In this work we performed detailed studies on the reactions of a widely investigated and very promising trans-platinum complex having two iminoethers and two chlorido ligands, trans-EE, with methionine (Met) and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). The results show that in the reaction of trans-EE with methionine the bisadduct is the dominant species in the early stage of the reaction. The reaction is also influenced by chloride concentration: at low NaCl the bis-methionine adduct is formed in preference, whereas the monoadduct is favored at high NaCl concentration. Not only the monomethionine complex, trans-PtCl(E-iminoether)(2)(AcMet), but also the bis-methionine adduct, trans-Pt(E-iminoether)(2)(AcMet)(2), which has already lost both leaving chlorides, can react with GMP to form the ternary platinum complex trans-Pt(E-iminoether)(2)(AcMet)(GMP). The latter reaction discloses the possibility of direct coordination to DNA of a platinum-protein adduct, in which the two carrier ligands remain intact; this is not the case of cis-oriented platinum complexes, like cisplatin, for which formation of a ternary complex is usually accompanied by loss of at least one carrier ligand. Interestingly, isomerization from S to N coordination of one methionine takes place in the bis-methionine complex at neutral pH, while the monoadduct appears to be stable. The shift from

  6. Novel Pentacyano Complexes of Tri- and Tetravalent Platinum.

    PubMed

    Maliarik, Mikhail; Glaser, Julius; Tóth, Imre

    1998-10-19

    New pentacyano complexes of tri- and tetravalent platinum were obtained in aqueous solution and characterized by multinuclear NMR ((195)Pt, (13)C) supported by Raman spectroscopy. The complexes form as products of redox decomposition of metal-metal bonded platinum-thallium compounds. The trimetallic [(NC)(5)Pt-Tl-Pt(CN)(5)](3)(-) yields a new dimeric compound of Pt(III), [(NC)(5)Pt-Pt(CN)(5)](4)(-). The latter is a rare representative of unbridged dimeric complexes of trivalent platinum; it was obtained through an oxidation of monomeric square-planar platinum(II) species by a metal complex. From the bimetallic compounds [(NC)(5)Pt-Tl(CN)(n)()](n)()(-) (n = 0-2) tetravalent platinum complexes are formed. Depending on the Pt-Tl species, electron transfer is initiated either by heat or by exposition to light; it results in [Pt(CN)(6)](2)(-) or in the hitherto unknown complexes [Pt(CN)(5)(OH)](2)(-) and [Pt(CN)(5)(H(2)O)](-), with the (195)Pt NMR chemical shift values 1638.7 (+/-0.6) and 1766.7 (+/-0.6), respectively. Proton dissociation constant of [Pt(CN)(5)(H(2)O)](-) has been determined, pK(a) = 2.51 (+/-0.01). In both Pt(III) and Pt(IV) pentacyano complexes platinum is hexacoordinated forming a pseudo-octahedron with two types of cyano ligands: four equivalent equatorial cyanides and one apical. Related platinum(IV) species, [Pt(CN)(5)X](2)(-) (X = Cl, Br, I), have also been studied. In all the pentacyano complexes a pronounced trans influence is reflected in a substantial difference between the (195)Pt-(13)C spin-spin coupling constant for the apical (trans) and the equatorial (cis) carbon sites. In this respect, the studied X ligands can be ordered in a series of decreasing (195)Pt-(13)C(trans) coupling constant: H(2)O > Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-) > OH(-) > CN(-).

  7. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of palladium and platinum complexes with fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Lígia Maria M; de Almeida, Mauro V; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Bezerra, Flávio Augusto F M; Fontes, Ana Paula S

    2009-10-01

    The fluoroquinolones are an important family of synthetic antimicrobial agents being clinically used over the past thirty years. In addition, some fluoroquinolones have been used in the development of anticancer drugs, and others have demonstrated anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, there has been some additional work investigating the effect of metal ions on biological activity. Aiming to obtain novel palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes that exhibit biological activity, we have synthesized complexes using fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and gatifloxacin) as ligands. The compounds were characterized using IR and NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and elemental analyses. The complexes show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H(37)Rv. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the complexes was determined.

  8. Use of top-down and bottom-up Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for mapping calmodulin sites modified by platinum anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Huilin; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Van Orden, Steve L; Zhao, Yao; Barrow, Mark P; Pizarro, Ana M; Qi, Yulin; Sadler, Peter J; O'Connor, Peter B

    2011-12-15

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous, calcium-binding protein; it binds to and regulates many different protein targets, thereby functioning as a calcium sensor and signal transducer. CaM contains 9 methionine (Met), 1 histidine (His), 17 aspartic acid (Asp), and 23 glutamine acid (Glu) residues, all of which can potentially react with platinum compounds; thus, one-third of the CaM sequence is a possible binding target of platinum anticancer drugs, which represents a major challenge for identification of specific platinum modification sites. Here, top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) was used to elucidate the transition metal-platinum(II) modification sites. By using a combination of top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometric (MS) approaches, 10 specific binding sites for mononuclear complexes, cisplatin and [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl, and dinuclear complex [{cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))}(2)(μ-NH(2)(CH(2))(4)NH(2))] on CaM were identified. High resolution MS of cisplatin-modified CaM revealed that cisplatin mainly targets Met residues in solution at low molar ratios of cisplatin-CaM (2:1), by cross-linking Met residues. At a high molar ratio of cisplatin:CaM (8:1), up to 10 platinum(II) bind to Met, Asp, and Glu residues. [{cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))}(2)(μ-NH(2)(CH(2))(4)NH(2))] forms mononuclear adducts with CaM. The alkanediamine linker between the two platinum centers dissociates due to a trans-labilization effect. [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl forms {Pt(dien)}(2+) adducts with CaM, and the preferential binding sites were identified as Met51, Met71, Met72, His107, Met109, Met124, Met144, Met145, Glu45 or Glu47, and Asp122 or Glu123. The binding of these complexes to CaM, particularly when binding involves loss of all four original ligands, is largely irreversible which could result in their failure to reach the target DNA or be responsible for unwanted side-effects during chemotherapy. Additionally, the cross-linking of cisplatin to CaM might lead to the loss of the biological

  9. Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes stabilized by abnormal/mesoionic C4-bound dicarbenes.

    PubMed

    Khlebnikov, Vsevolod; Heckenroth, Marion; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Albrecht, Martin

    2013-03-28

    Platinum(II) complexes comprising abnormal diimidazolylidene ligands were synthesized from cis-PtMe(2)(DMSO)(2) using microwave-assisted double C-H bond activation. NMR analysis revealed an unusual solvolysis process, induced by coordinating solvents such as DMSO and MeCN, which has not been observed in related normal dicarbene complexes. NMR and IR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis of the mono-substituted DMSO complex indicate a sulfur-bonding of the DMSO ligand to the platinum(II) center. Analysis of the DMSO exchange kinetics provided for the first time a quantitative measure of the trans effect of abnormal carbene ligands. The kinetic exchange rate in these bidentate abnormal dicarbene complexes is 0.050(±2) s(-1) and thus similar to analogous platinum(II) complexes containing phenylpyridine, yet significantly slower than that induced by pyridylidene pyridine. Reaction of the dicarbene platinum(II) complexes with PhICl(2), Br(2) and I(2) afforded the corresponding platinum(IV) complexes. Linkage isomerism of the Pt(IV)-bound DMSO was observed when the bromination reaction was performed in DMSO solution. Moreover, solvolysis was less pronounced in the platinum(IV) complexes than in the corresponding platinum(II) analogues.

  10. EGFR-targeting peptide-coupled platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Josef; Hager, Sonja; Koblmüller, Bettina; Klose, Matthias H M; Holste, Katharina; Fischer, Britta; Pelivan, Karla; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Kowol, Christian R; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2017-06-01

    The high mortality rate of lung cancer patients and the frequent occurrence of side effects during cancer therapy demonstrate the need for more selective and targeted drugs. An important and well-established target for lung cancer treatment is the occasionally mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As platinum(II) drugs are still the most important therapeutics against lung cancer, we synthesized in this study the first platinum(IV) complexes coupled to the EGFR-targeting peptide LARLLT (and the shuffled RTALLL as reference). Notably, HPLC-MS measurements revealed two different peaks with the same molecular mass, which turned out to be a transcyclization reaction in the linker between maleimide and the coupled cysteine moiety. With regard to the EGFR specificity, subsequent biological investigations (3-day viability, 14-day clonogenic assays and platinum uptake) on four different cell lines with different verified EGFR expression levels were performed. Unexpectedly, the results showed neither an enhanced activity nor an EGFR expression-dependent uptake of our new compounds. Consequently, fluorophore-coupled peptides were synthesized to re-evaluate the targeting ability of LARLLT itself. However, also with these molecules, flow cytometry measurements showed no correlation of drug uptake with the EGFR expression levels. Taken together, we successfully synthesized the first platinum(IV) complexes coupled to an EGFR-targeting peptide; however, the biological investigations revealed that LARLLT is not an appropriate peptide for enhancing the specific uptake of small-molecule drugs into EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.

  11. Investigating the cellular fate of a DNA-targeted platinum-based anticancer agent by orthogonal double-click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Ding, Song; Liu, Fang; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study a platinum-based anticancer agent in intact NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Orthogonal copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click) reactions were used to simultaneously determine the cell-cycle-specific localization of the azide-functionalized platinum-acridine agent 1 and monitor its effects on nucleic acid metabolism. Copper-catalyzed postlabeling showed advantages over copper-free click chemistry using a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO)-modified reporter dye, which produced high background levels in microscopic images and failed to efficiently label platinum adducts in chromatin. Compound 1 was successfully labeled with the fluorophore DIBO to yield 1* (characterized by in-line high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry). 1 and 1* show a high degree of colocalization in the confocal images, but the ability of 1* to target the (compacted) chromatin was markedly reduced, most likely owing to the steric bulk introduced by the DIBO tag. Nuclear platinum levels correlated inversely with the ability of the cells to synthesize DNA and cause cell cycle arrest, as confirmed by bivariate flow cytometry analysis. In addition, a decrease in the level of cellular transcription, shrinkage of the nucleolar regions, and redistribution of RNA into the cytosol were observed. Postlabeling in conjunction with colocalization experiments is a useful tool for studying the cell killing mechanism of this type of DNA-targeted agent.

  12. EXAFS structural study of platinum-based anticancer drugs degradation in presence of sulfur nucleophilic species.

    PubMed

    Provost, Karine; Bouvet-Muller, Diane; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Moscovici, Jacques; Olivi, Luca; Vlaic, Gilberto; Michalowicz, Alain

    2009-10-01

    Three platinum complexes, cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are currently used worldwide. Investigation of their main structural modifications in presence of sulfur nucleophiles is of particular interest because of the implication of thiol and thioether groups in biochemical mechanism of action, resistance mechanism and in vivo or in vitro detoxification. We present the main structural results we have obtained concerning the reaction of these drugs with diverse sulfur nucleophiles (cysteine, glutathione, methionine, thiosulfate and thiocyanate), monitored in solution or as precipitates by EXAFS spectroscopy. The reactivities of the carboxylate and amine ligands of both carboplatin and oxaliplatin are compared, on the basis of first-coordination sphere modeling. Among the new results of this EXAFS study, we present the first observation of oxaliplatin diaminocyclohexane ligand displacement by sulfur nucleophiles.

  13. Recent Researches in Metal Supramolecular Complexes as Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng-He; Zhang, Yi-Yi; Yan, Cong-Yan; Wan, Kun; Gan, Lin-Ling; Shi, Yuan

    2010-04-12

    The research and development of metal supramolecular complexes as anticancer supramolecular drugs, which are aggregates mainly formed by one or more inorganic metal compounds with one or more either inorganic or organic molecules in general via coordination bonds, has been a quite rapidly developing, increasingly active and newly rising highlight interdisciplinary field. Numerous efforts have been directed toward metal supramolecular complexes as potential anticancer agents and the unprecedented progress has been made. This has opened up a wholly new and infinite space to create novel metal-based bioactive supermolecules. More importantly, metal-based complex supermolecules as potential anticancer agents with wide potential applications have become highlight topics in recent years, and are becoming increasingly useful and important in preventing and treating cancer diseases. In view of the rapid progress in metal complex anticancer supermolecules with rich variation of structural types, this work systematically reviewed the recent research and development of the whole range of metal-based supramolecular complexes as anticancer agents mainly in 2009. The perspectives of the foreseeable future and potential application of metal supramolecular complexes in cancer therapy were also presented. It is hoped that this review will serve as a stimulant for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic metal supramolecular complex anticancer drugs.

  14. Recent researches in metal supramolecular complexes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng-He; Zhang, Yi-Yi; Yan, Cong-Yan; Wan, Kun; Gan, Lin-Ling; Shi, Yuan

    2010-06-01

    The research and development of metal supramolecular complexes as anticancer supramolecular drugs, which are aggregates mainly formed by one or more inorganic metal compounds with one or more either inorganic or organic molecules in general via coordination bonds, has been a quite rapidly developing, increasingly active and newly rising highlight interdisciplinary field. Numerous efforts have been directed toward metal supramolecular complexes as potential anticancer agents and the unprecedented progress has been made. This has opened up a wholly new and infinite space to create novel metal-based bioactive supermolecules. More importantly, metal-based complex supermolecules as potential anticancer agents with wide potential applications have become highlight topics in recent years, and are becoming increasingly useful and important in preventing and treating cancer diseases. In view of the rapid progress in metal complex anticancer supermolecules with rich variation of structural types, this work systematically reviewed the recent research and development of the whole range of metal-based supramolecular complexes as anticancer agents mainly in 2009. The perspectives of the foreseeable future and potential application of metal supramolecular complexes in cancer therapy were also presented. It is hoped that this review will serve as a stimulant for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic metal supramolecular complex anticancer drugs.

  15. Cis- and trans-platinum and palladium complexes: a comparative study review as antitumour agents.

    PubMed

    al-Allaf, T A; Rashan, L J

    2001-01-01

    A large body of novel platinum and palladium complexes, in both the cis- and trans-forms, with various donor ligands, e.g. beta-carboline alkaloids, pyrazoles, DMSO, ferrocenylphosphines,...... have been tested for their antitumour activity against number of fluid suspension (P388, L1210, K562, and Raji) and solid tumour (KB, T47D, SW948, HeLa, A549, L929, Hep-2, RD,...) cell lines. Remarkable cytotoxic effects against these cell lines were observed by some of these complexes. The preliminary results indicated that most of the trans-palladium complexes showed a better activity than the cis-platinum isomers and superior activity than that of the cis-palladium isomers. More importantly they showed activities equal to (or superior than) those of cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin (the anti-cancer drugs) in vitro. Although these results are preliminary, however, encouraging since they are in a disagreement with the previous studies that cis-isomers are more active than trans-ones; the complexes which have not received the required attention from the vast number of researchers in this field.

  16. Radiosensitization of EMT6 cells by four platinum complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Rockwell, S.; Lee, J.B.

    1985-05-01

    The compounds described here are dichloro complexes of bivalent platinum with one or two potentially radiosensitizing ligands. The radiosensitization of oxygenated and hypoxic exponentially growing EMT6 cells in vitro was measured. The dose modifying factors obtained with 200 ..mu..M and 400 ..mu..M trans-bis(2-nitroimidazole)dichloroplatinum II (NIPt) in hypoxic cells were 1.5 and 2.1, respectively. For trans-bis(2-amino-5-nitrothiazole)dichloroplatinum II (Plant) under the same conditions, the dose modifying factor was 1.5 at 200 ..mu..M and 1.8 at 400 ..mu..M. Neither compound sensitized oxygenated cells when tested similar protocols. Unlike the trans complexes (1,2-diamino-4-nitrobenzene)dichloroplatinum II (Plato) was cytotoxic toward the hypoxic cells in the absence of X rays. The time course of cytotoxicity for 100 ..mu..M Plato in exponentially growing cells showed rapid killing of hypoxic cells, and much less toxicity toward oxygenated cells. In radiosensitization studies, dose modifying factors of 1.6 and 2.0 were found with 200 ..mu..M and 400 ..mu..M Plato in hypoxic cells. The compound did not sensitize aerobic cells. The well-known platinum complex cis-dipyridinedichloroplatinum II (PyPt) represents a cis-platinum heterocyclic aromatic complex that does not have a nitro-functionality. The dose modifying factor obtained with 400 ..mu..M PyPt in hypoxic cells was 1.7. On a molar basis, the nitro-functional platinum complexes appear to be more effective as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers than the corresponding free ligands.

  17. Platinum(II) complexes as spectroscopic probes for biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ratilla, E.

    1990-09-21

    The use of platinum(II) complexes as tags and probes for biomolecules is indeed advantageous for their reactivities can be selective for certain purposes through an interplay of mild reaction conditions and of the ligands bound to the platinum. The use of {sup 195}Pt NMR as a method of detecting platinum and its interactions with biomolecules was carried out with the simplest model of platinum(II) tagging to proteins. Variable-temperature {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy proved useful in studying the stereodynamics of complex thioethers like methionine. The complex, Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +}, with its chromophore has a greater potential for probing proteins. It is a noninvasive and selective tag for histidine and cysteine residues on the surface of cytochrome c at pH 5. The protein derivatives obtained are separable, and the tags are easily quantitated and differentiated through the metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands which are sensitive to the environment of the tag. Increasing the pH to 7.0 led to the modification by Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +}of Arg 91 in cytochrome c. Further studies with guanidine-containing ligands as models for arginine modification by Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +} showed that guanidine can act as a terminal ligand and as a bridging ligand. Owing to the potential utility of Pt(trpy)L{sup n+} as electron dense probes of nucleic acid structure, interactions of this bis-Pt(trpy){sup 2+} complex with nucleic acids was evaluated. Indeed, the complex interacts non-covalently with nucleic acids. Its interactions with DNA are not exactly the same as those of its precedents. Most striking is its ability to form highly immobile bands of DNA upon gel electrophoresis. 232 refs.

  18. Synthesis characterization and cytotoxicity studies of platinum(II) complexes with reduced amino pyridine schiff base and its derivatives as ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun; Yan, Qin-Qin; Liu, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhen; Lv, Zhen-Hua; Fu, Bin; Han, Yan-Jun; Du, Jian-Long

    2017-03-14

    A series of reduced amino pyridine Schiff base platinum(II) complexes were prepared as potential anticancer drugs, and characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and molar conductivity. UV and CD results showed the binding mode between these compounds and salmon sperm DNA may be intercalation. The cytotoxicity of these complexes was validated against A549, Hela, and MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay. Some complexes exhibited better cytotoxic activity than cisplatin against Hela and MCF-7 cell lines.

  19. Luminescent Cyclometalated Platinum and Palladium Complexes with Novel Photophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Eric

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than a decade, OLEDs have grown from a promising academic curiosity into a multi-billion dollar global industry. At the heart of an OLED are emissive molecules that generate light in response to electrical stimulation. Ideal emitters are efficient, compatible with existing materials, long lived, and produce light predominantly at useful wavelengths. Developing an understanding of the photophysical processes that dictate the luminescent properties of emissive materials is vital to their continued development. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 provide an introduction to the topics presented and the laboratory methods used to explore them. Chapter 3 discusses a series of tridentate platinum complexes. A synthetic method utilizing microwave irradiation was explored, as well as a study of the effects ligand structure had on the excited state properties. Results and techniques developed in this endeavor were used as a foundation for the work undertaken in later chapters. Chapter 4 introduces a series of tetradentate platinum complexes that share a phenoxy-pyridyl (popy) motif. The new molecular design improved efficiency through increased rigidity and modification of the excited state properties. This class of platinum complexes were markedly more efficient than those presented in Chapter 3, and devices employing a green emitting complex of the series achieved nearly 100% electron-to-photon conversion efficiency in an OLED device. Chapter 5 adapts the ligand structure developed in Chapter 4 to palladium. The resulting complexes exceed reported efficiencies of palladium complexes by an order of magnitude. This chapter also provides the first report of a palladium complex as an emitter in an OLED device. Chapter 6 discusses the continuation of development efforts to include carbazolyl

  20. Fast cleavage of a diselenide induced by a platinum(II)-methionine complex and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Wang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoliang; Liang, Xiao; Guo, Zijian

    2010-11-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs such as cisplatin induce increased oxidative stress and oxidative damage of DNA and other cellular components, while selenium plays an important role in the antioxidant defense system. In this study, the interaction between a platinum(II) methionine (Met) complex [Pt(Met)Cl(2)] and a diselenide compound selenocystine [(Sec)(2)] was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the diselenide bond in (Sec)(2) can readily and quickly be cleaved by the platinum complex. Formation of the selenocysteine (Sec) bridged dinuclear complex [Pt(2)(Met-S,N)(2)(μ-Sec-Se,Cl)](3+) and Sec chelated species [Pt(Met-S,N)(Sec-Se,N)](2+) was identified at neutral and acidic media, which seems to result from the intermediate [Pt(Met-S,N)(Sec-Se)Cl](+). An accelerated formation of S-Se and S-S bonds was also observed when (Sec)(2) reacted with excessive glutathione in the presence of [Pt(Met)Cl(2)]. These results imply that the mechanism of activity and toxicity of platinum drugs may be related to their fast reaction with seleno-containing biomolecules, and the chemoprotective property of selenium agents against cisplatin-induced toxicity could also be connected with such reactions.

  1. Investigating the cellular fate of a DNA-targeted platinum-based anticancer agent by orthogonal double-click chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xin; Ding, Song; Liu, Fang; Kucera, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study a platinum-based anticancer agent in intact NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Orthogonal copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (click) reactions were used to simultaneously determine the cell-cycle-specific localization of the azide-functionalized platinum–acridine agent 1 and monitor its effects on nucleic acid metabolism. Copper-catalyzed postlabeling showed advantages over copper-free click chemistry using a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO)-modified reporter dye, which produced high background levels in microscopic images and failed to efficiently label platinum adducts in chromatin. Compound 1 was successfully labeled with the fluorophore DIBO to yield 1* (characterized by in-line high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry). 1 and 1* show a high degree of colocalization in the confocal images, but the ability of 1* to target the (compacted) chromatin was markedly reduced, most likely owing to the steric bulk introduced by the DIBO tag. Nuclear platinum levels correlated inversely with the ability of the cells to synthesize DNA and cause cell cycle arrest, as confirmed by bivariate flow cytometry analysis. In addition, a decrease in the level of cellular transcription, shrinkage of the nucleolar regions, and redistribution of RNA into the cytosol were observed. Postlabeling in conjunction with colocalization experiments is a useful tool for studying the cell killing mechanism of this type of DNA-targeted agent. PMID:24407462

  2. Synthesis of Dipyridyl Ketone Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone Copper(II) Complex: Structure, Anticancer Activity and Anticancer Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Deng, JunGang; Chen, Wei; Deng, Hang

    2016-11-01

    In an effort to better understand the biological efficacy of the tridentate aroyl hydrazone Cu(II) complexes, the Cu(II) complex of di-2-pyridyl ketone isonicotinoyl hydrazone ligand (HL), {[Cu(L)(H2O)]·H2O·NO3}n (C1) was synthesized and characterized. Single crystal X-ray study reveals that complex C1 forms 1D zigzag chains in solid state. In water, the hydrolysis of the 1D zigzag chains was observed, and finally formation of monomeric species. In vitro studies revealed that complex C1 showed significantly more anticancer activity than the ligand alone. Investigation of the anticancer mechanisms of C1, confirmed that the Cu(II) complex exhibit a strong capacity to promote productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death.

  3. Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes Implementing Platinum Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecton, Jeremy Exton

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases. In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated. Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Oxoplatin: An Oral Platinum(IV) Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Ach, Florian; Ulsperger, Ernst; Baumgartner, Gerhard; Zeillinger, Robert; Bednarski, Patrick; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Platinum(IV) compounds like oxoplatin (cis, cis, trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum(IV)) show increased stability and therefore can be applied orally. In a panel of 38 human cancer cell lines this drug induced S-phase arrest and cell death with IC50 values 2.5-fold higher than cisplatin. Oxoplatin may be converted to cisplatin by intracellular reducing agents, however, exposure to 0.1 M HCl mimicking gastric acid yielded cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) exhibiting twofold increased activity. Similar results were obtained for another platinum(IV) compound, JM 149 (ammine-dichlorido-(cyclohexylamine)-dihydroxido-platinum(IV)), but not for its parent drug JM 216/satraplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes between oxoplatin and cisplatin. In conclusion, oxoplatin constitutes a potent oral agent that is either reduced or converted to distinct active compounds, for example, by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in solid tumors, in dependence of the respective pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:19587824

  5. Dialkyl bisphosphonate platinum(II) complex as a potential drug for metastatic bone tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakatake, Hidetoshi; Ekimoto, Hisao; Aso, Mariko; Ogawa, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Asami; Suemune, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have high affinity for hydroxyapatite (HA), which is abundantly present in bone. Also, platinum complexes are known that have a wide spectrum of antitumor activities. The conjugate of bisphosphonate and a platinum complex might have HA affinity and antitumor activity, and become a drug for metastatic bone tumor. In this study, the authors synthesized platinum complexes that had dialkyl bisphosphonic acid as a ligand, and evaluated the possibility of the synthesized complexes as a drug for metastatic bone tumor. The synthesized dialkyl bisphosphonate platinum(II) complex was characterized, and its stability in an aqueous solution was also confirmed. The synthesized platinum complex showed higher HA affinity than other platinum complexes such as cisplatin and carboplatin in an experiment of adsorption to HA. In vitro, the platinum complex showed tumor growth inhibitory effect stronger than or equal to cisplatin, which is the most commonly used antitumor agent. Moreover, the platinum complex showed a bone absorption inhibitory effect on the osteoclast. These results suggest potential of dialkyl bisphosphonate platinum(II) complexes as a drug for metastatic bone tumor.

  6. A platinum complex that binds non-covalently to DNA and induces cell death via a different mechanism than cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Mendoza, Oscar; Duarte, Alexandra A; Mann, David J; Vilar, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    Cisplatin and some of its derivatives have been shown to be very successful anticancer agents. Their main mode of action has been proposed to be via covalent binding to DNA. However, one of the limitations of these drugs is their poor activity against some tumours due to intrinsic or acquired resistance. Therefore, there is interest in developing complexes with different binding modes and mode of action. Herein we present a novel platinum(ii)-terpyridine complex (1) which interacts non-covalently with DNA and induces cell death via a different mechanism than cisplatin. The interaction of this complex with DNA was studied by UV/Vis spectroscopic titrations, fluorescent indicator displacement (FID) assays and circular dichroism (CD) titrations. In addition, computational docking studies were carried out with the aim of establishing the complex's binding mode. These experimental and computational studies showed the complex to have an affinity constant for DNA of ∼10(4) M(-1), a theoretical free energy of binding of -10.83 kcal mol(-1) and selectivity for the minor groove of DNA. Long-term studies indicated that 1 did not covalently bind (or nick) DNA. The cancer cell antiproliferative properties of this platinum(ii) complex were probed in vitro against human and murine cell lines. Encouragingly the platinum(ii) complex displayed selective toxicity for the cancerous (U2OS and SH-SY5Y) and proliferating NIH 3T3 cell lines. Further cell based studies were carried out to establish the mode of action. Cellular uptake studies demonstrated that the complex is able to penetrate the cell membrane and localize to the nucleus, implying that genomic DNA could be a cellular target. Detailed immunoblotting studies in combination with DNA-flow cytometry showed that the platinum(ii) complex induced cell death in a manner consistent with necrosis.

  7. Anticancer Platinum(IV) Prodrugs Containing Monoaminophosphonate Ester as a Targeting Group Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinases and Reverse Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochao; Huang, Rizhen; Gou, Shaohua; Wang, Zhimei; Wang, Hengshan

    2017-04-19

    A novel class of platinum(IV) complexes comprising a monoaminophosphonate ester moiety, which can not only act as a bone-targeting group but also inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), were designed and synthesized. Biological assay of these compounds showed that they had potent antitumor activities against the tested cancer cell lines compared with cisplatin and oxaliplatin and indicated low cytotoxicity to human normal liver cells. Particularly, the platinum(IV) complexes were very sensitive to cisplatin resistant cancer cell lines. The corresponding structure-activity relationships were studied and discussed. Related mechanism study revealed that the typical complex 11 caused cell cycle arrest at S phase and induced apoptosis in Bel-7404 cells via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. Moreover, complex 11 had potent ability to inhibit the tumor growth in the NCI-H460 xenograft model comparable to cisplatin.

  8. Biotinylated Platinum(II) Ferrocenylterpyridine Complexes for Targeted Photoinduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Shettar, Abhijith; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-06-06

    Biotinylated platinum(II) ferrocenylterpyridine (Fc-tpy) complexes [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (1) and [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (2), where HL(1) and HL(2) are biotin-containing ligands, were prepared, and their targeted photoinduced cytotoxic effect in cancer cells over normal cells was studied. A nonbiotinylated complex, [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (3), was prepared as a control to study the role of the biotin moiety in cellular uptake properties of the complexes. Three platinum(II) phenylterpyridine (Ph-tpy) complexes, viz., [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (4), [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (5), and [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (6), were synthesized and explored to understand the role of a metal-bound Fc-tpy ligand over Ph-tpy as a photoinitiator. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed an intense absorption band near 640 nm, which was absent in their Ph-tpy analogues. The Fc-tpy complexes (1 mM in 0.1 M TBAP) showed an irreversible cyclic voltammetric anodic response of the Fc/Fc(+) couple near 0.25 V. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed photodegradation in red light of 647 nm involving the formation of a ferrocenium ion (Fc(+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Photoinduced release of the biotinylated ligands was observed from spectral measurements, and this possibly led to the controlled generation of an active platinum(II) species, which binds to the calf-thymus DNA used for this study. The biotinylated photoactive Fc-tpy complexes showed significant photoinduced cytotoxicity, giving a IC50 value of ∼7 μM in visible light of 400-700 nm with selective uptake in BT474 cancer cells over HBL-100 normal cells. Furthermore, ferrocenyl complexes resulted in light-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis, as indicated by DCFDA, annexin V/FITC staining, and sub-G1 DNA content determined by fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis. The phenyl analogues 4 and 5 were photostable, served as DNA intercalators, and demonstrated selective cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, giving IC50 values of ∼4 μM.

  9. Macrobicyclic (hexaamine)platinum(IV) complexes: synthesis, characterization, and electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, H.H.; Lawrance, G.A.; Lay, P.A.; Sargeson, A.M.; Bond, A.M.; Sangster, D.F.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1983-07-13

    Syntheses based on the reaction of Pt(en)/sub 3//sup 4 +/ with formaldehyde, and ammonia or nitromethane, yielded the macrobicyclic complexes (1,3,6,8,10,13,16,19-octaazabicyclo(6.6.6)icosane)platinum(IV), Pt(sep)/sup 4 +/, and (1,8-dinitro-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo(6.6.6)icosane)platinum(IV), Pt(diamsar)/sup 4 +/, respectively. Reduction of the latter complex with SnCl/sub 2/ in acid yielded (1,8-diamino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo(6.6.6)icosane)platinum(IV), Pt(diamsar)/sup 4 +/. These complexes are substitution-inert, diamagnetic octahedral ions and were characterized by X-ray crystallographic analysis of the Pt(sep)/sup 4 +/ by absorption and NMR spectroscopy. Addition of an electron to the Pt(IV) complexes, radiolytically or electrochemically, yielded transient monomeric macrobicyclic Pt(III) ions. ..gamma..-Radiolysis of crystalline samples yielded a Pt(III) complex stabilized in the crystalline lattice, detected by ESR spectroscopy. Polarography of Pt(diamsar)/sup 4 +/ in aprotic solvent showed essentially irreversible one-electron reductions at +0.17 and -1.00 V and two-electron irreversble reduction at -2.20 V (in acetone, vs Ag/AgCl). The Pt(III) transient of the first reduction decayed (t/sub 1///sub 2/ < 10/sup -3/ s) to yield the monodeprotonated Pt(IV) complex and 0.5 mol of hydrogen/mol of complex. The liftime of the related Pt(sep)/sup 3 +/ transient was longer, though still in the millisecond range. This intramolecular redox process in aprotic solvents was not observed in water, however. In aqueous solution, the Pt(diamsar)/sup 3 +/ transient decayed with a first-order rate constant of 6 X 10/sup -3/ s/sup -1/ (pH 6.8 or 10.0) in pulse radiolysis experiments.

  10. A first principles study of pristine and Al-doped boron nitride nanotubes interacting with platinum-based anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerzadeh, Ehsan; Noorizadeh, Siamak

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of cis-platin and neda-platin, two conventional platinum-based anticancer drugs, with pristine [8,8] and Al-doped [8,0] boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The obtained results indicate that cis-platin and neda-platin weakly interact with pristine zig zag or armchair BNNTs with a little dependency on the adsorbing positions; while both cis-platin and neda-platin are preferentially adsorbed onto the Al atom of the Al-doped BNNT with considerable adsorption energies. Therefore the Al-doped-BNNT might be an efficient carrier for delivery of these drugs in nanomedicine domain. The electronic structures of the stable configurations are also investigated through both DOS and PDOS spectra. The obtained results introduce the Al-doped-BNNT as an efficient carrier for delivery of cis-platin and neda-platin in nanomedicine domain.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shiju, C; Arish, D; Bhuvanesh, N; Kumaresan, S

    2015-06-15

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, (1)H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a=7.032(2)Ǻ, b=9.479(3)Ǻ, c=12.425(4)Ǻ, α=101.636(3)°, β=99.633(3)°, γ=94.040(3)°, V=795.0(4)Ǻ(3), Z=2, F(000)=352, Dc=1.405 mg/m(3), μ=0.099 mm(-1), R=0.0378, and wR=0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiju, C.; Arish, D.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.032(2) Ǻ, b = 9.479(3) Ǻ, c = 12.425(4) Ǻ, α = 101.636(3)°, β = 99.633(3)°, γ = 94.040(3)°, V = 795.0(4) Ǻ3, Z = 2, F(0 0 0) = 352, Dc = 1.405 mg/m3, μ = 0.099 mm-1, R = 0.0378, and wR = 0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  13. On the reactivity of platinum(IV) complexes: Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of platinum(IV) complexes with hypoxanthine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballa, Akmal S.

    2006-01-01

    Na 2[PtCl 6] was found to react with (HypH)Cl·H 2O ( 2) (Hyp=hypoxanthine) in aqueous solution at room temperature yielding (HypH) 2[PtCl 6] ( 3). The same compound was obtained from hexachloroplatinic acid and hypoxanthine. Performing this reaction in methanol at 50 °C complex formation took place yielding the hypoxanthine complex [PtCl 4(Hyp) 2] ( 4). Both compounds were isolated in good yields as faint orange ( 3) and yellow ( 4) precipitates, respectively and characterized by microanalyses, IR and NMR ( 1H, 13C, 195Pt) spectroscopies as well as thermal analysis. Based on the data obtained an octahedral molecular structure is proposed for complex 4 with two hypoxanthine ligands coordinated through N7 to platinum(IV).

  14. Photolysis of an arylalkyl-triazenido-platinum-IV complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, T.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J.; Wokaun, A.

    1996-06-01

    The photolytic decomposition of tetrakis(1-phenyl-3-hexyl-triazenido)-platinum(IV) is studied in a variety of media, and found to proceed according to simple first order kinetics. Two excimer laser wavelengths, an excimer-laser pumped dye laser, and a broadband mercury lamp are used for excitation. As referred to the incident power, selective irradiation near the complex-specific absorption maximum is found to be most efficient for inducing the photolytic decomposition. A different influence of degassing and oxygen saturation is observed for tetrahydrofurane and for technical siloxane solvents. To elucidate the origins of the observed behaviour, decomposition products of the complex, and products of hydrosilylation reactions catalyzed by this compound, are identified by GC/MS analysis.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of Platinum(IV) Carbamate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Justin J.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of eight new platinum(IV) complexes having the general formula, c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CNHR)2], are reported, where R = tert-butyl (4), cyclopentyl (5), cyclohexyl (6), phenyl (7), p-tolyl (8), p-anisole (9), 4-fluorophenyl (10), or 1-naphthyl (11). These compounds were synthesized by reacting organic isocyanates with the platinum(IV) complex, c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(OH)2]. The electrochemistry of the compounds was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The aryl carbamate complexes 7 – 11 exhibit reduction peak potentials near −720 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, whereas the alkyl carbamate complexes display reduction peak potentials between −820 and −850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The cyclic voltammograms of c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCH3)2] (1), c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCF3)2] (2), and cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl4] (3) were measured for comparison. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were undertaken to investigate the electronic structures of 1 – 11 and to determine their adiabatic electron affinities. A linear correlation (R2 = 0.887) between computed adiabatic electron affinities and measured reduction peak potential was discovered. The biological activity of 4 – 11 and, for comparison, cisplatin was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 and normal MRC-5 cells by the MTT assay. The compounds exhibit comparable or slightly better activity than cisplatin against the A549 cells. In MRC-5 cells, all are equally or slightly less cytotoxic than cisplatin, except for 4 and 5, which are more toxic. PMID:21361279

  16. Transferrin serves as a mediator to deliver organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes into cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Zhao, Yao; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Wang, Fuyi

    2013-05-06

    We report herein a systematic study on interactions of organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2), en = ethylenediamine) with human transferrin (hTf) and the effects of the hTf-ligation on the bioavailability of these complexes with cisplatin as a reference. Incubated with a 5-fold excess of complex 1, 2, or cisplatin, 1 mol of diferric hTf (holo-hTf) attached 0.62 mol of 1, 1.01 mol of 2, or 2.14 mol of cisplatin. Mass spectrometry revealed that both ruthenium complexes coordinated to N-donors His242, His273, His578, and His606, whereas cisplatin bound to O donors Tyr136 and Tyr317 and S-donor Met256 in addition to His273 and His578 on the surface of both apo- and holo-hTf. Moreover, cisplatin could bind to Thr457 within the C-lobe iron binding cleft of apo-hTf. Neither ruthenium nor platinum binding interfered with the recognition of holo-hTf by the transferrin receptor (TfR). The ruthenated/platinated holo-hTf complexes could be internalized via TfR-mediated endocytosis at a similar rate to that of holo-hTf itself. Moreover, the binding to holo-hTf well preserved the bioavailability of the ruthenium complexes, and the hTf-bound 1 and 2 showed a similar cytotoxicity toward the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to those of the complexes themselves. However, the conjugation with holo-hTf significantly reduced the cellular uptake of cisplatin and the amount of platinated DNA adducts formed intracellularly, leading to dramatic reduction of cisplatin cytotoxicity toward MCF-7. These findings suggest that hTf can serve as a mediator for the targeting delivery of Ru(arene) anticancer complexes while deactivating cisplatin.

  17. Specific DNA structural attributes modulate platinum anticancer drug site selection and cross-link generation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Davey, Gabriela E.; Nazarov, Alexey A.; Dyson, Paul J.; Davey, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal compounds have toxic and medicinal potential through capacity to form strong specific bonds with macromolecules, and the interaction of platinum drugs at the major groove nitrogen atom of guanine bases primarily underlies their therapeutic activity. By crystallographic analysis of transition metal–and in particular platinum compound–DNA site selectivity in the nucleosome core, we establish that steric accessibility, which is controlled by specific structural parameters of the double helix, modulates initial guanine–metal bond formation. Moreover, DNA conformational features can be linked to both similarities and distinctions in platinum drug adduct formation between the naked and nucleosomal DNA states. Notably, structures that facilitate initial platinum–guanine bond formation can oppose cross-link generation, rationalizing the occurrence of long-lived therapeutically ineffective monofunctional adducts. These findings illuminate DNA structure-dependent reactivity and provide a novel framework for understanding metal–double helix interactions, which should facilitate the development of improved chromatin-targeting medicinal agents. PMID:21724603

  18. Chromatin folding and DNA replication inhibition mediated by a highly antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Ryosuke; Komeda, Seiji; Shimura, Mari; Tamura, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kohei; Rogge, Ryan; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Hiratani, Ichiro; Takata, Hideaki; Uemura, Masako; Iida, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Hansen, Jeffrey C.; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kanemaki, Masato T.; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin DNA must be read out for various cellular functions, and copied for the next cell division. These processes are targets of many anticancer agents. Platinum-based drugs, such as cisplatin, have been used extensively in cancer chemotherapy. The drug–DNA interaction causes DNA crosslinks and subsequent cytotoxicity. Recently, it was reported that an azolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, 5-H-Y, exhibits a different anticancer spectrum from cisplatin. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach, we reveal that the cytotoxic mechanism of 5-H-Y is distinct from that of cisplatin. 5-H-Y inhibits DNA replication and also RNA transcription, arresting cells in the S/G2 phase, and are effective against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Moreover, it causes much less DNA crosslinking than cisplatin, and induces chromatin folding. 5-H-Y will expand the clinical applications for the treatment of chemotherapy-insensitive cancers. PMID:27094881

  19. Systematic differences in electrochemical reduction of the structurally characterized anti-cancer platinum(IV) complexes [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}-(pyridine)2Cl2], [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}(pyridine)2(OH)2], and [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}(pyridine)2(OH)Cl].

    PubMed

    Guo, Si-Xuan; Mason, Dayna N; Turland, Susan A; Lawrenz, Eric T; Kelly, Lance C; Fallon, Gary D; Gatehouse, Bryan M; Bond, Alan M; Deacon, Glen B; Battle, Andrew R; Hambley, Trevor W; Rainone, Silvina; Webster, Lorraine K; Cullinane, Carleen

    2012-10-01

    The putative platinum(IV) anticancer drugs, [Pt{((R)NCH(2))(2)}(py)(2)XY] (X,Y=Cl, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (1a), C(6)F(5) (1b); X,Y=OH, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (2); X=Cl, Y=OH, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (3), py = pyridine) have been prepared by oxidation of the Pt(II) anticancer drugs [Pt{((R)NCH(2))(2)}(py)(2)] (R=p-HC(6)F(4) (4a) or C(6)F(5) (4b)) with PhICl(2) (1a,b), H(2)O(2) (2) and PhICl(2)/Bu(4)NOH (3). NMR spectroscopy and the X-ray crystal structures of 1b, 2 and 3 show that they have octahedral stereochemistry with the X,Y ligands in the trans-position. The net two electron electrochemical reduction of 1a, 2 and 3 has been studied by voltammetric, spectroelectrochemical and bulk electrolysis techniques in acetonitrile. NMR and other data reveal that reduction of 1a gives pure 4a via the elimination of both axial chloride ligands. In the case of 2, one end of the diamide ligand is protonated and the resulting -NH(p-HC(6)F(4)) group dissociated giving a [Pt{N(p-HC(6)F(4))CH(2)CH(2)NH(p-HC(6)F(4))}] arrangement, one pyridine ligand is lost and a hydroxide ion retained in the coordination sphere. Intriguingly, in the case of reduction of 3, a 50% mixture of the reduction products of pure 1a and 2 is formed. The relative ease of reduction is 1>3>2. Testing of 1a, 2 and 3 against L1210 and L1210(DDP) (DDP = cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum(II)) mouse leukaemia cells shows all to be cytotoxic with IC(50) values of 1.0-3.5 μM. 2 and 3 are active in vivo against AHDJ/PC6 tumor line when delivered in peanut oil despite being hard to reduce electrochemically, and notably are more active than 4a delivered in this medium whilst comparable with 4a delivered in saline/Tween. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sulfur containing platinum(II) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands obtained by reactions of a hydrosulfido complex.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yuri; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nishioka, Takanori

    2012-10-21

    A hydrosulfido platinum(ii) complex with a chelated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was oxidised with O(2) in the presence of excess hydrogen sulfide, to give a linear tetrasulfido complex, and without hydrogen sulfide, to give a thiosulfato-bridged dinuclear complex. The hydrosulfido complex also reacted with an acetato complex containing the chelating NHC platinum unit to afford a trinuclear platinum complex with two triply bridging sulfido ligands showing an equilibrium in solution between two isomers based on the arrangement of the chelating NHC ligands.

  1. The Versatile Behavior of Platinum Alkyne Complexes towards XeF2 : Formation of Fluorovinyl and Fluorido Complexes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Josefine; Braun, Thomas; Ahrens, Theresia; Kläring, Paul; Laubenstein, Reik; Braun-Cula, Beatrice

    2017-07-03

    Reactions of platinum(0) tolane complexes, bearing a chelating ligand with P and N donor atoms, with the electrophilic fluorinating agent XeF2 give facile access to platinum(II) β-fluorovinyl fluorido complexes. A series of new platinum(II) β-fluorovinyl complexes have been synthesized and were structurally characterized. Further oxidation with XeF2 led to ortho-metalated platinum(IV) fluorido compounds. Additional reactions of platinum(0) tolane complexes, bearing a chelating P,P donor ligand, with XeF2 led to a variety of fluorido and fluorovinyl complexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Unsaturated platinum-rhenium cluster complexes. Synthesis, structures and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard D; Captain, Burjor; Smith, Mark D; Beddie, Chad; Hall, Michael B

    2007-05-09

    Two new compounds PtRe3(CO)12(PBut3)(micro-H)3, 9, and PtRe2(CO)9(PBut3)(micro-H)2, 10, were obtained from the reaction of Pt(PBut3)2 with Re3(CO)12(micro-H3), 8, at room temperature. Compound 9 contains a butterfly cluster of four metals formed by the insertion of the platinum atom from a Pt(PBut3) group into one of the hydride-bridged metal-metal bonds of 8. The three hydrido ligands are bridging ligands across each of three new Pt-Re bonds. Compound 10 contains a triangular PtRe2 cluster with two hydrido ligands; one bridges a Pt-Re bond, and the other bridges the Re-Re bond. The new compound Pt2Re2(CO)7(PBut3)2(micro-H)2, 11, was obtained from the reaction of 8 with Pt(PBut3)2 in hexane at reflux. Compound 11 was also obtained from 10 by reaction with an additional quantity of Pt(PBut3)2. Compound 11 contains a tetrahedral cluster of four metal atoms with two dynamically active hydrido ligands. A CO ligand on one of the two platinum atoms also exchanges between the two platinum atoms rapidly on the NMR time scale. Compound 11 is electronically unsaturated and was found to add hydrogen at room temperature to form the tetrahydrido cluster complex, Pt2Re2(CO)7(PBut3)2(micro-H)4, 12. Compound 12 has a structure similar to 11 but contains one triply bridging hydrido ligand, two edge bridging hydrido ligands, and one terminal hydrido ligand on one of the two platinum atoms. A kinetic isotope effect D/H of 1.5(1) was determined for the addition of H2 to 11. Hydrogen can be eliminated from 12 by heating to 97 degrees C or by the application of UV-vis irradiation at room temperature. Compound 12 adds CO at room temperature to yield the complex Pt2Re2(CO)8(PBut3)2(micro-H)4, 13, which contains a planar cluster of four metal atoms with a Pt-Pt bond and four edge bridging hydrido ligands. Compounds 11 and 12 react with Pt(PBut3)2 to yield the known five metal cluster complexes Pt3Re2(CO)6(PBut3)3(micro-H)2, 14, and Pt3Re2(CO)6(PBut3)3(micro-H)4, 15, respectively. Density

  3. Platinum(IV)-nitroxyl complexes as possible candidates to circumvent cisplatin resistance in RT112 bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cetraz, Maria; Sen, Vasily; Schoch, Sarah; Streule, Karolin; Golubev, Valery; Hartwig, Andrea; Köberle, Beate

    2017-02-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of the anticancer drug cisplatin is limited by the development of resistance. We therefore investigated newly synthesized platinum-nitroxyl complexes (PNCs) for their potential to circumvent cisplatin resistance. The complexes used were PNCs with bivalent cis-Pt(II)(R(·)NH2)(NH3)Cl2 and cis-Pt(II)(DAPO)Ox and four-valent platinum cis,trans,cis-Pt(IV)(R(·)NH2)(NH3)(OR)2Cl2 and cis,trans,cis-Pt(IV)(DAPO)(OR)2Ox, where R(·) are TEMPO or proxyl nitroxyl radicals, DAPO is trans-3,4-diamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, and OR and Ox are carboxylato and oxalato ligands, respectively. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods, HPLC, log P ow data and elemental analysis. We studied intracellular platinum accumulation, DNA platination and cytotoxicity upon treatment with the PNCs in a model system of the bladder cancer cell line RT112 and its cisplatin-resistant subline RT112-CP. Platinum accumulation and DNA platination were similar in RT112 and RT112-CP cells for both bivalent and four-valent PNCs, in contrast to cisplatin for which a reduction in intracellular accumulation and DNA platination was observed in the resistant subline. The PNCs were found to platinate DNA in relation to the length of their axial RO-ligands. Furthermore, the PNCs were increasingly toxic in relation to the elongation of their axial RO-ligands, with similar toxicities in RT112 and its cisplatin-resistant subline. Using a cell-free assay, we observed induction of oxidative DNA damage by cisplatin but not PNCs suggesting that cisplatin exerts its toxic action by platination and oxidative DNA damage, while cells treated with PNCs are protected against oxidatively induced lesions. Altogether, our study suggests that PNCs may provide a more effective treatment for tumors which have developed resistance toward cisplatin.

  4. cRGD-installed polymeric micelles loading platinum anticancer drugs enable cooperative treatment against lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Makino, Jun; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yu; Wang, Ming; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Mochida, Yuki; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-12-28

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is correlated with decreased survival, indicating high tumor malignancy and being a potential source for subsequent fatal metastases. Targeted therapies inhibiting the formation of LNM, while eliminating established metastatic foci, could provide synergistic effects by reducing the incidence and growth of metastasis. Based on the inhibitory activity of cRGD peptide against the development of metastasis, and the LNM targeting ability of systemically injected drug-loaded polymeric micelles, herein, we studied the capability of cRGD-installed polymeric micelles incorporating the platinum anticancer drug (1,2-diaminocylohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt) for cooperatively inhibiting the formation and progression of LNM. As cRGD-installed DACHPt-loaded micelles (cRGD-DACHPt/m) presented similar size, drug loading and surface charge to non-conjugated micelles (MeO-DACHPt/m), the differences in the biological performance of the micelles were endorsed to the effect of the ligand. In a syngeneic melanoma model, both MeO-DACHPt/m and cRGD-DACHPt/m showed comparable antitumor activity against the primary tumors and the established metastatic foci in lymph nodes. However, cRGD-DACHPt/m significantly enhanced the efficacy against LNM draining from primary tumors through the effective inhibition of the spreading of cancer cells. This improved inhibition was associated with the ability of cRGD-DACHPt/m to reduce the migration of melanoma cells, which was higher than that of MeO-DACHPt/m, free cRGD and their combination. These results support our strategy of using cRGD-installed micelles for attaining cooperative therapies against LNM exploiting the inhibitory function of the peptide and the cytotoxic effect of the micelles.

  5. Chiral Platinum(II) Complexes Featuring Phosphine and Chloroquine Ligands as Cytotoxic and Monofunctional DNA-Binding Agents.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Wilmer; Colina-Vegas, Legna; Rodrigues de Oliveira, Clayton; Tenorio, Juan C; Ellena, Javier; Gozzo, Fábio C; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Ferreira, Antonio G; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Navarro, Maribel; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-12-21

    Chiral molecules in nature are involved in many biological events; their selectivity and specificity make them of great interest for understanding the behavior of bioactive molecules, by providing information about the chiral discrimination. Inspired by these conformational properties, we present the design and synthesis of novel chiral platinum(II) complexes featuring phosphine and chloroquine ligands with the general formula [PtCl(P)2(CQ)]PF6 (where (P)2 = triphenylphosphine (PPh3) (5), 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphine)propane (dppp) (6), 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphine)butane (dppb) (7), 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphine)ferrocene (dppf) (8), and CQ = chloroquine] and their precursors of the type [PtCl2(P)2] are described. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, absorption spectroscopy in the infrared and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) regions, multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (31)P, (15)N, and (195)Pt) NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and mass spectrometry (in the case of chloroquine complexes). The interactions of the new platinum-chloroquine complexes with both albumin (BSA), using fluorescence spectroscopy, and DNA, by four widely reported methods were also evaluated. These experiments showed that these Pt-CQ complexes interact strongly with DNA and have high affinities for BSA, in contrast to CQ and CQDP (chloroquine diphosphate), which interact weakly with these biomolecules. Additional assays were performed in order to investigate the cytotoxicity of the platinum complexes against two healthy cell lines (mouse fibroblasts (L929) and the Chinese hamster lung (V79-4)) and four tumor cell lines (human breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), human lung (A549), and human prostate (DU-145)). The results suggest that the Pt-CQ complexes are generally more cytotoxic than the free CQ, showing that they are promising as anticancer drugs.

  6. Evaluation of novel trans-sulfonamide platinum complexes against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos; Díaz-García, C Vanesa; Agudo-López, Alba; del Solar, Virginia; Cabrera, Silvia; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; Alemán, José; López-Martín, José A

    2014-04-09

    Platinum-based drugs, mainly cisplatin, are employed for the treatment of solid malignancies. However, cisplatin treatment often results in the development of chemoresistance, leading to therapeutic failure. Here, the antitumor activity of different trans-sulfonamide platinum complexes in a panel of human cell lines is presented. The cytotoxicity profiles and cell cycle analyses of these platinum sulfonamide complexes were different from those of cisplatin. These studies showed that complex 2b with cyclohexyldiamine and dansyl moieties had the best antitumoral activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypersensitivity to aurora kinase inhibitors in cells resistant against platinum- containing anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masaki; Izumi, Hiroto; Wang, Ke-Yong; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kuma, Akihiro; Kitamura, Noriaki; Harada, Yoshikazu; Oya, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Koji; Iwai, Yoshiko; Kohno, Kimitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases that are essential for mitosis and contribute to tumorigenesis. Therefore, aurora kinases hold promise for molecularly targeted therapy. In the present study, we demonstrated that aurora B kinase (AURKB) is overexpressed in both cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cells. Downregulation of AURKB sensitized cells to both cisplatin and oxaliplatin, but not to paclitaxel, 5-FU or hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, we found that both cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cells were hypersensitive to the AURKB specific inhibitors, AZD1152 HQPA and ZM447439, suggesting that both cisplatin- and oxaliplatinresistant cells develop an addiction to AURKB. These data provide evidence that aurora kinase inhibitors can overcome both cisplatin and oxaliplatin resistance. Therefore, AURKB inhibitors could offer potential benefits if used after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

  8. Platinum(iv) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: their synthesis, characterisation and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Bouché, M; Dahm, G; Wantz, M; Fournel, S; Achard, T; Bellemin-Laponnaz, S

    2016-07-28

    Platinum(ii) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes have been oxidized by bromine or iodobenzene dichloride to provide the fully characterised corresponding platinum(iv) NHC complexes. Antiproliferative activities of Pt(iv) NHC complexes were assayed against several cancer cell lines and the results were correlated with respect to their stability. Mechanistic investigations revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production were associated with the cytotoxic process induced by these compounds.

  9. Linker design for the modular assembly of multifunctional and targeted platinum(ii)-containing anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ding, S; Bierbach, U

    2016-08-16

    A versatile and efficient modular synthetic platform was developed for assembling multifunctional conjugates and targeted forms of platinum-(benz)acridines, a class of highly cytotoxic DNA-targeted hybrid agents. The synthetic strategy involved amide coupling between succinyl ester-modified platinum compounds (P1, P2) and a set of 11 biologically relevant primary and secondary amines (N1-N11). To demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of the approach, a structurally and functionally diverse range of amines was introduced. These include biologically active molecules, such as rucaparib (a PARP inhibitor), E/Z-endoxifen (an estrogen receptor antagonist), and a quinazoline-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Micro-scale reactions in Eppendorf tubes or on 96-well plates were used to screen for optimal coupling conditions in DMF solution with carbodiimide-, uronium-, and phosphonium-based compounds, as well as other common coupling reagents. Reactions with the phosphonium-based coupling reagent PyBOP produced the highest yields and gave the cleanest conversions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemistry can also be performed in aqueous media and is amenable to parallel synthesis based on multiple consecutive reactions in DMF in a "one-tube" format. In-line LC-MS was used to assess the stability of the conjugates in physiologically relevant buffers. Hydrolysis of the conjugates occurs at the ester moiety and is facilitated by the aquated metal moiety under low-chloride ion conditions. The rate of ester cleavage greatly depends on the nature of the amine component. Potential applications of the linker technology are discussed.

  10. Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].

    PubMed

    Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity.

  11. Imaging the distribution of individual platinum-based anticancer drug molecules attached to single-wall carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Bhirde, Ashwin A; Sousa, Alioscka A; Patel, Vyomesh; Azari, Afrouz A; Gutkind, J Silvio; Leapman, Richard D; Rusling, James F

    2009-01-01

    Aims To image the distribution of drug molecules attached to single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Materials & methods Herein we report the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for atomic scale visualization and quantitation of single platinum-based drug molecules attached to SWNTs designed for targeted drug delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used for characterization of the SWNT drug conjugates. Results Z-contrast STEM imaging enabled visualization of the first-line anticancer drug cisplatin on the nanotubes at single molecule level. The identity and presence of cisplatin on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. STEM tomography was also used to provide additional insights concerning the nanotube conjugates. Finally, our observations provide a rationale for exploring the use of SWNT bioconjugates to selectively target and kill squamous cancer cells. Conclusion Z-contrast STEM imaging provides a means for direct visualization of heavy metal containing molecules (i.e., cisplatin) attached to surfaces of carbon SWNTs along with distribution and quantitation. PMID:19839812

  12. Investigation on pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of a novel platinum anticancer agent in rats by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wen, Yanli; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Di; Fan, Ali; Zhang, Yongjie; Deng, Shuhua; Wang, Xin; Liu, Qingwang; Lu, Yang; Wang, Zhimei; Gou, Shaohua; Chen, Xijing

    2014-08-01

    1. DN604 is a new platinum agent with encouraging anticancer activity. The present study was to explore the pharmacokinetic profiles, distribution and excretion of platinum in Sprague-Dawley rats after intravenous administration of DN604. A sensitive and selective inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was established for determination of platinum in biological specimens. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by a non-compartmental method. 2. The area under concentration-time curve AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ for platinum originating from DN604 at 10 mg/kg were 25.15 ± 1.29 and 28.72 ± 1.04 μg/hml, respectively. The mean residence time MRT was 36.59 ± 6.65 h. The volume of distribution Vz was 11.42 ± 2.49 l/kg and clearance CL was 0.18 ± 0.01 l/h/kg. In addition, the elimination half-life T1/2z was 44.83 ± 9.75 h. After intravenous administration of DN604, platinum was extensively distributed in most of tested tissues except brain. The majority of platinum excreted via urine, and its accumulative excretion ratio during the period of 120 h was 63.5% ± 7.7% for urine, but only 6.94% ± 0.11% for feces. 3. The satisfactory half-life, wide distribution and high excretion made this novel platinum agent worthy of further research and development.

  13. Complexing sorbents with heterocyclic amino groups for concentrating platinum-group metals

    SciTech Connect

    Myasoedova, G.V.; Shcherbinina, N.I.; Komozin, P.N.

    1995-06-01

    Sorbents prepared on the basis of amines, in particular, those bearing heterocyclic amino groups and nitrogen-containing matrices, hold much promise for the sorptifve sepatration of platinum-group metals. The results of the study of new complexing sorbents based on 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine) and bearing 3(5)-methylpyrazole, imidazole, and benzimidazole groups are presented in this work. The sorption and complexing properties of the sorbents with respect to platinum-group metals were studied. The possibility of using new sorbents for the group concentration of platinum-group metals was demonstrated.

  14. Immuno-chemotherapeutic platinum(IV) prodrugs of cisplatin as multimodal anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Yeo, Charmian Hui Fang; Ang, Wee Han

    2014-06-23

    There is growing consensus that the clinical therapeutic efficacy of some chemotherapeutic agents depends on their off-target immune-modulating effects. Pt anticancer drugs have previously been identified to be potent immunomodulators of both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Nevertheless, there has been little development in the rational design of Pt-based chemotherapeutic agents to exploit their immune-activating capabilities. The FPR1/2 formyl peptide receptors are highly expressed in immune cells, as well as in many metastatic cancers. Herein, we report a rationally designed multimodal Pt(IV) prodrug containing a FPR1/2-targeting peptide that combines chemotherapy with immunotherapy to achieve therapeutic synergy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Influence of equatorial and axial carboxylato ligands on the kinetic inertness of platinum(IV) complexes in the presence of ascorbate and cysteine and within DLD-1 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine K J; Zhang, Jenny Z; Aitken, Jade B; Hambley, Trevor W

    2013-11-14

    The rapid and premature reduction of platinum(IV) complexes in vivo is a significant impediment to these complexes being successfully employed as anticancer prodrugs. This study investigates the influence of the platinum(IV) coordination sphere on the ease of reduction of the platinum center in various biological contexts. In the presence of the biological reductants, ascorbate and cysteine, platinum(IV) complexes with dicarboxylato equatorial ligands were observed to exhibit lower reduction potentials and slower reduction rates than analogous platinum(IV) complexes with dichlorido equatorial ligands. Diaminetetracarboxylatoplatinum(IV) complexes exhibited unusually long half-lives in the presence of excess reductants; however, the complexes exhibited moderate potency in vitro, indicative of rapid reduction within the intracellular environment. By use of XANES spectroscopy, trans-[Pt(OAc)2(ox)(en)] and trans-[PtCl2(OAc)2(en)] were observed to be reduced at a similar rate within DLD-1 cancer cells. This large variability in kinetic inertness of diaminetetracarboxylatoplatinum(IV) complexes in different biological contexts has significant implications for the design of platinum(IV) prodrugs.

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of platinum (II) salphen complex and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sukri, Shahratul Ain Mohd; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd

    2014-09-03

    A platinum (II) salphen complex was synthesised by condensation reaction of 2,4-dihydroxylbenzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine with potassium tetrachloroplatinate to obtain N,N′-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum (II). The structure of the complex was confirmed by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, CHN elemental analyses and ESI-MS spectrometry. The platinum (II) salphen complex with four donor atoms N{sub 2}O{sub 2} from its salphen ligand coordinated to platinum (II) metal centre were determined. The binding mode and interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA was determined by UV/Vis DNA titration and emission titration. The intercalation between the DNA bases by π-π stacking due to its square planar geometry and aromatic rings structures was proposed.

  17. Synthesis and characterisation of platinum (II) salphen complex and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukri, Shahratul Ain Mohd; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd

    2014-09-01

    A platinum (II) salphen complex was synthesised by condensation reaction of 2,4-dihydroxylbenzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine with potassium tetrachloroplatinate to obtain N,N'-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum (II). The structure of the complex was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, CHN elemental analyses and ESI-MS spectrometry. The platinum (II) salphen complex with four donor atoms N2O2 from its salphen ligand coordinated to platinum (II) metal centre were determined. The binding mode and interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA was determined by UV/Vis DNA titration and emission titration. The intercalation between the DNA bases by π-π stacking due to its square planar geometry and aromatic rings structures was proposed.

  18. [The effects of complex platinum compounds on the neuraminidase activity of the Sendai virus].

    PubMed

    Repanovici, R; Călinoiu, A; Iliescu, R; Löber, G; Popa, L M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of di- and tetravalent cis-diaminoplatinum chlorides on Sendai virus envelop HN glycoprotein was investigated. The partial inhibition of neuraminidase activity was greater in the case of the divalent platinum complex derivative.

  19. Complementarity of MALDI and LA ICP mass spectrometry for platinum anticancer imaging in human tumor.

    PubMed

    Bianga, Juliusz; Bouslimani, Amina; Bec, Nicole; Quenet, François; Mounicou, Sandra; Szpunar, Joanna; Bouyssiere, Brice; Lobinski, Ryszard; Larroque, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The follow-up of the Heated Intraoperative Chemotherapy (HIPEC) of peritoneal carcinomatosis would benefit from the monitoring of the penetration, distribution and metabolism of the drug within the tumor. As tumor nodules can be resected during the therapy, mass spectrometry imaging is a suitable tool for the evaluation of treatment efficacy, and, as a result, the therapy can be re-optimized. In this work we demonstrate the complementarity of laser ablation (LA) ICP mass spectrometry and MALDI imaging to study the penetration and distribution of two Pt-based metallodrugs (cisplatin and oxaliplatin) in human tumor samples removed from patients diagnosed with colorectal or ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis. LA ICP MS offered sensitive (LOD for (195)Pt 4.8 pg s(-1)) imaging of platinum quasi-independently of the original species and the sample matrix and thus an ultimate way of verifying the penetration of the Pt-containing drug or its moieties into the tumor. MALDI imaging was found to suffer in some cases from signal suppression by the matrix leading to false negatives. In the case of the oxaliplatin metallodrug, the results obtained from ICP and MALDI MS imaging were coherent whereas in the case of cisplatin, species detected by ICP MS imaging could not be validated by MALDI MS. The study is the first application of the dual ICP and MALDI MS imaging to the follow-up of metallodrugs in human tumors.

  20. Platinum Complexes-Induced Cardiotoxicity of Isolated, Perfused Rat Heart: Comparison of Pt(II) and Pt(IV) Analogues Versus Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Misic, Miroslav M; Jakovljevic, Vladimir L; Bugarcic, Zivadin D; Zivkovic, Vladimir I; Srejovic, Ivan M; Barudzic, Nevena S; Djuric, Dragan M; Novokmet, Slobodan S

    2015-07-01

    We have compared the cardiotoxicity of five platinum complexes in a model of isolated rat heart using the Langendorff technique. These effects were assessed via coronary flow (CF) and cardiac functional parameters. cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin, CDDP), dichloro-(1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) (Pt((II))DACHCl2), dichloro-(ethylenediamine)platinum(II) (Pt((II))ENCl2), tetrachloro-(1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(IV) (Pt((IV))DACHCl4) and tetrachloro-(ethylenediamine)platinum(IV) (Pt((II))ENCl4) were perfused at increasing concentrations of 10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4) M during 30 min. In this paper, we report that cisplatin-induced dose-dependent effects on cardiac contractility and coronary flow both manifested as decrease in cardiac contractile force (dP/dt)max, heart rate and significant reduction in CF. Pt((II))ENCl2, Pt((IV))ENCl2 and Pt((IV))DACHCl4 did induce dose-dependent response only in case of CF. Our results could be also important for better understanding dose-dependent side effects of potential metal-based anticancer drugs.

  1. PLATINUM: a web tool for analysis of hydrophobic/hydrophilic organization of biomolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Pyrkov, Timothy V; Chugunov, Anton O; Krylov, Nikolay A; Nolde, Dmitry E; Efremov, Roman G

    2009-05-01

    The PLATINUM (Protein-Ligand ATtractions Investigation NUMerically) web service is designed for analysis and visualization of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of biomolecules supplied as 3D-structures. Furthermore, PLATINUM provides a number of tools for quantitative characterization of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic match in biomolecular complexes e.g. in docking poses. These complement standard scoring functions. The calculations are based on the concept of empirical Molecular Hydrophobicity Potential (MHP). The PLATINUM web tool as well as detailed documentation and tutorial are available free of charge for academic users at http://model.nmr.ru/platinum/. PLATINUM requires Java 5 or higher and Adobe Flash Player 9. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Asymmetry in Platinum Acetylide Complexes: Confinement of the Triplet Exciton to the Lowest Energy Ligand (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    lower energy thiophene units, but some emission is also observed from the higher energy phenyl units.4oThe study describes similar excited state...AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2007-530 ASYMMETRY IN PLATINUM ACETYLIDE COMPLEXES: CONFINEMENT OF THE TRIPLET EXCITON TO THE LOWEST ENERGY LIGAND (PREPRINT...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ASYMMETRY IN PLATINUM ACETYLIDE COMPLEXES: CONFINEMENT OF THE TRIPLET EXCITON TO THE LOWEST ENERGY LIGAND

  3. Anticancer activity of structurally related ruthenium(II) cyclopentadienyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Côrte-Real, Leonor; Mendes, Filipa; Coimbra, Joana; Morais, Tânia S; Tomaz, Ana Isabel; Valente, Andreia; Garcia, M Helena; Santos, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; Marques, Fernanda

    2014-08-01

    A set of structurally related Ru(η(5)-C5H5) complexes with bidentate N,N'-heteroaromatic ligands have been evaluated as prospective metallodrugs, with focus on exploring the uptake and cell death mechanisms and potential cellular targets. We have extended these studies to examine the potential of these complexes to target cancer cell metabolism, the energetic-related phenotype of cancer cells. The observations that these complexes can enter cells, probably facilitated by binding to plasma transferrin, and can be retained preferentially at the membranes prompted us to explore possible membrane targets involved in cancer cell metabolism. Most malignant tumors present the Warburg effect, which consists in increasing glycolytic rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. The reliance of glycolytic cancer cells on trans-plasma-membrane electron transport (TPMET) systems for their continued survival raises the question of their appropriateness as a target for anticancer drug development strategies. Considering the interesting findings that some anticancer drugs in clinical use are cytotoxic even without entering cells and can inhibit TPMET activity, we investigated whether redox enzyme modulation could be a potential mechanism of action of antitumor ruthenium complexes. The results from this study indicated that ruthenium complexes can inhibit lactate production and TPMET activity in a way dependent on the cancer cell aggressiveness and the concentration of the complex. Combination approaches that target cell metabolism (glycolytic inhibitors) as well as proliferation are needed to successfully cure cancer. This study supports the potential use of some of these ruthenium complexes as adjuvants of glycolytic inhibitors in the treatment of aggressive cancers.

  4. Platinum(II) 1,5-COD oxo complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, H.; James, A.; Sharp, P.R.

    1998-11-02

    Three new types of platinum(II) oxo complexes--[(1,5-COD)Pt({mu}{sup 3}-O)(AuL)]{sub 2}(BF{sub 4}){sub 2} [1, L = PPh{sub 3}, PPh{sub 2}Et, PPh{sub 2}-i-Pr, P(o-tol){sub 3}, P(p-tol){sub 3}, P(p-MeOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 3}, P(p-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 3}], [(1,5-COD)Pt{l_brace}{mu}{sup 3}-O(AuL){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} (2), and [(1,5-COD){sub 4}Pt{sub 4}({mu}{sup 3}-O){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]X{sub 2} (3, X = BF{sub 4}; 3a, X = CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3})--are obtained from oxo/chloro exchange reactions between (1,5-COD)PtCl{sub 2} and [(LAu){sub 3}({mu}{sup 3}-O)]BF{sub 4}. Crystals of 1 (L = PPh{sub 3}) from CDCl{sub 3} are triclinic. Crystals of 3a from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}/toluene are trigonal. The structure of the cationic portion of 1 shows a planar (COD)-Pt({mu}-O){sub 2}Pt(COD) unit with slightly out-of-plane LAu{sup +} groups linearly coordinated to the oxo ligands. The structure of the cationic portion of 3a is similar and shows a slightly folded (COD)Pt({mu}-O){sub 2}Pt(COD) unit with out-of-plane [(COD)PtCl]{sup +} groups coordinated to the oxo ligands. Solutions of 3 in untreated CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} or CD{sub 2}Cl{sup 2} deposit crystals of [(1,5-COD){sub 4}Pt{sub 4}({mu}{sup 3}-O){sub 2}({mu}{sup 2}-OH)](BF{sub 4}){sub 3} (4) which are monoclinic. The core structure of the cationic portion of 4 shows a tetranuclear platinum cation in which the metal atoms occupy the corners of a distorted tetrahedron and two {mu}{sup 3}-oxo ligands and one {mu}{sup 2}-hydroxo ligand bridge the four platinum atoms. Reaction of 1 (L = PPh{sub 3}) with PPh{sub 3} gives OPPh{sub 3} and [(Ph{sub 3}P){sub 3}PtAuPPh{sub 3}]BF{sub 4} (5) which is also obtained from (Ph{sub 3}P){sub 4}Pt and Ph{sub 3}-PAuBF{sub 4}. Crystals of 5 from THF are monoclinic. The structure of 5 consists of an L{sub 3}Pt-AuL cation where the Au atom is linear 2-coordinate and the Pt atom is distorted square-planar 4-coordinate.

  5. New gold carbene complexes as candidate anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Cirri, Damiano; Đurović, Mirjana D; Pillozzi, Serena; Petroni, Giulia; Bugarčić, Živadin D; Messori, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Three structurally related gold(I) carbene complexes with bulky hydrophobic ligands i.e. 1-3 were investigated in solution for further consideration as candidate anticancer agents. Cytotoxic assays were subsequently conducted on bone marrow-derived preosteoclast cell line of human origin (FLG 29.1) and human colon cancer cells (HCT-116). A far greater cytotoxic activity was measured for compound 1 against HCT-116 cells compared to 2 and 3; conversely, all compounds were highly and similarly active against FLG 29.1 cells. Results obtained for the reaction of complexes 1 and 2 with RNase A documented the occurrence of a weak interaction with this model protein and the formation of a tiny amount of the corresponding adduct. Moreover, a certain reactivity of the complex 2 was also detected toward GSH. The general implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  6. Anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands.

    PubMed

    Chelopo, Madichaba P; Pawar, Sachin A; Sokhela, Mxolisi K; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M

    2013-08-01

    Ruthenium complexes offer potential reduced toxicity compared to current platinum anticancer drugs. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands were synthesised, characterised and coordinated to an organometallic Ru(II) centre. These complexes were evaluated for activity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549 and MDA-MB-231 as well as for toxicity in the normal cell line MDBK. They were observed to be moderately active against only the MCF-7 cells with the best IC₅₀ value of 34 μM for the cis-diastereomeric complex C4. They also displayed excellent selectivity by being relatively inactive against the normal MDBK cell line with SI values ranging from 2.3 to 7.4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Platinum-based anticancer drugs in waste waters of a major UK hospital and predicted concentrations in recipient surface waters.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nitin; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

    2014-09-15

    Concentrations of the cytotoxic platinum-based anticancer drugs, as total Pt, have been measured over a three week period in one of the main drains and in the effluent of the oncology ward of a major UK hospital (Derriford, Plymouth). Concentrations of Pt were highly variable in both discharges, and ranged from about 0.02 to 140 μg L(-1) in the oncology effluent and from about 0.03 to 100 μg L(-1) in the main drain. A comparison of drug administration figures over the study period with an estimate of the quantity of Pt discharged through the drains suggests that about 22% of total Pt is emitted to the environment from the hospital with the remainder being discharged by treated patients in the wider community. Administration figures for the three Pt-based drugs used in the hospital (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) coupled with published measurements on the removal of the drugs by conventional sewage treatment allowed the concentrations of Pt arising from each drug to be predicted in recipient surface waters as a function of water flow rate. For conditions representative of the region under study, concentrations of total Pt between a few tens and in excess of 100 pg L(-1) are predicted, with the principal form of the metal occurring as carboplatin and its metabolites. Although predicted concentrations are below EMEA guidelines warranting further risk assessment, the presence of substances in surface waters that are potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic and yet whose environmental effects are not understood is cause for concern.

  8. Potent Half-Sandwich Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes Containing C∧N-Chelated and Pyridine Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of eight half-sandwich cyclopentadienyl IrIII pyridine complexes of the type [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)Z]PF6, in which Cpxph = C5Me4C6H5 (tetramethyl(phenyl)cyclopentadienyl), phpy = 2-phenylpyridine as C∧N-chelating ligand, and Z = pyridine (py) or a pyridine derivative. Three X-ray crystal structures have been determined. The monodentate py ligands blocked hydrolysis; however, antiproliferative studies showed that all the Ir compounds are highly active toward A2780, A549, and MCF-7 human cancer cells. In general the introduction of an electron-donating group (e.g., Me, NMe2) at specific positions on the pyridine ring resulted in increased antiproliferative activity, whereas electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., COMe, COOMe, CONEt2) decreased anticancer activity. Complex 5 displayed the highest anticancer activity, exhibiting submicromolar potency toward a range of cancer cell lines in the National Cancer Institute NCI-60 screen, ca. 5 times more potent than the clinical platinum(II) drug cisplatin. DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action. Although complexes [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)(py)]+ (1) and [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)(4-NMe2-py)]+ (5) did not cause cell apoptosis or cell cycle arrest after 24 h drug exposure in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells at IC50 concentrations, they increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dramatically and led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), which appears to contribute to the anticancer activity. This class of organometallic Ir complexes has unusual features worthy of further exploration in the design of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25328266

  9. Photoinduced DNA damage and cytotoxicity by a triphenylamine-modified platinum-diimine complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Dai, Ruihui; Ma, Jiajia; Wang, Shuying; Wei, Xuehong; Wang, Hongfei

    2015-02-01

    Many planar photosensitizers tend to self-aggregate via van der Waals interactions between π-conjugated systems. The self-aggregation of the photosensitizer may reduce the efficiency of the photosensitizer to generate singlet oxygen, thereby diminishing its photodynamic activity. Efforts have been made to improve the photodynamic activity of bis-(o-diiminobenzosemiquinonato)platinum(II) which has planar geometry by the introduction of the sterically hindered triphenylamine moiety into the ligand. Herein we report the photoinduced DNA damage and cytotoxicity by a triphenylamine-modified platinum-diimine complex in red light studied by fluorescence spectra, agarose gel assay and cell viability assay. The results suggest that the triphenylamine-modified platinum-diimine complex has better capability to generate singlet oxygen than bis-(o-diiminobenzosemiquinonato)platinum(II), and it can induce DNA damage in red light, causing high photocytotoxicity in HepG-2 cells in vitro.

  10. Bis- and Tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes with mixed axial ligands - synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Björn R; Hejl, Michaela; Adib-Razavi, Mahsa S; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-04-01

    A series of twelve novel diamminetetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) and 18 novel bis(carboxylato)dichlorido(ethane-1,2-diamine)platinum(IV) complexes with mixed axial carboxylato ligands was synthesized and characterized by multinuclear (1) H-, (13) C-, (15) N-, and (195) Pt-NMR spectroscopy. Their cytotoxic potential was evaluated (by MTT assay) against three human cancer cell lines derived from ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA-1), lung (A549), and colon carcinoma (SW480). In the cisplatin-sensitive CH1/PA-1 cancer cell line, diamminetetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes showed IC50 values in the low micromolar range, whereas, for the most lipophilic compounds of the bis(carboxylato)dichlorido(ethane-1,2-diamine)platinum(IV) series, IC50 values in the nanomolar range were found. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Theoretical study of amino derivatives and anticancer platinum drug grafted on various carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kraszewski, S; Duverger, E; Ramseyer, C; Picaud, F

    2013-11-07

    Density functional theory calculations with van der Waals approximation have been conducted to analyze the functionalization of various carbon-based nanostructures (fullerene, metallic, and semi-conducting nanotubes) with amino derivative groups. The results obtained with azomethine, show the formation of a five membered ring on fullerenes, and on nanotubes consistent with experimental observations. The attachment of an azomethine plus subsequent drug like a Pt(IV) complex does not perturb the cycloaddition process. Moreover, all theoretical results show that the length of different amino derivatives with subsequent Pt(IV) complex does not affect the complexed therapeutic agent when it is attached onto these carbon-based nanostructures.

  12. Theoretical study of amino derivatives and anticancer platinum drug grafted on various carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraszewski, S.; Duverger, E.; Ramseyer, C.; Picaud, F.

    2013-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations with van der Waals approximation have been conducted to analyze the functionalization of various carbon-based nanostructures (fullerene, metallic, and semi-conducting nanotubes) with amino derivative groups. The results obtained with azomethine, show the formation of a five membered ring on fullerenes, and on nanotubes consistent with experimental observations. The attachment of an azomethine plus subsequent drug like a Pt(IV) complex does not perturb the cycloaddition process. Moreover, all theoretical results show that the length of different amino derivatives with subsequent Pt(IV) complex does not affect the complexed therapeutic agent when it is attached onto these carbon-based nanostructures.

  13. Exploring the Hydrolytic Behavior of the Platinum(IV) Complexes with Axial Acetato Ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Xu, Zichen; Lin, Jing; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-08-21

    Platinum(IV) complexes are generally thought to be kinetically inert, and are expected to be stable enough to resist premature aquation before entering the cancer cells. Nevertheless, in this work, complex 2 with axial acetato ligands can hydrolyze relatively quickly under biologically relevant conditions with a half-life of 91.7 min, resulting in the loss of the equatorial chlorido ligand. Further study indicated that the fast hydrolysis of complex 2 may be attributed to the strong σ-donor ability of N-isopropyl-1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane, and an increasing σ-donor ability of the amine group can promote the hydrolysis rate of the corresponding platinum(IV) complex. The experiment results were proven by the corresponding DFT calculation. Our study can help to re-evaluate the aqueous properties of the platinum(IV) complexes with axial acetate, which may be less inert to hydrolysis than expected under biologically relevant conditions.

  14. Synthesis and Analysis of the Structure, Diffusion and Cytotoxicity of Heterocyclic Platinum(IV) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Macias, Freddy J; Deo, Krishant M; Pages, Benjamin J; Wormell, Paul; Clegg, Jack K; Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Feng; Zheng, Gang; Sakoff, Jennette; Gilbert, Jayne; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R

    2015-11-16

    We have developed six dihydroxidoplatinum(IV) compounds with cytotoxic potential. Each derived from active platinum(II) species, these complexes consist of a heterocyclic ligand (HL) and ancillary ligand (AL) in the form [Pt(HL)(AL)(OH)2](2+), where HL is a methyl-functionalised variant of 1,10-phenanthroline and AL is the S,S or R,R isomer of 1,2-diaminocyclohexane. NMR characterisation and X-ray diffraction studies clearly confirmed the coordination geometry of the octahedral platinum(IV) complexes. The self-stacking of these complexes was determined using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance. The self-association behaviour of square planar platinum(II) complexes is largely dependent on concentration, whereas platinum(IV) complexes do not aggregate under the same conditions, possibly due to the presence of axial ligands. The cytotoxicity of the most active complex, exhibited in several cell lines, has been retained in the platinum(IV) form.

  15. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided.

  16. Anticancer Organometallic Osmium(II)-p-cymene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Clavel, Catherine M; Scopelliti, Rosario; Griffioen, Arjan W; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Osmium compounds are attracting increasing attention as potential anticancer drugs. In this context, a series of bifunctional organometallic osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes functionalized with alkyl or perfluoroalkyl groups were prepared and screened for their antiproliferative activity. Three compounds from the series display selectivity toward cancer cells, with moderate cytotoxicity observed against human ovarian carcinoma (A2780) cells, whereas no cytotoxicity was observed on non-cancerous human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and human endothelial (ECRF24) cells. Two of these three cancer-cell-selective compounds induce cell death largely via apoptosis and were also found to disrupt vascularization in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Based on these promising properties, these compounds have potential clinical applications.

  17. Selenium-platinum coordination compounds as novel anticancer drugs: selectively killing cancer cells via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis route.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingwu; Li, Yang; Li, Tianyu; Cao, Wei; Yi, Yu; Geng, Weijia; Sun, Zhiwei; Xu, Huaping

    2014-08-01

    We report the preparation of selenium-containing platinum-based anticancer drug EG-Se/Pt. EG-Se/Pt was obtained from the coordination of selenium-containing molecules (EG-Se) with cisplatin (CDDP). The structure of EG-Se/Pt was characterized by (1) H and (77) Se NMR spectroscopy, XPS, ESI-MS, and MALDI-TOF. In aqueous solution, EG-Se/Pt self-assembles to form spherical aggregates. EG-Se/Pt shows enhanced stability against dilution and high salt concentration compared with EG-Se. EG-Se/Pt induces cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to high selectivity between cancer cells and normal cells in cytotoxicity assays. More importantly, EG-Se/Pt effectively inhibits tumor growth in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. It is anticipated that tuning the ROS level through the assembly of selenium-containing molecules can be a general method to realize anticancer selectivity.

  18. Hydrosulfide Adducts of Organo-Iridium Anticancer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Habtemariam, Abraha; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-03-07

    Novel half-sandwich hydrosulfidoiridium(III) complexes [(η(5)-Cp*)Ir(phen)(SH)]PF6 (1), [(η(5)-Cp*)Ir(bpy)(SH)]PF6 (2), [(η(5)-Cp(biph))Ir(phen)(SH)]PF6 (3), and [(η(5)-Cp(biph))Ir(bpy)(SH)]PF6 (4) were prepared from the chlorido complexes by dechlorination and treatment with excess NaSH·xH2O; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Cp* = 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, and Cp(biph) = 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-biphenylcyclopentadienyl. Complexes 1-4 were characterized by various techniques including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy (δ(SH) ca. -2 ppm), and a single-crystal X-ray analysis. Complex [(η(5)-Cp*)Ir(phen)(SH)]BPh4 (1') shows a typical piano-stool geometry with Ir-S bond length of 2.388(2) Å. Cp(biph) complexes 3 (IC50 = 0.98 μM) and 4 (IC50 = 0.61 μM) showed significantly higher (p < 0.005) in vitro antiproliferative activity against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells, as compared with their Cp* analogues 1 (IC50 = 49.5 μM) and 2 (IC50 = 48.4 μM), and potency similar to the anticancer drug cisplatin. The complexes were relatively stable in aqueous solution toward hydrolysis and reactions with reduced glutathione (GSH), 9-ethylguanine, or 9-methyladenine. Interestingly, GSH was readily oxidized to glutathione disulfide in the presence of Cp(biph) complexes 3 and 4, as judged by (1)H NMR, perhaps indicative of a possible redox-linked mechanism of action.

  19. Probing platinum azido complexes by 14N and 15N NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Nicola J; Gierth, Peter; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-10-17

    Metal azido complexes are of general interest due to their high energetic properties, and platinum azido complexes in particular because of their potential as photoactivatable anticancer prodrugs. However, azido ligands are difficult to probe by NMR spectroscopy due to the quadrupolar nature of (14)N and the lack of scalar (1)H coupling to enhance the sensitivity of the less abundant (15)N by using polarisation transfer. In this work, we report (14)N and (15)N NMR spectroscopic studies of cis,trans,cis-[Pt(N(3))(2)(OH)(2)(NH(3))] (1) and trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N(3))(2)(OH)(2)(X)(Y)], where X=Y=NH(3) (2); X=NH(3), Y=py (3) (py=pyridine); X=Y=py (4); and selected Pt(II) precursors. These studies provide the first (15)N NMR data for azido groups in coordination complexes. We discuss one- and three-bond J((15)N,(195)Pt) couplings for azido and am(m)ine ligands. The (14)N(α) (coordinated azido nitrogen) signal in the Pt(IV) azido complexes is extremely broad (W(1/2)≈2124 Hz for 4) in comparison to other metal azido complexes, attributable to a highly asymmetrical electric field gradient at the (14)N(α) atom. Through the use of anti-ringing pulse sequences, the (14)N NMR spectra, which show resolution of the broad (14)N(α) peak, were obtained rapidly (e.g., 1.5 h for 10 mM 4). The linewidths of the (14)N(α) signals correlate with the viscosity of the solvent. For (15) N-enriched samples, it is possible to detect azido (15)N resonances directly, which will allow photoreactions to be followed by 1D (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The T(1) relaxation times for 3 and 4 were in the range 5.7-120 s for (15)N, and 0.9-11.3 ms for (14)N. Analysis of the (1)J((15)N,(195)Pt) coupling constants suggests that an azido ligand has a moderately strong trans influence in octahedral Pt(IV) complexes, within the series 2-pic

  20. Cyto- and genotoxic effects of coordination complexes of platinum, palladium and rhodium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bünger, J; Stork, J; Stalder, K

    1996-01-01

    The growing industrial use of platinum group elements as catalysts, especially in automobile exhaust detoxification (trimetal catalytic converters), is causing increasing occupational and environmental pollution. The cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of industrially used coordination complexes of platinum, palladium and rhodium were investigated using the neutral red cytotoxicity assay on two established cell lines and the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome test system (Ames test). Cytotoxic effects of the platinum complexes, measured as ED50, occurred at test concentrations of 0.2 mM. The analogous palladium salts tested were 3 times less toxic with ED50 being 0.6 mM, while the rhodium salts proved to be 30 times less toxic (ED50 = 6 mM). Levels of toxicity of the different complexes of a particular metal did not differ significantly from each other, which indicates that the metal itself is responsible for the toxic effects. In the Ames test, the spontaneous mutation rates increased by factors of 3 to 20 when the four tester strains were exposed to the platinum complexes. The analogous rhodium compounds proved to be considerably less mutagenic, and palladium demonstrated no mutagenic potential. As all of the four tester strains contain different mutations, the mutagenic potential of platinum and rhodium complexes appears to be based on a variety of mechanisms that damage DNA. From these in vitro experiments, it can be concluded that water-soluble complex salts of rhodium are less toxic and have a smaller mutagenic potential than the analogous platinum complexes. For palladium there is no evidence of any mutagenic property. From this point of view, the development of a catalytic converter containing predominantly palladium may be a possible means of minimizing potential health risks from this exhaust detoxification technique.

  1. Complexes of gold and platinum with hydrogen in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huy, P. T.; Ammerlaan, C. A. J.

    2001-01-01

    Three centers that involve gold or platinum and hydrogen have been observed in n-type hydrogenated silicon by electron paramagnetic resonance. The first two centers, labeled Si-NL63 and Si-NL64, were detected in the gold-doped samples revealing hyperfine interaction with two gold atoms for the Si-NL63 center and one gold and two hydrogen atoms for the Si-NL64 center. The third spectrum, labeled Si-NL65, observed in the platinum-doped samples showed hyperfine interaction with one platinum and three equivalent hydrogen atoms that results in the hyperfine structure intensity ratio of 1 : 3 : 3 : 1≈4 : 12 : 12 : 4≈1 : 3 : 3 : 1. The angular dependencies of the spectra have been measured and show monoclinic-I, triclinic and trigonal symmetry for the Si-NL63, Si-NL64 and Si-NL65 centers, respectively. Based on an analysis of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters, similarities of the hydrogen- and transition-metal hyperfine interactions of the centers are established. Microscopic models are proposed and, for Si-NL64, compared to the model of the well-known PtH 2 center.

  2. Biotin-tagged platinum(iv) complexes as targeted cytostatic agents against breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Nafees; Sadia, Nasreen; Zhu, Chengcheng; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2017-09-05

    A biotin-guided platinum(IV) complex is highly cytotoxic against breast cancer cells but hypotoxic against mammary epithelial cells. The mono-biotinylated Pt(IV) complex is superior to the di-biotinylated one and hence a promising drug candidate for the targeted therapy of breast cancer.

  3. Say No to DMSO: Dimethylsulfoxide Inactivates Cisplatin, Carboplatin and Other Platinum Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D.; Telma, Katherine A.; Chang, Ki-Eun; Lee, Tobie D.; Madigan, James P.; Lloyd, John R.; Goldlust, Ian S.; Hoeschele, James D.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are highly utilized in the clinic and as a consequence are extensively studied in the laboratory setting. In this study, we examined the literature and found a significant number of studies (11 - 34%) in prominent cancer journals utilizing cisplatin dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). However, dissolving cisplatin in DMSO for laboratory-based studies results in ligand displacement and changes the structure of the complex. We examined the effect of DMSO on platinum complexes, including cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, finding that DMSO reacted with the complexes, inhibited their cytotoxicity and their ability to initiate cell death. These results render a substantial portion of the literature on cisplatin uninterpretable. Raising awareness of this significant issue in the cancer biology community is critical, and we make recommendations on appropriate solvation of platinum drugs for research. PMID:24812268

  4. New zinc(II), palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of DL-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid; X-ray crystal structure of trans-[Zn2(μ-Ca)2(Hpa)2Cl6] and anticancer activity of some complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alie El-Deen, Afaf A.; El-Askalany, Abd El-Monem E.; Halaoui, Ruba; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J.; Butler, Ian S.; Mostafa, Sahar I.

    2013-03-01

    New complexes of DL-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid (DL-H2pa), [Zn(Hpa)(AcO)(H2O)2], trans-[Zn2(μ-Ca)2(Hpa)2Cl6], [M(bpy)(Hpa)]Cl and [M(pa)(PPh3)2] (M(II) = Pd, Pt) have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductivity and thermal measurements, IR, Raman, UV-Vis, NMR (1H and 31P) and mass spectroscopy. DL-Piperidine-2-carboxylic acids act as bidentate ligands, through the carboxyl oxygen and cyclic nitrogen atoms. The crystal structure of trans-[Zn2(μ-Ca)2(Hpa)2Cl6], obtained from the addition of ZnCl2 to DL-H2pa in either hard tap water or presence of CaCl2, has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in a triclinic lattice with space group symmetry P1. The complex has two zinc atoms in tetrahedral geometry, each ligated by a carboxyl oxygen and three chlorine atoms. The other carboxyl oxygen atoms from the two Hpa- ligands are bridged by two calcium atoms, i.e., there are two Zn(Hpa-)Cl3 units bridged by two calcium atoms. The free DL-H2pa and its complexes, trans-[Zn2(μ-Ca)2(Hpa)2Cl6], [Pd(bpy)(Hpa)]Cl and [M(pa)(PPh3)2] (M(II) = Pd, Pt) have been tested against the serous ovarian cancer ascites, OV 90 cell line.

  5. Isolation of homoleptic platinum oxyanionic complexes with doubly protonated diazacrown cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, Danila; Tkachev, Sergey; Baidina, Iraida; Romanenko, Galina; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Doubly protonated diazacrown ether cation (1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazoniacyclooctadecane DCH22+) was used for the efficient isolation of the homoleptic platinum complexes [Pt(NO3)6]2- and [Pt(C2O4)2]2- to crystalline solid phases from solutions containing mixtures of related platinum complexes. DCH22+ molecules in nitric acid solution were shown to prevent the condensation of mononuclear [Pt(H2O)n(NO3)6-n]n-2 species.

  6. Photoinduced cytotoxicity by a platinum diimine complex employing magnetite-silica nanocomposites as delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Haisha; Dai, Ruihui; Chai, Aiyun

    2015-10-01

    Tartaric acid-modified core-shell magnetite-silica nanocomposites were prepared by a sol-gel method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Then the nanocomposites were employed as carriers of a photoactive platinum diimine complex. Photoinduced cytotoxicity by the photosensitizer-loaded nanocomposites in different human carcinoma cells has been studied by cell viability assay. The results suggest that the as-synthesized nanocomposites have good stability in water, and the cytotoxicity induced by the platinum diimine complex in red light can be significantly enhanced when the photosensitizer is loaded with the magnetic nanocomposites.

  7. ‘New Trends for Metal Complexes with Anticancer Activity’

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Medicinal inorganic chemistry can exploit the unique properties of metal ions for the design of new drugs. This has, for instance, led to the clinical application of chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, such as cisplatin. The use of cisplatin is, however, severely limited by its toxic side effects. This has spurred chemists to employ different strategies in the development of new metal-based anticancer agents with different mechanisms of action. Recent trends in the field are discussed in this review. These include the more selected delivery and/or activation of cisplatin-related prodrugs and the discovery of new non-covalent interactions with the classical target, DNA. The use of the metal as scaffold rather than reactive centre and the departure from the cisplatin paradigm of activity towards a more targeted, cancer cell-specific approach, a major trend, are discussed as well. All this, together with the observation that some of the new drugs are organometallic complexes, illustrates that exciting times lie ahead for those interested in ‘metals in medicine’. PMID:18155674

  8. Direct measurement of interaction forces between a platinum dichloride complex and DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Shimada, Shogo; Okada, Tomoko

    2017-06-29

    The interaction forces between a platinum dichloride complex and DNA molecules have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The platinum dichloride complex, di-dimethylsulfoxide-dichloroplatinum (II) (Pt(DMSO)2Cl2), was immobilized on an AFM probe by coordinating the platinum to two amino groups to form a complex similar to Pt(en)Cl2, which is structurally similar to cisplatin. The retraction forces were measured between the platinum complex and DNA molecules immobilized on mica plates using force curve measurements. The histogram of the retraction force for λ-DNA showed several peaks; the unit retraction force was estimated to be 130 pN for a pulling rate of 60 nm/s. The retraction forces were also measured separately for four single-base DNA oligomers (adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine). Retraction forces were frequently observed in the force curves for the DNA oligomers of guanine and adenine. For the guanine DNA oligomer, the most frequent retraction force was slightly lower than but very similar to the retraction force for λ-DNA. A higher retraction force was obtained for the adenine DNA oligomer than for the guanine oligomer. This result is consistent with a higher retraction activation energy of adenine with the Pt complex being than that of guanine because the kinetic rate constant for retraction correlates to exp(FΔx - ΔE) where ΔE is an activation energy, F is an applied force, and Δx is a displacement of distance.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of platinum II, III, and IV pivaloamidine complexes.

    PubMed

    Sinisi, Marilù; Gandin, Valentina; Saltarella, Teresa; Intini, Francesco P; Pacifico, Concetta; Marzano, Christine; Natile, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Imino ligands have proven to be able to activate the trans geometry of platinum(II) complexes towards antitumor activity. These ligands, like aromatic N-donor heterocycles, have a planar shape but, different from the latter, have still an H atom on the coordinating nitrogen which can be involved in H-bond formation. Three classes of imino ligands have been extensively investigated: iminoethers (HN=C(R)OR'), ketimines (HN=CRR'), and amidines (HN=C(R)NR'R″). The promising efficacy of the platinum compounds with amidines (activity comparable to that of cisplatin for cis complexes and much greater than that of transplatin for trans complexes) prompted us to extend the investigation to amidine complexes with a bulkier organic residue (R = t-Bu). The tert-butyl group can confer greater affinity for lipophilic environments, thus potentiating the cellular uptake of the compound. In the present study we describe the synthesis and characterization of pivaloamidine complexes of platinum(II), (cis and trans-[PtCl2(NH3){Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}] and cis and trans-[PtCl2{Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}2]), platinum(III) ([Pt2Cl4{HN=C(t-Bu)NH}2(NH3)2]), and platinum(IV) (trans-[PtCl4(NH3){Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}] and trans-[PtCl4{Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}2]). The cytotoxicity of all new Pt complexes was tested toward a panel of cultured cancer cell lines, including cisplatin and multidrug resistant variants. In addition, cellular uptake and DNA binding, perturbations of cell cycle progression, induction of apoptosis, and p53 activation were investigated for the most promising compound trans-[PtCl2(NH3){Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}]. Remarkably, the latter complex was able to overcome both acquired and intrinsic cisplatin resistance.

  10. Organometallic Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes with New Mechanisms of Action: NCI-60 Screening, Mitochondrial Targeting, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (IrIII) complexes [Ir(Cpx)(XY)Cl]+/0 (Cpx = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cpx ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cpx = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these IrIII complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic IrIII complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands. PMID:23618382

  11. Organometallic Iridium(III) anticancer complexes with new mechanisms of action: NCI-60 screening, mitochondrial targeting, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Qamar, Bushra; Liu, Zhe; Hands-Portman, Ian; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (Ir(III)) complexes [Ir(Cp(x))(XY)Cl](+/0) (Cp(x) = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cp(x) ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cp(x) = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these Ir(III) complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic Ir(III) complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands.

  12. C60 Recognition from Extended Tetrathiafulvalene Bis-acetylide Platinum(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Guillaume; Dron, Paul I; Vincent, Manon; Canevet, David; Allain, Magali; Goeb, Sébastien; Sallé, Marc

    2016-11-18

    The favorable spatial organization imposed by the square planar 4,4'-di(tert-butyl)-2,2'-bipyridine (dbbpy) platinum(II) complex associated with the electronic and shape complementarity of π-extended tetrathiafulvalene derivatives (exTTF) toward fullerenes is usefully exploited to construct molecular tweezers, which display good affinities for C60.

  13. Trigeminal star-like platinum complexes induce cancer cell senescence through quadruplex-mediated telomere dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Mu, Ge; Zhong, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Tian-Peng; Cao, Qian; Ji, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-12-01

    Two trigeminal star-like platinum complexes were synthesized to induce the formation of human telomere G-quadruplex (hTel G4) with extremely high selectivity and affinity. The induced hTel G4 activates strong telomeric DNA damage response (TDDR), resulting in telomere dysfunction and cell senescence.

  14. Palladium, platinum, and rhodium contents of rocks near the lower margin of the Stillwater complex, Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, M.L.; Foose, M.P.; Leung, Mei

    1986-01-01

    Statistical summaries are reported for Pd, Pt and Rh contents of rocks from the lower part of the Stillwater complex, the underlying contact-metamorphosed sediments, and post-metamorphic dykes and sills wholly within the hornfelses. Variability of the data among the rock types is attributed largely to differences in sulphide content. Non-correlation of sulphur with platinum-group assays of many rock types leads to the suggestion that the immiscible sulphide and silicate liquids did not completely equilibrate with respect to platinum-group elements. -G.J.N.

  15. Energetics, conformation, and recognition of DNA duplexes containing a major adduct of an anticancer azolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Mlcouskova, Jarmila; Malina, Jaroslav; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Kasparkova, Jana; Komeda, Seiji; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-10-01

    The design of anticancer metallodrugs is currently focused on platinum complexes which form on DNA major adducts that cannot readily be removed by DNA repair systems. Hence, antitumor azolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(II) complexes, such as [{cis-Pt(NH(3))(2)}(2)(μ-OH)(μ-pyrazolate)](2+) (AMPZ), have been designed and synthesized. These complexes exhibit markedly higher toxic effects in tumor cell lines than mononuclear conventional cisplatin. Biophysical and biochemical aspects of the alterations induced in short DNA duplexes uniquely and site-specifically modified by the major DNA adduct of AMPZ, namely 1,2-GG intrastrand cross-links, were examined. Attention was also paid to conformational distortions induced in DNA by the adducts of AMPZ and cisplatin, associated alterations in the thermodynamic stability of the duplexes, and recognition of these adducts by high-mobility-group (HMG) domain proteins. Chemical probing of DNA conformation, DNA bending studies and translesion synthesis by DNA polymerase across the platinum adduct revealed that the distortion induced in DNA by the major adduct of AMPZ was significantly less pronounced than that induced by similar cross-links from cisplatin. Concomitantly, the cross-link from AMPZ reduced the thermodynamic stability of the modified duplex considerably less. In addition, HMGB1 protein recognizes major DNA adducts of AMPZ markedly less than those of cisplatin. The experimental evidence demonstrates why the major DNA adducts of the new anticancer azolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(II) complexes are poor substrates for DNA repair observed in a previously published report. The relative resistance to DNA repair explains why these platinum complexes show major pharmacological advantages over cisplatin in tumor cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclometalated NCN platinum(II) acetylide complexes - Synthesis, photophysics and OLEDs fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafraniec-Gorol, Grazyna; Slodek, Aneta; Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Grucela, Marzena; Siwy, Mariola; Filapek, Michal; Matussek, Marek; Zych, Dawid; Mackowski, Sebastian; Buczynska, Dorota; Grzelak, Justyna; Erfurt, Karol; Chrobok, Anna; Krompiec, Stanislaw

    2016-12-01

    The novel cyclometalated NCN platinum(II) acetylide complexes were synthesized. As precursors of acetylide ligands were used 9,9-dibutyl-2-ethynylfluorene, 9-butyl-3-ethynylcarbazole, and 5-ethynyl-2,2‧-bithiophene, whereas 1,3-di(2-pirydyl)benzene derivatives were cyclometalating NCN ligands. Variable character of ligands allowed to prepare a series of novel platinum(II) complexes, which showed light emission in a wide wavelength range from 410 to 625 nm. The optical and electrochemical properties of new complexes were examined and compared with theoretical DFT calculations. Complexes containing fluorenyl and carbazyl motif were used as emitters in an organic light-emitting diodes. The applicability of these Pt(II) complexes for electroluminescence was examined.

  17. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Steroidal Thiosemicarbazone Platinum (Pt(II)) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmin; Kong, Erbin; Gan, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiping; Lin, Qifu; Cui, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal compounds exhibit particular physiological activities. In this paper, some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes were synthesized by the condensation of steroidal ketones with thiosemicarbazide using estrone, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 7-deoxycholic acid as starting materials and complexation of steroidal thiosesemicarbazones with Pt(II). The complexes were characterized by IR, NMR, and MS, and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. The results showed that some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes displayed moderate cytotoxicity to HeLa and Bel-7404 cells. Thereinto, complex 6 showed an excellent inhibited selectivity to HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 9.2 μM and SI value of 21.7. At the same time, all compounds were almost inactive to HEK293T (normal kidney epithelial cells). The information obtained from the studies may be useful for the design of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26635511

  18. Characterization of the Sukinda and Nausahi ultramafic complexes, Orissa, India by platinum-group element geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Banerji, P.K.; Haffty, J.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of 20 chromitite, 14 ultramafic and mafic rock, and 9 laterite and soil samples from the Precambrian Sukinda and Nausahi ultramafic complexes, Orissa, India were analyzed for platinum-group elements (PGE). The maximum concentrations are: palladium, 13 parts per billion (ppb); platinum, 120 ppb; rhodium, 21 ppb; iridium, 210 ppb; and ruthenium, 630 ppb. Comparison of chondrite-normalized ratios of PGE for the chromitite samples of lower Proterozoic to Archean age with similar data from Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolite complexes strongly implies that these complexes represent Precambrian analogs of ophiolite complexes. This finding is consistent with the geology and petrology of the Indian complexes and suggests that plate-tectonic and ocean basin developement models probably apply to some parts of Precambrian shield areas. ?? 1985.

  19. Structure Effect of Some New Anticancer Pt(II) Complexes of Amino Acid Derivatives with Small Branched or Linear Hydrocarbon Chains on Their DNA Interaction.

    PubMed

    Kantoury, Mahshid; Eslami Moghadam, Mahboube; Tarlani, Ali Akbar; Divsalar, Adeleh

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structure effect and identify the modes of binding of amino acid-Pt complexes to DNA molecule for cancer treatment. Hence, three novel water soluble platinum complexes, [Pt(phen)(R-gly)]NO3 (where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, R-gly is methyl, amyl, and isopentyl-glycine), have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods, conductivity measurements, and chemical analysis. The anticancer activities of synthesized complexes were investigated against human breast cancer cell line of MDA-MB 231. The 50% cytotoxic concentration values were determined to be 42.5, 58, and 70 μm for methyl-, amyl-, and isopentyl-gly complexes, respectively. These complexes were interacted with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) via positive cooperative interaction. The modes of binding of the complexes to DNA were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism in combination with a molecular docking study. The result indicates that complexes with small or branched hydrocarbon chains can intercalate with DNA. This is while amyl complexes with linear chains interacted additionally via groove binding. The results of the negative value of Gibbs energy for binding of isopentyl-platinum to DNA and those of the molecular docking were coherent. Furthermore, the docking results demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction plays an important role in the complex-DNA interaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Combining imaging and anticancer properties with new heterobimetallic Pt(ii)/M(i) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Quental, Letícia; Raposinho, Paula; Mendes, Filipa; Santos, Isabel; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; Alvarez-Valdes, Amparo; Huang, Huaiyi; Chao, Hui; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gasser, Gilles; Quiroga, Adoración G; Paulo, António

    2017-02-06

    In this article, we report on the development of new metal-based anticancer agents with imaging, chemotherapeutic and photosensitizing properties. Hence, a new heterobimetallic complex (Pt-LQ-Re) was prepared by connecting a non-conventional trans-chlorido Pt(ii) complex to a photoactive Re tricarbonyl unit (LQ-Re), which can be replaced by (99m)Tc to allow for in vivo imaging. We describe the photophysical and biological properties of the new complexes, in the dark and upon light irradiation (DNA interaction, cellular localization and uptake, and cytotoxicity). Furthermore, planar scintigraphic images of mice injected with Pt-LQ-Tc clearly showed that the radioactive compound is taken up by the excretory system organs, namely liver and kidneys, without significant retention in other tissues. All in all, the strategy of conjugating a chemotherapeutic compound with a PDT photosensitizer endows the resulting complexes with an intrinsic cytotoxic activity in the dark, driven by the non-classical platinum core, and a selective activity upon light irradiation. Most importantly, the possibility of integrating a SPECT imaging radiometal ((99m)Tc) in the structure of these new heterobimetallic complexes might allow for in vivo non-invasive visualization of their tumoral accumulation, a crucial issue to predict therapeutic outcomes.

  1. A shotgun approach for the identification of platinum-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Moraleja, Irene; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Mena, M Luz; Linscheid, Michael W; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2015-03-01

    A shotgun approach including peptide-based OFFGEL-isoelectric focusing (IEF) fractionation has been developed with the aim of improving the identification of platinum-binding proteins in biological samples. The method is based on a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) tryptic digestion under denaturing and reducing conditions of cisplatin-, oxaliplatin-, and carboplatin-protein complexes, followed by OFFGEL-IEF separation of the peptides. Any risk of platinum loss is minimized throughout the procedure due to the removal of the reagents used after each stage of the FASP method and the absence of thiol-based reagents in the focusing buffer employed in the IEF separation. The platinum-peptide complexes stability after the FASP digestion and the IEF separation was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). The suitability of peptide-based OFFGEL-IEF fractionation for reducing the sample complexity for further nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis has been demonstrated, allowing the detection of platinum-containing peptides, with significantly lower abundance and ionization efficiency than unmodified peptides. nLC-MS/MS analysis of selected OFFGEL-IEF fractions from tryptic digests with different complexity degrees: standard human serum albumin (HSA), a mixture of five proteins (albumin, transferrin, carbonic anhydrase, myoglobin, and cytochrome-c) and human blood serum allowed the identification of several platinum-peptides from cisplatin-HSA. Cisplatin-binding sites in HSA were elucidated from the MS/MS spectra and assessed considering the protein three-dimensional structure. Most of the potential superficial binding sites available on HSA were identified for all the samples, including a biologically relevant cisplatin-cross-link of two protein domains, demonstrating the capabilities of the methodology.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of cis-Diphenyl Pyridineamine Platinum(II) Complexes as Potential Anti-Breast Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Priscilla; Ramirez, Verenice; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro J.; Villagrán, Dino; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Das, Siddhartha; Nuñez, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    Although cisplatin is considered as an effective anti-cancer agent, it has shown limitations and may produce toxicity in patients. Therefore, we synthesized two cis-dichlorideplatinum(II) compounds (13 and 14) composed of meta- and para-N,N-diphenyl pyridineamine ligands through a reaction of the amine precursors and PtCl2 with respective yields of 16% and 47%. We hypothesized that compounds 13 and 14, with lipophilic ligands, should transport efficiently in cancer cells and demonstrate more effectiveness than cisplatin. When tested for biological activity, compounds 13 and 14 were found to inhibit the growth of MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50s 1 ± 0.4 μM and 1 ± 0.2 μM for 13 and 14, respectively, and IC50 7.5 ± 1.3 μM for compound 13 and 1 ± 0.3 μM for compound 14). Incidentally, these doses were found to be lower than cisplatin doses (IC50 5 ± 0.7 μM for MCF 7 and 10 ± 1.1 μM for MDA-MB-231). Similar to cisplatin, 13 and 14 interacted with DNA and induced apoptosis. However, unlike cisplatin, they blocked the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells suggesting that in addition to apoptotic and DNA-binding capabilities, these compounds are useful in blocking the metastatic migration of breast cancer cells. To delineate the mechanism of action, computer-aided analyses (DFT calculations) were conducted for compound 13. Results indicate that in vivo, the pyridineamine ligands are likely to dissociate from the complex, forming a platinum DNA adduct with anti-proliferative activity. These results suggest that complexes 13 and 14 hold promise as potential anti-cancer agents. PMID:24737042

  3. Nanoformulation improves activity of the (pre)clinical anticancer ruthenium complex KP1019.

    PubMed

    Heffeter, P; Riabtseva, A; Senkiv, Y; Kowol, C R; Körner, W; Jungwith, U; Mitina, N; Keppler, B K; Konstantinova, T; Yanchuk, I; Stoika, R; Zaichenko, A; Berger, W

    2014-05-01

    Ruthenium anticancer drugs belong to the most promising non-platinum anticancer metal compounds in clinical evaluation. However, although the clinical results are promising regarding both activity and very low adverse effects, the clinical application is currently hampered by the limited solubility and stability of the drug in aqueous solution. Here, we present a new nanoparticle formulation based on polymer-based micelles loaded with the anticancer lead ruthenium compound KP1019. Nanoprepared KP1019 was characterised by enhanced stability in aqueous solutions. Moreover, the nanoparticle formulation facilitated cellular accumulation of KP1019 (determined by ICP-MS measurements) resulting in significantly lowered IC50 values. With regard to the mode of action, increased cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase (PI-staining), DNA damage (Comet assay) as well as enhanced levels of apoptotic cell death (caspase 7 and PARP cleavage) were found in HCT116 cells treated with the new nanoformulation of KP1019. Summarizing, we present for the first time evidence that nanoformulation is a feasible strategy for improving the stability as well as activity of experimental anticancer ruthenium compounds.

  4. Photophysical properties and OLED performance of light-emitting platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Kourkoulos, Dimitrios; Karakus, Cüneyt; Hertel, Dirk; Alle, Ronald; Schmeding, Sebastian; Hummel, Johanna; Risch, Nikolaus; Holder, Elisabeth; Meerholz, Klaus

    2013-10-07

    The synthesis, photophysical properties and application as emitters in solution-processed multi-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) of a series of blue-green to red light-emitting phosphorescent platinum(II) complexes are reported. These complexes consist of phenylisoquinoline, substituted phenylpyridines or tetrahydroquinolines as C^N cyclometalating ligands and dipivaloylmethane as an ancillary ligand. Depending on both the structure of the C^N cyclometalating ligands and the dopant concentration in the matrix, these platinum(II) complexes exhibit different aggregation tendencies. This property affects the photoluminescence spectra of the investigated compounds and colour-stability of the fabricated OLEDs. Using the blue-green to yellow-green emitting complexes, the best results were obtained with the 2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline based platinum(II) complex. A maximum luminous efficiency of 4.88 cd A(-1) and a power efficiency of 4.65 lm W(-1), respectively, were achieved. Employing the red emitting phenylisoquinoline based complex as an emitter, colour-stable and efficient (4.71 cd A(-1), 5.12 lm W(-1)) devices were obtained.

  5. Biological Recovery of Platinum Complexes from Diluted Aqueous Streams by Axenic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Synthia; Props, Ruben; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; De Smet, Rebecca; Vanhaecke, Frank; Boon, Nico; Hennebel, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of platinum in high-tech and catalytic applications has led to the production of diverse Pt loaded wastewaters. Effective recovery strategies are needed for the treatment of low concentrated waste streams to prevent pollution and to stimulate recovery of this precious resource. The biological recovery of five common environmental Pt-complexes was studied under acidic conditions; the chloro-complexes PtCl42- and PtCl62-, the amine-complex Pt(NH3)4Cl2 and the pharmaceutical complexes cisplatin and carboplatin. Five bacterial species were screened on their platinum recovery potential; the Gram-negative species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, Geobacter metallireducens, and Pseudomonas stutzeri, and the Gram-positive species Bacillus toyonensis. Overall, PtCl42- and PtCl62- were completely recovered by all bacterial species while only S. oneidensis and C. metallidurans were able to recover cisplatin quantitatively (99%), all in the presence of H2 as electron donor at pH 2. Carboplatin was only partly recovered (max. 25% at pH 7), whereas no recovery was observed in the case of the Pt-tetraamine complex. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of both intra- and extracellular platinum particles. Flow cytometry based microbial viability assessment demonstrated the decrease in number of intact bacterial cells during platinum reduction and indicated C. metallidurans to be the most resistant species. This study showed the effective and complete biological recovery of three common Pt-complexes, and estimated the fate and transport of the Pt-complexes in wastewater treatment plants and the natural environment. PMID:28046131

  6. Mono- and Dinuclear Phosphorescent Rhenium(I) Complexes: Impact of Subcellular Localization on Anticancer Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Rong; Tan, Cai-Ping; Chen, Mu-He; Hao, Liang; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-06-01

    Elucidation of relationship among chemical structure, cellular uptake, localization, and biological activity of anticancer metal complexes is important for the understanding of their mechanisms of action. Organometallic rhenium(I) tricarbonyl compounds have emerged as potential multifunctional anticancer drug candidates that can integrate therapeutic and imaging capabilities in a single molecule. Herein, two mononuclear phosphorescent rhenium(I) complexes (Re1 and Re2), along with their corresponding dinuclear complexes (Re3 and Re4), were designed and synthesized as potent anticancer agents. The subcellular accumulation of Re1-Re4 was conveniently analyzed by confocal microscopy in situ in live cells by utilizing their intrinsic phosphorescence. We found that increased lipophilicity of the bidentate ligands could enhance their cellular uptake, leading to improved anticancer efficacy. The dinuclear complexes were more potent than the mononuclear counterparts. The molecular anticancer mechanisms of action evoked by Re3 and Re4 were explored in detail. Re3 with a lower lipophilicity localizes to lysosomes and induces caspase-independent apoptosis, whereas Re4 with higher lipophilicity specially accumulates in mitochondria and induces caspase-independent paraptosis in cancer cells. Our study demonstrates that subcellular localization is crucial for the anticancer mechanisms of these phosphorescent rhenium(I) complexes.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of novel platinum containing anticancer agent BP‐C1 studied in rabbits using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Navolotskii, Denis V.; Ivanenko, Natalya B.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Panchenko, Andrey V.

    2015-01-01

    A method of platinum quantification in whole blood samples after microwave digestion using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed. The following analytical figures of merit have been established: limit of detection 1.1 µg/L for blood samples, dynamic range 3.6–200 µg/L, intra‐day precision (relative standard deviation, n = 9) did not exceed 5%. Spiked samples were analyzed for method validation. The method was used for pharmacokinetics studies of a novel anti‐cancer drug BP‐С1, a complex of cis‐configured platinum and benzene‐poly‐carboxylic acids. Main pharmacokinetic parameters (area under curve, maximum concentration, clearance, half‐life times for α‐ and β‐phase) were estimated for two dosage forms of BP‐C1 0.05 and 0.125 mass %. Pharmacokinetic curves were assessed for single and course administration. Studies were performed using rabbits (n = 6) as a model. BP‐C1 was injected intramuscularly. The study established dose proportionality of the tested dosage forms and suggested clinical dosing schedule: 5 days of injections followed by 2 days’ break. Platinum tissue distribution was studied in tissue samples collected 20 days after the last injection. Predominant platinum accumulation was observed in kidneys, liver, and muscles near injection site. ‘Slow’ phase of platinum excretion kinetics may be related to the muscles at the injection site. © 2015 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26061351

  8. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A 1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer.

  9. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer. PMID:23580233

  10. Cellular localization of iron(II) polypyridyl complexes determines their anticancer action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Luo, Zuandi; Zhao, Zhennan; Xie, Lina; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-12-01

    Elucidation of relationship among cellular uptake, localization and biological activities of metal complexes could make great breakthrough in the understanding of their action mechanisms and provide useful information for rational design of metal-based anticancer drugs. Iron(II) complexes have emerged as potential anticancer drug candidates with application potential in cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, a series of iron(II) polypyridyl complexes with different lipophilicity were rationally designed, synthesized and identified as potent anticancer agents. The relationship between the cellular localization and molecular action mechanisms of the complexes was also elucidated. The results showed that, the increase in planarity of the Fe(II) polypyridyl complexes enhanced their lipophilicity and cellular uptake, leading to improved anticancer efficacy. The hydrophilic Fe(II) complex entered cancer cells through transferring receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis, and translocated to cell nucleus, where they induced S phase cell cycle arrest through triggering DNA damage-mediated p53 pathway. Interestingly, the hydrophobic Fe(II) complexes displayed higher anticancer efficacy than the hydrophilic ones, but shared the same uptake pathway (TfR-mediated endocytosis) in cancer cells. They accumulated and localized in cell cytoplasm, and induced G0/G1 cells cycle arrest through regulation of AKT pathway and activation of downstream effector proteins. These results support that the cellular localization of Fe(II) complexes regulated by their lipophilicity could affect the anticancer efficacy and action mechanisms. Taken together, this study may enhance our understanding on the rational design of the next-generation anticancer metal complexes.

  11. Alteration of detrital platinum-group-minerals (PGM) in rivers of the Eastern Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, F.; Oberthür, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Bushveld Complex, South Africa, is the world´s largest resource and leading producer of platinum-group elements (PGE). Current mines work the Merensky Reef, the UG-2 chromitite and the Platreef in the Critical Zone; limited platinum production from ultramafic pipes has long ceased. Although the initial discovery of platinum in the Bushveld Complex in 1924 was made by panning in a river bed, exploitation of placer PGM was never economic. More than 6000 PGM grains were separated from stream sediments of rivers draining the Critical Zone of the Eastern Bushveld Complex. The PGM assemblage is composed of grains of Pt-Fe alloy (73.2 %), braggite-cooperite (14.2 %), sperrylite (10.2 %), and a variety of rarer PGM including laurite, Rh-sulfides, Pd-Sb-As-Te phases and Ru-rich alloys. Unaltered PGM nuggets occur in about equal proportions as mono- or polyphase grains. Pt-Fe alloy grains are up to 1.6 mm in diameter (usually 100-200 micrometer). More than 78% of the Pt-Fe grains have compositions ranging from [Pt3Fe] to [Pt1.5Fe] (ferroan platinum). The remaining Pt-Fe alloys are solid solutions of tetraferroplatinum [PtFe], ferronickelplatinum [Pt2FeNi] and tulameenite [Pt2FeCu]. Almost 75 % of the [PtFe] grains and 43 % of the ferroan platinum grains are altered. Ferroan platinum is frequently mantled by [Pt(Fe,Cu,Ni)], and many of these rims have an additional outermost rim close to [Ni2FePt] in composition. In addition, Pd-Pb and Pd-Hg phases are also present in the alteration rims. Pt-rich or Ru-rich oxides represent further oxidation products of primary PGM. More than 50 % of the investigated Pt-Pd sulfides (braggite-cooperite) are severely corroded and rimmed by a porous phase of native Pt, which occasionally has distinct contents of Pd. In contrast, most of the sperrylite grains are unaltered. In summary, the mineralogical composition of placer PGM from the Eastern Bushveld does not unequivocally indicate a single source of PGM. Contributions from the Merensky

  12. Synthesis of four binuclear copper(II) complexes: Structure, anticancer properties and anticancer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinxu; Liang, Shichu; Gou, Yi; Zhang, Zhenlei; Zhou, Zuping; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) compounds are a promising candidate for next generation metal anticancer drugs and have been extensively studied. Therefore, four binuclear copper(II) compounds derived from Schiff base thiosemicarbazones (L1-L4), namely [CuCl(L1)]2 (C1), [CuNO3(L2)]2 (C2), [Cu(NCS) (L3)]2 (C3) and [Cu(CH3COO) (L4)]2 (C4) were synthesized and characterized. Four of these compounds showed very high cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines in vitro. These Cu(II) compounds strongly promoted the apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), change in mitochondrial membrane potential and western blot analysis revealed that Cu compounds could induce cancer cell apoptosis through the intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway accompanied by the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  13. Photophysical properties and OLED applications of phosphorescent platinum(II) Schiff base complexes.

    PubMed

    Che, Chi-Ming; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Lai, Siu-Wai; Rausch, Andreas F; Finkenzeller, Walter J; Zhu, Nianyong; Yersin, Hartmut

    2010-01-04

    The syntheses, crystal structures, and detailed investigations of the photophysical properties of phosphorescent platinum(II) Schiff base complexes are presented. All of these complexes exhibit intense absorption bands with lambda(max) in the range 417-546 nm, which are assigned to states of metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((1)MLCT) (1)[Pt(5d)-->pi*(Schiff base)] character mixed with (1)[lone pair(phenoxide)-->pi*(imine)] charge-transfer character. The platinum(II) Schiff base complexes are thermally stable, with decomposition temperatures up to 495 degrees C, and show emission lambda(max) at 541-649 nm in acetonitrile, with emission quantum yields up to 0.27. Measurements of the emission decay times in the temperature range from 130 to 1.5 K give total zero-field splitting parameters of the emitting triplet state of 14-28 cm(-1). High-performance yellow to red organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using these platinum(II) Schiff base complexes have been fabricated with the best efficiency up to 31 cd A(-1) and a device lifetime up to 77 000 h at 500 cd m(-2).

  14. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  15. Correction: Theoretical study and design of multifunctional phosphorescent platinum(ii) complexes containing triarylboron moieties for efficient OLED emitters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Shan, Guo-Gang; Li, Hai-Bin; Wu, Shui-Xing; Ren, Xin-Yao; Geng, Yun; Su, Zhong-Min

    2015-02-14

    Correction for 'Theoretical study and design of multifunctional phosphorescent platinum(ii) complexes containing triarylboron moieties for efficient OLED emitters' by Yong Wu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: .

  16. A new member of the oxygen-photosensitizers family: a water-soluble polymer binding a platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Loredana; Puoci, Francesco; Cirillo, Giuseppe; La Deda, Massimo

    2012-08-28

    The grafting of a 2-picolylamine Pt(II) complex into polymethacrylic acid has been successfully performed. The obtained polymer is water soluble, and it represents the first example of a platinum-containing polymer able to photogenerate singlet oxygen.

  17. Developing strongly luminescent platinum(IV) complexes: facile synthesis of bis-cyclometalated neutral emitters.

    PubMed

    Juliá, Fabio; Bautista, Delia; González-Herrero, Pablo

    2016-01-28

    A straightforward, one-pot procedure has been developed for the synthesis of bis-cyclometalated chloro(methyl)platinum(IV) complexes with a wide variety of heteroaromatic ligands of the 2-arylpyridine type. The new compounds exhibit phosphorescent emissions in the blue to orange colour range and represent the most efficient Pt(IV) emitters reported to date, with quantum yields up to 0.81 in fluid solutions at room temperature.

  18. Cyclometalated complexes of platinum metals - the new luminescent sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, M. V.; Katlenok, E. A.; Khakhalina, M. S.; Puzyk, M. V.; Balashev, K. P.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the environment on the cyclometalated Pt(II), Pd(II), Ir(III) complexes' optical properties in the presence of various organic and inorganic compounds in solution and the gas phase is studied. The feasibility of complexes' using as optical sensors for molecular oxygen, halides ions, hydrogen and Hg(II) cations in the liquid phase, as well as for water and some organic solvents' vapor in the immobilized state in the MF-4SK membrane.

  19. Design, synthesis, characterisation and chemical reactivity of mixed-ligand platinum(II) oxadiazoline complexes with potential cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gabriele; Marchant, Anthony; Sayer, James

    2010-09-07

    A series of mixed ligand platinum(II) oxadiazoline complexes bearing 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane (7-NO(2)TAA) as a labile and reactive nitrogen ligand has been synthesised from easily accessible starting materials. [2+3] cycloaddition of nitrones R(1)R(2)C-N(+)(Me)O(-) to only one of the nitrile ligands in trans-[PtX(2)(PhCN)(2)] (X = Cl, Br) results in the selective formation of mono-oxadiazoline complexes trans-[PtX(2)(PhCN){N=C(Ph)-O-N(Me)-CR(1)R(2)}] from which the remaining nitrile can be replaced by 7-NO(2)TAA. The resulting complexes trans-[PtX(2)(7-NO(2)TAA) {N=C(Ph)-O-N(Me)-CR(1)R(2)}] and their precursors were characterised by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.The suitability of the target complexes as anticancer agents was extrapolated from their general chemical reactivity. They are stable in DMSO, but react with thiols and undergo aquation of a chloro ligand. In the absence of a competing ligand, the coordinated 7-NO(2)TAA ligand slowly hydrolyses in an aqueous medium under release of formaldehyde, and this could induce bioactivity independent of the one typically found with platinum compounds. With nitrogen heterocycles such as pyridine a slow exchange of the 7-NO(2)TAA ligand occurs. A combined DFT/AIM study confirms the reaction observed in the experiment and predicts that other nitrogen heterocycles such as DNA nucleobases should react in the same way. Moreover, the 7-NO(2)TAA should be even more labile in an aqueous medium where protonation of the remaining amines can occur. A PM6 molecular modelling study suggests that the PtCl(oxadiazoline) fragment formed after release of one chloro and the labile 7-NO(2)TAA ligand fits well into the DNA groove and is able to form d(GpG) intrastrand crosslinks similar to the ones observed with cisplatin.

  20. Luminescent Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes with π-Bonded Catecholate Organometallic Ligands.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Jamal; Loch, Aruny; Chamoreau, Lise-Marie; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Bandini, Elisa; Barbieri, Andrea; Amouri, Hani

    2017-02-20

    A series of cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes of the type [(ppy)Pt(LM)](n+) (n = 0, 1) with π-bonded catecholates acting as organometallic ligands (LM) have been prepared and characterized by analytical techniques. In addition, the structures of two complexes of the series were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The packing shows the formation of a 1D supramolecular assembly generated by dPt-πCp* interactions among individual units. All complexes are luminescent in the solid state and in solution media. The results of photophysics have been rationalized by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT investigations.

  1. Reactions of Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes with Peptides.

    PubMed

    Rajković, Snežana; Živković, Marija D; Djuran, Miloš I

    2016-01-01

    The present review article highlights recent findings in the reactions between different dinuclear Pt(II) complexes with peptides containing cysteine, methionine and histidine residues. The reactions of {trans-[Pt(NH3)2Cl]2(μ-X)}(2+) and {trans-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)]2(μ-X)}(4+) type complexes with different bridging ligands (X) (X = pyrazine, 4,4'-bipyridyl and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) with the tripeptide glutathione proceeded in two steps. In the first step, one water or chlorido ligand of the dinuclear Pt(II) complex was substituted by the sulfhydryl group of GSH, while in the second step, the remaining water or chlorido ligand from the dinuclear Pt(II)-peptide complex was replaced by the second molecule of glutathione, finally leading to the formation of the {trans-[Pt(NH3)2(GS)]2(μ-X)}(2+) complex. It was shown that the bridging ligand had an important influence on the reactivity of these complexes with glutathione. No hydrolytic cleavage of any amide bond was observed in the reactions between these complexes and glutathione. However, in reactions performed in acidic media (2.0 < pH < 2.5) between dinuclear Pt(II) complexes with the general formulae {[Pt(L)(H2O)]2(μ-diazine)}(4+) (L is different bidentate coordinated diamine ligands and diazine is a pyrazine- or pyridazine-bridging ligand) and Nacetylated peptides containing L-methionine and L-histidine amino acids in the side chains (Ac-L-Met-Gly, Ac-L-His-Gly and Ac-L-Met-Gly-L-His-GlyNH2), regioselective cleavage of these peptides occurred. The mechanism of these hydrolytic reactions was discussed in relation to the structure of the diazine-bridged Pt(II) complex and the investigated peptides. A systematic summary of these results could contribute to the future design of new dinuclear Pt(II) complexes as potential reagents for regioselective cleavage of peptides and proteins.

  2. Efficient Red-Emitting Platinum Complex with Long Operational Stability.

    PubMed

    Fleetham, Tyler; Li, Guijie; Li, Jian

    2015-08-05

    A tetradentate cyclometalated Pt(II) complex, PtN3N-ptb, was developed as an emissive dopant for stable and efficient red phosphorescent OLEDs. Devices employing PtN3N-ptb in electrochemically stable device architectures achieved long operational lifetimes with estimated LT97, of over 600 h at luminances of 1000 cd/m(2). Such long operational lifetimes were achieved utilizing only literature reported host, transporting and blocking materials with known molecular structures. Additionally, a thorough study of the effects of various host and transport materials on the efficiency, turn on voltage, and stability of the devices was carried out. Ultimately, maximum forward viewing EQEs as high as 21.5% were achieved, demonstrating that Pt(II) complexes can act as stable and efficient dopants with operational lifetimes comparable or superior to those of the best literature-reported Ir(III) complexes.

  3. Computational studies of the electronic, conductivities, and spectroscopic properties of hydrolysed Ru(II) anticancer complexes.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A

    2013-11-01

    The mechanism of activation of metal-based anticancer agents was reported to be through hydrolysis. In this study, computational method was used to gain insight to the correlation between the chemistry of the hydrolysis and the anticancer activities of selected Ru(II)-based complexes. Interestingly, we observed that the mechanism of activation by hydrolysis and their consequential anticancer activities is associated with favourable thermodynamic changes, higher hyperpolarizability (β), lower band-gap and higher first-order net current. The Fermi contact (FC) and spin dipole (SD) are found to be the two most significant Ramsey terms that determine the spin-spin couplings (J(HZ)) of most of the existing bonds in the complexes. Many of the computed properties give insights into the change in the chemistry of the complexes due to hydrolysis. Besides strong correlations of the computed properties to the anticancer activities of the complexes, using the quantum theory of atoms in a molecule (QTAIM) to analyse the spectroscopic properties shows a stronger correlation between the spectroscopic properties of Ru atom to the reported anticancer activities than the sum over of the spectroscopic properties of all atoms in the complexes.

  4. Computational studies of the electronic, conductivities, and spectroscopic properties of hydrolysed Ru(II) anticancer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, Adebayo A.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2013-11-01

    The mechanism of activation of metal-based anticancer agents was reported to be through hydrolysis. In this study, computational method was used to gain insight to the correlation between the chemistry of the hydrolysis and the anticancer activities of selected Ru(II)-based complexes. Interestingly, we observed that the mechanism of activation by hydrolysis and their consequential anticancer activities is associated with favourable thermodynamic changes, higher hyperpolarizability (β), lower band-gap and higher first-order net current. The Fermi contact (FC) and spin dipole (SD) are found to be the two most significant Ramsey terms that determine the spin-spin couplings (J(HZ)) of most of the existing bonds in the complexes. Many of the computed properties give insights into the change in the chemistry of the complexes due to hydrolysis. Besides strong correlations of the computed properties to the anticancer activities of the complexes, using the quantum theory of atoms in a molecule (QTAIM) to analyse the spectroscopic properties shows a stronger correlation between the spectroscopic properties of Ru atom to the reported anticancer activities than the sum over of the spectroscopic properties of all atoms in the complexes.

  5. Understanding the two-photon absorption spectrum of PE2 platinum acetylide complex.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Marcelo G; De Boni, Leonardo; Cooper, Thomas M; Mendonca, Cleber R

    2014-07-31

    Herein, we report on the two-absorption cross-section spectrum of trans-Pt(PBu3)2 (C≡C-C6H4-C≡C-C6H5)2 (PE2) platinum acetylide complex employing the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique. The PE2 complex can be visualized as two branches containing two phenylacetylene units, each one linked by a platinum center, completely transparent in the visible region. Because of this structure, large delocalization of π-electrons allied to the strong intramolecular interaction between the branches is expected. The 2PA absorption spectrum was measured using the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with low repetition rate (1 kHz), in order to obtain the 2PA spectrum without excited-state contributions. Our results reveal that PE2 in dichloromethane solution presents two 2PA allowed bands located at 570 and 710 nm, with cross section of about 320 and 45 GM, respectively. The first one is related to the strong intramolecular interaction between the molecule's branches due to the presence of platinum atom, while the second one is associated with the breaking of symmetry of the chromophore in solution due, most probably to a large twisting angle of the ligand's phenyl rings relative to the Pt core.

  6. The effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the fluorescence of a bimetallic platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Jiu; Northrop, Brian H; Han, Ke-Li; Stang, Peter J

    2010-09-02

    The bimetallic platinum complexes are known as unique building blocks and arewidely utilized in the coordination-driven self-assembly of functionalized supramolecular metallacycles. Hence, photophysical study of the bimetallic platinum complexes will be very helpful for the understanding on the optical properties and further applications of coordination-driven self-assembled supramolecular metallacycles. Herein, we report steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic experiments as well as quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding effects on the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence of a bimetallic platinum compound 4,4'-bis(trans-Pt(PEt(3))(2)OTf)benzophenone 3 in solution. We demonstrated that the fluorescent state of compound 3 can be assigned as a metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) state. Moreover, it was observed that the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds can effectively lengthen the fluorescence lifetime of 3 in alcoholic solvents compared with that in hexane solvent. At the same time, the electronically excited states of 3 in solution are definitely changed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. As a consequence, we propose a new fluorescence modulation mechanism by hydrogen bonding to explain different fluorescence emissions of 3 in hydrogen-bonding solvents and nonhydrogen-bonding solvents.

  7. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of new platinum(IV) complexes of mixed carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Song, Rita; Park, Sun Young; Kim, Yeong Sang; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Sung Jin; Ahn, Byung Tae; Sohn, Youn Soo

    2003-08-01

    In order to develop new antitumor platinum(IV) complexes with highly tuned lipophilicity, a series of (diamine)Pt(IV) complexes of the formula [Pt(IV)(dach)L(3)L'] or [Pt(IV)(dach)L(2)L"(2)] (dach=trans-(+/-)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; L=acetato, propionato; L'=acetato, propionato, valerato or pivalato; L"=trifluoroacetato) have been synthesized by electrophilic substitution of the tris(carboxylato)hydroxoplatinum(IV) complexes, [Pt(IV)(dach)L(3)OH] (L=acetato, propionato), with various carboxylic anhydrides such as acetic, trifluoroacetic, pivalic and valeric anhydrides. The present platinum(IV) complexes were fully characterized by means of elemental analyses, 1H NMR, mass and IR spectroscopies. The complexes 8 and 10, satisfying the appropriate range of lipophilicity (logP=0.18-1.54), exhibited high activity (ED(50), 5.1 and 1.3 microM, respectively) compared with other complexes, which implies that the lipophilicity is an important factor for the antitumor activity of this series of complexes.

  8. Inhibition of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by novel platinum complexes with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Palmer, Jay; Kay, Heidi; Stanko, Joseph; Mora, Linda B; Sebti, Said; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2004-12-01

    DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3 activity is frequently up-regulated in many human tumors. Various lines of evidence have established a causal role for aberrant Stat3 activity in malignant transformation and provided validation for its targeting in the development of small-molecule inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. We report here that platinum-containing compounds disrupt Stat3 signaling and suppress its biological functions. The novel platinum (IV) compounds, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride block Stat3 activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. In malignant cells that harbor constitutively activated Stat3, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a manner that reflects the attenuation of persistent Stat3 activity. By contrast, cells that do not contain persistent Stat3 activity are marginally affected or are not affected by these compounds. Moreover, CPA-7 induces the regression of mouse CT26 colon tumor, which correlates with the abrogation of persistent Stat3 activity in tumors. Thus, the modulation of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as Stat3, may be one of the key molecular mechanisms for the antitumor effects of platinum (IV)-containing complexes.

  9. Electrochemical Properties of Palladium and Platinum Phosphine Complexes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    19 .3 Molecular orbital Energy Diagram for Square Planar Pd-Phosphine Complexes.......................... 20 4 Cyclic Voltammogram...hydrogen, and therefore cause reaction 6 and 7 to be more difficult than reaction 1. Similar results have been observed with lead, indium, cadmium ... voltammetry : trans-PdIIL 2x2 , where L = PPh 3, PBu 3, PCy3, NHMe 2 (Ph - phenyl, Bu = n-butyl, Cy = cyclohexyl, Me methyl) and X = Cl or I; cis-PdII(LL)X2

  10. Novel dinuclear platinum(II) complexes containing mixed nitrogen-sulfur donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Hochreuther, Stephanie; Puchta, Ralph; van Eldik, Rudi

    2011-12-19

    A series of novel dinuclear platinum(II) complexes were synthesized containing a mixed nitrogen-sulfur donor bidentate chelate system in which the two platinum centers are connected by an aliphatic chain of variable length. The bidentate chelating ligands were selected to stabilize the complex toward decomposition. The pK(a) values and reactivity of the four synthesized complexes, namely, [Pt(2)(S(1),S(4)-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4-butanedithioether)(OH(2))(4)](4+) (4NSpy), [Pt(2)(S(1),S(6)-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,6-hexanedithioether)(OH(2))(4)](4+) (6NSpy), [Pt(2)(S(1),S(8)-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,8-octanedithioether)(OH(2))(4)](4+) (8NSpy), and [Pt(2)(S(1),S(10)-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,10-decanedithioether)(OH(2))(4)](4+) (10NSpy), were investigated. This system is of special interest because only little is known about the substitution behavior of dinuclear platinum complexes that contain a bidentate chelate that forms part of the aliphatic bridging ligand. Moreover, the ligands as well as the dinuclear complexes were examined in terms of their cytotoxic activity, and the 10NSpy complex was found to be active. Spectrophotometric acid-base titrations were performed to determine the pK(a) values of all the coordinated water molecules. The substitution of coordinated water by thiourea was studied under pseudo-first-order conditions as a function of nucleophile concentration, temperature, and pressure, using stopped-flow techniques and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results for the dinuclear complexes were compared to those for the corresponding mononuclear reference complex [Pt(methylthiomethylpyridine)(OH(2))(2)](2+) (Pt(mtp)), by which the effect of the increasing aliphatic chain length of the bridged complexes could be investigated. The results indicate that there is a clear interaction between the two platinum centers, which becomes weaker as the chain length between the metal centers increases. Furthermore, differences and similarities of the N,S-system were compared to

  11. Surfactant gel adsorption of platinum(II), (IV) and palladium(II) as chloro-complexes and kinetic separation of palladium from platinum using EDTA.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiko; Hiraiwa, Kaoru; Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Isamu; Tagashira, Shoji

    2007-09-01

    A micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) can separate into two phases due to a temperature change or to the addition of salts. Platinum(II), (IV) and palladium(II) reacted with chloride ions to form stable anionic complexes of PtCl4(2-), PtCl6(2-) and PdCl4(2-), respectively, and were adsorbed onto the CPC gel phase. The CPC phase plays the role of an ion-exchange adsorbent for the anionic complexes. By such a procedure, the precious metals of platinum and palladium could be separated from base metals such as copper, zinc and iron. The kinetic separation was performed by a ligand exchange reaction of the palladium(II) chloro-complex with EDTA at 60 degrees C. The anionic palladium(II)-EDTA complex could not bind the opposite charged CP+ and was desorbed from the CPC phase. In the aqueous phase, the recovery of palladium(II) by the double-desorption was 101.1 +/- 1.2%. The platinum(II) and (IV) chloro-complexes were stable for at least 30 min and remained in the CPC phase.

  12. Platinum-containing compound platinum pyrithione is stronger and safer than cisplatin in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Yang, Changshan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; He, Zhimin; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2017-01-01

    DNA is the well-known molecular target of current platinum-based anticancer drugs; consequently, their clinical use is severely restricted by their systemic toxicities and drug resistance originating from non-selective DNA damage. Various strategies have been developed to circumvent the shortcomings of platinum-based chemotherapy but the inherent problem remains unsolved. Here we report that platinum pyrithione (PtPT), a chemically well-characterized synthetic complex of platinum, inhibits proteasome function and thereby exhibits greater and more selective cytotoxicity to multiple cancer cells than cisplatin, without showing discernible DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, unlike the classical proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/Velcade which inhibits the proteasome via blocking the peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, PtPT primarily deactivates 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases USP14 and UCHL5. Furthermore, PtPT can selectively induce cytotoxicity and proteasome inhibition in cancer cells from leukemia patients but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humans. In nude mice, PtPT also remarkably inhibited tumor xenograft growth, without showing the adverse effects that were induced by cisplatin. Hence, we have discovered a new platinum-based anti-tumor agent PtPT which targets 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases rather than DNA in the cell and thereby exerts safer and more potent anti-tumor effects, identifying a highly translatable new platinum-based anti-cancer strategy. PMID:27381943

  13. Equilibria, Kinetics, and Mechanism for Rapid Substitution Reactions Trans to Triphenylsilyl in Platinum(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ola F.; Elding, Lars I.

    1997-12-17

    Fast substitution of chloride for bromide and iodide trans to triphenylsilyl in trans-PtCl(SiPh(3))(PMe(2)Ph)(2) has been studied by stopped-flow spectrophotometry in acetonitrile solution. Substitution is reversible with an observable solvent path via the solvento complex trans-[Pt(SiPh(3))(MeCN)(PMe(2)Ph)(2)](+), which has also been synthesized and characterized in solution. Rate constants for the forward and reverse direct substitution pathways are 2900 +/- 100 and 7500 +/- 300 for bromide and 14300 +/- 1100 and 81000 +/- 11000 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) for iodide as nucleophile. The solvento complex reacts ca. 10(3) times faster with iodide than the parent chloride complex, and its reactivity is some 2 orders of magnitude higher than the most reactive solvento species of platinum(II) studied so far. Halide substitution occurs with negative volumes and entropies of activation, but the nucleophilic discrimination is low, and the leaving ligand plays the most important role in the activation process, indicating an I(d) mechanism. Triphenylsilyl has a very high trans effect, comparable to that of ethene and methylisocyanide, due to extensive bond-weakening in the ground state, probably enforced by pi-acception in the transition state. Due to electronic and solvational effects the platinum(II) silyl moiety acts as a hard or borderline metal center in acetonitrile, the thermodynamic stability sequence of its halide complexes being Cl > Br > I, i.e. the reverse of what is usually observed for platinum(II) complexes.

  14. Zinc(II), ruthenium(II), rhodium(III), palladium(II), silver(I), platinum(II) and MoO22+ complexes of 2-(2‧-hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole as simple or primary ligand and 2,2‧-bipyridyl, 9,10-phenanthroline or triphenylphosphine as secondary ligands: Structure and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Asmy, Hala A.; Butler, Ian S.; Mouhri, Zhor S.; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J.; Emmam, Mohamed S.; Mostafa, Sahar I.

    2014-02-01

    New complexes of 2-(2‧-hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole (Hhmbt), [Zn(hmbt)2(H2O)2], [Zn(hmbt)(OAc)(H2O)2], [Pd(hmbt)(H2O)Cl], [Pd(hmbt)2], [M(PPh3)(hmbt)Cl], [M(L)(hmbt)]Cl (M(II) = Pd, Pt; L = bpy, phen), [Ag2(hmbt)2], [Ag(phen)(hmbt)], [Ag(PPh3)(hmbt)], [Rh(hmbt)2(H2O)2]Cl, [Ru(hmbt)2(H2O)2], [Ru(PPh3)(hmbt)2Cl] and cis-[MoO2(hmbt)2] have been synthesized. They have been structurally and spectroscopically characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 31P), UV-vis. and ESI-mass spectroscopy, thermal and molar conductivity measurements. 2-(2‧-Hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole behaves as a mononegative bidentate through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen and imine nitrogen atoms. The reported complexes have been tested against human breast cancer (MDA-MB231) and human ovarian cancer (OVCAR-8) cell lines. The complexes, [Ag(hmpbt)(PPh3)], [Rh(hmbt)2(H2O)2]Cl, [Pt(phen)(hmbt)]Cl and [Pd(phen)(hmbt)]Cl exhibit the highest growth inhibitory activity with mean IC50 values 1.37, 7.52, 5.24 and 4.85 μM (MDA-MB231) and 1.75, 8.50, 3.00 and 2.99 μM (OVACAR-8), respectively.

  15. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and antitumor activity of platinum(II) complexes of cyclopentanecarboxylic acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Kushev, D; Gorneva, G; Taxirov, S; Spassovska, N; Grancharov, K

    1999-11-01

    New platinum(II) complexes of cyclopentanecarboxylic acid hydrazide (cpcah) were prepared, characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra, and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity in Friend leukemia (FL) and A2780 ovarian tumor cells, induction of apoptosis in FL cells, as well as for in vivo antitumor activity toward murine L1210 leukemia and Lewis lung carcinoma. The spectral analyses indicated a cis-square planar structure of the complexes with hydrazide ligand coordinated via the NH2 group. The compounds exerted significantly lower in vitro and in vivo toxicities as compared with those of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), DDP). On the other hand, the complex [Pt(NH3)(cpcah)Cl2] exhibited antitumor activity against L1210 leukemia in mice comparable to that of cisplatin, resulting at a dose of 42 mg/kg (administered 3 times) in a T/C (mean survival time) of 280%. This compound displayed an in vitro macromolecular synthesis inhibition pattern similar to that of DDP. At concentrations close to the cytostatic ones (10-20 microM) this complex, as well as DDP, was able to induce apoptosis in FL cells as shown by neutral comet assay and morphological analysis. We concluded that there is a correlation between the ability of platinum complexes to induce apoptosis and their antitumor activity.

  16. Reversible mechanochromic luminescence at room temperature in cationic platinum(II) terpyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Han, Ali; Du, Pingwu; Sun, Zijun; Wu, Haotian; Jia, Hongxing; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Zhenning; Cao, Rui; Eisenberg, Richard

    2014-04-07

    Reversible mechanochromic luminescence in cationic platinum(II) terpyridyl complexes is described. The complexes [Pt(Nttpy)Cl]X2 (Nttpy = 4'-(p-nicotinamide-N-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, X = PF6 (1), SbF6 (2), Cl (3), ClO4 (4), OTf (5), BF4 (6)) exhibit different colors under ambient light in the solid state, going from red to orange to yellow. All of these complexes are brightly luminescent at both room temperature and 77 K. Upon gentle grinding, the yellow complexes (4-6) turn orange and exhibit bright red luminescence. The red luminescence can be changed back to yellow by the addition of a few drops of acetonitrile to the sample. Crystallographic studies of the yellow and red forms of complex 5 suggest that the mechanochromic response is likely the result of a change in intermolecular Pt···Pt distances upon grinding.

  17. Harnessing chemoselective imine ligation for tethering bioactive molecules to platinum(IV) prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Lau, Jia Yi; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-05-28

    Platinum(II) anticancer drugs are among the most effective and often used chemotherapeutic drugs. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in exploiting inert platinum(IV) scaffolds as a prodrug strategy to mitigate the limitations of platinum(II) anticancer complexes. In this prodrug strategy, the axial ligands are released concomitantly upon intracellular reduction to the active platinum(II) congener, offering the possibility of conjugating bioactive co-drugs which may synergistically enhance cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Existing techniques of tethering bioactive molecules to the axial positions of platinum(IV) prodrugs suffer from limited scope, poor yields and low reliability. This report explores the applications of current chemoselective ligation chemistries to platinum(IV) anticancer complexes with the aim of addressing the aforementioned limitations. Here, we describe the synthesis of a platinum(IV) complex bearing an aromatic aldehyde functionality and explored the scope of imine ligation with various hydrazide and aminooxy functionalized substrates. As a proof of concept, we tethered a six sequence long peptide mimetic (AMVSEF) of the anti-inflammatory protein, ANXA1.

  18. Synthesis of diorganoplatinum(IV) complexes by the Ssbnd S bond cleavage with platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroomand Hosseini, Fatemeh; Rashidi, Mehdi; Nabavizadeh, S. Masoud

    2016-12-01

    Reaction of [PtR2(NN)] (R = Me, p-MeC6H4 or p-MeOC6H4; NN = 2,2‧-bipyridine, 4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) with MeSSMe gives the platinum(IV) complexes cis,trans-[PtR2(SMe)2(NN)]. They are characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The geometries and the nature of the frontier molecular orbitals of Pt(IV) complexes containing Ptsbnd S bonds are studied by means of the density functional theory.

  19. Antitumor effect of Pt(II) amine phosphonate complexes on sarcoma sa-180 in mice. Crystal structure of cis-dichlorobis(diethyl-4-pyridylmethylphosphonate-kappaN)platinum(II) hydrate, cis-[PtCl2(4-pmpe)2].H20.

    PubMed

    Aranowska, K; Graczyk, J; Checińska, L; Pakulska, W; Ochock, J

    2006-05-01

    The cisplatin analogoues platinum (II) complexes of the general formula cis-[PtL2Cl2], where L is monodentate diethyl 2-, 3- or 4-pyridylmethylphosphonate (2-, 3- or 4-pmpe) ligand, have been synthesized and characterized by means of IR and NMR (1H, 31P, 195Pt) spectroscopy. The crystal and molecular structure of cis-[Pt(4-pmpe)2 Cl2].H2O (A3) shows a square planar geometry of PtL2Cl2, with two organic molecules and two chloride leaving ligands in a cis configuration. The antitumor activity of the platinum (II) complexes was examined against Sarcoma Sa-180 in mice. The obtained results indicate a marked anticancer effect of platinum phosphonate complexes, and moderate nephrotoxicity evaluated in the BUN and creatinine levels in comparison with cisplatin (CDDP).

  20. New platinum(II) complexes conjugated at position 7α of 17β-acetyl-testosterone as new combi-molecules against prostate cancer: design, synthesis, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Sébastien; Brasseur, Kevin; Morin, Nathalie; Asselin, Éric; Bérubé, Gervais

    2013-10-01

    Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and, more specifically, new treatments for hormone-refractory cancers are highly sought by several research groups. Although platinum(II)-based chemotherapy and other strategies grow in interest to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), they still exhibit modest activity on CRPC and overall patient survival. In this study, we designed and prepared new combi-molecules using 17β-acetyl-testosterone and amino acid platinum(II) complexes linked at the position 7α to target and to improve the antiproliferative activity of platinum(II)-based chemotherapy on prostate cancer cells. Twelve chemical intermediates and six new combi-molecules were prepared and characterized. Structure-activity relationships studies show that the platinum complex moiety is essential for an optimal cytocidal activity. Moreover, stereochemistry of the amino acid involved in the platinum complexes had only minor effects on the antiproliferative activity whereas pyridinyl (10a and b) and thiazolyl (10f) complexes exhibited the highest cytocidal activities that are significantly superior to that of cisplatin used as control on human prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP (AR+), PC3 (AR-) and DU145 (AR-). Compounds 10a, b and f arrested the cell cycle progression in S-phase and induced double strand breaks as confirmed by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX into γH2AX. Compounds 10a and f showed 33 and 30% inhibition, respectively of the growth of HT-1080 tumors grafted onto chick chorioallantoic membranes. Finally, compounds 10a and 10f exhibited low toxicity on the chick embryos (18 and 21% of death, respectively), indicating that these new combi-molecules might be a promising new class of anticancer agents for prostate cancer.

  1. Conjugated Platinum(IV)-Peptide Complexes for Targeting Angiogenic Tumor Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Barnés, Carmen M.; Haskel, Ariel; Short, Sarah M.; Barnes, Katie R.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 and the membrane-spanning surface protein aminopeptidase-N (APN) are highly expressed in tumor-induced angiogenesis, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Both integrins and APN recognize a broad range of peptides containing RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg) motifs, respectively. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of mono- and difunctionalized platinum(IV) complexes in which a conjugated peptide motif, containing either RGD, CRGDC, (RGDfK)c or NGR, is appended as a ‘tumor-homing device’ to target tumor endothelial cells selectively over healthy cells. Platinum(IV)-peptide complexes with non-specific amino acids or peptide moieties were prepared as controls. Concentration-response curves of these compounds were evaluated against primary proliferating endothelial cells and tumor cell lines and compared to those of cisplatin, a well-described platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. The Pt(IV)-RGD conjugates were highly and specifically cytotoxic to αvβ3 and αvβ5 containing cell lines, approaching the activity of cisplatin. The Pt(IV)-NGR complexes were less active than Pt(IV)-RGD-containing compounds but more active than non-specific Pt-peptide controls. Integrin αvβ3 mediated, at least in part, the anti-proliferative effect of an Pt(IV)-RGD conjugate, as demonstrated by a decreased inhibitory response when endothelial cells were either (1) incubated with an excess of αvβ3 /αvβ3-specific RGD pentapeptides, or (2) transfected with RNAi for β3, but not β1, integrins. These results suggest a rational approach to improved chemotherapy with Pt(IV)-peptide conjugates by selective drug delivery to the tumor compartment. PMID:17845003

  2. Conjugated platinum(IV)-peptide complexes for targeting angiogenic tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Barnés, Carmen M; Haskel, Ariel; Short, Sarah M; Barnes, Katie R; Lippard, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    The integrins alpha vbeta3 and alpha vbeta5 and the membrane-spanning surface protein aminopeptidase N (APN) are highly expressed in tumor-induced angiogenesis, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Both integrins and APN recognize a broad range of peptides containing RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg) motifs, respectively. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of mono- and difunctionalized platinum(IV) complexes in which a conjugated peptide motif, containing RGD, (CRGDC)c, (RGDfK)c, or NGR, is appended as a "tumor-homing device" to target tumor endothelial cells selectively over healthy cells. Platinum(IV)-peptide complexes with nonspecific amino acids or peptide moieties were prepared as controls. Concentration-response curves of these compounds were evaluated against primary proliferating endothelial cells and tumor cell lines and compared to those of cisplatin, a well-described platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. The Pt(IV)-RGD conjugates were highly and specifically cytotoxic to cell lines containing alpha vbeta3 and alpha vbeta5, approaching the activity of cisplatin. The Pt(IV)-NGR complexes were less active than Pt(IV)-RGD-containing compounds but more active than nonspecific Pt-peptide controls. Integrin alpha vbeta3 mediated, at least in part, the anti-proliferative effect of a Pt(IV)-RGD conjugate, as demonstrated by a decreased inhibitory response when endothelial cells were either (1) incubated with an excess of alpha vbeta3/alpha vbeta5-specific RGD pentapeptides or (2) transfected with RNAi for beta 3, but not beta 1, integrins. These results suggest a rational approach to improved chemotherapy with Pt(IV)-peptide conjugates by selective drug delivery to the tumor compartment.

  3. Mapping the UV Photophysics of Platinum Metal Complexes Bound to Nucleobases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ananya; Dessent, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    We report the first UV laser spectroscopic study of isolated gas-phase complexes of Platinum metal complex anions bound to a nucleobase as model systems for exploring at the molecular level the key photophysical processes involved in photodynamic therapy. Spectra of the PtIV CN 6 2 - • Uracil and PtII CN 4 2 - • Uracil complexes were acquired across the 220 -320 nm range using mass-selective photodepletion and photofragment action spectroscopy. The spectra of both complexes reveal prominent UV absorption bands that we assign primarily to excitation of the Uracil π - π * localized chromophore. Distinctive UV photofragments are observed for the complexes, with PtIV CN 6 2 - • Uracil photoexcitation resulting in complex fission, while PtII CN 4 2 - • Uracil photoexcitation initiates a nucleobase proton-transfer reaction across 4.4 -5.2 eV and electron detachment above 5.2 eV. The observed photofragments are consistent with ultrafast decay of a Uracil localized excited state back to the electronic ground state followed by intramolecular vibrational relaxation and ergodic complex fragmentation. In addition, we present recent results to explore how the photophysics of the Platinum complex-nucleobase clusters evolves as a function of nucleobase. Results are presented for PtII CN 4 2 - • Uracil complexed to Cytosine, Thymine and Adenine, reveal distinctive decay dynamics which we attribute to the intrinsic decay dynamics of the nucleobase. JPC. Lett. 2014, 5, 3281 to 3285 and PCCP 2014, 16, 15490 to 15500.

  4. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium analyses of ultramafic and mafic rocks from the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Riley, Leonard Benjamin; Haffty, Joseph

    1969-01-01

    Analyses by a combination fire- assay-solution-optical-emission spectrographic method of 137 rocks from the Stillwater Complex, Mont., indicate that platinum, palladium, and rhodium are preferentially concentrated in chromitite zones. The A chromitite zone (21 samples) has an average of 988.9 ppb (pans per billion, 10-9) Pt, 2290.2 ppb Pd, and 245.9 ppb Rh and reaches a maximum (to date) of 8,000 ppb Pt, 11,000 ppb Pd, and 1,700 ppb Rh.

  5. Platinum Group Thiophenoxyimine Complexes: Syntheses,Crystallographic and Computational Studies of Structural Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky, Jamin L.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.

    2006-10-03

    Monomeric thiosalicylaldiminate complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I) were prepared by ligand transfer from the homoleptic zinc(II) species. In the presence of strongly donating ligands, the iridium complexes undergo insertion of the metal into the imine carbon-hydrogen bond. Thiophenoxyketimines were prepared by non-templated reaction of o-mercaptoacetophenone with anilines, and were complexed with rhodium(I), iridium(I), nickel(II) and platinum(II). X-ray crystallographic studies showed that while the thiosalicylaldiminate complexes display planar ligand conformations, those of the thiophenoxyketiminates are strongly distorted. Results of a computational study were consistent with a steric-strain interpretation of the difference in preferred ligand geometries.

  6. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-01

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with 2B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50 = 0.58 μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  7. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-05

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with (2)B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50=0.58μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  8. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and interaction with DNA of dinuclear platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gao, Chuanzhu; Gou, Shaohua; Cao, Zhe

    2012-11-01

    Six dicarboxylato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complexes S1-S6, with a newly designed chiral ligand, 2-{[(1R,2R)-2-aminocyclohexyl]amino}propanoic acid (HL), were prepared and spectrally characterized. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all resulting platinum(II) complexes was evaluated against human HCT-116, MCF-7, and HepG-2 tumor cell lines. The results show that all compounds exhibit positive biological activity toward HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines, of which complexes S3, S4, and S5, with succinate and its derivatives as bridges, showing better activity than the positive controls. Moreover, double-dyeing flow cytometric resection experiments indicate that the target compounds inhibit tumor cell growth by inducing apoptosis; gel electrophoresis experiments demonstrate the compounds' ability to prompt pET22b plasmid DNA degradation in almost the same way as oxaliplatin. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and anti-cancer activity of emodin-Mn(II) metal complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bo-Chu; Zhu, Lian-Cai

    2014-12-01

    To synthesize and characterize a novel metal complex of Mn (II) with emodin, and evaluate its anti-cancer activity. The elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, TG-DSC, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR data were used to characterize the structure of the complex. The cytotoxicity of the complex against the human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa, MCF-7, B16, and MDA-MB-231 was tested by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. Emodin was coordinated with Mn(II) through the 9-C=O and 1-OH, and the general formula of the complex was Mn(II) (emodin)2·2H2O. In studies of the cytotoxicity, the complex exhibited significant activity, and the IC50 values of the complex against five cancer cell lines improved approximately three-fold compared with those of emodin. The complex could induce cell morphological changes, decrease the percentage of viability, and induce G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. The coordination of emodin with Mn(II) can improve its anticancer activity, and the complex Mn(II) (emodin)2·2H2O could be studied further as a promising anticancer drug.

  10. Effect of cation species on surface-induced phase transition observed for platinum complex anions in platinum electrodeposition using nanoporous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Ryo; Koyama, Akira; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo; Abe, Takeshi; Kitada, Atsushi; Murase, Kuniaki; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    In an earlier work [K. Fukami et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 094702 (2013)], we reported a transition phenomenon observed for platinum complex anions in our platinum electrodeposition experiment using nanoporous silicon. The pore wall surface of the silicon electrode was made hydrophobic by covering it with organic molecules. The anions are only weakly hydrated due to their large size and excluded from the bulk aqueous solution to the hydrophobic surface. When the anion concentration in the bulk was gradually increased, at a threshold the deposition behavior exhibited a sudden change, leading to drastic acceleration of the electrochemical deposition. It was shown that this change originates from a surface-induced phase transition: The space within a nanopore is abruptly filled with the second phase in which the anion concentration is orders of magnitude higher than that in the bulk. Here we examine how the platinum electrodeposition behavior is affected by the cation species coexisting with the anions. We compare the experimental results obtained using three different cation species: K+, (CH3)4N+, and (C2H5)4N+. One of the cation species coexists with platinum complex anions [PtCl4]2-. It is shown that the threshold concentration, beyond which the electrochemical deposition within nanopores is drastically accelerated, is considerably dependent on the cation species. The threshold concentration becomes lower as the cation size increases. Our theoretical analysis suggests that not only the anions but also the cations are remarkably enriched in the second phase. The remarkable enrichment of the anions alone would give rise to the energetic instability due to electrostatic repulsive interactions among the anions. We argue that the result obtained cannot be elucidated by the prevailing view based on classical electrochemistry. It is necessitated to consult a statistical-mechanical theory of confined aqueous solutions using a molecular model for water.

  11. DNA interactions of new cytotoxic tetrafunctional dinuclear platinum complex trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)].

    PubMed

    Brabec, Viktor; Christofis, Petros; Slámová, Martina; Kostrhunová, Hana; Nováková, Olga; Najajreh, Yousef; Gibson, Dan; Kaspárková, Jana

    2007-06-15

    A new tetrafunctional dinuclear platinum complex trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] with sterically rigid linking group was designed, synthesized and characterized. In this novel molecule, the DNA-binding features of two classes of the platinum compounds with proven antitumor activity are combined, namely trans oriented bifunctional mononuclear platinum complexes with a heterocyclic ligand and polynuclear platinum complexes. DNA-binding mode of this new complex was analyzed by various methods of molecular biology and biophysics. The complex coordinates DNA in a unique way and interstrand and intrastrand cross-links are the predominant lesions formed in DNA in cell-free media and in absence of proteins. An intriguing aspect of trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] is that, using a semi-rigid linker, interstrand cross-linking is diminished relative to other dinuclear platinum complexes with flexible linking groups and lesions that span several base pairs, such as tri- and tetrafunctional adducts, become unlikely. In addition, in contrast to the inability of trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] to cross-link two DNA duplexes, the results of the present work convincingly demonstrate that this dinuclear platinum complex forms specific DNA lesions which can efficiently cross-link proteins to DNA. The results substantiate the view that trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] or its analogues could be used as a tool for studies of DNA properties and their interactions or as a potential antitumor agent. The latter view is also corroborated by the observation that trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] is a more effective cytotoxic agent than cisplatin against human tumor ovarian cell lines.

  12. Photoactivation of Anticancer Ru Complexes in Deep Tissue: How Deep Can We Go?

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Thiramanas, Raweewan; Slep, Leonardo D; Zeng, Xiaolong; Mailänder, Volker; Wu, Si

    2017-08-10

    Activation of anticancer therapeutics such as ruthenium (Ru) complexes is currently a topic of intense investigation. The success of phototherapy relies on photoactivation of therapeutics after the light passes through skin and tissue. In this paper, the photoactivation of anticancer Ru complexes with 671-nm red light through tissue of different thicknesses was studied. Four photoactivatable Ru complexes with different absorption wavelengths were synthesized. Two of them (Ru3 and Ru4) were responsive to wavelengths in the "therapeutic window" (650-900 nm) and could be activated using 671-nm red light after passing through tissue up to 16-mm-thick. The other two (Ru1 and Ru2) could not be activated using red light. Additionally, activated Ru4 caused inhibition of cancer cells. These results suggest that photoactivatable Ru complexes are promising for applications in deep-tissue phototherapy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Platinum (IV) thiohydrazide, thiodiamine and thiohydrazone complexes: A spectral, antibacterial and cytotoxic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Mishra, S. B.; Manav, N.; Kumar, R.; Sharad; Chandra, R.; Saluja, D.; Kaushik, N. K.

    2007-04-01

    Some platinum (IV) complexes [Pt(L) 2Cl 2] [where, L = 2-aminopyridine- N-thiohydrazide (L 1), (2-aminopyridine- N-thio)-1,3-propanediamine (L 2), benzaldehyde-2-aminopyridine- N-thiohydrazone (L 3) and salicylaldehyde-2-aminopyrtidine- N-thiohydrazone (L 4)] have been synthesized. The thiohydrazides, thiodiamine and thiohydrazones can exist as thione-thiol tautomer and coordinate as a bidentate N-S ligand. The ligands found to act in monobasic bidentate fashion. Analytical data reveals that metal to ligand stoichiometry is 1:2. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, mass, electronic and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies. In vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic study have also been carried out for some complexes.

  14. Novel endothall-containing platinum(IV) complexes: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Reithofer, Michael R; Valiahdi, Seied M; Galanski, Markus; Jakupec, Michael A; Arion, Vladimir B; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2008-10-01

    Two platinum(IV) complexes (OC-6-33)-dichlorido(ethane-1,2-diamine)dihydroxidoplatinum(IV) and (OC-6-33)-diammine(dichlorido)dihydroxidoplatinum(IV) were carboxylated using demethylcantharidin as carboxylation agent. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, multinuclear (1H, 13C, 15N, and 195Pt) NMR spectroscopy, and, in case of (OC-6-33)-diamminebis(3-carboxy-7exo-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylato)dichloridoplatinum(IV) via X-ray diffraction. Cytotoxicity of the complexes was studied in seven human cancer cell lines representing five tumor entities, i.e., ovarian carcinoma (CH1, SK-OV-3), cervical carcinoma (HeLa), colon carcinoma (SW480, HCT-116), osteosarcoma (U-2 OS), and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) by means of the MTT (=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium hydrobromide) assay.

  15. Cationic Platinum(II) σ-SiH Complexes in Carbon Dioxide Hydrosilation.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Pablo; Díez, Josefina; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Amor; Conejero, Salvador

    2016-11-14

    The low-electron-count cationic platinum complex [Pt(ItBu')(ItBu)][BAr(F) ], 1, interacts with primary and secondary silanes to form the corresponding σ-SiH complexes. According to DFT calculations, the most stable coordination mode is the uncommon η(1) -SiH. The reaction of 1 with Et2 SiH2 leads to the X-ray structurally characterized 14-electron Pt(II) species [Pt(SiEt2 H)(ItBu)2 ][BAr(F) ], 2, which is stabilized by an agostic interaction. Complexes 1, 2, and the hydride [Pt(H)(ItBu)2 ][BAr(F) ], 3, catalyze the hydrosilation of CO2 , leading to the exclusive formation of the corresponding silyl formates at room temperature.

  16. A star-shaped ruthenium complex with five ferrocenyl-terminated arms bridged by trans-platinum fragments.

    PubMed

    Vives, Guillaume; Carella, Alexandre; Launay, Jean-Pierre; Rapenne, Gwénaël

    2006-06-04

    We present the synthesis of the new heteropolytopic penta(4-ethynylphenyl)cyclopentadiene ligand, its complexation through the Cp ring to ruthenium tris(indazolyl)borate and through the terminal alkyne groups to five ferrocenyl ethynyl platinum units, yielding an undecanuclear heterotrimetallic complex.

  17. A monofunctional platinum complex coordinated to a rhodium metalloinsertor selectively binds mismatched DNA in the minor groove.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Alyson G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-10-05

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a bimetallic complex derived from a new family of potent and selective metalloinsertors containing an unusual Rh-O axial coordination. This complex incorporates a monofunctional platinum center containing only one labile site for coordination to DNA, rather than two, and coordinates DNA nonclassically through adduct formation in the minor groove. This conjugate displays bifunctional, interdependent binding of mismatched DNA via metalloinsertion at a mismatch as well as covalent platinum binding. DNA sequencing experiments revealed that the preferred site of platinum coordination is not the traditional N7-guanine site in the major groove, but rather N3-adenine in the minor groove. The complex also displays enhanced cytotoxicity in mismatch repair-deficient and mismatch repair-proficient human colorectal carcinoma cell lines compared to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin, and it triggers cell death via an apoptotic pathway, rather than the necrotic pathway induced by rhodium metalloinsertors.

  18. A Monofunctional Platinum Complex Coordinated to a Rhodium Metalloinsertor Selectively Binds Mismatched DNA in the Minor Groove

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Alyson G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a bimetallic complex derived from a new family of potent and selective metalloinsertors containing an unusual Rh—O axial coordination. This complex incorporates a monofunctional platinum center containing only one labile site for coordination to DNA, rather than two, and coordinates DNA non-classically through adduct formation in the minor groove. This conjugate displays bifunctional, interdependent binding of mismatched DNA via metalloinsertion at a mismatch as well as covalent platinum binding. DNA sequencing experiments revealed that the preferred site of platinum coordination is not the traditional N7-guanine site in the major groove, but rather N3-adenine in the minor groove. The complex also displays enhanced cytotoxicity in mismatch repair-deficient and mismatch repair-proficient human colorectal carcinoma cell lines compared to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin, and triggers cell death via an apoptotic pathway, rather than the necrotic pathway induced by rhodium metalloinsertors. PMID:26397309

  19. A monofunctional trinuclear platinum complex with steric hindrance demonstrates strong cytotoxicity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangnong; Wang, Xiaoyong; He, Yafeng; Zhu, Zhenzhu; Zhu, Chengcheng; Guo, Zijian

    2014-10-01

    Polynuclear platinum complexes constitute a special class of hopeful antitumor agents. In this study, a Y-type monofunctional trinuclear platinum complex (MTPC) with 1,3,5-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethoxy)benzene, ammine and chloride as ligands was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The DNA binding mode of MTPC was investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and the reactivity of MTPC towards glutathione was studied by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS. The results show that MTPC can affect the conformation of calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) significantly and tends to form 1,4-GG rather than 1,2-GG intrastrand crosslinks, which are different from the instance of cisplatin. MTPC reacts with glutathione quite slowly in comparison with cisplatin because of the steric hindrance. The cytotoxicity of MTPC was tested on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549, and the human ovarian cancer cell line Skov-3 by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. MTPC is more potent than or comparable to cisplatin. The cellular inhibition mode of MTPC was examined by flow cytometry using MCF-7 cells. MTPC arrests the cell cycle mainly in G2 or M phase, while cisplatin arrests the cell cycle in S phase. Similar to cisplatin, MTPC kills the cells predominantly through an apoptotic pathway.

  20. Organometallic osmium(II) arene anticancer complexes containing picolinate derivatives.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Sabine H; Peacock, Anna F A; Johnstone, Russell D L; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J

    2009-02-16

    Chlorido osmium(II) arene [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Os(II)(X-pico)Cl] complexes containing X = Br (1), OH (2), and Me (3) as ortho, or X = Cl (4), CO(2)H (5), and Me (6) as para substituents on the picolinate (pico) ring have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structures of 1 and 6 show typical "piano-stool" geometry with intermolecular pi-pi stacking of the biphenyl outer rings of 6. At 288 K the hydrolysis rates follow the order 2 > 6 > 4 > 3 > 5 > 1 with half-lives ranging from minutes to 4.4 h illustrating the influence of both electronic and steric effects of the substituents. The pK(a) values of the aqua adducts 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6A were all in the range of 6.3-6.6. The para-substituted pico complexes 4-6 readily formed adducts with both 9-ethyl guanine (9EtG) and 9-ethyl adenine (9EtA), but these were less favored for the ortho-substituted complexes 1 and 3 showing little reaction with 9EtG and 9EtA, respectively. Density-functional theory calculations confirmed the observed preferences for nucleobase binding for complex 1. In cytotoxicity assays with A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human ovarian, A549 human lung, and HCT116 colon cancer cells, only complexes 4 (p-Cl) and 6 (p-Me) exhibited significant activity (IC(50) values < 25 microM). Both of these complexes were as active as cisplatin in A2780 (ovarian) and HCT116 (colon) cell lines, and even overcome cisplatin resistance in the A2780cis (ovarian) cell line. The inactivity of 5 is attributed to the negative charge on its para carboxylate substituent. These data illustrate how the chemical reactivity and cancer cell cytotoxicity of osmium arene complexes can be controlled and "fine-tuned" by the use of steric and electronic effects of substituents on a chelating ligand to give osmium(II) arene complexes which are as active as cisplatin but have a different mechanism of action.

  1. Cytotoxicity, radiosensitization, and DNA interaction of platinum complexes of thiazin and xanthene dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Herman, T.S.; Kaufmann, M.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Complexes of the platinum(II) tetrachlorodianion with positively charged nuclear dyes have been prepared in an effort to produce neutral molecules which could gain ready access to the nuclear DNA where the platinum(II) tetrachlorodianion could function as a radiosensitizing and a bifunctional alkylating agent. The thiazin dyes Thionin, Azure B, and Methylene Blue, the aminoxanthene dye Pyronin Y, and the thiazole dye Thioflavin have each been complexed to the platinum(II) tetrachlorodianion(PtCl4) in a ratio of 2:1(dye:PtCl4). Studies of the interaction of these complexes and of the dyes with the pBR322 plasmid superhelical DNA demonstrated that while each complex and dye readily associated with the DNA in a dose-dependent manner, only Pt(Thioflavin)2 and Thioflavin produced irreversible DNA changes (single-strand breaks). In exponentially growing EMT6 cells the cytotoxicity of these drugs was assessed in normally oxygenated and hypoxic cells at both pH 7.4 and 6.45. At concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 microM, Pt(Methylene Blue)2 was significantly more cytotoxic than the other thiazin dye complexes Pt(Thionin)2 and Pt(Azure B)2. The cytotoxicity of Pt(Thionin)2 and Pt(Methylene Blue)2 was increased in normally oxygenated and hypoxic cells at low pH. Both Pt(Pyronin Y)2 and Pt(Thioflavin)2 were more toxic than the thiazin complexes. Pt(Pyronin Y)2 was most cytotoxic to normally oxygenated cells at normal pH and hypoxic cells at low pH, while Pt(Thioflavin)2 was most cytotoxic to cells at low pH under both oxygenation conditions. In vitro studies of the radiosensitizing properties of these agents in EMT6 cells demonstrated that exposure to 100 microM for 1 h before and during irradiation resulted in enhancement rations of 2.5, 1.9, 1.5, and 1.5 for Pt(Azure B)2, Pt(Thionin)2, Pt(Pyronin Y)2, and Pt(Thioflavin)2, respectively, in hypoxic cells.

  2. Isobologram analysis of the combined effects of anti-tumour platinum complexes and ionizing radiation on mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Szumiel, I.; Nias, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells have been treated in vitro with the platinum coordination complexes cis-PAD or CHIP and with radiation, either alone or in combination with different doses and time intervals. The isobologram method has been used to make a graphic comparison of these combined-modality data in terms of additivity and enhancement. The data showed enhancement of the radiation effect by these platinum complexes in many combinations, and a truly synergistic effect in one case. This method of analysis points to the limited usefulness of the parameter dose-modifying effect (DMF) since the most synergistic combination did not have the highest DMF. PMID:7426336

  3. Dinuclear Pt(II)-bisphosphonate complexes: a scaffold for multinuclear or different oxidation state platinum drugs.

    PubMed

    Piccinonna, Sara; Margiotta, Nicola; Pacifico, Concetta; Lopalco, Antonio; Denora, Nunzio; Fedi, Serena; Corsini, Maddalena; Natile, Giovanni

    2012-08-28

    Geminal bisphosphonates (BPs), used in the clinic for the treatment of hypercalcaemia and skeletal metastases, have been also exploited for promoting the specific accumulation of platinum antitumor drugs in bone tissue. In this work, the platinum dinuclear complex [{Pt(en)}(2)(μ-AHBP-H(2))](+) (1) (the carbon atom bridging the two phosphorous atoms carrying a 2-ammonioethyl and a hydroxyl group, AHBP-H(2)) has been used as scaffold for the synthesis of a Pt(II) trinuclear complex, [{Pt(en)}(3)(μ-AHBP)](+) (2), and a Pt(IV) adamantane-shaped dinuclear complex featuring an oxo-bridge, [{Pt(IV)(en)Cl}(2)(μ-O)(μ-AHBP-H(2))](+) (3) (X-ray structure). Compound 2 undergoes a reversible, pH dependent, rearrangement with a neat switch point around pH = 5.4. Compound 3 undergoes a one-step electrochemical reduction at E(pc) = -0.84 V affording compound 1. Such a potential is far lower than that of glutathione (-0.24 V), nevertheless compound 3 can undergo chemical reduction to 1 by GSH, most probably through a different (inner-sphere) mechanism. In vitro cytotoxicity of the new compounds, tested against murine glioma (C6) and human cervix (HeLa) and hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines, has shown that, while the Pt(IV) dimer 3 is inactive up to a concentration of 50 μM, the two Pt(II) polynuclear compounds 1 and 2 have a cytotoxicity comparable to that of cisplatin with the trinuclear complex 2 generally more active than the dinuclear complex 1.

  4. Effect of novel dinuclear platinum(II) complexes on redox status of MOLT-4 leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Jarocka, Iwona; Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Łuczaj, Wojciech; Hodun, Tomasz; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2013-11-01

    As the alkylating agents metabolism is accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the aim of this study has been to compare the effect of cisplatin and novel platinum(II) complexes, Pt2(isopropylamine)4(berenil)2, Pt2(piperazine)4(berenil)2, Pt2(2-picoline)4(berenil)2, Pt2(3-picoline)4(berenil)2, Pt2(4-picoline)4(berenil)2, on the redox state of human leukemic T-cells line Molt-4. Treatment of Molt-4 with the novel complexes has shown that all compounds enhance total ROS and superoxide anion generation as well as change the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Moreover, all the above-mentioned compounds cause a decrease in the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH as well as vitamin C, E and A. Such a situation is conducive to oxidative stress formation and oxidative modifications of cellular macromolecules. DNA damage of MOLT-4 leukemic cells is connected with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and N7-methyldeoxyguanosine generation. The increased level of protein carbonyl groups and dityrosine indicates enhanced protein oxidative modifications, while an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products, MDA, 4-HNE and isoprostanes proves the significant lipid peroxidation after treatment of Molt-4 cells with the complexes. Moreover, the complexes enhance expression of Bax and cytochrome c as well as decrease the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 protein. The novel platinum(II) complexes in comparison with cisplatin disturb redox status more intensively and lead to oxidative stress in Molt-4 cells. The enhanced oxidative modifications of macromolecules of human leukemic cancer cells lead to a shift in the proapoptotic-antiapoptotic balance into the proapoptotic direction.

  5. Homo- and heteropolynuclear platinum complexes stabilized by dimethylpyrazolato and alkynyl bridging ligands: synthesis, structures, and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Forniés, Juan; Fuertes, Sara; Martín, Antonio; Sicilia, Violeta; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa

    2006-11-06

    This work describes the synthesis of cis-[Pt(C[triple bond]CPh)2(Hdmpz)2] (1) and its use as a precursor for the preparation of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes. Double deprotonation of compound 1 with readily available M(I) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) or M(II) (M = Pd, Pt) species affords the discrete hexanuclear clusters [{PtM2(mu-C[triple bond]CPh)2(mu-dmpz)(2)}(2)] [M = Cu (2), Ag (3), Au (4)], in which both "Pt(C[triple bond]CPh)2(dmpz)(2)" fragments are connected by four d(10) metal centers, and are stabilized by alkynyl and dimethylpyrazolate bridging ligands, or the trinuclear complexes [Pt(mu-C[triple bond]CPh)2(mu-dmpz)(2){M(C/\\P)}2] (M = Pd (5), Pt (6); C/\\P = CH(2)-C(6)H(4)-P(o-tolyl)2-kappaC,P), respectively. The X-ray structures of complexes 1-4 and 6 are reported. The X-ray structure of the platinum-copper derivative 2 shows that all copper centers exhibit similar local geometry being linearly coordinated to a nitrogen atom and eta(2) to one alkynyl fragment. However in the related platinum-silver (3) and platinum-gold (4) derivatives the silver and gold atoms present three different coordination environments. The complexes have been studied by absorption and emission spectroscopy. The hexanuclear complexes exhibit bright luminescence in the solid state and in fluid solution (except 4 in the solid state at 298 K). Dual long-lived emission is observed, being clearly resolved in low-temperature rigid media. The low-energy emission is ascribed to MLM'CT Pt(d)/pi(C[triple bond]CPh)-->Pt(p(z))/M'(sp)/pi*(C[triple bond]CPh) modified by metal-metal interactions whereas the high-energy emission is tentatively attributed to an emissive state derived from dimethylpyrazolate-to-metal (d(10)) LM'CT transitions pi(dmpz)-->M'(d(10)).

  6. Antidepressants and platinum drugs.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Brigitte J; Ryan, John J; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressants are frequently prescribed concurrently with anti-cancer drugs and may have synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects. The present work investigated the effect of antidepressants on the cytotoxicity of platinum agents cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The cytotoxicity of platinum drugs alone or in combination with antidepressants was measured in HCT116 wild-type (wt), HCT116 (p53 -/-), HT-29, SKOV3 and A2780 cells using an apoptosis-based assay. The effect of antidepressants on platinum cytotoxicity is both cell type- and drug dependent. Mostly additive effects were observed. Desipramine and fluoxetine caused the greatest effects, with cisplatin in general being most sensitive to their presence. There is little effect of p53 status on the drug-drug interaction while the calmodulin inhibitor W7 augmented cisplatin cytotoxicity relative to carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The drug-drug interaction between antidepressants and platinum anti-cancer agents requires detailed evaluation for optimization of patient care.

  7. Antitumor activity of phenylene bridged binuclear bis(imino-quinolyl)palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Motswainyana, William M; Onani, Martin O; Madiehe, Abram M; Saibu, Morounke

    2014-04-01

    Antitumor effects of a known bis(imino-quinolyl)palladium(II) complex 1 and its newly synthesized platinum(II) analogue 2 were evaluated against human breast (MCF-7) and human colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines. The complexes gave cytotoxicity profiles that were better than the reference drug cisplatin. The highest cytotoxic activities were pronounced in complex 2 across the two examined cancer cell lines. Both compounds represent potential active drugs based on bimetallic complexes.

  8. Recent Approaches to Platinum(IV) Prodrugs: A Variety of Strategies for Enhanced Delivery and Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Anas; Rajabi, Naeema; Karaman, Rafik

    2017-01-01

    Intensive efforts have been implemented to improve the efficacy of platinum complexes especially with emerging cisplatin resistance and elevated cancer deaths. Platinum(IV) agents show better pharmacokinetics and decreased side effects compared to Platinum(II) agents. This review aims to summarize and categorize the strategies being employed to improve the efficacy of Platinum-based anticancer agents in recent years. Nanoparticles and nanoplatforms offer a vast variety of strategies in targeting specific tumor types and delivering one or two lethal drugs simultaneously. Theranostic agents are being developed to achieve enhanced imaging and provide further insight into the activity of platinum containing chemotherapy. Moreover, photoactivation of Pt(IV) prodrugs specifically at the tumor site is gaining attention due to a controlled activity. A platinum agent formulated as large multi-activity complex is the most common strategy being employed. Platinum(IV) agents offer great potential in targeting, increasing efficacy, and decreasing toxicity of Platinum-based anticancer agents. The strategies being employed are aiming to increase specificity and targeting as well as provide more potent agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. PALLADIUM, PLATINUM, RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM AND IRIDIUM IN PERIDOTITES AND CHROMITITES FROM OPHIOLITE COMPLEXES IN NEWFOUNDLAND.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Talkington, Raymond W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of spinel lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite, and chromitite from the Bay of Islands, Lewis Hills, Table Mountain, Advocate, North Arm Mountain, White Hills Periodite Point Rousse, Great Bend and Betts Cove ophiolite complexes in Newfoundland were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGE) Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru and Ir. The ranges of concentration (in ppb) observed for all rocks are: less than 0. 5 to 77 (Pd), less than 1 to 120 (Pt), less than 0. 5 to 20 (Rh), less than 100 to 250 (Ru) and less than 20 to 83 (Ir). Chondrite-normalized PGE ratios suggest differences between rock types and between complexes. Samples of chromitite and dunite show relative enrichment in Ru and Ir and relative depletion in Pt and Pd.

  10. Diamminetetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) Complexes – Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmeister, Björn R; Adib-Razavi, Mahsa S; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A series of eight novel diamminetetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes was synthesized and characterized by multinuclear 1H-, 13C-, 15N-, and 195Pt-NMR spectroscopy. Their antiproliferative potency was evaluated in three human cancer cell lines representing ovarian (CH1), lung (A549), and colon carcinoma (SW480). In cisplatin-sensitive CH1 cancer cells, cytotoxicity was found in the low micromolar range, whereas, in inherently cisplatin-resistant A549 and SW480 cells, the activity was very low or negligible. Astonishingly, raise in lipophilicity of the complexes, as found in the case of cisplatin analogs, did not result in a significant enhancement of the cytotoxic effect. PMID:22976974

  11. Spectroscopic and structural properties of 2,2'-dipyridylamine and its palladium and platinum complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurdakul, Ş.; Bilkana, M. T.

    2015-10-01

    The structural features such as geometric parameters, vibration frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands of 2,2'-dipyridylamine ligand (DPA), its palladium (Pd(DPA)Cl2) and platinum (Pt(DPA)Cl2) complexes were studied by the density functional theory (DFT). The calculations were carried out by DFT / B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. All vibrational frequencies assigned in detail with the help of total energy distribution analysis (TED). Optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles were compared with experimental X-ray data. Using DPA, K2PtCl4, and Na2PdCl4, the synthesized complex structures were characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, FT-IR (mid and far IR) and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction study of antitumor dinuclear platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gou, Shaohua; Gao, Chuanzhu

    2013-04-01

    Five novel dinuclear platinum(II) complexes with a new chiral ligand, 3-(2-amino-cyclohexylamino)-propionic acid (HP), were designed, prepared and spectrally characterized. The in vitro cytotoxicities of these compounds were evaluated against the HepG-2, MCF-7, A549, and HCT-116 cell lines. The results indicated that all compounds showed cytotoxicity towards the HepG-2 cell line. Particularly, complex X5, which has SO 4₂₋ as a bridge, exhibited better cytotoxicity than carboplatin or oxaliplatin against all selected cell lines. Moreover, double dyeing flow cytometric resection indicated that the target compounds inhibited tumor cell growth by inducing apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of trans-platinum(II) complexes with chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Maribel; Castro, William; Higuera-Padilla, Angel R; Sierraalta, Anibal; Abad, María Jesús; Taylor, Peter; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Three platinum-chloroquine complexes, trans-Pt(CQDP)2(I)2 [1], trans-Pt(CQDP)2(Cl)2 [2] and trans-Pt(CQ)2(Cl)2 [3], were prepared and their most probable structure was established through a combination of spectroscopic analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Their interaction with DNA was studied and their activity against 6 tumor cell lines was evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 interact with DNA primarily through electrostatic contacts and hydrogen bonding, with a minor contribution of a covalent interaction, while compound 3 binds to DNA predominantly in a covalent fashion, with weaker secondary electrostatic interactions and possibly hydrogen bonding, this complex also exerted greater cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell lines. PMID:22001497

  14. Synthesis, characterization, DNA interactions and antiproliferative activity on glioblastoma of iminopyridine platinum(II) chelate complexes.

    PubMed

    Posadas, Inmaculada; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Bravo, Iván; Carrillo-Hermosilla, Fernando; Garzón, Andrés; Villaseca, Noemí; López-Solera, Isabel; Albaladejo, José; Ceña, Valentín

    2017-03-01

    A series of iminopyridine platinum chelate compounds has been prepared and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complexes were evaluated in C6 tumoral cells as an in vitro model for glioblastoma multiforme. The DNA-binding properties of these complexes were studied by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory calculations were performed in an effort to rationalize the observed properties at the molecular level. The most promising drug candidate displayed a similar potency in inducing cell death to the clinically used reference compound and showed significant inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Moreover, this compound had a safer profile than cisplatin on non-tumoral cells.

  15. First polymer "ruthenium-cyclopentadienyl" complex as potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Valente, Andreia; Garcia, Maria Helena; Marques, Fernanda; Miao, Yong; Rousseau, Cyril; Zinck, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    d-glucose end-capped polylactide ruthenium cyclopentadienyl complex (RuPMC) was newly synthesized by a straightforward method. RuPMC was tested against human MCF7 and MDAMB231 breast and A2780 ovarian adenocarcinoma revealing IC50 values in the micromolar range. A pH dependent hydrolysis is advanced by preliminary UV-visible spectroscopy. Cellular distribution studies showed that RuPMC is predominantly found in the nucleus and in the membrane. Data suggest potential application of RuPMC as a new drug delivery system for Ru(II)Cp compounds. © 2013.

  16. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex II by the Anticancer Agent Lonidamine*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Shestov, Alexander A.; Worth, Andrew J.; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Blair, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor agent lonidamine (LND; 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid) is known to interfere with energy-yielding processes in cancer cells. However, the effect of LND on central energy metabolism has never been fully characterized. In this study, we report that a significant amount of succinate is accumulated in LND-treated cells. LND inhibits the formation of fumarate and malate and suppresses succinate-induced respiration of isolated mitochondria. Utilizing biochemical assays, we determined that LND inhibits the succinate-ubiquinone reductase activity of respiratory complex II without fully blocking succinate dehydrogenase activity. LND also induces cellular reactive oxygen species through complex II, which reduced the viability of the DB-1 melanoma cell line. The ability of LND to promote cell death was potentiated by its suppression of the pentose phosphate pathway, which resulted in inhibition of NADPH and glutathione generation. Using stable isotope tracers in combination with isotopologue analysis, we showed that LND increased glutaminolysis but decreased reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate. Our findings on the previously uncharacterized effects of LND may provide potential combinational therapeutic approaches for targeting cancer metabolism. PMID:26521302

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of ruthenium-pyrazole complexes.

    PubMed

    David, Solene; Perkins, Richard S; Fronczek, Frank R; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S; Srivastava, Radhey S

    2012-06-01

    A series of new water soluble Ru(III) pyrazole complexes mer-[RuCl(3)(DMSO-S)(pyz)(2)] 1, mer-[RuCl(3)(DMSO-S)(DMSO-O)(pyz)] 2, mer-[RuCl(3)(bpy)(dmpyz)] 3, and mer-[RuCl(3)(DMSO-S)(dmpyz)(2)] 4 (pyz=pyrazole; dmpyz=3,5-dimethylpyrazole, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by use of a combination of spectroscopy (IR and UV-visible), X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular X-ray structure of all reported compounds (1-4) revealed distorted octahedral coordination around ruthenium. The cytotoxicity assay on human breast cancer cells (MCF7) demonstrated that compounds 1 and 4 affect cell viability, whereas compounds 2 and 3 do not show appreciable activity. The IC(50) values for 1 and 4 lie within the range of 71-32μM in MCF7 cells.

  18. Modulating the Anticancer Activity of Ruthenium(II)-Arene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Catherine M; Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Griffioen, Arjan W; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-04-23

    Following the identification of [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate)], a ruthenium(II)-arene complex with a perfluoroalkyl-modified ligand that displays remarkable in vitro cancer cell selectivity, a series of structurally related compounds were designed. In the new derivatives, the p-cymene ring and/or the chloride ligands are substituted by other ligands to modulate the steric bulk or aquation kinetics. The new compounds were evaluated in both in vitro (cytotoxicity and migration assays) and in vivo (chicken chorioallantoic membrane) models and were found to exhibit potent antivascular effects.

  19. New platinum(II) complexes with benzo­thia­zole ligands

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Negrón, José A.; Cádiz, Mayra E.; Moore, Curtis E.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Meléndez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Four new platinum(II) complexes, namely tetra­ethyl­ammonium tri­bromido­(2-methyl-1,3-benzo­thia­zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C8H7NS)] (1), tetra­ethyl­ammonium tri­bromido­(6-meth­oxy-2-methyl-1,3-benzo­thia­zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C9H9NOS)] (2), tetra­ethyl­ammonium tri­bromido­(2,5,6-trimethyl-1,3-benzo­thia­zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C10H11NS)] (3), and tetra­ethyl­ammonium tri­bromido­(2-methyl-5-nitro-1,3-benzo­thia­zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C8H6N2O2S)] (4), have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. These species are precursors of compounds with potential application in cancer chemotherapy. All four platinum(II) complexes adopt the expected square-planar coordination geometry, and the benzo­thia­zole ligand is engaged in bonding to the metal atom through the imine N atom (Pt—N). The Pt—N bond lengths are normal: 2.035 (5), 2.025 (4), 2.027 (5) and 2.041 (4) Å for complexes 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The benzo­thia­zole ligands are positioned out of the square plane, with dihedral angles ranging from 76.4 (4) to 88.1 (4)°. The NEt4 cation in 3 is disordered with 0.57/0.43 occupancies. PMID:27006819

  20. Platinum (II) and (IV) spermidine complexes. Synthesis, characterization, and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ranninger, C; Ochoa, P A; Pérez, J M; González, V M; Masaguer, J R; Alonso, C

    1994-02-15

    By reaction of K2PtCl4 with spermidine we have synthesized two tris-platinum covalent compounds of formula (PtI2)3(sper)2 and (PtCl2)3(sper)2, one ionic compound of formula (sperH3)2(PtCl4)3, and another one of a covalent nature of formula (PtCl2sperH)2 (PtCl4) having a partially protonated spermidine residue. Treatment of the tris-platinum compounds with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid led to the production of two compounds of formula cis-trans-cis-(PtIVCl2(OH)2)3(sper)2 and cis-(PtIVCl4)3(sper)2, respectively. All of them have been characterized by IR and 1H MNR spectroscopy and tested for their ability to interact with pUC8 plasmid DNA by the use of UV, CD, and electrophoretic techniques. The results suggest that all of these compounds modify the secondary structure of the double helix. We observed that the alteration in electrophoretic mobility of nicked and closed circular forms of DNA induced by the Pt(II) complexes is higher than that induced by the Pt(IV) complexes. The synthesized compounds were also assayed for antitumor activity in vitro against breast (MDA-MB468) and leukemia (HL-60) tumor cells. Only three of these complexes may be regarded as potential antitumor agents, since their ID50 values are lower than 10 micrograms/ml.

  1. Copper-, palladium-, and platinum-containing complexes of an asymmetric dinucleating ligand.

    PubMed

    Halvagar, Mohammad Reza; Neisen, Benjamin; Tolman, William B

    2013-01-18

    The coordination chemistry of an asymmetric dinucleating hexadentate ligand LH(2) comprising neutral alkyltriamine and potentially dianionic dicarboxamido-pyridyl donor sets with copper, palladium, and platinum has been explored. Monometallic, dicopper, and heterodinuclear Cu-Pd and -Pt complexes have been prepared and characterized, including by NMR, EPR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. For example, the monometallic complexes [(LH(2))MCl]X (M = Cu, X = OTf; M = Pd or Pt, X = Cl) were prepared, wherein the metal(II) ions are coordinated to the triamine portion and the pyridyldicarboxamide is unperturbed. Treatment of LH(2) with [MesCu](x) (Mes = mesityl) provided a monocopper(I) complex, again with the metal coordinated only to the trialkylamine donor set. Reaction of [(LH(2))CuCl]OTf with NaOMe resulted in an unexpected migration of the copper(II)-chloride fragment to the pyridyldicarboxamide site to yield Na[LCuCl], from which a dicopper complex LCu(2)Cl(2) and mixed-metal complexes LCu(Cl)M(Cl) (M = Pd, Pt) were prepared by addition of CuCl(2) or MCl(2), respectively. The heterodinuclear complexes were also prepared by addition of CuCl(2) to [(LH(2))MCl]Cl.

  2. N-heterocyclic carbene metal complexes as bio-organometallic antimicrobial and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Shivaputra A; Patil, Renukadevi; Keri, Rangappa S; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Balakrishna, Geetha R; Tacke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Late transition metal complexes that bear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have seen a speedy growth in their use as both, metal-based drug candidates and potentially active homogeneous catalysts in a plethora of C-C and C-N bond forming reactions. This review article focuses on the recent developments and advances in preparation and characterization of NHC-metal complexes (metal: silver, gold, copper, palladium, nickel and ruthenium) and their biomedical applications. Their design, syntheses and characterization have been reviewed and correlated to their antimicrobial and anticancer efficacies. All these initial discoveries help validate the great potential of NHC-metal derivatives as a class of effective antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  3. (Fluoren-9-ylidene)methanedithiolato complexes of platinum: synthesis, reactivity, and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José; González-Herrero, Pablo; Pérez-Cadenas, María; Jones, Peter G; Bautista, Delia

    2005-10-03

    Platinum(II) complexes with (fluoren-9-ylidene)methanedithiolato and its 2,7-di-tert-butyl- and 2,7-dimethoxy-substituted analogues were obtained by reacting different chloroplatinum(II) precursors with the piperidinium dithioates (pipH)[(2,7-R2C12H6)CHCS2] [R = H (1a), t-Bu (1b), or OMe (1c)] in the presence of piperidine. The anionic complexes Q2[Pt{S(2)C=C(C12H6R(2)-2,7)}2] [R = H, (Pr(4)N)(2)2a; R = t-Bu, (Pr4N)(2)2b, (Et4N)(2)2b; R = OMe, (Pr4N)(2)2c] were prepared from PtCl(2), piperidine, the corresponding QCl salt, and 1a-c in molar ratio 1:2:2:2. In the absence of QCl, the complexes (pipH)(2)2b and [Pt(pip)(4)]2b were isolated depending on the PtCl(2):pip molar ratio. The neutral complexes [Pt{S2C=C(C12H6R(2)-2,7)L(2)] [L = PPh(3), R = H (3a), t-Bu (3b), OMe (3c); L = PEt(3), R = H (4a), t-Bu (4b), OMe (4c); L(2) = dbbpy, R = H (5a), t-Bu (5b), OMe (5c) (dbbpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)] were similarly prepared from the corresponding precursors [PtCl2L2] and 1a-c in the presence of piperidine. Oxidation of Q(2)2b with [FeCp2]PF6 afforded the mixed Pt(II)-Pt(IV) complex Q2[Pt2{S2C=C[C12H6(t-Bu)(2)-2,7]}4] (Q(2)6, Q = Et4N+, Pr4N+). The protonation of (Pr4N)(2)2b with 2 equiv of triflic acid gave the neutral dithioato complex [Pt2{S2CCH[C12H6(t-Bu)(2)-2,7]}4] (7). The same reaction in 1:1 molar ratio gave the mixed dithiolato/dithioato complex Pr4N[Pt{S2C=C[C12H6(t-Bu)(2)-2,7]}{S2CCH[C12H6(t-Bu)(2)-2,7]}] (Pr(4)N8) while the corresponding DMANH+ salt was obtained by treating 7 with 2 equiv of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN). The crystal structures of 3b and 5c.CH2Cl2 have been solved by X-ray crystallography. All the platinum complexes are photoluminescent at 77 K in CH2Cl2 or KBr matrix, except for Q(2)6. Compounds 5a-c and Q8 show room-temperature luminescence in fluid solution. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the dithiolato complexes reveal charge-transfer absorption and emission energies which are significantly lower

  4. A survey of the mechanisms of action of anticancer transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Marloye, Mickaël; Berger, Gilles; Gelbcke, Michel; Dufrasne, François

    2016-12-01

    Metal complexes have been the subject of numerous investigations in oncology but, despite the plethora of newly synthesized compounds, their precise mechanisms of action remain generally unknown or, for the best, incompletely determined. The continuous development of efficient and sensitive techniques in analytical chemistry and molecular biology gives scientists new tools to gather information on how metal complexes can be effective toward cancer. This review focuses on recent findings about the anticancer mechanism of action of metal complexes and how the ligands can be used to tune their pharmacological and physicochemical properties.

  5. Structural basis and anticancer properties of ruthenium-based drug complexed with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Ho, Andy; Yue, Jiping; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Wu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-10-30

    Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes have become increasingly popular for study over the last two decades. Although ruthenium complexes are currently being investigated in clinical trials, there are still some difficulties with their delivery and associated side effects. Human serum albumin (HSA)-based delivery systems are promising for improving anticancer drug targeting and reducing negative side effects. However, there have been few studies regarding the HSA delivery system for metal-based anticancer compounds and no mention of its structural mechanism. Therefore, we studied the structure and anticancer properties of the ruthenium-based compound [RuCl5(ind)](2-) in complex with HSA. The structure revealed that [RuCl5(ind)](2-) has two binding sites in HSA. In the IB subdomain, [RuCl5(ind)](2-) binds to a new sub-site by coordinating with His-146. In the IIA subdomain, ruthenium (III) of [RuCl5(ind)](2-) binds to the hydrophobic cavity and forms coordination bonds by replacing chlorine atoms with the His-242 and Lys-199 residues of HSA. Interestingly, [RuCl5(ind)](2-), together with HSA, can enhance cytotoxicity by two to five times in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with unbound drug, the HSA-[RuCl5(ind)](2-) complex promotes MGC-803 cell apoptosis and also has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase in MGC-803. In conclusion, this study will guide the rational design and development of ruthenium-containing or ruthenium-centered drugs and an HSA delivery system for ruthenium-based drugs.

  6. Organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Huang, Yongdong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Fuyi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Wu, Kui; Sadler, Peter J; Xiong, Shaoxiang

    2013-11-01

    The organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1), biphenyl (2) or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3); en = ethylenediamine), exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. In the present work, we show that they inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) with IC50 values of 59.4 ± 1.3, 63.2 ± 0.4 and 37.2 ± 1.1 μM, respectively. Mass spectrometry revealed that complex 1 binds to the S-donors of Cys15, Cys48 within the G-site and Cys102 at the interface of the GSTπ dimer, while complex 2 binds to Cys48 and Met92 at the dimer interface and complex 3 to Cys15, Cys48 and Met92. Moreover, the binding of complex 1 to Cys15 and Cys102, complex 2 to Cys48 and complex 3 to Cys15 induces the irreversible oxidation of the coordinated thiolates to sulfenates. Molecular modeling studies indicate that the coordination of the {(arene)Ru(en)}(2+) fragment to Cys48 blocks the hydrophilic G-site sterically, perhaps preventing substrate from proper positioning and accounting for the reduction in enzymatic activity of ruthenated GSTπ. The binding of the ruthenium arene complexes to Cys102 or Met92 disrupts the dimer interface which is an essential structural feature for the proper functioning of GSTπ, perhaps also contributing to the inhibition of GSTπ. © 2013.

  7. Cytotoxic properties of a new organometallic platinum(II) complex and its gold(I) heterobimetallic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Maria; Maiore, Laura; Zucca, Antonio; Stoccoro, Sergio; Landini, Ida; Mini, Enrico; Massai, Lara; Ferraro, Giarita; Merlino, Antonello; Messori, Luigi; Cinellu, Maria Agostina

    2016-01-14

    A novel platinum(ii) organometallic complex, [Pt(pbi)(Me)(DMSO)], bearing the 2-(2'-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (pbiH) ligand, was synthesized and fully characterized. Interestingly, the reaction of this organometallic platinum(ii) complex with two distinct gold(i) phosphane compounds afforded the corresponding heterobimetallic derivatives with the pbi ligand bridging the two metal centers. The antiproliferative properties in vitro of [Pt(pbi)(Me)(DMSO)] and its gold(i) derivatives as well as those of the known coordination platinum(ii) and palladium(ii) complexes with the same ligand, of the general formula [MCl2(pbiH)], were comparatively evaluated against A2780 cancer cells, either sensitive or resistant to cisplatin. A superior biological activity of the organometallic compound clearly emerged compared to the corresponding platinum(ii) complex; the antiproliferative effects are further enhanced upon attaching the gold(i) triphenylphosphine moiety to the organometallic Pt compound. Remarkably, these novel metal species are able to overcome nearly complete resistance to cisplatin. Significant mechanistic insight into the study compounds was gained after investigating their reactions with a few representative biomolecules by electrospray mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The obtained results are comprehensively discussed.

  8. Imprime PGG-Mediated Anti-Cancer Immune Activation Requires Immune Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiaohong; Ottoson, Nadine R.; Walsh, Richard M.; Gorden, Keith B; Harrison, Ben; Maimonis, Peter J.; Leonardo, Steven M.; Ertelt, Kathleen E.; Danielson, Michael E.; Michel, Kyle S.; Nelson, Mariana; Graff, Jeremy R.; Patchen, Myra L.; Bose, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Imprime PGG (Imprime), an intravenously-administered, soluble β-glucan, has shown compelling efficacy in multiple phase 2 clinical trials with tumor targeting or anti-angiogenic antibodies. Mechanistically, Imprime acts as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) directly activating innate immune effector cells, triggering a coordinated anti-cancer immune response. Herein, using whole blood from healthy human subjects, we show that Imprime-induced anti-cancer functionality is dependent on immune complex formation with naturally-occurring, anti-β glucan antibodies (ABA). The formation of Imprime-ABA complexes activates complement, primarily via the classical complement pathway, and is opsonized by iC3b. Immune complex binding depends upon Complement Receptor 3 and Fcg Receptor IIa, eliciting phenotypic activation of, and enhanced chemokine production by, neutrophils and monocytes, enabling these effector cells to kill antibody-opsonized tumor cells via the generation of reactive oxygen species and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Importantly, these innate immune cell changes were not evident in subjects with low ABA levels but could be rescued with exogenous ABA supplementation. Together, these data indicate that pre-existing ABA are essential for Imprime-mediated anti-cancer immune activation and suggest that pre-treatment ABA levels may provide a plausible patient selection biomarker to delineate patients most likely to benefit from Imprime-based therapy. PMID:27812183

  9. Imprime PGG-Mediated Anti-Cancer Immune Activation Requires Immune Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Anissa S H; Jonas, Adria Bykowski; Qiu, Xiaohong; Ottoson, Nadine R; Walsh, Richard M; Gorden, Keith B; Harrison, Ben; Maimonis, Peter J; Leonardo, Steven M; Ertelt, Kathleen E; Danielson, Michael E; Michel, Kyle S; Nelson, Mariana; Graff, Jeremy R; Patchen, Myra L; Bose, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Imprime PGG (Imprime), an intravenously-administered, soluble β-glucan, has shown compelling efficacy in multiple phase 2 clinical trials with tumor targeting or anti-angiogenic antibodies. Mechanistically, Imprime acts as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) directly activating innate immune effector cells, triggering a coordinated anti-cancer immune response. Herein, using whole blood from healthy human subjects, we show that Imprime-induced anti-cancer functionality is dependent on immune complex formation with naturally-occurring, anti-β glucan antibodies (ABA). The formation of Imprime-ABA complexes activates complement, primarily via the classical complement pathway, and is opsonized by iC3b. Immune complex binding depends upon Complement Receptor 3 and Fcg Receptor IIa, eliciting phenotypic activation of, and enhanced chemokine production by, neutrophils and monocytes, enabling these effector cells to kill antibody-opsonized tumor cells via the generation of reactive oxygen species and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Importantly, these innate immune cell changes were not evident in subjects with low ABA levels but could be rescued with exogenous ABA supplementation. Together, these data indicate that pre-existing ABA are essential for Imprime-mediated anti-cancer immune activation and suggest that pre-treatment ABA levels may provide a plausible patient selection biomarker to delineate patients most likely to benefit from Imprime-based therapy.

  10. Our Expedition in Linear Neutral Platinum-Acetylide Complexes: The Preparation of Micro/nanostructure Materials, Complicated Topologies, and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2016-06-01

    During the past few decades, the construction of various kinds of platinum-acetylide complexes has attracted considerable attention, because of their wide applications in photovoltaic cells, non-linear optics, and bio-imaging materials. Among these platinum-acetylide complexes, the linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes, due to their attractive properties, such as well-defined linear geometry, synthetic accessibility, and intriguing photoproperties, have emerged as a rising star in this field. In this personal account, we will discuss how we entered the field of linear neutral platinum-acetylide chemistry and what we found in this field. The preparation of various types of linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes and their applications in the areas of micro/nanostructure materials, complicated topologies, and dye-sensitized solar cells will be summarized in this account.

  11. Excited-state absorption in a terpyridyl platinum(II) pentynyl complex.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Timothy M; Sun, Wenfang; Guo, Fengqi; Zhang, Bingguang; Ferry, Michael J; Rogers-Haley, Joy E; Shensky, William; Mott, Andrew G

    2008-05-15

    The singlet excited-state lifetime of a terpyridyl platinum(II) pentynyl complex was determined to be 268+/-87 ps by fitting femtosecond transient absorption data, the triplet excited-state lifetime was found to be 62 ns by fitting nanosecond transient absorption decay data, and the triplet quantum yield was measured to be 0.16. A ground-state absorption cross section of 2.5 x 10(-19) cm(2) at 532 nm was deduced from UV-vis absorption data. Excited-state absorption cross sections of 3.5 x 10(-17) cm(2) (singlet) and 4.5 x 10(-17) cm(2) (triplet) were obtained by using a five-level dynamic model to fit open-aperture Z scans at picosecond and nanosecond pulse widths and a variety of pulse energies.

  12. Quantum spin fluctuations in quasi-one-dimensional chlorine-bridged platinum complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Donohoe, Robert J.; Wang, Wen Z.; Bishop, Alan R.; Gammel, Jan T.

    1997-12-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of spin dynamic process in the quasi-one-dimensional chlorine- bridged platinum complex, [PtII(en)2][PtIV(en)2Cl2](ClO4)4, where en equals ethylenediamine, C2N2H8. The process manifests itself in collapsing of the hyperfine and superhyperfine structures in the electron spin resonance spectrum and non-statistical distribution of spectral weight of the Pt isotopes. More surprisingly, it is activated only at temperatures below 6 K. We interpret the phenomenon in terms of quantum tunneling of the electronic spin in a strong electron-electron and electron-phonon coupling regime. This is modeled using a non-adiabatic many-body approach, in which polarons and solitons represent local spin-Peierls regions in a strongly disproportional charge- density-wave background and display intriguing spin-charge separation in the form of pinned charge and tunneling spin fluctuations.

  13. A self-polishing platinum ring voltammetric sensor and its application to complex media.

    PubMed

    Cavanillas, Santiago; Winquist, Fredrik; Eriksson, Mats

    2015-02-15

    A self-polishing voltammetric sensor was recently developed and has been applied to samples of urea, milk and sewage water. The polishing device continuously grinds a platinum ring electrode, offering a reproducible and clean electrode surface. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) techniques were applied to interpret the data and to build prediction models. In an evaluation of samples with different urea concentrations, the grinding step allows for repeatable measurements, similar to those after electrochemical cleaning. Furthermore, for the determination of sewage water concentrations in drinking water and for the evaluation of different fat contents in milk samples, the polishing eliminates sensor drift produced by electrode fouling. The results show that the application of a self-polishing unit offers a promising tool for electrochemical studies of difficult analytes and complex media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes.

    PubMed

    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, M J; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, C R; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, P J; Sharma, R A

    2016-02-12

    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5-10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer.

  15. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, MJ; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, CR; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, PJ; Sharma, RA

    2016-01-01

    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5–10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer. PMID:26867983

  16. Evaluation of fluorophore-tethered platinum complexes to monitor the fate of cisplatin analogs

    PubMed Central

    Jagodinsky, Justin C.; Sulima, Agnieszka; Cao, Yiqi; Poprawski, Joanna E.; Blackman, Burchelle N.; Lloyd, John R.; Swenson, Rolf E.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Hall, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are highly utilized in the clinic and as a consequence have been extensively studied in the laboratory setting, sometimes by generating fluorophore-tagged analogs. Here, we synthesized two Pt(II) complexes containing ethane-1,2-diamine ligands linked to a BODIPY fluorophore, and compared their biological activity with previously reported Pt(II) complexes conjugated to carboxyfluorescein and carboxyfluorescein diacetate. The cytotoxicity and DNA-damage capacity of Pt-fluorophore complexes was compared to cisplatin, and the Pt-BODIPY complexes were found to be more cytotoxic with reduced cytotoxicity in cisplatin-resistant cells. Microscopy revealed a predominately cytosolic localization, with nuclear distribution at higher concentrations. Spheroids grown from parent and resistant cells revealed penetration of Pt-BODIPY into spheroids, and retention of the cisplatin-resistant spheroid phenotype. While most activity profiles were retained for the Pt-BODIPY complexes, accumulation in resistant cells was only slightly affected, suggesting that some aspects of Pt-fluorophore cellular pharmacology deviate from cisplatin. PMID:26323351

  17. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rachel E.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; McKenzie, Luke K.; Stasheuski, Alexander S.; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A.; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1–1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm‑2) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin.

  18. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Rachel E.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; McKenzie, Luke K.; Stasheuski, Alexander S.; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A.; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1–1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm−2) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin. PMID:26940077

  19. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Rachel E; Sazanovich, Igor V; McKenzie, Luke K; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A; Bryant, Helen E

    2016-03-04

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm(-2)) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin.

  20. Anticancer osmium complex inhibitors of the HIF-1α and p300 protein-protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wanhe; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-01

    The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been considered to be an attractive anti-cancer target. One strategy to inhibit HIF activity is through the disruption of the HIF-1α–p300 protein-protein interaction. We report herein the identification of an osmium(II) complex as the first metal-based inhibitor of the HIF-1α–p300 interaction. We evaluated the effect of complex 1 on HIF-1α signaling pathway in vitro and in cellulo by using the dual luciferase reporter assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay, and immunoblot assay. Complex 1 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of HRE-driven luciferase activity, with an IC50 value of 1.22 μM. Complex 1 interfered with the HIF-1α–p300 interaction as revealed by a dose-dependent reduction of p300 co-precipitated with HIF-1α as the concentration of complex 1 was increased. Complex 1 repressed the phosphorylation of SRC, AKT and STAT3, and had no discernible effect on the activity of NF-κB. We anticipate that complex 1 could be utilized as a promising scaffold for the further development of more potent HIF-1α inhibitors for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:28225008

  1. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-04

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction.

  2. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Michał; Garnuszek, Piotr

    2010-02-01

    Pt(II)(IT-[(125)I]Carnosine) complex; however, at the same time the lowest concentration in kidneys was noted. Preliminary studies in the rat's tumor model indicated for this complex a favorable tumor to muscle ratio. In the case of Pt(IV)(IT-[*I]Carnosine) apart from ca. 12-times decrease of the liver accumulation, additional 4-times decrease of an accumulation in kidneys was observed in comparison to the Pt(IV)([*I]Hist)(2) complex. Our study showed that the short peptides can be efficiently substituted to the platinum core via the reactive sulfhydryl group introduced by SATA or 2-IT. The new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine possess favorable biodistribution schemes, which make them potential candidates for radio-chemotherapeutical agents. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of the equatorial coordination sphere on the rate of reduction, lipophilicity and cytotoxic activity of platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Doris; Varbanov, Hristo P; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2017-09-01

    The impact of the equatorial coordination sphere on the reduction behavior (i.e. rate of reduction) of platinum(IV) complexes with axial carboxylato ligands was studied. Moreover, the influence of equatorial ligands on the stability, lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of platinum(IV) compounds was evaluated. For this purpose, a series of platinum(IV) complexes featuring axial carboxylato ligands (succinic acid monoesters) was synthesized; anionic carboxylato (OAc(-), oxalate) and halido (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) ligands served as leaving groups and am(m)ine carrier ligands were provided by monodentately (isopropylamine, ammine+cyclohexaneamine) or bidentately (ethane-1,2-diamine) coordinating am(m)ines. All platinum(IV) products were fully characterized based on elemental analysis, high resolution mass spectrometry and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray diffraction in some cases. The rate of reduction in the presence of ascorbic acid was determined by NMR spectroscopy and the lipophilicity of the complexes was investigated by analytical reversed phase HPLC measurements. Cytotoxic properties were studied by means of a colorimetric microculture assay in three human cancer cell lines derived from cisplatin sensitive ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA-1) as well as cisplatin insensitive colon carcinoma (SW480) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On the electronic structure of nitro-substituted bipyridines and their platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Paul R; Crawford, Stephen; Dawson, Alice; Delf, Alexander; Findlay, Calum; Jack, Lorna; McInnes, Eric J L; Al-Musharafi, Salma; Nichol, Gary S; Oswald, Iain; Yellowlees, Lesley J

    2012-01-07

    We report the preparation and electrochemical studies of a systematic series of mono- and di-nitro-substituted 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) compounds [x-NO(2)-bipy (x = 3,4) and x,x'-(NO(2))(2)-bipy (x,x' = 3, 4, 5)] and their complexes with platinum(II), [Pt(x-NO(2)-bipy)Cl(2)] and [Pt(x,x'-(NO(2))(2)-bipy)Cl(2)]. The effect of the number and substitution pattern of the nitro groups on the low-lying acceptor molecular orbitals (involved in charge transfer transitions) is probed by in situ UV/Vis/NIR and EPR spectroelectrochemical methods, supported by DFT calculations. The LUMOs of x-NO(2)-bipy (x = 3-5) are largely localised on the NO(2)-pyridyl moiety; this is also true of their {PtCl(2)} complexes but with a small but significant shift of electron density from the nitro groups. The LUMOs of x,x'-(NO(2))(2)-bipy with x = 3 and 5 are delocalised over both NO(2)-pyridyl rings, but for 4,4'-(NO(2))(2)-bipy is localised on a single NO(2)-pyridyl ring. In all cases the LUMO of the [Pt(x,x'-(NO(2))(2)-bipy)Cl(2)] complexes is delocalised over both nitro-pyridyl rings. For all complexes, the 4(4') derivatives allows greatest overlap with metal valence orbitals in the LUMO.

  5. Increasing the bioavailability of Ru(III) anticancer complexes through hydrophobic albumin interactions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michael I; Wu, Boris; Jang, Thalia; Chard, Ryan A; Wong, Edwin W Y; Wong, May Q; Yapp, Donald T T; Walsby, Charles J

    2013-12-09

    A series of pyridine-based derivatives of the clinically successful Ru(III)-based complexes indazolium [trans-RuCl4(1H-indazole)2] (KP1019) and sodium [trans-RuCl4(1H-indazole)2] (KP1339) have been synthesized to probe the effect of hydrophobic interactions with human serum albumin (hsA) on anticancer activity. The solution behavior and protein interactions of the new compounds were characterized by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. These studies have revealed that incorporation of hydrophobic substituents at the 4'-position of the axial pyridine ligand stabilizes non-coordinate interactions with hsA. As a consequence, direct coordination to the protein is inhibited, which is expected to increase the bioavailability of the complexes, thus potentially leading to improved anticancer activity. By using this approach, the lifetimes of hydrophobic protein interactions were extended from 2 h for the unsubstituted pyridine complex, to more than 24 h for several derivatives. Free complexes were tested for their anticancer activity against the SW480 human colon carcinoma cell line, exhibiting low cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment with hsA improved the solubility of every compound and led to some changes in activity. Particularly notable was the difference in activity between the methyl- and dibenzyl-functionalized complexes. The former shows reduced activity after incubation with hsA, indicating reduced bioavailability due to protein coordination. The latter exhibits little activity on its own but, following treatment with hsA, exhibited significant cytotoxicity, which is consistent with its ability to form non-coordinate interactions with the protein. Overall, our studies demonstrate that non-coordinate interactions with hsA are a viable target for enhancing the activity of Ru(III)-based complexes in vivo.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of kaempferol-zinc(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Tu, Lv-Ying; Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Cai, Ji-Ye; Deng, Sui-Ping

    2016-06-01

    According to the previous studies, the anticancer activity of flavonoids could be enhanced when they are coordinated with transition metal ions. In this work, kaempferol-zinc(II) complex (kaempferol-Zn) was synthesized and its chemical properties were characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) and fluorescence spectroscopy, which showed that the synthesized complex was coordinated with a Zn(II) ion via the 3-OH and 4-oxo groups. The anticancer effects of kaempferol-Zn and free kaempferol on human oesophageal cancer cell line (EC9706) were compared. MTT results demonstrated that the killing effect of kaempferol-Zn was two times higher than that of free kaempferol. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the morphological and ultrastructural changes of cellular membrane induced by kaempferol-Zn at subcellular or nanometer level. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis indicated that kaempferol-Zn could induce apoptosis in EC9706 cells by regulating intracellular calcium ions. Collectively, all the data showed that kaempferol-Zn might be served as a kind of potential anticancer agent.

  7. Polynuclear ruthenium, osmium and gold complexes. The quest for innovative anticancer chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hartinger, Christian G; Phillips, Andrew D; Nazarov, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    Polynuclear compounds are a relatively new and successful approach in metal-based cancer chemotherapy as typified by the trinuclear Pt compound BBR3464 which was evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss newer developments of polynuclear ruthenium, osmium and gold complexes, focusing on their anticancer activity. The compounds presented are often supposed to exert their anticancer activity by different modes of action as compared to established drugs, including newly proposed mechanisms such as enzyme inhibition, crosslinking of biomacromolecules or through photo-activation, though many of the examples are also capable of binding to DNA nucleobases. Important metabolization and chemical characteristics of such compounds are discussed, and if the appropriate data is available, molecular modes of action are highlighted.

  8. Conjugation of platinum(IV) complexes with chlorambucil to overcome cisplatin resistance via a "joint action" mode toward DNA.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaodong; Fang, Lei; Chen, Feihong; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-09-08

    Two platinum(IV) complexes were designed and prepared by conjugation of cisplatin and oxaliplatin units with a DNA-damaging agent, chlorambucil, respectively. By taking a joint action to enhance the damage of DNA, the conjugates displayed potent antitumor activity against all the tested cancer cell lines comparable to cisplatin and oxaliplatin, and notably could overcome cisplatin resistance at certain degree. Complex 4, a hybrid of cisplatin and chlorambucil, arrested the cell cycle at the S and G2 phases, distinctive from those of cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Apoptosis studies revealed that complex 4 could induce cell apoptosis significantly in both SGC7901 and SGC7901/CDDP cells. Moreover, further investigation indicated that complex 4 suppressed the drug resistance by the improvement of the platinum uptake and the inhibition of PRAP-1 protein. These results show that the "joint action" on DNA is an effective strategy to overcome cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Potent anticancer activity of photo-activated oxo-bridged diiron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Chanu, S Binita; Banerjee, Samya; Roy, Mithun

    2017-01-05

    Cancer-specific anticancer drugs are still an elusive goal. Using light as the temporal control to generate cytotoxic species from photo-activated prodrug in the presence or absence of molecular oxygen has shown potential application targeted chemotherapy as in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present work we explored the chemistry of several photo-active (μ-oxo)diiron(III) complexes of the following formulation [{Fe(μ-O) (L-his)(B)}2](ClO4)2 (1a-1c), [Fe2(μ-O)(H2O)2B4](ClO4)4 (2b, 2c) and [Fe2(μ-O)(μ-O2CMe)B4](ClO4)3 (3b, 3c), L-his = l-histidine, B is 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq) complexes for tumor-specific anticancer activity. Facile redox chemistry and photochemical aspects of the complexes prompted us to investigate the cytotoxic as well as the photo-activated cytotoxic properties of the complexes to the cancer cells. In the present investigation we explored the cancer-specific condition of excess concentration of H2O2 for our approach to targeted chemotherapy. Cytotoxic effect of the complexes to the cancer cells was found to be significantly higher than in normal cells indicating tumor-specific anticancer activity of the complexes. Cytotoxic effect was even more pronounced when the cancer cells treated with the complexes were exposed to the visible light (400-700 nm). There was >12 fold increase in cytotoxicity of the photoactivated complexes in cancer cells (MCF-7) in comparison to the normal cells (MCF-10a). We have defined a factor viz. cancer cell specificity factor (f) describing the targeted photochemotherapeutic effect of the complexes at their specific concentration. The factor (f) > 1 indicated the cancer cell specificity of the complexes, while f > 2.5 for the complexes under the visible light exposure suggested photodynamic effect. DCFDA assay indicated the presence of excess of ROS in the treated HeLa cells. ROS concentration was found to increase even more on visible

  10. Cyclometalated iridium(III)-guanidinium complexes as mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Xing-Dong; Kong, Xia; He, Shu-Fen; Chen, Jia-Xi; Sun, Jing; Chen, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Jin-Wu; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2017-09-29

    Guanidinium-functionalized molecules are commonly studied for their use as pharmaceutically active compounds and drugs carriers. Herein, four cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing guanidinium ligands have been synthesized and characterized as potential anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit moderate antitumor activity in HeLa, MCF-7, HepG2, CNE-2, and A549 human tumor cells. Interestingly, all complexes showed higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin against a cisplatin-resistant cell line A549R, and less cytotoxicity on the nontumorigenic LO2 cells. Intracellular distribution studies suggest that these complexes are selectively localized in the mitochondria. Mechanism studies indicate that these complexes arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and can influence mitochondrial integrity, inducing cancer cell death through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Ester-Modified Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as Mitochondria-Targeting Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Xin; Chen, Mu-He; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Ye, Rui-Rong; Tan, Cai-Ping; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Organometallic iridium complexes are potent anticancer candidates which act through different mechanisms from cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens. Here, ten phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing 2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid and its diester derivatives as ligands are designed and synthesized. The modification by ester group, which can be hydrolysed by esterase, facilitates the adjustment of drug-like properties. The quantum yields and emission lifetimes are influenced by variation of the ester substituents on the Ir(III) complexes. The cytotoxicity of these Ir(III) complexes is correlated with the length of their ester groups. Among them, 4a and 4b are found to be highly active against a panel of cancer cells screened, including cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Mechanism studies in vitro indicate that they undergo hydrolysis of ester bonds, accumulate in mitochondria, and induce a series of cell-death related events mediated by mitochondria. Furthermore, 4a and 4b can induce pro-death autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously. Our study indicates that ester modification is a simple and feasible strategy to enhance the anticancer potency of Ir(III) complexes. PMID:27958338

  12. N6-benzyladenosine derivatives as novel N-donor ligands of platinum(II) dichlorido complexes.

    PubMed

    Starha, Pavel; Popa, Igor; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Vančo, Ján

    2013-06-14

    The platinum(II) complexes trans-[PtCl₂(Ln)₂]∙xSolv 1-13 (Solv = H₂O or CH3OH), involving N6-benzyladenosine-based N-donor ligands, were synthesized; L(n) stands for N6-(2-methoxybenzyl)adenosine (L₁, involved in complex 1), N6-(4-methoxy-benzyl)adenosine (L₂, 2), N6-(2-chlorobenzyl)adenosine (L₃, 3), N6-(4-chlorobenzyl)-adenosine (L₄, 4), N6-(2-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine (L₅, 5), N6-(3-hydroxybenzyl)-adenosine (L₆, 6), N6-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)adenosine (L₇, 7), N6-(4-fluoro-benzyl)adenosine (L₈, 8), N6-(4-methylbenzyl)adenosine (L₉, 9), 2-chloro-N6-(3-hydroxy-benzyl)adenosine (L₁₀, 10), 2-chloro-N6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine (L₁₁, 11), 2-chloro-N6-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)adenosine (L₁₂, 12) and 2-chloro-N6-(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)adenosine (L₁₃, 13). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and multinuclear (¹H-, ¹³C-, ¹⁹⁵Pt- and ¹⁵N-) and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, which proved the N7-coordination mode of the appropriate N6-benzyladenosine derivative and trans-geometry of the title complexes. The complexes 1-13 were found to be non-toxic in vitro against two selected human cancer cell lines (HOS and MCF7; with IC₅₀ > 50.0 µM). However, they were found (by ESI-MS study) to be able to interact with the physiological levels of the sulfur-containing biogenic biomolecule L-methionine by a relatively simple 1:1 exchange mechanism (one L(n) molecule was replaced by one L-methionine molecule), thus forming a mixed-nitrogen/sulfur-ligand dichlorido-platinum(II) coordination species.

  13. Circular dichroism spectroscopy study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in chiral platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Jin-Cheng; Li, Cheng-Hui; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Two couples of enantiomeric platinum(II) complexes: Pt(L1a )Cl (1a), Pt(L1b )Cl (1b) and Pt(L1a )(C ≡ C - Ph) (2a), Pt(L1b )(C ≡ C - Ph) (2b) (L1a  = (+)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene, L1b  = (-)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene) were synthesized and characterized. Their absolute configurations were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and further verified by circular dichroism (CD) spectra (including electronic circular dichroism [ECD] and vibrational circular dichroism [VCD]). These complexes show interesting mechanoluminescence and/or vapoluminescence due to crystalline-to-amorphous transformation. The crystalline solids, grinding-induced amorphous powders, and vapor-induced amorphous powders of complexes 2a and 2b were comparatively investigated by solid-state ECD and VCD spectra. The transformation from crystalline solids to amorphous powders was accompanied by significant variances of the spectral feature in both ECD and VCD spectra. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Platinum(II) metal complexes as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents.

    PubMed

    Vieites, Marisol; Otero, Lucía; Santos, Diego; Toloza, Jeannette; Figueroa, Roberto; Norambuena, Ester; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Aguirre, Gabriela; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Morello, Antonio; Maya, Juan Diego; Garat, Beatriz; Gambino, Dinorah

    2008-01-01

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) two series of new platinum(II) complexes with bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones as ligands were synthesized, characterized and in vitro evaluated. Most of the complexes showed IC50 values in the muM range against two different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of the disease, being as active as the anti-trypanosomal drug Nifurtimox. In particular, the coordination of L3 (4-ethyl-1-(5-nitrofurfurylidene)thiosemicarbazide) to Pt(II) forming [Pt(L3)2] lead to almost a five-fold activity increase in respect to the free ligand. Trying to get an insight into the trypanocidal mechanism of action of these compounds, DNA and redox metabolism (intra-parasite free radical production) were evaluated as potential parasite targets. Results suggest that the complexes could inhibit parasite growth through a dual mechanism of action involving production of toxic free radicals by bioreduction and DNA interaction.

  15. Anticancer activity of BIM-46174, a new inhibitor of the heterotrimeric Galpha/Gbetagamma protein complex.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Grégoire P; Lonchampt, Marie O; Holbeck, Susan; Attoub, Samir; Zaharevitz, Daniel; Alley, Mike; Wright, John; Brezak, Marie C; Coulomb, Hélène; Savola, Ann; Huchet, Marion; Chaumeron, Sophie; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Forgez, Patricia; Bruyneel, Erik; Bracke, Mark; Ferrandis, Eric; Roubert, Pierre; Demarquay, Danièle; Gespach, Christian; Kasprzyk, Philip G

    2006-09-15

    A large number of hormones and local agonists activating guanine-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) play a major role in cancer progression. Here, we characterize the new imidazo-pyrazine derivative BIM-46174, which acts as a selective inhibitor of heterotrimeric G-protein complex. BIM-46174 prevents the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling linked to several GPCRs mediating (a) cyclic AMP generation (Galphas), (b) calcium release (Galphaq), and (c) cancer cell invasion by Wnt-2 frizzled receptors and high-affinity neurotensin receptors (Galphao/i and Galphaq). BIM-46174 inhibits the growth of a large panel of human cancer cell lines, including anticancer drug-resistant cells. Exposure of cancer cells to BIM-46174 leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. National Cancer Institute COMPARE analysis for BIM-46174 supports its novel pharmacologic profile compared with 12,000 anticancer agents. The growth rate of human tumor xenografts in athymic mice is significantly reduced after administration of BIM-46174 combined with either cisplatin, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, or topoisomerase inhibitors. Our data validate the feasibility of targeting heterotrimeric G-protein functions downstream the GPCRs to improve anticancer chemotherapy.

  16. Synthesis and Structural Properties of Aza[n]helicene Platinum Complexes: Control of Cis and Trans Stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mendola, Daniele; Saleh, Nidal; Hellou, Nora; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Roussel, Christian; Toupet, Loïc; Castiglione, Franca; Melone, Federica; Caronna, Tullio; Fontana, Francesca; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Parisini, Emilio; Malpezzi, Luciana; Mele, Andrea; Crassous, Jeanne

    2016-03-07

    The synthesis and structural characterization of azahelicene platinum complexes obtained from cis-PtCl2(NCEt)(PPh3) and from ligands that differ in terms of both the position of the nitrogen atom and the number of fused rings are reported. These square-planar complexes of the general formula PtCl2(nHm)(PPh3) (n = 4, 5; m = 5, 6) display mainly a cis configuration. However, by X-ray crystallographic analysis, we show that for both PtCl2(4H6)(PPh3) and PtCl2(5H6)(PPh3) there is chirality control of the cis/trans stereochemistry. Indeed, starting from a racemic mixture of aza[6]helicene, platinum complexes with a cis configuration are invariably obtained, and the more thermodynamically stable trans isomers are formed when using enantiopure ligands. We further corroborated these results by NMR analysis in solution.

  17. Photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity of a ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complex.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Viktor; Pracharova, Jitka; Stepankova, Jana; Sadler, Peter J; Kasparkova, Jana

    2016-07-01

    We report DNA cleavage by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complex [(η(6)-p-terp)Ru(II)(en)Cl](+) (p-terp=para-terphenyl, en=1,2-diaminoethane, complex 1) after its photoactivation by UVA and visible light, and the toxic effects of photoactivated 1 in cancer cells. It was shown in our previous work (T. Bugarcic et al., J. Med. Chem. 51 (2008) 5310-5319) that this complex exhibits promising toxic effects in several human tumor cell lines and concomitantly its DNA binding mode involves combined intercalative and monofunctional (coordination) binding modes. We demonstrate in the present work that when photoactivated by UVA or visible light, 1 efficiently photocleaves DNA, also in hypoxic media. Studies of the mechanism underlying DNA cleavage by photoactivated 1 reveal that the photocleavage reaction does not involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although contribution of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) to the DNA photocleavage process cannot be entirely excluded. Notably, the mechanism of DNA photocleavage by 1 appears to involve a direct modification of mainly those guanine residues to which 1 is coordinatively bound. As some tumors are oxygen-deficient and cytotoxic effects of photoactivated ruthenium compounds containing {Ru(η(6)-arene)}(2+) do not require the presence of oxygen, this class of ruthenium complexes may be considered potential candidate agents for improved photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal complexes of curcumin for cellular imaging, targeting, and photoinduced anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samya; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2015-07-21

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic species. As an active ingredient of turmeric, it is well-known for its traditional medicinal properties. The therapeutic values include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anticancer activity with the last being primarily due to inhibition of the transcription factor NF-κB besides affecting several biological pathways to arrest tumor growth and its progression. Curcumin with all these positive qualities has only remained a potential candidate for cancer treatment over the years without seeing any proper usage because of its hydrolytic instability involving the diketo moiety in a cellular medium and its poor bioavailability. The situation has changed considerably in recent years with the observation that curcumin in monoanionic form could be stabilized on binding to a metal ion. The reports from our group and other groups have shown that curcumin in the metal-bound form retains its therapeutic potential. This has opened up new avenues to develop curcumin-based metal complexes as anticancer agents. Zinc(II) complexes of curcumin are shown to be stable in a cellular medium. They display moderate cytotoxicity against prostate cancer and neuroblastoma cell lines. A similar stabilization and cytotoxic effect is reported for (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of curcumin against a variety of cell lines. The half-sandwich 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[3.3.1.1]decane (RAPTA)-type ruthenium(II) complexes of curcumin are shown to be promising cytotoxic agents with low micromolar concentrations for a series of cancer cell lines. In a different approach, cobalt(III) complexes of curcumin are used for its cellular delivery in hypoxic tumor cells using intracellular agents that reduce the metal and release curcumin as a cytotoxin. Utilizing the photophysical and photochemical properties of the curcumin dye, we have designed and synthesized photoactive curcumin metal complexes that are used for cellular imaging by fluorescence microscopy and

  19. Guanidine platinum(II) complexes: synthesis, in vitro antitumor activity, and DNA interactions☆

    PubMed Central

    Legin, Anton A.; Jakupec, Michael A.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Tyan, Marina R.; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu.; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2014-01-01

    The novel guanidine compounds trans-[Pt(NH2Me)2{NH=C(NHMe)NR}2](Cl)2 (R = NEt2 [7], NC5H10 [8]) (trans-7,8) were synthesized by the nucleophilic addition of methylamine to dialkylcyanamide ligands of the push–pull nitrile complexes trans-[PtCl2(RCN)2] (R = NEt2, NC5H10). In vitro cytotoxicity tests conducted for the entire series of the guanidine complexes, i.e. trans-7,8, the neutral cis- or trans-[PtCl2{NH=C(NH2)R}2] (cis-1–3 and trans-1–3) and the cationic cis- or trans-[Pt(NH3)2{NH=C(NH2)R}2](Cl)2 (cis-4–6 and trans-4–6) (R = NMe2 [1,4], NEt2 [2,5], NC5H10 [3,6]) in two human cancer cell lines, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma) and SW480 (colon cancer), confirmed that the cytotoxicity of several trans-configured (trans-3,6) complexes is higher than that of cis-congeners (cis-3,6). Cellular platinum levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry upon treatment of SW480 cells, revealing a dependence of cellular accumulation on the geometrical isomerism and the steric hindrance of the variable substituent R on the guanidine ligand. DNA interactions of selected guanidine complexes were studied in order to find hints for the possible reasons for their different activities. Changes induced to the electrophoretic mobility of a dsDNA plasmid confirmed the potency of the guanidine complexes (e.g. trans-1,3,5,6 and cis-1,3,4) to significantly alter DNA secondary structure, indicating DNA as a possible critical target of these compounds. PMID:24444821

  20. Easy Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(alkoxysilane)s Promoted by Silver-Platinum Mixed Complexes.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sung-Hee; Lee, In-Hwa; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Noh, Ji Eun; Lee, Ki Bok; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Bo Hye; Jun, Jin; Sohn, Honglae

    2015-01-01

    One-pot Si-Si/Si-O dehydrocoupling of hydrosilanes with alcohols (1:1.5 mole ratio), promoted by a mixture of AgNO3-H2PtCl6 (150/1 mole ratio) readily gave poly(alkoxysilane)s in good yield (62-91%). The addition of small amount of platinum complex to form nanoparticles facilitated the silicon polymer formation when compared to the reaction rate with AgNO3 alone. The primary/secondary hydrosilanes [p-X-C6H4SiH3 (X = H, CH3, OCH3, F), PhCH2SiH3, and (PhSiH2)2] and alcohols [MeOH, EtOH, (i)PrOH, PhOH, and CF3(CF2)2CH2OH] were used for the reaction. The weight average molecular weight and polydispersity of the poly(alkoxysilane)s were in the range of 1,690-7,100 Dalton and 1.44-3.49, respectively. The reaction of phenylsilane with ethanol (1:3 mole ratio) using the Ag-Pt complexes produced triethoxyphenylsilane only, as expected. The reaction of phenylsilane with Ge-132 produced an insoluble cross-linked gel.

  1. Structural properties of platinum(II) biphenyl complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rillema, D. Paul; Cruz, Arvin J.; Tasset, Brandon J.; Moore, Curtis; Siam, Khamis; Huang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Seven platinum(II) complexes formulated as Pt(bph)L, where bph is the 2,2'-biphenyl dianion and L = 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4-Mephen), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Mephen), 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Clphen), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5,6-Me2phen), 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Me2phen), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Ph2phen) and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3,4,7,8-Me4phen) are reported. Protons attached to the phen ligand resonate downfield from those attached to the bph ligand and two proton signals are split by interaction with 195Pt. Pt(bph)(3,4,7,8-Me4phen), Pt(bph)(4,7-Me2phen), Pt(bph)(5,6-Me2phen), Pt(bph)(4,7-Ph2phen) and Pt(bph)(5-Mephen) crystallize in the space groups Pna21, P21/n, P21/c, P - 1 and Pca21, respectively. The structures of the complexes deviate from true planarity and divide themselves into two groups where the bph and phen ligands cross in an X configuration or bow out in a butterfly (B) configuration. Circular dichroism revealed two different spectra with respect to the X and B configurations.

  2. When self-assembly meets biology: luminescent platinum complexes for imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Matteo; Aliprandi, Alessandro; Septiadi, Dedy; Kehr, Nermin Seda; De Cola, Luisa

    2014-06-21

    Luminescent platinum complexes have attractive chemical and photophysical properties such as high stability, emission in the visible region, high emission quantum yields and long excited state lifetimes. However the absorption spectrum of the compounds in the UV region, preventing their excitation in the harmless visible/red region, as well as the strong quenching of the luminescent triplet state, caused by dioxygen in water and biological fluids, reduces their possible applications for imaging. Therefore a possible solution to these drawbacks is to take advantage of the high tendency of such square planar compounds to self-assemble in supramolecular structures. The assemblies can be considered new chemical species with enhanced and tunable properties. Furthermore the assembly and disassembly process can be explored as a tool to obtain dynamic labels that can be applied in biomedicine. The change in color, the turn on and off of luminescence but also of the reactivity, the protection from quenching and environmental degradation are some of the attractive properties connected to the aggregation of the complexes.

  3. Hydrogen versus fluorine: effects on molecular structure and intermolecular interactions in a platinum isocyanate complex.

    PubMed

    Raven, William; Joschko, Thomas; Kalf, Irmgard; Englert, Ulli

    2016-03-01

    At the molecular level, the enantiomerically pure square-planar organoplatinum complex (SP-4-4)-(R)-[2-(1-aminoethyl)-5-fluorophenyl-κ(2)C(1),N][(R)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethylamine-κN](isocyanato-κN)platinum(II), [Pt(C8H9FN)(NCO)(C8H10FN)], and its congener without fluorine substituents on the aryl rings adopt the same structure within error. The similarities between the compounds extend to the most relevant intermolecular interactions, i.e. N-H...O and N-H...N hydrogen bonds link neighbouring molecules into chains along the shortest lattice parameter in each structure. Differences between the crystal structures of the fluoro-substituted and parent complex become obvious with respect to secondary interactions perpendicular to the classical hydrogen bonds; the fluorinated compound features short C-H...F contacts with an F...H distance of ca 2.6 Å. The fluorine substitution is also reflected in reduced backbonding from the metal cation to the isocyanate ligand.

  4. Luminescence vapochromism of a platinum(II) complex for detection of low molecular weight halohydrocarbon.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Wu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Xu; Li, Bin; Zhang, Li-Yi; Chen, Zhong-Ning

    2009-11-02

    Platinum(II) complex [Pt(Me(3)SiC[triple bond]CbpyC[triple bond]CSiMe(3))(C[triple bond]CPh)(2)] (1) with 5,5-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)-2,2'-bipyridine (Me(3)SiC[triple bond]CbpyC[triple bond]CSiMe(3)) and phenylacetylene (PhC[triple bond]CH) exhibits unusual luminescence vapochromism to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3), and CH(3)I, which is useful for detection of volatile halohydrocarbon with one carbon atom and molecular weight less of than 150. Crystal structural determination of 1, 1 x CHCl(3), 1 x 1/2(CH(2)ClCH(2)Cl), and 1 x 1/2(toluene) revealed a staggered packing for 1 x CHCl(3) whereas there was an antiparallel packing for other three structures in stacking of planar platinum(II) moieties. The Pt...Pt distance is 3.302(1) A in 1 x CHCl(3), whereas it is >4.0 A in the other three structures. Complex 1 displays bright orange luminescence in dichloromethane solution, arising from pi(phenylacetylide)-->pi*(Me(3)SiC[triple bond]CbpyC[triple bond]CSiMe(3)) (3)LLCT and d(Pt)-->pi*(Me(3)SiC[triple bond]CbpyC[triple bond]CSiMe(3)) (3)MLCT triplet states which are supported by DFT calculation. The solid-state emission occurs at approximately 762 nm for 1 x VOC (VOC = CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3), and CH(3)I), whereas it was at approximately 562 (603sh) or 603 (562sh) nm for 1 and other 1 x VOC, corresponding to a vapochromic response shift of approximately 160-200 nm. The dramatic vapochromism and vapoluminescence of 1 to the vapor of CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3), or CH(3)I are induced by a reversible conversion of the emissive state from (3)MLCT/(3)LLCT character to (3)MMLCT/(3)LLCT state.

  5. Photolysis and thermolysis of platinum(IV) 2,2'-bipyridine complexes lead to identical platinum(II)-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Loup, Christophe; Tesouro Vallina, Ana; Coppel, Yannick; Létinois, Ulla; Nakabayashi, Yasuo; Meunier, Bernard; Lippert, Bernhard; Pratviel, Geneviève

    2010-10-04

    Two Pt(IV) and two Pt(II) complexes containing a 2,2'-bipyridine ligand were treated with a short DNA oligonucleotide under light irradiation at 37°C or in the dark at 37 and 50°C. Photolysis and thermolysis of the Pt(IV) complexes led to spontaneous reduction of the Pt(IV) to the corresponding Pt(II) complexes and to binding of Pt(II) 2,2'-bipyridine complexes to N7 of guanine. When the reduction product was [Pt(bpy)Cl(2)], formation of bis-oligonucleotide adducts was observed, whereas [Pt(bpy)(MeNH(2))Cl](+) gave monoadducts, with chloride ligands substituted in both cases. Neither in the dark nor under light irradiation was the reductive elimination process of these Pt(IV) complexes accompanied by oxidative DNA damage. This work raises the question of the stability of photoactivatable Pt(IV) complexes toward moderate heating conditions.

  6. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  7. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-09

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive.

  8. Ring-substituted diaqua(1,2-diphenylethylenediamine)platinum(II) sulfate reacts with DNA through a dissociable complex.

    PubMed

    Bernges, F; Holler, E

    1992-09-15

    Ring-substituted diaqua(1,2-diphenylethylenediamine)platinum(II) sulfate shows unusual kinetics in its reaction with salmon testis DNA. The mechanism for diaqua[meso-1,2-bis(2,6-dichloro-4- hydroxyphenyl)ethylenediamine]platinum(II) sulfate, [Pt(H2O)2(meso-6)]2+SO4(2-), a representative of this series, has been investigated and compared with that for cis-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)2]2+. Reactions were followed by atomic absorption, analytical HPLC of Pt-DNA digests, arrest of enzymatic DNA synthesis/degradation, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Except for the formation of monofunctional DNA adducts, the kinetics of the platinum(II) complexes are comparable. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for the attack of DNA by [Pt(H2O)2(meso-6)]2+ follows the concentration of DNA in a hyperbolic fashion, which is in contrast to the linear dependence for cis-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)2]2+. The hyperbolic dependence is typical for a dissociable DNA/drug complex preceding the coordination reaction. By studying the binding of free ligand to DNA, and by correlating ligand structures and electrostatic charges with effects on adduct formation, both the phenyl residues and the positive charge of the platinum(II) complex are shown to be crucial for the stability of the dissociable complex. A non-intercalative mode of binding to the DNA backbone is suggested. At the high concentrations of DNA found in cell nuclei, the reaction of the dissociable complex can, principally, become rate-limiting in the attack of DNA and thus reduce the cytotoxic efficiency of a drug.

  9. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of selected platinum(IV) and dinuclear platinum(II) complexes against lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Milos; Milovanovic, Marija; Jovanovic, Snezana; Arsenijevic, Natalija; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Gazdic, Marina; Volarevic, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, the most usually used chemotherapeutic agent, were compared with new designed platinum(IV) ([PtCl4(en)] (en = ethylenediamine) and [PtCl4(dach)]) (dach = (±)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane) and platinum(II) complexes ([{trans-Pt(NH3)2Cl}2(μ-pyrazine)](ClO4)2 (Pt1), [{trans-Pt(NH3)2Cl}2(μ-4,4'-bipyridyl)](ClO4)2DMF(Pt2),[{trans-Pt(NH3)2Cl}2(μ-1,2-bis(4pyridyl)ethane)](ClO4)2 (Pt3)), in vitro and in vivo against human and murine lung cancer cells, to determine anti-tumor potential of newly synthesized platinum-based drugs in the therapy of lung cancer. Results obtained by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], Lactate dehydrogenase and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide assays showed that, among all tested complexes, [PtCl4(en)] had the highest cytotoxicity against human and murine lung carcinoma cells in vitro. [PtCl4(en)] showed significantly higher cytotoxicity then cisplatin in all tested concentrations, mainly by inducing apoptosis in lung cancer cells. [PtCl4(en)] was well tolerated in vivo. Clinical signs of [PtCl4(en)]-induced toxicity, such as changes in food, water consumption or body weight, nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity was not observed in [PtCl4(en)]-treated mice. [PtCl4(en)] managed to increase presence of CD45+ leukocytes, including F4/80+ macrophages, CD11c+ dendritic cells, CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in the lungs, cytotoxic NK, NKT and CTLs in the spleens of tumor bearing mice, resulting with reduction of metastatic lesions in the lungs, indicating its potential to stimulate anti-tumor immune response in vivo. Due to its anti-tumor cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and potential for stimulation of anti-tumor immune response, [PtCl4(en)] may be a good candidate for further testing in the field of medicinal chemistry.

  10. Cyclometalated platinum(II) complex with strong and broadband nonlinear optical response.

    PubMed

    Shao, Pin; Li, Yunjing; Sun, Wenfang

    2008-02-14

    A cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2'-bipyridyl pentynyl complex (1) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Its photophysical and third-order nonlinear optical properties have been systematically investigated. This complex exhibits a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (1MLCT) absorption band between 400 and 500 nm and a 3MLCT emission band at approximately 591 nm at room temperature with a lifetime of approximately 100 ns. At 77 K, the emission band blue shifts. Both UV-vis absorption and emission spectra show solvent dependence. Low-polarity solvents cause a bathochromic shift of the absorption and emission bands. This complex also exhibits a broad and strong transient absorption from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region, with a triplet absorption coefficient of 4933 L mol(-1) cm(-1) at 585 nm and a quantum yield of 0.51 for the formation of the triplet excited state. Nonlinear transmission and Z-scan techniques were employed to characterize the third-order nonlinearities of this complex. A strong and broadband reverse saturable absorption was observed for nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses due to the reduced ground-state absorption in the visible spectral range. It also exhibits a self-defocusing effect at 532 nm for nanosecond laser pulses. The excited-state absorption cross section deduced from the open-aperture Z-scan increases at longer wavelengths, with an exceptionally large ratio of excited-state absorption to ground-state absorption of 160 at 570 nm for picosecond laser pulses.

  11. Polynuclear Hydroxido-Bridged Complexes of Platinum(IV) with Terminal Nitrato Ligands.

    PubMed

    Vasilchenko, Danila; Berdugin, Semen; Tkachev, Sergey; Baidina, Iraida; Romanenko, Galina; Gerasko, Olga; Korenev, Sergey

    2015-05-18

    For the first time the polynuclear hydroxido-bridged platinum(IV) nitrato complexes with nuclearity higher than two were isolated from nitric acid solutions of [Pt(H2O)2(OH)4] and crystallized as supramolecular compounds of macrocyclic cavitands cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n], n = 6,8) and 18-crown-6 ether: [Pt4(μ3-OH)2(μ2-OH)4(NO3)10]·CB[6]·25H2O (I), [Pt6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-OH)6(NO3)12](NO3)2·CB[8]·50H2O (II), and [H3O⊂18-crown-6]2[Pt2(μ2-OH)2(NO3)8][Pt4(μ3-OH)2(μ2-OH)4(NO3)10] (III). The isolation of the compounds in the single crystalline state allows the determination of the structure of the tetranuclear and hexanuclear complexes [Pt4(μ3-OH)2(μ2-OH)4(NO3)10] and [Pt6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-OH)6(NO3)12](2+), which have been previously unknown in the solid state. Stability of Ptx(OH)y cores of the polynuclear nitrato complexes toward alkaline hydrolysis was verified by (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of (195)Pt NMR spectra of the compound III reveals that addition of every Pt(μ-OH)2Pt ring results in ∼260 ppm downfield shift relative to the mononuclear form, which allows the prediction of signal positions for complexes of higher nuclearity.

  12. DNA interstrand cross-links of an antitumor trinuclear platinum(II) complex: thermodynamic analysis and chemical probing.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Farrell, Nicholas P; Brabec, Viktor

    2011-06-06

    The trinuclear platinum compound [{trans-PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)(μ-trans-Pt(NH(3))(2){NH(2)(CH(2))(6)NH(2)}(2))](4+) (BBR3464) belongs to the polynuclear class of platinum-based anticancer agents. These agents form in DNA long-range (Pt,Pt) interstrand cross-links, whose role in the antitumor effects of BBR3464 predominates. Our results show for the first time that the interstrand cross-links formed by BBR3464 between two guanine bases in opposite strands separated by two base pairs (1,4-interstrand cross-links) exist as two distinct conformers, which are not interconvertible, not only if these cross-links are formed in the 5'-5', but also in the less-usual 3'-3' direction. Analysis of the conformers by differential scanning calorimetry, chemical probes of DNA conformation, and minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 demonstrate that each of the four conformers affects DNA in a distinctly different way and adopts a different conformation. The results also support the thesis that the molecule of antitumor BBR3464 when forming DNA interstrand cross-links may adopt different global structures, including different configurations of the linker chain of BBR3464 in the minor groove of DNA. Our findings suggest that the multiple DNA interstrand cross-links available to BBR3464 may all contribute substantially to its cytotoxicity.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of ruthenium(II)-β-carboline complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Qin, Meng-Ying; Wu, Jing-Heng; Wang, Lei; Chao, Hui; Ji, Liang-Nian; Xu, An-Long

    2013-01-01

    Four [Ru(tpy)(N-N)(L)] type complexes: [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(Nh)](2+) (Ru1, tpy = 2,2';6',2″-terpyridine, bpy = 2'2-bipyridine, Nh = Norharman), [Ru(tpy)(phen)(Nh)](2+) (Ru2, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), [Ru(tpy)(dpa)(Nh)](2+) (Ru3, dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamine) and [Ru(tpy)(dip)(Nh)](2+) (Ru4, dip = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) were presented as anticancer drugs. In vitro cytotoxicity assays indicated that these complexes showed anticancer activity against various cancer cells. Flow cytometry and signaling pathways analysis demonstrated that these complexes induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. The resulting accumulation of p53 proteins from phosphorylation at serine-15 and serine-392 was correlated with an increase in p21 and caspase activation. Taken together, these findings suggested that Ru1-Ru4 may contribute to the future development of improved chemotherapeutics against human cancers.

  14. Tetracarboxylatoplatinum(IV) complexes featuring monodentate leaving groups - A rational approach toward exploiting the platinum(IV) prodrug strategy.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Doris; Varbanov, Hristo P; Legin, Anton; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-12-01

    A series of novel symmetrically and unsymmetrically coordinated platinum(IV) complexes with monodentate carboxylato ligands was synthesized. The compounds exhibit a general coordination sphere of [Pt(en)(OCOR)2(OCOR')(OCOR″)], where the carboxylato ligands are represented by acetato and succinic acid monoester ligands. Dicarboxylatoplatinum(II) complexes were synthesized and oxidized symmetrically or unsymmetrically to obtain platinum(IV) complexes, which were subsequently carboxylated with noncyclic anhydrides. The compounds were investigated in detail by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, infrared and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray diffraction in some cases. The reduction behavior was followed by NMR spectroscopy, while stability and lipophilicity were examined by analytical reversed phase HPLC measurements. Cytotoxic properties were studied in three human cancer cell lines derived from cisplatin sensitive ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA-1), cisplatin insensitive colon carcinoma (SW480) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549). Thereby, the most lipophilic (yet water soluble) platinum(IV) complexes showed promising IC50 values in the low micromolar and even nanomolar range, demonstrating the significant advantage of using equatorially coordinated monodentate carboxylato ligands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of carbohydrate platinum(IV) complexes with thioglycoside ligands.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Cornelia; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Schmidt, Jürgen; Rath, Nigam P; Rüffer, Tobias; Demchenko, Alexei V; Steinborn, Dirk

    2010-07-21

    Reactions of fac-[PtMe3(4,4'-R2bpy)(Me2CO)][BF4] (R = H, 1a; tBu, 1b) and fac-[PtMe3(OAc-kappa2O,O')(Me2CO)] (2), respectively, with thioglycosides containing thioethyl (ch-SEt) and thioimidate (ch-STaz, Taz = thiazoline-2-yl) anomeric groups led to the formation of the carbohydrate platinum(IV) complexes fac-[PtMe3(4,4-R2bpy)(ch*)][BF4] (ch* = ch-SEt, 8-14; ch-STaz, 15-23) and fac-[PtMe3(OAc-kappa2O,O')(ch*)] (ch* = ch-SEt, 24-28; ch-STaz = 29-35), respectively. NMR (1H, 13C, 195Pt) spectroscopic investigations and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 19 (ch-STaz = 2-thiazolinyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranose) revealed the S coordination of the ch-SEt glycosides and the N coordination of the ch-STaz glycosides. Furthermore, X-ray structure analyses of the two decomposition products fac-[PtMe3(bpy)(STazH-kappaS)][BF4] (21a) and 1,6-anhydro-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (23a), where a cleavage of the anomeric C-S bond had occurred in both cases, gave rise to the assumption that this decomposition was mediated due to coordination of the thioglycosides to the high electrophilic platinum(IV) atom, in non-strictly dried solutions. Reactions of fac-[PtMe3(Me2CO)3][BF4] (3) with ch-SEt as well as with ch-SPT and ch-Sbpy thioglycosides (PT = 4-(pyridine-2-yl)-thiazole-2-yl; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-yl), having N,S and N,N heteroaryl anomeric groups, respectively, led to the formation of platinum(IV) complexes of the type fac-[PtMe3(ch*)][BF4] (ch* = ch-SEt, 36-40, ch-SPT 42-44, ch-Sbpy 45, 46). The thioglycosides were found to be coordinated in a tridentate kappaS,kappa2O,O, kappaS,kappaN,kappaO and kappaS,kappa2N,N coordination mode, respectively. Analogous reactions with ch-STaz ligands succeeded for 2-thiazolinyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-6-O-(2,2'-bipyridine-6-yl)-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5h) resulting in fac-[PtMe3(ch-STaz)][BF4] (41, ch-STaz = 5h), having a kappa3N,N',N''coordinated thioglycoside ligand.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of carbohydrate platinum(IV) complexes with thioglycoside ligands†

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Cornelia; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Schmidt, Jürgen; Rath, Nigam P.; Rüffer, Tobias; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Steinborn, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Reactions of fac-[PtMe3(4,4′-R2bpy)(Me2CO)][BF4] (R = H, 1a; tBu, 1b) and fac-[PtMe3-(OAc-κ2O,O′)(Me2CO)] (2), respectively, with thioglycosides containing thioethyl (ch-SEt) and thioimidate (ch-STaz, Taz = thiazoline-2-yl) anomeric groups led to the formation of the carbohydrate platinum(IV) complexes fac-[PtMe3(4,4′-R2bpy)(ch*)][BF4] (ch* = ch-SEt, 8–14; ch-STaz, 15–23) and fac-[PtMe3(OAc-κ2O,O′)(ch*)] (ch* = ch-SEt, 24–28; ch-STaz = 29–35), respectively. NMR (1H, 13C, 195Pt) spectroscopic investigations and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 19 (ch-STaz = 2-thiazolinyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-1-thio-β-d-galactopyranose) revealed the S coordination of the ch-SEt glycosides and the N coordination of the ch-STaz glycosides. Furthermore, X-ray structure analyses of the two decomposition products fac-[PtMe3(bpy)(STazH-κS)][BF4] (21a) and 1,6-anhydro-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-β-d-glucopyranose (23a), where a cleavage of the anomeric C–S bond had occurred in both cases, gave rise to the assumption that this decomposition was mediated due to coordination of the thioglycosides to the high electrophilic platinum(IV) atom, in non-strictly dried solutions. Reactions of fac-[PtMe3(Me2CO)3][BF4] (3) with ch-SEt as well as with ch-SPT and ch-Sbpy thioglycosides (PT = 4-(pyridine-2-yl)-thiazole-2-yl; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine-6-yl), having N,S and N,N heteroaryl anomeric groups, respectively, led to the formation of platinum(IV) complexes of the type fac-[PtMe3(ch*)][BF4] (ch* = ch-SEt, 36–40, ch-SPT 42–44, ch-Sbpy 45, 46). The thioglycosides were found to be coordinated in a tridentate κS,κ2O,O′, κS,κN,κO and κS,κ2N,N′ coordination mode, respectively. Analogous reactions with ch-STaz ligands succeeded for 2-thiazolinyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-6-O-(2,2′-bipyridine-6-yl)-1-thio-β-d-glucopyranoside (5h) resulting in fac-[PtMe3(ch-STaz)][BF4] (41, ch-STaz = 5h), having a κ3N,N′,N″ coordinated thioglycoside ligand. PMID:20517543

  17. Synthesis and supramolecular association of immobilized NCN-pincer platinum(II) complexes on hyperbranched polyglycerol supports.

    PubMed

    Stiriba, Salah-Eddine; Slagt, Martijn Q; Kautz, Holger; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; Thomann, Ralf; Frey, Holger; van Koten, Gerard

    2004-03-05

    Pertosylation of hyperbranched polyglycerol (M(n)=2000; M(w)/M(n)=1.3) followed by partial displacement of the tosyl groups with carboxylic acid functionalized NCN-pincer platinum(II) complexes [PtI-2,6-(NMe(2)CH(2))(2)C(6)H(2)-4-COOH], resulted in covalent attachment of the NCN-pincer complexes to the polyglycerol. These functionalized hyperbranched macromolecules have been characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (195)Pt NMR, UV-visible, and IR spectroscopy. The presence of Pt and I atoms renders them directly visible by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) without staining procedures, which offers images of associated hyperbranched macromolecules. TEM micrographs show disk-shaped structures with a small size-distribution (15-20 nm), and characteristic core-shell ring structures. The thickness of the corona observed in TEM could be correlated with the substitution degree with pincer platinum moieties.

  18. Theoretical investigations and density functional theory based quantitative structure-activity relationships model for novel cytotoxic platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Varbanov, Hristo P; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Jensen, Frank; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2013-01-10

    Octahedral platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates in the fight against cancer. In order to rationalize the further development of this class of compounds, detailed studies on their mechanisms of action, toxicity, and resistance must be provided and structure-activity relationships must be drawn. Herein, we report on theoretical and QSAR investigations of a series of 53 novel bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes, synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity in our laboratories. The hybrid DFT functional wb97x was used for optimization of the structure geometry and calculation of the descriptors. Reliable and robust QSAR models with good explanatory and predictive properties were obtained for both the cisplatin sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin resistant cell line SW480, with a set of four descriptors.

  19. Theoretical Investigations and Density Functional Theory Based Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships Model for Novel Cytotoxic Platinum(IV) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Octahedral platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates in the fight against cancer. In order to rationalize the further development of this class of compounds, detailed studies on their mechanisms of action, toxicity, and resistance must be provided and structure–activity relationships must be drawn. Herein, we report on theoretical and QSAR investigations of a series of 53 novel bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes, synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity in our laboratories. The hybrid DFT functional wb97x was used for optimization of the structure geometry and calculation of the descriptors. Reliable and robust QSAR models with good explanatory and predictive properties were obtained for both the cisplatin sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin resistant cell line SW480, with a set of four descriptors. PMID:23214999

  20. Platinum hypersensitivity and desensitization.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Okada, Rika; Ando, Kazumichi

    2015-09-01

    Platinum agents are drugs used for various types of cancer. With increased frequency of administration of platinum agents, hypersensitivity reactions appear more frequently, occurring in over 25% of cases from the seventh cycle or second line onward. It then becomes difficult to conduct treatment using these agents. Various approaches have been investigated to address hypersensitivity reactions to platinum agents. Desensitization, which gradually increases the concentration of the anticancer drug considered to be the antigen until the target dosage, has been reported as being particularly effective, with a success rate of 80-100%. The aims of this paper are to present the current findings regarding hypersensitivity reactions to platinum agents and to discuss attempts of using desensitization against hypersensitivity reactions worldwide. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Development of anticancer agents: wizardry with osmium.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Babak, Maria V; Hartinger, Christian G

    2014-10-01

    Platinum compounds are one of the pillars of modern cancer chemotherapy. The apparent disadvantages of existing chemotherapeutics have led to the development of novel anticancer agents with alternative modes of action. Many complexes of the heavy metal osmium (Os) are potent growth inhibitors of human cancer cells and are active in vivo, often superior or comparable to cisplatin, as the benchmark metal-based anticancer agent, or clinically tested ruthenium (Ru) drug candidates. Depending on the choice of ligand system, osmium compounds exhibit diverse modes of action, including redox activation, DNA targeting or inhibition of protein kinases. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the development of osmium anticancer drug candidates and discuss their cellular mechanisms of action.

  2. Stable and efficient sky-blue organic light emitting diodes employing a tetradentate platinum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guijie; Klimes, Kody; Fleetham, Tyler; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jian

    2017-03-01

    A tetradentate Pt(II) complex platinum (II) [10-(9-(4-tert-butylpyridin-2-yl-κN)-9H-carbazol-2-yl-κC1)-9,10-dihydro-9,9-dimethyl-3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN2)acridine-1-yl-κC1] (PtN'1N-tBu) incorporating pyrazolyl-acridine as the lumophore was demonstrated to act as a stable and efficient sky-blue emitter. Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) employing PtN'1N-tBu without the electron blocking layer (EBL) achieved a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 15.9% and an estimated operational lifetime LT70 of 635 h at an initial luminance of 1000 cd/cm2. The device efficiency could be further improved by adding TrisPCz as EBL, reaching EQE of 17.3% and operational lifetime up to 482 h at 1000 cd/cm2.

  3. Crystal structures and vibrational spectroscopy of neutral platinum(IV) amine iodo complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, G.; Danzeisen, O. F.; Rotter, H. W.; Goanta, M.

    1999-05-01

    A series of platinum(IV) amine iodo complexes of the type [PtL 2I 4] was synthesized for the first time and their infrared and Raman spectra were recorded. The crystal structures of cis-[Pt(net) 2I 4], (net=ethylamine) (space group Pnma, a=14.668(3), b=8.787(2), c=11.433(2) Å), trans-[Pt(net) 2I 4] (space group C2/c, a=11.276(2), b=8.866(2), c=12.542(3) Å, β=114.86(3)°) and [Pt(en)I 4] (en=ethylendiamine) (space group P1, a=6.780(1), b=11.613(2), c=14.703(3) Å, α=71.87(3), β=80.78(3), γ=80.08 (3)°) were determined. Formation of linear chains of molecules with short intermolecular I-I distances was observed for cis-[Pt(net) 2I 4]. The spectroscopic behavior is discussed according to these results.

  4. Mineralogical siting of platinum-group elements in pentlandite from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junge, Malte; Wirth, Richard; Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Schreiber, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The Bushveld Complex in South Africa hosts the world's largest resources of platinum-group elements (PGEs), which are mainly mined from three ore bodies, namely the Merensky Reef, the UG-2 chromitite, and the Platreef. In these ores, the PGEs are bimodally distributed, occurring both as discrete platinum-group minerals (PGMs) and hosted by sulfides. The presence of PGEs in sulfides has been demonstrated by electron probe microanalysis, laser ablation induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and particle-induced X-ray emission. However, evidence is lacking on the mineralogical siting of the PGEs, e.g., whether they occur in solid solution, as nano-inclusions, and/or micro-inclusions. Therefore, in the present study, a combination of focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy was used which allows to obtain crystal structural relationships between the host mineral and incorporated trace elements and revealing the physicochemical state of the PGE in sulfides. The present study confirms the existence of micrometer-sized discrete PGMs in the ores. Further, the PGEs occur in a number of forms, namely (1) as discrete nano-inclusions of PGMs, (2) as patchily distributed solid solution, (3) ordered within the pentlandite crystal structure, substituting for Ni and/or Fe (superlattice), and (4) as homogenous solid solution. Nanometer-sized PGMs (nPGMs) show no orientation relationship with the host sulfide mineral. Consequently, they are discrete phases, which were trapped within pentlandite during sulfide growth. Heterogeneous and patchy distributions of Rh and Ir within the pentlandite lattice suggest that Rh and Ir were already present within the sulfide liquid. The absence of possible reaction partners (e.g., Bi, As, and Sn) necessary for the formation of discrete PGMs forced Rh and Ir to remain in the crystal lattice of pentlandite and down-temperature exsolution caused patchy distribution patterns of Rh and Ir. High

  5. Reaction Mechanism for Olefin Exchange at Chloro Ethene Complexes of Platinum(II).

    PubMed

    Plutino, Maria Rosaria; Otto, Stefanus; Roodt, Andreas; Elding, Lars I.

    1999-03-22

    Complex equilibria in methanol/chloroform/dichloromethane solutions containing Zeise's anion, [PtCl(3)(C(2)H(4))](-) (1), the solvento species, trans-[PtCl(2)(C(2)H(4))(MeOH)] (2), and the dinuclear complex, trans-[PtCl(2)(C(2)H(4))](2) (3), have been studied by UV-vis, (1)H, and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy, giving average values of K(Cl) = (1.6 +/- 0.2)10(3) M(-)(1) and K(S) = (0.16 +/- 0.02) M(-)(1) for the equilibrium constants between 2 and 1 and 3 and 2, respectively. The bridged complex 3 is completely split into monomeric solvento complexes 2 in methanol and in chloroform or dichloromethane solutions with [MeOH] > 0.5 M. Ethene exchange at the mononuclear complexes 1 and 2 was studied by (1)H NMR line-broadening experiments in methanol-d(4). Observed overall exchange rate constants decrease with an increase in free chloride concentration due to the displacement of the rapid equilibrium between 1 and 2 toward the more slowly exchanging parent chloro complex 1. Ethene exchange rate constants at 298 K for complexes 1 and 2 are k(ex1) = (2.1 +/- 0.1)10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)and k(ex2) = (5.0 +/- 0.2)10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively, with corresponding activation parameters DeltaH(1)() = 19.1 +/- 0.3 kJ mol(-)(1), DeltaS(1)() = -117 +/- 1 J K(-)(1) mol(-)(1), DeltaH(2)() = 10.2 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-)(1), and DeltaS(2)() = -102 +/- 2 J K(-)(1) mol(-)(1). The activation process is largely entropy controlled; the enthalpy contributions only amounting to approximately 30% of the free energy of activation. Ethene exchange takes place via associative attack by the entering olefin at the labile site trans to the coordinated ethene, which is either occupied by a chloride or a methanol molecule in the ground state. The intimate mechanism might involve a two-step process via trans-[PtCl(2)(C(2)H(4))(2)] in steady state or a concerted process via a pentacoordinated transition state with two ethene molecules bound to the platinum(II).

  6. Platinum diimine bis(acetylide) complexes: Synthesis, characterization, and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hissler, M.; Connick, W.B.; Geiger, D.K.; McGarrah, J.E.; Lipa, D.; Lachicotte, R.J.; Eisenberg, R.

    2000-02-07

    A new set of luminescent platinum(II) diimine complexes has been synthesized and characterized. The anionic ligands in these complexes are arylacetylides. The complexes are brightly emissive in fluid solution with relative emission quantum yields {phi}{sub em} ranging from 3 x 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}1}. Two series of complexes have been investigated. The first has the formula Pt(Rphen)(C{equivalent{underscore}to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2} where Rphen is 1,10-phenanthroline substituted in the 5-position with R = H, Me, Cl, Br, NO{sub 2}, or C{equivalent{underscore}to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5}, while the second has the formula Pt(dbbpy)(C{equivalent{underscore}to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 4}X){sub 2} where dbbpy = 4,4{prime}-di(tert-butyl)bipyridine and X = H, Me, F, or NO{sub 2}. From NMR, IR, and electronic spectroscopies, all of the complexes are assigned a square planar coordination geometry with cis-alkynyl ligands. The crystal structure of Pt(phen)(C{equivalent{underscore}to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3}){sub 2} confirms this assignment. All of the complexes exhibit an absorption band at ca. 400 nm that corresponds to a Pt d {r{underscore}arrow} {pi}{asterisk}{sub diimine} charge-transfer transition. The variation of {lambda}{sub max} for this band with substituent variation supports this assignment. From similar changes in the energy of the solution luminescence as a function of substituents R and X, the emissive excited state is also of MLCT origin, but with spin-forbidden character on the basis of excited-state lifetime measurements (0.01--5.6 {mu}s). The complexes undergo electron-transfer quenching, showing good Stern-Volmer behavior using 10-methylphenothiazine and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethylbenzidine as reductive quenchers. Excited-state reduction potentials are estimated on the basis of a simple thermochemical analysis. Crystal data for Pt(phen)(C{equivalent{underscore}to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 19

  7. Syntheses, crystal structures, anticancer activities of three reduce Schiff base ligand based transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hui-Qin; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Xu, Zhou-Qing; Chen, Ru-Hua; Ma, Tie-Liang; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Wei-Na

    2016-02-01

    Three nickel(II) complexes, [Ni2(L1)2(tren)2(H2O)](ClO4)3 (1), [NiL2(tren)2](ClO4)·2.5H2O (2), [NiL2(tren)2]I·1.5H2O·CH3OH (3) based on amino acid reduced Schiff ligands are synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results show that in all complexes, the amino acid ligand is deprotonated and acts as an anionic ligand. In the dinuclear complex 1, each Ni(II) atom has a distorted octahedron geometry while with different coordination environment. However, the complexes 2 and 3 are mononuclear, almost with the same coordination environment. Furthermore, in vitro experiments are carried out, including MTT assay, Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and western blotting, to assess whether the complexes have antitumor effect. And the results show that all the three complexes have moderate anticancer activity towards human hepatic cancer (HepG2), human cervical cancer (HeLa) and human prostate (PC3) cell lines, in a concentration dependent way. The complex 1 exhibit higher cytotoxicity than the other two complexes and can induce human hepatic cancer cell (HepG2) to cell apoptosis by activating caspase 3.

  8. Density Functionalized [Ru(II)(NO)(Salen)(Cl)] Complex: Computational Photodynamics and In Vitro Anticancer Facets.

    PubMed

    Mir, Jan Mohammad; Jain, N; Jaget, P S; Maurya, R C

    2017-07-22

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses photosensitizing agents to kill cancer cells. Scientific community has been eager for decades in enduring curiosity to design an efficient PDT drug. Under such purview, the current report deals with the computational photodynamic behavior of ruthenium(II) nitrosyl complex containing N, N'-salicyldehyde-ethylenediimine (SalenH2), the synthesis and X-ray crystallography of which is already known [Ref. 36]. Gaussian 09W software package was employed to carry out the density functional (DFT) studies. DFT calculations with Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)/Los Alamos National Laboratory 2 Double Z (LanL2DZ) specified for Ru atom and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) combination for all other atoms were used using effective core potential method. Both, the ground and excited states of the complex were evolved. Some known photosensitizers were compared with the target complex. Pthalocyanine and porphyrin derivatives were the compounds selected for the respective comparative study. It is suggested that effective photoactivity was found due to the presence of ruthenium core in the model complex. In addition to the evaluation of theoretical aspects in vitro anticancer aspects against COLO-205 human cancer cells have also been carried out with regard to the complex. More emphasis was laid to extrapolate DFT to depict the chemical power of the target compound to release nitric oxide. A promising visible light triggered nitric oxide releasing power of the compound has been inferred. In vitro antiproliferative studies of [RuCl3(PPh3)3] and [Ru(NO)(Salen)(Cl)] have revealed the model complex as an excellent anticancer agent. From IC50 values of 40.031mg/mL in former and of 9.74mg/mL in latter, it is established that latter bears more anticancer potentiality. From overall study the DFT based structural elucidation and the efficiency of NO, Ru and Salen co-ligands has shown promising drug delivery property and a good candidacy for both chemotherapy as

  9. Platinum-based complexes of bioactive 3-(5-nitrofuryl)acroleine thiosemicarbazones showing anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    PubMed

    Vieites, Marisol; Otero, Lucía; Santos, Diego; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Norambuena, Ester; Aguirre, Gabriela; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Morello, Antonio; Diego Maya, Juan; Gambino, Dinorah

    2009-03-01

    Eight new platinum(II) complexes with 3-(5-nitrofuryl)acroleine thiosemicarbazones showing anti-trypanosomal activity were synthesized, characterized and in vitro evaluated. Most of the complexes showed IC(50) values in the micromolar range against two different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis). In addition, most of the newly developed complexes, together with the analogous platinum 5-nitrofuraldehyde containing thiosemicarbazones previously reported, resulted more active than the reference trypanocidal drug nifurtimox on the infective trypomastigote form of the parasite. Their capacity to produce free radicals that could lead to parasite death was evaluated by ESR experiments in the parasite and by respiration measurements. Compounds were tested for their DNA interaction ability. Results showed that some of the compounds could act as dual inhibitors in the parasite, through production of toxic free radicals and interaction with DNA. All the results were compared with those previously reported for the free ligands, the analogous palladium(II) compounds and the previously reported series of platinum(II) compounds.

  10. Enhanced anti-cancer activities of a gold(III) pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato complex incorporated in a biodegradable metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Sun, Raymond Wai-Yin; Zhang, Ming; Li, Dan; Li, Mian; Wong, Alice Sze-Tsai

    2016-10-01

    An anti-cancer active gold(III) pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato complex [(PDTC)Au(III)Cl2] (1) has been synthesized and characterized by means of X-ray crystallography. Compared to the pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ligand itself, this gold(III) complex displays an up to 33-fold higher anti-cancer potency towards a panel of cancer cell lines including the cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780cis). As demonstrated by a set of Transwell® assay-based cytotoxicity experiments, incorporating this gold(III) complex in a zinc-based biodegradable metal-organic framework (MOF) displays a significant enhancement in anti-cancer activity towards A2780cis than the gold(III) complex alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of platinum(II)-assisted platinum(IV) substitution for the oxidation of guanosine derivatives by platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunhee; Vastag, Livia; Larrabee, Yuri C; Personick, Michelle L; Schaberg, Kurt B; Fowler, Benjamin J; Sandwick, Roger K; Rawji, Gulnar

    2008-02-18

    Guanosine derivatives with a nucleophilic group at the 5' position (G-5') are oxidized by the Pt (IV) complex Pt( d, l)(1,2-(NH 2) 2C 6H 10)Cl 4 ([Pt (IV)(dach)Cl 4]). The overall redox reaction is autocatalytic, consisting of the Pt (II)-catalyzed Pt (IV) substitution and two-electron transfer between Pt (IV) and the bound G-5'. In this paper, we extend the study to improve understanding of the redox reaction, particularly the substitution step. The [Pt (II)(NH 3) 2(CBDCA-O,O')] (CBDCA = cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate) complex effectively accelerates the reactions of [Pt (IV)(dach)Cl 4] with 5'-dGMP and with cGMP, indicating that the Pt (II) complex does not need to be a Pt (IV) analogue to accelerate the substitution. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis showed that the [Pt (IV)(dach)Cl 4]/[Pt (II)(NH 3) 2(CBDCA-O,O')]/cGMP reaction mixture contained two Pt (IV)cGMP adducts, [Pt (IV)(NH 3) 2(cGMP)(Cl)(CBDCA-O,O')] and [Pt (IV)(dach)(cGMP)Cl 3]. The LC/MS studies also indicated that the trans, cis-[Pt (IV)(dach)( (37)Cl) 2( (35)Cl) 2]/[Pt (II)(en)( (35)Cl) 2]/9-EtG mixture contained two Pt (IV)-9-EtG adducts, [Pt (IV)(en)(9-EtG)( (37)Cl)( (35)Cl) 2] and [Pt (IV)(dach)(9-EtG)( (37)Cl)( (35)Cl) 2]. These Pt (IV)G products are predicted by the Basolo-Pearson (BP) Pt (II)-catalyzed Pt (IV)-substitution scheme. The substitution can be envisioned as an oxidative addition reaction of the planar Pt (II) complex where the entering ligand G and the chloro ligand from the axial position of the Pt (IV) complex are added to Pt (II) in the axial positions. From the point of view of reactant Pt (IV), an axial chloro ligand is thought to be substituted by the entering ligand G. The Pt (IV) complexes without halo axial ligands such as trans, cis-[Pt(en)(OH) 2Cl 2], trans, cis-[Pt(en)(OCOCF 3) 2Cl 2], and cis, trans, cis-[Pt(NH 3)(C 6H 11NH 2)(OCOCH 3) 2Cl 2] ([Pt (IV)(a,cha)(OCOCH 3) 2Cl 2], satraplatin) did not react with 5'-dGMP. The bromo complex, [Pt (IV

  12. Structure-activity relationships for organometallic osmium arene phenylazopyridine complexes with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Basri, Aida M B H; Braddick, Darren; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-10-28

    We report the synthesis and characterisation of 32 half sandwich phenylazopyridine Os(II) arene complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(phenylazopyridine)X](+) in which X is chloride or iodide, the arene is p-cymene or biphenyl and the pyridine and phenyl rings contain a variety of substituents (F, Cl, Br, I, CF(3), OH or NO(2)). Ten X-ray crystal structures have been determined. Cytotoxicity towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells ranges from high potency at nanomolar concentrations to inactivity. In general the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group (e.g. F, Cl, Br or I) at specific positions on the pyridine ring significantly increases cytotoxic activity and aqueous solubility. Changing the arene from p-cymene to biphenyl and the monodentate ligand X from chloride to iodide also increases the activity significantly. Activation by hydrolysis and DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action since both the highly active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(2-F-azpy)I]PF(6) (9) and the moderately active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(3-Cl-azpy)I]PF(6) (23) are very stable and inert towards aquation. Studies of octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) and subcellular distributions of osmium in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells suggested that cell uptake and targeting to cellular organelles play important roles in determining activity. Although complex 9 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, the ROS level did not appear to play a role in the mechanism of anticancer activity. This class of organometallic osmium complexes has new and unusual features worthy of further exploration for the design of novel anticancer drugs.

  13. Anticancer Activity and Modes of Action of (arene) ruthenium(II) Complexes Coordinated to C-, N-, and O-ligands.

    PubMed

    Biersack, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    An overview of anticancer active (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated to period 2 element-based ligand systems, i.e., carbon-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-coordinated ligands, is provided in this mini-review. A bridge is forged from the large group of anticancer active ruthenium compounds with monodentate and chelating nitrogen ligands via complexes of O,O-chelating ligands to organometallic ruthenium derivatives coordinated to carbon. (Arene)ruthenium(II) complexes with reduced side-effects and enhanced efficacy against cancer are highlighted. Pertinent literature is covered up to 2014.

  14. Structures of polynuclear complexes of palladium(II) and platinum(II) formed by slow hydrolysis in acidic aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Torapava, Natallia; Elding, Lars I; Mändar, Hugo; Roosalu, Kaspar; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-06-07

    The aqua ions of palladium(II) and platinum(II) undergo extremely slow hydrolysis in strongly acidic aqueous solution, resulting in polynuclear complexes. The size and structures of these species have been determined by EXAFS and small angle X-ray scattering, SAXS. For palladium(II), the EXAFS data show that the Pd-O and Pd···Pd distances are identical to those of crystalline palladium(II) oxide, but the intensities of the Pd···Pd distances in the Fourier transform at 3.04 and 3.42 Å are significantly lower compared to those of crystalline PdO. Furthermore, no Pd···Pd distances beyond 4 Å are observed. These observations strongly indicate that the polynuclear palladium(II) complexes are oxido- and hydroxido-bridged species with the same core structure as solid palladium(II) oxide. Based on the number of Pd···Pd distances, as derived from the EXAFS data, their size can be estimated to be approximately two unit cells, or ca. 1.0 nm(3). For platinum(II), EXAFS data of the polynuclear species formed in the slow hydrolysis process show Pt-O and Pt···Pt distances identical to those of amorphous platinum(II) oxide, precipitating from the solution studied. The Pt···Pt distances are somewhat different from those reported for crystalline platinum(II) oxide. The polynuclear platinum(II) complexes have a similar structure to the palladium ones, but they are somewhat larger, with an estimated diameter of 1.5-3.0 nm. It has not been possible to precipitate any of these species by ultracentrifugation. They are detectable by SAXS, indicating diameters between 0.7 and 2 nm, in excellent agreement with the EXAFS observations. The number of oxido- relative to hydroxido bridges will increase with increasing size of the complex. The charge of the complexes will remain about the same, +4, at growth, with approximate formulas [Pd10O4(OH)8(H2O)12](4+) and [Pt14O8(OH)8(H2O)12](4+) for complexes with a size of 2 and 3 unit cells of the corresponding solid metal oxide

  15. DNA interaction, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer studies on Cu(II) complexes of Luotonin A.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, M P; Vinoth Kumar, G G; Dhaveethu Raja, J; Anitha, K; Karthikeyan, S; Rajesh, J

    2017-02-01

    Luotonin A (L), a novel natural cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory alkaloid, chelated with copper(II) to improve its cytotoxic effect against the cancer cells. The complexes [Cu(L)H2OCl]Cl (1) and [Cu(L)2]Cl2 (2) are prepared by using copper(II) chloride and L with ligand/metal molar ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 respectively. A solution of complexes 1 &2 are characterized by physical spectroscopic methods using Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform-Infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Electron Para magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) and by electrochemical methods. The interaction of these complexes 1 &2 with calf thymus (CT-DNA) have been investigated by physical methods to propose the modes of DNA binding with the complexes 1 &2. Absorption spectral titration studies of complex 1 with CT-DNA shows a red-shift of 5nm with the DNA binding affinity of Kb, 8.65×10(3)M(-1), but complex 2does not show any red-shift with binding constant Kb, 7.32×10(3)M(-1) reveals that the complex 1 binding with DNA strongly than complex 2 and the binding occurs in between the base pairs of DNA as intercalation. Strong interactions of the two complexes 1 & 2 with CT-DNA have also been confirmed by fluorescence spectral titration studies. The evaluated values of KSV and Kass shows that, the complexes 1 &2 interact with DNA through the intercalation, coincide with other partial intercalators strongly than the free ligand L. Complex 1 exhibits potent antioxidant activity with SC50 value of 23.9±0.69μM is evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and which has potent antimicrobial activity against pathogens than 2 and L. The anticancer activity of L, complexes 1 &2 against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) has also been studied by using fluorescence staining method. The IC50 values of L, complexes 1&2 against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the incubation time intervals of 24hrs are 1 (5.0±0.25, 12.0±0.30μM)<2 (6.5±0.27, 15.0

  16. Synthesis and in vitro characterization of platinum(II) anticancer coordinates using FTIR spectroscopy and NCI COMPARE: A fast method for new compound discovery.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gilles; Leclercqz, Hélène; Derenne, Allison; Gelbcke, Michel; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Nève, Jean; Mathieu, Véronique; Dufrasne, François

    2014-07-01

    Platinum-based drugs have been used for several decades to treat various cancers successfully. Cisplatin is the original compound in this class; it cross-links DNA, resulting in cell cycle arrest and cell death via apoptosis. Cisplatin is effective against several tumor types but exhibits toxic side effects; in addition, tumors often develop resistance. An original in vitro approach is proposed to determine whether platinum-based research compounds are good candidates for further study by comparing them to marketed drugs using FTIR spectroscopy and the COMPARE analysis from the NCI. Both methods can produce fingerprints and highlight differences between the compounds, classifying the candidates and revealing promising derivatives.

  17. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Li, Guanying; Zhang, Pingyu; Jin, Chengzhi; Zeng, Leli; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by poor depth efficacy and inefficient activation of the cell death machinery in cancer cells during treatment. To address these issues, photoactivation using two-photon absorption (TPA) is currently being examined. Mitochondria-targeted therapy represents a promising approach to target tumors selectively and may overcome the resistance in current anticancer therapies. Herein, four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RuL1-RuL4) have been designed and developed to act as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit very high singlet oxygen quantum yields in methanol (0.74-0.81), significant TPA cross sections (124-198 GM), remarkable mitochondrial accumulation, and deep penetration depth. Thus, RuL1-RuL4 were utilized as one-photon and two-photon absorbing photosensitizers in both monolayer cells and 3D multicellular spheroids (MCSs). These Ru(II) complexes were almost nontoxic towards cells and 3D MCSs in the dark and generate sufficient singlet oxygen under one- and two-photon irradiation to trigger cell death. Remarkably, RuL4 exhibited an IC50 value as low as 9.6 μM in one-photon PDT (λirr = 450 nm, 12 J cm(-2)) and 1.9 μM in two-photon PDT (λirr = 830 nm, 800 J cm(-2)) of 3D MCSs; moreover, RuL4 is an order of magnitude more toxic than cisplatin in the latter test system. The combination of mitochondria-targeting and two-photon activation provides a valuable paradigm to develop ruthenium(II) complexes for PDT applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. From a Diphosphanegermylene to Nickel, Palladium, and Platinum Complexes Containing Germyl PGeP Pincer Ligands.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lucía; Brugos, Javier; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique

    2017-08-19

    The PGeP pincer-type germylene Ge(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 (1) has been used to prepare a family of group 10 metal complexes, namely, [MCl{κ(3) P,Ge,P-GeCl(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 }] (M=Ni (2Ni ), Pd (2Pd ), Pt (2Pt )), featuring a chloridogermyl PGeP pincer ligand and a Cl-Ge-M-Cl bond sequence. Their reactivity is not initially centered on the metal atom but on their Ge atom. Complexes 2Ni and 2Pd easily led to the hydrolyzed products [Ni2 Cl2 {μ-(κ(3) P,Ge,P-Ge(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 )2 O}], which features a Cl-Ni-Ge-O-Ge-Ni-Cl bond sequence, and [PdCl{κ(3) P,Ge,P-Ge(OH)(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 }], which contains a hydroxidogermyl PGeP pincer ligand (2Pt is reluctant to undergo hydrolysis). Simple chloride exchange reactions led to the methoxidogermyl, methylgermyl, and phenylgermyl derivatives [MCl{κ(3) P,Ge,P-GeR(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 }] (M=Pd, Pt; R=OMe, Me, Ph). Whereas the palladium complexes [PdCl{κ(3) P,Ge,P-GeR(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 }] (R=Me, Ph) reacted with more MeLi or PhLi to give palladium black and GeR2 (NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 (R=Me, Ph), similar reactions with the analogous platinum complexes afforded the transmetalation derivatives [PtR{κ(3) P,Ge,P-GeR(NCH2 PtBu2 )2 C6 H4 }] (R=Me, Ph). The short length of the CH2 PtBu2 arms of the PGeP pincer ligands forces the metal atoms of all these complexes to be in a very distorted square-planar ligand environment. The reactivity results have been rationalized with theoretical calculations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. SO2-Binding Properties of Cationic η6,η1-NCN-Pincer Arene Ruthenium Platinum Complexes: Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, Sylvestre A.; Van Lenthe, Joop H.; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; van Koten, Gerard; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2011-03-01

    The SO2-binding properties of a series of η6,η1-NCN-pincer ruthenium platinum complexes have been studied by both UV-visible spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. When an electronwithdrawing [Ru(C5R5)]+ fragment (R = H or Me) is η6-coordinated to the phenyl ring of the NCNpincer platinum fragment (cf. [2]+ and [3]+, see scheme 1), the characteristic orange coloration (pointing to η1- SO2 binding to Pt) of a solution of the parent NCN-pincer platinum complex 1 in dichloromethane upon SO2-bubbling is not observed. However, when the ruthenium center is η6- coordinated to a phenyl substituent linked in para-position to the carbon-to-platinum bond, i.e. complex [4]+, the SO2-binding property of the NCN-platinum center seems to be retained, as bubbling SO2 into a solution of the latter complex produces the characteristic orange color. We performed theoretical calculations at the MP2 level of approximation and TD-DFT studies, which enabled us to interpret the absence of color change in the case of [2]+ as an absence of coordination of SO2 to platinum. We analyze this absence or weaker SO2-coordination in dichloromethane to be a consequence of the relative electron-poorness of the platinum center in the respective η6- ruthenium coordinated NCN-pincer platinum complexes, that leads to a lower binding energy and an elongated calculated Pt-S bond distance. We also discuss the effects of electrostatic interactions in these cationic systems, which also seems to play a destabilizing role for complex [2(SO2)]+.

  20. Design, synthesis and DNA interactions of a chimera between a platinum complex and an IHF mimicking peptide.

    PubMed

    Rao, Harita; Damian, Mariana S; Alshiekh, Alak; Elmroth, Sofi K C; Diederichsen, Ulf

    2015-12-28

    Conjugation of metal complexes with peptide scaffolds possessing high DNA binding affinity has shown to modulate their biological activities and to enhance their interaction with DNA. In this work, a platinum complex/peptide chimera was synthesized based on a model of the Integration Host Factor (IHF), an architectural protein possessing sequence specific DNA binding and bending abilities through its interaction with a minor groove. The model peptide consists of a cyclic unit resembling the minor grove binding subdomain of IHF, a positively charged lysine dendrimer for electrostatic interactions with the DNA phosphate backbone and a flexible glycine linker tethering the two units. A norvaline derived artificial amino acid was designed to contain a dimethylethylenediamine as a bidentate platinum chelating unit, and introduced into the IHF mimicking peptides. The interaction of the chimeric peptides with various DNA sequences was studied by utilizing the following experiments: thermal melting studies, agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA unwinding experiments, and native and denaturing gel electrophoresis to visualize non-covalent and covalent peptide-DNA adducts, respectively. By incorporation of the platinum metal center within the model peptide mimicking IHF we have attempted to improve its specificity and DNA targeting ability, particularly towards those sequences containing adjacent guanine residues.

  1. The effect of combined treatment with a platinum complex and ionizing radiation on chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Szumiel, I.; Nias, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Cis-dichlorobis(cyclopentylamine)platinum II (DBCP) belongs to the group of platinum complexes which have recently been reported to have anti-tumour activity. Its cytotoxic activity in CHO cells is not cell-age-dependent, but enhancement of the effect of ionizing radiation is both dose-and cell cycle phase-dependent. In asynchronous cell populations DBCP acts as a dose-modifying factor for ionizing radiation. Doses of DBCP reducing survival of CHO cells to 26% and 4% applied 1 h before irradiation reduce the Do value of radiation dose-survival curves by factors of 1-34 and 1-59 respectively. In synchronized CHO populations enhancement by DBCP of the effect of radiation is most pronounced in G1 and in late S while it is reduced in mid-S. Possible mechanisms of DBCP-radiation interaction are discussed. PMID:944586

  2. DNA interaction studies of a platinum(II) complex containing L-histidine and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Nemati, Leila

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was developing coordination complexes that can be used as inorganic medicinal agents. The water soluble [Pt(phen)(His)]NO(3)·3H(2)O complex in which phen=1,10-phenantheroline and His=L-histidine was synthesized and characterized using physicochemical methods. Binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus (CT) DNA was investigated by emission, absorption, circular dichroism, and viscosity measurement techniques. Upon addition of CT-DNA, changes were observed in the characteristic ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) bands (hypochromism) of the complex. The complex binds to CT-DNA in an intercalative mode. The calculated binding constant, K(b), was 8 ± 0.2 × 10(4) M(-1). In addition, circular dichroism (CD) study showed that the phenanthroline ligand was inserted between the base pair stack of the double-helical structure of DNA. Also, the fluorescence spectral characteristics showed an increase in fluorescence intensity of the platinum complex in the presence of increasing amounts of DNA solution. The experimental results showed that the platinum complex binds to DNA via intercalative and hydrogen bonding mode.

  3. Ternary metal complexes of guaifenesin drug: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of the metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, W H; Mahmoud, N F; Mohamed, G G; El-Sonbati, A Z; El-Bindary, A A

    2015-01-01

    The coordination behavior of a series of transition metal ions named Cr(III), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a mono negative tridentate guaifenesin ligand (GFS) (OOO donation sites) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) is reported. The metal complexes are characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, UV-vis spectral studies, mass spectroscopy, ESR, XRD and thermal analysis (TG and DTG). The ternary metal complexes were found to have the formulae of [M(GFS)(Phen)Cl]Cl·nH2O (M=Cr(III) (n=1) and Fe(III) (n=0)), [M(GFS)(Phen)Cl]·nH2O (M=Mn(II) (n=0), Zn(II) (n=0) and Cu(II) (n=3)) and [M(GFS)(Phen)(H2O)]Cl·nH2O (M=Co(II) (n=0), Ni(II) (n=0) and Cd(II) (n=4)). All the chelates are found to have octahedral geometrical structures. The ligand and its ternary chelates are subjected to thermal analyses (TG and DTG). The GFS ligand, in comparison to its ternary metal complexes also was screened for their antibacterial activity on gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and for in vitro antifungal activity against (Candida albicans). The activity data show that the metal complexes have antibacterial and antifungal activity more than the parent GFS ligand. The complexes were also screened for its in vitro anticancer activity against the Breast cell line (MFC7) and the results obtained show that they exhibit a considerable anticancer activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual-targeting organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Erlong; Liu, Suyan; Wang, Fuyi

    2015-08-07

    We have recently demonstrated that complexation with (η(6)-arene)Ru(II) fragments confers 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores a higher potential for inducing cellular apoptosis while preserving the highly inhibitory activity of 4-anilinoquinazolines against EGFR and the reactivity of the ruthenium centre to 9-ethylguanine (Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10224-10226). Reported herein are the synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the biological activity of a new series of ruthenium(ii) complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L)Cl]PF6 (arene = p-cymene, benzene, 2-phenylethanol or indane, L = 4-anilinoquinazolines). These organometallic ruthenium complexes undergo fast hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Intriguingly, the ligation of (arene)Ru(II) fragments with 4-anilinoquinazolines not only makes the target complexes excellent EGFR inhibitors, but also confers the complexes high affinity to bind to DNA minor grooves while maintaining their reactivity towards DNA bases, characterising them with dual-targeting properties. Molecular modelling studies reveal that the hydrolysis of these complexes is a favourable process which increases the affinity of the target complexes to bind to EGFR and DNA. In vitro biological activity assays show that most of this group of ruthenium complexes are selectively active inhibiting the EGF-stimulated growth of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, and the most active complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L13)Cl]PF6 (, IC50 = 1.36 μM, = 4-(3'-chloro-4'-fluoroanilino)-6-(2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazoline) is 29-fold more active than its analogue, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-ethylenediamine)Cl]PF6, and 21-fold more active than gefitinib, a well-known EGFR inhibitor in use clinically. These results highlight the strong promise to develop highly active ruthenium anticancer complexes by ligation of cytotoxic ruthenium pharmacophores with bioactive organic molecules.

  5. In vitro effects of combinations of cis-amminedichloro (2-methylpyridine) platinum (II) (ZD0473) with other novel anticancer drugs on the growth of SBC-3, a human small cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kanzawa, F; Akiyama, Y; Saijo, N; Nishio, K

    2003-06-01

    Among numerous clinical regimens of combination chemotherapy, synergy has been observed to be particularly marked with combinations containing cisplatin (CDDP). However, the clinical use of CDDP has sometimes been limited by acquired resistance. The new-generation platinum drug, ZD0473, was synthesized with the aim of hindering the reaction of the drug with thiols, by the introduction of a 2-methylpyridine ligand. This enables the drug to exert antitumor activity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells with elevated glutathione and/or metallothionein levels. The drug was also shown experimentally to overcome cisplatin resistance due to impaired drug accumulation, and enhanced DNA repair/tolerance to platinum-DNA adducts. We investigated the effects of combinations of ZD0473 with other anticancer drugs on the growth of a human small-cell lung cancer cell line (SBC-3). Six novel anticancer drugs were tested: docetaxel (TXT), paclitaxel (TXL), vinorelbine (VNB), irinotecan (CPT-11), gemcitabine (GEM) and pemetrexed (MTA). The growth inhibitory effect of the drugs was measured by MTT assay and the effects of the combination regimens were evaluated by the combination index analysis method developed by Chou and Talalay. Synergy was demonstrated for the combination regimens of ZD0473-GEM and ZD0473-TXL, while an additive effect was observed with combinations containing TXT, VNB, CPT-11 or MTA. In the case of the ZD0473-GEM combination, synergy was observed over a wide range of inhibition levels at dose ratios of 50:1, 100:1 and 250:1. The level of synergy was equivalent to that observed for combinations of CDDP-etoposide, CDDP-GEM and nedaplatin-CPT-11. The results suggest that the combination of ZD0473 with GEM merits further investigation in small cell lung cancer.

  6. Homogeneous and supported catalysts for {alpha}-olefin hydrogenation based on complexes of platinum tetrachloride with aliphatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Kliger, E.G.; Shuikina, L.P.; Frolov, V.M.

    1995-07-01

    A new efficient catalyst for a-olefin hydrogenation, a reaction of importance to synthetic fuels preparation, that exhibits the catalytic activity without additional treatment with a reducing agent is obtained by the interaction of PtCl{sub 4} with tri-n-octylamine. Molecular hydrogen and ethanol are found to promote the catalytically active complex. On the basis of the IR spectroscopic investigation, a likely structure of the synthesized complex is proposed. A highly active heterogenized platinum-containing catalyst for the hydrogenation of terminal double bonds is prepared by supporting a homogeneous system on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  7. Triphenyl phosphine adducts of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) dithiocarbamates complexes: a spectral and in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manav, N.; Mishra, A. K.; Kaushik, N. K.

    2004-11-01

    Triphenyl phosphine adducts of dithiocarbamate complexes of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) of the type [Pt(L) 2PPh 3Cl 2] and [Pd(L) 2PPh 3] [L: morpholine dithiocarbamate (L 1), aniline dithiocarbamate (L 2) and N-(methyl, cyclohexyl) dithiocarbamate (L 3)] were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies of the complexes were carried out. In vitro antitumor activity has been screened towards human adenocarcinoma cell lines and showed significant inhibition even at very low concentration.

  8. New Luminescent Polynuclear Metal Complexes with Anticancer Properties: Toward Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Margot; de Almeida, Andreia; Bigaeva, Emilia; Kavanagh, Paul; Picquet, Michel; Le Gendre, Pierre; Bodio, Ewen; Casini, Angela

    2016-03-07

    A series of new heterodinuclear luminescent complexes with two different organic ligands have been synthesized and characterized. A luminescent Ru(II)(polypyridine) moiety and a metal-based anticancer fragment (AuCl, (p-cymene)RuCl2, (p-cymene)OsCl2, (Cp*)RhCl2, or Au-thioglucose) are the two general features of these complexes. All of the bimetallic compounds have been evaluated for their antiproliferative properties in vitro in human cancer cell lines. Only the complexes containing an Au(I) fragment exhibit antiproliferative activity in the range of cisplatin or higher. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of the bimetallic species have been investigated, and fluorescence microscopy experiments have been performed successfully. The most promising bimetallic cytotoxic complexes (i.e., with the Au-thioglucose scaffold) have shown to be easily taken up by cancer cells at 37 °C in the cytoplasm or in specific organelles. Interestingly, experiments repeated at 4 °C showed no uptake of the bimetallic species inside cells, which confirms involvement of active transport processes. To evaluate the role of glucose transporters in the cell uptake of the gold complexes, inhibition of the GluT-1 (glucose transporter isoform with high level of expression in cancer cells) was achieved, showing only scarce influence on the compounds' uptake. Finally, the observed absence of interactions with nucleic acid model structures suggests that the gold compounds may have different intracellular targets with respect to cisplatin.

  9. Anticancer copper pyridine benzimidazole complexes: ROS generation, biomolecule interactions, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Kathleen E; Chang, Stephanie W; Saraci, Felix; Le, Phuc H; Walsby, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    The Cu(II) complex CuCl2(pbzH), pbzH=2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole, and derivatives modified at the non-coordinated nitrogen of the benzimidazole fragment, have been studied as anticancer agents. These compounds show promising cytotoxicity against A549 adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cells with IC50 values in the range of 5-10μM. Importantly, this activity is higher than either CuCl2·2H2O or the individual ligands, demonstrating that ligand coordination to the Cu(II) centres of the complexes is required for full activity. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies were used to characterize the solution behaviour of the complexes. These studies demonstrate: (i) two types of solvated species in buffer, (ii) both coordinate and non-coordinate interactions with albumin, and (iii) weak interactions with DNA. Further DNA studies using agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrate strand cleavage by the complexes in the presence of ascorbate, which is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Through a fluorescence-based in vitro assay, intracellular ROS generation in the A549 cell line was observed; indicating that damage by ROS is responsible for the observed activity of the complexes.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, and DNA binding of some new platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes with benzimidazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Utku, Semra; Gumus, Fatma; Tezcan, Seda; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Ozkul, Aykut

    2010-08-01

    In this study, two Pt(II) and three Pt(IV) complexes with the structures of [PtL(2)Cl(2)] (1), [PtL(2)I(2)] (2), [PtL(2)Cl(2)(OH)(2)] (3), [PtL(2)Cl(2)(OCOCH(3))(2)] (4), and [PtL(2)Cl(4)] (5) (L = benzimidazole as carrier ligand) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against the human MCF-7, HeLa, and HEp-2 cancer cell lines. The influence of compounds 1-5 on the tertiary structure of DNA was determined by their ability to modify the electrophoretic mobility of the form I and II bands of pBR322 plasmid DNA. The inhibition of BamH1 restriction enzyme activity of compounds 1-5 was also determined. In general, it was found that compounds 1-5 were less active than cisplatin and carboplatin against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines (except for 1, which was found to be more active than carboplatin against the MCF-7 cell line). Compounds 1 and 3 were found to be significantly more active than cisplatin and carboplatin against the HEp-2 cell line.

  11. Theoretical studies on vibrational spectra of mixed cyanide-halide complexes of platinum(IV) and palladium(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Hanbing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Longgen

    2003-02-01

    The vibrational spectra of mixed cyanide-halide complexes, M(CN) 4X 22- and M(CN) 5X 2- (M=Pt and Pd; X=F, Cl, Br and I), have been systematically investigated by ab initio RHF, B3LYP and MP2 methods with LanL2DZ and SDD basis sets. The calculated vibrational frequencies of platinum complexes are evaluated via comparison with the experimental values. In the infrared frequency region, the CN stretching vibrational frequencies calculated at B3LYP level with two basis sets are in good agreement with the observed values with deviations, -16-4 cm -1 for Pt(CN) 4X 22- and -18 to -2 cm -1 for Pt(CN) 5X 2-. However, in far-infrared region, the results obtained at RHF level are better than those calculated at B3LYP and MP2 levels. For RHF/SDD method, the deviations for PtX and PtC stretching vibrational frequencies are -14-1 and -12 to -2 cm -1 in the complex Pt(CN) 4X 22-, -19 to -11 and -15-14 cm -1 in the Pt(CN) 5X 2- complex, respectively. The vibrational frequencies of palladium(IV) and some platinum(IV) complexes that have not been experimentally reported are predicted.

  12. DNA as a Target for Anticancer Phen-Imidazole Pd(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Maryam; Moghadam, Mahboube Eslami; Tarlani, AliAkbar; Farhangian, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    Imidazole ring is a known structure in many natural or synthetic drug molecules and its metal complexes can interact with DNA and do the cleavage. Hence, to study the influence of the structure and size of the ligand on biological behavior of metal complexes, two water-soluble Pd(II) complexes of phen and FIP ligands (where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline and FIP is 2-(Furan-2-yl)-1H-Imidazo[4,5-f][1, 10]phenanthroline) with the formula of [Pd(phen)(FIP)](NO3)2 and [Pd(FIP)2]Cl2, that were activated against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562, were selected. Also, the interaction of these anticancer Pd(II) complexes with highly polymerized calf thymus DNA was extensively studied by means of electronic absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism in Tris-buffer. The results showed that the binding was positive cooperation and [Pd(phen)(FIP)](NO3)2 (K f = 127 M(-1) G = 1.2) exhibited higher binding constant and number of binding sites than [Pd(FIP)2]Cl2 (K f = 13 M(-1) G = 1.03) upon binding to DNA. The fluorescence data indicates that quenching effect for [Pd(phen)(FIP)](NO3)2 (K SV = 58 mM(-1)) was higher than [Pd(FIP)2]Cl2 (K SV = 12 mM(-1)). Also, [Pd(FIP)2]Cl2 interacts with ethidium bromide-DNA, as non-competitive inhibition, and can bind to DNA via groove binding and [Pd(phen)(FIP)](NO3)2 can intercalate in DNA. These results were confirmed by circular dichroism spectra. Docking data revealed that longer complexes have higher interaction energy and bind to DNA via groove binding. Graphical Abstract Two anticancer Pd(II) complexes of imidazole derivative have been synthesized and interacted with calf thymus DNA. Modes of binding have been studied by electronic absorption, fluorescence, and CD measurements. [Pd(FIP)2]Cl2 can bind to DNA via groove binding while intercalation mode of binding is observed for [Pd(phen)(FIP)](NO3)2.

  13. Doubly chloro bridged dimeric copper(II) complex: magneto-structural correlation and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Yeasin; Modak, Ritwik; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Saswati; Bieńko, Dariusz; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Bieńko, Alina; Das Saha, Krishna; Goswami, Sanchita

    2015-05-21

    We have synthesized and structurally characterized a new doubly chloro bridged dimeric copper(II) complex, [Cu2(μ-Cl)2(HL)2Cl2] (1) based on a Schiff base ligand, 5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-amino]-pentan-1-ol). Single crystal X-ray diffraction shows the presence of dinuclear copper(II) centres in a square pyramidal geometry linked by obtuse double chloro bridge. The magnetic study illustrated that weak antiferromagnetic interactions (J = -0.47 cm(-1)) prevail in complex 1 which is well supported by magneto-structural correlation. This compound adds to the library of doubly chloro bridged copper(ii) complexes in the regime of spin state cross over. DFT calculations have been conducted within a broken-symmetry (BS) framework to investigate the exchange interaction further which depicts that the approximate spin projection technique yields the best corroboration of the experimental J value. Spin density plots show the presence of an ∼0.52e charge residing on the copper atom along with a substantial charge on bridging and peripheral chlorine atoms. The potential of complex1 to act as an anticancer agent is thoroughly examined on a series of liver cancer cell lines and screening shows the HepG2 cell line exhibits maximum cytotoxicity by phosphatidyl serine exposure in the outer cell membrane associated with ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization with increasing time in the in vitro model system.

  14. Crystallization experiments with the dinuclear chelate ring complex di-μ-chlorido-bis[(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))platinum(II)].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thi Thanh, Chi; Pham Van, Thong; Le Thi Hong, Hai; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2016-10-01

    Crystallization experiments with the dinuclear chelate ring complex di-μ-chlorido-bis[(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))platinum(II)], [Pt2(C15H19O4)2Cl2], containing a derivative of the natural compound eugenol as ligand, have been performed. Using five different sets of crystallization conditions resulted in four different complexes which can be further used as starting compounds for the synthesis of Pt complexes with promising anticancer activities. In the case of vapour diffusion with the binary chloroform-diethyl ether or methylene chloride-diethyl ether systems, no change of the molecular structure was observed. Using evaporation from acetonitrile (at room temperature), dimethylformamide (DMF, at 313 K) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, at 313 K), however, resulted in the displacement of a chloride ligand by the solvent, giving, respectively, the mononuclear complexes (acetonitrile-κN)(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))chloridoplatinum(II) monohydrate, [Pt(C15H19O4)Cl(CH3CN)]·H2O, (η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))chlorido(dimethylformamide-κO)platinum(II), [Pt(C15H19O4)Cl(C2H7NO)], and (η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)platinum(II), determined as the analogue {η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-[(ethoxycarbonyl)methoxy]phenyl-κC(1)}chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)platinum(II), [Pt(C14H17O4)Cl(C2H6OS)]. The crystal structures confirm that acetonitrile interacts with the Pt(II) atom via its N atom, while for DMSO, the S atom is the coordinating atom. For the replacement, the longest of the two Pt-Cl bonds is cleaved, leading to a cis position of the solvent ligand with respect to the allyl group. The crystal packing of the complexes is characterized by dimer formation via C-H...O and C-H...π interactions, but no π-π interactions are observed despite the presence of

  15. DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of square planar platinum(II) complexes with N, S-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Patel, Chintan R.; Joshi, Hardik N.; Thakor, Khyati P.

    2014-06-01

    The platinum(II) complexes with N, S-donor ligands have been synthesized and characterized by physicochemical methods viz. elemental, electronic, FT-IR, 1H NMR and LC-MS spectra. The binding mode and potency of the complexes with HS DNA (Herring Sperm) have been examined by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The results revealed that complexes bind to HS DNA via covalent mode with the intrinsic binding constant (Kb) in the range 1.37-7.76 × 105 M-1. Decrease in the relative viscosity of HS DNA also supports the covalent mode of binding. The DNA cleavage activity of synthesized complexes has been carried out by gel electrophoresis experiment using supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA; showing the unwinding of the negatively charged supercoiled DNA. Brine shrimp (Artemia Cysts) lethality bioassay technique has been applied for the determination of toxic property of synthesized complexes in terms of μM.

  16. A Third Mode of DNA Binding: Phosphate Clamps by a Polynuclear Platinum Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Komeda,S.; Moulaei, T.; Kruger Woods, K.; Chikuma, M.; Farrell, N.; Williams, L.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a 1.2 {angstrom} X-ray structure of a double-stranded B-DNA dodecamer (the Dickerson Dodecamer, DDD, [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]{sub 2}) associated with a cytotoxic platinum(II) complex, [{l_brace}trans-Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(NH{sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}(NH{sub 3}{sup +}){r_brace}{sub 2}-{mu}-{l_brace}trans-Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}{r_brace}] (TriplatinNC). TriplatinNC is a multifunctional DNA ligand, with three cationic Pt(II) centers, and directional hydrogen bonding functionalities, linked by flexible hydrophobic segments, but without the potential for covalent interaction. TriplatinNC does not intercalate nor does it bind in either groove. Instead, it binds to phosphate oxygen atoms and thus associates with the backbone. The three square-planar tetra-am(m)ine Pt(II) coordination units form bidentate N-O-N complexes with OP atoms, in a motif we call the Phosphate Clamp. The geometry is conserved among the 8 observed phosphate clamps in this structure. The interaction appears to prefer O2P over O1P atoms (frequency of interaction is O2P > O1P, base and sugar oxygens > N). The high repetition and geometric regularity of the motif suggests that this type of Pt(II) center can be developed as a modular nucleic acid binding device with general utility. TriplatinNC extends along the phosphate backbone, in a mode of binding we call 'Backbone Tracking' and spans the minor groove in a mode of binding we call 'Groove Spanning'. Electrostatic forces appear to induce modest DNA bending into the major groove. This bending may be related to the direct coordination of a sodium cation by a DNA base, with unprecedented inner-shell (direct) coordination of penta-hydrated sodium at the O6 atom of a guanine.

  17. Dye sensitization of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide with square planar platinum(II) diimine dithiolate complexes.

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Sugihara, H; Hara, K; Singh, L P; Katoh, R; Yanagida, M; Takahashi, Y; Murata, S; Arakawa, H; Fujihashi, G

    2001-10-08

    A series of platinum-based sensitizers of the general type Pt(NN)(SS), where NN is 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine (dcbpy) or 4,7-dicarboxy-1,10-phenanthroline (dcphen) and SS is ethyl-2-cyano-3,3-dimercaptoacrylate (ecda), quinoxaline-2,3-dithiolate (qdt), 1,2-benzenedithiolate (bdt), or 3,4-toluenedithiolate (tdt), that have various ground-state oxidation potentials has been synthesized and anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide electrodes for light-to-electricity conversion in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells with an I(-)/I(-)(3) acetonitrile electrolyte. The intense mixed-Pt/dithiolate-to-diimine charge-transfer absorption bands in this series could be tuned from 440 to 580 nm by choosing appropriate dithiolate ligands, and the highest occupied molecular orbitals varied by more than 500 mV. Spectrophotometric titration of the Pt(dcphen)(bdt) complex exhibits a ground-state pK(a) value of 3.2 +/- 0.1, which can be assigned to the protonation of the carboxylate group of the dcphen ligand. Binding of Pt(dcbpy)(qdt) to porous nanostructured TiO(2) films was analyzed using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, yielding an adsorption equilibrium constant of 4 x 10(5) M(-1). The amount of dye adsorbed at the surface of TiO(2) films was 9.5 x 10(-8) mol/cm(2), which is ca. 50% lower than the full monolayer coverage. The resulting complexes efficiently sensitized TiO(2) over a notably broad spectral range and showed an open-circuit potential of ca. 600 mV with an impressive fill factor of > 0.70, making them attractive candidates for solar energy conversion applications. The visible spectra of the 3,4-toluenedithiol-based sensitizers showed an enhanced red response, but the lower photocurrent efficiency observed for these sensitizers stems in part from a sluggish halide oxidation rate and a fast recombination of injected electrons with the oxidized dye.

  18. Preparation, stability, and photoreactivity of thiolato ruthenium polypyridyl complexes: Can cysteine derivatives protect ruthenium-based anticancer complexes?

    PubMed

    van Rixel, Vincent H S; Busemann, Anja; Göttle, Adrien J; Bonnet, Sylvestre

    2015-09-01

    Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes may act as light-activatable anticancer prodrugs provided that they are protected by well-coordinated ligands that i) prevent coordination of other biomolecules to the metal center in the dark and ii) can be removed by visible light irradiation. In this paper, the use of monodentate thiol ligands RSH as light-cleavable protecting groups for the ruthenium complex [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(OH2)](PF6)2 ([1](PF6)2; tpy=2,2';6',2″-terpyridine, bpy=2,2'-bypyridine), is investigated. The reaction of [1](2+) with RSH=H2Cys (L-cysteine), H2Acys (N-acetyl-L-cysteine), and HAcysMe (N-acetyl-L-cysteine methyl ester), is studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Coordination of the monodentate thiol ligands to the ruthenium complex takes place upon heating to 353 K, but full conversion to the protected complex [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(SR)]PF6 is only possible when a large excess of ligand is used. Isolation and characterization of the two new thiolato complexes [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(κS-HCys)]PF6 ([2]PF6) and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(κS-HAcys)]PF6 ([3]PF6) is reported. [3]PF6 shows a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer absorption band that is red shifted (λmax=492 nm in water) compared to its methionine analogue [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(κS-HAmet)](Cl)2 ([5](Cl)2, λmax=452 nm; HAmet=N-acetyl-methionine). In the dark the thiolate ligand coordinated to ruthenium is oxidized even by traces of oxygen, which first leads to the sulfenato, sulfinato, and disulfide ruthenium complexes, and finally to the formation of the aqua complex [1](2+). [3]PF6 showed slow photosubstitution of the thiolate ligand by water under blue light irradiation, together with faster photooxidation of the thiolate ligand compared to dark conditions. The use of thiol vs. thioether monodentate ligands is discussed for the protection of anticancer ruthenium-based prodrugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior of platinum(iv) complexes in models of tumor hypoxia: cytotoxicity, compound distribution and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber-Brynzak, Ekaterina; Pichler, Verena; Heffeter, Petra; Hanson, Buck; Theiner, Sarah; Lichtscheidl-Schultz, Irene; Kornauth, Christoph; Bamonti, Luca; Dhery, Vineet; Groza, Diana; Berry, David; Berger, Walter; Galanski, Markus; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia in solid tumors remains a challenge for conventional cancer therapeutics. As a source for resistance, metastasis development and drug bioprocessing, it influences treatment results and disease outcome. Bioreductive platinum(iv) prodrugs might be advantageous over conventional metal-based therapeutics, as biotransformation in a reductive milieu, such as under hypoxia, is required for drug activation. This study deals with a two-step screening of experimental platinum(iv) prodrugs with different rates of reduction and lipophilicity with the aim of identifying the most appropriate compounds for further investigations. In the first step, the cytotoxicity of all compounds was compared in hypoxic multicellular spheroids and monolayer culture using a set of cancer cell lines with different sensitivities to platinum(ii) compounds. Secondly, two selected compounds were tested in hypoxic xenografts in SCID mouse models in comparison to satraplatin, and, additionally, (LA)-ICP-MS-based accumulation and distribution studies were performed for these compounds in hypoxic spheroids and xenografts. Our findings suggest that, while cellular uptake and cytotoxicity strongly correlate with lipophilicity, cytotoxicity under hypoxia compared to non-hypoxic conditions and antitumor activity of platinum(iv) prodrugs are dependent on their rate of reduction.

  20. Synthesis of antitumor azolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(ii) complexes with in vivo antitumor efficacy and unique in vitro cytotoxicity profiles.

    PubMed

    Komeda, Seiji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Odani, Akira; Yamori, Takao; Chikuma, Masahiko

    2013-05-01

    We synthesised four tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(ii) complexes, [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-5-R-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](n+), where R is CH3 (1), C6H5 (2), CH2COOC2H5 (3), or CH2COO(-) (4) and n = 2 (1-3) or 1 (4). Their structures were characterised by (1)H, (13)C, and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis, and the crystal structure of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The cytotoxicities of the complexes to human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines sensitive and resistant to cisplatin were assayed. Complex 1 was more cytotoxic than cisplatin in both PC-9 and PC-14 NSCLC cell lines, and cross-resistance to 1 in the cisplatin-resistant cells was largely circumvented. Complex 3 was moderately cytotoxic, whereas 2 and 4 were only marginally cytotoxic. We also determined the growth inhibitory activities of 1 and 3, as well as prototype azolato-bridged complexes [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-pyrazolato)](2+) (AMPZ), [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-1,2,3-triazolato-N1,N2)](2+) (AMTA), [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-tetrazolato-N1,N2)](2+) (5-H-X), and [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+) (5-H-Y), against a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39). The average 50% growth inhibition concentrations of the complexes against the JFCR39 cell lines ranged from 0.933 to 23.4 μM. The cytotoxicity fingerprints of the complexes based on the JFCR39 cytotoxicity data were similar to one another but completely different from the fingerprints of clinical platinum-based anticancer drugs. Complex 3 exhibited marked antitumor efficiency when tested in vivo on xenografts of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer in nude mice. The high potency of 3 confirmed that the tetrazolato-bridged structure exhibits high in vivo antitumor efficacy.

  1. A novel charged trinuclear platinum complex effective against cisplatin-resistant tumours: hypersensitivity of p53-mutant human tumour xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G; Perego, P; Polizzi, D; Righetti, S C; Supino, R; Caserini, C; Manzotti, C; Giuliani, F C; Pezzoni, G; Tognella, S; Spinelli, S; Farrell, N; Zunino, F

    1999-01-01

    Multinuclear platinum compounds were rationally designed to bind to DNA in a different manner from that of cisplatin and its mononuclear analogues. A triplatinum compound of the series (BBR 3464) was selected for preclinical development, since, in spite of its charged nature, it was very potent as cytotoxic agent and effective against cisplatin-resistant tumour cells. Anti-tumour efficacy studies were performed in a panel of human tumour xenografts refractory or poorly responsive to cisplatin. The novel platinum compound exhibited efficacy in all tested tumours and an impressive efficacy (including complete tumour regressions) was displayed in two lung carcinoma models, CaLu-3 and POCS. Surprisingly, BBR 3464 showed a superior activity against p53-mutant tumours as compared to those carrying the wild-type gene. The involvement of p53 in tumour response was investigated in an osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS, which is null for p53 and is highly sensitive to BBR 3464, and in the same cells following introduction of the wild-type p53 gene. Thus the pattern of cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumour cells with a different p53 gene status. The results showed that the transfer of functional p53 resulted in a marked (tenfold) reduction of cellular chemosensitivity to the multinuclear platinum complex but in a moderate sensitization to cisplatin. In addition, in contrast to cisplatin, the triplatinum complex was very effective as an inducer of apoptosis in a lung carcinoma cell line carrying mutant p53. The peculiar pattern of anti-tumour activity of the triplatinum complex and its ability to induce p53-independent cell death may have relevant pharmacological implications, since p53, a critical protein involved in DNA repair and induction of apoptosis by conventional DNA-damaging agents, is defective in several human tumours. We suggest that the peculiar DNA binding properties of the triplatinum complex may contribute to the striking profile of anti

  2. Highly luminescent half-lantern cyclometalated platinum(II) complex: synthesis, structure, luminescence studies, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Violeta; Forniés, Juan; Casas, José Ma; Martín, Antonio; López, José A; Larraz, Carmen; Borja, Pilar; Ovejero, Carmen; Tordera, Daniel; Bolink, Henk

    2012-03-19

    The half-lantern compound [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S)}(2)]·Me(2)CO (1) was obtained by reaction of equimolar amounts of potassium 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate (KC(7)H(4)NS(2)) and [Pt(bzq)(NCMe)(2)]ClO(4). The Pt(II)···Pt(II) separation in the neutral complex [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S)}(2)] is 2.910 (2) Å, this being among the shortest observed in half-lantern divalent platinum complexes. Within the complex, the benzo[h]quinoline (bzq) groups lie in close proximity with most C···C distances being between 3.3 and 3.7 Å, which is indicative of significant π-π interactions. The reaction of 1 with halogens X(2) (X(2) = Cl(2), Br(2), or I(2)) proceeds with a two-electron oxidation to give the corresponding dihalodiplatinum(III) complexes [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S)X}(2)] (X = Cl 2, Br 3, I 4). Their X-ray structures confirm the retention of the half-lantern structure and the coordination mode of the bzq and the bridging ligand μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S. The Pt-Pt distances (Pt-Pt = 2.6420(3) Å 2, 2.6435(4) Å 3, 2.6690(3) Å 4) are shorter than that in 1 because of the Pt-Pt bond formation. Time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies performed on 1 show a formal bond order of 0 between the metal atoms, with the 6p(z) contribution diminishing the antibonding character of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and being responsible for an attractive intermetallic interaction. A shortening of the Pt-Pt distance from 2.959 Å in the ground state S(0) to 2.760 Å in the optimized first excited state (T(1)) is consistent with an increase in the Pt-Pt bond order to 0.5. In agreement with TD-DFT calculations, the intense, structureless, red emission of 1 in the solid state and in solution can be mainly attributed to triplet metal-metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MMLCT) [dσ*(Pt-Pt) → π*(bzq)] excited states. The high quantum yields of this emission measured in toluene (44%) and solid state (62%) at room temperature indicate

  3. Sulfide saturation history of the Stillwater Complex, Montana: chemostratigraphic variation in platinum group elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keays, Reid R.; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Hamlyn, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    A platinum group element (PGE) investigation of a 5.3 km-thick stratigraphic section of the Stillwater Complex, Montana was undertaken to refine and test a geochemical technique to explore for platiniferous horizons in layered mafic/ultramafic complexes. PGE, Au, major, and trace elements were determined in 92 samples from outcrops along traverses in the Chrome Mountain and Contact Mountain areas in the western part of the Stillwater Complex where the J-M reef occurs ˜1,460 m above the floor of the intrusion. A further 29 samples from a drill hole cored in the immediate vicinity of the J-M reef were analyzed to detail compositional variations directly above and below the J-M reef. Below the J-M reef, background concentrations of Pt (10 ppb) and Pd (7 ppb) are features of peridotites with intermediate S concentrations (mostly 100-200 ppm) and rocks from the Bronzitite, Norite I, and Gabbronorite I zones (mostly <100 ppm S). A sustained increase in S abundance commences at the J-M reef and continues to increase and peaks in the center of the 600 m-thick middle banded series. Over this same interval, Pt, Pd, and Au are initially elevated and then decrease in the order Pd > Pt > Au. Within the middle and upper banded series, S abundances fluctuate considerably, but exhibit an overall upward increase. The behavior of these elements records periodic sulfide saturation during deposition of the Peridotite zone, followed by crystallization under sulfide-undersaturated conditions until saturation is achieved at the base of the J-M reef. Following formation of the reef, sulfide-saturated conditions persisted throughout the deposition of most of the remaining Lower Layered Series. This resulted in a pronounced impoverishment in PGE abundance in the remaining magma, a condition that continued throughout deposition of the remainder of a succession, which is characterized by very low Pt (1.5 ppb) and Pd (0.7 ppb) abundances. Because only unmineralized rock was selected for study

  4. Trans-platinum(II)/(IV) Complexes with Acetylpyridine Ligands as Antivascular Agents in vitro: Cytotoxic and Antiangiogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Lana, Filipović; Sandra, Aranđelović; Ana, Krivokuća; Radmila, Janković; Biljana, Dojčinović; Siniša, Radulović

    2016-01-01

    In vitro biological studies of four trans-platinum complexes of structural formulas trans-[PtCl2(n-acetylpyridine)2] (n = 3 or 4, complex 1 or 2) and [Pt(n-acetylpyridine)2Cl4] (n = 3 or 4, complex 3 or 4) were performed in human endothelial EA.hy 926 cells, in order to evaluate and compare their cytotoxic and antiangiogenic potential. MTT results revealed that trans-Pt(II) complexes exhibited significantly lower IC50 values: 4.0±0.9 μM (1) and 2.1±0.0 μM (2), than cisplatin (27.7±1.3 μM). Combinational drug treatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine and L-buthioninesulfoximine strongly counteracted effect of 1 and 2, while the same treatment rather enhanced cytotoxicity of Pt(IV) analogues. ICP-MS results suggested that differential endothelial toxicity of cisplatin and trans-platinum complexes correlated to the differences in their cellular accumulation, rather than to the different affinity of DNA binding. Intracellular accumulation of complexes (ng Pt/106 cells) for 24 h treatment, decreased in order: 1>2>4>3>CDDP, while ratio of DNA binding (pg Pt/μg DNA) decreased as following: 2>1>CDDP>4>3. FACS/Annexin-V-FITC analysis, and morphological study demonstrated that the enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic potential (18.1%) of complex 2 was related to its highest affinity to bind nuclear DNA. Pt(IV) complexes exhibited the lowest reactivity to cellular DNA and proteins. Regardless of their antiproliferative action, 1-4 at subtoxic concentrations demonstrated in vitro inhibitory effect on tubulogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 gelatinolitic activity, while 1 and 2 additionally downregulated MMP-2 gene expression.

  5. Quantitative measurement of the reduction of platinum(IV) complexes using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES).

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew D; Daly, Helen L; Zhang, Jenny Z; Zhang, Mei; Alderden, Rebecca A; Pursche, Daniel; Foran, Garry J; Hambley, Trevor W

    2012-06-01

    The platinum(II) drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are usefully employed against a range of malignancies, but toxicities and resistance have spurred the search for improved analogs. This has included investigation of the platinum(IV) oxidation state, which provides greater kinetic inertness. It is generally accepted that Pt(IV) complexes must be reduced to Pt(II) for activation. As such, the ability to monitor reduction of Pt(IV) complexes is critical to guiding the design of candidates, and providing mechanistic understanding. Here we report in full that the white line height of X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of Pt complexes, normalized to the post-edge minima, can be used to quantitatively determine the proportion of each oxidation state in a mixture. A series of Pt(IV) complexes based on the Pt(II) complexes cisplatin and transplatin were prepared with chlorido, acetato or hydroxido axial ligands, and studies into their reduction potential and cytotoxicity against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells were performed, demonstrating the relationship between reduction potential and cytotoxicity. Analysis of white line height demonstrated a clear and consistent difference between Pt(II) (1.52 ± 0.05) and Pt(IV) (2.43 ± 0.19) complexes. Reduction of Pt(IV) complexes over time in cell growth media and A2780 cells was observed by XANES, and shown to correspond with their reduction potentials and cytotoxicities. We propose that this method is useful for monitoring reduction of metal-based drug candidates in complex biological systems.

  6. Anticancer and antimicrobial metallopharmaceutical agents based on palladium, gold, and silver N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sriparna; Mohan, Renu; Singh, Jay K; Samantaray, Manoja K; Shaikh, Mobin M; Panda, Dulal; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2007-12-05

    Complete synthetic, structural, and biomedical studies of two Pd complexes as well as Au and Ag complexes of 1-benzyl-3-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene are reported. Specifically, trans-[1-benzyl-3-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene]Pd(pyridine)Cl2 (1a) was synthesized from the reaction of 1-benzyl-3-tert-butylimidazolium chloride (1) with PdCl2 in the presence of K2CO3 as a base. The other palladium complex, [1-benzyl-3-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene]2PdCl2 (1b), and a gold complex, [1-benzyl-3-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene]AuCl (1c), were synthesized by following a transmetallation route from the silver complex, [1-benzyl-3-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene]AgCl (1d), by treatment with (COD)PdCl2 and (SMe2)AuCl, respectively. The silver complex 1d in turn was synthesized by the reaction of 1 with Ag2O. The molecular structures of 1a-d have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Biomedical studies revealed that, while the palladium complexes 1a and 1b displayed potent anticancer activity, the gold (1c) and silver (1d) complexes exhibited significant antimicrobial properties. Specifically, 1b showed strong antiproliferative activity against three types of human tumor cells, namely, cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon adenocarcinoma (HCT 116), in culture. The antiproliferative activity of 1b was found to be considerably stronger than that of cisplatin. The 1b complex inhibited tumor cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle progression at the G2 phase, preventing the mitotic entry of the cell. We present evidence suggesting that the treated cells underwent programmed cell death through a p53-dependent pathway. Though both the gold (1c) and silver (1d) complexes showed antimicrobial activity toward Bacillus subtilis, 1c was found to be ca. 2 times more potent than 1d.

  7. New bioactive silver(I) complexes: Synthesis, characterization, anticancer, antibacterial and anticarbonic anhydrase II activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Ummuhan O.; Ozbek, Neslihan; Genc, Zuhal Karagoz; İlbiz, Firdevs; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban

    2017-06-01

    Silver(I) complexes of alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides were newly synthesized as homologous series. Methanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L1), ethanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L2), propanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L3) and butanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L4) were used for complexation with Ag(I) ions. The silver complexes obtained in the mol ratio of 1:2 have the structural formula as Ag(L1)2NO3 (I), Ag(L2)2NO3 (II), Ag(L3)2NO3(III), (Ag(L4)2NO3 (IV). The Ag(I) complexes exhibit distorted linear two-fold coordination in [AgL2]+ cations with uncoordinated nitrates. Ligands are chelated with silver(I) ions through unsubstituted primary nitrogen in hydrazide group. Ag(I) complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, LC-MS), magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Silver(I) complexes were optimized using PBEPBE/LanL2DZ/DEF2SV basic set performed by DFT method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The geometrical parameters, frontier molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapped surfaces of the optimized geometries were also determined by this quantum set. The anticancer activities of silver(I) complexes on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of complexes were studied against Gram positive bacteria; S. aureus ATCC 6538, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, B. cereus NRRL-B-3711, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; E. coli ATCC 11230, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, K. pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of Ag(I) complexes on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) were also investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that Ag(I) complex of butanesulfonicacidehydrazide (IV) has the highest activity against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram positive/Gram negative bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  8. A new platinum complex with tryptophan: synthesis, structural characterization, DFT studies and biological assays in vitro over human tumorigenic cells.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcos A; Shishido, Silvia M; Souza, Bárbara C; de Paiva, Raphael E F; Gomes, Alexandre F; Gozzo, Fábio C; Formiga, André L B; Corbi, Pedro P

    2014-03-25

    A new platinum(II) complex with the amino acid L-tryptophan (trp), named Pt-trp, was synthesized and characterized. Elemental, thermogravimetric and ESI-QTOF mass spectrometric analyses led to the composition [Pt(C11H11N2O2)2]⋅6H2O. Infrared spectroscopic data indicate the coordination of trp to Pt(II) through the oxygen of the carboxylate group and also through the nitrogen atom of the amino group. The (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic data confirm coordination through the oxygen atom of the carboxylate group, while the (15)N CP/MAS NMR data confirm coordination of the nitrogen of the NH2 group to the metal. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were applied to evaluate the cis and trans coordination modes of trp to platinum(II). The trans isomer was shown to be energetically more stable than the cis one. The Pt-trp complex was evaluated as a cytotoxic agent against SK-Mel 103 (human melanoma) and Panc-1 (human pancreatic carcinoma) cell lines. The complex was shown to be cytotoxic over the considered cells.

  9. A new platinum complex with tryptophan: Synthesis, structural characterization, DFT studies and biological assays in vitro over human tumorigenic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Marcos A.; Shishido, Silvia M.; Souza, Bárbara C.; de Paiva, Raphael E. F.; Gomes, Alexandre F.; Gozzo, Fábio C.; Formiga, André L. B.; Corbi, Pedro P.

    2014-03-01

    A new platinum(II) complex with the amino acid L-tryptophan (trp), named Pt-trp, was synthesized and characterized. Elemental, thermogravimetric and ESI-QTOF mass spectrometric analyses led to the composition [Pt(C11H11N2O2)2]ṡ6H2O. Infrared spectroscopic data indicate the coordination of trp to Pt(II) through the oxygen of the carboxylate group and also through the nitrogen atom of the amino group. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic data confirm coordination through the oxygen atom of the carboxylate group, while the 15N CP/MAS NMR data confirm coordination of the nitrogen of the NH2 group to the metal. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were applied to evaluate the cis and trans coordination modes of trp to platinum(II). The trans isomer was shown to be energetically more stable than the cis one. The Pt-trp complex was evaluated as a cytotoxic agent against SK-Mel 103 (human melanoma) and Panc-1 (human pancreatic carcinoma) cell lines. The complex was shown to be cytotoxic over the considered cells.

  10. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy of fisetin by encapsulating as inclusion complex with HPβCD in polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kadari, Amrita; Gudem, Sagarika; Kulhari, Hitesh; Bhandi, Murali Mohan; Borkar, Roshan M; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2017-11-01

    Fisetin (FST), a potent anticancer phytoconstituent, exhibits poor aqueous solubility and hence poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study is to improve the oral bioavailability of FST by encapsulating into PLGA NPs (poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles) as a complex of HPβCD (hydroxyl propyl beta cyclodextrin) and to assess its anti-cancer activity against breast cancer cells. FST-HPβCD inclusion complex (FHIC) was prepared and the supramolecular complex formation was characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD and (1)H NMR. FHIC encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (FHIC-PNP) were prepared and were studied for in vitro anticancer activity, cellular uptake, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comparative bioavailability of FST was determined after oral administration in C57BL6 mice as pure FST and FHIC-PNP. The results revealed that FHIC-PNP not only enhanced the anti-cancer activity and apoptosis of FST against MCF-7 cells but also improved its oral bioavailability, as demonstrated by increased peak plasma concentration and total drug absorbed.

  11. Platinum complexes with one radiosensitizing ligand (PtCl2(NH3) (sensitizer)): radiosensitization and toxicity studies in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Skov, K.A.; Farrell, N.P.; Adomat, H.

    1987-11-01

    Complexes of general formula (PtCl2(NH3)L) with one radiosensitizing ligand per platinum are compared with ligand L alone, complexes with two radiosensitizers per platinum (PtCl2L2), and their analogs with NH3 ligands, with respect to radiosensitizing properties and toxicity in CHO cells. Radiosensitizing ligands, L, were misonidazole, metronidazole, 4(5)-nitroimidazole, and 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole, and the ammine analogs were cis- and trans-DDP (diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and the monoammine, K(PtCl3(NH3)). Results are related to a previous study on plasmid DNA binding by these series. The toxicity of the mono series (PtCl2(NH3)L), attributable to DNA binding, is much higher than the corresponding bis complexes, (PtCl2L2). For L = misonidazole, toxicity is similar to the monoammine, but higher in hypoxic than in aerobic cells. trans-(PtCl2(NH3)-(misonidazole)) is more toxic than the cis isomer. Except for L = 4(5)-nitroimidazole, the complexes (PtCl2(NH3)L) are more toxic than L in air and hypoxia. Hypoxic radiosensitization by the mono complexes is comparable to the monoammine and is not better than free sensitizers, again except for L = 4(5)-nitroimidazole. Significantly lower sensitization is observed in oxic cells. The bis complexes (PtCl2L2), which do not bind to DNA as well as the mono complexes, are less effective radiosensitizers and less toxic than the (PtCl2(NH3)L) series.

  12. Interaction of manganese(II) complex with apotransferrin and the apotransferrin enhanced anticancer activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ling; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Xu, Xiao-Lei; Li, Zan; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Apotransferrin could bind a number of metal ions besides Fe, which makes it an attractive delivery vehicle for metal-based medicines. In order to evaluate whether anticancer Mn(II) complex of [(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] Adpa = bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid) (AdpaMn) could be transported by apotransferrin, we investigated its interaction with human apotransferrin by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association dynamics show that AdpaMn could bind to apotransferrin spontaneously in Hepes buffer. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and CD spectroscopy show that the conjugation of AdpaMn and apotransferrin by hydrophobic interactions induces the change of the microenvironment and conformation of apotransferrin. The reversible binding and release of AdpaMn was studied with fluorescence titration method. The AdpaMn complex can be released from the AdpaMn-apotransferrin entity in weak acid environments. MTT assay in vitro confirms that apotransferrin can enhance the inhibition rate of AdpaMn on the proliferation of HepG-2 cells, so we deduce that AdpaMn could be transported by apotransferrin in vivo.

  13. Protein ruthenation and DNA alkylation: chlorambucil-functionalized RAPTA complexes and their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Alexey A; Meier, Samuel M; Zava, Olivier; Nosova, Yulia N; Milaeva, Elena R; Hartinger, Christian G; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-02-28

    Chemotherapeutics for the treatment of tumorigenic conditions that feature novel modes of action are highly sought after to overcome the limitations of current chemotherapies. Herein, we report the conjugation of the alkylating agent chlorambucil to the RAPTA scaffold, a well-established pharmacophore. While chlorambucil is known to alkylate DNA, the RAPTA complexes are known to coordinate to amino acid side chains of proteins. Therefore, such a molecule combines DNA and protein targeting properties in a single molecule. Several chlorambucil-tethered RAPTA derivatives were prepared and tested for their cytotoxicity, stability in water and reactivity to protein and DNA substrates. The anticancer activity of the complexes is widely driven by the cytotoxicity of the chlorambucil moiety. However, especially in the cisplatin-resistant A2780R cells, the chlorambucil-functionalized RAPTA derivatives are in general more cytotoxic than chlorambucil and also a mixture of chlorambucil and the parent organoruthenium RAPTA compound. In a proof-of-principle experiment, the cross-linking of DNA and protein fragments by a chlorambucil-RAPTA derivative was observed.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, Anticancer, and Antioxidant Studies of Ru(III) Complexes of Monobasic Tridentate Schiff Bases

    PubMed Central

    Ejidike, Ikechukwu P.

    2016-01-01

    Mononuclear Ru(III) complexes of the type [Ru(LL)Cl2(H2O)] (LL = monobasic tridentate Schiff base anion: (1Z)-N′-(2-{(E)-[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]amino}ethyl)-N-phenylethanimidamide [DAE], 4-[(1E)-N-{2-[(Z)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)amino]ethyl}ethanimidoyl]benzene-1,3-diol [HME], 4-[(1E)-N-{2-[(Z)-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)amino]ethyl}ethanimidoyl]benzene-1,3-diol [MBE], and N-(2-{(E)-[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]amino}ethyl)benzenecarboximidoyl chloride [DEE]) were synthesized and characterized using the microanalytical, conductivity measurements, electronic spectra, and FTIR spectroscopy. IR spectral studies confirmed that the ligands act as tridentate chelate coordinating the metal ion through the azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atom. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for all Ru(III)-Schiff base complexes. In vitro anticancer studies of the synthesized complexes against renal cancer cells (TK-10), melanoma cancer cells (UACC-62), and breast cancer cells (MCF-7) was investigated using the Sulforhodamine B assay. [Ru(DAE)Cl2(H2O)] showed the highest activity with IC50 valves of 3.57 ± 1.09, 6.44 ± 0.38, and 9.06 ± 1.18 μM against MCF-7, UACC-62, and TK-10, respectively, order of activity being TK-10 < UACC-62 < MCF-7. The antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS inhibition assay was also examined. Scavenging ability of the complexes on DPPH radical can be ranked in the following order: [Ru(DEE)Cl2(H2O)] > [Ru(HME)Cl2(H2O)] > [Ru(DAE)Cl2(H2O)] > [Ru(MBE)Cl2(H2O)]. PMID:27597814

  15. Synthesis and vibrational study of platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes of glyoxilic acid oxime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, N.; Bauer, G.; Georgieva, I.; Dodoff, N.

    1999-12-01

    New platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes of glyoxilic acid oxime (gao) have been prepared and characterised by infrared (4000-150 cm -1) and Raman (4000-200 cm -1) spectra. The gao acts as bidentate ligand bonding through the oxime nitrogen and carboxyl oxygen atoms to form neutral bis-chelate square-planar complexes. The lowest energy conformer of the gao ligand ( ectt) was selected among 16 theoretically possible conformers on the basis of ab initio calculations at HF/3-21G*, HF/6-31G* and HF/6-311** levels of the theory from which structural parameters and conformational stabilities have been obtained. A complete vibrational assignment of the gao was performed for the lowest energy ectt conformer on the basis of ab initio optimised parameters and normal coordinate analysis calculations (PED). NCA calculations of the complexes studied were also performed.

  16. Am(m)ines make the difference: organoruthenium am(m)ine complexes and their chemistry in anticancer drug development.

    PubMed

    Babak, Maria V; Meier, Samuel M; Legin, Anton A; Adib Razavi, Mahsa S; Roller, Alexander; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-03-25

    With the aim of systematically studying fundamental structure-activity relationships as a basis for the development of Ru(II) arene complexes (arene = p-cymene or biphenyl) bearing mono-, bi-, or tridentate am(m)ine ligands as anticancer agents, a series of ammine, ethylenediamine, and diethylenetriamine complexes were prepared by different synthetic routes. Especially the synthesis of mono-, di-, and triammine complexes was found to be highly dependent on the reaction conditions, such as stoichiometry, temperature, and time. Hydrolysis and protein-binding studies were performed to determine the reactivity of the compounds, and only those containing chlorido ligands undergo aquation or form protein adducts. These properties correlate well with in vitro tumor-inhibiting potency of the compounds. The complexes were found to be active in anticancer assays when meeting the following criteria: stability in aqueous solution and low rates of hydrolysis and binding to proteins. Therefore, the complexes least reactive to proteins were found to be the most cytotoxic in cancer cells. In general, complexes with biphenyl as arene ligand inhibited the growth of tumor cells more effectively than the cymene analogues, consistent with the increase in lipophilicity. This study highlights the importance of finding a proper balance between reactivity and stability in the development of organometallic anticancer agents. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Application of cellulose anion-exchangers to separation of palladium from platinum or iridium with glycine as complexing agent and atomic-absorption spectrometry for detection.

    PubMed

    Brajter, K; Słonawska, K

    1983-07-01

    The use of glycine as complexing agent for chromatographie separation of palladium from platinum, or palladium from iridium, on cellulose anion-exchangers has been investigated and found possible over a wide range of concentration ratios. The method can be used for analysis of Pd-Ir alloys. The nature of the complexes taking part in the ion-exchange has been identified.

  18. Palladium(II) and platinum(II) organometallic complexes with the model nucleobase anions of thymine, uracil, and cytosine: antitumor activity and interactions with DNA of the platinum compounds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, José; Lorenzo, Julia; Sanglas, Laura; Cutillas, Natalia; Vicente, Consuelo; Villa, María Dolores; Avilés, Francesc X; López, Gregorio; Moreno, Virtudes; Pérez, José; Bautista, Delia

    2006-08-07

    Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with the anions of the model nucleobases 1-methylthymine (1-MethyH), 1-methyluracil (1-MeuraH), and 1-methylcytosine (1-MecytH) of the types [Pd(dmba)(mu-L)]2 [dmba = N,C-chelating 2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl; L = 1-Methy, 1-Meura or 1-Mecyt] and [M(dmba)(L)(L')] [L = 1-Methy or 1-Meura; L' = PPh(3) (M = Pd or Pt), DMSO (M = Pt)] have been obtained. Palladium complexes of the types [Pd(C6F5)(N-N)(L)] [L = 1-Methy or 1-Meura; N-N = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmeda), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), or 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me2bpy)] and [NBu4][Pd(C6F5)(1-Methy)2(H2O)] have also been prepared. The crystal structures of [Pd(dmba)(mu-1-Methy)]2, [Pd(dmba)(mu-1-Mecyt)]2.2CHCl3, [Pd(dmba)(1-Methy)(PPh3)].3CHCl3, [Pt(dmba)(1-Methy)(PPh3)], [Pd(tmeda)(C6F5)(1-Methy)], and [NBu4][Pd(C6F5)(1-Methy)2(H2O)].H2O have been established by X-ray diffraction. The DNA adduct formation of the new platinum complexes synthesized was followed by circular dichroism and electrophoretic mobility. Atomic force microscopy images of the modifications caused by the platinum complexes on plasmid DNA pBR322 were also obtained. Values of IC50 were also calculated for the new platinum complexes against the tumor cell line HL-60. All the new platinum complexes were more active than cisplatin (up to 20-fold in some cases).

  19. Imino-phosphine palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes: synthesis, molecular structures and evaluation as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Motswainyana, William M; Onani, Martin O; Madiehe, Abram M; Saibu, Morounke; Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Lalancette, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The imino-phosphine ligands L1 and L2 were prepared via condensation reaction of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde with substituted anilines and obtained in very good yields. An equimolar reaction of L1 and L2 with either PdCl2(cod) or PtCl2(cod) gave new palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes 1-4. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of 2, 3 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. All the three molecular structures crystallized in monoclinic C2/c space system. The coordination geometry around the palladium and platinum atoms in respective structures exhibited distorted square planar geometry at the metal centers. The complexes were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against human breast (MCF-7) and human colon (HT-29) cancer cells, and they exhibited growth inhibitory activities and selectivity that were superior to the standard compound cisplatin.

  20. Synthesis and platinum complexes of an alane-appended 1,1'-bis(phosphino)ferrocene ligand.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Bradley E; Tsao, Fu An; Emslie, David J H

    2015-02-09

    An aryldimethylalane-appended analogue of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, FcPPAl, was prepared, and reaction with [Pt(nb)3 ] (nb=norbornene) afforded [Pt(η(2) -nb)(FcPPAl)] (1). Heating a solution of 1 to 80 °C resulted in crystallization of [{Pt(FcPPAl)}2 ] (2), whereas treatment of 1 with C2 H4 , C2 Ph2 , H2 , or CO provided [PtL(FcPPAl)] [L=C2 H4 (3), C2 Ph2 (4)], [PtH2 (FcPPAl)] (5), and [Pt(CO)(FcPPAl)] (6). In all complexes, the FcPPAl ligand is coordinated through both phosphines and the alane. Whereas 2 adopts a T-shaped geometry at platinum, 3-5 are square-pyramidal, and 6 is distorted square-planar. The hydride and carbonyl complexes feature unusual multicenter bonding involving platinum, aluminum, and a hydride or carbonyl ligand. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of cis-Diammineplatinum(II) Complexes with β-Diketonate Leaving Group Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Justin J.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Five cationic platinum(II) complexes of general formula, [Pt(NH3)2(β-diketonate)]X are reported, where X is a non-coordinating anion and β-diketonate = acetylacetonate (acac), 1,1,1,-trifluoroacetylacetonate (tfac), benzoylacetonate (bzac), 4,4,4-trifluorobenzoylacetonate (tfbz), or dibenzoylmethide (dbm), corresponding respectively to complexes 1–5. The log P values and the stabilities of 1–5 in aqueous solution were evaluated. The phenyl ring substituents of 3–5 increase the lipophilicity of the resulting complexes, whereas the trifluoromethyl groups of 2 and 4 decrease the stability of the complexes in aqueous solution. The uptake of 1–5 in HeLa cells increase as the lipophilicity of the investigated complex increases. Cancer cell cytotoxicity studies indicate that 1 and 3 are the least active complexes whereas 2, 4, and 5 are comparable to cisplatin. PMID:22606945

  2. Synthesis, crystallographic characterization and electrochemical property of a copper(II) complex of the anticancer agent elesclomol.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nha Huu; Xia, Zhiqiang; Hanko, Jason; Yun, Tong; Bloom, Steve; Shen, Jianhua; Koya, Keizo; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Elesclomol is a novel anticancer agent that has been evaluated in a number of late stage clinical trials. A new and convenient synthesis of elesclomol and its copper complex is described. X-ray crystallographic characterization and the electrochemical properties of the elesclomol copper(II) complex are discussed. The copper(II) cation is coordinated in a highly distorted square-planar geometry to each of the sulphur and amide nitrogen atoms of elesclomol. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the complex undergoes a reversible one-electron reduction at biologically accessible potentials. In contrast the free elesclomol is found electrochemically inactive. This evidence is in strong support of the mechanism of action we proposed for the anticancer activity of elesclomol.

  3. Molecular trail for the anticancer behavior of a novel copper carbohydrazone complex in BRCA1 mutated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rakesh Sathish; Potti, Manoj Easwaran; Thankappan, Ratheeshkumar; Chandrika, Sivakumar Krishnankutty; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra; Srinivas, Priya

    2017-05-01

    Novel chelated metal complexes were synthesized from carbohydrazones to thiocarbohydrazones using metal-based drug designing platforms and their combination effect with Pb, a naphthaquinone were analyzed for anticancer activity in breast cancer cell lines. A panel of BRCA1 wild-type and mutated breast cancer cells: MCF-7 (BRCA1(+) /ER(+) ), MDA-MB-231 (BRCA1(+) /ERα(-) ), HCC-1937 (BRCA1(-) /ERα(-) ), HCC1937/wt BRCA1, MX1 (BRCA1(-) /ERα(-) ), and MDA-MB-436 (BRCA1(-) /ERα(-) ) were screened for anti-cancer activity. Cu2 (HL)(HSO4 ) · H2 O]SO4  · 6 H2 O (CS2) is the most potent anticancer agent among the copper carbohydrazone and thiocarbohydrazone complexes analyzed in this study. It can be suggested that the presence of sulphate, as pharmacologically active centre, can induce cytotoxicity more effectively when compared to chlorine, bromine, perchlorate, and methanol. This is the first report demonstrating that CS2 can bind to DNA by hindering BamH1 activity and could induce DNA double strand breaks as evidenced by γ-H2AX expression. In addition to this, CS2 could also act as a Topo II inhibitor at a much lower concentration than etoposide and induce apoptosis, making it a potent anticancer agent. In combination with Pb, a potent ROS inducer, CS2 could induce synergistic anti-cancer activity in HR/ BRCA1 defective breast cancer cells. This is the first study reporting the mechanism involved in the induction of apoptosis for a metal chelated copper carbohydrazone complex and its combination effects with Pb in HR defective, BRCA1 mutated breast cancer cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Curcumin-cyclodextrin complexes enhanced the anti-cancer effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Man, Shuli; Qiu, Huanna; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Mi; Ma, Long; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-12-01

    Curcumin (CUR), as a yellow pigment in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), possessed a pleiotropic application containing cancer therapy. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, the objective of this study was to investigate the use of curcumin-cyclodextrin complexes (CD15) as an approach to cancer chemoprevention. In this study, CUR encapsulation into the β-cyclodextrin (CD) cavity was achieved by the saturated aqueous solution method. CD15 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV spectra analyses. An optimized CD15 was evaluated by cellular uptake and anti-cancer activity. As a result, CD15 enhanced curcumin delivery and improved its therapeutic efficacy compared with free curcumin in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, through regulation of MAPK/NF-κB pathway, CD15 up-regulated p53/p21 pathway, down-regulated CyclinE-CDK2 combination and increased Bax/caspase 3 expression to induce cellar apoptosis and G1-phase arrest. In conclusion, these results suggested that CD15 formulation should be used as a system for improving curcumin delivery and its therapeutic efficacy in lung cancer.

  5. Development of a robust pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte ionomer complex for anticancer nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chaemin; Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Hoang, Ngoc Ha; Sim, Taehoon; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2016-01-01

    A polyelectrolyte ionomer complex (PIC) composed of cationic and anionic polymers was developed for nanomedical applications. Here, a poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic acid)–poly(ethylene imine) triblock copolymer (PEG–PLA–PEI) and a poly(aspartic acid) (P[Asp]) homopolymer were synthesized. These polyelectrolytes formed stable aggregates through electrostatic interactions between the cationic PEI and the anionic P(Asp) blocks. In particular, the addition of a hydrophobic PLA and a hydrophilic PEG to triblock copolyelectrolytes provided colloidal aggregation stability by forming a tight hydrophobic core and steric hindrance on the surface of PIC, respectively. The PIC showed different particle sizes and zeta potentials depending on the ratio of cationic PEI and anionic P(Asp) blocks (C/A ratio). The doxorubicin (dox)-loaded PIC, prepared with a C/A ratio of 8, demonstrated pH-dependent behavior by the deprotonation/protonation of polyelectrolyte blocks. The drug release and the cytotoxicity of the dox-loaded PIC (C/A ratio: 8) increased under acidic conditions compared with physiological pH, due to the destabilization of the formation of the electrostatic core. In vivo animal imaging revealed that the prepared PIC accumulated at the targeted tumor site for 24 hours. Therefore, the prepared pH-sensitive PIC could have considerable potential as a nanomedicinal platform for anticancer therapy. PMID:26955270

  6. Development of a robust pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte ionomer complex for anticancer nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chaemin; Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Hoang, Ngoc Ha; Sim, Taehoon; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2016-01-01

    A polyelectrolyte ionomer complex (PIC) composed of cationic and anionic polymers was developed for nanomedical applications. Here, a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene imine) triblock copolymer (PEG-PLA-PEI) and a poly(aspartic acid) (P[Asp]) homopolymer were synthesized. These polyelectrolytes formed stable aggregates through electrostatic interactions between the cationic PEI and the anionic P(Asp) blocks. In particular, the addition of a hydrophobic PLA and a hydrophilic PEG to triblock copolyelectrolytes provided colloidal aggregation stability by forming a tight hydrophobic core and steric hindrance on the surface of PIC, respectively. The PIC showed different particle sizes and zeta potentials depending on the ratio of cationic PEI and anionic P(Asp) blocks (C/A ratio). The doxorubicin (dox)-loaded PIC, prepared with a C/A ratio of 8, demonstrated pH-dependent behavior by the deprotonation/protonation of polyelectrolyte blocks. The drug release and the cytotoxicity of the dox-loaded PIC (C/A ratio: 8) increased under acidic conditions compared with physiological pH, due to the destabilization of the formation of the electrostatic core. In vivo animal imaging revealed that the prepared PIC accumulated at the targeted tumor site for 24 hours. Therefore, the prepared pH-sensitive PIC could have considerable potential as a nanomedicinal platform for anticancer therapy.

  7. Multicolor imaging and the anticancer effect of a bifunctional silica nanosystem based on the complex of graphene quantum dots and hypocrellin A.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Lin; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong; Wei, Shaohua; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    An effective theranostic platform based on porous silica nanoparticles encapsulated with the complex of a photodynamic anticancer drug and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), with the bifunction of multicolor imaging and satisfactory photo-induced anticancer activity, was successfully designed and prepared for in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial cancer.

  8. Mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs via oxidative bromination: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zoufeng; Wang, Zhigang; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zhu, Guangyu

    2015-12-14

    Platinum(IV)-based anticancer prodrugs have attracted much attention due to their relative inertness under physiological conditions, being activated inside cells, and their capacity for functionalization with a variety of small-molecule or macromolecule moieties. Novel asymmetric platinum(IV) compounds synthesized through expedient and unique methods are desired. Here we utilize N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and carry out oxidative bromination on platinum(II) drugs, namely cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, to obtain asymmetric and mono-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs. Different solvents are used to obtain various compounds, and the compounds are further functionalized. Di-bromo compounds are also obtained through NBS-directed oxidative bromination in ethanol. The crystal structures of representative compounds are discussed, and the reduction potentials of some compounds are examined. A cytotoxicity test shows that the mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) compounds are active against human ovarian cancer cells. Our study enriches the family of asymmetric platinum(IV) prodrugs and provides with a convenient strategy to obtain brominated platinum(IV) complexes.

  9. Platinum-group elements and minerals in the lower and middle group chromitites of the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junge, Malte; Oberthür, Thomas; Osbahr, Inga; Gutter, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The chromitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa contain vast resources of platinum-group elements (PGE). However, knowledge of the distribution and the mineralogical siting of the PGE in the lower group (LG) and middle group (MG) chromitite seams of the Bushveld Complex is limited. We studied concentrates from the LG-6 and MG-2 chromitites of the western Bushveld Complex by a variety of microanalytical techniques. The dominant PGM are sulfides, namely laurite, cooperite-braggite, and malanite-cuprorhodsite, followed by PGE-sulfarsenides, sperrylite, and Pt-Fe alloys. Laurite is the most abundant PGM (vol%). The matching sets of PGM present in the LG and MG chromitites of both the western and the eastern Bushveld Complex, and in the UG-2 chromitite, show strong similarities which support the assumption of a characteristic and general chromitite-related PGM assemblage. Palladium and Rh contents in pentlandite are low and erratic although maximum contents of 7730 ppm Pd and 6020 ppm Rh were detected. Rare thiospinels of the polydymite-linnaeite-greigite series have PGE contents of 1430 ppm Pt, 5370 ppm Rh, and 1460 ppm Pd. The various PGE occur in different deportment: Platinum is generally present in the form of discrete PGM (sulfides, arsenides, alloys). Palladium is present as a large variety of discrete PGM and also incorporated in pentlandite. Rhodium forms discrete PGM and is occasionally present in pentlandite. The IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) are dominantly incorporated in laurite (often as inclusions in chromite) and also occur as sulfarsenides.

  10. π donation and its effects on the excited-state lifetimes of luminescent platinum(II) terpyridine complexes in solution.

    PubMed

    Hight, Lauren M; McGuire, Meaghan C; Zhang, Yu; Bork, Matthew A; Fanwick, Phillip E; Wasserman, Adam; McMillin, David R

    2013-08-05

    Introducing electron-donating groups extends the excited-state lifetimes of platinum(II)-terpyridine complexes in fluid solution. Such systems are of interest for a variety of applications, viz., as DNA-binding agents or as components in luminescence-based devices, especially sensors. The complexes investigated here are of the form [Pt(4'-X-T)Y](+), where 4'-X-T denotes a 4'-substituted 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine ligand and Y denotes the coligand. The π-donating abilities of -X and -Y increase systematically in the orders -NHMe < -NMe2 < -(pyrrolidin-1-yl) and -CN < -Cl < -CCPh, respectively. The results presented include crystal structures of two new 4'-NHMe-T complexes of platinum, as well as absorption, emission, and excited-state lifetime data for nine complexes. Excited-state lifetimes obtained in deoxygenated dichloromethane vary by a factor of 100, ranging from 24 μs for [Pt(4'-pyrr-T)CN](+) to 0.24 μs for [Pt(4'-ma-T)Cl](+), where ma-T denotes 4'-(methylamino)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine and pyrr-T denotes 4'-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine. Analysis of experimental and computational results shows that introducing a simple amine group on the terpyridine and/or a π-donating coligand engenders the emitting state with intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) and/or ligand-ligand charge-transfer (LLCT) character. The excited-state lifetime increases when the change in orbital parentage lowers the emission energy, suppresses quenching via d-d states, and encourages delocalization of the excitation onto the ligand(s). At some point, however, the energy is low enough that direct vibronic coupling to the ground-state surface becomes important, and the lifetime begins to decrease again.

  11. Bovine serum albumin binding, antioxidant and anticancer properties of an oxidovanadium(IV) complex with luteolin.

    PubMed

    Naso, Luciana G; Lezama, Luis; Valcarcel, María; Salado, Clarisa; Villacé, Patricia; Kortazar, Danel; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy using metal coordination compounds for cancer treatment is the work of the ongoing research. Continuing our research on the improvement of the anticancer activity of natural flavonoids by metal complexation, a coordination compound of the natural antioxidant flavone luteolin (lut) and the oxidovanadium(IV) cation has been synthesized and characterized. Using different physicochemical measurements some structural aspects of [VO(lut)(H2O)2]Na·3H2O (VOlut) were determined. The metal coordinated to two cis-deprotonated oxygen atoms (ArO(-)) of the ligand and two H2O molecules. Magnetic measurements in solid state indicated the presence of an effective exchange pathway between adjacent vanadium ions. VOlut improved the antioxidant capacity of luteolin only against hydroxyl radical. The antitumoral effects were evaluated on MDAMB231 breast cancer and A549 lung cancer cell lines. VOlut exhibited higher viability inhibition (IC50=17 μM) than the ligand on MDAMB231 cells but they have the same behavior on A549 cells (ca. IC50=60 μM). At least oxidative stress processes were active during cancer cell-killing. When metals chelated through the carbonyl group and one adjacent OH group of the flavonoid an effective improvement of the biological properties has been observed. In VOlut the different coordination may be the cause of the small improvement of some of the tested properties of the flavonoid. Luteolin and VOlut could be distributed and transported in vivo. Luteolin interacted in the microenvironment of the tryptophan group of the serum binding protein, BSA, by means of electrostatic forces and its complex bind the protein by H bonding and van der Waals interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Density functional theory studies on the oxidation of 5'-dGMP and 5'-dAMP by a platinum(IV) complex.

    PubMed

    Ariafard, Alireza; Tabatabaie, Elham S; Aghmasheh, Simin; Najaflo, Sahar; Yates, Brian F

    2012-08-06

    Density functional theory has been used to investigate the oxidation of a guanine nucleotide by platinum(IV), a process that can be important in the degradation of DNA. For the first time, we have provided a comprehensive mechanism for all of the steps in this process. A number of intermediates are predicted to occur but with short lifetimes that would make them difficult to observe experimentally. A key step in the mechanism is electron transfer from guanine to platinum(IV), and we show that this is driven by the loss of a chloride ligand from the platinum complex after nucleophilic attack of 5'-phosphate to C8 of guanine. We have investigated several different initial platinum(IV) guanine adducts and shown that the adduct formed from replacement of an axial chlorine ligand in the platinum(IV) complex undergoes oxidation more easily. We have studied adenine versus guanine adducts, and our results show that oxidation of the former is more difficult because of disruption of the aromatic π system that occurs during the process. Finally, our results show that the acidic hydrolysis step to form the final oxidized product occurs readily via an initial protonation of N7 of the guanine.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and multi-spectroscopic DNA interaction studies of a new platinum complex containing the drug metformin.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Heidari, Leila

    2014-07-15

    A new platinum(II) complex; [Pt(Met)(DMSO)Cl]Cl in which Met = metformin and DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide, was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectra, molar conductivity and computational methods. Binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus (CT) DNA has been investigated by using absorption, emission, circular dichroism, viscosity measurements, differential pulse voltammetry and cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. UV-Vis absorption studies showed hyperchromism. CD studies showed less perturbation on the base stacking and helicity bands in the CD spectrum of CT-DNA (B→C structural transition). In fluorimeteric studies, the Pt(II) complex can bind with DNA-NR complex and forms a new non-fluorescence adduct. The anodic peak current in the differential pulse voltammogram of the Pt(II) complex decreased gradually with the addition of DNA. Cleavage experiments showed that the Pt(II) complex does not induce any cleavage under the experimental setup. Finally all results indicated that Pt(II) complex interact with DNA via groove binding mode.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and multi-spectroscopic DNA interaction studies of a new platinum complex containing the drug metformin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Heidari, Leila

    2014-07-01

    A new platinum(II) complex; [Pt(Met)(DMSO)Cl]Cl in which Met = metformin and DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectra, molar conductivity and computational methods. Binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus (CT) DNA has been investigated by using absorption, emission, circular dichroism, viscosity measurements, differential pulse voltammetry and cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. UV-Vis absorption studies showed hyperchromism. CD studies showed less perturbation on the base stacking and helicity bands in the CD spectrum of CT-DNA (B → C structural transition). In fluorimeteric studies, the Pt(II) complex can bind with DNA-NR complex and forms a new non-fluorescence adduct. The anodic peak current in the differential pulse voltammogram of the Pt(II) complex decreased gradually with the addition of DNA. Cleavage experiments showed that the Pt(II) complex does not induce any cleavage under the experimental setup. Finally all results indicated that Pt(II) complex interact with DNA via groove binding mode.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of multi-wall carbon nanotube–paclitaxel complex as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemvand, Fariba; Biazar, Esmaeil; Tavakolifard, Sara; Khaledian, Mohammad; Rahmanzadeh, Saeid; Momenzadeh, Daruosh; Afroosheh, Roshanak; Zarkalami, Faezeh; Shabannezhad, Marjan; Hesami Tackallou, Saeed; Massoudi, Nilofar; Heidari Keshel, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to design multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) anti-cancer drug and investigate its anti-cancerous efficacy of human gastric cancer. Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a novel nano-materials applied in various fields such as drug delivery due to their unique chemical properties and high drug loading. Patients and methods: In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) pre-functionalized covalently with a paclitaxel (PTX) as an anti-cancer drug and evaluated by different analyses including, scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size analyzer and cellular analyses. Results: A well conjugated of anti-cancer drug on the carbon nanotube surfaces was shown. This study demonstrates that the MWCN-PTX complex is a potentially useful system for delivery of anti-cancer drugs. The flow cytometry, CFU and MTT assay results have disclosed that MWCNT/PTXs might promote apoptosis in MKN-45 gastric adenocarcinoma cell line. Conclusion: According to results, our simple method can be designed a candidate material for chemotherapy. It has presented a few bio-related applications including, their successful use as a nano-carriers for drug transport. PMID:27458512

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of platinum(IV) in alloys, complexes, environmental, and pharmaceutical samples using 4-[N,N-(diethyl)amino] benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Naik, P Parameshwara; Karthikeyan, J; Shetty, A Nityananda

    2010-12-01

    4-[N,N-(Diethyl)amino] benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DEABT) is proposed as an analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of platinum(IV). The DEABT forms 1:2 yellow complex with Pt(IV), which is sparingly soluble in water and completely soluble in water-ethanol-DMF medium. The Pt(IV)-DEABT complex shows maximum absorbance at 405 nm. Beer's law is valid up to 7.80 μg cm(-3), and optimum concentration range for the determination of platinum(IV) is 0.48-7.02 μg cm(-3). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the method are found to be 1.755 × 10(4) dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.0012 μg cm(-2), respectively. The relative error and coefficient of variation (n=6) for the method does not exceed ± 0.43% and 0.35%, respectively. Since the method tolerates a number of metal ions commonly associated with platinum, it can be employed for the determination of platinum in environmental samples, pharmaceutical samples, alloys, catalysts, and complexes. The method is rapid as the Pt(IV)-DEABT complex is soluble in water-ethanol-DMF medium and not requiring any time consuming extraction method for the complex.

  17. Synthesis, structural characterization and cell death-inducing effect of novel palladium(II) and platinum(II) saccharinate complexes with 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine on cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ferda; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Icsel, Ceyda; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Guney, Emel; Buyukgungor, Orhan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2013-11-01

    Four palladium(II) and platinum(II) saccharinate (sac) complexes with 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine (2-hmpy) and 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine (2-hepy), namely trans-[Pd(2-hmpy)2(sac)2]·H2O (1), trans-[Pt(2-hmpy)2(sac)2]·3H2O (2), trans-[Pd(2-hepy)2(sac)2] (3) and trans-[Pt(2-hepy)2(sac)2] (4), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and NMR. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the metal(II) ions in each complex are coordinated by two sac and two 2-hmpy or 2-hepy ligands with a trans arrangement. Anticancer effects of 1-4 were tested against four different cancer cell lines (A549 and PC3 for lung cancer, C6 for glioblastoma, and Hep3B for liver cancer). Cytotoxicity was first screened by the MTT assay and the results were further confirmed by the ATP assay. The mode of cell death was determined by both histological and biochemical methods. Among the metal complexes, complex 2 resulted in relatively stronger anti-growth effect in a dose-dependent manner (3.13-200μM), compared to the others, by inducing apoptosis.

  18. A selective decoy-doxorubicin complex for targeted co-delivery, STAT3 probing and synergistic anti-cancer effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Jen; Hou, Yung-Te; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2015-09-04

    A novel selective decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (dODN)-doxorubicin (DOX) complex is reported for cancer theranostics. It eliminates the use of a ligand or carrier for targeted delivery and disassembles into therapeutic dODN and DOX upon encountering over-activated STAT3 in cancer cells. Hence, in situ STAT3 probing and synergistic anti-cancer effect are attained at the same time.

  19. The contrasting activity of iodido versus chlorido ruthenium and osmium arene azo- and imino-pyridine anticancer complexes: control of cell selectivity, cross-resistance, p53 dependence, and apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Salassa, Luca; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-02-14

    Organometallic half-sandwich complexes [M(p-cymene)(azo/imino-pyridine)X](+) where M = Ru(II) or Os(II) and X ═ Cl or I, exhibit potent antiproliferative activity toward a range of cancer cells. Not only are the iodido complexes more potent than the chlorido analogues, but they are not cross-resistant with the clinical platinum drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin. They are also more selective for cancer cells versus normal cells (fibroblasts) and show high accumulation in cell membranes. They arrest cell growth in G1 phase in contrast to cisplatin (S phase) with a high incidence of late-stage apoptosis. The iodido complexes retain potency in p53 mutant colon cells. All complexes activate caspase 3. In general, antiproliferative activity is greatly enhanced by low levels of the glutathione synthase inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoxime. The work illustrates how subtle changes to the design of low-spin d(6) metal complexes can lead to major changes in cellular metabolism and to potent complexes with novel mechanisms of anticancer activity.

  20. DNA interaction studies of a platinum (II) complex containing an antiviral drug, ribavirin: the effect of metal on DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Mirzaei kalar, Zeinab; Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour

    2012-10-01

    The water-soluble Pt (II) complex, [PtCl (DMSO)(N(4)N(7)-ribavirin)]· H(2)O (ribavirin is an antiviral drug) has been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding interactions of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry, circular dichroism and viscosimetry. The complex binds to CT-DNA in an intercalative mode. The calculated binding constant, K(b), was 7.2×10(5) M(-1). In fluorimetric studies, the enthalpy (ΔH<0) and entropy (ΔS>0) changes of the reaction between the Pt (II) complex with CT-DNA showed hydrophobic interaction. In addition, CD study showed stabilization of the right-handed B form of CT-DNA. All these results prove that the complex interacts with CT-DNA via intercalative mode of binding. In comparison with the previous study of the DNA interaction with ribavirin, these results show that platinum complex has greater affinity to CT-DNA.

  1. Complexes of platinum and palladium with β-diketones and DMSO: Synthesis, characterization, molecular modeling, and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Couto Almeida, J.; Marzano, I. M.; de Paula, F. C. Silva; Pivatto, M.; Lopes, N. P.; de Souza, P. C.; Pavan, F. R.; Formiga, A. L. B.; Pereira-Maia, E. C.; Guerra, W.

    2014-10-01

    This work reports on the synthesis and characterization of new complexes of the type [MCl(L)DMSO], where L = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione (HTPB) or 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (HTTA) and M = Pt2+ or Pd2+. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, FT-IR, UV-Vis, high-resolution mass spectra (HRESIMS) and TG/DTA. In the complexes, the metallic ions bind to β-diketone via the oxygen atoms and to DMSO molecule via sulfur atom. The structures of complexes were optimized and theoretical data showed good agreement with the experimental results. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was evaluated in a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. The platinum complexes were more cytotoxic than the free ligands and carboplatin and are promising candidates for further investigations. As example, the compound [PtCl(TPB)(DMSO)] inhibits the growth of K562 cells with an IC50 value equal to 2.5 μM. Furthermore, microbiological assays against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that all complexes exhibit low cytotoxicity against this bacterial strain while the free ligands exhibited MIC values of approximately 10 μg mL-1.

  2. DNA interaction studies of a platinum (II) complex containing an antiviral drug, ribavirin: The effect of metal on DNA binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Mirzaei kalar, Zeinab; Hosseinpour Moghadam, Neda

    2012-10-01

    The water-soluble Pt (II) complex, [PtCl (DMSO)(N4N7-ribavirin)]· H2O (ribavirin is an antiviral drug) has been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding interactions of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry, circular dichroism and viscosimetry. The complex binds to CT-DNA in an intercalative mode. The calculated binding constant, Kb, was 7.2 × 105 M-1. In fluorimetric studies, the enthalpy (ΔH < 0) and entropy (ΔS > 0) changes of the reaction between the Pt (II) complex with CT-DNA showed hydrophobic interaction. In addition, CD study showed stabilization of the right-handed B form of CT-DNA. All these results prove that the complex interacts with CT-DNA via intercalative mode of binding. In comparison with the previous study of the DNA interaction with ribavirin, these results show that platinum complex has greater affinity to CT-DNA.

  3. New binary and ternary platinum(II) formamidine complexes: Synthesis, characterization, structural studies and in-vitro antitumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed A.; Alajrawy, Othman I.; Attaby, Fawzy A.; Linert, W.

    2016-07-01

    A series of new binary and ternary platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L1-4)Cl2].xH2O and [Pt(L1-4)ox].xH2O where L = formamidine ligands and ox = oxalate, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, UV-vis, infrared (IR), mass spectroscopy, thermal analysis and theoretical calculations. The spectroscopic data indicated that the formamidine ligands act as bidentate N2 donors. The complexes (1-8) are diamagnetic and the optimization of their structures indicated that the geometry is distorted square planar with Cl-Pt-Cl, O-Pt-O and N-Pt-N bond angles ranged 81.73°-95.82° which is acceptable for the heteroleptic complexes. The electronic energies (a.u.) of the complexes (-893.53 to -1989.84) indicate that the complexes are more stable than the ligands. The energies of the HOMO (-0.218 to -0.244) and LUMO (-.0111to -0.134) orbitals of the complexes were negative which indicates that the complexes are stable compounds. The dipole moment of the complexes (6.23-19.89 Debye) indicates that the complexes are polarized. The complexes are thermally stable as shown from their relatively higher overall activation energies (889-2066 kJ mol-1). The complexes are proved to have a good cytotoxicity with IC50 (μM) against MCF-7 (0.040-0.117), HCT-116 (0.085-0.119) and HepG-2 (0.058-0.131) cell lines, which open the field for further application as antitumor compounds.

  4. Unusual structures and reactivity of mixed metal cluster complexes containing the palladium/platinum tri-t-butylphosphine grouping.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard D; Captain, Burjor

    2009-03-17

    Polynuclear metal carbonyl complexes have a range of applications in chemical research: for example, they can serve as surface models to probe features of heterogeneous catalysis and can perform novel transformations of organic molecules in solutions. Mixed metal complexes can demonstrate bimetallic cooperativity and synergism and can also serve as precursors to multimetallic heterogeneous catalysts that have superior activities and selectivities. This Account describes the results of our recent comprehensive study of the chemistry of mixed metal cluster complexes containing the sterically encumbered M(PBu(t)(3)), M = Pd or Pt, group. This grouping readily adds to the metal-metal bonds of metal carbonyl cluster complexes and modifies their reactivity. We have prepared new, highly electronically unsaturated mixed metal complexes that exhibit unusually high reactivity toward hydrogen. The platinum atom of the Pt(PBu(t)(3)) grouping can bond to as many as five metal atoms, and it can interconvert, sometimes rapidly, between the different bonding modes. The large steric effects of the PBu(t)(3) ligand allowed us to prepare highly unsaturated, stable, mixed-metal complexes, and these complexes react with hydrogen, sometimes reversibly, under very mild conditions to yield polyhydride complexes. Strong evidence suggests that the Pt(PBu(t)(3)) group can also activate metal-hydrogen bonds in other complexes. In the future, we expect that researchers will prepare a greater variety of mixed metal complexes containing the Pd/Pt(PBu(t)(3)) group or other similar bulky groups, and that some of these complexes will exhibit even more unusual chemistry than what we have observed so far.

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization, and pro-apoptotic activity of 1-indanone thiosemicarbazone platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes: potential as antileukemic agents.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Natalia; Santos, Diego; Vázquez, Ramiro; Suescun, Leopoldo; Mombrú, Alvaro; Vermeulen, Monica; Finkielsztein, Liliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Gambino, Dinorah; Davio, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    In the search for alternative chemotherapeutic strategies against leukemia, various 1-indanone thiosemicarbazones, as well as eight novel platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes, with the formula [MCl₂(HL)] and [M(HL)(L)]Cl, derived from two 1-indanone thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and tested for antiproliferative activity against the human leukemia U937 cell line. The crystal structure of [Pt(HL1)(L1)]Cl·2MeOH, where L1=1-indanone thiosemicarbazone, was solved by X-ray diffraction. Free thiosemicarbazone ligands showed no antiproliferative effect, but the corresponding platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Platinum(II) complexes also displayed selective apoptotic activity in U937 cells but not in peripheral blood monocytes or the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line used to screen for potential hepatotoxicity. Present findings show that, in U937 cells, 1-indanone thiosemicarbazones coordinated to palladium(II) were more cytotoxic than those complexed with platinum(II), although the latter were found to be more selective for leukemic cells suggesting that they are promising compounds with potential therapeutic application against hematological malignancies.

  6. Novel platinum (II) complexes with (pyridyloxymethylene)dimethylphosphine oxides-synthesis, IR and Raman study.. Normal coordinate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, N.; Bauer, G.; Georgieva, I.; Varbanov, S.; Tashev, E.

    1998-03-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of novel platinum (II) halide complexes with (4-pyridyloxymethylene)dimethylphosphine oxide ( p-tpo) and (3-pyridyloxymethylene)dimethylphosphine oxide ( m-tpo) are reported. The vibrational (IR and Raman) and physical data are in agreement with suggested stoicheiometry ML 2Cl 2 (L= p-tpo and m-tpo) and cis-square planar PtN 2Cl 2 configuration. Both p-tpo and m-tpo act as monodentate ligands and coordinate through the pyridyloxymethylene ring nitrogen to the metal ion. IR and Raman spectra exhibit no shift to lower frequencies of the ν(PO) and thus provide unambiguous evidence for a free PO oxygen. Normal coordinate analysis (NCA) calculations of both ligands confirm the monodentate coordination of the ligands.

  7. Unsymmetric mono- and dinuclear platinum(IV) complexes featuring an ethylene glycol moiety: synthesis, characterization, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Verena; Heffeter, Petra; Valiahdi, Seied M; Kowol, Christian R; Egger, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2012-12-27

    Eight novel mononuclear and two dinuclear platinum(IV) complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and reversed-phase HPLC (log k(w)) and in one case by X-ray diffraction. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was studied in three human cancer cell lines (CH1, SW480, and A549) by means of the MTT assay, featuring IC(50) values to the low micromolar range. Furthermore a selected set of compounds was investigated in additional cancer cell lines (P31 and P31/cis, A2780 and A2780/cis, SW1573, 2R120, and 2R160) with regard to their resistance patterns, offering a distinctly different scheme compared to cisplatin. To gain further insights into the mode of action, drug uptake, DNA synthesis inhibition, cell cycle effects, and induction of apoptosis were determined for two characteristic substances.

  8. Unsymmetric Mono- and Dinuclear Platinum(IV) Complexes Featuring an Ethylene Glycol Moiety: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Verena; Heffeter, Petra; Valiahdi, Seied M.; Kowol, Christian R.; Egger, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Jakupec, Michael A.; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2014-01-01

    Eight novel mononuclear and two dinuclear platinum(IV) complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and reversed-phase HPLC (log kw) and in one case by X-ray diffraction. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was studied in three human cancer cell lines (CH1, SW480, and A549) by means of the MTT assay, featuring IC50 values to the low micromolar range. Furthermore a selected set of compounds was investigated in additional cancer cell lines (P31 and P31/cis, A2780 and A2780/cis, SW1573, 2R120, and 2R160) with regard to their resistance patterns, offering a distinctly different scheme compared to cisplatin. To gain further insights into the mode of action, drug uptake, DNA synthesis inhibition, cell cycle effects, and induction of apoptosis were determined for two characteristic substances. PMID:23194425

  9. Platinum(IV) complexes conjugated with phenstatin analogue as inhibitors of microtubule polymerization and reverser of multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochao; Huang, Rizhen; Gou, Shaohua; Wang, Zhimei; Liao, Zhixin; Wang, Hengshan

    2017-09-01

    Pt(IV) complexes comprising a phenstatin analogue, as dual-targeting Pt(IV) prodrug, were designed and synthesized. They were found not only to carry the DNA binding platinum warhead into the tumor cells, but also to have a small molecular unit to inhibit tubulin polymerization. In vitro evaluation results revealed that Pt(IV) complexes showed better and more potent activity against the test human cancer cells including cisplatin resistant cell lines than their corresponding Pt(II) counterparts. In addition, the Pt(IV) derivative of cisplatin, complex 10, exhibited highly selective inhibition in human cancer cells and displayed no obvious toxicity to two human normal cell lines, respectively. Mechanism study suggested that complex 10 induced cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and caused apoptotic cell death of human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells through the mitochondrial mediated pathway. Moreover, complex 10 effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the NCI-H460 xenograft model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Improved DNA equilibrium binding affinity determinations of platinum(II) complexes using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Ang, Dale L; Jones, Nykola C; Stootman, Frank; Ghadirian, Bahman; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R

    2015-06-21

    The binding affinity of a series of square planar platinum(II) compounds of the type [Pt(A(L))(I(L))](2+), where A(L) is 1,2-diaminoethane and I(L) are 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4Mephen), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5Mephen), 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (47Me2phen), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (56Me2phen) or 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3478Me4phen) has been reinvestigated using Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The additional peaks exhibited considerably greater intensity than those observed between 200 and 400 nm affording additional binding affinity determinations. In addition, the authors have reviewed the various mathematical approaches used to estimate equilibrium binding constants and thereby demonstrate that their mathematical approach, implemented with Wolfram Mathematica, has merit over other methods.

  11. Enhancement of radiation-induced cell kill by platinum complexes (carboplatin and iproplatin) in V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.A.; Douple, E.B.; Richmond, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Two second generation platinum complexes currently undergoing clinical chemotherapeutic trials, carboplatin (CBDCA) and iproplatin (CHIP), were evaluated for their ability to alter the survival of cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells following irradiation. Two protocols were employed. In the first, the drug was added to preplated cells, some of which were subsequently made hypoxic with nitrogen gas. These hypoxic cells were irradiated following 1 hour exposure to drug and survival was assessed by standard colony forming unit (CFU) methods. Enhancement ratios (ER) of approximately 1.4 were obtained for irradiation under hypoxic conditions, if the cells were exposed to equitoxic doses of CBDCA (500 microM) CHIP (50 microM). In the second series of experiments, cells were treated with 10 Gy in air and then incubated for various times prior to trypsinization and serial dilution of single cell suspensions. Six hours after irradiation, cells treated with X rays alone had recovered to produce a surviving fraction twice that of cells trypsinized immediately after irradiation (not held). Post-irradiation administration of CBDCA (50 microM) or CHIP (20 microM), at a time when free radical-mediated radiosensitization would not be possible, operationally inhibited this recovery from radiation-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD). Inhibition, expressed as recovery inhibition factor (RIF) after 6 hr with drug, was 2.0 for CBDCA and 1.2 for CHIP. These results suggest that the rationale for designing clinical trials to exploit interactions between cisplatin and radiation might also extend to include combined modality therapy using radiation with either of these two platinum complexes.

  12. Ashwagandha derived withanone targets TPX2-Aurora A complex: computational and experimental evidence to its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Grover, Abhinav; Singh, Rumani; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Priyandoko, Didik; Agrawal, Vibhuti; Bisaria, Virendra S; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Sundar, Durai

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is largely marked by genetic instability. Specific inhibition of individual proteins or signalling pathways that regulate genetic stability during cell division thus hold a great potential for cancer therapy. The Aurora A kinase is a Ser/Thr kinase that plays a critical role during mitosis and cytokinesis and is found upregulated in several cancer types. It is functionally regulated by its interactions with TPX2, a candidate oncogene. Aurora A inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer drugs that work by blocking its ATP binding site. This site is common to other kinases and hence these inhibitors lack specificity for Aurora A inhibition in particular, thus advocating the need of some alternative inhibition route. Previously, we identified TPX2 as a cellular target for withanone that selectively kill cancer cells. By computational approach, we found here that withanone binds to TPX2-Aurora A complex. In experiment, withanone treatment to cancer cells indeed resulted in dissociation of TPX2-Aurora A complex and disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus proposing this as a mechanism of the anticancer activity of withanone. From docking analysis, non-formation/disruption of the active TPX2-Aurora A association complex could be discerned. Our MD simulation results suggesting the thermodynamic and structural stability of TPX2-Aurora A in complex with withanone further substantiates the binding. We report a computational rationale of the ability of naturally occurring withanone to alter the kinase signalling pathway in an ATP-independent manner and experimental evidence in which withanone cause inactivation of the TPX2-Aurora A complex. The study demonstrated that TPX2-Aurora A complex is a target of withanone, a potential natural anticancer drug.

  13. Ashwagandha Derived Withanone Targets TPX2-Aurora A Complex: Computational and Experimental Evidence to its Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shandilya, Ashutosh; Priyandoko, Didik; Agrawal, Vibhuti; Bisaria, Virendra S.; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C.; Sundar, Durai

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is largely marked by genetic instability. Specific inhibition of individual proteins or signalling pathways that regulate genetic stability during cell division thus hold a great potential for cancer therapy. The Aurora A kinase is a Ser/Thr kinase that plays a critical role during mitosis and cytokinesis and is found upregulated in several cancer types. It is functionally regulated by its interactions with TPX2, a candidate oncogene. Aurora A inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer drugs that work by blocking its ATP binding site. This site is common to other kinases and hence these inhibitors lack specificity for Aurora A inhibition in particular, thus advocating the need of some alternative inhibition route. Previously, we identified TPX2 as a cellular target for withanone that selectively kill cancer cells. By computational approach, we found here that withanone binds to TPX2-Aurora A complex. In experiment, withanone treatment to cancer cells indeed resulted in dissociation of TPX2-Aurora A complex and disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus proposing this as a mechanism of the anticancer activity of withanone. From docking analysis, non-formation/disruption of the active TPX2-Aurora A association complex could be discerned. Our MD simulation results suggesting the thermodynamic and structural stability of TPX2-Aurora A in complex with withanone further substantiates the binding. We report a computational rationale of the ability of naturally occurring withanone to alter the kinase signalling pathway in an ATP-independent manner and experimental evidence in which withanone cause inactivation of the TPX2-Aurora A complex. The study demonstrated that TPX2-Aurora A complex is a target of withanone, a potential natural anticancer drug. PMID:22303466

  14. Air-stable platinum and palladium complexes featuring bis[2,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphinous acid ligands.

    PubMed

    Kurscheid, Boris; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Hoge, Berthold

    2011-12-23

    Secondary phosphane oxides, R(2)P(O)H, are commonly used as preligands for transition-metal complexes of phosphinous acids, R(2)P-OH (R=alkyl, aryl), which are relevant as efficient catalysts in cross-coupling processes. In contrast to previous work by other groups, we are interested in the ligating properties of an electron-deficient phosphinous acid, (R(f))(2)P-OH, bearing the strongly electron-withdrawing and sterically demanding 2,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl group towards catalysis-relevant metals, such as palladium and platinum. The preligand bis[2,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphane oxide, (R(f))(2)P(O)H, reacts smoothly with solid platinum(II) dichloride yielding the trans-configured phosphinous acid platinum complex trans-[PtCl(2)({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)POH)(2)]. The deprotonation of one phosphinous acid ligand with an appropriate base leads to the cis-configured monoanion complex cis-[PtCl(2)({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)PO)(2)H](-), featuring the quasi-chelating phosphinous acid phosphinito unit, (R(f))(2)P-O-H···O=P(R(f))(2), which exhibits a strong hydrogen bridge substantiated by an O···O distance of 245.1(4) pm. The second deprotonation step is accompanied by a rearrangement to afford the trans-configured dianion trans-[PtCl(2)({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)PO)(2)](2-). The reaction of (R(f))(2)P(O)H with solid palladium(II) dichloride initially yields a mononuclear palladium complex [PdCl(2)({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)POH)(2)], which condenses under liberation of HCl to the neutral dinuclear palladium complex [Pd(2)(μ-Cl)(2){({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)PO)(2)H}(2)]. The equilibrium between the mononuclear [PdCl(2)({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)POH)(2)] and dinuclear [Pd(2)(μ-Cl)(2){({2,4-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}(2)PO)(2)H}(2)] palladium complexes is reversible and can be shifted in each direction by the addition of base or HCl, respectively. Treatment of palladium(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate, [Pd(F(6)acac)(2)], with a slight excess of (R(f))(2)P

  15. Organometallic Palladium Complexes with a Water-Soluble Iminophosphorane Ligand as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Monica; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Sanaú, Mercedes; Marzo, Isabel; Contel, María

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new water-soluble iminophosphorane ligand TPA=N-C(O)-2BrC6H4 (C,N-IM; TPA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) 1 is reported. Oxidative addition of 1 to Pd2(dba)3 affords the orthopalladated dimer [Pd(μ-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) as a mixture of cis and trans isomers (1:1 molar ratio) where the iminophosphorane moeity behaves as a C,N-pincer ligand. By addition of different neutral or monoanionic ligands to 2, the bridging bromide can be cleaved and a variety of hydrophilic or water-soluble mononuclear organometallic palladium(II) complexes of the type [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L-L)] (L-L = acac (3); S2CNMe2 (4); 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid disodium salt C12H6N2(C6H4SO3Na)2 (5)); [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L)Br] (L = P(mC6H4SO3Na)3 (6); P(3-Pyridyl)3 (7)) and, [Pd(C6H4(C(O)N=TPA)-2}(TPA)2Br] (8) are obtained as single isomers. All new complexes were tested as potential anticancer agents and their cytotoxicity properties were evaluated in vitro against human Jurkat-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, normal T-lymphocytes (PBMC) and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Compounds [Pd(μ-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) and [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(acac)] 3 (which has been crystallographically characterized) display the higher cytotoxicity against the above mentioned cancer cell lines while being less toxic to normal T-lymphocytes (peripheral blood mononuclear cells: PBMC). In addition, 3 is very toxic to cisplatin resistant Jurkat shBak indicating a cell death pathway that may be different to that of cisplatin. The interaction of 2 and 3 with plasmid (pBR322) DNA is much weaker than that of cisplatin pointing to an alternative biomolecular target for these cytotoxic compounds. All the compounds show an interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) faster than that of cisplatin. PMID:23066172

  16. A deadly organometallic luminescent probe: anticancer activity of a ReI bisquinoline complex.

    PubMed

    Kitanovic, Igor; Can, Suzan; Alborzinia, Hamed; Kitanovic, Ana; Pierroz, Vanessa; Leonidova, Anna; Pinto, Antonio; Spingler, Bernhard; Ferrari, Stefano; Molteni, Roberto; Steffen, Andreas; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Wölfl, Stefan; Gasser, Gilles

    2014-02-24

    The photophysical properties of [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br (L-N3 =2-azido-N,N-bis[(quinolin-2-yl)methyl]ethanamine), which could not be localized in cancer cells by fluorescence microscopy, have been revisited in order to evaluate its use as a luminescent probe in a biological environment. The Re(I) complex displays concentration-dependent residual fluorescence besides the expected phosphorescence, and the nature of the emitting excited states have been evaluated by DFT and time-dependent (TD) DFT methods. The results show that fluorescence occurs from a (1) LC/MLCT state, whereas phosphorescence mainly stems from a (3) LC state, in contrast to previous assignments. We found that our luminescent probe, [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br, exhibits an interesting cytotoxic activity in the low micromolar range in various cancer cell lines. Several biochemical assays were performed to unveil the cytotoxic mechanism of the organometallic Re(I) bisquinoline complex. [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br was found to be stable in human plasma indicating that [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br itself and not a decomposition product is responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. Addition of [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br to MCF-7 breast cancer cells grown on a biosensor chip micro-bioreactor immediately led to reduced cellular respiration and increased glycolysis, indicating a large shift in cellular metabolism and inhibition of mitochondrial activity. Further analysis of respiration of isolated mitochondria clearly showed that mitochondrial respiratory activity was a direct target of [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br and involved two modes of action, namely increased respiration at lower concentrations, potentially through increased proton transport through the inner mitochondrial membrane, and efficient blocking of respiration at higher concentrations. Thus, we believe that the direct targeting of mitochondria in cells by [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br is responsible for the anticancer activity.

  17. Second-order NLO switches from molecules to polymer films based on photochromic cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Boixel, Julien; Guerchais, Véronique; Le Bozec, Hubert; Jacquemin, Denis; Amar, Anissa; Boucekkine, Abdou; Colombo, Alessia; Dragonetti, Claudia; Marinotto, Daniele; Roberto, Dominique; Righetto, Stefania; De Angelis, Roberta

    2014-04-09

    Novel photochromic dithienylethene-based platinum(II) complexes (C^N^N)Pt(C≡C-DTE-C6H4-D) ((C^N^N) = 4,4'-di(n-hexyl)-6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine; D = H, NMe2) were prepared and characterized. Their excellent photochromic properties allow the photoinduced switching of their second-order nonlinear optical properties in solution, as measured by the EFISH technique, due to formation of an extended π-conjugated ligand upon suitable electromagnetic radiation. Insights into the electronic structures of the complexes and the nature of their excited states have been obtained by DFT and TD-DFT calculations. These novel Pt(II) complexes were nanoorganized in polymer films which were poled, affording new materials characterized by a good second-order NLO response that can be easily switched, with an excellent NLO contrast. To the best of our knowledge, our compounds allowed designing the very first examples of switchable NLO polymer films based on metal complexes.

  18. Phosphorescent iridium(III)-bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as mitochondria-targeted theranostic and photodynamic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Tan, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Wei; He, Liang; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria-targeted compounds represent a promising approach to target tumors selectively and overcome resistance to current anticancer therapies. In this work, three cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (1-3) containing bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been explored as theranostic and photodynamic agents targeting mitochondria. These complexes display rich photophysical properties, which greatly facilitates the study of their intracellular fate. All three complexes are more cytotoxic than cisplatin against the cancer cells screened. 1-3 can penetrate into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells quickly and efficiently, and they can carry out theranostic functions by simultaneously inducing and monitoring the morphological changes in mitochondria. Mechanism studies show that these complexes exert their anticancer efficacy by initiating a cascade of events related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, they display up to 3 orders of magnitude higher cytotoxicity upon irradiation at 365 nm, which is so far the highest photocytotoxic responses reported for iridium complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, experimental and theoretical characterization of palladium(II) and platinum(II) saccharinate complexes with 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Emel; Kaya, Yunus; Yilmaz, Veysel T.; Gumus, Sedat

    2011-09-01

    New palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of saccharinate (sac) with 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybim) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. From the experimental studies, these complexes were formulated as [Pd(pybim)(sac) 2] ( 1), and [Pt(pybim)(sac) 2]·4H 2O ( 2). The ground-state geometries of both complexes were optimized using density functional theory (DFT) methods at the B3LYP level. A bidentate pybim ligand together with two N-coordinated sac ligands form the square-planar MN 4 coordination geometry around the palladium(II) and platinum(II) ions. The calculated IR and UV-vis spectral data have been correlated to the experimental results. Thermal analysis data support the molecular structures of both complexes.

  20. Platinum group elements geochemistry of ultramafic and associated rocks from Pindar in Madawara Igneous Complex, Bundelkhand massif, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaram, V.; Singh, S. P.; Satyanarayanan, M.; Anjaiah, K. V.

    2013-02-01

    Ultramafic rocks comprising dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite, olivine webserite and websterite occur as intrusives in the form of small hillocks at Pindar into the granite-gneisses of Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC). The peridotites are dominated by olivine cumulates where chromite and precious metal-bearing sulphides crystallized along with pyroxenes, subsequent to crystallization of olivine into the interstitial spaces of cumulates during cooling. Ultramafic rocks of Pindar are characterized by high MgO (up to 46.0 wt%) and FeO (up to 5.8 wt%); low SiO2 (40.8 to 48.0 wt%), TiO2 (0.2 to 0.5 wt%), Al2O3 (~3.2 wt% av.), CaO (~2.7 wt% av.) and Cu (11 to 73 μg/g). Cr and Ni values range from 2297 to 3150 μg/g and 2434 to 2767 μg/g, respectively. Distribution of Ir (up to 20 ng/g), Ru (27 to 90 ng/g), Rh (3 to 14 ng/g), Pt (18 to 72 ng/g), Pd (10 to 27 ng/g) and Au (22 to 57 ng/g) indicate platinum group element (PGE) and associated gold mineralization in these ultramafic rocks. A mineral phase representing sperrylite (PtAs2) was also identified within the sulphides in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) studies. The primitive mantle-normalized siderophile elements pattern shows platinum group element PGE (PPGE) enrichment (Rh, Pt, Pd). Discrimination diagrams of Pd/Ir vs. Ni/Cu, Pd/Pt vs. Ni/Cu, Cu/Pd vs. Pd, and Cu vs. Pd for the peridotites of Pindar attribute to affinity towards komatiite magma, derived from high degree of partial melting of prolonged depleted mantle, and the sulphur saturation condition incurred during the crystallization of chromite which was favourable for PGE mineralization.

  1. Platinum (IV)-fatty acid conjugates overcome inherently and acquired Cisplatin resistant cancer cell lines: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ratzon, Einav; Najajreh, Yousef; Salem, Rami; Khamaisie, Hazem; Ruthardt, Martin; Mahajna, Jamal

    2016-02-23

    Platinum-based drugs are used as cancer chemotherapeutics for the last 40 years. However, drug resistance and nephrotoxicity are the major limitations of the use of platinum-based compounds in cancer therapy. Platinum (IV) complexes are believed to act as platinum prodrugs and are able to overcome some of platinum (II) limitations. A number of previously sensitized platinum (IV) complexes were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity by monitoring ability to affect proliferation, clonigenicity and apoptosis induction of Cisplatin sensitive and resistant cancer cells. In addition, the uptake of Cisplatin and the platinum (IV) derivatives to Cisplatin sensitive and resistant cancer cells was monitored. The bis-octanoatoplatinum (IV) complex (RJY13), a Cisplatin derivative with octanoate as axial ligand, exhibited strong anti-proliferative effect on the Cisplatin resistant and sensitive ovarian cells, A2780cisR and A2780, respectively. Moreover, RJY13 exhibited good activity in inhibiting clonigenicity of both cells. Anti-proliferative activity of RJY13 was mediated by induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, a bis-lauratopaltinum (IV) complex (RJY6) was highly potent in inhibiting clonigenicity of both Cisplatin sensitive and Cisplatin resistant cells, however, exhibited reduced activity in assays that utilize cells growing in two dimensional (2D) conditions. The uptake of Cisplatin was reduced by 30% in A2780 in which the copper transporter-1 (Ctr1) was silenced. Moreover, uptake of RJY6 was marginally dependent on Ctr1, while uptake of RJY13 was Ctr1-independent. Our data demonstrated the potential of platinum (IV) prodrugs in overcoming acquired and inherited drug resistance in cancer cell lines. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the uptake of Cisplatin is partially dependent on Ctr1 transporter, while uptake of RJY6 is marginally dependent on Ctr1 and RJY13 is Ctr1-independent. In addition, our data illustrated the therapeutic potential of platinum (IV) prodrugs

  2. A selective colorimetric Hg2+ probe featuring a styryl dithiaazacrown containing platinum (II) terpyridine complex through modulation of the relative strength of ICT and MLCT transitions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung-Kuang; Tseng, Yong-Ren; Chen, Chan-Yu; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2011-04-04

    A series of platinum(II) terpyridine complexes featuring an aminostilbene donor-acceptor framework was synthesized. The complex with a dithiaazacrown moiety exhibits a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric response to a Hg(2+) cation through modulation of the relative strength of ICT and MLCT transitions. The results from (1)H NMR titration suggest the existence of a weak Pt(II)···Hg(II) metallophilic interaction at low Hg(2+) concentration.

  3. Design, Synthesis of Novel Platinum(II) Glycoconjugates, and Evaluation of Their Antitumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianbin; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Yang, Jinna; Zhang, Menghua; Mi, Yi; Shi, Ying; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sugar-conjugated (trans-R, R-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine)-2-halo-malonato-platinum(II) complexes were designed and synthesized to target tumor-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs). The water solubility of the sugar-conjugated platinum (II) complexes was greatly improved by average of 570-fold, 33-fold, and 94-fold, respectively, compared to cisplatin (1.0 mg/mL), carboplatin (17.1 mg/mL), and the newest generation of clinical drug oxaliplatin (6.0 mg/mL). Despite the high water solubility, the platinum(II) glycoconjugates exhibited a notable increase in cytotoxicity by a margin of 1.5- to 6.0-fold in six different human cancer cell lines with respect to oxaliplatin. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a molecular docking study and was confirmed with GLUT1 inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity dependency evaluation. The results showed that the sugar-conjugated platinum(II) complexes can be recognized by the glucose recognition binding site of GLUT1 and their cell killing effect depends highly on the GLUT1 inhibitor, quercetin. The research presenting a prospective concept for targeted therapy anticancer drug design, and with the analysis of the synthesis, water solubility, antitumor activity, and the transportability of the platinum(II) glycoconjugates, this study provides fundamental data supporting the inherent potential of these designed conjugates as lead compounds for GLUT-mediated tumor targeting.

  4. Structural, spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of acetyl hydrazone oxime and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Yunus; Icsel, Ceyda; Yilmaz, Veysel T.; Buyukgungor, Orhan

    2015-09-01

    Acetyl hydrazone oxime, [(1E,2E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-1-phenylethylidene]acetohydrazone (hipeahH2) and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes, [M(hipeahH)2] (M = PdII and PtII), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis IR, NMR and LC-MS techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis of [Pd(hipeahH)2] shows that the two hipeahH2 ligands are not equal; one of the ligands loses the hydrazone proton, while the other one loses the oxime proton, resulting in a different coordination behavior to form five- and six-membered chelate rings. The molecular geometries from X-ray experiments in the ground state were compared using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP method combined with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the ligand and the LanL2DZ basis set for the complexes. Comprehensive theoretical and experimental structural studies on the molecule have been carried out by FT-IR, NMR and UV-vis spectrometry. In addition, the isomer studies of ligand and its complexes were made by DFT.

  5. Sugar-boronate ester scaffold tethered pyridyl-imine palladium(II) complexes: synthesis and their in vitro anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Eda Rami; Trivedi, Rajiv; Sarma, Akella Venkata Subrahmanya; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Anantaraju, Hasitha Shilpa; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Nagesh, Narayana

    2015-10-28

    A series of five palladium(ii) pyridyl-imine Schiff base complexes 5a-e containing boronate esters with protected sugar diols derived from d-xylose, l-sorbose and d-mannitol were designed and synthesized starting from pyridyl-imines generated in situ from 3-aminophenyl boronate ester of sugars 3a-e and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, followed by the addition of Pd(cod)Cl2 in dichloromethane solvent. All the complexes are remarkably stable orange/yellow crystalline solids and were obtained in good yields. The complexes were fully characterized by FT-IR, multinuclear NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (11)B), UV-visible spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The solid state structures of 3a and 5a were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complexes have been tested for their in vitro anticancer activities against human colon cancer (HT-29) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. All the complexes have shown moderate to good cytotoxicity in both the cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4.27 to 34.76 μM. Strikingly, 5a displayed selective anticancer activity against both HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells with low IC50 values 6.71 and 8.58 μM respectively. Results also demonstrate that some of these complexes are highly potent against HT-29 cells as compared to the other cancer cell lines. In particular, 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-d-mannitol complex 5d showed a two-fold higher toxicity against HT-29 cells in comparison with that of cisplatin. In addition, these complexes are less toxic to model non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T). Furthermore, the interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated using spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. It was found that they intercalate with DNA.

  6. Electron transfer and hydrogen generation from a molecular dyad: platinum(II) alkynyl complex anchored to [FeFe] hydrogenase subsite mimic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-02-28

    A PS-Fe(2)S(2) molecular dyad 1a directly anchoring a platinum(II) alkynyl complex to a Fe(2)S(2) active site of a [FeFe] H(2)ase mimic, and an intermolecular system of its reference complexes 1b and 2, have been successfully constructed. Time-dependence of H(2) evolution shows that PS-Fe(2)S(2)1a as well as complex 2 with 1b can produce H(2) in the presence of a proton source and sacrificial donor under visible light irradiation. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies on the electron transfer event reveal that the reduced Fe(I)Fe(0) species generated by the first electron transfer from the excited platinum(II) complex to the Fe(2)S(2) active site in PS-Fe(2)S(2)1a and complex 2 with 1b is essential for photochemical H(2) evolution, while the second electron transfer from the excited platinum(II) complex to the protonated Fe(I)Fe(0) species is thermodynamically unfeasible, which might be an obstacle for the relatively small amount of H(2) obtained by PS-Fe(2)S(2) molecular dyads reported so far.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro antitumoral investigations and interaction with plasmid pBR322 DNA of R2eddp-platinum(IV) complexes (R = Et, n-Pr).

    PubMed

    Kaluderović, Goran N; Kommera, Harish; Schwieger, Sebastian; Paethanom, Anchan; Kunze, Michael; Schmidt, Harry; Paschke, Reinhard; Steinborn, Dirk

    2009-12-28

    The studies on synthetic, spectroscopic and biological properties of platinum(IV) complexes, [PtCl(4)(R(2)eddp)] (R = Et, 1; n-Pr, 2), containing kappa(2)N,N' bidentate ligands, esters of ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-3-propionic acid (HOOCCH(2)CH(2)NHCH(2)CH(2)NHCH(2)CH(2)COOH, H(2)eddp), are reported. Complexes have been characterized by infrared, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis and it was concluded that the coordination of the ligands occurs via nitrogen donor atoms of the ester ligands (R(2)eddp). Cytotoxicity studies were performed for ligand precursors and corresponding platinum(IV) complexes. Although the n-Pr(2)eddp.2HCl itself showed no activity (IC(50) values > 125 microM) in selected cell lines, the activity of complex 2, via apoptotic mode of cell death, has increased significantly for a broad range of cancer cell lines tested in vitro (IC(50) = 8.6-49 microM). As it was found that complexes 1 and 2 are able to interact with pBR322 plasmid DNA, platinum(IV) complexes of this type may act as drugs and pro-drugs.

  8. Dimensional Control and Morphological Transformations of Supramolecular Polymeric Nanofibers Based on Cofacially-Stacked Planar Amphiphilic Platinum(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew E; Nazemi, Ali; Lunn, David J; Hayward, Dominic W; Boott, Charlotte E; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Harniman, Robert L; Davis, Sean A; Whittell, George R; Richardson, Robert M; De Cola, Luisa; Manners, Ian

    2017-09-26

    Square-planar platinum(II) complexes often stack cofacially to yield supramolecular fiber-like structures with interesting photophysical properties. However, control over fiber dimensions and the resulting colloidal stability is limited. We report the self-assembly of amphiphilic Pt(II) complexes with solubilizing ancillary ligands based on polyethylene glycol [PEGn, where n = 16, 12, 7]. The complex with the longest solubilizing PEG ligand, Pt-PEG16, self-assembled to form polydisperse one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers (diameters <5 nm). Sonication led to short seeds which, on addition of further molecularly dissolved Pt-PEG16 complex, underwent elongation in a "living supramolecular polymerization" process to yield relatively uniform fibers of length up to ca. 400 nm. The fiber lengths were dependent on the Pt-PEG16 complex to seed mass ratio in a manner analogous to a living covalent polymerization of molecular monomers. Moreover, the fiber lengths were unchanged in solution after 1 week and were therefore "static" with respect to interfiber exchange processes on this time scale. In contrast, similarly formed near-uniform fibers of Pt-PEG12 exhibited dynamic behavior that led to broadening of the length distribution within 48 h. After aging for 4 weeks in solution, Pt-PEG12 fibers partially evolved into 2D platelets. Furthermore, self-assembly of Pt-PEG7 yielded only transient fibers which rapidly evolved into 2D platelets. On addition of further fiber-forming Pt complex (Pt-PEG16), the platelets formed assemblies via the growth of fibers selectively from their short edges. Our studies demonstrate that when interfiber dynamic exchange is suppressed, dimensional control and hierarchical structure formation are possible for supramolecular polymers through the use of kinetically controlled seeded growth methods.

  9. Communication: Photoactivation of nucleobase bound platinum{sup II} metal complexes: Probing the influence of the nucleobase

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ananya; Dessent, Caroline E. H.

    2014-12-28

    We present UV laser action spectra (220-300 nm) of isolated nucleobase-bound Pt{sup II}(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes, i.e., Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−}⋅M, where M = uracil, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. These metal complex-nucleobase clusters represent model systems for identifying the fundamental photophysical and photochemical processes occurring in photodynamic platinum (II) drug therapies that target DNA. This is the first study to explore the specific role of the nucleobase in the photophysics of the aggregate complex. Each of the complexes studied displays a broadly similar absorption spectra, with a strong λ{sub max} ∼ 4.7 eV absorption band (nucleobase localized chromophore) and a subsequent increase in the absorption intensity towards higher spectral-energy (Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−} localized chromophore). However, strikingly different band widths are observed across the series of complexes, decreasing in the order Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−}⋅Thymine > Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−}⋅Uracil > Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−}⋅Adenine > Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−}⋅Cytosine. Changes in the bandwidth of the ∼4.7 eV band are accompanied by distinctive changes in the photofragment product ions observed following photoexcitation, with the narrower-bandwidth complexes showing a greater propensity to decay via electron detachment decay. We discuss these observations in the context of the distinctive nucleobase-dependent excited state lifetimes.

  10. Spectral and structural characterization of amidate-bridged platinum-thallium complexes with strong metal-metal bonds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanzhi; Liu, Fenghui; Matsumoto, Kazuko; Autschbach, Jochen; Le Guennic, Boris; Ziegler, Tom; Maliarik, Mikhail; Glaser, Julius

    2006-05-29

    The reactions of [Pt(NH3)2(NHCOtBu)2] and TlX3 (X = NO3-, Cl-, CF3CO2-) yielded dinuclear [{Pt(ONO2)(NH3)2(NHCOtBu)}Tl(ONO2)2(MeOH)] (2) and trinuclear complexes [{PtX(RNH2)2(NHCOtBu)2}2Tl]+ [X = NO3- (3), Cl- (5), CF3CO2- (6)], which were spectroscopically and structurally characterized. Strong Pt-Tl interaction in the complexes in solutions was indicated by both 195Pt and 205Tl NMR spectra, which exhibit very large one-bond spin-spin coupling constants between the heteronuclei (1J(PtTl)), 146.8 and 88.84 kHz for 2 and 3, respectively. Both the X-ray photoelectron spectra and the 195Pt chemical shifts reveal that the complexes have Pt centers whose oxidation states are close to that of Pt(III). Characterization of these complexes by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the Pt and Tl atoms are held together by very short Pt-Tl bonds and are supported by the bridging amidate ligands. The Pt-Tl bonds are shorter than 2.6 Angstrom, indicating a strong metal-metal attraction between these two metals. Compound 2 was found to activate the C-H bond of acetone to yield a platinum(IV) acetonate complex. This reactivity corresponds to the property of Pt(III) complexes. Density functional theory calculations were able to reproduce the large magnitude of the metal-metal spin-spin coupling constants. The couplings are sensitive to the computational model because of a delicate balance of metal 6s contributions in the frontier orbitals. The computational analysis reveals the role of the axial ligands in the magnitude of the coupling constants.

  11. Platinum(II) Iodido Complexes of 7-Azaindoles with Significant Antiproliferative Effects: An Old Story Revisited with Unexpected Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Štarha, Pavel; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Hošek, Jan; Klusáková, Jarmila; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    A series of platinum(II) diiodido complexes containing 7-azaindole derivatives, having the general formula cis-[PtI2(naza)2] (1–8), has been prepared and thoroughly characterized, including X-ray structure analysis of cis-[PtI2(2Me4Claza)2]∙DMF (8∙DMF; 2Me4Claza = 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole). Complexes showed high in vitro cytotoxicity against nine human cancer cell lines (IC50 ranging from 0.4 to 12.8 μM), including the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (A2780R; IC50 = 1.0–3.5 μM). The results of in vivo testing, using the L1210 lymphocytic leukaemia model, at the equimolar doses of Pt with cisplatin (2 mg/kg) confirmed the activity of complex 8 comparable to cisplatin. From the mechanistic point of view, evaluated ex vivo by Western blot analyses on the samples of isolated tumour tissues, the treatment of the animals with complex 8, contrary to cisplatin, decreased the levels of tumour suppressor p53 and increased significantly the amount of intracellular anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1L (37 kDa). Additionally, the active form of caspase 3 was significantly elevated in the sample of tumour tissues treated with complex 8, indicating that the activation of p53-independent cell-death pathway was initiated. The light and electron microscopy observations of the cancerous tissues revealed necrosis as a dominant mechanism of cell death, followed by scarce signs of apoptosis. The additional results (e.g. in vitro interaction experiments with selected biomolecules, cell cycle perturbations, gel electrophoretic studies on pUC19 plasmid DNA) supported the hypothesis that the complexes might be involved in the mechanism of action quite different from cisplatin. PMID:27906967

  12. Coordination chemistry of platinum and palladium in the solid-state: synthesis of imidazole and pyrazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher J; Haddow, Mairi F; Hughes, Robert J I; Kurawa, Mukhtar A; Orpen, A Guy

    2010-04-21

    Solid-state reactions of palladium(II) and platinum(II) chloride complexes with imidazole (Him) and pyrazole (Hpz) or their hydrochloride salts are shown to produce metal complex salts and coordination compounds. Thus, K(2)[MCl(4)] or MCl(2) can be ground with imidazolium chloride ([H(2)im]Cl) to produce the salts [H(2)im](2)[MCl(4)] (M = Pd, 1; Pt, 5), which can then be dehydrochlorinated in the solid state to produce the coordination compounds trans-[PdCl(2)(Him)(2)] 3 or cis-[PtCl(2)(Him)(2)] 6. The complex cis-[PdCl(2)(Him)(2)] 2 is produced when Pd(OAc)(2) is ground with [H(2)im]Cl. Reaction of platinum chloride reagents with imidazole (Him) also produces cis-[PtCl(2)(Him)(2)] 6, but reaction of imidazole with analogous palladium chloride reagents first produces [Pd(Him)(4)]Cl(2) 4 which then slowly converts to trans-[PdCl(2)(Him)(2)] 3. Grinding pyrazolium chloride with K(2)[MCl(4)] produces [H(2)pz](2)[MCl(4)] (M = Pd, 7; Pt, 10), which may also be dehydrochlorinated in the solid state to produce the coordination compounds trans-[PdCl(2)(Hpz)(2)] 8 or cis-[PtCl(2)(Hpz)(2)] 11. Grinding K(2)[PdCl(4)] or PdCl(2) with pyrazole gives [Pd(Hpz)(4)]Cl(2) 9, which is then slowly converted into trans-[PdCl(2)(Hpz)(2)] 8. Grinding PtCl(2) with Hpz generates [Pt(Hpz)(4)]Cl(2) 12, but using K(2)PtCl(4) as the metal source does not generate the same product. The single-crystal structures of 8, a new polymorph of 11 and [H(2)pz](2)[PtCl(6)].2H(2)O (isolated as a decomposition product) are reported for the first time, and the structures of 5 and 10 have been solved ab ibitio from XRPD data.

  13. Complex anthropogenic sources of platinum group elements in aerosols on Cape Cod, USA.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas

    2013-09-17

    Platinum group elements (PGE) of anthropogenic origin have been reported in rainwater, snow, roadside soil and vegetation, industrial waste, and urban airborne particles around the world. As recent studies have shown that PGE are bioavailable in the environment and pose health risks at chronic levels, the extent of PGE pollution is of global concern. In this study, we report PGE concentrations and osmium isotope ((187)Os/(188)Os) ratios of airborne particles (particulate matter, PM10) collected in Woods Hole, a small coastal village on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The sampling site is more than 100 km away from the nearest urban centers (Boston, Providence) and has no large industrial emission center within a 30 km radius. The study reveals that, although PGE concentrations in rural airborne particulate matter are orders of magnitude lower than in urban aerosols, 69% of the total osmium is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic PGE signatures in airborne particles are thus not restricted to large cities with high traffic flows and substantial industries; they can also be found in rural environments. We further conclude that the combination of Pt/Rh concentration ratios and (187)Os/(188)Os composition can be used to trace PGE sources. The Pt/Rh and (187)Os/(188)Os composition of Woods Hole aerosols indicate that the anthropogenic PGE fraction is primarily sourced from ore smelting processes, with possible minor contributions from fossil fuel burning and automobile catalyst-derived materials. Our results further substantiate the use of (187)Os/(188)Os in source apportionment studies on continental scales.

  14. Biological activity of palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of the acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate and the X-ray crystal structure of the [Pd(asme)2] (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) complex.

    PubMed

    Akbar Ali, Mohammad; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Butcher, Raymond J; Tarafder, M T H; Keat, Tan Boon; Ali, A Manaf

    2002-11-25

    Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of general empirical formula, [M(NS)(2)] (NS=uninegatively charged acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate; M=Pt(II) and Pd(II)) have been prepared and characterized by a variety of physicochemical techniques. Based on conductance, IR and electronic spectral evidence, a square-planar structure is assigned to these complexes. The crystal and molecular structure of the [Pd(asme)(2)] complex (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The complex has a distorted cis-square planar structure with the ligands coordinated to the palladium(II) ions as uninegatively charged bidentate NS chelating agents via the azomethine nitrogen and the mercaptide sulfur atoms. The distortion from a regular square-planar geometry is attributed to the restricted bite angles of the ligands. Antimicrobial tests indicate that the Schiff bases exhibit strong activities against the pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (mutant defective DNA repair), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis (wild type) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi, Candida albicans (CA), Candida lypotica (2075), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20341) and Aspergillus ochraceous (398)-the activities exhibited by these compounds being greater than that of the standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs, streptomycin and nystatin, respectively. The palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes are inactive against most of these organisms but, the microbe, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows strong sensitivity to the platinum(II) complexes. Screening of the compounds for their cytotoxicities against T-lymphoblastic leukemia cancer cells has shown that the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate (Hasme) exhibits a very weak activity, whereas the S-benzyl derivative (Hasbz) is inactive. However, the palladium(II) complexes exhibit strong cytotoxicities against this cancer; their

  15. Cis-trans isomerism in a square-planar platinum(II) complex bearing bulky fluorinated phosphane ligands.

    PubMed

    Bernès, Sylvain; Meléndez, Francisco J; Torrens, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    Transition-metal complexes bearing fluorinated phosphane and thiolate ligands has been an area of study in recent years and the chemical context of the current work is related to the metal-assisted functionalization of fluorinated derivatives. The cis and trans isomers of the square-planar complex bis[(pentafluorophenyl)diphenylphosphane-κP]bis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzenethiolato-κS)platinum(II), [Pt(C6HF4S)2{P(C6H5)2(C6F5)}2], have been crystallized from a single chromatographic fraction and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The stabilization of the cis isomer results from weak intramolecular π-stacking interactions and possibly from the formation of a C-F...Pt contact, characterized by an F...Pt separation of 2.957 (6) Å. The natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) for this isomer confirms that the corresponding F → Pt charge transfer accounts for 6.92 kcal mol(-1) in the isomer stabilization. Such interactions are not present in the centrosymmetric trans isomer.

  16. trans-Platinum(II) complex of 3-aminoflavone - synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and biological activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabijańska, Małgorzata; Studzian, Kazimierz; Szmigiero, Leszek; Rybarczyk-Pirek, Agnieszka J; Pfitzner, Arno; Cebula-Obrzut, Barbara; Smolewski, Piotr; Zyner, Elżbieta; Ochocki, Justyn

    2015-01-21

    This paper describes the synthesis of trans-bis-(3-aminoflavone)dichloridoplatinum(ii) (trans-Pt(3-af)2Cl2; TCAP) for use as a potential anticancer compound, and the evaluation of its structure by elemental and spectral analyses, and X-ray crystallography. The complex demonstrated a significant cytotoxic effect against human and murine cancer cell lines, as well as weaker toxicity towards healthy cells (human peripheral blood lymphocytes) in comparison with cisplatin. Various biochemical and morphological methods confirm that the proapoptotic activity of trans-Pt(3-af)2Cl2 is markedly higher than the reference cisplatin. Our results suggest that trans-Pt(3-af)2Cl2 may have a different antitumour specificity from that of cisplatin.

  17. Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes containing benzimidazole ligands: Molecular structures, vibrational frequencies and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Ghani, Nour T.; Mansour, Ahmed M.

    2011-04-01

    (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-(4-methoxyl-phenyl)-amine (L 1), (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-(4-methyl-phenyl)-amine (L 2) and their Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes have been synthesized as potential anticancer compounds and their structures were elucidated using a variety of physico-chemical techniques. Theoretical calculations invoking geometry optimization, vibrational assignments, 1H NMR, charge distribution and molecular orbital description HOMO and LUMO were done using density functional theory. Natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) method was performed to provide details about the type of hybridization and the nature of bonding in the studied complexes. Strong coordination bonds (LP(1)N11 → σ *(M sbnd Cl22)) and (LP(1)N21 → σ *(M sbnd Cl23)) (M = Pd or Pt) result from donation of electron density from a lone pair orbital on the nitrogen atoms to the acceptor metal molecular orbitals. The experimental results and the calculated molecular parameters revealed square-planar geometries around the metallic centre through the pyridine-type nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring and secondary amino group and two chlorine atoms. The activation thermodynamic parameters were calculated using non-isothermal methods. The synthesized ligands, in comparison to their metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity. In addition, the studied complexes showed activity against three cell lines of different origin, breast cancer (MCF-7), Colon Carcinoma (HCT) and human heptacellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) comparable to cis-platin.

  18. bis-Nitrile and bis-Dialkylcyanamide Platinum(II) Complexes as Efficient Catalysts for Hydrosilylation Cross-Linking of Siloxane Polymers.

    PubMed

    Islamova, Regina M; Dobrynin, Mikhail V; Ivanov, Daniil M; Vlasov, Andrey V; Kaganova, Elena V; Grigoryan, Galina V; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2016-03-05

    cis- and trans-Isomers of the platinum(II) nitrile complexes [PtCl2(NCR)2] (R = NMe2, N(C₅H10), Ph, CH2Ph) were examined as catalysts for hydrosilylation cross-linking of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane and trimethylsilyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-ethylhydrosiloxane) producing high quality silicone rubbers. Among the tested platinum species the cis-complexes are much more active catalysts than their trans-congeners and for all studied platinum complexes cis-[PtCl2(NCCH2Ph)2] exhibits the best catalytic activity (room temperature, c = 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L, τpot-life 60 min, τcuring 6 h). Although cis-[PtCl₂(NCCH2Ph)2] is less active than the widely used Karstedt's catalyst, its application for the cross-linking can be performed not only at room temperature (c = 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L), but also, more efficiently, at 80 °C (c = 1.0 × 10(-4)-1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L) and it prevents adherence of the formed silicone rubbers to equipment. The usage of the cis- and trans-[PtCl2(NCR)2] complexes as the hydrosilylation catalysts do not require any inhibitors and, moreover, the complexes and their mixtures with vinyl- and trimethylsilyl terminated polysiloxanes are shelf-stable in air. Tested catalysts do not form colloid platinum particles after the cross-linking.

  19. Data Mining of NCI’s Anticancer Screening Database Reveals Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Cytotoxic to Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Constance J.; Rabow, Alfred A.; Isgor, Yasemin G.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Covell, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria are principal mediators of apoptosis and thus can be considered molecular targets for new chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer. Inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I of the electron transport chain have been shown to induce apoptosis and exhibit antitumor activity. In an effort to find novel complex I inhibitors which exhibited anti-cancer activity in the NCI’s tumor cell line screen, we examined organized tumor cytotoxicity screening data available as SOM (self-organized maps) (http://spheroid.ncifcrf.gov) at the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Our analysis focused on an SOM cluster comprised of compounds which included a number of known mitochondrial complex I (NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase) inhibitors. From these clusters ten compounds whose mechanism of action was unknown were tested for inhibition of complex I activity in bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) resulting in the discovery that five of the ten compounds demonstrated significant inhibition with IC50's in the nM range for three of the five. Examination of screening profiles of the five inhibitors toward the NCI’s tumor cell lines revealed that they were cytotoxic to the leukemia subpanel (particularly K562 cells). Oxygen consumption experiments with permeabilized K562 cells revealed that the five most active compounds inhibited complex I activity in these cells in the same rank order and similar potency as determined with bovine heart SMP. Our findings thus fortify the appeal of mitochondrial Complex I as a possible anti-cancer molecular target and provide a data mining strategy for selecting candidate inhibitors for further testing. PMID:17109823