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Sample records for anticipatory postural reactions

  1. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 < 0.23, p > 0.64, η2 < 0.04) or postural reflex reactions (F1,11 < 4.16, p > 0.07, η2 < 0.49). Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique) compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η2 = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η2 = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively). Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged. Key Points Application of Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population. Earlier

  2. Kinesio taping in young healthy subjects does not affect postural reflex reactions and anticipatory postural adjustments of the trunk: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 < 0.23, p > 0.64, η2 < 0.04) or postural reflex reactions (F1,11 < 4.16, p > 0.07, η(2) < 0.49). Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique) compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η(2) = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η(2) = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively). Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged. Key PointsApplication of Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population

  3. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle

    2011-01-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼100–150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies

  4. Anticipatory Postural Control of Stability during Gait Initiation Over Obstacles of Different Height and Distance Made Under Reaction-Time and Self-Initiated Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A.; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or “initial center-of-mass set”) on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot

  5. Anticipatory Postural Control of Stability during Gait Initiation Over Obstacles of Different Height and Distance Made Under Reaction-Time and Self-Initiated Instructions.

    PubMed

    Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or "initial center-of-mass set") on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot

  6. Anticipatory Postural Control of Stability during Gait Initiation Over Obstacles of Different Height and Distance Made Under Reaction-Time and Self-Initiated Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A.; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or “initial center-of-mass set”) on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot

  7. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and leg muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need. PMID:25434280

  8. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-04-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and lower limb muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need.

  9. Cortical control of anticipatory postural adjustments prior to stepping.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J P; Merino, D M; Beyer, K B; McIlroy, W E

    2016-01-28

    Human bipedal balance control is achieved either reactively or predictively by a distributed network of neural areas within the central nervous system with a potential role for cerebral cortex. While the role of the cortex in reactive balance has been widely explored, only few studies have addressed the cortical activations related to predictive balance control. The present study investigated the cortical activations related to the preparation and execution of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) that precede a step. This study also examined whether the preparatory cortical activations related to a specific movement is dependent on the context of control (postural component vs. focal component). Ground reaction forces and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from 14 healthy adults while they performed lateral weight shift and lateral stepping with and without initially preloading their weight to the stance leg. EEG analysis revealed that there were distinct movement-related potentials (MRPs) with concurrent event-related desynchronization (ERD) of mu and beta rhythms prior to the onset of APA and also to the onset of foot-off during lateral stepping in the fronto-central cortical areas. Also, the MRPs and ERD prior to the onset of APA and onset of lateral weight shift were not significantly different suggesting the comparable cortical activations for the generation of postural and focal movements. The present study reveals the occurrence of cortical activation prior to the execution of an APA that precedes a step. Importantly, this cortical activity appears independent of the context of the movement. PMID:26608123

  10. Enhancing Anticipatory Postural Adjustments: A Novel Approach to Balance Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Aruin, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment is common in individuals with neurological disorders and older adults and is a major cause of falls in these populations. Evidence on the effectiveness of conventional interventions for balance restoration is limited. We describe a novel approach to balance rehabilitation that is based on enhancing anticipatory postural adjustments. PMID:27335705

  11. Adaptability of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Hussein, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The control of balance is crucial for efficiently performing most of our daily motor tasks, such as those involving goal-directed arm movements or whole body displacement. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it is to recall how balance can be maintained despite the different sources of postural perturbation arising during voluntary movement. The importance of the so-called “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APA), taken as a “line of defence” against the destabilizing effect induced by a predicted perturbation, is emphasized. Secondly, it is to report the results of recent studies that questioned the adaptability of APA to various constraints imposed on the postural system. The postural constraints envisaged here are classified into biomechanical (postural stability, superimposition of motor tasks), (neuro) physiological (fatigue), temporal (time pressure) and psychological (fear of falling, emotion). Overall, the results of these studies point out the capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt the spatio-temporal features of APA to each of these constraints. However, it seems that, depending on the constraint, the “priority” of the CNS was focused on postural stability maintenance, on body protection and/or on maintenance of focal movement performance. PMID:22720267

  12. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    PubMed

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy.

  13. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    PubMed

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy. PMID:26952051

  14. The Role of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Compensatory Control of Posture: 2. Biomechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcio J.; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) utilizes anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments to maintain equilibrium while standing. It is known that these postural adjustments involve displacements of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between APAs and CPAs from a kinetic and kinematic perspective. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed during the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. When the perturbations were unpredictable, the COM and COP displacements were larger compared to predictable conditions with APAs. Thus, the peak of COM displacement, after the pendulum impact, in the posterior direction reached 28 ± 9.6 mm in the unpredictable conditions with no APAs whereas it was 1.6 times smaller, reaching 17 ± 5.5 mm during predictable perturbations. Similarly, after the impact, the peak of COP displacement in the posterior direction was 60 ± 14 mm for unpredictable conditions and 28 ± 3.6 mm for predictable conditions. Finally, the times of the peak COM and COP displacements were similar in the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This outcome provides additional knowledge about how body balance is controlled in presence and in absence of information about the forthcoming perturbation. Moreover, it suggests that control of posture could be enhanced by better utilization of APAs and such an approach could be considered as a valuable modality in the rehabilitation of individuals with balance impairment. PMID:20156693

  15. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in a Bimanual Load-Lifting Task in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina; Centelles, Laurie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Postural control is a fundamental component of action in which deficits have been shown to contribute to motor difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in children with DCD in a bimanual load-lifting task. Method: Sixteen children…

  16. Enhancement of anticipatory postural adjustments in older adults as a result of a single session of ball throwing exercise.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta; Lee, Yun-Ju; Ganesan, Mohan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of short-term training in improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and its effect on subsequent control of posture in older adults. Nine healthy older adults were exposed to self-initiated and predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of throwing a medicine ball. EMG activity of eight trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after the training session. Muscle onsets and center of pressure displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The training involving throwing of a medicine ball resulted in enhancement of the generation of APAs seen as significantly early onsets of leg and trunk muscle activity prior to the bilateral arm flexion task. Significantly early activation of postural muscles observed prior to the predictable external perturbation, the task that was not a part of training, indicates the transfer of the effect of the single training session. The observed training-related improvements of APAs suggest that APA-focused rehabilitation could be effective in improving postural control, functional balance, mobility, and quality of life in the elderly.

  17. Anticipatory postural adjustments associated with a loading perturbation in children with hemiplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, T; Girolami, G L; Aruin, A S

    2016-10-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in preparation for predictable externally induced loading perturbation were studied in children with typically development (TD), hemiplegic (HEMI), and diplegic (DIPL) cerebral palsy. Twenty-seven children (n = 9 in each group) were asked to stand and catch a load dropped from a pre-specified height. Electrical activity of the leg and trunk muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were recorded to quantify the APAs. All groups were able to generate APAs prior to the perturbation, but the magnitude was smaller and the onset was delayed in the dorsal (agonist) postural muscles in both HEMI and DIPL as compared to TD. HEMI and DIPL also generated APAs in the antagonist postural muscles. Anticipatory backward COP displacement was significantly different from the baseline value only in the TD and HEMI. HEMI and DIPL displayed a different postural control strategy; HEMI showed no difference in background postural activity from TD, but with diminished APAs in the agonist postural muscles compared to TD, while DIPL showed a higher background postural activity and diminished APAs in the agonist postural muscles compared to TD. These differences are important to consider when designing rehabilitation programs to improve posture and movement control in children with hemiplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy.

  18. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    PubMed

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  19. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units

    PubMed Central

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors. PMID:26760511

  20. Shift of the Muscular Inhibition Latency during On-Line Acquisition of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Barlaam, Fanny; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Fortin, Carole; Assaiante, Christine; Schmitz, Christina

    2016-01-01

    During action, Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs) cancel the consequences of a movement on postural stabilization. Their muscular expression is characterized by early changes in the activity of the postural muscles, before the movement begins. To explore the mechanisms enabling the acquisition of APAs, a learning paradigm was designed in which the voluntary lifting of a load with one hand triggered the unloading of another load suspended below the contralateral forearm. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the muscular expression that uncovers the progressive learning of new APAs. A trial-by-trial analysis of kinematic and electromyographic signals recorded on the right arm was conducted in twelve adults through six sessions of learning. Kinematic results reported an enhancement of the postural stabilization across learning. The main EMG pattern found during learning consisted of a flexor inhibition, where latency was shifted towards an earlier occurrence in parallel with the improvement of the postural performance. A linear regression analysis conducted between the inhibition latency and the maximal amplitude of elbow rotation showed that the earlier the inhibition onset, the better the postural stabilization. This study revealed that the progressive shift of the postural flexor inhibition latency could be considered as a reliable neurophysiological marker of the progressive learning of new APAs. Importantly, this marker could be used to track motor learning abnormalities in pathology. We relate our findings to the update of a forward predictive model of action, defined as a system that predicts beforehand the consequences of the action on posture. PMID:27192604

  1. Anticipatory and Compensatory Postural Adjustments in Response to External Lateral Shoulder Perturbations in Subjects with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swarowsky, Alessandra; dos Santos, Márcio José

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) during lateral instability of posture. Twenty-six subjects (13 individuals with PD and 13 healthy matched controls) were exposed to predictable lateral postural perturbations. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral muscles and the displacement of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded during four time intervals that are typical for postural adjustments, i.e., immediately before (APA1, APA2) and after (CPA1 and CPA2) the postural disturbances. The magnitude of the activity of the lateral muscles in the group with PD was lower only during the CPA time intervals and not during the anticipatory adjustments (APAs). Despite this finding, subjects with PD exhibit smaller COP excursions before and after the disturbance, probably due to lack of flexibility and proprioceptive impairments. The results of this study suggest that postural instability in subjects with PD can be partially explained by decreased postural sway, before and after perturbations, and reduced muscular activity after body disturbances. Our findings can motivate new studies to investigate therapeutic interventions that optimize the use of postural adjustment strategies in subjects with PD. PMID:27152640

  2. Ischemic block of the forearm abolishes finger movements but not their associated anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Voluntary movement is known to induce postural perturbations that are counteracted by unconscious anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Thus, for every movement, two motor commands are dispatched: a voluntary command recruiting the prime mover and a postural command driving the APAs. These commands are classically thought to be separated; this study investigates whether they could be instead considered as two elements within the same motor program. We analyzed the APAs in biceps brachii, triceps brachii and anterior deltoid that stabilize the arm when briskly flexing the index finger (prime mover flexor digitorum superficialis). APAs and prime mover activation were recorded before, under and after ischemic block of the forearm. Ischemia paralyzed the prime mover, thus suppressing the finger movement and the ensuing postural perturbation. If the two commands had been separated, it would have been expected that after a few failed attempts to flex the index finger, the APAs were suppressed too, being purposeless without postural perturbation. APAs were still present under ischemia even after 60 movement trials. No significant changes were found in APA amplitude in biceps and triceps among different conditions, or in the average APA latency. Inhibitory APA in anterior deltoid was reduced but still present under ischemia. In addition, the pharmacologic block of the sole median nerve produced similar effects. APAs were instead almost abolished when applying a fixation point to the wrist. The observation that APAs remained tailored to the expected perturbation even when that perturbation did not occur supports the idea of a functionally unique motor command driving both the prime mover and the muscles of the APA chain.

  3. Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines the latency of anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The literature reports that anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are programmed according to movement velocity. However, the linkage between APAs and velocity has been highlighted within single subjects who were asked to voluntarily change movement velocity; therefore, till now, it has been impossible to discern whether the key factor determining APA latency was the intended movement velocity or the actual one. Aim of this study was to distinguish between these two factors. We analyzed the APA chain that stabilizes the arm during a brisk index finger flexion in two groups of subjects: (1) 29 who composed our database from previous experiments and were asked to "go-as-fast-as-possible" (go-fast), but actually performed the movement with different speeds (238-1, 180°/s), and (2) ten new subjects who performed the go-fast movement at more than 500°/s and were then asked to go-slow at about 50% of their initial velocity, thus moving at 300-800°/s. No correlation between APA latency and actual movement speed was observed when all subjects had to go-fast (p > 0.50), while delayed APAs were found in the ten new subjects when they had to go-slow (p < 0.001). Moreover, in the speed range between 300 and 800°/s, the APA latency depended only on movement instruction: subjects going fast showed earlier APAs than those going slow (p < 0.001). These data suggest a stronger role of the intended movement velocity versus the actual one in modifying the timing of postural muscles recruitment with respect to the prime mover. These results also strengthen the idea of a shared postural and voluntary command within the same motor act.

  4. The Effects of Kinesio Taping on Potential in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Anticipatory Postural Control and Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sea Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hun; Oh, Kyeong Ae; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesio tape applied to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients on anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex potential. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients whose low back pain had continued for more than 12 weeks were selected and assigned to a control group (n=10) to which ordinary physical therapy was applied and an experimental group (n=10) to which kinesio tape was applied. Anticipatory postural control was evaluated using electromyography, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) was assessed using electroencephalography. Clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale and the Oswestry disability index. [Results] According to the analysis results for anticipatory postural control, there were significant decreases in the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle and the external oblique muscle in both groups. Among them, the TrA of the experimental group exhibited the greatest differences. According to the results of a between-group comparison, there was significant difference in the TrA between the two groups. There was also a significant decrease in the MRCP of both groups. In particular, changes in the movement monitoring potential (MMP) of the experimental group were greatest at Fz, C3, Cz, and C4. According to the between-group comparison, there were significant differences in MMP at F3, C3, and Cz. Both groups saw VAS and ODI significantly decrease. Among them, the ODI of the experimental group underwent the greatest change. [Conclusion] Kinesio tape applied to CLBP patients reduced their pain and positively affected their anticipatory postural control and MRCP. PMID:24396190

  5. The effects of kinesio taping on potential in chronic low back pain patients anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sea Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hun; Oh, Kyeong Ae; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesio tape applied to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients on anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex potential. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients whose low back pain had continued for more than 12 weeks were selected and assigned to a control group (n=10) to which ordinary physical therapy was applied and an experimental group (n=10) to which kinesio tape was applied. Anticipatory postural control was evaluated using electromyography, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) was assessed using electroencephalography. Clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale and the Oswestry disability index. [Results] According to the analysis results for anticipatory postural control, there were significant decreases in the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle and the external oblique muscle in both groups. Among them, the TrA of the experimental group exhibited the greatest differences. According to the results of a between-group comparison, there was significant difference in the TrA between the two groups. There was also a significant decrease in the MRCP of both groups. In particular, changes in the movement monitoring potential (MMP) of the experimental group were greatest at Fz, C3, Cz, and C4. According to the between-group comparison, there were significant differences in MMP at F3, C3, and Cz. Both groups saw VAS and ODI significantly decrease. Among them, the ODI of the experimental group underwent the greatest change. [Conclusion] Kinesio tape applied to CLBP patients reduced their pain and positively affected their anticipatory postural control and MRCP.

  6. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced. PMID:25857178

  7. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  8. Anticipatory postural adjustments during cutting manoeuvres in football and their consequences for knee injury risk.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, Guillaume; Gehring, Dominic; Fürst, Patrick; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), i.e. preparatory positioning of the head, the trunk and the foot, are essential to initiate cutting manoeuvres during football games. The aim of the present study was to determine how APA strategies during cutting manoeuvres are influenced by a reduction of the time available to prepare the movement. Thirteen football players performed different cutting tasks, with directions of cutting either known prior to the task or indicated by a light signal occurring 850, 600 or 500 ms before ground contact. With less time available to prepare the cutting manoeuvre, the head was less orientated towards the cutting direction (P = 0.033) and the trunk was even more rotated in the opposite direction (P = 0.002), while the foot placement was not significantly influenced. Moreover, the induced higher lateral trunk flexion correlated with the increased knee abduction moment (r = 0.41; P = 0.009). Increasing lateral trunk flexion is the main strategy used to successfully perform a cutting manoeuvre when less time is available to prepare the movement. However, higher lateral trunk flexion was associated with an increased knee abduction moment and therefore an increased knee injury risk. Reducing lateral trunk flexion during cutting manoeuvres should be part of training programs seeking the optimisation of APAs. PMID:24742137

  9. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    PubMed

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  10. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  11. Fear of falling is associated with prolonged anticipatory postural adjustment during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Minoru; Nagai, Koutatsu; Tanaka, Buichi; Mori, Shuhei; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about dynamic balance control under dual-task conditions in older adults with fear of falling (FoF). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of FoF on anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults. Fifty-seven elderly volunteers (age, 79.2 [6.8] years) from the community participated in this study. Each participant was categorised into either the Fear (n=24) or No-fear (n=33) group on the basis of the presence or absence of FoF. Under single- and dual-task conditions, centre of pressure (COP) data were collected while the participants performed gait initiation trials from a starting position on a force platform. We also performed a 10-m walking test (WT), a timed up & go test (TUG), and a functional reach test (FR). The reaction and APA phases were measured from the COP data. The results showed that under the dual-task condition, the Fear group had significantly longer APA phases than the No-fear group, although no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in the reaction and APA phases under the single-task condition and in any clinical measurements (WT, TUG, and FR). Our findings suggest that specific deficits in balance control occur in subjects with FoF during gait initiation while dual tasking, even if their physical functions are comparable to subjects without FoF.

  12. Balance control in aging: improvements in anticipatory postural adjustments and updating of internal models.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Mourey, France; Bonnetblanc, François

    2015-12-07

    Postural stability of older subjects can be estimated during orthostatic equilibrium. However, dynamic equilibrium is also important to investigate risks of fall. It implies different interpretations of measures given by force plates. Same dependant variables (e.g. center of pressure displacement) cannot be interpreted the same ways depending of the type of equilibrium that is investigated. In particular, sways increases during dynamic equilibrium and before movement execution may reflect an improvement of feedforward control.

  13. The Effects of Sensorimotor Training on Anticipatory Postural Adjustment of the Trunk in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Ah; Bae, Sea Hyun; Do Kim, Gi; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of sensorimotor training on the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen CLBP patients were randomly assigned to Group II (ordinary physical therapy, n=7) and Group III (sensorimotor training, n=7). In addition, a normal group (Group I) consisting of seven subjects was chosen as the control group. The two CLBP groups received their own treatment five times per week, for four weeks, for 40 minutes each time. Changes in pain and functional performance evaluation were examined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In order to look at the change in APA, muscle onset time was examined using electromyography (EMG). [Results] Group III showed significant changes in both VAS and ODI. According to comparison of the results for muscle onset time, there were significant decreases in Group III's transversus abdominis muscle (TrA) and external oblique muscle (EO) in the standing and sitting positions. There were significant differences between Group II and III in terms of the TrA in the sitting position. [Conclusion] Sensorimotor training makes patients capable of learning how to adjust muscles, thereby alleviating pain and improving muscle performance. PMID:24259943

  14. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  15. The Organization and Control of Intra-Limb Anticipatory Postural Adjustments and Their Role in Movement Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Paolo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs) are commonly described as unconscious muscular activities aimed to counterbalance the perturbation caused by the primary movement, so as to ensure the whole-body balance, as well as contributing to initiate the displacement of the body center of mass when starting gait or whole-body reaching movements. These activities usually create one or more fixation chains which spread over several muscles of different limbs, and may be thus called inter-limb APAs. However, it has been reported that APAs also precede voluntary movements involving tiny masses, like a flexion/extension of the wrist or even a brisk flexion of the index-finger. In particular, such movements are preceded by an intra-limb APA chain, that involves muscles acting on the proximal joints. Considering the small mass of the moving segments, it is unlikely that the ensuing perturbation could threaten the whole-body balance, so that it is interesting to enquire the physiological role of intra-limb APAs and their organization and control compared to inter-limb APAs. This review is focused on intra-limb APAs and highlights a strict correspondence in their behavior and temporal/spatial organization with respect to inter-limb APAs. Hence it is suggested that both are manifestations of the same phenomenon. Particular emphasis is given to intra-limb APAs preceding index-finger flexion, because their relatively simple biomechanics and the fact that muscular actions were limited to a single arm allowed peculiar investigations, leading to important conclusions. Indeed, such paradigm provided evidence that by granting a proper fixation of those body segments proximal to the moving one APAs are involved in refining movement precision, and also that APAs and prime mover activation are driven by a shared motor command. PMID:27807411

  16. Atomoxetine reduces anticipatory responding in a 5-choice serial reaction time task for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Matthew O.; Brock, Alistair J.; Sudwarts, Ari; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in impulse control are related to a number of psychiatric diagnoses, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, addiction, and pathological gambling. Despite increases in our knowledge about the underlying neurochemical and neuroanatomical correlates, understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms is less well established. Understanding these mechanisms is essential in order to move towards individualized treatment programs and increase efficacy of interventions. Zebrafish are a very useful vertebrate model for exploring molecular processes underlying disease owing to their small size and genetic tractability. Their utility in terms of behavioral neuroscience, however, hinges on the validation and publication of reliable assays with adequate translational relevance. Here, we report an initial pharmacological validation of a fully automated zebrafish version of the commonly used five-choice serial reaction time task using a variable interval pre-stimulus interval. We found that atomoxetine reduced anticipatory responses (0.6 mg/kg), whereas a high-dose (4 mg/kg) methylphenidate increased anticipatory responses and the number of trials completed in a session. On the basis of these results, we argue that similar neurochemical processes in fish as in mammals may control impulsivity, as operationally defined by anticipatory responses on a continuous performance task such as this, making zebrafish potentially a good model for exploring the molecular basis of impulse control disorders and for first-round drug screening. PMID:24481568

  17. Atomoxetine reduces anticipatory responding in a 5-choice serial reaction time task for adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew O; Brock, Alistair J; Sudwarts, Ari; Brennan, Caroline H

    2014-07-01

    Deficits in impulse control are related to a number of psychiatric diagnoses, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, addiction, and pathological gambling. Despite increases in our knowledge about the underlying neurochemical and neuroanatomical correlates, understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms is less well established. Understanding these mechanisms is essential in order to move towards individualized treatment programs and increase efficacy of interventions. Zebrafish are a very useful vertebrate model for exploring molecular processes underlying disease owing to their small size and genetic tractability. Their utility in terms of behavioral neuroscience, however, hinges on the validation and publication of reliable assays with adequate translational relevance. Here, we report an initial pharmacological validation of a fully automated zebrafish version of the commonly used five-choice serial reaction time task using a variable interval pre-stimulus interval. We found that atomoxetine reduced anticipatory responses (0.6 mg/kg), whereas a high-dose (4 mg/kg) methylphenidate increased anticipatory responses and the number of trials completed in a session. On the basis of these results, we argue that similar neurochemical processes in fish as in mammals may control impulsivity, as operationally defined by anticipatory responses on a continuous performance task such as this, making zebrafish potentially a good model for exploring the molecular basis of impulse control disorders and for first-round drug screening. PMID:24481568

  18. The Use of Cognitive Cues for Anticipatory Strategies in a Dynamic Postural Control Task - Validation of a Novel Approach to Dual-Task Testing

    PubMed Central

    Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor) and a secondary (distracting cognitive) tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Methods Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty-five repetitive tasks in which the participants needed to exceed their limit of stability in order to touch one out of eight lights. The participants performed three tests. In two of the tests the color cues of the lights allowed the participants to utilize cognitive strategies to plan their next movement and improve their performance time. Results The young performed the baseline motor task test in an average of 29 seconds, while the average time for the elderly was 44 seconds. When comparing the performance time with a leading cue to the time with no cue, the young group improved their performance time significantly better than the elderly did: young: 17% (5), elderly: 5% (8); p<0.001. Similar differences were seen with a more complicated leading cue: young: 12% (5), elderly: 4% (9); p<0.01. The reliability of the test showed moderate to substantial agreement (ICC = 0.74), with a small learning effect between two sessions. Conclusion The dual-task test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible and comprehensible for the participants, and it may be relevant to standardize a similar test for an alternative dual-task approach in the clinical setting. PMID:27487000

  19. Preparatory state and postural adjustment strategies for choice reaction step initiation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Ishida, Kazuto; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2016-09-22

    A loud auditory stimulus (LAS) presented simultaneously with a visual imperative stimulus can reduce reaction time (RT) by automatically triggering a movement prepared in the brain and has been used to investigate a movement preparation. It is still under debate whether or not a response is prepared in advance in RT tasks involving choice responses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preparatory state of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during a choice reaction step initiation. Thirteen young adults were asked to step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus in two choice stepping conditions: (i) the responding side is not known and must be selected and (ii) the responding side is known but whether to initiate or inhibit a step response must be selected. LAS was presented randomly and simultaneously with the visual imperative stimulus. LAS significantly increased the occurrence rates of inappropriately initiated APAs while reducing the RTs of correct and incorrect trials in both task conditions, demonstrating that LAS triggered the prepared APA automatically. This observation suggests that APAs are prepared in advance and withheld from release until the appropriate timing during a choice reaction step initiation. The preparatory activity of APAs might be modulated by the inhibitory activity required by the choice tasks. The preparation strategy may be chosen for fast responses and is judged most suitable to comply with the tasks because inappropriately initiated APAs can be corrected without making complete stepping errors. PMID:27393247

  20. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60–70 vs. 20–30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  1. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  2. Do Equilibrium Constraints Modulate Postural Reaction when Viewing Imbalance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tia, Banty; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Action observation and action execution are tightly coupled on a neurophysiological and a behavioral level, such that visually perceiving an action can contaminate simultaneous and subsequent action execution. More specifically, observing a model in postural disequilibrium was shown to induce an increase in observers' body sway. Here we…

  3. Early postural adjustments in preparation to whole-body voluntary sway

    PubMed Central

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    We studied postural adjustments associated with a quick voluntary postural sway under two conditions, self-paced and simple reaction-time. Standing subjects were required to produce quick discrete shifts of the center of pressure (COP) forward. About 400–500 ms prior to the instructed COP shift, there were deviations of the COP in the opposite direction (backwards) accompanied by changes in the activation levels of several postural muscles. Under the reaction-time conditions, the timing of those early postural adjustments did not change (repeated measures MANOVA: p>0.05) while its magnitude increased significantly (confirmed by repeated measures MANOVA: p<0.05). These observations are opposite to those reported for anticipatory postural adjustments under simple reaction time conditions (a significant change in the timing without major changes in the magnitude). We conclude that there are two types of feed-forward postural adjustments. Early postural adjustments prepare the body for the planned action and/or expected perturbation. Some of these preparatory actions may be mechanically necessary. Later, anticipatory postural adjustments generate net forces and moments of force acting against those associated with the expected perturbation. Both types of adjustments fit well the referent configuration hypothesis, which offers a unified view on movement-posture control. PMID:22142740

  4. Early postural adjustments in preparation to whole-body voluntary sway.

    PubMed

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    We studied postural adjustments associated with a quick voluntary postural sway under two conditions, self-paced and simple reaction-time. Standing subjects were required to produce quick discrete shifts of the center of pressure (COP) forward. About 400-500ms prior to the instructed COP shift, there were deviations of the COP in the opposite direction (backwards) accompanied by changes in the activation levels of several postural muscles. Under the reaction-time conditions, the timing of those early postural adjustments did not change (repeated measures MANOVA: p>0.05) while its magnitude increased significantly (confirmed by repeated measures MANOVA: p<0.05). These observations are opposite to those reported for anticipatory postural adjustments under simple reaction time conditions (a significant change in the timing without major changes in the magnitude). We conclude that there are two types of feed-forward postural adjustments. Early postural adjustments prepare the body for the planned action and/or expected perturbation. Some of these preparatory actions may be mechanically necessary. Later, anticipatory postural adjustments generate net forces and moments of force acting against those associated with the expected perturbation. Both types of adjustments fit well the referent configuration hypothesis, which offers a unified view on movement-posture control. PMID:22142740

  5. Influence of virtual height exposure on postural reactions to support surface translations.

    PubMed

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Chua, Romeo; Inglis, J Timothy; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-06-01

    As fear of falling is related to the increased likelihood of falls, it is important to understand the effects of threat-related factors (fear, anxiety and confidence) on dynamic postural reactions. Previous studies designed to examine threat effects on dynamic postural reactions have methodological limitations and lack a comprehensive analysis of simultaneous kinetic, kinematic and electromyographical recordings. The current study addressed these limitations by examining postural reactions of 26 healthy young adults to unpredictable anterior-posterior support-surface translations (acceleration=0.6m/s(2), constant velocity=0.25m/s, total displacement=0.75m) while standing on a narrow virtual surface at Low (0.4cm) and High (3.2m) virtual heights. Standing at virtual height increased fear and anxiety, and decreased confidence. Prior to perturbations, threat led to increased tonic muscle activity in tibialis anterior, resulting in a higher co-contraction index between lower leg muscles. For backward perturbations, muscle activity in the lower leg and arm, and center of pressure peak displacements, were earlier and larger when standing at virtual height. In addition, arm flexion significantly increased while leg, trunk and center of mass displacements remained unchanged across heights. When controlling for leaning, threat-related factors can influence the neuro-mechanical responses to an unpredictable perturbation, causing specific characteristics of postural reactions to be facilitated in young adults when their balance is threatened. PMID:27264411

  6. Pointing to a target from an upright standing position: anticipatory postural adjustments are modulated by the size of the target in humans.

    PubMed

    Bonnetblanc, François; Martin, Olivier; Teasdale, Normand

    2004-04-01

    To examine the influence of the target size onto postural EMG activity, eight subjects performed, from a standing position, rapid and accurate pointings to a target located within reach. The target size was varied across blocks of trials. Hand movement time increased when the target size was decreased. Interestingly, the magnitude of the integrated EMG activity of lower limb muscles (TAi, TFLc, RFi) decreased with a decreasing target size, while that of the erector spinae increased. The effects were observed as early as 200 ms before the hand movement onset. When standing, these early commands could influence the control of the hand during the acceleration phase. The target size was specified within the postural command before any hand movement took place suggesting the characteristics of the pointing task were integrated in a feedforward manner. PMID:15039111

  7. Postural reactions of circulation and its regulation during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Valyev, V. A.; Kirillov, M. V.; Gornago, V. A.

    The extention and intensification of space exploration the influence of weightlessness on human organism and the formation of a new level of adaptation. The studies of blood circulation is very important because of freguent occurance of cardiovascular disorders in the middle age sudjects. In connection with extention and intensification of space exploration the influence of weightlessness on human organism and the formation of a new level of adaptation mechanisms acguires a special significance (5, 9, 10). The data obtained in recently undertaken model experiments (1, 5, 10), and also during space flights (5, 9) indicate that weightlessness in many ways affects various physiological systems of organism, and first of all cardiovascular system with the development of reflex, humoral and metabolic reactions. It also indicates, that the changes in functioning of cardiovascular system brings about the discruption of its regular responses, which is foremost expressed in decreased antigravitational response, which manifests itself in lowered orthostatic stability (2, 4, 6). It is worth mentioning, that the changes during previous investigations of haemodynamics were mainly carried out with the subjects under forty, therefore agerelated specific features of blood circulation system response are described in a few articles (5, 8). The studies of the kind are especially important because of frequent occurence of cardiovascular disorders such as heart and brain vessels atherosclerosis, hypertension in the middle age, which can to a great extent complicate and affect the "acute" period of adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation process.

  8. How does practise of internal Chinese martial arts influence postural reaction control?

    PubMed

    Gorgy, Olivier; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Coyle, Thelma

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chinese martial arts practice on postural reaction control after perturbation. Participants standing in Romberg tandem posture were subjected to an unexpected lateral platform translation with the eyes open or closed at two translation amplitudes. The peak displacement of the centre of pressure and of the centre of mass, and the onset latency of muscular activity (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, lumbodorsal muscular group, and rectus abdominis), were evaluated for martial arts practitioners and for sport and non-sport participants. Compared with the sport and non-sport participants, the martial arts group showed lower maximal centre of pressure and centre of mass peak displacements in both the lateral and anterior - posterior directions, but no difference was found in the onset of muscular responses. We conclude that martial arts practice influences postural reaction control during a fixed-support strategy in a tandem task. The martial arts group used the ankle joint more frequently than the sport and non-sport participants, especially in the eyes-closed conditions. Our results suggest that the better balance recovery in the martial arts group is a consequence of better control of biomechanical properties of the lower limbs (e.g. through muscular response by co-contraction), not a change in the neuromuscular temporal pattern.

  9. Anticipatory Systems via Anticipatory Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julià, Pere

    2010-11-01

    Although cybernetics and systems research have included references to biological phenomena from their very inception, their technical and conceptual wherewithal remains rooted in engineering and the physical and formal sciences. The methodological consequences of this make themselves increasingly felt as biological systems come under closer scrutiny, when the brain becomes the be-all-and-end-all of human cognition, or when individual and social behavior comes up for analysis. In the absence of prior empirical research, the application of a straight-jacketed modus operandi across the board can easily result in conceptual confusion. When the truly functional nature of the phenomena under discussion is not sharply differentiated from our constructional activities, our notational devices may well determine how we conceptualize the object of study instead of the other way around; witness, e.g., the growing literature on "observed" and "observing" systems. A mechanistic outlook fosters the continued treatment of organism and environment as disjoint domains, e.g., when cognition is treated in bucolic ignorance of conative factors without which there would be no cognition or any other behavior to speak of Elucidation of the specific variables, processes, and parameters involved in different fields is needed, if we are to achieve an effective treatment of the automaticity/self-regulation continuum and capture the synergism that emerges from the environment-organism interactivity. It is this interactivity that defines the boundaries of the system, self-regulating or otherwise. Clearly, there is need for deep foundational thinking and much of it revolves around language in the human case. Models are verbal constructions or the product of verbal constructions. Anticipatory systems seem like a good place to begin.

  10. Seated postural neck and trunk reactions to sideways perturbations with or without a cognitive task.

    PubMed

    Stenlund, T C; Lundström, R; Lindroos, O; Häger, C K; Burström, L; Neely, G; Rehn, B

    2015-06-01

    Driving on irregular terrain will expose the driver to sideways mechanical shocks or perturbations that may cause musculoskeletal problems. How a cognitive task, imposed on the driver, affects seated postural reactions during perturbations is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate seated postural reactions in the neck and trunk among healthy adults exposed to sideways perturbations with or without a cognitive task. Twenty-three healthy male subjects aged 19-36 years, were seated on a chair mounted on a motion system and randomly exposed to 20 sideways perturbations (at two peak accelerations 5.1 or 13.2m/s(2)) in two conditions: counting backwards or not. Kinematics were recorded for upper body segments using inertial measurement units attached to the body and electromyography (EMG) was recorded for four muscles bilaterally in the neck and trunk. Angular displacements (head, neck, trunk and pelvis) in the frontal plane, and EMG amplitude (normalised to maximum voluntary contractions, MVC) were analysed. The cognitive task provoked significantly larger angular displacements of the head, neck and trunk and significantly increased EMG mean amplitudes in the upper neck during deceleration, although 10% of MVC was never exceeded. A cognitive task seems to affect musculoskeletal reactions when exposed to sideways perturbations in a seated position. PMID:25843010

  11. Anticipatory Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Anticipatory consumer socialization is the learning of consumer roles and perceptions, which will be assumed at a later time, such as those that children acquire before they become adult consumers. A survey of 784 adolescents was conducted in a southern state to examine the anticipatory consumer socialization effects of such factors as the mass…

  12. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  13. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p < 0.0001), and the spatial task (p = 0.04). Additionally, a significant (p = 0.05) task x vision x age interaction indicated that older subjects had a significant vision X task interaction whereas young subjects did not. However, when analyzed by age group, the young group showed minimal differences in interference for the spatial and non-spatial tasks with eyes open, but showed increased interference on the spatial relative to non-spatial task with eyes closed. On the contrary, older subjects demonstrated increased interference on the spatial relative to the non-spatial task with eyes open, but not with eyes closed. These findings suggest that visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture.

  14. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities. PMID:27440765

  15. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities.

  16. Understanding 'anticipatory governance'.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-04-01

    Anticipatory governance is 'a broad-based capacity extended through society that can act on a variety of inputs to manage emerging knowledge-based technologies while such management is still possible'. It motivates activities designed to build capacities in foresight, engagement, and integration--as well as through their production ensemble. These capacities encourage and support the reflection of scientists, engineers, policy makers, and other publics on their roles in new technologies. This article reviews the early history of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States, and it further explicates anticipatory governance through exploring the genealogy of the term and addressing a set of critiques found in the literature. These critiques involve skepticism of three proximities of anticipatory governance: to its object, nanotechnology, which is a relatively indistinct one; to the public, which remains almost utterly naive toward nanotechnology; and to technoscience itself, which allegedly renders anticipatory governance complicit in its hubris. The article concludes that the changing venues and the amplification within them of the still, small voices of folks previously excluded from offering constructive visions of futures afforded by anticipatory governance may not be complete solutions to our woes in governing technology, but they certainly can contribute to bending the long arc of technoscience more toward humane ends. PMID:24941612

  17. EMG analysis of human postural responses during parabolic flight microgravity episodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1990-01-01

    Anticipatory postural activity in the trunk and legs precedes rapid shoulder flexion in unit gravity. The hypothesis that anticipatory activity is a component of a single neural command for arm movement was tested by monitoring the surface electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, paraspinals, and deltoid muscles of three subjects during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight. If part of a single command, anticipatory postural activity would be expected to remain intact despite the absence of the body's center of gravity in a reduced gravity environment. However, in at least 75 percent of the microgravity trials anticipatory biceps femoris activity was absent, indicating a separation of postural and agonist muscle activity. Such a finding suggests that anticipatory postural biceps femoris activity may be initiated independently of agonist (deltoid) activity.

  18. Adaptation of Postural Stability following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, R P

    1997-01-01

    Activities of daily living require both anticipatory and reactive postural adjustments. The influence of stroke on anticipatory and reactive balance behaviors is addressed in this article. Two primary deficits appear to underlie postural instability following stroke. The first deficit type is characterized by a loss of postural muscle recruitment in both lower extremities (not hyperactive stretch reflexes). The second deficit type is related specifically to the lack of limb stabilization on the paretic side of the body. These two categories of deficit might result from the disruption of geocentric and egocentric references for postural stability with cerebrovascular disease. Context-dependent postural responses are either relearned or retained following stroke, but deficits in the sequencing and timing of stabilizing neuromuscular responses appear to be resistant to adaptation. Prior knowledge of an impending balance disturbance improves the initiation of reactive postural adjustments in subjects with stroke but has no effect on the initiation of stabilizing responses associated with voluntary motion. The results suggest that reactive and anticipatory postural adjustments are controlled by different neural mechanisms and may require separate attention in a rehabilitation program. PMID:27620375

  19. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  20. Anticipatory Neurofuzzy Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, Claire L.

    1994-01-01

    Technique of feedback control, called "anticipatory neurofuzzy control," developed for use in controlling flexible structures and other dynamic systems for which mathematical models of dynamics poorly known or unknown. Superior ability to act during operation to compensate for, and adapt to, errors in mathematical model of dynamics, changes in dynamics, and noise. Also offers advantage of reduced computing time. Hybrid of two older fuzzy-logic control techniques: standard fuzzy control and predictive fuzzy control.

  1. Anticipatory Adjustments to Being Picked Up in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Markova, Gabriela; Wallot, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Anticipation of the actions of others is often used as a measure of action understanding in infancy. In contrast to studies of action understanding which set infants up as observers of actions directed elsewhere, in the present study we explored anticipatory postural adjustments made by infants to one of the most common adult actions directed to them – picking them up. We observed infant behavioural changes and recorded their postural shifts on a pressure mat in three phases: (i) a prior Chat phase, (ii) from the onset of Approach of the mother’s arms, and (iii) from the onset of Contact. In Study 1, eighteen 3-month-old infants showed systematic global postural changes during Approach and Contact, but not during Chat. There was an increase in specific adjustments of the arms (widening or raising) and legs (stiffening and extending or tucking up) during Approach and a decrease in thrashing/general movements during Contact. Shifts in postural stability were evident immediately after onset of Approach and more slowly after Contact, with no regular shifts during Chat. In Study 2 we followed ten infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Anticipatory behavioural adjustments during Approach were present at all ages, but with greater differentiation from a prior Chat phase only at 3 and 4 months. Global postural shifts were also more phase differentiated in older infants. Moreover, there was significantly greater gaze to the mother’s hands during Approach at 4 months. Early anticipatory adjustments to being picked up suggest that infants’ awareness of actions directed to the self may occur earlier than of those directed elsewhere, and thus enable infants’ active participation in joint actions from early in life. PMID:23840324

  2. Effect of expertise in shooting and Taekwondo on bipedal and unipedal postural control isolated or concurrent with a reaction-time task.

    PubMed

    Negahban, Hossein; Aryan, Najmolhoda; Mazaheri, Masood; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    It was hypothesized that training in 'static balance' or 'dynamic balance' sports has differential effects on postural control and its attention demands during quiet standing. In order to test this hypothesis, two groups of female athletes practicing shooting, as a 'static balance' sport, and Taekwondo, as a 'dynamic balance' sport, and a control group of non-physically active females voluntarily participated in this study. Postural control was assessed during bipedal and unipedal stance with and without performing a Go/No-go reaction time task. Visual and/or support surface conditions were manipulated in bipedal and unipedal stances in order to modify postural difficulty. Mixed model analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of dual tasking on postural and cognitive performance. Similar pattern of results were found in bipedal and unipedal stances, with Taekwondo practitioners displaying larger sway, shooters displaying lower sway and non-athletes displaying sway characteristics intermediate to Taekwondo and shooting athletes. Larger effect was found in bipedal stance. Single to dual-task comparison of postural control showed no significant effect of mental task on sway velocity in shooters, indicating less cognitive effort invested in balance control during bipedal stance. We suggest that expertise in shooting has a more pronounced effect on decreased sway in static balance conditions. Furthermore, shooters invest less attention in postures that are more specific to their training, i.e. bipedal stance. PMID:23245642

  3. Effect of expertise in shooting and Taekwondo on bipedal and unipedal postural control isolated or concurrent with a reaction-time task.

    PubMed

    Negahban, Hossein; Aryan, Najmolhoda; Mazaheri, Masood; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    It was hypothesized that training in 'static balance' or 'dynamic balance' sports has differential effects on postural control and its attention demands during quiet standing. In order to test this hypothesis, two groups of female athletes practicing shooting, as a 'static balance' sport, and Taekwondo, as a 'dynamic balance' sport, and a control group of non-physically active females voluntarily participated in this study. Postural control was assessed during bipedal and unipedal stance with and without performing a Go/No-go reaction time task. Visual and/or support surface conditions were manipulated in bipedal and unipedal stances in order to modify postural difficulty. Mixed model analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of dual tasking on postural and cognitive performance. Similar pattern of results were found in bipedal and unipedal stances, with Taekwondo practitioners displaying larger sway, shooters displaying lower sway and non-athletes displaying sway characteristics intermediate to Taekwondo and shooting athletes. Larger effect was found in bipedal stance. Single to dual-task comparison of postural control showed no significant effect of mental task on sway velocity in shooters, indicating less cognitive effort invested in balance control during bipedal stance. We suggest that expertise in shooting has a more pronounced effect on decreased sway in static balance conditions. Furthermore, shooters invest less attention in postures that are more specific to their training, i.e. bipedal stance.

  4. Anticipatory model of cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Dress, William B.; Hylton, James O.

    1999-03-01

    The Anticipatory System (AS) formalism developed by Robert Rosen provides some insight into the problem of embedding intelligent behavior in machines. AS emulates the anticipatory behavior of biological systems. AS bases its behavior on its expectations about the near future and those expectations are modified as the system gains experience. The expectation is based on an internal model that is drawn from an appeal to physical reality. To be adaptive, the model must be able to update itself. To be practical, the model must run faster than real-time. The need for a physical model and the requirement that the model execute at extreme speeds, has held back the application of AS to practical problems. Two recent advances make it possible to consider the use of AS for practical intelligent sensors. First, advances in transducer technology make it possible to obtain previously unavailable data from which a model can be derived. For example, acoustic emissions (AE) can be fed into a Bayesian system identifier that enables the separation of a weak characterizing signal, such as the signature of pump cavitation precursors, from a strong masking signal, such as a pump vibration feature. The second advance is the development of extremely fast, but inexpensive, digital signal processing hardware on which it is possible to run an adaptive Bayesian-derived model faster than real-time. This paper reports the investigation of an AS using a model of cavitation based on hydrodynamic principles and Bayesian analysis of data from high-performance AE sensors.

  5. Anticipatory behavior in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-03-01

    In the experiments of pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare), some of them performed as if they had contained the models of themselves and the environment in view of computing their present state as a function of the prediction of the models. In a specific situation, they escaped from the experimental apparatus as if they had constituted spatial knowledge of it (open field surrounded by walls) in the process of exploratory behavior and used the knowledge. This species gets environmental information by tactile ability of antennae, not by visual one, and do not climb perpendicular walls in general condition. If they had not escaped in the experiment, they would have died of hunger or water deficit. In this paper I will present the result of this anticipatory behavior. I also discuss that the notion of anticipation, which is another name of autonomy, is inevitably introduced when one considers the process of understanding of animal behavior progressing without any common basis between animals and experimenters.

  6. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  7. Hand immobilization affects arm and shoulder postural control.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, Francesco; Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Cavallari, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    It is a common experience, immediately after the removal of a cast or a splint, to feel motor awkwardness, which is usually attributed to muscular and joint immobilization. However, the same feeling may also be perceived after a brief period of immobilization. We provide evidence that this last effect stems from changes in the cortical organization of the focal movement as well as in the associated anticipatory postural adjustments. Indeed, these two aspects of the motor act are strongly correlated, although scaled in different manners. In fact, they are both shaped in the primary motor cortex, they both undergo similar amplitude and latency modulation and, as we will show, they are both impaired by the immobilization of the lone prime mover. Neuromuscular effects of limb immobilization are well known; however, most papers focus on changes occurring in the pathways projecting to the prime mover, which acts on the immobilized joint. Conversely, this study investigates the effect of immobilization on anticipatory postural adjustments. Indeed, we show that 12 h of wrist and fingers immobilization effectively modify anticipatory postural adjustments of the elbow and the shoulder, that is, those joints not immobilized within the fixation chain. Accordingly, the motor impairment observed after short-term immobilization most likely stems from the unbalance between anticipatory postural adjustments and the focal movement.

  8. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  9. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  10. Anticipatory Deaccenting in Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carbary, Kathleen; Brown, Meredith; Gunlogson, Christine; McDonough, Joyce M.; Fazlipour, Aleksandra; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that listeners can generate expectations about upcoming input using anticipatory deaccenting, in which the absence of a nuclear pitch accent on an utterance-new noun is licensed by the subsequent repetition of that noun (e.g. Drag the SQUARE with the house to the TRIangle with the house). The phonemic restoration paradigm was modified to obscure word-initial segmental information uniquely identifying the final word in a spoken instruction, resulting in a stimulus compatible with two lexical alternatives (e.g. mouse/house). In Experiment 1, we measured participants’ final interpretations and response times. Experiment 2 used the same materials in a crowd-sourced gating study. Sentence interpretations at gated intervals, final interpretations, and response times provided converging evidence that the anticipatory deaccenting pattern contributed to listeners’ referential expectations. The results illustrate the availability and importance of sentence-level accent patterns in spoken language comprehension. PMID:25642426

  11. Anticipatory Grief: A Mere Concept?

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    Anticipatory grief (AG) has been studied, debated, and written about for several decades. This type of grief is also recognized in hospice and palliative care (HPC). The question, however, is whether the reality of AG is sufficiently upheld by professionals at the point of concrete service delivery. In other words, is AG a mere concept or is everyday practice of HPC duly informed of AG as evidenced by the resulting care delivery?

  12. Exploring the future with anticipatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulimowski, A. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theory of anticipatory networks that originates from anticipatory models of consequences in multicriteria decision problems. When making a decision, the decision maker takes into account the anticipated outcomes of each future decision problem linked by the causal relations with the present one. In a network of linked decision problems, the causal relations are defined between time-ordered nodes. The scenarios of future consequences of each decision are modeled by multiple vertices starting from an appropriate node. The network is supplemented by one or more relations of anticipation, or future feedback, which describe a situation where decision makers take into account the anticipated results of some future optimization problems while making their choice. So arises a multigraph of decision problems linked causally and by one or more anticipation relation, termed here the anticipatory network. We will present the properties of anticipatory networks and propose a method of reducing, transforming and using them to solve current decision problems. Furthermore, it will be shown that most anticipatory networks can be regarded as superanticipatory systems, i.e. systems that are anticipatory in the Rosen sense and contain a future model of at least one other anticipatory system. The anticipatory networks can also be applied to filter the set of future scenarios in a foresight exercise.

  13. Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Emily; Nykvist, Björn; Borgström, Sara; Stacewicz, Izabela A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Mälaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience. PMID:25576289

  14. Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Emily; Nykvist, Björn; Borgström, Sara; Stacewicz, Izabela A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Mälaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience.

  15. An Anticipatory Model of Cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B., Jr.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-05

    The Anticipatory System (AS) formalism developed by Robert Rosen provides some insight into the problem of embedding intelligent behavior in machines. AS emulates the anticipatory behavior of biological systems. AS bases its behavior on its expectations about the near future and those expectations are modified as the system gains experience. The expectation is based on an internal model that is drawn from an appeal to physical reality. To be adaptive, the model must be able to update itself. To be practical, the model must run faster than real-time. The need for a physical model and the requirement that the model execute at extreme speeds, has held back the application of AS to practical problems. Two recent advances make it possible to consider the use of AS for practical intelligent sensors. First, advances in transducer technology make it possible to obtain previously unavailable data from which a model can be derived. For example, acoustic emissions (AE) can be fed into a Bayesian system identifier that enables the separation of a weak characterizing signal, such as the signature of pump cavitation precursors, from a strong masking signal, such as a pump vibration feature. The second advance is the development of extremely fast, but inexpensive, digital signal processing hardware on which it is possible to run an adaptive Bayesian-derived model faster than real-time. This paper reports the investigation of an AS using a model of cavitation based on hydrodynamic principles and Bayesian analysis of data from high-performance AE sensors.

  16. Angry posture.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Jose Luis; Diógenes, Maria Suely Bezerra; Mattei, Rita; Leite, José Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Postural abnormalities can affect the emotions and vice-versa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a relationship between subjective anger and body posture in 28 women, aged between 20 and 39 years, with a normal body mass index (or underweight) and an absence of neurological, psychiatric or musculoskeletal disorders. The postural parameters photographed were the inclination of the shoulders, protrusion of the head, hyperextension of the knees and shoulder elevation. The degree of anger was rated by analogue scales representing current and usual anger. The results indicated that a relationship exists between current anger and the inclination of the shoulders (p = 0.03), protrusion of the head (p = 0.05) and hyperextension of the knees (p = 0.05). Correlations were found between usual anger, shoulder elevation (p = 0.05) and hyperextension of the knees (p = 0.05). In conclusion, posture is associated with emotions, and usual anger can lead to shoulder protraction. PMID:27634065

  17. Transfer of Dynamic Learning Across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently. PMID:19710374

  18. Postural control during lifting.

    PubMed

    Kollmitzer, Josef; Oddsson, L; Ebenbichler, G R; Giphart, J E; DeLuca, C J

    2002-05-01

    Any voluntary motion of the body causes an internal perturbation of balance. Load transfer during manual material handling may increase these perturbations. This study investigates effects of stance condition on postural control during lifting. Nineteen healthy subjects repeatedly lifted and lowered a load between a desk and a shelf. The base of support was varied between parallel and step stance. Ground reaction force and segmental kinematics were measured. Load transfer during lifting perturbed balance. In parallel stance postural response consisted of axial movements in the sagittal plane. Such strategy was accompanied by increased posterior shear forces after lift-off. Lifting in step stance provided extended support in anterior/posterior direction. The postural control mechanisms in the sagittal plane are less complex as compared to parallel stance. However, lifting in step stance was asymmetrical and thus accompanied by distinct lateral transfer of the body. Lateral shear forces were larger as compared to parallel stance. Both lifting techniques exhibit positive and negative aspects. We cannot recommend either one as being better in terms of postural control.

  19. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  20. The role of preparation in tuning anticipatory and reflex responses during catching.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, F; Maioli, C

    1989-01-01

    The pattern of muscle responses associated with catching a ball in the presence of vision was investigated by independently varying the height of the drop and the mass of the ball. It was found that the anticipatory EMG responses comprised early and late components. The early components were produced at a roughly constant latency (about 130 msec) from the time of ball release. Their mean amplitude decreased with increasing height of fall. Late components represented the major build-up of muscle activity preceding the ball's impact and were accompanied by limb flexion. Their onset time was roughly constant (about 100 msec) with respect to the time of impact (except in wrist extensors). This indicates that the timing of these responses was based on an accurate estimate of the instantaneous values of the time-to-contact (time remaining before impact). The mean amplitude of the late anticipatory responses increased linearly with the expected momentum of the ball at impact. The reflex responses evoked by the ball's impact consisted in a short-latency coactivation of flexor and extensor muscles at the elbow and wrist joints. Their mean amplitude generally increased with the intensity of the perturbation both in the stretched muscles and in the shortening muscles. We argue that both the anticipatory and the reflex coactivation are centrally preset in preparation for catching and are instrumental for stabilizing limb posture after impact. A model with linear, time-varying viscoelastic coefficients was used to assess the neural and mechanical contributions to the damping of limb oscillations induced by the ball's impact. The model demonstrates that (1) anticipatory muscle stiffening and anticipatory flexion of the limb are synergistic in building up resistance of the hand to vertical displacement and (2) the reflex coactivation produces a further increment of hand stiffness and viscosity which tends to offset the decrement which would result from the limb extension produced

  1. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Hong D.; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure. PMID:27270506

  2. Looking ahead in times of uncertainty: the role of anticipatory justice in an organizational change context.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Jessica B; Colquitt, Jason A

    2009-07-01

    Our study drew on past theorizing on anticipatory justice (D. L. Shapiro & B. L. Kirkman, 2001) and fairness heuristic theory (K. Van den Bos, E. A. Lind, & H. A. M. Wilke, 2001) to build and test a model of employee reactions to a smoking ban. The results of a longitudinal study in a hospital showed that employee levels of preban anticipatory justice were predicted by their global sense of their supervisor's fairness. The combination of anticipatory justice and global supervisory fairness then predicted the experienced justice of the ban 3 months after its implementation, with the effects of the 2 predictors dependent on perceptions of uncertainty and outcome favorability regarding the ban. Finally, experienced (interpersonal) justice predicted significant other ratings of employee support for the ban.

  3. Looking ahead in times of uncertainty: the role of anticipatory justice in an organizational change context.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Jessica B; Colquitt, Jason A

    2009-07-01

    Our study drew on past theorizing on anticipatory justice (D. L. Shapiro & B. L. Kirkman, 2001) and fairness heuristic theory (K. Van den Bos, E. A. Lind, & H. A. M. Wilke, 2001) to build and test a model of employee reactions to a smoking ban. The results of a longitudinal study in a hospital showed that employee levels of preban anticipatory justice were predicted by their global sense of their supervisor's fairness. The combination of anticipatory justice and global supervisory fairness then predicted the experienced justice of the ban 3 months after its implementation, with the effects of the 2 predictors dependent on perceptions of uncertainty and outcome favorability regarding the ban. Finally, experienced (interpersonal) justice predicted significant other ratings of employee support for the ban. PMID:19594239

  4. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain

    PubMed Central

    Shiozawa, Shinichiro; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP) displacement in a reaction time task condition. Methods Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift) before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated. Results Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05). Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05). Conclusions The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered. PMID:26680777

  5. Postural control during pushing movement with risk of forward perturbation.

    PubMed

    Okai, Rika; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a forward bilateral pushing movement on postural control in a situation where known, unknown, and unpredictable perturbations may be induced. Participants stood upright and voluntarily pushed a handle with both hands. In the first task, the handle was free to be moved by the participant (perturbation; movable task) and in the second task, the handle was locked (stationary task). For each task, body displacement and observed applied force were recorded. Anticipatory postural control adjustment plays a vital role in body stability; however, in contrast to its role in maintaining stability, adjustment can generate a restricted voluntary movement because motor programming selects a postural control that gives priority to body stability over the target movement.

  6. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  7. Rural Youth and Anticipatory Goal Deflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Evans W.; And Others

    Race, sex, community size, occupation of major wage earner, father's education, mother's education, and certainty of expectations were the variables used in this study to determine the "anticipatory occupational goal deflection" (AOGD) of urban and rural youth (blacks and whites) in Louisiana. Least squares analysis of variance and other…

  8. Anticipatory Socialisation amongst Architects: A Qualitative Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Katherine; Ison, Stephen; Dainty, Andrew; Powell, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Those entering the architectural profession tend to be motivated by a desire to undertake creative design, although studies have revealed that many practicing architects feel they lack sufficient creative opportunities. Proponents of anticipatory socialisation argue that experiences prior to entering an occupation influence job…

  9. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults.

  10. Early and Late Components of Feed-forward Postural Adjustments to Predictable Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vennila; Latash, Mark L.; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose was to investigate two types of feed-forward postural adjustments associated with preparation to predictable external perturbations. Methods Nine subjects stood on a wedge, toes-up or toes-down while a pendulum impacted their shoulders. EMGs of leg and trunk muscles were analyzed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Results Early postural adjustments (EPAs) were seen 400–500 ms and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), 100–150 ms prior to the impact. EPAs and APAs were also seen in the time profiles of muscle modes representing muscle groups with linear scaling of the activation levels. Center of pressure shifts were stabilized by co-varied adjustments in muscle mode magnitudes across trials. The index of these multi-muscle synergies showed two drops (anticipatory synergy adjustments, ASAs), prior to EPA and APA in each subject. The findings were consistent between the two conditions. Conclusions The results show that feed-forward postural adjustments represent a sequence of two phenomena, EPAs and APAs. Each of those is preceded by ASAs that reduce stability of a variable that is to be adjusted during the EPAs and APAs. The findings fit a hierarchical scheme with synergic few-to-many mappings at each level of the hierarchy based on the referent body configuration hypothesis. Significance The results show the complexity of the postural preparation to action. Potentially, they have implications for the current strategies of rehabilitation of patients with neuro-motor disorders characterized by impaired postural control. PMID:21983281

  11. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  12. Neural Basis of Anticipatory Anxiety Reappraisals

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yoshino, Atsuo; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Machino, Akihiko; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2014-01-01

    Reappraisal is a well-known emotion regulation strategy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that reappraisal recruits both medial and lateral prefrontal brain regions. However, few studies have investigated neural representation of reappraisals associated with anticipatory anxiety, and the specific nature of the brain activity underlying this process remains unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activity associated with reappraisals of transient anticipatory anxiety. Although transient anxiety activated mainly subcortical regions, reappraisals targeting the anxiety were associated with increased activity in the medial and lateral prefrontal regions (including the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices). Reappraisal decreased fear circuit activity (including the amygdala and thalamus). Correlational analysis demonstrated that reductions in subjective anxiety associated with reappraisal were correlated with orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Reappraisal recruits medial and lateral prefrontal regions; particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are associated with successful use of this emotion regulation strategy. PMID:25048028

  13. Social Allostasis: Anticipatory Regulation of the Internal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Schulkin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capability is reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of “allostasis” is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu. PMID:21369352

  14. Anticipatory Mechanisms in Evolutionary Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word "evolution", but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's Natural Selection was mainly inspired by the anticipatory Artificial Selection by humans in domestication, and the Malthus struggle for existence. Darwin showed that the struggle for existence leads to the preservation of the most divergent offspring of any one species. He cited several times the canon of "Natura non facit saltum". He spoke about the origin of life from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. Finally, Darwin made anticipation about the future researches in psychology. This paper cites the work of Ernst Mayr who was the first, after 90 years of an intense scientific debate, to present a new and stable Darwinian paradigm as the "Evolutionary Synthesis" in 1942. To explain what is life, the Living Systems Theory (LST) by J. G. Miller is presented. It is showed that the Autopoietic Systems Theory of Varela et al is also a fundamental component of living systems. In agreement with Darwin, the natural selection is a necessary condition for transformation of biological systems, but is not a sufficient condition. Thus, in this paper we conjecture that an anticipatory evolutionary mechanism exists with the genetic code that is a self-replicating and self-modifying anticipatory program. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock, evolution in genomes is programmed. The word "program" comes from "pro-gram" meaning to write before, by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes of behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. For example, cell death may be programmed by what is called the apoptosis. This definitively is a great breakthrough in our understanding of biological evolution. Hence

  15. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E. A.; Hodges, Paul W.; Strutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function. PMID:26807583

  16. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E A; Hodges, Paul W; Strutton, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  17. Particular adaptations to potentially slippery surfaces: the effects of friction on consecutive postural adjustments (CPA).

    PubMed

    Memari, Sahel; Le Bozec, Serge; Bouisset, Simon

    2014-02-21

    This research deals with the postural adjustments that occur after the end of voluntary movement ("consecutive postural adjustments": CPAs). The influence of a potentially slippery surface on CPA characteristics was considered, with the aim of exploring more deeply the postural component of the task-movement. Seven male adults were asked to perform a single step, as quickly as possible, to their own footprint marked on the ground. A force plate measured the resultant reaction forces along the antero-posterior axis (R(x)) and the centre of pressure (COP) displacements along the antero-posterior and lateral axes (Xp and Yp). The velocity of the centre of gravity (COG) along the antero-posterior axis and the corresponding impulse (∫R(x)dt) were calculated; the peak velocity (termed "progression velocity": V(xG)) was measured. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) along the progression axis (pμ(x)) was determined. Two materials, differing by their COF, were laid at foot contact (FC), providing a rough foot contact (RoFC), and a smooth foot contact (SmFC) considered to be potentially slippery. Two step lengths were also performed: a short step (SS) and a long step (LS). Finally, the subjects completed four series of ten steps each. These were preceded by preliminary trials, to allow them to acquire the necessary adaptation to experimental conditions. The antero-posterior force time course presented a positive phase, that included APAs ("anticipatory postural adjustments") and step execution (STEP), followed by a negative one, corresponding to CPAs. The backward impulse (CPI) was equal to the forward one (BPI), independently of friction and progression velocity. Moreover, V(xG) did not differ according to friction, but was faster when the step length was greater. Last CPA peak amplitudes (pCPA) were significantly greater and CPA durations (dCPA) shorter for RoFC and conversely for SmFC, contrary to APA. Finally, the results show a particular adaptation to the

  18. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  19. Two stages and three components of the postural preparation to action.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vennila; Aruin, Alexander S; Latash, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies of postural preparation to action/perturbation have primarily focused on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), the changes in muscle activation levels resulting in the production of net forces and moments of force. We hypothesized that postural preparation to action consists of two stages: (1) Early postural adjustments (EPAs), seen a few hundred ms prior to an expected external perturbation and (2) APAs seen about 100 ms prior to the perturbation. We also hypothesized that each stage consists of three components, anticipatory synergy adjustments seen as changes in covariation of the magnitudes of commands to muscle groups (M-modes), changes in averaged across trials levels of muscle activation, and mechanical effects such as shifts of the center of pressure. Nine healthy participants were subjected to external perturbations created by a swinging pendulum while standing in a semi-squatting posture. Electrical activity of twelve trunk and leg muscles and displacements of the center of pressure were recorded and analyzed. Principal component analysis was used to identify four M-modes within the space of muscle activations using indices of integrated muscle activation. This analysis was performed twice, over two phases, 400-700 ms prior to the perturbation and over 200 ms just prior to the perturbation. Similar robust results were obtained using the data from both phases. An index of a multi-M-mode synergy stabilizing the center of pressure displacement was computed using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The results showed high synergy indices during quiet stance. Each of the two stages started with a drop in the synergy index followed by a change in the averaged across trials activation levels in postural muscles. There was a very long electromechanical delay during the early postural adjustments and a much shorter delay during the APAs. Overall, the results support our main hypothesis on the two stages and three components

  20. TWO STAGES AND THREE COMPONENTS OF THE POSTURAL PREPARATION TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vennila; Aruin, Alexander S.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of postural preparation to action/perturbation have primarily focused on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), the changes in muscle activation levels resulting in the production of net forces and moments of force. We hypothesized that postural preparation to action consists of two stages: (1) Early postural adjustments (EPAs), seen a few hundred ms prior to an expected external perturbation; and (2) APAs seen about 100 ms prior to the perturbation. We also hypothesized that each stage consists of three components, anticipatory synergy adjustments seen as changes in co-variation of the magnitudes of commands to muscle groups (M-modes), changes in averaged across trials levels of muscle activation, and mechanical effects such as shifts of the center of pressure. Nine healthy participants were subjected to external perturbations created by a swinging pendulum while standing in a semi-squatting posture. Electrical activity of twelve trunk and leg muscles and displacements of the center of pressure were recorded and analyzed. Principal component analysis was used to identify four M-modes within the space of muscle activations using indices of integrated muscle activation. This analysis was performed twice, over two phases, 400-700 ms prior to the perturbation and over 200 ms just prior to the perturbation. Similar robust results were obtained using the data from both phases. An index of a multi-M-mode synergy stabilizing the center of pressure displacement was computed using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The results showed high synergy indices during quiet stance. Each of the two stages started with a drop in the synergy index followed by a change in the averaged across trials activation levels in postural muscles. There was a very long electromechanical delay during the early postural adjustments and a much shorter delay during the APAs. Overall, the results support our main hypothesis on the two stages and three

  1. Visuomotor Control of Human Adaptive Locomotion: Understanding the Anticipatory Nature

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    To maintain balance during locomotion, the central nervous system (CNS) accommodates changes in the constraints of spatial environment (e.g., existence of an obstacle or changes in the surface properties). Locomotion while modifying the basic movement patterns in response to such constraints is referred to as adaptive locomotion. The most powerful means of ensuring balance during adaptive locomotion is to visually perceive the environmental properties at a distance and modify the movement patterns in an anticipatory manner to avoid perturbation altogether. For this reason, visuomotor control of adaptive locomotion is characterized, at least in part, by its anticipatory nature. The purpose of the present article is to review the relevant studies which revealed the anticipatory nature of the visuomotor control of adaptive locomotion. The anticipatory locomotor adjustments for stationary and changeable environment, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of gaze behavior to support the anticipatory locomotor adjustments are described. Such description will clearly show that anticipatory locomotor adjustments are initiated when an object of interest (e.g., a goal or obstacle) still exists in far space. This review also show that, as a prerequisite of anticipatory locomotor adjustments, environmental properties are accurately perceived from a distance in relation to individual’s action capabilities. PMID:23720647

  2. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  3. Self-Organizing Neural Network Models for State Anticipatory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöllä, Matti; Honkela, Timo

    2006-06-01

    A vital mechanism of high-level natural cognitive systems is the anticipatory capability of making decisions based on predicted events in the future. While in some cases the performance of computational cognitive systems can be improved by modeling anticipatory behavior, it has been shown that for many cognitive tasks anticipation is mandatory. In this paper, we review the use of self-organizing artificial neural networks in constructing the state-space model of an anticipatory system. The biologically inspired self-organizing map (SOM) and its topologically dynamic variants such as the growing neural gas (GNG) are discussed using illustrative examples of their performance.

  4. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Chandwani, Kavita; Janelsins, Michelle; Peoples, Anita R; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    As a specific variation of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) appears particularly linked to psychological processes. The three predominant factors related to ANV are classical conditioning; demographic and treatment-related factors; and anxiety or negative expectancies. Laboratory models have provided some support for these underlying mechanisms for ANV. ANV may be treated with medical or pharmacological interventions, including benzodiazepines and other psychotropic medications. However, behavioral treatments, including systematic desensitization, remain first line options for addressing ANV. Some complementary treatment approaches have shown promise in reducing ANV symptoms. Additional research into these approaches is needed. This review will address the underlying models of ANV and provide a discussion of these various treatment options.

  5. Food-anticipatory circadian rhythms: concepts and methods.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2009-11-01

    Rats, mice and other species can behaviorally anticipate a predictable daily mealtime by entrainment of circadian oscillators (food-entrainable oscillators) distinct from those (light-entrainable oscillators) that regulate light-dark entrained rhythms of behavior and physiology. Neurobiological analysis of food-anticipatory rhythms has progressed slowly but is gaining pace. Food-anticipatory rhythms have proven to be surprisingly robust to many neural and circadian clock gene perturbations. A few neural ablation sites or gene mutations have been associated with loss or marked attenuation of anticipatory rhythms, but in each case there are apparently conflicting reports. Attenuation of food-anticipatory rhythms following neural or genetic perturbations could result from actions upstream or downstream from the clock mechanism, and could be limited to certain behavioral endpoints or recording conditions. Failure to observe attenuation could reflect compensation by alternate timing mechanisms that do not involve food-entrainable oscillators. To facilitate progress in neurobiological analysis of food-anticipatory rhythms, criteria for distinguishing among formally distinct mechanisms by which animals might anticipate a daily meal are reviewed, and procedural variables that can affect the expression of food-anticipatory rhythms in neurobiologically intact or compromised animals are identified.

  6. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  7. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  8. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response.

  9. An anticipatory governance approach to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Philbrick, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are novel materials with remarkable properties; possible beneficial applications include aircraft frames, hydrogen storage, environmental sensors, electrical transmission, and many more. At the same time, precise characterization of their potential toxicity remains elusive, in part because engineered nanostructures pose challenges to existing assays, predictive models, and dosimetry. While these obstacles are surmountable, their presence suggests that scientific uncertainty regarding the hazards of CNTs is likely to persist. Traditional U.S. policy approaches implicitly pose the question: "What level of evidence is necessary and sufficient to justify regulatory action?" In the case of CNTs, such a strategy of risk analysis is of limited immediate utility to both regulators essaying to carry out their mandates, and users of CNTs seeking to provide an appropriate level of protection to employees, customers, and other stakeholders. In contrast, the concept of anticipatory governance suggests an alternative research focus, that is: "Given the conflicted character of the data, how should relevant actors respond?" Adopting the latter theoretical framework, this article argues that currently available data support treating CNTs "as if" they are hazardous, while simultaneously highlighting some systemic uncertainties in many of the experiments carried out to date. Such a conclusion implies limiting exposure throughout product lifecycles, and also points to the possible applicability of various conceptual tools, such as life-cycle and multicriteria decision analysis approaches, in choosing appropriate courses of action in the face of prolonged uncertainty.

  10. The Time Course of Anticipatory Constraint Integration

    PubMed Central

    Kukona, Anuenue; Fang, Shin-Yi; Aicher, Karen A.; Chen, Helen; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that as listeners hear sentences describing events in a scene, their eye movements anticipate upcoming linguistic items predicted by the unfolding relationship between scene and sentence. While this may reflect active prediction based on structural or contextual expectations, the influence of local thematic priming between words has not been fully examined. In Experiment 1, we presented verbs (e.g., arrest) in active (Subject-Verb-Object) sentences with displays containing verb-related patients (e.g., crook) and agents (e.g., policeman). We examined patient and agent fixations following the verb, after the agent role had been filled by another entity, but prior to bottom-up specification of the object. Participants were nearly as likely to fixate agents “anticipatorily” as patients, even though the agent role was already filled. However, the slight patient advantage suggested simultaneous influences of both local priming and active prediction. In Experiment 2, using passives (Object-Verb-Subject), we found stronger, but still graded influences of role prediction when more time elapsed between verb and target, and more syntactic cues were available. We interpret anticipatory fixations as emerging from constraint-based processes that involve both non-predictive thematic priming and active prediction. PMID:21237450

  11. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-10-16

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation.

  12. Can Quiet Standing Posture Predict Compensatory Postural Adjustment?

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Gabriel Bueno Lahóz; Siqueira, Cássio Marinho; Caffaro, Renê Rogieri; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze whether quiet standing posture is related to compensatory postural adjustment. INTRODUCTION The latest data in clinical practice suggests that static posture may play a significant role in musculoskeletal function, even in dynamic activities. However, no evidence exists regarding whether static posture during quiet standing is related to postural adjustment. METHODS Twenty healthy participants standing on a movable surface underwent unexpected, standardized backward and forward postural perturbations while kinematic data were acquired; ankle, knee, pelvis and trunk positions were then calculated. An initial and a final video frame representing quiet standing posture and the end of the postural perturbation were selected in such a way that postural adjustments had occurred between these frames. The positions of the body segments were calculated in these initial and final frames, together with the displacement of body segments during postural adjustments between the initial and final frames. The relationship between the positions of body segments in the initial and final frames and their displacements over this time period was analyzed using multiple regressions with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS We failed to identify a relationship between the position of the body segments in the initial and final frames and the associated displacement of the body segments. DISCUSSION The motion pattern during compensatory postural adjustment is not related to quiet standing posture or to the final posture of compensatory postural adjustment. This fact should be considered when treating balance disturbances and musculoskeletal abnormalities. CONCLUSION Static posture cannot predict how body segments will behave during compensatory postural adjustment. PMID:19690665

  13. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  14. Selection of wrist posture in conditions of motor ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Daniel K; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2011-02-01

    In our everyday motor interactions with objects, we often encounter situations where the features of an object are determinate (i.e., not perceptually ambiguous), but the mapping between those features and appropriate movement patterns is indeterminate, resulting in a lack of any clear preference for one posture over another. We call this indeterminacy in stimulus-response mapping 'motor ambiguity'. Here, we use a grasping task to investigate the decision mechanisms that mediate the basic behavior of selecting one wrist posture over another in conditions of motor ambiguity. Using one of two possible wrist postures, participants grasped a dowel that was presented at various orientations. At most orientations, there was a clear preference for one wrist posture over the other. Within a small range of orientations, however, participants were variable in their posture selection due to the fact that the dowel was ambiguous with respect to the hand posture it afforded. We observed longer reaction times (RT) during 'ambiguous' trials than during the 'unambiguous' trials. In two subsequent experiments, we explored the effects of foreknowledge and trial history on the selection of wrist posture. We found that foreknowledge led to shorter RT unless the previous trial involved selecting a posture in the ambiguous region, in which case foreknowledge gave no RT advantage. These results are discussed within the context of existing models of sensorimotor decision making. PMID:21152907

  15. Tips to Maintain Good Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain and Chiropractic Posture Spinal Health Winter Activities Backpack Safety Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby ... Pain and Chiropractic Posture Spinal Health Winter Activities Backpack Safety Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby ...

  16. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    PubMed

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  17. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    PubMed

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies. PMID:25121583

  18. A comparison of spousal anticipatory grief and conventional grief.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, G; Fleming, S

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the degree of similarity between the grief experienced by spouses of terminally-ill patients prior to (anticipatory grief) and following the death (conventional grief). Responses of this sample were also compared with those of two control groups: spouses of chronically-ill patients and spouses of relatively healthy individuals from the community. The impact of such factors as the quality of the marital relationship, perceived ability to cope, concurrent stressors, previous losses, perceived social support, and perception of spouse's pain and suffering on anticipatory and conventional grief was also systematically explored. Results indicated that these two phenomena are statistically similar with regard to the majority of subscales on the Grief Experience Inventory. Furthermore, when compared with conventional grief, anticipatory grief was unexpectedly associated with higher intensities of anger, loss of emotional control, and atypical grief responses. PMID:10342940

  19. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matessa, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  20. Investigating the anticipatory nature of pattern perception in sport.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the anticipatory nature of pattern perception in sport by using static and moving basketball patterns across three different display types. Participants of differing skill levels were included in order to determine whether the effects would be moderated by the knowledge and experience of the observer in the same manner reported previously for simple images. The results from a pattern recognition task showed that both expert and recreational participants were more likely to anticipate the next likely state of a pattern when it was presented as a moving video, but only the experts appeared to have the depth of understanding required to elicit the same anticipatory encoding for patterns presented as schematic images. The results extend those reported in previous research and provide further evidence of an anticipatory encoding in pattern perception for images containing complex, interrelated patterns.

  1. Effects of task context during standing reach on postural control in young and older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min H; Brown, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    Reaching is an important component of daily activities with goals to interact and acquire objects in the environment. The task context of reaching, as determined by the behavioral goal and the properties of the object, can influence the control of posture and movements. This study examined age differences in postural stability during a forward reach under two task contexts, grasping versus pointing to a target. Young and older participants living in the community performed the tasks from the standing position. They reached forward, grasped or pointed to a target, and then returned to an upright posture as fast as possible. Postural stability was analyzed using the center of pressure (COP) during two phases of the task: the reaching movement phase and the returning movement phase. In the grasping context, the COP path deviations were significantly larger in older compare to young participants during both the reach and the return movement phases. In addition, during the return movement phase, only older participants showed a context-dependent increase in COP path deviations after grasping compared to pointing. The results highlight the impact of task context on postural stability during standing reach in young and older adults. Interventions for older adults with balance problems should consider incorporating activities that involve the interaction with objects of various properties in the environment. Future studies are necessary to investigate the factors underlying the person-environment interplay of postural control and the adaptation of anticipatory postural control associated with object interaction during functional tasks in older adults.

  2. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Garg, R; Ritch, A; Sarkar, P

    2007-07-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic disturbance which has become better understood in recent years. It is now thought to encompass a group of disorders that have similar clinical features, such as orthostatic intolerance, but individual distinguishing parameters--for example, blood pressure and pulse rate. The clinical picture, diagnosis, and management of POTS are discussed.

  3. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  4. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    PubMed Central

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E.; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (QH/V), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: QH/V = 0.31 versus controls: QH/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  5. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness.

    PubMed

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V ), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles.

  6. Anticipatory Eye Movements Reveal Infants' Auditory and Visual Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Aslin, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for the assessment of auditory and visual categories in 6-month-old infants using a 2-alternative anticipatory eye-movement response. Infants were trained by 2 different methods to anticipate the location of a visual reinforcer at 1 of 2 spatial locations (right or left) based on the identity of 2 cuing stimuli. After a…

  7. Anticipatory Enrollment Management: Another Level of Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Marguerite J.

    2012-01-01

    Building on the principles of Enrollment Management (EM) and Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM), Anticipatory Enrollment Management (AEM) offers another level of managing enrollment: anticipating future enrollment. AEM is grounded in the basic principles of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and includes strategic out-reach to parents and…

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of the Development of Anticipatory Nausea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrykowski, Michael A.; Redd, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed chemotherapy outpatients (N=71) before and after chemotherapy infusions to assess the course of development of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV). Revealed that onset of ANV early in the course of chemotherapy was associated with a pattern of low, stable levels of anxiety while later onset was characterized by a pattern of…

  9. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  10. Brain activation during anticipatory anxiety in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated anticipatory anxiety during expectation of performance-related situations is an important feature of the psychopathology of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The neural basis of anticipatory anxiety in SAD has not been investigated in controlled studies. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates during the anticipation of public and evaluated speaking vs a control condition in 17 SAD patients and 17 healthy control subjects. FMRI results show increased activation of the insula and decreased activation of the ventral striatum in SAD patients, compared to control subjects during anticipation of a speech vs the control condition. In addition, an activation of the amygdala in SAD patients during the first half of the anticipation phase in the speech condition was observed. Finally, the amount of anticipatory anxiety of SAD patients was negatively correlated to the activation of the ventral striatum. This suggests an association between incentive function, motivation and anticipatory anxiety when SAD patients expect a performance situation. PMID:23938870

  11. College Counselors' Perceptions and Practices regarding Anticipatory Guidance on Firearms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James; Mrdjenovich, Adam J.; Thompson, Amy; Dake, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed college counselors' anticipatory guidance on firearms for student clients. Participants: The membership of the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors was used to identify a national random sample of counseling centers (n = 361). One counselor from each center was selected to survey.…

  12. Teaching Anticipatory Guidance: Pediatric Residents' Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Roberta A.; Kittredge, Diane

    One-third of all scheduled pediatric visits are for well child care. The American Academy of Pediatrics has suggested that anticipatory guidance, which focuses on health maintenance, accident prevention, nutrition, and normal child development, should be a major part of well child visits. Training in well child counseling will only be accepted in…

  13. Postural control during kneeling.

    PubMed

    Mezzarane, Rinaldo André; Kohn, André Fabio

    2008-05-01

    Postural control was studied when the subject was kneeling with erect trunk in a quiet posture and compared to that obtained during quiet standing. The analysis was based on the center of pressure motion in the sagittal plane (CPx), both in the time and in the frequency domains. One could assume that postural control during kneeling would be poorer than in standing because it is a less natural posture. This could cause a higher CPx variability. The power spectral density (PSD) of the CPx obtained from the experimental data in the kneeling position (KN) showed a significant decrease at frequencies below 0.3 Hz compared to upright (UP) (P < 0.01), which indicates less sway in KN. Conversely, there was an increase in fast postural oscillations (above 0.7 Hz) during KN compared to UP (P < 0.05). The root mean square (RMS) of the CPx was higher for UP (P < 0.01) while the mean velocity (MV) was higher during KN (P < 0.05). Lack of vision had a significant effect on the PSD and the parameters estimated from the CPx in both positions. We also sought to verify whether the changes in the PSD of the CPx found between the UP and KN positions were exclusively due to biomechanical factors (e.g., lowered center of gravity), or also reflected changes in the neural processes involved in the control of balance. To reach this goal, besides the experimental approach, a simple feedback model (a PID neural system, with added neural noise and controlling an inverted pendulum) was used to simulate postural sway in both conditions (in KN the pendulum was shortened, the mass and the moment of inertia were decreased). A parameter optimization method was used to fit the CPx power spectrum given by the model to that obtained experimentally. The results indicated that the changed anthropometric parameters in KN would indeed cause a large decrease in the power spectrum at low frequencies. However, the model fitting also showed that there were considerable changes also in the neural subsystem

  14. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia): Is It Truly Anticipatory?

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven, Marijn; Colombo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE) in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.

  15. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia): Is It Truly Anticipatory?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE) in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature. PMID:26933892

  16. Conceptual unifying constraints override sensorimotor interference during anticipatory control of bimanual actions.

    PubMed

    Franz, Elizabeth A; McCormick, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Traditional approaches to research on bimanual coordination focus on sensorimotor interference, motor programming, and effects of perception and feedback guidance; surprisingly, little is known about high-level conceptual constraints that might unify separate movements into coordinated actions. We investigated two possible forms of high-level unifying representations on anticipatory control (i.e., reaction time: RT) in two-limb (bimanual) movements. Specifically, we adapted a paradigmatic bimanual task involving reaching to targets by adding two novel manipulations. One involved a visual-perceptual manipulation in which target-objects were presented either separately (i.e., two circles) or as a unified object (i.e., two circles connected by a bar). The other involved variants on language representation to elicit separate action plans (i.e., separate instructional commands joined by 'and') or unified action plans (i.e., a single verb applying to both hands). Typical forms of sensorimotor interference were virtually abolished when these unifying constraints were available. These findings provide strong support for the theoretical account that unifying conceptual representations are primary forms of bimanual constraint. Findings further suggest that the organization and content of the language used to form action representations can strongly influence anticipatory planning of bimanual actions.

  17. Contraction of the human diaphragm during rapid postural adjustments.

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, P W; Butler, J E; McKenzie, D K; Gandevia, S C

    1997-01-01

    1. The response of the diaphragm to the postural perturbation produced by rapid flexion of the shoulder to a visual stimulus was evaluated in standing subjects. Gastric, oesophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured together with intramuscular and oesophageal recordings of electromyographic activity (EMG) in the diaphragm. To assess the mechanics of contraction of the diaphragm, dynamic changes in the length of the diaphragm were measured with ultrasonography. 2. With rapid flexion of the shoulder in response to a visual stimulus, EMG activity in the costal and crural diaphragm occurred about 20 ms prior to the onset of deltoid EMG. This anticipatory contraction occurred irrespective of the phase of respiration in which arm movement began. The onset of diaphragm EMG coincided with that of transversus abdominis. 3. Gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressures increased in association with the rapid arm flexion by 13.8 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 13.5 +/- 1.8 cmH2O, respectively. The increases occurred 49 +/- 4 ms after the onset of diaphragm EMG, but preceded the onset of movement of the limb by 63 +/- 7 ms. 4. Ultrasonographic measurements revealed that the costal diaphragm shortened and then lengthened progressively during the increase in transdiaphragmatic pressure. 5. This study provides definitive evidence that the human diaphragm is involved in the control of postural stability during sudden voluntary movement of the limbs. Images Figure 1 PMID:9423192

  18. Stand Up Straight: Posture for Singers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Delores R.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of posture in music-making. Provides information on the importance of posture and the different types of posture stances to help students work toward better posture. Includes information on using kinesthetic experiences to help students improve their posture. (CMK)

  19. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153

  20. Postural stress analysis in industry.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Al-Shedi, A A; Karwowski, W

    1994-04-01

    Both observational and instrumentation-based techniques have been used to conduct postural stress analysis in industry. As observational methods are more widespread than instrumentation-based techniques and can be used as a practical tool in the workplace, this study reviews and assesses the scientific literature on observational techniques. Techniques are classified into macropostural, micropostural and postural-work activity. The basis for each classification is outlined and evaluated. Postural recording is performed either continuously or intermittently. Intermittent postural recording procedures lack the criteria for determining the optimum number of observations for low and high repetitive jobs. Research is warranted to examine the sources and magnitudes of errors associated with postural classification. Such information is required to train job analysts in the ergonomics of working postures. PMID:15676953

  1. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing.

  2. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers. PMID:20698188

  3. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers.

  4. Children use different anticipatory control strategies than adults to circumvent an obstacle in the travel path.

    PubMed

    Vallis, Lori Ann; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2005-11-01

    Carrying out the daily activities of work and play requires the ability to integrate available sensory information in order to navigate complex, potentially cluttered, environments. The expression of locomotor adjustment behaviour is still maturing during mid- to late-childhood (Grasso et al. in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 22(4): 533-539, 1998a; McFadyen et al. in Gait Posture 13:7-16, 2001), which raises the question, do children coordinate their body segments differently than adults when circumventing an obstacle in their travel path? Healthy young children (n=5; age 10.3+/-1.5 years) and adults (n=6; age 26.3+/-2.9 years) were asked to walk at their natural pace during unobstructed walking, as well as during the avoidance to the right or left of a cylindrical obstacle located in the travel path 3 m from the initial starting position. Fourteen infrared markers were fixed to participants and tracked using the Optotrak motion analysis system (60 Hz; Northern Digital Inc, Canada). Data analyses included center of mass (COM) clearance from the obstacle, gait speed, angular movement of the head and trunk (yaw, pitch and roll) and medial-lateral (M-L) COM displacement. Onset of change in these variables from unobstructed walking was also calculated as the time from OBS crossing. Although there were no differences in when adults or children altered their M-L COM trajectory, adults reoriented their head and trunk segments at the same time as their COM while children reoriented their head and trunk prior to changing COM direction. A comparison of foot placement data for this task indicated that while adults changed their gait patterns well in advance of obstacle crossing, children initiated M-L adjustments to gait patterns just prior to OBS crossing. Vallis and McFadyen (Exp Brain Res 152 (3):409-414, 2003) indicated that during circumvention of an obstacle, adults coordinate body segments for a single transient change in COM trajectory while maintaining the underlying travel

  5. When to fire: anticipatory versus postevent reconstrual of uncontrollable events.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Timothy D; Wheatley, Thalia P; Kurtz, Jaime L; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2004-03-01

    These studies examined the conditions under which people engage in anticipatory construal before an evaluative event versus reconstrual after the event. Computer software informed college students that there was a 1.5%, 12%, 88%, or 98.5% chance that an opposite-sex student would pick them for a hypothetical date. When people had extreme expectations (1.5% or 98.5%), they changed their view of the student to be consistent with their expectations before learning the outcome (anticipatory reconstrual). When people had moderate expectations (12% or 88%), they formed relatively unbiased impressions before hand but reconstrued after learning the outcome of the dating game (postevent reconstrual). Either strategy can ameliorate the pain of a negative event in ways that people do not anticipate. Forecasters predicted that loosing would make them feel worse than it did and selected a higher dose of a drug to cope with an anticipated loss than did people who actually lost. PMID:15510418

  6. Anticipatory mourning: processes of expected loss in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Clukey, Lory

    2008-07-01

    This qualitative study explored the retrospective perceptions of the anticipatory mourning experience of caregivers who had not received hospice services. Data revealed five major processes that were consistently described by informants: realization; caretaking; presence; finding meaning; and transitioning. Characteristics of each of these processes are described. Study informants provided information about what was helpful to them. The implications for health care providers include: an awareness of changed family roles and relationship attachments that can cause strain on family systems; familiarity with the complex demands on caregivers and their need for accurate information, anticipatory guidance and support resources; professional expertise especially in regard to education about what to expect; a caring presence; and pain and symptom management. PMID:18959280

  7. On Delayed and Anticipatory Systems in Applied Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béda, Péter B.

    2010-11-01

    The stability of an inverted pendulum is a textbook example of control. The easiest case is to put the pendulum on a cart and apply feedback force control on it to keep the upright position stable. This paper compares the no delay case (feed-in-time control: an anticipatory effect) and the delay differential equation approach. Then we study both continuous and discrete time systems. The main aim of the work is to investigate the behaviour of such systems at the stability boundaries by using numerical simulation. The principal points of interest are how continuous time systems differ from discrete time system at a bifurcation point and how time delay or an anticipatory feed-in-time control acts on its behaviour. Other exciting questions are how sampling delay can be taken into consideration and is bifurcation a robust phenomenon.

  8. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  9. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward.

    PubMed

    Geaney, Joachim T; Treadway, Michael T; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97), we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1) the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2) affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale. PMID:26115223

  10. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  11. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward

    PubMed Central

    Geaney, Joachim T.; Treadway, Michael T.; Smillie, Luke D.

    2015-01-01

    Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97), we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1) the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2) affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale. PMID:26115223

  12. Immediate effects of anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Kleinschmidt, Dave; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments examined listeners’ use of pre word-onset anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition. Experiment 1 established the shortest lag with which information in the speech signal influences eye-movement control, using stimuli such as “The … ladder is the target”. With a neutral token of the definite article preceding the target word, saccades to the referent were not more likely than saccades to an unrelated distractor until 200–240 ms after the onset of the target word. In Experiment 2, utterances contained definite articles which contained natural anticipatory coarticulation pertaining to the onset of the target word (“ The ladder … is the target”). A simple Gaussian classifier was able to predict the initial sound of the upcoming target word from formant information from the first few pitch periods of the article’s vowel. With these stimuli, effects of speech on eye-movement control began about 70 ms earlier than in Experiment 1, suggesting rapid use of anticipatory coarticulation. The results are interpreted as support for “data explanation” approaches to spoken-word recognition. Methodological implications for visual-world studies are also discussed. PMID:24511179

  13. Working postures: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Kumar, Shrawan

    2004-06-01

    Working postures are addressed in many papers in the ergonomics field but, surprisingly, scientific literature dealing with working posture itself is not common; knowledge has been elusive. This article reviews the working postures literature. Selected papers published in the English language before March 2003 including the phrase "working postures" in the title, abstract, or keywords were searched in the PubMed, Scirus, and Science Direct databases and reviewed. The literature provides evidence that working postures and musculoskeletal health are related. This relationship is supported by the overexertion, differential fatigue, and cumulative load theories of musculoskeletal injuries' precipitation. Goniometers, inclinometers, photographic techniques, electrogoniometers, and video recording systems are the means that are most often used to measure working postures. Information about working postures need to be collected and analyzed in a more systematic way in order to contribute for a deeper understanding of the relationship between working postures and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This information will help to improve the control and rehabilitation of these highly prevalent disorders.

  14. Reactively and Anticipatory Behaving Agents for Artificial Life Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Karel; Nahodil, Pavel

    2010-11-01

    Reactive behavior is still considered and the exact opposite for the anticipatory one. Despite the advances on the field of anticipation there are little thoughts on relation with the reactive behavior, the similarities and where the boundary is. In this article we will present our viewpoint and we will try to show that reactive and anticipatory behavior can be combined. This is the basic ground of our unified theory for anticipatory behavior architecture. We still miss such compact theory, which would integrate multiple aspects of anticipation. My multi-level anticipatory behavior approach is based on the current understanding of anticipation from both the artificial intelligence and biology point of view. As part of the explanation we will also elaborate on the topic of weak and strong artificial life. Anticipation is not matter of a single mechanism in a living organism. It was noted already that it happens on many different levels even in the very simple creatures. What we consider to be important for our work and what is our original though is that it happens even without voluntary control. We believe that this is novelty though for the anticipation theory. Naturally research of anticipation was in the beginning of this decade focused on the anticipatory principles bringing advances on the field itself. This allowed us to build on those, look at them from higher perspective, and use not one but multiple levels of anticipation in a creature design. This presents second original though and that is composition of the agent architecture that has anticipation built in almost every function. In this article we will focus only on first two levels within the 8-factor anticipation framework. We will introduce them as defined categories of anticipation and describe them from theory and implementation algorithm point of view. We will also present an experiment conducted, however this experiment serves more as explanatory example. These first two levels may seem trivial

  15. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  16. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  17. Seated postural hypotension.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Cohen, Natan

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of postural hypotension (PH) have focused on standing PH. Less is known about PH after transition from a supine to sitting position. Moreover, seated PH has not been previously reviewed in the English literature. The aim of this review was to provide current information regarding seating-induced PH. Seventeen studies were reviewed regarding prevalence, methods of evaluation, manifestations, predisposing factors, prognosis, and management of seated PH. Prevalence ranged from 8% among community-dwelling persons to 56% in elderly hospitalized patients. Dizziness and palpitations were the most frequent symptoms. Of a variety of factors that have been identified as predisposing and contributing to seated PH, aging, bed rest, and hypertension were most important. Because seated PH is a common, easily diagnosable and frequently symptomatic condition, especially in elderly inpatients, this disorder warrants attention. Moreover, seating-induced falls in blood pressure and the associated symptoms, may be largely prevented by nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26515671

  18. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  19. Test Plan of the Anticipatory Wirelss Sensor Network for the Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Rentel

    2006-09-01

    The test plan for the performance of the Anticipatory Wireless Sensor Network (A-WSN) is presented. The results of the test campaigns will be obtained after actual measurements are taken in the field with the Wireless Sensor Network developed by The Innovation Center-Eaton Corp., and the Anticipatory algorithms developed by ORNL.

  20. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shune, Samantha E.; Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults.…

  1. Anticipatory Emotions in Decision Tasks: Covert Markers of Value or Attentional Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Anticipatory emotions precede behavioral outcomes and provide a means to infer interactions between emotional and cognitive processes. A number of theories hold that anticipatory emotions serve as inputs to the decision process and code the value or risk associated with a stimulus. We argue that current data do not unequivocally support this…

  2. Hypothalamic neuropeptide systems and anticipatory weight change in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Mercer, J G

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal animals are able both to programme changes in body weight in response to annual changes in photoperiod (anticipatory regulation) and to correct changes in body weight caused by imposed energetic demand (compensatory regulation). Experimental evidence from the Siberian hamster suggests that seasonally appropriate body weight is continually reset according to photoperiodic history, even when actual body weight is driven away from this target weight by manipulation of energy intake. These characteristics constitute the "sliding set point" of seasonal body weight regulation. To define the mechanisms and molecules underlying anticipatory body weight regulation, we are investigating the involvement of hypothalamic systems with an established role in the compensatory defence of body weight. Weight loss or restricted growth induced by short days (SD) results in low circulating leptin compared with long day (LD) controls. However, this chronic low leptin signal is read differently from acute low leptin resulting from food deprivation; leptin receptor gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is lower in SD, whereas food deprivation increases expression levels, suggesting changes in sensitivity to leptin feedback. SD alterations in mRNA levels for a number of hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor genes appear counter-intuitive for a SD body weight trajectory. However, early increases in ARC cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression in SDs could be involved in driving body weight loss or growth restriction. The sites of photoperiod interaction with energy balance neuronal circuitry and the neurochemical encoding of body weight set point require full characterisation. Study of anticipatory regulation in seasonal animals offers new insight into body weight regulation across mammalian species, including man.

  3. Postural syncope: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Vaddadi, Gautam; Lambert, Elisabeth; Corcoran, Susan J; Esler, Murray D

    2007-09-01

    Postural syncope is a transient loss of consciousness secondary to a reduction in cerebral blood flow and is typically precipitated by standing. It is the commonest cause of recurrent transient loss of consciousness. Recurrent unexplained postural syncope is most often due to one of the five disorders of circulatory control: vasovagal syncope, postural tachycardia syndrome, chronic autonomic failure, initial orthostatic hypotension, or persistently low supine systolic blood pressure. Failure to identify the underlying cause of postural syncope can result in ongoing morbidity, impaired quality of life and high health care costs. With a detailed history, examination, blood pressure assessment and electrocardiography, most disorders of circulatory control can be diagnosed. In difficult cases, analysis of sympathetic nervous system and circulatory responses during head-up tilting can aid diagnosis. Treatment is challenging and compounded by a lack of evidence. Most patients can be managed in an outpatient setting, and hospital admission or emergency department assessment is rarely warranted.

  4. The anticipatory effects of Medicare Part D on drug utilization.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Abby

    2016-09-01

    While health care policies are frequently signed into law well before they are implemented, such lags are ignored in most empirical work. This paper demonstrates the importance of implementation lags in the context of Medicare Part D, the prescription drug benefit that took effect two years after it was signed into law. Exploiting the differential responses of chronic and acute drugs to anticipated future prices, I show that individuals reduced drug utilization for chronic but not acute drugs in anticipation of Part D's implementation. Accounting for this anticipatory response substantially reduces the estimated total treatment effect of Part D. PMID:27372577

  5. Cerebellar subjects show impaired adaptation of anticipatory EMG during catching.

    PubMed

    Lang, C E; Bastian, A J

    1999-11-01

    We evaluated the role of the cerebellum in adapting anticipatory muscle activity during a multijointed catching task. Individuals with and without cerebellar damage caught a series of balls of different weights dropped from above. In Experiment 1 (light-heavy-light), each subject was required to catch light balls (baseline phase), heavy balls (adaptation phase), and then light balls again (postadaptation phase). Subjects were not told when the balls would be switched, and they were required to keep their hand within a vertical spatial "window" during the catch. During the series of trials, we measured three-dimensional (3-D) position and electromyogram (EMG) from the catching arm. We modeled the adaptation process using an exponential decay function; this model allowed us to dissociate adaptation from performance variability. Results from the position data show that cerebellar subjects did not adapt or adapted very slowly to the changed ball weight when compared with the control subjects. The cerebellar group required an average of 30.9 +/- 8.7 trials (mean +/- SE) to progress approximately two-thirds of the way through the adaptation compared with 1.7 +/- 0.2 trials for the control group. Only control subjects showed a negative aftereffect indicating storage of the adaptation. No difference in performance variability existed between the two groups. EMG data show that control subjects increased their anticipatory muscle activity in the flexor muscles of the arm to control the momentum of the ball at impact. Cerebellar subjects were unable to differentially increase the anticipatory muscle activity across three joints to perform the task successfully. In Experiment 2 (heavy-light-heavy), we tested to see whether the rate of adaptation changed when adapting to a light ball versus a heavy ball. Subjects caught the heavy balls (baseline phase), the light balls (adaptation phase), and then heavy balls again (postadaptation phase). Comparison of rates of adaptation

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Transition Importance, Readiness, and Likelihood of Future Success: The Role of Anticipatory Guidance.

    PubMed

    Syverson, Erin Phillips; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; D'Angelo, Lawrence; Tuchman, Lisa K

    2016-10-01

    Expert consensus supports anticipatory guidance around health care transition (HCT), but little is known about its impact on adolescents' perceptions of HCT. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of HCT anticipatory guidance delivery and the effect it had on participants' perceptions of HCT. Adolescents (n = 209) with special health care needs were administered National Survey for Children with Special Health Care Needs transition assessment questions, then reported perceptions of transition importance, readiness, and likely future success. Over half of the participants reported no history of discussion about transition to an adult provider (64%) or insurance needs (67%); just under half (43%) had not discussed their changing health care needs. In participants reporting receipt of anticipatory guidance, ratings of transition readiness and future success were significantly higher than those who received no anticipatory guidance, supporting that HCT anticipatory guidance has a significantly positive impact on adolescents' perceptions of the HCT process. PMID:27582491

  7. The characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna

    2015-11-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area. PMID:26619236

  8. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Robert T.; Raz, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay. Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy). Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  9. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques.

    PubMed

    Runge, C F; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B; Zajac, F E

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  10. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  11. Predicting preschool pain-related anticipatory distress: the relative contribution of longitudinal and concurrent factors.

    PubMed

    Racine, Nicole M; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Taddio, Anna; Garfield, Hartley; Greenberg, Saul

    2016-09-01

    Anticipatory distress prior to a painful medical procedure can lead to negative sequelae including heightened pain experiences, avoidance of future medical procedures, and potential noncompliance with preventative health care, such as vaccinations. Few studies have examined the longitudinal and concurrent predictors of pain-related anticipatory distress. This article consists of 2 companion studies to examine both the longitudinal factors from infancy as well as concurrent factors from preschool that predict pain-related anticipatory distress at the preschool age. Study 1 examined how well preschool pain-related anticipatory distress was predicted by infant pain response at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. In study 2, using a developmental psychopathology framework, longitudinal analyses examined the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and present factors that led to the development of anticipatory distress during routine preschool vaccinations. A sample of 202 caregiver-child dyads was observed during their infant and preschool vaccinations (the Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt cohort) and was used for both studies. In study 1, pain response during infancy was not found to significantly predict pain-related anticipatory distress at preschool. In study 2, a strong explanatory model was created whereby 40% of the variance in preschool anticipatory distress was explained. Parental behaviours from infancy and preschool were the strongest predictors of child anticipatory distress at preschool. Child age positively predicted child anticipatory distress. This strongly suggests that the involvement of parents in pain management interventions during immunization is one of the most critical factors in predicting anticipatory distress to the preschool vaccination. PMID:27276117

  12. Postural control during standing reach in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dynamic postural control of children with Down syndrome (DS). Specifically, we compared postural control and goal-directed reaching performance between children with DS and typically developing children during standing reach. Standing reach performance was analyzed in three main phases using the kinematic and kinetic data collected from a force plate and a motion capture system. Fourteen children with DS, age and gender matched with fourteen typically developing children, were recruited for this study. The results showed that the demand of the standing reach task affected both dynamic postural control and reaching performance in children with DS, especially in the condition of beyond arm's length reaching. More postural adjustment strategies were recruited when reaching distance was beyond arm's length. Children with DS tended to use inefficient and conservative strategies for postural stability and reaching. That is, children with DS perform standing reach with increased reaction and execution time and decreased amplitudes of center of pressure displacements. Standing reach resembled functional balance that is required in daily activities. It is suggested to be considered as a part of strength and balance training program with graded task difficulty.

  13. Dynamic postural stability for double-leg drop landing.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenxin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo; Zhao, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic postural stability has been widely studied for single-leg landing, but seldom considered for double-leg landing. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic postural stability and the influence mechanism of muscle activities during double-leg drop landing. Eight recreationally active males and eight recreationally active females participated in this study and dropped individually from three heights (0.32 m, 0.52 m, and 0.72 m). Ground reaction force was recorded to calculate the time to stabilisation. Electromyographic activities were recorded for selected lower-extremity muscles. A multivariate analysis of variance was carried out and no significant influence was found in time to stabilisation between genders or limb laterals (P > 0.05). With increasing drop height, time to stabilisation decreased significantly in two horizontal directions and the lower-extremity muscle activities were enhanced. Vertical time to stabilisation was not significantly influenced by drop height. Dynamic postural stability improved by neuromuscular change more than that required due to the increase of drop height. Double-leg landing on level ground is a stable movement, and the body would often be injured before dynamic postural stability is impaired. It is understandable to protect tissues from mechanical injuries by the sacrifice of certain dynamic postural stability in the design of protective devices or athlete training.

  14. Anticipatory control: A software retrofit for current plant controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, S.; Parlos, A.G.; Atiya, A.F. )

    1993-01-01

    The design and simulated testing of an artificial neural network (ANN)-based self-adapting controller for complex process systems are presented in this paper. The proposed controller employs concepts based on anticipatory systems, which have been widely used in the petroleum and chemical industries, and they are slowly finding their way into the power industry. In particular, model predictive control (MPC) is used for the systematic adaptation of the controller parameters to achieve desirable plant performance over the entire operating envelope. The versatile anticipatory control algorithm developed in this study is projected to enhance plant performance and lend robustness to drifts in plant parameters and to modeling uncertainties. This novel technique of integrating recurrent ANNs with a conventional controller structure appears capable of controlling complex, nonlinear, and nonminimum phase process systems. The direct, on-line adaptive control algorithm presented in this paper considers the plant response over a finite time horizon, diminishing the need for manual control or process interruption for controller gain tuning.

  15. Object-based attentional selection modulates anticipatory alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Knakker, Balázs; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Visual cortical alpha oscillations are involved in attentional gating of incoming visual information. It has been shown that spatial and feature-based attentional selection result in increased alpha oscillations over the cortical regions representing sensory input originating from the unattended visual field and task-irrelevant visual features, respectively. However, whether attentional gating in the case of object based selection is also associated with alpha oscillations has not been investigated before. Here we measured anticipatory electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations while participants were cued to attend to foveal face or word stimuli, the processing of which is known to have right and left hemispheric lateralization, respectively. The results revealed that in the case of simultaneously displayed, overlapping face and word stimuli, attending to the words led to increased power of parieto-occipital alpha oscillations over the right hemisphere as compared to when faces were attended. This object category-specific modulation of the hemispheric lateralization of anticipatory alpha oscillations was maintained during sustained attentional selection of sequentially presented face and word stimuli. These results imply that in the case of object-based attentional selection-similarly to spatial and feature-based attention-gating of visual information processing might involve visual cortical alpha oscillations.

  16. Individual differences in impulsivity predict anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

  17. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  18. A Telerehabilitation Program Improves Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Spanish Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Galán-del-Río, Fernando; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25) received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session). Experimental group (n = 25) received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session).The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test) was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available. PMID:24185843

  19. A telerehabilitation program improves postural control in multiple sclerosis patients: a Spanish preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Galán-del-Río, Fernando; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25) received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session). Experimental group (n = 25) received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session).The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test) was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available. PMID:24185843

  20. A telerehabilitation program improves postural control in multiple sclerosis patients: a Spanish preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Galán-del-Río, Fernando; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-31

    Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25) received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session). Experimental group (n = 25) received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session).The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test) was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available.

  1. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  2. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors.

  3. Anticipatory grief among close relatives of persons with dementia in comparison with close relatives of patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Asa K; Sundh, Valter; Wijk, Helle; Grimby, Agneta

    2013-02-01

    Close relatives of persons with dementia self-reported reactions on the Anticipatory Grief Scale (AGS), were observed by nurses (Study I), and compared with relatives of cancer patients in a study using the same methodology (Study II). Study I showed an overall stressful situation including feelings of missing and longing, inability to accept the terminal fact, preoccupation with the ill, tearfulness, sleeping problems, anger, loneliness, and a need to talk. The ability to cope was, however, reported high. Self-assessments and nurses' observations did not always converge, e.g. for the acceptance of the illness. The reactions of the relatives in the dementia and the cancer groups showed more similarities than dissimilarities. However, the higher number of responding spouses in the cancer group may have influenced the outcome. PMID:22495791

  4. Toward Sustainable Anticipatory Governance: Analyzing and Assessing Nanotechnology Innovation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Rider Williams

    Cities around the globe struggle with socio-economic disparities, resource inefficiency, environmental contamination, and quality-of-life challenges. Technological innovation, as one prominent approach to problem solving, promises to address these challenges; yet, introducing new technologies, such as nanotechnology, into society and cities has often resulted in negative consequences. Recent research has conceptually linked anticipatory governance and sustainability science: to understand the role of technology in complex problems our societies face; to anticipate negative consequences of technological innovation; and to promote long-term oriented and responsible governance of technologies. This dissertation advances this link conceptually and empirically, focusing on nanotechnology and urban sustainability challenges. The guiding question for this dissertation research is: How can nanotechnology be innovated and governed in responsible ways and with sustainable outcomes? The dissertation: analyzes the nanotechnology innovation process from an actor- and activities-oriented perspective (Chapter 2); assesses this innovation process from a comprehensive perspective on sustainable governance (Chapter 3); constructs a small set of future scenarios to consider future implications of different nanotechnology governance models (Chapter 4); and appraises the amenability of sustainability problems to nanotechnological interventions (Chapter 5). The four studies are based on data collected through literature review, document analysis, participant observation, interviews, workshops, and walking audits, as part of process analysis, scenario construction, and technology assessment. Research was conducted in collaboration with representatives from industry, government agencies, and civic organizations. The empirical parts of the four studies focus on Metropolitan Phoenix. Findings suggest that: predefined mandates and economic goals dominate the nanotechnology innovation process

  5. Topology identification of uncertain nonlinearly coupled complex networks with delays based on anticipatory synchronization.

    PubMed

    Che, Yanqiu; Li, Ruixue; Han, Chunxiao; Cui, Shigang; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile; Deng, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an adaptive anticipatory synchronization based method for simultaneous identification of topology and parameters of uncertain nonlinearly coupled complex dynamical networks with time delays. An adaptive controller is proposed, based on Lyapunov stability theorem and Barbǎlat's Lemma, to guarantee the stability of the anticipatory synchronization manifold between drive and response networks. Meanwhile, not only the identification criteria of network topology and system parameters are obtained but also the anticipatory time is identified. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23556964

  6. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  7. Effects of anticipatory driving in a traffic flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissfeldt, N.; Wagner, P.

    2003-05-01

    Anticipation in traffic means that drivers estimate their leaders' velocities for future timesteps. In the article a specific stochastic car-following model with non-unique flow-density relation is investigated with respect to anticipatory driving. It is realized by next-nearest-neighbour interaction which leads to large flows and short temporal headways. The underlying mechanism that causes these effects is explained by the headways of the cars which organize in an alternating structure with a short headway following a long one, thereby producing a strong anti-correlation in the gaps or in the headways of subsequent cars. For the investigated model the corresponding time headway distributions display the short headways observed in reality. Even though these effects are discussed for a specific model, the mechanism described is in general present in any traffic flow models that work with anticipation.

  8. Detection of anticipatory brain potentials during car driving.

    PubMed

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Andrei Gheorghe, Lucian; Millán, José del R

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of driver's intention from electroencephalogram (EEG) can be helpful in developing an in-car brain computer interface (BCI) systems for intelligent cars. This could be beneficial in enhancing the quality of interaction between the driver and the car to provide the response of the intelligent cars in line with driver's intention. We proposed investigating anticipation as the cognitive state leading to specific actions during car driving. An experimental protocol is designed for recording EEG from 6 subjects while driving the virtual reality driving simulator. The experimental protocol is a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions in driving framework. The results presented in this study support the presence of the slow cortical anticipatory potentials in EEG grand averages and also confirm the discriminability of these potentials in offline single trial classification with the average of 0.76 ± 0.12 in area under the curve (AUC).

  9. Anticipatory effects of intonation: Eye movements during instructed visual search.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R

    2008-02-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to 'anticipatory' fixations, and demonstrated a "garden path" effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners' sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as 'And then,' and those assigned to the target object noun phrase.

  10. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  11. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  12. Anticipatory effects of intonation: Eye movements during instructed visual search.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R

    2008-02-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to 'anticipatory' fixations, and demonstrated a "garden path" effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners' sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as 'And then,' and those assigned to the target object noun phrase. PMID:19190719

  13. Anticipatory salivary flow to the sight of different foods.

    PubMed

    Christensen, C M; Navazesh, M

    1984-12-01

    Anticipatory salivary flow was measured to the sight of seven foods that varied in texture, composition and palatability. In one experiment, subjects consumed the test foods that were viewed. This group was tested both during conditions of hunger and satiation. In a second experiment, subjects were instructed that they would not consume the foods that were viewed. Salivary responses were not related to the anticipated palability of the test foods but rather appeared to be related to the physical and chemical properties of the foods. Pizza, chocolate cake and gelatin were rated as highly palatable, but significant salivary increases occurred only with pizza. Of all the test foods, the greatest salivary flow increases were observed to the sight of lemon slices and pizza, and both foods contain sour or pungent ingredients. Hunger state and the expectation of consuming the test foods did not systematically affect the pattern or magnitude of salivary responses.

  14. A Simple Postflight Measure of Postural Atania in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. I.; Kofman, I. S.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight universally present with postural ataxia. Throughout the Space Shuttle Program, measurement of ataxia has concentrated on sway in the anterior-posterior (AP) plane. The current investigation, as a part of a larger functional study, concentrated on characterizing postural instability using dynamic stabilographic sway patterns in both the AP and medial-lateral (ML) planes. To accomplish this goal, six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (ISS) flights were required to recover from a simulated fall. Subjects with eyes open, wearing running shoes lay prone on the floor for 2 minutes and then quickly stood up, maintained a quiet stance for 3 minutes, arms relaxed along the side of the body, and feet comfortably placed on the force plate. Crewmembers were tested twice before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. Anterior-posterior and ML center-of-pressure (COP) coordinates were calculated from the ground reaction forces collected at 500 Hz. The 3-minute quiet stance trial was broken into three 1-minute segments for stabilogram diffusion analysis. A mean sway speed (rate of change of COP displacement) was also calculated as an additional postural stability parameter. While there was considerable variation, most of crewmembers tested exhibited increased stochastic activity evidenced by larger short-term COP diffusion coefficients postflight in both the AP and ML planes, suggesting significant changes in postural control mechanisms, particularly control of lower limb muscle function. As expected, postural instability of ISS astronauts on the first day postflight was similar to that of Shuttle crewmembers on landing day. Recoveries of stochastic activity and mean sway speed to baseline levels were typically observed by the 30th day postflight for both long-duration and short-duration crewmembers. Dynamic postural stability characteristics obtained in this low

  15. The Contribution of Pre-impact Spine Posture on Human Body Model Response in Whole-body Side Impact.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Lessley, David J; Kim, Taewung; Park, Gwansik; Kent, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact spine posture on impact response by subjecting a finite element human body model (HBM) to whole-body, lateral impacts. Seven postured models were created from the original HBM: one matching the standard driving posture and six matching pre-impact posture measured for each of six subjects tested in previously published experiments. The same measurements as those obtained during the experiments were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation were established to compare the response of HBM to that of the cadavers. HBM responses showed good correlation with the subject response for the reaction forces, the rib strain (correlation score=0.8) and the overall kinematics. The pre-impact posture was found to greatly alter the reaction forces, deflections and the strain time histories mainly in terms of time delay. By modifying only the posture of HBM, the variability in the impact response was found to be equivalent to that observed in the experiments performed with cadavers with different anthropometries. The patterns observed in the responses of the postured HBM indicate that the inclination of the spine in the frontal plane plays a major role. The postured HBM sustained from 2 to 5 bone fractures, including the scapula in some cases, confirming that the pre-impact posture influences the injury outcome predicted by the simulation.

  16. Postural discomfort and perceived exertion in standardized box-holding postures.

    PubMed

    Olendorf, M R; Drury, C G

    2001-12-15

    To help in the design or redesign of workplaces it would be helpful to know in advance the postural stress consequences of a wide range of body postures. This experiment evaluated 168 postures chosen to represent those in the Ovako Working-posture Analysing System (OWAS) using Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) measures. The postures comprised all combinations of three arm postures, four back postures, seven leg postures and two forces (weights of held boxes). Twelve male subjects held each posture for a fixed duration (20 s) before providing RPE and BPD ratings. Analysis of the ratings gave highly significant main effects, with the major driver being the object weight. As each factor was varied, the largest effect was on the body region corresponding to that factor. A simple main-effects-only additive model explained 91% of the variance of RPE means for the postures.

  17. Postural discomfort and perceived exertion in standardized box-holding postures.

    PubMed

    Olendorf, M R; Drury, C G

    2001-12-15

    To help in the design or redesign of workplaces it would be helpful to know in advance the postural stress consequences of a wide range of body postures. This experiment evaluated 168 postures chosen to represent those in the Ovako Working-posture Analysing System (OWAS) using Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) measures. The postures comprised all combinations of three arm postures, four back postures, seven leg postures and two forces (weights of held boxes). Twelve male subjects held each posture for a fixed duration (20 s) before providing RPE and BPD ratings. Analysis of the ratings gave highly significant main effects, with the major driver being the object weight. As each factor was varied, the largest effect was on the body region corresponding to that factor. A simple main-effects-only additive model explained 91% of the variance of RPE means for the postures. PMID:11936827

  18. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  19. Risk Factors for Anticipatory Grief in Family Members of Terminally Ill Veterans Receiving Palliative Care Services.

    PubMed

    Burke, Laurie A; Clark, Karen A; Ali, Khatidja S; Gibson, Benjamin W; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process associated with grieving the loss of loved ones in advance of their inevitable death. Because anticipatory grief has been associated with a variety of outcomes, risk factors for this condition deserve closer consideration. Fifty-seven family members of terminally ill, hospice-eligible veterans receiving palliative care services completed measures assessing psychosocial factors and conditions. Elevated anticipatory grief was found in families characterized by relational dependency, lower education, and poor grief-specific support, who also experienced discomfort with closeness and intimacy, neuroticism, spiritual crisis, and an inability to make sense of the loss. Thus, in this sample, anticipatory grief appears to be part of a cluster of factors and associated distress that call for early monitoring and possible intervention. PMID:26654060

  20. Postural analysis of nursing work.

    PubMed

    Hignett, S

    1996-06-01

    Back pain in the nursing profession is an acknowledged wide spread occupational hazard. This study used OWAS (Ovako Working posture Analysis System) to measure the severity of the working postures adopted by nurses on Care of the Elderly wards when carrying out manual handling operations for animate and inanimate loads. Twenty-six nurses were observed on 31 occasions to obtain 4299 observations, these data were collected and processed using the OWASCO and OWASAN programs, and then analysed by grouping the results into defined patient (animate) handling and non-patient (inanimate) handling tasks. A statistical comparison was made between the two groups using the percentage of action categories two, three and four, to the total number of action categories. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found, demonstrating that the percentage of harmful postures adopted during patient handling tasks was significantly higher than during non-patient handling tasks. This high level of postural stress and the poor track record of risk management within the Health Care Industry leads to the recommendation that an attitudinal change is needed to successfully address and reduce the manual handling burden which is currently being carried by the nursing staff.

  1. Nonstationary properties of postural sway.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J P; Freedman, W

    1993-01-01

    Postural sway during quite stance is usually assumed to be a stationary stochastic process. We tested this assumption by investigating the time invariance of the average value and variance of the postural sway of three subjects. The sway was measured with a force plate under three conditions: subject standing on two feet with eyes open; subject standing on two feet with eyes closed; and subject standing on one foot with eyes open. Data were collected in 1 min runs. More than 50 min of data were collected for each subject under each test condition. The data were averaged across all runs for each subject and condition. Trends were found to be present in the data. In addition, there were initial transient increases in the second-order moments about the trends. The transient changes in first- and second-order moments usually disappeared during the first 20 s. In light of these findings, we can reject the hypothesis that postural sway is a stationary process. The results imply that the usual methods to parameterize postural sway have to be either changed or reinterpreted. PMID:8478345

  2. Integration of posture and movement: contributions of Sherrington, Hess, and Bernstein.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Douglas G

    2005-01-01

    Neural mechanisms that integrate posture with movement are widespread throughout the central nervous system (CNS), and they are recruited in patterns that are both task- and context-dependent. Scientists from several countries who were born in the 19th century provided essential groundwork for these modern-day concepts. Here, the focus is on three of this group with each selected for a somewhat different reason. Charles Sherrington (1857-1952) had innumerable contributions that were certainly needed in the subsequent study of posture and movement: inhibition as an active coordinative mechanism, the functional anatomy of spinal cord-muscle connectivity, and helping set the stage for modern work on the sensorimotor cortex and the corticospinal tract. Sadly, however, by not championing the work of his trainee and collaborator, Thomas Graham Brown (1882-1965), he delayed progress on two key motor control mechanisms: central programming and pattern generation. Walter Hess (1881-1973), a self-taught experimentalist, is now best known for his work on CNS coordination of autonomic (visceral) and emotional behavior. His contributions to posture and movement, however, were also far-reaching: the coordination of eye movements and integration of goal-directed and "framework" (anticipatory set) motor behavior. Nikolai Bernstein (1896-1966), the quintessence of an interdisciplinary, self-taught movement neuroscientist, made far-reaching contributions that were barely recognized by Western workers prior to the 1960s. Today, he is widely praised for showing that the CNS's hierarchy of control mechanisms for posture and movement is organized hand-in-hand with distributed and parallel processing, with all three subject to evolutionary pressures. He also made important observations, like those of several previous workers, on the goal focus of voluntary movements. The contributions of Sherrington, Hess, and Bernstein are enduring. They prompt thought on the philosophical axioms that

  3. Effects of low back pain and of Stabilization or Movement-System-Impairment treatments on voluntary postural adjustments: randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lomond, Karen V.; Jacobs, Jesse V.; Hitt, Juvena R.; DeSarno, Michael J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Henry, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Background People with low back pain (LBP) exhibit impaired anticipatory postural adjustment (APAs). Objective To evaluate whether current motor retraining treatments address LBP-associated changes in movement coordination during tasks that do and do not require APAs. Design Prospectively registered, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting Outcome evaluations occurred in a university laboratory; treatments, in outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients Fifteen subjects without LBP and 33 subjects with chronic, recurrent, non-specific LBP. Intervention Twelve subjects with LBP received stabilization treatment, 21 received Movement System Impairment (MSI)-based treatment, over 6 weekly 1-hour sessions plus home exercises. Measurements Pre- and post- treatment, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from trunk and leg muscles during unsupported and supported leg-lifting tasks, which did and did not require an APA, respectively. Vertical reaction forces under the contralateral leg were recorded to characterize the APA. Oswestry disability scores and numeric pain ratings were also recorded. Results Persons with LBP demonstrated an impaired APA compared to persons without LBP, characterized by increased pre-movement contralateral force application and increased post-movement trunk EMG amplitude, regardless of the task. Following treatments, both groups similarly improved in disability and function; however, APA characteristics did not change (i.e. force application or EMG amplitude) in either task. Limitations Treating clinicians were not blinded to treatment allocation, only short-term outcomes were assessed, and main effects of treatment do not rule out non-specific effects of time or repeated exposure. Conclusions Movement impairments in persons with LBP are not limited to tasks requiring an APA. Stabilization and MSI-based treatments for LBP do not ameliorate, and may exacerbate, APA impairments (i.e., excessive force

  4. Emotion and motivated behavior: postural adjustments to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Rosengren, Karl S; Smith, Darin P

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-six participants (18 female, 18 male) viewed affective pictures to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Framed within the biphasic theory of emotion, the three systems approach was employed by collecting measures of subjective report, expressive physiology, and motivated behavior. Postural adjustments associated with viewing affective pictures were measured. Results indicated sex-differences for postural responses to unpleasant pictures; an effect not found for pleasant and neutral picture contents. Females exhibited increased postural movement in the posterior direction, and males exhibited increased movement in the anterior direction, for unpleasant pictures. Subjective report of valence and arousal using the self-assessment manikin (SAM), and the startle eye-blink reflex were collected during a separate session, which replicated previous picture-viewing research. Specifically, participants rated pleasant pictures higher in valence and exhibited smaller startle responses compared to unpleasant pictures. Females also reported lower valence ratings compared to males across all picture contents. These findings extend our knowledge of motivated engagement with affective stimuli and indicate that postural responses may provide insight into sex-related differences in withdrawal behavior.

  5. The influence of foot posture on the cost of transport in humans.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C B; Schilling, N; Anders, C; Carrier, D R

    2010-03-01

    Although humans appear to be specialized for endurance running, the plantigrade posture of our feet, in which the heel contacts the substrate at the beginning of a step, seems incompatible with economical running. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that plantigrade foot posture reduces the energetic cost of transport (COT) during walking in humans. When human subjects walked with their heels slightly elevated in a 'low-digitigrade' posture, COT increased by 53% above that of normal plantigrade walking. By contrast, there was no difference in COT when subjects ran with digitigrade versus plantigrade foot posture. Stride frequency increased and stride length decreased when subjects switched to digitigrade walking; however, this change did not influence the COT. Additionally, we found that possible reductions in postural stability appear not to have caused the elevated cost of digitigrade walking. Digitigrade walking, however, did (1) increase the external mechanical work performed by the limbs; (2) reduce the pendular exchange of kinetic and potential energy of the center of mass; (3) increase the average ground reaction force moment at the ankle joint; and (4) increase the recruitment of major extensor muscles of the ankle, knee, hip and back. These observations suggest that plantigrade foot posture improves the economy of walking. Relative to other mammals, humans are economical walkers, but not economical runners. Given the great distances hunter-gatherers travel, it is not surprising that humans retained a foot posture, inherited from our more arboreal great ape ancestors, that facilitates economical walking.

  6. Postural control and detection of slip/fall initiation in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Robinson, Charles J

    2005-07-15

    One of the common causes of morbidity and mortality in workplaces is related to slips or falls. Reaction to external disturbances, such as slips or falls, requires a process of perturbation detection and control of motion changes. Postural control is a common mechanism to compensate unexpected displacements of the body. The ability of postural control diminishes with ageing or neuropathy. In this study, two controlled groups, diabetics and non-diabetics in the elderly population, were investigated to compare how different postural control mechanisms would relate to the detection of perturbation and regain of balance. The ultra-low-vibration Sliding Linear Investigative Platform for Analyzing Lower Limb Stability SYSTEM was used to measure the biomechanical changes of posture and perturbation detection. In phase 1 of the analysis, static measures during quiet standing were considered to investigate the relationship between postural stability and perturbation detection capability. In phase 2 of the analysis, dynamic measures during an occurrence of perturbation were analysed. Statistical tests and linear logistic regression models were applied to find differences of postural control mechanisms and to build a predictive model for perturbation detection quantitatively. It is anticipated that the results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive understanding of postural control mechanisms and design of slip/fall prevention programmes.

  7. INFLUENCE OF INJURY ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Klusendorf, Anna; Kernozek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Injury has been linked with altered postural control in active populations. The association between running injury and dynamic postural control has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural control in injured and uninjured runners using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Time to Stabilization (TTS) of ground reaction forces following a single-leg landing, and postural stability indices reflecting the fluctuations in GRFs during single-leg landing and stabilization tasks (forward and lateral hop). It was hypothesized that dynamic postural control differences would exist between runners with a history of injury that interrupted training for ≥7 days (INJ) when compared to runners without injury (CON). Design Case-control study Methods Twenty-two INJ (14 F, 8 M; 23.7 ± 2.1 y; 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 29.5 ± 16.3 mi/wk) currently running > 50% pre-injury mileage without pain were compared with twenty-two matched CON (14F, 8M; 22.7 ± 1.2 y; 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; 31.2 ± 19.6 mi/wk). INJ group was stratified by site of injury into two groups (Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot) for secondary analysis. Leg length-normalized anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances on the SEBT, medial/lateral and anterior/posterior ground reaction force TTS, directional postural stability indices, and a composite dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), were assessed using mixed model ANOVA (α=0.05) and effect sizes (d). Results No group X direction interaction or group differences were observed for the SEBT (p=0.51, 0.71) or TTS (p=0.83, 0.72) measures. A group X direction interaction was found for postural stability indices during the forward landing task (p<0.01). Both Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower leg/Ankle/Foot INJ groups demonstrated a greater vertical postural stability index (VPSI) (p=0.01 for both, d=0.80, 0.95) and DPSI (p=0.01, 0.02, d=0.75, 0.93) when

  8. Effects of local fatigue of the lower limbs on postural control and postural stability in standing posture.

    PubMed

    Caron, Olivier

    2003-04-10

    Postural stability and postural control were studied before and after a fatigue protocol of soleus muscles. Postural stability was assessed by the centre of gravity motion, which was computed from the motion of the centre of pressure, evaluating the postural control. Ten healthy male subjects were asked to stand as still as possible with eyes open before and after the fatigue protocol, performed in a sitting position. Fatigue was assumed on the basis of a shortening of the exertion time of the soleus muscles at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Results of the whole group showed that fatigue modified postural control but did not change postural stability. The same results were observed only for some subjects. However, these results indicate an increase of the neuromuscular activity in high frequencies. PMID:12668242

  9. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  10. Anticipatory synergy adjustments reflect individual performance of feedforward force control.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    We grasp and dexterously manipulate an object through multi-digit synergy. In the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, multi-digit synergy is defined as the coordinated control mechanism of fingers to stabilize variable important for task success, e.g., total force. Previous studies reported anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) that correspond to a drop of the synergy index before a quick change of the total force. The present study compared ASA's properties with individual performances of feedforward force control to investigate a relationship of those. Subjects performed a total finger force production task that consisted of a phase in which subjects tracked target line with visual information and a phase in which subjects produced total force pulse without visual information. We quantified their multi-digit synergy through UCM analysis and observed significant ASAs before producing total force pulse. The time of the ASA initiation and the magnitude of the drop of the synergy index were significantly correlated with the error of force pulse, but not with the tracking error. Almost all subjects showed a significant increase of the variance that affected the total force. Our study directly showed that ASA reflects the individual performance of feedforward force control independently of target-tracking performance and suggests that the multi-digit synergy was weakened to adjust the multi-digit movements based on a prediction error so as to reduce the future error.

  11. Anticipatory processes under academic stress: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety.

  12. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment. PMID:17827114

  13. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment.

  14. Feasibility of an anticipatory noncontact precrash restraint actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The problem of providing an electronic warning of an impending crash to a precrash restraint system a fraction of a second before physical contact differs from more widely explored problems, such as providing several seconds of crash warning to a driver. One approach to precrash restraint sensing is to apply anticipatory system theory. This consists of nested simplified models of the system to be controlled and of the system`s environment. It requires sensory information to describe the ``current state`` of the system and the environment. The models use the sensory data to make a faster-than-real-time prediction about the near future. Anticipation theory is well founded but rarely used. A major problem is to extract real-time current-state information from inexpensive sensors. Providing current-state information to the nested models is the weakest element of the system. Therefore, sensors and real-time processing of sensor signals command the most attention in an assessment of system feasibility. This paper describes problem definition, potential ``showstoppers,`` and ways to overcome them. It includes experiments showing that inexpensive radar is a practical sensing element. It considers fast and inexpensive algorithms to extract information from sensor data.

  15. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices.

  16. Postural control in response to a perturbation: role of vision and additional support.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vennila; Vennila, Krishnan; Aruin, Alexander S

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the availability of vision and additional support on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments and their interaction. Eight healthy adults were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing with and without holding onto a walker in full vision and while blindfolded. Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COPAP) displacement were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APA and CPA. The results showed that with full vision, there was no difference in both APA and CPA in standing with and without holding onto a walker. With subjects holding onto a walker, CPA in standing blindfolded were comparable to CPA in full vision; this was seen in changes in the electrical activity of most of the muscles at the individual muscle, joint, and the muscle group levels as well as in COPAP displacement. The findings suggest that (1) in conditions where vision is available, vision overrules simultaneously available proprioceptive information from the support, (2) while in conditions where vision is not available, proprioceptive information from the support or support itself could be substituted for vision. It is possible to suggest that using a non-stabilizing support could be a valuable strategy to improve postural control when visual information is not available or compromised.

  17. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  18. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  19. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. PMID:26118530

  20. Striatal-Limbic Activation is Associated with Intensity of Anticipatory Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyu; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Devous, Michael D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Goyal, Aman; Xiao, Hong; Yadav, Hardik; Adinoff, Bryon

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety experienced in anticipation of impending aversive events induces striatal-limbic activation. However, previous functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies of anticipatory anxiety have utilized post-test measures of anxiety, making a direct association between neural activation and distress problematic. This paradigm was designed to assess the BOLD response to an aversive conditioned stimulus while simultaneously measuring subjective anxiety. Fifteen male healthy subjects (45.5±8.5 years old) were studied. A high threat conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with either an unpredictable, highly aversive (painful) or a non-aversive (non-painful) unconditioned stimulus and compared to a low threat CS paired with a predictable, non-aversive stimulus. Neural response was assessed with fMRI, and subjective anxiety (1 to 4) was recorded upon the presentation of each CS. High subjective ratings of real-time anticipatory anxiety (2, 3, and 4), relative to low anticipatory anxiety (1), elicited increased activation in the bilateral striatum, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, left anterior insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The amplitude of BOLD signal change generally paralleled the subjective rating of anxiety. Real-time measures of anticipatory anxiety confirm previous reports, using post-test measures of anxiety, of striatal-limbic activation during anticipatory anxiety while simultaneously demonstrating an increase in BOLD response in parallel with heightened anxiety. PMID:23137803

  1. Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared traditional measures of pattern recall to measures of anticipatory recall and decision-making to examine the underlying mechanisms of expert pattern perception and to address methodological limitations in previous studies where anticipatory recall has generally been overlooked. Recall performance in expert and novice basketball players was measured by examining the spatial error in recalling player positions both for a target image (traditional recall) and at 40-ms increments following the target image (anticipatory recall). Decision-making performance was measured by comparing the participant's response to those identified by a panel of expert coaches. Anticipatory recall was observed in the recall task and was significantly more pronounced for the experts, suggesting that traditional methods of spatial recall analysis may not have provided a completely accurate determination of the full magnitude of the experts' superiority. Accounting for anticipatory recall also increased the relative contribution of recall skill to decision-making accuracy although the gains in explained variance were modest and of debatable functional significance.

  2. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  3. Anticipatory lip gestures: a validation of the Movement Expansion Model in congenitally blind speakers.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Dupont, Sophie; Tiede, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, anticipatory co-articulation of the lip protrusion and constriction gestures is investigated in speakers with visual deprivation. Audio-visual recordings of 11 congenitally blind French speakers producing [V-roundC-roundV+round] sequences were measured with a lip shape tracking system. Lip protrusion and constriction values and their relative timings were analyzed. Results show that despite the reduced magnitude of lip protrusion and constriction area in blind speakers, the timing of the anticipatory gestures can be appropriately modeled by the Movement Expansion Model [from Abry and Lallouache (1995a). Bul. de la Comm. Parlée 3, 85-99; (1995b). Proceedings of ICPHS, pp. 152-155; Noiray et al. (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 340-349], which predicts lawful anticipatory behavior expanding linearly as the intervocalic consonant interval increases. PMID:23556687

  4. Transition from anticipatory to lag synchronization via complete synchronization in time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Lakshmanan, M

    2005-01-01

    The existence of anticipatory, complete, and lag synchronization in a single system having two different time delays, that is, feedback delay tau1 and coupling delay tau2, is identified. The transition from anticipatory to complete synchronization and from complete to lag synchronization as a function of coupling delay tau2 with a suitable stability condition is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the stability condition is independent of the delay times tau1 and tau2. Consequently, for a fixed set of parameters, all the three types of synchronizations can be realized. Further, the emergence of exact anticipatory, complete, or lag synchronization from the desynchronized state via approximate synchronization, when one of the system parameters (b2) is varied, is characterized by a minimum of the similarity function and the transition from on-off intermittency via periodic structure in the laminar phase distribution.

  5. Data Structures in Natural Computing: Databases as Weak or Strong Anticipatory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, B. N.; Heather, M. A.

    2004-08-01

    Information systems anticipate the real world. Classical databases store, organise and search collections of data of that real world but only as weak anticipatory information systems. This is because of the reductionism and normalisation needed to map the structuralism of natural data on to idealised machines with von Neumann architectures consisting of fixed instructions. Category theory developed as a formalism to explore the theoretical concept of naturality shows that methods like sketches arising from graph theory as only non-natural models of naturality cannot capture real-world structures for strong anticipatory information systems. Databases need a schema of the natural world. Natural computing databases need the schema itself to be also natural. Natural computing methods including neural computers, evolutionary automata, molecular and nanocomputing and quantum computation have the potential to be strong. At present they are mainly at the stage of weak anticipatory systems.

  6. Preparing Children for Court: Effects of a Model Court Education Program on Children's Anticipatory Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Rebecca; Saywitz, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined whether a pretrial preparation program, consisting of legal knowledge education, stress inoculation training, and a mock trial, is associated with decreased anticipatory anxiety of child witnesses. One hundred and ninety-three 4- to 17-year-olds who were awaiting impending legal proceedings attended Kids' Court School in Las Vegas, NV, one to two weeks before their court appearances. Participants completed a measure of anticipatory court-related anxiety before and after the intervention. As predicted, children's anticipatory anxiety decreased significantly from pretest to posttest. Results demonstrate the promise of a brief, unbiased, standardized program for reducing system-induced stress on child witnesses, while maintaining the integrity of the legal process. This study serves as a springboard to guide future research, practice, policy, and implementation on a larger scale.

  7. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  8. Working postures of dentists and dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Marklin, Richard W; Cherney, Kevin

    2005-02-01

    A joint study was conducted by a manufacturer of dental stools in the Midwest of the United States and Marquette University to measure the occupational postures of dentists and dental hygienists. The postures of 10 dentists and 10 dental hygienists were assessed using work sampling and video techniques. Postural data of the neck, shoulders and lower back were recorded from video and categorized into 30-degree intervals: o (neutral posture of respective joint), 30, 60 and 90 degrees. Each subject's postures were observed while they were treating patients during a four-hour period, during which 100 observations of postures were recorded at random times. Compared to standing, dentists and dental hygienists were seated 78 percent and 66 percent of the time, respectively. Dentists and dental hygienists flexed their trunk at least 30 degrees more than 50 percent of the time. They flexed their neck at least 30 degrees 85 percent of the time during the four-hour duration, and their shoulders were elevated to the side of their trunk (abducted) at least 30 degrees more half of the time. The postures of the trunk, shoulders, and neck were primarily static. This database of postures can be used by dental professionals and ergonomists to assess the risk dentists and dental hygienists are exposed to musculoskeletal disorders, such as low back pain or shoulder tenosynovitis, from deviated joint postures. They could use these data to select dental furniture or dental devices that promote good body posture, i.e., reduce the magnitude and duration of deviated joint postures, which, in theory, would decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  9. Elevation of 2-AG by monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition in the visceral insular cortex interferes with anticipatory nausea in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rock, Erin M; Puvanenthirarajah, Nirushan; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2016-04-01

    Anticipatory nausea (AN) is a conditioned nausea reaction experienced by chemotherapy patients upon returning to the clinic. Currently, there are no specific treatments for this phenomenon, with the classic antiemetic treatments (e.g., ondansetron) providing no relief. The rat model of AN, contextually elicited conditioned gaping reactions in rats, provides a tool for assessing potential treatments for this difficult to treat disorder. Systemically administered drugs which elevate the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), by interfering with their respective degrading enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) interfere with AN in the rat model. We have shown that MAGL inhibition within the visceral insular cortex (VIC) interferes with acute nausea in the gaping model (Sticht et al., 2015). Here we report that bilateral infusion of the MAGL inhibitor, MJN110 (but neither the FAAH inhibitor, PF3845, nor ondansetron) into the VIC suppressed contextually elicited conditioned gaping, and this effect was reversed by coadministration of the CB1 antagonist, AM251. These findings suggest that 2-AG within the VIC plays a critical role in the regulation of both acute nausea and AN. Because there are currently no specific therapeutics for chemotherapy patients that develop anticipatory nausea, MAGL inhibition by MJN110 may be a candidate treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974857

  10. Elevation of 2-AG by monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition in the visceral insular cortex interferes with anticipatory nausea in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rock, Erin M; Puvanenthirarajah, Nirushan; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2016-04-01

    Anticipatory nausea (AN) is a conditioned nausea reaction experienced by chemotherapy patients upon returning to the clinic. Currently, there are no specific treatments for this phenomenon, with the classic antiemetic treatments (e.g., ondansetron) providing no relief. The rat model of AN, contextually elicited conditioned gaping reactions in rats, provides a tool for assessing potential treatments for this difficult to treat disorder. Systemically administered drugs which elevate the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), by interfering with their respective degrading enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) interfere with AN in the rat model. We have shown that MAGL inhibition within the visceral insular cortex (VIC) interferes with acute nausea in the gaping model (Sticht et al., 2015). Here we report that bilateral infusion of the MAGL inhibitor, MJN110 (but neither the FAAH inhibitor, PF3845, nor ondansetron) into the VIC suppressed contextually elicited conditioned gaping, and this effect was reversed by coadministration of the CB1 antagonist, AM251. These findings suggest that 2-AG within the VIC plays a critical role in the regulation of both acute nausea and AN. Because there are currently no specific therapeutics for chemotherapy patients that develop anticipatory nausea, MAGL inhibition by MJN110 may be a candidate treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Predicting the unpredictable: critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Tressoldi, Patrizio; Utts, Jessica; Ives, John A.; Radin, Dean; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of experiments from seven independent laboratories (n = 26) indicates that the human body can apparently detect randomly delivered stimuli occurring 1–10 s in the future (Mossbridge etal., 2012). The key observation in these studies is that human physiology appears to be able to distinguish between unpredictable dichotomous future stimuli, such as emotional vs. neutral images or sound vs. silence. This phenomenon has been called presentiment (as in “feeling the future”). In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA). The phenomenon is “predictive” because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is “anticipatory” because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an “activity” because it involves changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does), but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications. PMID:24723870

  12. Measuring Regularity of Human Postural Sway Using Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Cimolin, Veronica; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Mainardi, Luca; Galli, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Ligament laxity in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT) patients can influence the intrinsic information about posture and movement and can have a negative effect on the appropriateness of postural reactions. Several measures have been proposed in literature to describe the planar migration of CoP over the base of support, and the…

  13. Anticipatory Guidance and Psychoeducation as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda L; Young-Saleme, Tammi K

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on anticipatory guidance and psychoeducation for youth with cancer and their caregivers. Twenty-one publications were identified. Overall, psychoeducation efforts and interventions were well-liked and accepted by patients and caregivers, improved patient and family knowledge about childhood cancer, and increased patient's health locus of control. A number of modalities are effective in giving families anticipatory guidance, provided the content and delivery are matched to the needs and preferences of individual patients and caregivers. Evidence supports a strong recommendation for psychoeducation for youth with cancer and their families.

  14. How neural mediation of anticipatory and compensatory insulin release helps us tolerate food.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L

    2011-04-18

    Learned anticipatory and compensatory responses allow the animal and human to maintain metabolic homeostasis during periods of nutritional challenges, either acutely within each meal or chronically during periods of overnutrition. This paper discusses the role of neurally-mediated anticipatory responses in humans and their role in glucoregulation, focusing on cephalic phase insulin and pancreatic polypeptide release as well as compensatory insulin release during the etiology of insulin resistance. The necessary stimuli required to elicit CPIR and vagal activation are discussed and the role of CPIR and vagal efferent activation in intra-meal metabolic homeostasis and during chronic nutritional challenges are reviewed.

  15. How neural mediation of anticipatory and compensatory insulin release helps us tolerate food

    PubMed Central

    Teff, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Learned anticipatory and compensatory responses allow the animal and human to maintain metabolic homeostasis during periods of nutritional challenges, either acutely within each meal or chronically during periods of overnutrition. This paper discusses the role of neurally-mediated anticipatory responses in humans and their role in glucoregulation, focusing on cephalic phase insulin and pancreatic polypeptide release as well as compensatory insulin release during the etiology of insulin resistance. The necessary stimuli required to elicit CPIR and vagal activation are discussed and the role of CPIR and vagal efferent activation in intra-meal metabolic homeostasis and during chronic nutritional challenges are reviewed. PMID:21256146

  16. Is there a transfer of postural ability from specific to unspecific postures in elite gymnasts?

    PubMed

    Asseman, F; Caron, O; Crémieux, J

    2004-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the transfer of postural ability by comparing the level of performance and postural control of elite gymnasts in postures specifically trained or not. Fifteen elite gymnasts were asked to stand as still as possible with eyes opened in three conditions: bipedal, unipedal and handstand. Surface and mean velocity of the centre of pressure motions were used to quantify respectively performance and postural control. A ranking was made for each parameter to determine the level of each subject. As a whole, the subject's level of postural performance and control in one condition was not correlated to the corresponded level in another condition. Therefore, postural ability of elite gymnasts in the handstand is not transferable to upright standing postures. PMID:15026154

  17. Vicarious perception of postural discomfort and exertion.

    PubMed

    Drury, Colin G; Atiles, Moises; Chaitanya, Mohan; Lin, Jui-Feng; Marin, Clara; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paluszak, Doug; Russell, Casey; Stone, Richard; Sunm, Michelle

    2006-11-15

    Perceived exertion and discomfort have been used extensively in ergonomics practice. Job incumbents typically rate their exertion on scales such as Borg's rated perceived effort (RPE) and their discomfort on scales such as Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort scales (BPD). This study asks whether exertion and discomfort can be perceived by an external observer, i.e. is vicarious perception possible? Four participants (targets) performed 20 postural holding tasks selected from Ovako Working Posture Analysing System postures and gave RPE and BPD scores for each posture. Video clips of each target in each posture were shown to four expert ergonomists and 23 novices, who also gave RPE and BPD scores. Correlations between targets and observers scores were high, with significance exceeding p = 0.01. Observers were generally conservative, rating easy postures too high and difficult postures too low. All observers rated female targets higher than male targets. Female observers rated all targets higher then male observers. Vicarious perception of discomfort and exertion was possible, but there was not a one-to-one correspondence to ratings given by those experiencing the posture.

  18. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  19. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  20. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  1. Variations in Writing Posture and Cerebral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre; Reid, Marylou

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between hand writing posture and cerebral dominance of 48 left handed writers and 25 right handed writers. Determined that cerebral dominance is related to handedness and to whether or not the writing hand posture is normal or inverted. (SL)

  2. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  3. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  4. Postural constraints on movement variability.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Ostry, David J

    2010-08-01

    Movements are inherently variable. When we move to a particular point in space, a cloud of final limb positions is observed around the target. Previously we noted that patterns of variability at the end of movement to a circular target were not circular, but instead reflected patterns of limb stiffness-in directions where limb stiffness was high, variability in end position was low, and vice versa. Here we examine the determinants of variability at movement end in more detail. To do this, we have subjects move the handle of a robotic device from different starting positions into a circular target. We use position servocontrolled displacements of the robot's handle to measure limb stiffness at the end of movement and we also record patterns of end position variability. To examine the effect of change in posture on movement variability, we use a visual motor transformation in which we change the limb configuration and also the actual movement target, while holding constant the visual display. We find that, regardless of movement direction, patterns of variability at the end of movement vary systematically with limb configuration and are also related to patterns of limb stiffness, which are likewise configuration dependent. The result suggests that postural configuration determines the base level of movement variability, on top of which control mechanisms can act to further alter variability.

  5. A headband for classifying human postures.

    PubMed

    Aloqlah, Mohammed; Lahiji, Rosa R; Loparo, Kenneth A; Mehregany, Mehran

    2010-01-01

    a real-time method using only accelerometer data is developed for classifying basic human static postures, namely sitting, standing, and lying, as well as dynamic transitions between them. The algorithm uses discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in combination with a fuzzy logic inference system (FIS). Data from a single three-axis accelerometer integrated into a wearable headband is transmitted wirelessly, collected and analyzed in real time on a laptop computer, to extract two sets of features for posture classification. The received acceleration signals are decomposed using the DWT to extract the dynamic features; changes in the smoothness of the signal that reflect a transition between postures are detected at finer DWT scales. FIS then uses the previous posture transition and DWT-extracted features to determine the static postures. PMID:21097190

  6. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  7. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  8. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  9. Hypnosis for the Management of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kravits, Kathy G

    2015-01-01

    CASE STUDYBJ is a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She was treated with surgical removal of the primary tumor and sentinel node biopsy. Following surgery, she received chemotherapy. She was given antiemetic therapy prior to and immediately following chemotherapy. She began to experience significant and persistent nausea with intermittent episodes of vomiting after the second cycle of chemotherapy. She completed her chemotherapy but still experienced nausea and vomiting in response to several cues, such as smelling food cooking and going to the hospital. Her nausea and vomiting resulted in segregation from her family during meal time, which negatively impacted her quality of life. A hypnosis consultation was requested, and BJ was cooperative. She reported feeling very nauseated at the time of the interview. Hypnosis was discussed; her questions were answered, and the potential risks and benefits of hypnosis were reviewed. She agreed that she would like to try hypnosis. A hypnosis assessment was conducted and revealed that she had a history of profound motion sickness and severe, chronic childhood trauma associated with feelings of anxiety and hypervigilance. The therapeutic suggestions that were used with BJ included hypnotic suggestions for relaxation and removal of discomfort. A metaphor describing the central processing of the anticipatory nausea and vomiting as a thermostat that could be adjusted to reduce and eliminate the sensation was used to suggest that she could control her perceptions and in turn control the nausea. Posthypnotic suggestions included that at the earliest awareness of discomfort, rubbing the throat would eliminate that discomfort, and cooking aromas would be transformed into her favorite fragrance. Reversal went smoothly, and BJ reported satisfaction with the experience. BJ experienced significant reduction in symptoms after the first session. She had two more sessions, at which time she was able to eat

  10. Vestibular plasticity following orbital spaceflight: recovery from postflight postural instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Doxey-Gasway, D. D.; Reschke, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of previous studies suggested that the vestibular mediated postural instability observed in astronauts upon return to earth from orbital spaceflight may be exacerbated by an increased weighting of visual inputs for spatial orientation and control of movement. This study was performed to better understand the roles of visual and somatosensory contributions to recovery of normal sensori-motor postural control in returning astronauts. Preflight and postflight, 23 astronaut volunteers were presented randomly with three trials of six sensory organization test (SOT) conditions in the EquiTest system test battery. Sagittal plane center-of-gravity (COG) excursions computed from ground reaction forces were significantly higher on landing day than preflight for those test conditions presenting sway-referenced visual and/or somatosensory orientation cues. The ratio of summed peak-to-peak COG sway amplitudes on the two sway-referenced vision tests (SOTs 3 + 6) compared to the two eyes closed tests (SOTs 2 + 5) was increased on landing day, indicating an increased reliance on visual orientation cues for postural control. The ratio of peak-to-peak COG excursions on sway-referenced surfaces (SOTs 4, 5 & 6) to an earth fixed support surfaces (SOTs 1, 2 & 3) increased even more after landing suggesting primary reliance on somatosensory orientation cues for recovery of postflight postural stability. Readaptation to sway-referenced support surfaces took longer than readaptation to sway-referenced vision. The increased reliance on visual and somatosensory inputs disappeared in all astronauts 4-8 days following return to earth.

  11. Obesity effect on perceived postural stress during static posture maintenance tasks.

    PubMed

    Park, Woojin; Singh, Devender P; Levy, Martin S; Jung, Eui S

    2009-09-01

    Postural stresses related to manual work tasks may be significantly affected by the bodily condition of workers. One such condition is obesity, which is characterised by excess fat mass in the body. This study empirically examined the obesity effect on postural stress during static posture maintenance tasks. In total, 20 obese and 20 non-obese participants performed static box-holding for a set of 84 working postures defined based on the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. The participants reported postural stresses using the rated perceived exertion scale. Obesity was found to significantly increase postural stress across the 84 working postures and, also, amplify the effects of postural changes on postural stress. The study findings suggest that ergonomic workplace/job design for obese workers would be a challenge requiring a proactive approach and creativity in problem solving. In addition, the use of ergonomic knowledge in design would be more critical when targeting obese than non-obese workers. The study findings are relevant to ergonomic workplace/job design for obese workers.

  12. Adolescents' Conceptions of Work: What Is Learned from Different Sources during Anticipatory Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Hoffner, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    Anticipatory socialization is the process of gaining knowledge about work that begins in early childhood and continues until entering the workplace full-time. On self-administered questionnaires, 64 high school students answered open-ended questions about what they have learned about work from five sources: parents, educational institutions,…

  13. The Impact of Anticipatory Grief on Caregiver Burden in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Caitlin K.; Mast, Benjamin T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Interest in anticipatory grief (AG) has typically focused on terminal diseases such as cancer. However, the issues involved in AG are unique in the context of dementia due to the progressive deterioration of both cognitive and physical abilities. The current study investigated the nature of AG in a sample of dementia caregivers and…

  14. Anticipatory Democracy and Citizen Involvement: Strategies for Communication Education for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Joyce

    This report describes the "anticipatory democracy" movement, which advocates citizen participation and awareness of future problems, and suggests instructional strategies for the field of communication to increase both students' and community members' future-consciousness and involvement in society. Specific topics of concern are the formation of…

  15. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  16. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults. Method Using a 2 × 2 repeated-measures design, eating-related lip, jaw, and hand movements were recorded from 24 healthy older (ages 70–85 years) and 24 healthy younger (ages 18–30 years) adults under 4 conditions: typical self-feeding, typical assisted feeding (proprioceptive loss), sensory-loss self-feeding (auditory and visual loss/degradation), and sensory-loss assisted feeding (loss/degradation of all cues). Results All participants demonstrated anticipatory mouth opening. The absence of proprioception delayed lip-lowering onset, and sensory loss more negatively affected offset. Given at least 1 preoral sensorimotor cue, older adults initiated movement earlier than younger adults. Conclusions Preoral sensorimotor information influences anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements, highlighting the importance of these cues. Earlier movement in older adults may be a compensation, facilitating safe swallowing given other age-related declines. Further research is needed to determine if the negative impact of cue removal may be further exacerbated in a nonhealthy system (e.g., presence of dysphagia or disease), potentially increasing swallowing- and eating-related risks. PMID:26540553

  17. The Integrity of Anticipatory Coarticulation in Fluent and Non-Fluent Tokens of Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Harvey M.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Guitar, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This article analysed the acoustic structure of voiced stop ++ vowel sequences in a group of persons who stutter (PWS). This phonetic unit was chosen because successful production is highly dependent on the differential tweaking of right-to-left anticipatory coarticulation as a function of stop place. Thus, essential elements of both speech motor…

  18. Anticipatory pleasure and approach motivation in schizophrenia-like negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2013-12-15

    Previous research of negative symptoms in schizophrenia has emphasized an anticipatory pleasure deficit, yet the relationship of this deficit to patients' motivation in everyday life is poorly understood. This study tested the link between anticipatory pleasure and two broad motivational systems that are said to regulate the intensity of approach and avoidance behavior, the Behavioral Inhibition system (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS). It was hypothesized that high vulnerability for negative symptoms would be associated with low reward responsiveness and that this association will be mediated by the amount of anticipated pleasure. Students (n=171) with varying vulnerability for negative symptoms (assessed by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences) completed questionnaires regarding (a) anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, and (b) responsiveness to threat and reward. As hypothesized, anticipatory pleasure correlated significantly negatively with subclinical negative symptoms (r=-0.21) and significantly positively with BAS (r=0.55). Furthermore, evidence for a partial mediation effect was found. The findings support the notion of a close association between negative symptoms, the ability to anticipate pleasure and approach motivation that is evident even in healthy persons. It is suggested that the behavioral deficits immanent to negative symptoms reflect difficulties in the ability to translate emotions into motivation.

  19. Association Between Anticipatory Grief and Problem Solving Among Family Caregivers of Persons with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Nicole R.; Hansen, Alexandra S.; Barnato, Amber E.; Garand, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective Measure perceived involvement in medical decision making and determine if anticipatory grief is associated with problem solving among family caregivers of older adults with cognitive impairment. Method Retrospective analysis of baseline data from a caregiver intervention (n=73). Multivariable regression models testing the association between caregivers’ anticipatory grief, measured by the Anticipatory Grief Scale (AGS), with problem solving abilities, measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory – Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R: S). Results 47/73 (64%) of caregivers reported involvement in medical decision making. Mean AGS was 70.1 (± 14.8) and mean SPSI-R:S was 107.2 (± 11.6). Higher AGS scores were associated with lower positive problem orientation (P=0.041) and higher negative problem orientation scores (P=0.001) but not other components of problem solving- rational problem solving, avoidance style, and impulsivity/carelessness style. Discussion Higher anticipatory grief among family caregivers impaired problem solving, which could have negative consequences for their medical decision making responsibilities. PMID:23428394

  20. Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V

    2014-01-01

    A current focus of zoo-based research aims to identify indicators of animal welfare. Reliable behavioral indicators of welfare are highly desirable as behavioral observation is non invasive and requires little in the way of specialized equipment and other costly resources-save for observer time. Anticipatory behavior is an indicator of an animal's sensitivity to reward and as such, it is a real-time indicator of animals' own perceptions of their well-being. In fact, anticipatory behavior may generate a positive affective state and thus be at least a brief manifestation of good welfare itself. The husbandry conditions of most captive animals are such that food acquisition and other positive outcomes are highly scheduled and easily signaled. These conditions promote the development of anticipatory behavior, yet little research has either documented or interpreted this behavior in zoo and aquarium animals. This commentary suggests that anticipatory behavior could be a useful tool for assessing welfare and calls upon zoo and aquarium researchers to begin to develop this tool by describing the behavior and the circumstances that lead to its modulation.

  1. Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V

    2014-01-01

    A current focus of zoo-based research aims to identify indicators of animal welfare. Reliable behavioral indicators of welfare are highly desirable as behavioral observation is non invasive and requires little in the way of specialized equipment and other costly resources-save for observer time. Anticipatory behavior is an indicator of an animal's sensitivity to reward and as such, it is a real-time indicator of animals' own perceptions of their well-being. In fact, anticipatory behavior may generate a positive affective state and thus be at least a brief manifestation of good welfare itself. The husbandry conditions of most captive animals are such that food acquisition and other positive outcomes are highly scheduled and easily signaled. These conditions promote the development of anticipatory behavior, yet little research has either documented or interpreted this behavior in zoo and aquarium animals. This commentary suggests that anticipatory behavior could be a useful tool for assessing welfare and calls upon zoo and aquarium researchers to begin to develop this tool by describing the behavior and the circumstances that lead to its modulation. PMID:25042907

  2. Participatory and Anticipatory Stages of Mathematical Concept Learning: Further Empirical and Theoretical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.

  3. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  4. Reversible postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Aza; Rajeevan, Thirumagal

    2015-07-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a relatively rare syndrome recognised since 1940. It is a heterogenous condition with orthostatic intolerance due to dysautonomia and is characterised by rise in heart rate above 30 bpm from base line or to more than 120 bpm within 5-10 min of standing with or without change in blood pressure which returns to base line on resuming supine position. This condition present with various disabling symptoms such as light headedness, near syncope, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, tremor, palpitations and mental clouding, etc. However there are no identifiable signs on clinical examination and patients are often diagnosed to have anxiety disorder. The condition predominantly affects young female between the ages of 15-50 but is rarely described in older people. We describe an older patient who developed POTS which recovered over 12 mo. Recognising this condition is important as there are treatment options available to alleviate the disabling symptoms.

  5. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Bharat; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Rattu, Noman; Mitra, Shanta

    2013-09-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by autonomic dysfunction and an exaggerated sympathetic response to assuming an upright position. Up till recently, it was largely under-recognised as a clinical entity. There is now consensus about the definition of POTS as a greater than 30/min heart rate increase on standing from a supine position (greater than 40/min increase in 12-19-year-old patients) or an absolute heart rate of greater than 120/min within 10 min of standing from a supine position and in the absence of hypotension, arrhythmias, sympathomimetic drugs or other conditions that cause tachycardia. We present two cases of POTS, followed by a discussion of its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology and management.

  6. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  7. Evidence for time-of-day dependent effect of neurotoxic dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions on food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Kent, Brianne A; Patton, Danica F; Jaholkowski, Mark; Marchant, Elliott G; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2011-01-01

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is a site of circadian clock gene and immediate early gene expression inducible by daytime restricted feeding schedules that entrain food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats and mice. The role of the DMH in the expression of anticipatory rhythms has been evaluated using different lesion methods. Partial lesions created with the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO) have been reported to attenuate food anticipatory rhythms, while complete lesions made with radiofrequency current leave anticipatory rhythms largely intact. We tested a hypothesis that the DMH and fibers of passage spared by IBO lesions play a time-of-day dependent role in the expression of food anticipatory rhythms. Rats received intra-DMH microinjections of IBO and activity and body temperature (T(b)) rhythms were recorded by telemetry during ad-lib food access, total food deprivation and scheduled feeding, with food provided for 4-h/day for 20 days in the middle of the light period and then for 20 days late in the dark period. During ad-lib food access, rats with DMH lesions exhibited a lower amplitude and mean level of light-dark entrained activity and T(b) rhythms. During the daytime feeding schedule, all rats exhibited food anticipatory activity and T(b) rhythms that persisted during 2 days without food in constant dark. In some rats with partial or total DMH ablation, the magnitude of the anticipatory rhythm was weak relative to most intact rats. When mealtime was shifted to the late night, the magnitude of the food anticipatory activity rhythms in these cases was restored to levels characteristic of intact rats. These results confirm that rats can anticipate scheduled daytime or nighttime meals without the DMH. Improved anticipation at night suggests a modulatory role for the DMH in the expression of food anticipatory activity rhythms during the daily light period, when nocturnal rodents normally sleep.

  8. Dysgnathia, orthognathic surgery and spinal posture.

    PubMed

    Sinko, K; Grohs, J-G; Millesi-Schobel, G; Watzinger, F; Turhani, D; Undt, G; Baumann, A

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spine by video rasterstereography before and after orthognathic surgery. Twenty-nine patients (17 patients with a skeletal class III, 7 patients with a skeletal class II, and 5 patients with mandibular asymmetry) were evaluated preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Video rasterstereography is a method of back surface measurement and shape analysis using the moire topography. Orthognathic surgery in cases of class III and asymmetry did not lead to significant changes in body posture. In class II patients it led to some changes in body posture, but without orthopaedic consequences. It is concluded that orthognathic surgery causes minimal or no change in body posture.

  9. The postural function of the iliotibial tract.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P.

    1979-01-01

    A new definition of the iliotibial tract is made. Its anatomical and physical characteristics are summarised and its known functions discussed. The various postures adopted by standing Man are looked at and one resting posture is closely analysed. Hence a new role is proposed for the iliotibial tract. In the hip bone a new bony effect of the iliotibial tract is proposed. The presence of this structure is traced in the fossil record and linked to the anthropological evidence of upright posture. Images FIG. 1-8 FIG. 9-16 FIG. 17-25 FIG. 26-34 PMID:475270

  10. Trunk posture monitoring with inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Yin; Wong, Man Sang

    2008-05-01

    Measurement of human posture and movement is an important area of research in the bioengineering and rehabilitation fields. Various attempts have been initiated for different clinical application goals, such as diagnosis of pathological posture and movements, assessment of pre- and post-treatment efficacy and comparison of different treatment protocols. Image-based methods for measurements of human posture and movements have been developed, such as the radiography, photogrammetry, optoelectric technique and video analysis. However, it is found that these methods are complicated to set up, time-consuming to operate and could only be applied in laboratory environments. This study introduced a method of using a posture monitoring system in estimating the spinal curvature changes during trunk movements on the sagittal and coronal planes and providing trunk posture monitoring during daily activities. The system consisted of three sensor modules, each with one tri-axial accelerometer and three uni-axial gyroscopes orthogonally aligned, and a digital data acquisition and feedback system. The accuracy of this system was tested with a motion analysis system (Vicon 370) in calibration with experimental setup and in trunk posture measurement with nine human subjects, and the performance of the posture monitoring system during daily activities with two human subjects was reported. The averaged root mean squared differences between the measurements of the system and motion analysis system were found to be < 1.5 degrees in dynamic calibration, and < 3.1 degrees for the sagittal plane and < or = 2.1 degrees for the coronal plane in estimation of the trunk posture change during trunk movements. The measurements of the system and the motion analysis system was highly correlated (> 0.999 for dynamic calibration and > 0.829 for estimation of spinal curvature change in domain planes of movement during flexion and lateral bending). With the sensing modules located on the upper trunk

  11. Postural adjustments associated with rapid voluntary arm movements. II. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, W G; Cohen, L; Hallett, M; Stanhope, S; Simon, S R

    1988-01-01

    Normal subjects performed bilaterally symmetric rapid elbow flexions or extensions ("focal movements") while standing. Specific patterns of electromyographic activity in leg and trunk muscles ("associated postural adjustments") were seen for each type of movement. The biomechanical significance of these postural adjustments was analysed by means of the ground reaction forces and motion of the various body segments. Experimental data were compared with that from a theoretical model of the body consisting of a six segment kinetic chain with rigid links. Distinct patterns of the ground reaction forces with elbow flexion were opposite in direction to those seen with elbow extension. Movements of the various body segments were small and specific for a certain focal movement. Dynamic perturbations arising from the arm movement in an anteroposterior direction were found to be compensated by postural adjustments, whereas vertical perturbations were not compensated. The muscular activity acting about different joints in the different movements was found to correlate with the predictions of activity needed to compensate for net joint reaction moments arising from the focal movement. Motion of the various body segments could be understood as resulting from the interplay of the net reaction moments and the net muscular moments at the different joints. Dynamic postural requirements are accomplished by a precise active compensation initiated before the focal movement. PMID:3346688

  12. Anticipatory grip force between 1 and 3g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Olivier; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Hermsdorfer, Joachim; Lefevre, Philippe

    One remarkable capacity of utilizing common tools appropriately as soon as we grasp them relies on the ability to determine in advance the grip force (GF) required to handle them in relation to their mechanical properties and the surrounding environment. This anticipatory strategy avoids the uncompressible delays in the feedback system. The predictive control of GF is made possible because the nervous system can learn, store and then select the internal representations of the dynamics of innumerable objects, known as internal models. Beside this flexibility, the nervous system's ability to learn different task dynamics is often limited in classical robotic experiments The environment itself can be profoundly modified in altered gravity or centrifugation. The few studies that investigated motor adaptation in such contexts did not consider the interaction between gravitational phases and even less the transitions across environments. Here, we tested subject's abilities to adapt to levels of gravitational fields generated by a human centrifuge. In Experiment 1, seven subjects performed 4 lifting trials in each gravitational phase (1 to 2.5g and then 2.5 to 1g by steps of 0.5g) with a 0.12 kg instrumented object. In Experiment 2, six subjects performed vertical oscillations of the object during transitions between 1 and 3g (0.5g steps, ascending and descending phases, profile repeated twice). We continuously measured GF, load force (LF) and ambient gravity. We hypothesized that participants were able to predictively adjust GF to the new environment. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted their GF proportionally to gravity and decreased GF across trials within a given gravitational environment. Preload phases decreased over time from 300ms to 50ms irrespective of gravity. We quantified the abilities of participants to switch across environments by subtracting GF recorded in the last trial in the current gravity level from GF during the first trial in the new environment

  13. Limit cycle oscillations in standing human posture.

    PubMed

    Chagdes, James R; Rietdyk, Shirley; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Zelaznik, Howard N; Cinelli, Michael E; Denomme, Luke T; Powers, Kaley C; Raman, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    Limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) are a hallmark of dynamic instability in time-delayed and nonlinear systems such as climate change models, biological oscillators, and robotics. Here we study the links between the human neuromuscular system and LCOs in standing posture. First, we demonstrate through a simple mathematical model that the observation of LCOs in posture is indicative of excessive neuromuscular time-delay. To test this hypothesis we study LCOs in the postural sway of individuals with multiple sclerosis and concussed athletes representing two different populations with chronically and acutely increased neuromuscular time-delays. Using a wavelet analysis method we demonstrate that 67% of individuals with multiple sclerosis and 44% of individuals with concussion exhibit intermittent LCOs; 8% of MS-controls, 0% of older adults, and 0% of concussion-controls displayed LCOs. Thus, LCOs are not only key to understanding postural instability but also may have important applications for the detection of neuromuscular deficiencies. PMID:27018157

  14. Postural variability and sensorimotor development in infancy.

    PubMed

    Dusing, Stacey C

    2016-03-01

    Infants develop skills through a coupling between their sensory and motor systems. Newborn infants must interpret sensory information and use it to modify movements and organize the postural control system based on the task demands. This paper starts with a brief review of evidence on the use of sensory information in the first months of life, and describes the importance of movement variability and postural control in infancy. This introduction is followed by a review of the evidence for the interactions between the sensory, motor, and postural control systems in typically development infants. The paper highlights the ability of young infants to use sensory information to modify motor behaviors and learn from their experiences. Last, the paper highlights evidence of atypical use of sensory, motor, and postural control in the first months of life in infants who were born preterm, with neonatal brain injury or later diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). PMID:27027603

  15. Brain regions and genes affecting postural control.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2007-01-01

    Postural control is integrated in all facets of motor commands. The role of cortico-subcortical pathways underlying postural control, including cerebellum and its afferents (climbing, mossy, and noradrenergic fibers), basal ganglia, motor thalamus, and parieto-frontal neocortex has been identified in animal models, notably through the brain lesion technique in rats and in mice with spontaneous and induced mutations. These studies are complemented by analyses of the factors underlying postural deficiencies in patients with cerebellar atrophy. With the gene deletion technique in mice, specific genes expressed in cerebellum encoding glutamate receptors (Grid2 and Grm1) and other molecules (Prkcc, Cntn6, Klf9, Syt4, and En2) have also been shown to affect postural control. In addition, transgenic mouse models of the synucleinopathies and of Huntington's disease cause deficiencies of motor coordination resembling those of patients with basal ganglia damage.

  16. Postural Control in Man: The Phylogenetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phyiogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  17. Postural control in man: the phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phylogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  18. Is there interaction between vision and local fatigue of the lower limbs on postural control and postural stability in human posture?

    PubMed

    Caron, Olivier

    2004-06-01

    An investigation of the interaction between local fatigue and vision on postural control and postural stability was carried out. Fatigue was effected in a sitting position and was assumed based on a shortening of the exertion time of the soleus muscles (60% of their maximal voluntary contractions). Postural stability was assessed by centre of gravity motion, which was computed from centre of pressure motion, evaluating postural control. Ten healthy male subjects were asked to stand as still as possible with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) before and after the fatigue protocol. Results showed that fatigue produced similar effects for the two vision conditions on postural control and postural stability analyzed separately, increasing postural control and leaving postural stability unchanged. Local fatigue essentially produced an increase of neuromuscular activity in high frequencies. However, this increase was more pronounced for the EO, as compared to the EC condition. PMID:15157987

  19. Effects of viewing affective pictures on sEMG activity of masticatory and postural muscles.

    PubMed

    D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Saccucci, Matteo; Abate, Michele; Romani, Gian Luca; Festa, Felice; Merla, Arcangelo

    2013-06-01

    Recently there has been an upsurge of interest in the question to what extent the human motor control system is influenced by the emotional state of the actor. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether emotional inputs modify the activity of masticatory and postural muscles. Twenty healthy young adults viewed affective pictures, while surface electromyography (sEMG) of masticatory and postural muscles was recorded to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and body muscular activity. One hundred and twenty pictures, chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), divided in two blocks of six sets, were presented to the subjects. sEMG data were statistically analyzed (RM ANOVA on Ranks). Root Mean Square (RMS) amplitudes, comparing the subsequent sets (Neutral, Unpleasant, Neutral, Pleasant) with the first and the last Baseline set, changed significantly only randomly. The results show that emotional inputs seems not influence the activity of masticatory and postural muscles, recorded by sEMG.

  20. Implicit advance knowledge effects on the interplay between arm movements and postural adjustments in catching.

    PubMed

    Tijtgat, Pieter; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bennett, Simon J; De Clercq, Dirk; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-06-19

    This study examined if, and how, implicit advance knowledge of upcoming ball speed influences the interplay between arm movements and concomitant postural adjustments in one-handed catching. While standing, subjects were asked to catch balls that were presented with or without implicit advance knowledge of four different ball speeds. Full body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured, which allowed the assessment of arm movements and postural adjustments through the momentum of the arm, rest of the body and whole body. Providing implicit advance knowledge induced a forward arm raising movement scaled to ball speed in the initial transport phase. However, the accompanying backward postural adjustments were unaffected, which is suggestive of a passive control mechanism. In the subsequent grasping phase, the scaling of arm raising movement exhibited in the presence of implicit advance knowledge resulted in a reduced need for postural adjustments, particularly at the highest ball speed. Together, these findings suggest that cortical involvement based on previous experience not only shapes the arm movements but also the subsequent interplaying postural responses.

  1. An Anticipatory and Deceptive AI Utilizing Bayesian Belief Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Joe E; Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Saffold, JAy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. military defines antiterrorism as the defensive posture taken against terrorist threats. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, interdicting an event in progress, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for training our military and homeland security officers for anticipating threats posed by terrorists. These tools need to be easy enough so that they are readily usable without substantial training, but still maintain the complexity to allow for a level of deceptive reasoning on the part of the opponent. To meet this need, we propose to integrate a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for threat anticipation and deceptive reasoning into training simulation environments currently utilized by several organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD). BBNs have the ability to deal with various types of uncertainties; such as identities, capabilities, target attractiveness, and the combinations of the previous. They also allow for disparate types of data to be fused in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. A BBN has been developed by ORNL uses a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of each node with in the broader context of the system development effort as a whole, and not in isolation. The network will be integrated into the Research Network Inc,(RNI) developed Game Distributed Interactive Simulation (GDIS) as a smart artificial intelligence module. GDIS is utilized by several DoD and civilian organizations as a distributed training tool for a multiplicity of reasons. It has garnered several awards for its realism, ease of use, and popularity. One area that it still has room to excel in, as most video training tools do, is in the area of artificial intelligence of opponent combatants. It is believed that by

  2. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers

    PubMed Central

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A.; Aguiar, Stefane A.; Carvalho, Adriana N. S.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361–0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280–0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304–0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325–0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001–0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents. PMID:27115868

  3. Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomgarden, Carol A.

    1995-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan devlopment. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources.

  4. Reliability of photographic posture analysis of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Zeynep; Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Tiftikci, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Postural problems of adolescents needs to be evaluated accurately because they may lead to greater problems in the musculoskeletal system as they develop. Although photographic posture analysis has been frequently used, more simple and accessible methods are still needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of photographic posture analysis using MB-ruler software. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys, mean age: 16.4±0.4 years, mean height 166.3±6.7 cm, mean weight 63.8±15.1 kg) and photographs of their habitual standing posture photographs were taken in the sagittal plane. For the evaluation of postural angles, reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks. For angular measurements, MB-ruler (Markus Bader- MB Software Solutions, triangular screen ruler) was used. Photographic evaluations were performed by two observers with a repetition after a week. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability evaluations were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). [Results] Inter-rater (ICC>0.972) and test-retest (ICC>0.774) reliability were found to be in the range of acceptable to excellent. [Conclusion] Reference angles for postural evaluation were found to be reliable and repeatable. The present method was found to be an easy and non-invasive method and it may be utilized by researchers who are in search of an alternative method for photographic postural assessments. PMID:26644658

  5. Reliability of photographic posture analysis of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hazar, Zeynep; Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Tiftikci, Ugur

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] Postural problems of adolescents needs to be evaluated accurately because they may lead to greater problems in the musculoskeletal system as they develop. Although photographic posture analysis has been frequently used, more simple and accessible methods are still needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of photographic posture analysis using MB-ruler software. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys, mean age: 16.4±0.4 years, mean height 166.3±6.7 cm, mean weight 63.8±15.1 kg) and photographs of their habitual standing posture photographs were taken in the sagittal plane. For the evaluation of postural angles, reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks. For angular measurements, MB-ruler (Markus Bader- MB Software Solutions, triangular screen ruler) was used. Photographic evaluations were performed by two observers with a repetition after a week. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability evaluations were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). [Results] Inter-rater (ICC>0.972) and test-retest (ICC>0.774) reliability were found to be in the range of acceptable to excellent. [Conclusion] Reference angles for postural evaluation were found to be reliable and repeatable. The present method was found to be an easy and non-invasive method and it may be utilized by researchers who are in search of an alternative method for photographic postural assessments.

  6. Anticipatory control through associative learning of subliminal relations: invisible may be better than visible.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Ausaf A; Manly, Tom

    2015-03-01

    We showed that anticipatory cognitive control could be unconsciously instantiated through subliminal cues that predicted enhanced future control needs. In task-switching experiments, one of three subliminal cues preceded each trial. Participants had no conscious experience or knowledge of these cues, but their performance was significantly improved on switch trials after cues that predicted task switches (but not particular tasks). This utilization of subliminal information was flexible and adapted to a change in cues predicting task switches and occurred only when switch trials were difficult and effortful. When cues were consciously visible, participants were unable to discern their relevance and could not use them to enhance switch performance. Our results show that unconscious cognition can implicitly use subliminal information in a goal-directed manner for anticipatory control, and they also suggest that subliminal representations may be more conducive to certain forms of associative learning. PMID:25694442

  7. Starfish Behavior as an Anticipatory System: Its Flexibility in Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migita, Masao

    2006-06-01

    As starfish do not have central nervous systems, their behaviors such as walking, righting, feeding, and so on, must be produced by some processes of self-organization of many motor organs. It has been noticed that self-organized behavioral patterns are not strictly determined by external stimuli, though such stimuli may elicit the very self-organization processes. In this sense, starfish are not only reactive like a conventional discourse of comparative psychology have presupposed. In this study, I will show diversity in self-organized behavior of a starfish exhibited under experiments on obstacle avoidance. The starfish may be considered as an anticipatory system, because it usually appeared to be free from serious deadlock at the obstacles. I will also discuss that to view the animal as an anticipatory system may have an interesting implication on the fields of behavioral biology and comparative psychology.

  8. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  9. Postural stability in children with hemiplegia estimated for three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of the presented study was to compare the effects of body posture asymmetry alone (i.e., in children with mild scoliosis) with the effects of body posture impairment (i.e., in children with hemiplegia) on postural stability. Forty-five outpatients with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis were assessed using a posturography device. The examination comprised two parts: (1) analysis of the static load distribution; and (2) a posturographic test (CoP measurements) conducted in three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling. Based on the asymmetry index of the unaffected/affected body sides while standing, the children with hemiplegia were divided into two different postural patterns: a pro-gravitational postural pattern (PGPP) and an anti-gravitational postural pattern (AGPP) (Domagalska-Szopa & Szopa (2013). BioMed Research International, 2013, 462094; (2014). Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 113). The group of children with mild scoliosis, considered as a standard for static body weight distribution, was used as the reference group. The results of present study only partially confirmed that children with hemiplegia have increased postural instability. Strong weight distribution asymmetry was found in children with an AGPP, which induced larger lateral-medial CoP displacements compared with children with scoliosis. In children with hemiplegia, distinguishing between their postural patterns may be useful to improve the guidelines for early therapy children with an AGPP before abnormal patterns of weight-bearing asymmetry are fully established. PMID:25677032

  10. Delivering a national programme of anticipatory care in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; Reid, Maggie; Turner, Fiona; Clark, Julia; Wang, Yinging; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Platt, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary prevention often occurs against a background of inequalities in health and health care. Addressing this requires practitioners and systems to acknowledge the contribution of health-related and social determinants and to deal with the lack of interconnectedness between health and social service providers. Recognising this, the Scottish Government has implemented a national programme of anticipatory care targeting individuals aged 45–64 years living in areas of socioeconomic deprivation and at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This programme is called Keep Well. Aim To explore the issues and tensions underpinning the implementation of a national programme of anticipatory care. Design and setting A qualitative study in five Wave 1 Keep Well pilot sites, located in urban areas of Scotland, and involving 79 general practices. Method Annual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 74 key stakeholders operating at national government level, local pilot level and within general practices, resulting in 118 interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed using the framework approach. Results Four underlying tensions were identified. First, those between a patient-focused general-practice approach versus a population-level health-improvement approach, linking disparate health and social services; secondly, medical approaches versus wider social approaches; thirdly, a population-wide approach versus individual targeting; and finally, reactive versus anticipatory care. Conclusion Implementing an anticipatory care programme to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease identified several tensions, which need to be understood and resolved in order to inform the development of such approaches in general practice and to develop systems that reduce the degree of fragmentation across health and social services. PMID:22520917

  11. Social impact evaluation: Some implications of the specific decisional context approach for Anticipatory Project Assessment (ARA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    An anticipatory project assessment is discussed which is characterized as the capacity to perform, and the disposition to take into account in relevant decisional areas, the following operations: identification of the significant effects which will result from the introduction of a specified project configuration into alternative projected future social environments during the planning, implementation, and operational states; evaluation of such effects in terms of social impacts on affected participants and social value-institutional processes in accord with specified concepts of social justice.

  12. Clock-driven vasopressin neurotransmission mediates anticipatory thirst prior to sleep.

    PubMed

    Gizowski, C; Zaelzer, C; Bourque, C W

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have evolved to anticipate and adapt animals to the constraints of the earth's 24-hour light cycle. Although the molecular processes that establish periodicity in clock neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are well understood, the mechanisms by which axonal projections from the central clock drive behavioural rhythms are unknown. Here we show that the sleep period in mice (Zeitgeber time, ZT0-12) is preceded by an increase in water intake promoted entirely by the central clock, and not motivated by physiological need. Mice denied this surge experienced significant dehydration near the end of the sleep period, indicating that this water intake contributes to the maintenance of overnight hydromineral balance. Furthermore, this effect relies specifically on the activity of SCN vasopressin (VP) neurons that project to thirst neurons in the OVLT (organum vasculosum lamina terminalis), where VP is released as a neurotransmitter. SCN VP neurons become electrically active during the anticipatory period (ZT21.5-23.5), and depolarize and excite OVLT neurons through the activation of postsynaptic VP V1a receptors and downstream non-selective cation channels. Optogenetic induction of VP release before the anticipatory period (basal period; ZT19.5-21.5) excited OVLT neurons and prompted a surge in water intake. Conversely, optogenetic inhibition of VP release during the anticipatory period inhibited the firing of OVLT neurons and prevented the corresponding increase in water intake. Our findings reveal the existence of anticipatory thirst, and demonstrate this behaviour to be driven by excitatory peptidergic neurotransmission mediated by VP release from central clock neurons. PMID:27680940

  13. Integration between anticipatory blocking and redox signaling by the peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin/thioredoxin-reductase system.

    PubMed

    Selvaggio, Gianluca; Coelho, Pedro M B M; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Cells are occasionally exposed to high H2O2 concentrations, often preceding exposure to other electrophylic compounds. Both H2O2 and these compounds can irreversibly modify protein thiols, with deleterious consequences. Induction of enzymatic defenses against those agents is too slow to avoid significant damage. Cells may solve this conundrum by reversibly "blocking" the thiols once H2O2 concentrations begin to increase. We term this mechanism "anticipatory blocking" because it acts in anticipation of irreversible damage upon detection of early signs of stress. Here we examine the design requirements for the Peroxiredoxin/Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin-Reductase/Protein-Dithiol System (PTTRDS) to effectively integrate H2O2 signaling and anticipatory blocking of protein dithiols as disulfides, and we compared them to the designs found in cells. To that effect, we developed a minimal model of the PTTRDS, and we defined a set of quantitative performance criteria that embody the requirements for (a) efficient scavenging capacity, (b) low NADPH consumption, (c) effective signal propagation, and (d) effective anticipatory blocking. We then sought the design principles (relationships among rate constants and species concentrations) that warrant fulfillment of all these criteria. Experimental data indicates that the design of the PTTRDS in human erythrocytes fulfills these principles and thus accomplishes effective integration between anticipatory blocking, antioxidant protection and redox signaling. A more general analysis suggests that the same principles hold in a wide variety of cell types and organisms. We acknowledge grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 (PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010) financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia".

  14. Increased anticipatory but decreased consummatory brain responses to food in sisters of anorexia nervosa patients

    PubMed Central

    Horndasch, Stefanie; O’Keefe, Sophie; Lamond, Anneka; Brown, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously shown increased anticipatory and consummatory neural responses to rewarding and aversive food stimuli in women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). Aims To determine whether these differences are trait markers for AN, we examined the neural response in those with a familial history but no personal history of AN. Method Thirty-six volunteers were recruited: 15 who had a sister with anorexia nervosa (family history) and 21 control participants. Using fMRI we examined the neural response during an anticipatory phase (food cues, rewarding and aversive), an effort phase and a consummatory phase (rewarding and aversive tastes). Results Family history (FH) volunteers showed increased activity in the caudate during the anticipation of both reward and aversive food and in the thalamus and amygdala during anticipation of aversive only. FH had decreased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the pallidum and the superior frontal gyrus during taste consumption. Conclusions Increased neural anticipatory but decreased consummatory responses to food might be a biomarker for AN. Interventions that could normalise these differences may help to prevent disorder onset. Declaration of interest C.M. has acted as a consultant to P1VITAL, Givaudan, GWPharma, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Channel 4. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703784

  15. Verbal and nonverbal predictors of language-mediated anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2015-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing. PMID:25795276

  16. Anticipatory dynamics of biological systems: from molecular quantum states to evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2015-08-01

    Living systems possess anticipatory behaviour that is based on the flexibility of internal models generated by the system's embedded description. The idea was suggested by Aristotle and is explicitly introduced to theoretical biology by Rosen. The possibility of holding the embedded internal model is grounded in the principle of stable non-equilibrium (Bauer). From the quantum mechanical view, this principle aims to minimize energy dissipation in expense of long relaxation times. The ideas of stable non-equilibrium were developed by Liberman who viewed living systems as subdivided into the quantum regulator and the molecular computer supporting coherence of the regulator's internal quantum state. The computational power of the cell molecular computer is based on the possibility of molecular rearrangements according to molecular addresses. In evolution, the anticipatory strategies are realized both as a precession of phylogenesis by ontogenesis (Berg) and as the anticipatory search of genetic fixation of adaptive changes that incorporates them into the internal model of genetic system. We discuss how the fundamental ideas of anticipation can be introduced into the basic foundations of theoretical biology.

  17. Anticipatory Monitoring and Control of Complex Systems using a Fuzzy based Fusion of Support Vector Regressors

    SciTech Connect

    Miltiadis Alamaniotis; Vivek Agarwal

    2014-10-01

    This paper places itself in the realm of anticipatory systems and envisions monitoring and control methods being capable of making predictions over system critical parameters. Anticipatory systems allow intelligent control of complex systems by predicting their future state. In the current work, an intelligent model aimed at implementing anticipatory monitoring and control in energy industry is presented and tested. More particularly, a set of support vector regressors (SVRs) are trained using both historical and observed data. The trained SVRs are used to predict the future value of the system based on current operational system parameter. The predicted values are then inputted to a fuzzy logic based module where the values are fused to obtain a single value, i.e., final system output prediction. The methodology is tested on real turbine degradation datasets. The outcome of the approach presented in this paper highlights the superiority over single support vector regressors. In addition, it is shown that appropriate selection of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules plays an important role in improving system performance.

  18. Verbal and nonverbal predictors of language-mediated anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2015-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing.

  19. Postural stability assessment in sewer workers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, W; Bhattacharya, A; Succop, P; Linz, D

    1996-01-01

    In this study, postural stability was measured with a microcomputer-based force platform as an indirect assessment of central nervous system effect in 28 sewer workers (age range 23.4 to 64.5 years, standard deviation of 8.7 years). All workers performed four 30-second postural sway tests. The organic-solvent exposure was measured by a photo-ionization detector. The photo-ionization detector was calibrated to measure volatile organic solvents in total benzene equivalence, and concentrations were measured in various parts of the plant. The mean exposure was .32 parts per million (ppm) benzene equivalent (range of .02 to .95 ppm, standard deviation .19 ppm). Based on a covariate adjusted linear multiple-regression model, a statistically significant (p < .05) positive correlation was demonstrated between postural sway and organic-solvent exposure. These workers also had increased postural sway compared with a nonexposed population. The statistically significant correlation between postural sway determinations and organic-solvent exposure was surprising given the very low exposures measured. It is possible that the organic-solvent exposure might not be the causative agent, but rather that the solvents themselves correlate with some other causative exposure, ie, total volatile organics as implicated in the cause of sick-building syndrome.

  20. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  1. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  2. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls. PMID:26406065

  3. Bed posture classification for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, R; Ostadabbas, S; Faezipour, M; Farshbaf, M; Nourani, M; Tamil, L; Pompeo, M

    2011-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is an age-old problem imposing a huge cost to our health care system. Detecting and keeping record of the patient's posture on bed, help care givers reposition patient more efficiently and reduce the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a commercial pressure mapping system is used to create a time-stamped, whole-body pressure map of the patient. An image-based processing algorithm is developed to keep an unobtrusive and informative record of patient's bed posture over time. The experimental results show that proposed algorithm can predict patient's bed posture with up to 97.7% average accuracy. This algorithm could ultimately be used with current support surface technologies to reduce the risk of ulcer development. PMID:22255993

  4. [Postural reactions in cosmonauts after long flights aboard Salyut-6].

    PubMed

    Kalinichenko, V V; Zhernavkov, A F

    1984-01-01

    Tilt tests were used to study changes in cardiovascular responses to ortho- and antiorthostasis of four cosmonauts after their 96- and 140-day flights onboard Salyut-6. Preflight the cosmonauts were exposed to head-up and head-down tests in order to facilitate their readaptation to weightlessness. Postflight all cosmonauts exhibited a better cardiovascular capability to counteract cranial blood redistribution during antiorthostatic tilt tests. This can be considered as a result of their adaptation to weightlessness. After flight every crewmember showed a significant decrease of orthostatic tolerance. One of the factors responsible for the lower orthostatic tolerance is assumed to be inactivity of the vascular tone mechanisms. It is suggested that their better stimulation before reentry may improve the efficacy of countermeasures against postflight orthostatic disorders.

  5. Association of family-centered care with improved anticipatory guidance delivery and reduced unmet needs in child health care.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dennis Z; Frick, Kevin D; Minkovitz, Cynthia S

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about the association of family-centered care (FCC) with the quality of pediatric primary care. The objectives were to assess (1) associations between family-centered care (FCC), receipt of anticipatory guidance, and unmet need for health care; and (2) whether these associations vary for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The study, a secondary data analysis of the 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, used a nationally representative sample of family members of children 0-17 years. We measured receipt of FCC in the last 12 months with a composite score average>3.5 on a 4 point Likert scale from 4 Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questions. Outcome measures were six anticipatory guidance and six unmet health care service needs items. FCC was reported by 69.6% of family members. One-fifth (22.1%) were CSHCN. Thirty percent of parents reported≥4 of 6 anticipatory guidance topics discussed and 32.5% reported≥1 unmet need. FCC was positively associated with anticipatory guidance for all children (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.19, 1.76), but no relation was found for CSHCN in stratified analyses (OR=1.01; 95% CI .75, 1.37). FCC was associated with reduced unmet needs (OR=.38; 95% CI .31, .46), with consistent findings for both non-CSHCN and CSHCN subgroups. Family-centered care is associated with greater receipt of anticipatory guidance and reduced unmet needs. The association between FCC and anticipatory guidance did not persist for CSHCN, suggesting the need for enhanced understanding of appropriate anticipatory guidance for this population.

  6. ["Zurich Vertigo Meeting"--phobic postural vertigo].

    PubMed

    Dieterich, M

    1997-10-01

    Phobic postural vertigo has been described as a syndrome that is distinguishable from agoraphobia, acrophobia, and "space phobia". Closely related to locomotion, it is characterized by a combination of nonrotational vertigo with subjective postural and gait instability mainly in patients with an obsessive-compulsive personality. The monosymptomatic disturbance of balance manifests with superimposed attacks that occur with and without recognizable provoking factors in the same patient and are experienced with and without accompanying excess anxiety, misleading both patient and physician to a false diagnosis of organic disease.

  7. An OWAS-based analysis of nurses' working postures.

    PubMed

    Engels, J A; Landeweerd, J A; Kant, Y

    1994-05-01

    The working postures of Dutch nurses (n = 18) in an orthopaedic ward and a urology ward were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and activities were recorded. A specially developed computer program was used for data analysis. By means of this program, it was possible to calculate the working posture load for each activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This study shows that some activities of the nurses in both wards were performed with poor working postures. In the orthopaedic (resp. urology) ward two (resp. one) out of 19 observed postures of parts of the body were classified as Action Category 2. Moreover, 20% (resp. 16%) of the so-called typical working postures was classified in Action Category 2. This suggests, that in both wards working postures that are slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system, occur during a substantial part of the working day. Differences between both wards with respect to working posture load and time expenditure were determined. Activities causing the workload to fall into OWAS higher Action Categories were identified. The data show that poor working postures in the nursing profession not only occur during patient handling activities but also during tasks like 'administration'. Focusing on patient-handling (i.e., lifting patients) in order to determine the load on the musculoskeletal system would therefore lead to an underestimation of the total working posture load of nurses.

  8. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  9. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  10. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  11. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words “body”, “posture”, “blind” and “absence of vision”. References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  12. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Mack, Kenneth J; Kuntz, Nancy L; Brands, Chad K; Porter, Coburn J; Fischer, Philip R

    2010-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome was defined in adult patients as an increase >30 beats per minute in heart rate of a symptomatic patient when moving from supine to upright position. Clinical signs may include postural tachycardia, headache, abdominal discomfort, dizziness/presyncope, nausea, and fatigue. The most common adolescent presentation involves teenagers within 1-3 years of their growth spurt who, after a period of inactivity from illness or injury, cannot return to normal activity levels because of symptoms induced by upright posture. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is complex and likely has numerous, concurrent pathophysiologic etiologies, presenting along a wide spectrum of potential symptoms. Nonpharmacologic treatment includes (1) increasing aerobic exercise, (2) lower-extremity strengthening, (3) increasing fluid/salt intake, (4) psychophysiologic training for management of pain/anxiety, and (5) family education. Pharmacologic treatment is recommended on a case-by-case basis, and can include beta-blocking agents to blunt orthostatic increases in heart rate, alpha-adrenergic agents to increase peripheral vascular resistance, mineralocorticoid agents to increase blood volume, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An interdisciplinary research approach may determine mechanistic root causes of symptoms, and is investigating novel management plans for affected patients.

  13. Chosen postures during specific sitting activities.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Irene; Kilincsoy, Umit; Vink, Peter

    2011-11-01

    This research study analysed the interaction between people's postures and activities while in semi-public/leisure situations and during transportation (journey by train). In addition, the use of small electronic devices received particular emphasis. Video recordings in German trains and photographs in Dutch semi-public spaces were analysed using a variation of Branton and Grayson's (An evaluation of train seats by observation of sitting behaviour. Ergonomics, 10 (1), (1967), 35-51) postural targeting forms and photos. The analysis suggests a significant relationship between most activities and the position of the head, trunk and arms during transportation situations. The relationship during public situations is less straightforward. Watching, talking/discussing and reading were the most observed activities for the transportation and leisure situations combined. Surprisingly, differences in head, trunk, arm and leg postures were not significant when using small electronic devices. Important issues not considered in this study include the duration of the activities, the gender and age of observed subjects and the influence of the time of day. These are interesting issues to consider and include for future research. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study shows what activities people choose to carry out and their related postures when not forced to a specific task (e.g. driving). The results of this study can be used for designing comfortable seating in the transportation industry (car passenger, train, bus and aircraft seats) and semi-public/leisure spaces.

  14. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  15. Assessing Postural Stability in the Concussed Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Gänsslen, Axel; Klein, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Context: Postural stability assessment is included as part of the diagnostic and monitoring process for sports-related concussions. Particularly, the relatively simple Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and more sophisticated force plate measures like the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) are suggested. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified via the following electronic databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL (1980 to July 2013). Inclusion was based on the evaluation of postural sway or balance in concussed athletes of any age or sex and investigating the reliability or validity of the included tests. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4 Results: Both the SOT and the BESS show moderate reliability, but a learning effect due to repetitive testing needs to be considered. Both tests indicate that postural stability returns to baseline by day 3 to 5 in most concussed athletes. While the BESS is a simple and valid method, it is sensitive to subjectivity in scoring and the learning effect. The SOT is very sensitive to even subtle changes in postural sway, and thus, more accurate than the BESS; however, it is a rather expensive method of balance testing. Conclusion: Both tests serve the purpose of monitoring balance performance in the concussed athlete; however, neither may serve as a stand-alone diagnostic or monitoring tool. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: B PMID:25177420

  16. Cognitive load affects postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Lopez, Luisa; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-05-01

    Inferring relations between cognitive processes and postural control is a relatively topical challenge in developmental neurology. This study investigated the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in a sample of 50 nine-year-old children. Each subject completed two balance trials of 60 s, one with a concurrent cognitive task (cognitive load) and another with no cognitive load. The concurrent cognitive task consisted of mentally counting backwards in steps of 2. Twelve posturographic parameters (PPs) were extracted from the centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory obtained through a load cell force plate. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the majority of the extracted PPs. CoP was found to travel faster, farther, and with substantially different features demonstrating an overall broadening of the spectrum in the frequency domain. Nonlinear stability factors revealed significant differences when exposed to a concurrent cognitive task, showing an increase of instability in the intervention rate of the postural control system. By grouping children through selected items from Teachers Ratings and PANESS assessment, specific significant differences were also found both in time and frequency domain PPs, thus confirming the hypothesis of an interaction between cognitive processes (and their development), and postural control. PMID:17136524

  17. Automated contingent reinforcement of correct posture.

    PubMed

    Burch, M R; Clegg, J C; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a mercury switch as a self-monitoring device to improve the sitting posture of an adult male. The participant in this study was a 31 year old man who was blind, nonambulatory, and who had been classified in the moderate range of intellectual functioning and in the severe range of adaptive functioning due to physical impairments. After determining that music practice and listening to a game show on the television channel of a radio were powerful reinforcers, a multiple baseline across the two reinforcing activities was implemented. The participant wore a mercury switch inside of a baseball cap which activated a Casio keyboard during music practice and a radio during the independent leisure activity of listening to a game show. During the treatment condition, the keyboard and radio were activated automatically by upright sitting posture. Results indicated that the participant's sitting posture increased from an average of almost 0% correct upright posture during baseline to an average of 52% during treatment.

  18. Forearm Posture and Mobility in Quadrupedal Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Collin S.; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy. PMID:24058633

  19. The representation of self reported affect in body posture and body posture simulation.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Atzmüller, Michaela; Blantar, Ines; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    It is taken for granted that the non-verbal information we acquire from a person's body posture and position affects our perception of others. However, to date human postures have never been described on an empirical level. This study is the first approach to tackle the unexplored topic of human postures. We combined two approaches: traditional behavior observation and modern anthropometric analysis. Photographs of 100 participants were taken, their body postures were transferred to a three dimensional virtual environment and the occurring body angles were measured. The participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their current affective state. A principal component analysis with the items of the affect questionnaire (Positive Negative Affect Scales, PANAS) revealed five main factors: aversion, openness, irritation, happiness, and self-confidence. The body angles were then regressed on these factors and the respective postures were reconstructed within a virtual environment. 50 different subjects rated the reconstructed postures from the positive and negative end of the regression. We found the ratings to be valid and accurate in respect to the five factors. PMID:15571090

  20. Methods of Postural Assessment Used for Sports Persons

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of postural defects has become very common now-a-days not only in general population but also in sports persons. There are various methods which can be used to assess these postural defects. These methods have evolved over a period of many years. This paper is first of its kind to summarize the methods of postural assessment which have been used and which can be used for evaluation of postural abnormalities in sports persons such as the visual observation, plumbline, goniometry, photographic, radiographic, photogrammetric, flexiruler, electromagnetic tracking device etc. We recommend more and more postural evaluation studies to be done in future based on the photogrammetric method. PMID:24959470

  1. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  2. Different roles of alpha and beta band oscillations in anticipatory sensorimotor gating

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Verena N.; Jensen, Ole; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta band (18–30 Hz) oscillations have been implicated in sensory anticipation and motor preparation. Here, using magneto-encephalography, we tested whether they have distinct functional roles in a saccade task that induces a remapping between sensory and motor reference frames. With a crossed hands posture, subjects had to saccade as fast and accurate as possible toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of two non-visible index fingers, located to the left or right of gaze. Previous studies have shown that this task, in which the somatotopic stimulus must be remapped to activate oculomotor system in the opposing hemisphere, is occasionally preceded by intrahemispheric remapping, driving a premature saccade into the wrong direction. To test whether the brain could anticipate the remapping, we provided auditory predictive cues (80% validity), which indicated which finger is most likely to be stimulated. Both frequency bands showed different lateralization profiles at central vs. posterior sensors, indicating anticipation of somatosensory and oculomotor processing. Furthermore, beta band power in somatosensory cortex correlated positively with saccade reaction time (SRT), with correlation values that were significantly higher with contralateral vs. ipsilateral activation. In contrast, alpha band power in parietal cortex correlated negatively with SRT, with correlation values that were significantly more negative with ipsilateral than contralateral activation. These results suggest distinct functional roles of beta and alpha band activity: (1) somatosensory gating by beta oscillations, increasing excitability in contralateral somatosensory cortex (positive correlation); and (2) oculomotor gating by posterior alpha oscillations, inhibiting gaze-centered oculomotor regions involved in generating the saccade to the wrong direction (negative correlation). Our results show that low frequency rhythms gate upcoming sensorimotor transformations. PMID

  3. Postural sway and perceived comfort in pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J; Rosenbaum, David A; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2014-05-21

    In this study, we explored relations between indices of postural sway and perceived comfort during pointing postures performed by standing participants. The participants stood on a force plate, grasped a pointer with the dominant (right) hand, and pointed to targets located at four positions and at two distances from the body. We quantified postural sway over 60-s intervals at each pointing posture, and found no effects of target location or distance on postural sway indices. In contrast, comfort ratings correlated significantly with indices of one of the sway components, trembling. Our observations support the hypothesis that rambling and trembling sway components involve different neurophysiological mechanisms. They also suggest that subjective perception of comfort may be more important than the actual posture for postural sway. PMID:24686189

  4. Postural sway and perceived comfort in pointing tasks

    PubMed Central

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J.; Rosenbaum, David A.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored relations between indices of postural sway and perceived comfort during pointing postures performed by standing participants. The participants stood on a force plate, grasped a pointer with the dominant (right) hand, and pointed to targets located at four positions and at two distances from the body. We quantified postural sway over 60-s intervals at each pointing posture, and found no effects of target location or distance on postural sway indices. In contrast, comfort ratings correlated significantly with indices of one of the sway components, trembling. Our observations support the hypothesis that rambling and trembling sway components involve different neurophysiological mechanisms. They also suggest that subjective perception of comfort may be more important than the actual posture for postural sway. PMID:24686189

  5. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  6. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  7. Interactions between pathways controlling posture and gait at the level of spinal interneurones in the cat.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, E; Edgley, S

    1993-01-01

    The properties of three interneuronal populations controlling posture and locomotion are briefly reviewed. These are interneurones mediating reciprocal inhibition of antagonistic muscles and interneurones in pathways from secondary muscle spindle afferents to ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurones, respectively. It will be shown that these interneurones subserve a variety of movements, with functionally specialized subpopulations being selected under different conditions. Mechanisms for gating the activity of these neurones appear to be specific for each of them but to act in concert. Interneurones which are active during locomotion and postural reactions are distributed over many segments of the spinal cord and over several of Rexed's laminae, both in the intermediate zone and in the ventral horn (Berkinblit et al., 1978; Bayev et al., 1979; Schor et al., 1986; Yates et al., 1989). The location of neurones discharging during neck and labyrinthine reflexes is illustrated in Fig. 1A and B but indications that neurones with an even wider distribution contribute to locomotion, scratching and the related postural reactions have been provided by neuronal markers which preferentially label active neurones (WGA-HRP; see Noga et al., 1987) or neurones with active genetic transcription (c-fos; I. Barajon, personal communication; Dai et al., 1991). Such a wide distribution indicates a high degree of non-homogeneity, since neurones of different functional types are usually located in different laminae. It has been demonstrated that some of these neurones may be particularly important for setting up the rhythm of muscle contractions specific for different gaits or scratching, as part of their "pattern generators" (see, e.g., Grillner, 1981). Other neurones may be primarily involved in initiation of these movements or in postural adjustments combined with them. A considerable proportion of neurones mediating these movements are nevertheless likely to be used not in one

  8. Are simultaneous postural adjustments (SPA) programmed as a function of pointing velocity?

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Paul; Le Bozec, Serge; Bouisset, Simon

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the influence of velocity on the postural adjustments that occur during the course of a voluntary movement, that is to say, simultaneous postural adjustments (SPA). To this aim, a pointing task performed at different velocities (V) was considered. Upper limb kinematics and body kinetics were recorded. Using a 2-DOF model, the body was divided into two parts: the right upper limb (termed the "focal" chain) and the rest of the body (termed the "postural" chain). This model allowed us to calculate the kinetics of both subsystems (-F x and [Formula: see text]), with one corresponding to the resultant action on the shoulder (AoSh: -F x) and the other to the resultant reaction of the shoulder (RoSh: [Formula: see text]). The influence of pointing velocity on peak amplitudes and durations was evaluated, as was their instantaneous relationship ("Lissajous ellipse"). The results showed that RoSh and AoSh display similar diphasic profiles, whose amplitude and duration vary with movement velocity. In addition, RoSh is in phase advance of AoSh, the advance being all the shorter as the focal movement velocity becomes faster. Finally, SPA appears to play a dual role, which includes a propulsive action during upper limb acceleration and body stabilization during deceleration. These new findings strengthen the hypothesis that the postural chain is programmed according to task velocity in the same way as the focal chain and that both are coping in order to make the task more efficient.

  9. Postural sway and joint kinematics during quiet standing are affected by lumbar extensor fatigue.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in postural sway and strategy elicited by lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Specifically, changes in center of mass (COM), center of pressure (COP), and joint kinematics during quiet standing were determined, as well as selected cross correlations between these variables that are indicative of movement strategy. Twelve healthy male participants stood quietly both before and after exercises that fatigued the lumbar extensors. Whole-body movement and ground reaction force data were recorded and used to calculate mean body posture and variability of COM, COP, and joint kinematics during quiet standing. Three main findings emerged. First, participants adopted a slight forward lean post-fatigue as evidenced by an anterior shift of the COM and COP. Second, post-fatigue increases in joint angle variability were observed at multiple joints including joints distal to the fatigued musculature. Despite these increases, anterior-posterior (AP) ankle angle correlated well with AP COM position, suggesting the body still behaved similar to an inverted pendulum. Third, global measures of sway based on COM and COP were not necessarily indicative of changes in individual joint kinematics. Thus, in trying to advance our understanding of how localized fatigue affects movement patterns and the postural control system, it appears that joint kinematics and/or multivariate measures of postural sway are necessary.

  10. Anticipatory Effects on Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During a Cutting Task

    PubMed Central

    Meinerz, Carolyn M.; Malloy, Philip; Geiser, Christopher F.; Kipp, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Context  Continued research into the mechanism of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury helps to improve clinical interventions and injury-prevention strategies. A better understanding of the effects of anticipation on landing neuromechanics may benefit training interventions. Objective  To determine the effects of anticipation on lower extremity neuromechanics during a single-legged land-and-cut task. Design  Controlled laboratory study. Setting  University biomechanics laboratory. Participants  Eighteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age = 19.7 ± 0.8 years, height = 167.3 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 66.1 ± 2.1 kg). Intervention(s)  Participants performed a single-legged land-and-cut task under anticipated and unanticipated conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Three-dimensional initial contact angles, peak joint angles, and peak internal joint moments and peak vertical ground reaction forces and sagittal-plane energy absorption of the 3 lower extremity joints; muscle activation of selected hip- and knee-joint muscles. Results  Unanticipated cuts resulted in less knee flexion at initial contact and greater ankle toe-in displacement. Unanticipated cuts were also characterized by greater internal hip-abductor and external-rotator moments and smaller internal knee-extensor and external-rotator moments. Muscle-activation profiles during unanticipated cuts were associated with greater activation of the gluteus maximus during the precontact and landing phases. Conclusions  Performing a cutting task under unanticipated conditions changed lower extremity neuromechanics compared with anticipated conditions. Most of the observed changes in lower extremity neuromechanics indicated the adoption of a hip-focused strategy during the unanticipated condition. PMID:26285089

  11. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Mithun; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Ghajar, Jamshid; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Muzzatti, Laura; Corbetta, Maurizio; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS), and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG), which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition). MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and frontal

  12. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Mithun; Harrington, Deborah L.; Maruta, Jun; Ghajar, Jamshid; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Muzzatti, Laura; Corbetta, Maurizio; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS), and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG), which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition). MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and frontal

  13. Anticipatory Activation in the Amygdala and Anterior Cingulate in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Prediction of Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Jack B.; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros; Oathes, Desmond J.; Johnstone, Tom; Whalen, Paul J.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The anticipation of adverse outcomes, or worry, is a cardinal symptom of generalized anxiety disorder. Prior work with healthy subjects has shown that anticipating aversive events recruits a network of brain regions, including the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. This study tested whether patients with generalized anxiety disorder have alterations in anticipatory amygdala function and whether anticipatory activity in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts treatment response. Method Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed with 14 generalized anxiety disorder patients and 12 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, sex, and education. The event-related fMRI paradigm was composed of one warning cue that preceded aversive pictures and a second cue that preceded neutral pictures. Following the fMRI session, patients received 8 weeks of treatment with extended-release venlafaxine. Results Patients with generalized anxiety disorder showed greater anticipatory activity than healthy comparison subjects in the bilateral dorsal amygdala preceding both aversive and neutral pictures. Building on prior reports of pretreatment anterior cingulate cortex activity predicting treatment response, anticipatory activity in that area was associated with clinical outcome 8 weeks later following treatment with venlafaxine. Higher levels of pretreatment anterior cingulate cortex activity in anticipation of both aversive and neutral pictures were associated with greater reductions in anxiety and worry symptoms. Conclusions These findings of heightened and indiscriminate amygdala responses to anticipatory signals in generalized anxiety disorder and of anterior cingulate cortex associations with treatment response provide neurobiological support for the role of anticipatory processes in the pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:19122007

  14. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Cíntia Detsch; Cardoso dos Santos, Antônio; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Noll, Matias; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Corso, Carlos Otávio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of the spine and posture among adolescent female students and to determine if they had access to postural education in or outside school. [Subjects and Methods] This was an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of 495 female students aged 14 to 18 years attending a regular secondary school in São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire. [Results] The results showed that 16.8% of teens did not know what a spine was, 8.3% had no knowledge of posture, and 61% reported receiving no posture education. Posture awareness was associated only with posture while using a computer, while having postural education class was not associated with any postural behavior. [Conclusion] The results showed that, although most students are familiar with the spine and posture, a sizable group is not, and over half had no postural education. These findings suggest that inclusion of postural education programs in schools should be encouraged in order to promote health and prevent diseases related to the spine. PMID:26504322

  15. Smart Rehabilitation Garment for posture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Chen, W; Timmermans, A A A; Karachristos, C; Martens, J B; Markopoulos, P

    2015-08-01

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and development of Smart Rehabilitation Garment (SRG) a wearable system designed to support posture correction. The SRG combines a number of inertial measurement units (IMUs), controlled by an Arduino processor. It provides feedback with vibration on the garment, audible alarm signals and visual instruction through a Bluetooth connected smartphone. We discuss the placement of sensing modules, the garment design, the feedback design and the integration of smart textiles and wearable electronics which aimed at achieving wearability and ease of use. We report on the system's accuracy as compared to optical tracker method. PMID:26737595

  16. Postural awareness among dental students in Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kanaparthy, Aruna; Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Boreak, Nezar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to assess the postural awareness of dental students in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Close-ended, self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection in the survey. The questionnaire was prepared by observing the positions of students working in the clinics and the common mistakes they make with regard to their postures. The questionnaires were distributed among the dental students who were present and reported to work in the clinics. Levels of postural awareness and the relationship between postural awareness and the degree of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among the students was evaluated. This study was carried out in the College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Jizan. Statistical Analysis: The level of knowledge of postural awareness was evaluated and correlated with the presence or absence of the MSDs. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 dental students from the age group of 20–25 years were included in the survey, of which 134 dentists responded (83%). When their postural awareness was evaluated, results showed that 89% of the students had poor-to-medium levels of postural awareness. The relation between postural awareness and prevalence of MSDs indicated that 75% of the students with poor awareness, 49% of the students with average awareness, and 40% of the students with good awareness have MSDs. The results were statistically significant (0.002127, which is <0.005) stating that better awareness about proper postures while working helps to minimize the risk of MSDs. Conclusion: Evaluation of levels of postural awareness showed that 21% of the students had poor postural awareness, 67% had average awareness, and 11% had good postural awareness. The analysis of results showed that those students with low-to-average postural awareness had significantly greater prevalence of MSDs. PMID

  17. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  18. Computer users' postures and associations with workstation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gerr, F; Marcus, M; Ortiz, D; White, B; Jones, W; Cohen, S; Gentry, E; Edwards, A; Bauer, E

    2000-01-01

    This investigation tested the hypotheses that (1) physical workstation dimensions are important determinants of operator posture, (2) specific workstation characteristics systematically affect worker posture, and (3) computer operators assume "neutral" upper limb postures while keying. Operator head, neck, and upper extremity posture and selected workstation dimensions and characteristics were measured among 379 computer users. Operator postures were measured with manual goniometers, workstation characteristics were evaluated by observation, and workstation dimensions by direct measurement. Considerably greater variability in all postures was observed than was expected from application of basic geometric principles to measured workstation dimensions. Few strong correlations were observed between worker posture and workstation physical dimensions; findings suggest that preference is given to keyboard placement with respect to the eyes (r = 0.60 for association between keyboard height and seated elbow height) compared with monitor placement with respect to the eyes (r = 0.18 for association between monitor height and seated eye height). Wrist extension was weakly correlated with keyboard height (r = -0.24) and virtually not at all with keyboard thickness (r = 0.07). Use of a wrist rest was associated with decreased wrist flexion (21.9 versus 25.1 degrees, p < 0.01). Participants who had easily adjustable chairs had essentially the same neck and upper limb postures as did those with nonadjustable chairs. Sixty-one percent of computer operators were observed in nonneutral shoulder postures and 41% in nonneutral wrist postures. Findings suggest that (1) workstation dimensions are not strong determinants of at least several neck and upper extremity postures among computer operators, (2) only some workstation characteristics affect posture, and (3) contrary to common recommendations, a large proportion of computer users do not work in so-called neutral postures.

  19. Timing of anticipatory muscle tensing control: responses before and after expected impact.

    PubMed

    Vishton, Peter M; Reardon, Kristin M; Stevens, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that human motor control is anticipatory in nature. Previous studies have used electromyography (EMG) to examine muscle responses to falling objects and identified anticipatory muscle tensing (AMT) as a spike in activation that occurs prior to object impact. Some studies have suggested that humans use an internal model of gravity to mediate precisely timed AMT responses. The present study further examines predictive motor control through the analysis of AMT during an object catching task. For some trials, participants watched an object falling toward the hand; for other trials, their eyes were closed. For some trials, the object fell downward and impacted the hand; for other randomly selected trials, the object abruptly stopped 12 cm above the hand, enabling an assessment of the effect of impact anticipation independent of the reflexive tactile response associated with an actual impact. In Experiment 1, AMT did not shift for approximately 113 ms after the abrupt stop of the ball. In Experiment 2, we randomly varied the start height of the object and found well-timed AMT with a 129-ms lag time. A control system based on simple memory for fall time duration cannot explain these findings. We argue that an AMT control system with a lag time of approximately 121 ms could not perform with human levels of accuracy without accounting for the acceleration of downward moving objects. PMID:20135099

  20. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing.

  1. Reduced food anticipatory activity in genetically orexin (hypocretin) neuron-ablated mice.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masashi; Yuasa, Tomoyo; Hayasaka, Naomi; Horikawa, Kazumasa; Sakurai, Takeshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2004-12-01

    Daily restricted feeding (RF) produces an anticipatory locomotor activity rhythm and entrains the peripheral molecular oscillator independently of the central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). As orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides that coordinate sleep/wake patterns and motivated behaviours, such as food seeking, we studied the involvement of orexin in the food anticipatory activity (FAA) induced by RF. Daily RF shifted the mRNA rhythm of a clock-controlled gene mDbp in the cerebral cortex and caudate putamen but not in the SCN. Under these experimental conditions, prepro-orexin mRNA and orexin A immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) did not show daily variation. Fasting increased the number of orexin A-ir cells, while RF did not. However, RF shifted the peak of Fos expression of the orexin neurons from night to day. Genetic ablation of orexin neurons in orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic mice severely reduced the formation of FAA under RF conditions. The expression of mNpas2 mRNA, a transcription factor thought to be involved in regulation of the food entrainable oscillator as well as mPer1 and mBmal1 mRNA, was reduced in the forebrain of orexin/ataxin-3 mice. Based on these results, we suggest that activity of the orexin neuron in the LHA contributes to the promotion and maintenance of FAA.

  2. Dopamine receptor 1 neurons in the dorsal striatum regulate food anticipatory circadian activity rhythms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Christian M; Darvas, Martin; Oviatt, Mia; Chang, Chris H; Michalik, Mateusz; Huddy, Timothy F; Meyer, Emily E; Shuster, Scott A; Aguayo, Antonio; Hill, Elizabeth M; Kiani, Karun; Ikpeazu, Jonathan; Martinez, Johan S; Purpura, Mari; Smit, Andrea N; Patton, Danica F; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Palmiter, Richard D; Steele, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Daily rhythms of food anticipatory activity (FAA) are regulated independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which mediates entrainment of rhythms to light, but the neural circuits that establish FAA remain elusive. In this study, we show that mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R KO mice) manifest greatly reduced FAA, whereas mice lacking the dopamine D2 receptor have normal FAA. To determine where dopamine exerts its effect, we limited expression of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum of dopamine-deficient mice; these mice developed FAA. Within the dorsal striatum, the daily rhythm of clock gene period2 expression was markedly suppressed in D1R KO mice. Pharmacological activation of D1R at the same time daily was sufficient to establish anticipatory activity in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that dopamine signaling to D1R-expressing neurons in the dorsal striatum plays an important role in manifestation of FAA, possibly by synchronizing circadian oscillators that modulate motivational processes and behavioral output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03781.001 PMID:25217530

  3. Circadian rhythms and food anticipatory behavior in Wfs1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Hendrik; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-08-10

    The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) has been proposed as a candidate for the neural substrate of a food-entrainable oscillator. The existence of a food-entrainable oscillator in the mammalian nervous system was inferred previously from restricted feeding-induced behavioral rhythmicity in rodents with suprachiasmatic nucleus lesions. In the present study, we have characterized the circadian rhythmicity of behavior in Wfs1-deficient mice during ad libitum and restricted feeding. Based on the expression of Wfs1 protein in the DMH it was hypothesized that Wfs1-deficient mice will display reduced or otherwise altered food anticipatory activity. Wfs1 immunoreactivity in DMH was found almost exclusively in the compact part. Restricted feeding induced c-Fos immunoreactivity primarily in the ventral and lateral aspects of DMH and it was similar in both genotypes. Wfs1-deficiency resulted in significantly lower body weight and reduced wheel-running activity. Circadian rhythmicity of behavior was normal in Wfs1-deficient mice under ad libitum feeding apart from elongated free-running period in constant light. The amount of food anticipatory activity induced by restricted feeding was not significantly different between the genotypes. Present results indicate that the effects of Wfs1-deficiency on behavioral rhythmicity are subtle suggesting that Wfs1 is not a major player in the neural networks responsible for circadian rhythmicity of behavior.

  4. Photic and pineal modulation of food anticipatory circadian activity rhythms in rodents.

    PubMed

    Patton, Danica F; Parfyonov, Maksim; Gourmelen, Sylviane; Opiol, Hanna; Pavlovski, Ilya; Marchant, Elliott G; Challet, Etienne; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2013-01-01

    Restricted daily feeding schedules entrain circadian oscillators that generate food anticipatory activity (FAA) rhythms in nocturnal rodents. The location of food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs) necessary for FAA remains uncertain. The most common procedure for inducing circadian FAA is to limit food access to a few hours in the middle of the light period, when activity levels are normally low. Although light at night suppresses activity (negative masking) in nocturnal rodents, it does not prevent the expression of daytime FAA. Nonetheless, light could reduce the duration or magnitude of FAA. If so, then neural or genetic ablations designed to identify components of the food-entrainable circadian system could alter the expression of FAA by affecting behavioral responses to light. To assess the plausibility of light as a potential mediating variable in studies of FAA mechanisms, we quantified FAA in rats and mice alternately maintained in a standard full photoperiod (12h of light/day) and in a skeleton photoperiod (two 60 min light pulses simulating dawn and dusk). In both species, FAA was significantly and reversibly enhanced in the skeleton photoperiod compared to the full photoperiod. In a third experiment, FAA was found to be significantly attenuated in rats by pinealectomy, a procedure that has been reported to enhance some effects of light on behavioral circadian rhythms. These results indicate that procedures affecting behavioral responses to light can significantly alter the magnitude of food anticipatory rhythms in rodents.

  5. Anticipatory ethics for a future Internet: analyzing values during the design of an Internet infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Katie

    2015-02-01

    The technical details of Internet architecture affect social debates about privacy and autonomy, intellectual property, cybersecurity, and the basic performance and reliability of Internet services. This paper explores one method for practicing anticipatory ethics in order to understand how a new infrastructure for the Internet might impact these social debates. This paper systematically examines values expressed by an Internet architecture engineering team-the Named Data Networking project-based on data gathered from publications and internal documents. Networking engineers making technical choices also weigh non-technical values when working on Internet infrastructure. Analysis of the team's documents reveals both values invoked in response to technical constraints and possibilities, such as efficiency and dynamism, as well as values, including privacy, security and anonymity, which stem from a concern for personal liberties. More peripheral communitarian values espoused by the engineers include democratization and trust. The paper considers the contextual and social origins of these values, and then uses them as a method of practicing anticipatory ethics: considering the impact such priorities may have on a future Internet. PMID:24407888

  6. The contribution of cognitive, kinematic, and dynamic factors to anticipatory grasp selection.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-06-01

    Object-directed grasping movements are usually adjusted in anticipation of the direction and extent of a subsequent object rotation. Such anticipatory grasp selections have been mostly explained in terms of the kinematics of the arm movement. However, object rotations of different directions and extents also differ in their dynamics and in how the tasks are represented. Here, we examined how the dynamics, the kinematics, and the cognitive representation of an object manipulation affect anticipatory grasp selections. We asked participants to grasp an object and rotate it by different angles and in different directions. To examine the influence of dynamic factors, we varied the object's weight. To examine the influence of the cognitive task representation, we instructed identical object rotations as either toward-top or away-from-top rotations. While instructed object rotation and cognitive task representation did affect grasp selection over the entire course of the experiment, a rather small effect of object weight only appeared late in the experiment. We suggest that grasp selections are determined on different levels. The representation of the kinematics of the object movement determines grasp selection on a trial-by-trial basis. The effect of object weight affects grasp selection by a slower adaptation process. This result implies that even simple motor acts, such as grasping, can only be understood when cognitive factors, such as the task representation, are taken into account.

  7. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. PMID:25820191

  8. Toward an understanding of anticipatory pleasure deficits in schizophrenia: Memory, prospection, and emotion experience.

    PubMed

    Painter, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2016-04-01

    Anticipatory pleasure deficits have been observed in people with schizophrenia. Less is known about the extent to which interrelated processes that comprise anticipatory pleasure, including memory, prospection, and emotion experience are disrupted. We asked people with (n = 32) and without (n = 29) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to provide memory and prospection narratives in response to specific cues. Half of the prospections followed a memory task, and half followed a control task. People with schizophrenia generated memories similar in content and experience as controls even as they described them less clearly. However, people with schizophrenia were less likely to explicitly reference the past in their prospections, and their prospections were less detailed and richly experienced than controls, regardless of the task completed before prospection. People with schizophrenia reported similar levels of positive emotion (current and predicted) in positive prospections that followed the memory task, but less positive emotion than controls in positive prospections that followed the control task. Taken together, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia experience difficulties drawing from past experiences and generating detailed prospections. However, asking people with schizophrenia to recall and describe memories prior to prospection may increase the likelihood of drawing from the past in prospections, and may help boost current and predicted pleasure.

  9. Central role for the insular cortex in mediating conditioned responses to anticipatory cues

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto-Yoshida, Ikue; Liu, Haixin; Chen, Billy T.; Fontanini, Alfredo; Bonci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Reward-related circuits are fundamental for initiating feeding on the basis of food-predicting cues, whereas gustatory circuits are believed to be involved in the evaluation of food during consumption. However, accumulating evidence challenges such a rigid separation. The insular cortex (IC), an area largely studied in rodents for its role in taste processing, is involved in representing anticipatory cues. Although IC responses to anticipatory cues are well established, the role of IC cue-related activity in mediating feeding behaviors is poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of the IC in the expression of cue-triggered food approach in mice trained with a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. We observed a significant change in neuronal firing during presentation of the cue. Pharmacological silencing of the IC inhibited food port approach. Such a behavior could be recapitulated by temporally selective inactivation during the cue. These findings represent the first evidence, to our knowledge, that cue-evoked neuronal activity in the mouse IC modulates behavioral output, and demonstrate a causal link between cue responses and feeding behaviors. PMID:25583486

  10. Different time scales of motion integration for anticipatory smooth pursuit and perceptual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Gerrit W.; Potapchuk, Elena; Watamaniuk, Scott N. J.; Heinen, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    When repeatedly exposed to moving stimuli, the oculomotor system elicits anticipatory smooth pursuit (ASP) eye movements, even before the stimulus moves. ASP is affected oppositely to perceptual speed judgments of repetitive moving stimuli: After a sequence of fast stimuli, ASP velocity increases, whereas perceived speed decreases. These two effects—perceptual adaptation and oculomotor priming—could result from adapting a single common internal speed representation that is used for perceptual comparisons and for generating ASP. Here we test this hypothesis by assessing the temporal dependence of both effects on stimulus history. Observers performed speed discriminations on moving random dot stimuli, either while pursuing the movement or maintaining steady fixation. In both cases, responses showed perceptual adaptation: Stimuli preceded by fast speeds were perceived as slower, and vice versa. To evaluate oculomotor priming, we analyzed ASP velocity as a function of average stimulus speed in preceding trials and found strong positive dependencies. Interestingly, maximal priming occurred over short stimulus histories (∼two trials), whereas adaptation was maximal over longer histories (∼15 trials). The temporal dissociation of adaptation and priming suggests different underlying mechanisms. It may be that perceptual adaptation integrates over a relatively long period to robustly calibrate the operating range of the motion system, thereby avoiding interference from transient changes in stimulus speed. On the other hand, the oculomotor system may rapidly prime anticipatory velocity to efficiently match it to that of the pursuit target. PMID:25761334

  11. Anticipatory ethics for a future Internet: analyzing values during the design of an Internet infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Katie

    2015-02-01

    The technical details of Internet architecture affect social debates about privacy and autonomy, intellectual property, cybersecurity, and the basic performance and reliability of Internet services. This paper explores one method for practicing anticipatory ethics in order to understand how a new infrastructure for the Internet might impact these social debates. This paper systematically examines values expressed by an Internet architecture engineering team-the Named Data Networking project-based on data gathered from publications and internal documents. Networking engineers making technical choices also weigh non-technical values when working on Internet infrastructure. Analysis of the team's documents reveals both values invoked in response to technical constraints and possibilities, such as efficiency and dynamism, as well as values, including privacy, security and anonymity, which stem from a concern for personal liberties. More peripheral communitarian values espoused by the engineers include democratization and trust. The paper considers the contextual and social origins of these values, and then uses them as a method of practicing anticipatory ethics: considering the impact such priorities may have on a future Internet.

  12. Timing of anticipatory muscle tensing control: responses before and after expected impact.

    PubMed

    Vishton, Peter M; Reardon, Kristin M; Stevens, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that human motor control is anticipatory in nature. Previous studies have used electromyography (EMG) to examine muscle responses to falling objects and identified anticipatory muscle tensing (AMT) as a spike in activation that occurs prior to object impact. Some studies have suggested that humans use an internal model of gravity to mediate precisely timed AMT responses. The present study further examines predictive motor control through the analysis of AMT during an object catching task. For some trials, participants watched an object falling toward the hand; for other trials, their eyes were closed. For some trials, the object fell downward and impacted the hand; for other randomly selected trials, the object abruptly stopped 12 cm above the hand, enabling an assessment of the effect of impact anticipation independent of the reflexive tactile response associated with an actual impact. In Experiment 1, AMT did not shift for approximately 113 ms after the abrupt stop of the ball. In Experiment 2, we randomly varied the start height of the object and found well-timed AMT with a 129-ms lag time. A control system based on simple memory for fall time duration cannot explain these findings. We argue that an AMT control system with a lag time of approximately 121 ms could not perform with human levels of accuracy without accounting for the acceleration of downward moving objects.

  13. Effect of repetition proportion on language-driven anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Britt, Allison E; Mirman, Daniel; Kornilov, Sergey A; Magnuson, James S

    2014-01-01

    Previous masked priming research in word recognition has demonstrated that repetition priming is influenced by experiment-wise information structure, such as proportion of target repetition. Research using naturalistic tasks and eye-tracking has shown that people use linguistic knowledge to anticipate upcoming words. We examined whether the proportion of target repetition within an experiment can have a similar effect on anticipatory eye movements. We used a word-to-picture matching task (i.e., the visual world paradigm) with target repetition proportion carefully controlled. Participants' eye movements were tracked starting when the pictures appeared, one second prior to the onset of the target word. Targets repeated from the previous trial were fixated more than other items during this preview period when target repetition proportion was high and less than other items when target repetition proportion was low. These results indicate that linguistic anticipation can be driven by short-term within-experiment trial structure, with implications for the generalization of priming effects, the bases of anticipatory eye movements, and experiment design.

  14. Relationship between anticipatory socialization experiences and first-year veterinary students' career interests.

    PubMed

    Kedrowicz, April A; Fish, Richard E; Hammond, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore first-year veterinary students' anticipatory socialization-life, education, and social experiences that assist in preparation for professional occupations-and determine what relationship exists between those experiences and career interests. Seventy-three first-year veterinary students enrolled in the Careers in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Veterinary Careers survey. Results show that students' anticipatory vocational socialization experiences are significantly related to their stated career interests. The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "a great deal of interest" included specialty private practice (37%), research and teaching in an academic setting (33%), and international veterinary medicine (31%). The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "no interest at all" included the military (50%), equine private practice (42%), and the pharmaceutical industry (41%). Less than half of the students (42%) stated that they reconsidered their career path after the first semester of veterinary school, but the majority (87%) developed a better understanding of how to pursue a nontraditional career path should they choose to do so.

  15. Feet distance and static postural balance: implication on the role of natural stance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Jeon, Hyung-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lim, Do-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the effect of feet distance on static postural balance and 2) the location of natural feet distance and its possible role in the relationship of feet distance and postural balance. Static balance tests were performed on a force platform for 100 s with six different feet distances (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 cm). Measures of postural balance included mean amplitude of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) as well as the mean distance and velocity of the center of pressure (COP). All measures were discomposed into anterioposterior and mediolateral directions. ANOVA and post-hoc comparison were performed for all measures with feet distance as an independent factor. Also measured was the feet distance at the natural stance preferred by each subject. All measures significantly varied with feet distance (p<0.001). Mean distance of COP showed monotonic decrease with feet distance. Mean amplitude of horizontal GRF as well as mean velocity of COP showed U-shaped pattern (decrease followed by increase) with the minimum at the feet distance of 15 cm or 20 cm, near which the natural feet distance of 16.5 (SD 3.8) cm was located. COP is regarded to be an approximation of the center of mass (hence the resultant performance of postural control) in an inverted pendulum model with the horizontal GRF ignored. On the other hand, horizontal GRF is the direct cause of horizontal acceleration of a center of mass. The present result on horizontal GRF shows that the effort of postural control is minimized around the feet distance of natural standing and implies why the natural stance is preferred.

  16. A link-segment model of upright human posture for analysis of head-trunk coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, S. C.; Doxey-Gasway, D. D.; Paloski, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Sensory-motor control of upright human posture may be organized in a top-down fashion such that certain head-trunk coordination strategies are employed to optimize visual and/or vestibular sensory inputs. Previous quantitative models of the biomechanics of human posture control have examined the simple case of ankle sway strategy, in which an inverted pendulum model is used, and the somewhat more complicated case of hip sway strategy, in which multisegment, articulated models are used. While these models can be used to quantify the gross dynamics of posture control, they are not sufficiently detailed to analyze head-trunk coordination strategies that may be crucial to understanding its underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we present a biomechanical model of upright human posture that extends an existing four mass, sagittal plane, link-segment model to a five mass model including an independent head link. The new model was developed to analyze segmental body movements during dynamic posturography experiments in order to study head-trunk coordination strategies and their influence on sensory inputs to balance control. It was designed specifically to analyze data collected on the EquiTest (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR) computerized dynamic posturography system, where the task of maintaining postural equilibrium may be challenged under conditions in which the visual surround, support surface, or both are in motion. The performance of the model was tested by comparing its estimated ground reaction forces to those measured directly by support surface force transducers. We conclude that this model will be a valuable analytical tool in the search for mechanisms of balance control.

  17. Gain of postural responses increases in response to real and anticipated pain.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Paul W; Tsao, Henry; Sims, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    This study tested two contrasting theories of adaptation of postural control to pain. One proposes alteration to the postural strategy including inhibition of muscles that produce painful movement; another proposes amplification of the postural adjustment to recruit strategies normally reserved for higher load. This study that aimed to determine which of these alternatives best explains pain-related adaptation of the hip muscle activity associated with stepping down from steps of increasing height adaptation of postural control to increasing load was evaluated from hip muscle electromyography (fine-wire and surface electrodes) as ten males stepped from steps of increasing height (i.e. increasing load). In one set of trials, participants stepped from a low step (5 cm) and pain was induced by noxious electrical stimulation over the sacrum triggered from foot contact with a force plate or was anticipated. Changes in EMG amplitude and onset timing were compared between conditions. Hip muscle activation was earlier and larger when stepping from higher steps. Although ground reaction forces (one of the determinants of joint load) were unchanged before, during and after pain, trials with real or anticipated noxious stimulation were accompanied by muscle activity indistinguishable from that normally reserved for higher steps (EMG amplitude increased from 9 to 17 % of peak). These data support the notion that muscle activation for postural control is augmented when challenged by real/anticipated noxious stimulation. Muscle activation was earlier and greater than that required for the task and is likely to create unnecessary joint loading. This could have long-term consequences if maintained.

  18. The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Claire F; Nichols, T Richard

    2014-03-01

    Humans and cats respond to balance challenges, delivered via horizontal support surface perturbations, with directionally selective muscle recruitment and constrained ground reaction forces. It has been suggested that this postural strategy arises from an interaction of limb biomechanics and proprioceptive networks in the spinal cord. A critical experimental validation of this hypothesis is to test the prediction that the principal directions of muscular activation oppose the directions responding muscles exert their forces on the environment. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the endpoint forces of a diverse set of cat hindlimb muscles and compare them with the directionally sensitive muscle activation patterns generated in the intact and decerebrate cat. We hypothesized that muscles are activated based on their mechanical advantage. Our primary expectation was that the principal direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations will be directed oppositely (180°) from the muscle endpoint ground reaction force. We found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle. These observations indicate that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture. This suggests that sensory sources that provide feedback about the mechanical environment of the limb are likely important to appropriate and effective responses during balance challenges. Finally, we extended the analysis to three dimensions and different stance widths, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive study of postural regulation than was possible with measurements confined to the horizontal plane and a single stance configuration.

  19. Postural responses explored through classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A D; Dakin, C J; Carpenter, M G

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) requires the sensory feedback generated by balance perturbations in order to trigger postural responses (PRs). In Experiment 1, twenty-one participants experienced toes-up support-surface tilts in two blocks. Control blocks involved unexpected balance perturbations whereas an auditory tone cued the onset of balance perturbations in Conditioning blocks. A single Cue-Only trial followed each block (Cue-Only(Control) and Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials) in the absence of balance perturbations. Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials were used to determine whether postural perturbations were required in order to trigger PRs. Counter-balancing the order of Control and Conditioning blocks allowed Cue-Only(Control) trials to examine both the audio-spinal/acoustic startle effects of the auditory cue and the carryover effects of the initial conditioning procedure. In Experiment 2, six participants first experienced five consecutive Tone-Only trials that were followed by twenty-five conditioning trials. After conditioning, five Tone-Only trials were again presented consecutively to first elicit and then extinguish the conditioned PRs. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded muscle activity in soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF). EMG onset latencies and amplitudes were calculated together with the onset latency, peak and time-to-peak of shank angular accelerations. Results indicated that an auditory cue could be conditioned to initiate PRs in multiple muscles without balance-relevant sensory triggers generated by balance perturbations. Postural synergies involving excitation of TA and RF and inhibition of SOL were observed following the Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials that resulted in shank angular accelerations in the direction required to counter the expected toes-up tilt. Postural synergies were triggered in response to the auditory cue even 15 min post-conditioning. Furthermore

  20. Which Aspects of Postural Control Differentiate between Patients with Parkinson's Disease with and without Freezing of Gait?

    PubMed Central

    Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the “on” phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary. PMID:23936729

  1. Coordination between posture and movement: interaction between postural and accuracy constraints.

    PubMed

    Berrigan, Félix; Simoneau, Martin; Martin, Olivier; Teasdale, Normand

    2006-04-01

    We examined the interaction between the control of posture and an aiming movement. Balance control was varied by having subjects aim at a target from a seated or a standing position. The aiming difficulty was varied using a Fitts'-like paradigm (movement amplitude=30 cm; target widths=0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5 cm). For both postural conditions, all targets were within the reaching space in front of the subjects and kept at a fixed relative position with respect to the subjects' body. Hence, for a given target size, the aiming was differentiated only by the postural context (seated vs. upright standing). For both postural conditions, movement time (MT) followed the well-known Fitts' law, that is, it increased with a decreasing target size. For the smallest target width, however, the increased MT was greater when subjects were standing than when they were seated suggesting that the difficulty of the aiming task could not be determined solely by the target size. When standing, a coordination between the trunk and the arm was observed. Also, as the target size decreased, the center of pressure (CP) displacement increased without any increase in CP speed suggesting that the subjects were regulating their CP to provide a controlled referential to assist the hand movement. When seated, the CP kinematics was scaled with the hand movement kinematics. Increasing the index of difficulty led to a strong correlation between the hand speed and CP displacement and speed. The complex organization between posture and movement was revealed only by examining the specific interactions between speed-accuracy and postural constraints. PMID:16328274

  2. A Theoretical and Conceptual Reformulation of the Concept "Anticipatory Goal Deflection" and a Strategy for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Evans W.

    This paper deals with the broad area of status attainment, attempting to restructure the concept of anticipatory goal deflection (AGD) (distinction between career expectations and aspirations; Kuvlesky and Bealer, 1966) "so as to optimize its integration into a theoretical structure based on sociological and social psychological research and…

  3. Genetic covariance between psychopathic traits and anticipatory skin conductance responses to threat: Evidence for a potential endophenotype

    PubMed Central

    WANG, PAN; GAO, YU; ISEN, JOSHUA; TUVBLAD, CATHERINE; RAINE, ADRIAN; BAKER, LAURA A.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic architecture of the association between psychopathic traits and reduced skin conductance responses (SCRs) is poorly understood. By using 752 twins aged 9–10 years, this study investigated the heritability of two SCR measures (anticipatory SCRs to impending aversive stimuli and unconditioned SCRs to the aversive stimuli themselves) in a countdown task. The study also investigated the genetic and environmental sources of the covariance between these SCR measures and two psychopathic personality traits: impulsive/disinhibited (reflecting impulsive–antisocial tendencies) and manipulative/deceitful (reflecting the affective–interpersonal features). For anticipatory SCRs, 27%, 14%, and 59% of the variation was due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects, respectively, while the percentages for unconditioned SCRs were 44%, 2%, and 54%. The manipulative/deceitful (not impulsive/disinhibited) traits were negatively associated with both anticipatory SCRs (r = −.14, p < .05) and unconditioned SCRs (r = −.17, p < .05) in males only, with the former association significantly accounted for by genetic influences (rg = −.72). Reduced anticipatory SCRs represent a candidate endophenotype for the affective–interpersonal facets of psychopathic traits in males. PMID:26439076

  4. Effect of Rate Reduction and Increased Loudness on Acoustic Measures of Anticipatory Coarticulation in Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared patterns of anticipatory coarticulation for utterances produced in habitual, loud, and slow conditions by 17 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), 12 individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 15 healthy controls. Coarticulation was inferred from vowel F2 frequencies and consonant first-moment coefficients.…

  5. Effects of age and non-oropharyngeal proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensation on the magnitude of anticipatory mouth opening during eating.

    PubMed

    Shune, S E; Moon, J B

    2016-09-01

    To best prevent and treat eating/swallowing problems, it is essential to understand how components of oral physiology contribute to the preservation and/or degradation of eating/swallowing in healthy ageing. Anticipatory, pre-swallow motor movements may be critical to safe and efficient eating/swallowing, particularly for older adults. However, the nature of these responses is relatively unknown. This study compared the magnitude of anticipatory mouth opening during eating in healthy older (aged 70-85) and younger (aged 18-30) adults under four eating conditions: typical self-feeding, typical assisted feeding (being fed by a research assistant resulting in proprioceptive loss), sensory loss self-feeding (wearing blindfold/headphones resulting in exteroceptive loss) and sensory loss assisted feeding (proprioceptive and exteroceptive loss). Older adults opened their mouths wider than younger adults in anticipation of food intake under both typical and most non-oropharyngeal sensory loss conditions. Further, the loss of proprioceptive and exteroceptive cues resulted in decreased anticipatory mouth opening for all participants. Greater mouth opening in older adults may be a protective compensation, contributing to the preservation of function associated with healthy ageing. Our finding that the loss of non-oropharyngeal sensory cues resulted in decreased anticipatory mouth opening highlights how important proprioception, vision, and hearing are in pre-swallow behaviour. Age- and disease-related changes in vision, hearing, and the ability to self-feed may reduce the effectiveness of these pre-swallow strategies. PMID:27377757

  6. Effects of age and non-oropharyngeal proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensation on the magnitude of anticipatory mouth opening during eating.

    PubMed

    Shune, S E; Moon, J B

    2016-09-01

    To best prevent and treat eating/swallowing problems, it is essential to understand how components of oral physiology contribute to the preservation and/or degradation of eating/swallowing in healthy ageing. Anticipatory, pre-swallow motor movements may be critical to safe and efficient eating/swallowing, particularly for older adults. However, the nature of these responses is relatively unknown. This study compared the magnitude of anticipatory mouth opening during eating in healthy older (aged 70-85) and younger (aged 18-30) adults under four eating conditions: typical self-feeding, typical assisted feeding (being fed by a research assistant resulting in proprioceptive loss), sensory loss self-feeding (wearing blindfold/headphones resulting in exteroceptive loss) and sensory loss assisted feeding (proprioceptive and exteroceptive loss). Older adults opened their mouths wider than younger adults in anticipation of food intake under both typical and most non-oropharyngeal sensory loss conditions. Further, the loss of proprioceptive and exteroceptive cues resulted in decreased anticipatory mouth opening for all participants. Greater mouth opening in older adults may be a protective compensation, contributing to the preservation of function associated with healthy ageing. Our finding that the loss of non-oropharyngeal sensory cues resulted in decreased anticipatory mouth opening highlights how important proprioception, vision, and hearing are in pre-swallow behaviour. Age- and disease-related changes in vision, hearing, and the ability to self-feed may reduce the effectiveness of these pre-swallow strategies.

  7. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    PubMed

    Ahasan; Väyrynen; Kirvesoja

    1996-01-01

    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, so musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted, not only for lifting or hammering operation, but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from 8 different units (mean age: 37) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 sub-tasks. Altogether 1534 postures were selected for analysis. Then they were classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all the observation, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III and 3.3%--as OAC IV) were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  8. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  9. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  10. Saccades Improve Postural Control: A Developmental Study in Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. Materials and Methods Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®). Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. Results During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades) in comparison with a simple task of fixation. Discussion - Conclusion These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway. PMID:24278379

  11. Investigation of compensatory postures with videofluoromanometry in dysphagia patients

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, Antonio; Monaco, Luigi; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Tamburrini, Stefania; Iacobellis, Francesca; Berritto, Daniela; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Reginelli, Alfonso; Di Martino, Natale; Grassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of head compensatory postures to ensure safe oropharyngeal transit. METHODS: A total of 321 dysphagia patients were enrolled and assessed with videofluoromanometry (VFM). The dysphagia patients were classified as follows: safe transit; penetration without aspiration; aspiration before, during or after swallowing; multiple aspirations and no transit. The patients with aspiration or no transit were tested with VFM to determine whether compensatory postures could correct their swallowing disorder. RESULTS: VFM revealed penetration without aspiration in 71 patients (22.1%); aspiration before swallowing in 17 patients (5.3%); aspiration during swallowing in 32 patients (10%); aspiration after swallowing in 21 patients (6.5%); multiple aspirations in six patients (1.9%); no transit in five patients (1.6%); and safe transit in 169 patients (52.6%). Compensatory postures guaranteed a safe transit in 66/75 (88%) patients with aspiration or no transit. A chin-down posture achieved a safe swallow in 42/75 (56%) patients, a head-turned posture in 19/75 (25.3%) and a hyperextended head posture in 5/75 (6.7%). The compensatory postures were not effective in 9/75 (12%) cases. CONCLUSION: VFM allows the speech-language the-rapist to choose the most effective compensatory posture without a trial-and-error process and check the effectiveness of the posture. PMID:22736921

  12. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  13. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration. PMID:26162071

  14. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  15. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    PubMed

    Makowska, I Joanna; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a) reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b) before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further scientific support for

  16. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments

    PubMed Central

    Makowska, I. Joanna; Weary, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals’ anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a) reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b) before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further scientific support for

  17. Verbal Semantics Drives Early Anticipatory Eye Movements during the Comprehension of Verb-Initial Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence “The frog will eat the fly” the syntactic object (“fly”) is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian) tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object), or by semantic roles (agent/patient). Participants heard sentences of the type “Eat frog fly” or “Eat fly frog” (both meaning “The frog will eat the fly”) while looking at displays containing an agent referent (“frog”), a patient referent (“fly”) and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb

  18. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHd

  19. Factors affecting postural stability of healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Angyán, Z

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between body balancing functions and body characteristics, motor abilities and reaction time. Subjects were 33 university students and 11 professional basketball players sorted into four groups of athletic and non-athletic women and men. Each group consisted of eleven subjects. The body height, weight was measured and the body mass index (BMI) calculated. A bioelectrical device computed the body fat (%). Static and dynamic motor tests, as well as static and dynamic balance tests were used. The reaction time (RT) to sound and light stimuli was measured. The regression analysis of the data revealed significant linear relationship between the amplitude of body sways (BS) and BMI in all groups. Also high correlation was found between back muscle strength and BS in all groups except the non-athletic women. Negative correlation was found between endurance capacity and BS in basketball players, i.e. at higher endurance capacity smaller amplitude BS occurred (r = -0.620, p < 0.04). The RT values showed significant correlations with BS only in the basketball players (r = 0.620, p < 0.04). It is concluded that increase in BMI, back muscle strength and endurance capacity is associated with better postural stability. Some motor abilities (hip flexibility, vertical jumping) show no significant correlations with body balancing, while other motor performances (static hanging) and RT values correlate well with BS only in the well-trained elite basketball players.

  20. Observations of working postures in garages using the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS) and consequent workload reduction recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kant, I; Notermans, J H; Borm, P J

    1990-02-01

    The working postures of mechanics (n = 84) in 42 garages were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and work activities were recorded. A computer program was developed for the data analyses. Using this program it is possible to calculate the working posture load for each work activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This is a substantial extension of the original OWAS method. Five out of 19 observed postures of the body members were classified as Action Category 2, which suggests they were slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system and likely to cause discomfort. Of the so-called typical working postures, 31.9% was classified in Action Category 2, suggesting that during a substantial part of the working day typical working postures occur which are at least slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system. Moreover, those work activities principally causing the workload to fall in OWAS' higher Action Categories were identified. For each of these three work activities an alternative work method was observed. The data show that in all three work activities the use of a vehicle lift reduces the number of poor working postures thereby reducing the load on the musculoskeletal system.

  1. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s-2) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key points This study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  2. Postural Stability When Leaning from Perceived Upright

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanya, Robert D.; Grounds, John F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The transition between quiet stance and gait requires the volitional movement of one?s center of mass (COM) toward a limit of stability (LOS). The goal of this study was to measure the effect of leaning from perceived upright on postural stability when voluntarily maintaining fixed stance positions and during perturbations of the support surface. The COM was derived from force plate data in 12 healthy subjects while standing with feet positioned so that lateral base of support was equal to foot length. For all conditions, arms were folded and subjects were instructed to lean without bending at the hips or lifting their feet. The LOS was determined during maximal voluntary leans with eyes open and closed. The COM was then displayed on a monitor located in front of the subject. Subjects were visually guided to lean toward a target position, maintain this position for 10s, return to upright, and then repeat the same targeted lean maneuver with eyes closed. Targets were randomly presented at 2? in 8 directions and between 2-6? in these same directions according to the asymmetric LOS. Subjects were then verbally guided to lean between 2? back and 4? forward prior to a perturbation of the support surface in either a forward or backward direction. The average LOS was 5.8? forward, 2.9? back, and 4.8? in left/right directions, with no significant difference between eyes open and closed. Center of pressure (COP) velocity increased as subjects maintained fixed stance positions farther from upright, with increased variability during eyes closed conditions. The time to stability and COP path length increased as subjects leaned opposite to the direction of the support surface perturbations. We conclude that postural stability is compromised as subjects lean away from perceived upright, except for perturbations that induce sway in the direction opposite the lean. The asymmetric LOS relative to perceived upright favors postural stability for COM movements in the forward direction.

  3. Postural reorganization induced by torso cutaneous covibration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Martin, Bernard J; Ho, Allison; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous information from joints has been attributed proprioceptive properties similar to those of muscle spindles. This study aimed to assess whether vibration-induced changes in torso cutaneous information contribute to whole-body postural reorganization in humans. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the left and right external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle locations at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. Vibrations around the torso were randomly applied at two locations simultaneously (covibration) or at all locations simultaneously. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that covibration applied to the skin over the internal oblique muscles induced shifts of both the head and torso in the anterior direction (torso flexion) while the hips shifted in the posterior direction (ankle plantar flexion). Conversely, covibration applied to the skin over the erector spinae muscle locations produced opposite effects. However, covibration applied to the skin over the left internal oblique and left erector spinae, the right internal oblique and right erector spinae, or at all locations simultaneously did not induce any significant postural changes. In addition, the center of pressure position as measured by the force plate was unaffected by all covibration conditions tested. These results were independent of stance and suggest an integrated and coordinated reorganization of posture in response to vibration-induced changes in cutaneous information. In addition, combinations of vibrotactile stimuli over multiple locations exhibit directional summation properties in contrast to the individual responses we observed in our previous work. PMID:23637178

  4. Female Emotional Eaters Show Abnormalities in Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Method Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Results Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Discussion Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. PMID:19040270

  5. Anticipatory and Reactive Response to Falls: Muscle Synergy Activation of Forearm Muscles.

    PubMed

    Couzens, Greg; Kerr, Graham

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the surface electromyogram response of six forearm muscles to falls onto the outstretched hand. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were sampled from eight volunteers who underwent ten self-initiated falls. All muscles initiated prior to impact. Co-contraction is the most obvious surface electromyogram feature. The predominant response is in the radial deviators. The surface electromyogram timing we recorded would appear to be a complex anticipatory response to falling modified by the effect on the forearm muscles following impact. The mitigation of the force of impact is probably more importantly through shoulder abduction and extension and elbow flexion rather than action of the forearm muscles.

  6. Lessons Learned from MAVRIC's Brain: An Anticipatory Artificial Agent and Proto-consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2002-09-01

    MAVRIC II is a mobile, autonomous robot whose brain is comprised almost entirely of artificial adaptrode-based neurons. These neurons were previously shown to encode anticipatory actions. The architecture of this brain is based on the Extended Braitenberg Architecture (EBA). We are still in the process of collecting hard data on the behavioral traits of MAVRIC in the generalized foraging search task. But even now sufficient qualitative aspects of MAVRIC's behavior have been garnered from foraging experiments to lend strong support to the theory that MAVRIC is a highly adaptive, life-like agent. The development of the current MAVRIC brain has led to some important insights into the nature of intelligent control. In this paper we elucidate some of these principles in the form of lessons learned, and project the potential for future developments.

  7. Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional development: Birth to five years

    PubMed Central

    Dosman, Cara; Andrews, Debbi

    2012-01-01

    The present article serves as a quick office reference for clinicians, providing anticipatory guidance about the cognitive and social-emotional development of newborns, and children up to five years of age. The present review links recommendations to specific evidence in the medical literature, citing sources of developmental standards and advice, so that these may be further explored if desired. Practising primary care providers have indicated that these are areas of child development that are not well addressed by training and other available resources. The present article includes parenting information on important clinical presentations with which clinicians may be less familiar, such as promoting attachment, prosocial behaviours, healthy sleep habits, self-discipline and problem-solving; as well as on managing behaviours that are part of normal development, such as separation anxiety, tantrums, aggression, picky eating and specific fears. Information on the development of language, literacy and socialization are also included. PMID:23372397

  8. Helping fellow beings: anthropomorphized social causes and the role of anticipatory guilt.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hae Joo; Aggarwal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    People are often reluctant to comply with social causes because doing so may involve personal sacrifices of time, money, and effort for benefits that are shared by other members of society. In an effort to increase compliance, government agencies and public institutions sometimes employ financial tools to promote social causes. However, employing financial tools to induce prosocial behavior is expensive and often ineffective. We propose that anthropomorphizing a social cause is a practical and inexpensive tool for increasing compliance with it. Across three prosocial contexts, we found that individuals exposed to a message from an anthropomorphized social cause, compared with individuals exposed to a message relating to a nonanthropomorphized social cause, were more willing to comply with the message. This effect was mediated by feelings of anticipatory guilt experienced when they considered the likely consequences of not complying with the cause. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Learning of anticipatory responses in single neurons of the human medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Leila; Poncet, Marlene; Self, Matthew W.; Peters, Judith C.; Douw, Linda; van Dellen, Edwin; Claus, Steven; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Baayen, Johannes C.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal processes underlying the formation of new associations in the human brain are not yet well understood. Here human participants, implanted with depth electrodes in the brain, learned arbitrary associations between images presented in an ordered, predictable sequence. During learning we recorded from medial temporal lobe (MTL) neurons that responded to at least one of the pictures in the sequence (the preferred stimulus). We report that as a result of learning, single MTL neurons show asymmetric shifts in activity and start firing earlier in the sequence in anticipation of their preferred stimulus. These effects appear relatively early in learning, after only 11 exposures to the stimulus sequence. The anticipatory neuronal responses emerge while the subjects became faster in reporting the next item in the sequence. These results demonstrate flexible representations that could support learning of new associations between stimuli in a sequence, in single neurons in the human MTL. PMID:26449885

  10. Optimism bias and parental views on unintentional injuries and safety: improving anticipatory guidance in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Paula Patricia; Allen, Patricia L Jackson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to improve anticipatory guidance in early childhood by reviewing the influence of optimism bias on parents' views about safety and beliefs about their children's risk for unintentional injuries. This article reviews the theory of optimism bias and recent research utilizing optimism bias to explain parental health-related behaviors. The three articles in this literature review find a link between optimism bias and parents' failure to implement safety behaviors. Currently, there is no tool to measure a parent's level of optimism bias concerning the risk of unintentional injury to his or her child. It is important for primary care providers to try and identify optimism bias in parents and address it as a barrier to implementation of safety recommendations. More research should be dedicated to developing screening tools to identify optimism bias in parents and interventions to help them accept their children's vulnerability.

  11. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  12. Great Apes Make Anticipatory Looks Based on Long-Term Memory of Single Events.

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Everyday life poses a continuous challenge for individuals to encode ongoing events, retrieve past events, and predict impending events [1-4]. Attention and eye movements reflect such online cognitive and memory processes [5, 6], especially through "anticipatory looks" [7-10]. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of nonhuman animals to retrieve detailed information about single events that happened in the distant past [11-20]. However, no study has tested whether nonhuman animals employ online memory processes, in which they encode ongoing movie-like events into long-term storage during single viewing experiences. Here, we developed a novel eye-tracking task to examine great apes' anticipatory looks to the events that they had encountered one time 24 hr earlier. Half-minute movie clips depicted novel and potentially alarming situations to the participant apes (six bonobos, six chimpanzees). In the experiment 1 clip, an aggressive ape-like character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same movie again, apes anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up. In the experiment 2 clip, the human actor grabbed one of two objects and attacked the character with it. While viewing the same movie again but with object-location switched, apes anticipatorily looked at the object that the human would use, rather than the former location of the object. Our results thus show that great apes, just by watching the events once, encoded particular information (location and content) into long-term memory and later retrieved that information at a particular time in anticipation of the impending events.

  13. Differential Effects of Acute Stress on Anticipatory and Consummatory Phases of Reward Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goer, Franziska; Greve, Douglas; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/‘wanting’ during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/‘liking’ during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption) x Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post-hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this

  14. Circadian regulation of food-anticipatory activity in molecular clock-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nana N; Kurosawa, Gen; Tokuda, Isao T; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Todo, Takeshi; Nakamura, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus is considered to be the principal circadian pacemaker, keeping the rhythm of most physiological and behavioral processes on the basis of light/dark cycles. Because restriction of food availability to a certain time of day elicits anticipatory behavior even after ablation of the SCN, such behavior has been assumed to be under the control of another circadian oscillator. According to recent studies, however, mutant mice lacking circadian clock function exhibit normal food-anticipatory activity (FAA), a daily increase in locomotor activity preceding periodic feeding, suggesting that FAA is independent of the known circadian oscillator. To investigate the molecular basis of FAA, we examined oscillatory properties in mice lacking molecular clock components. Mice with SCN lesions or with mutant circadian periods were exposed to restricted feeding schedules at periods within and outside circadian range. Periodic feeding led to the entrainment of FAA rhythms only within a limited circadian range. Cry1(-/-) mice, which are known to be a "short-period mutant," entrained to a shorter period of feeding cycles than did Cry2(-/-) mice. This result indicated that the intrinsic periods of FAA rhythms are also affected by Cry deficiency. Bmal1(-/-) mice, deficient in another essential element of the molecular clock machinery, exhibited a pre-feeding increase of activity far from circadian range, indicating a deficit in circadian oscillation. We propose that mice possess a food-entrainable pacemaker outside the SCN in which canonical clock genes such as Cry1, Cry2 and Bmal1 play essential roles in regulating FAA in a circadian oscillatory manner.

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway.

  16. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  17. Obesity, mechanical and strength relationships to postural control in adolescence.

    PubMed

    King, Adam C; Challis, John H; Bartok, Cynthia; Costigan, F Aileen; Newell, Karl M

    2012-02-01

    There is preliminary evidence that BMI is positively correlated with movement variability of standing posture. However, this negative effect of obesity on postural control may be mediated by the change in other body scale variables (e.g., mechanical and fitness) that also occur with changes in BMI. This study investigated the influence of selected body scale (height, body mass, BMI), body composition (body fat percentage), mechanical (moment of inertia - MI) and strength (S) variables as predictors of the control of postural motion in adolescents. 125 healthy adolescents (65 boys, 60 girls) with a wide range of BMI (13.8-31.0 kg/m(2)) performed a battery of tests that assessed body composition, anthropometry, muscular strength and postural control. Multiple measures of postural motion variability were derived for analysis with body scale, mechanical and lower extremity strength variables separately for boys and girls. BMI, height and body mass, considered both separately and collectively, were poor and/or inconsistent predictors of variability in all three posture tasks. However, the ratio of lower extremity strength to whole body moment of inertia showed the highest positive correlation to most postural variability measures in both boys and girls and these effects were strongest in the less stable tasks of single leg standing and recovery of stance. Our findings support the hypothesis that diminished lower extremity strength to mechanical constraint ratio compromises the robustness of the strength to body scale relation in movement and postural control. PMID:22018701

  18. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  19. Prevalence of Common Postural Disorders Among Academic Dental Staff

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Leila; Halabchi, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Irandoost, Shahla; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems among dentists. These conditions may lead to inappropriate postures and impairment in physical and psychological function. On the other hand, poor postures and inappropriate ergonomic may result in a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common postural disorders of the spine and shoulder girdle among the dentists and possible correlations between demographic, anthropometric and occupational characteristics with these abnormal postures. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 96 dental staff including academic staff, residents and senior students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire and posture assessment tools such as plumb-line, checkerboard and flexible ruler. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 17. Results The prevalence of the forward head posture (FHP), rounded shoulder posture (RSP), scoliosis and hyperlordosis were reported in 85.5%, 68.8%, 18.8% and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. A significant correlation was found between gender and FHP (P = 0.04) and also scoliosis (P = 0.009). On the other hand, a significant correlation was seen between weight and hyperlordosis (P = 0.007). Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of postural disorders especially FHP, RSP and scoliosis among Iranian dental staff. The female dentists were less susceptible to FHP and scoliosis. PMID:27625751

  20. Prevalence of Common Postural Disorders Among Academic Dental Staff

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Leila; Halabchi, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Irandoost, Shahla; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems among dentists. These conditions may lead to inappropriate postures and impairment in physical and psychological function. On the other hand, poor postures and inappropriate ergonomic may result in a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common postural disorders of the spine and shoulder girdle among the dentists and possible correlations between demographic, anthropometric and occupational characteristics with these abnormal postures. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 96 dental staff including academic staff, residents and senior students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire and posture assessment tools such as plumb-line, checkerboard and flexible ruler. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 17. Results The prevalence of the forward head posture (FHP), rounded shoulder posture (RSP), scoliosis and hyperlordosis were reported in 85.5%, 68.8%, 18.8% and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. A significant correlation was found between gender and FHP (P = 0.04) and also scoliosis (P = 0.009). On the other hand, a significant correlation was seen between weight and hyperlordosis (P = 0.007). Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of postural disorders especially FHP, RSP and scoliosis among Iranian dental staff. The female dentists were less susceptible to FHP and scoliosis.

  1. Turning Configural Processing Upside Down: Part and Whole Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Stone, Valerie E.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; McGoldrick, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of…

  2. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Igarashi, M.; Guedry, F.; Anderson, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  3. Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi and Down Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano; Vismara, Luca; Precilios, Helmer; Albertini, Giorgio; Rigoldi, Chiara; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Down (DS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterised by some common clinical and functional features including gait disorders and reduced postural control. The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare postural control in adult PWS and DS. We studied 12 PWS and 19 DS adult patients matched for age, height, weight…

  4. Static Postural Stability Is Normal in Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brian; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An experiment on 15 dyslexic and 23 carefully matched control subjects (10- to 12-year-old males), examining their ability to maintain standing posture with eyes open and closed and with standard and tandem foot placement, revealed no differences under any condition tested and no differences in use of visual information to maintain their posture.…

  5. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  6. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does. PMID:26096315

  7. Disabling postural hypotension complicating diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M J; Edmonds, M E; Mathias, C J; Watkins, P J

    1991-11-01

    A 35-year-old Type 1 diabetic man with severe disabling postural hypotension was studied for physiological abnormalities, precipitating factors, and effect of current treatment. A 24-h blood pressure profile indicated a diurnal variation in systolic blood pressure with the lowest values recorded between 0100 and 0600 h, during which the patient often lost consciousness on standing (mean standing systolic pressure 78 mmHg at night vs 105 mmHg in the afternoon, p less than 0.001). Food induced a profound fall in systolic pressure, both while supine and while standing erect. The systolic pressure fall during euglycaemia was 49 mmHg vs 3 mmHg during hypoglycaemia. Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels were low during euglycaemia, but increased during hypoglycaemia. Therapeutic manoeuvres aimed at increasing heart rate (by atrial tachypacing) and reducing the peripheral pooling of blood (vasoconstricting drugs and gravity suit), together with the somatostatin analogue octreotide, proved ineffective. These observations demonstrate the phenomenon of post-prandial exacerbation of postural hypotension in a Type 1 diabetic patient, and indicate that despite failure of conventional methods of treatment, hypoglycaemia increased plasma catecholamines and was effective in abolishing the blood pressure fall on standing.

  8. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  9. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  10. Effects of Limb Posture on Reactive Hyperemia

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anandi; Lucassen, Elisabeth B.; Hogeman, Cindy; Blaha, Cheryl; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of limb posture on vascular conductance during rapid changes in vascular transmural pressure, we determined brachial (n = 10) and femoral (n = 10) artery post-occlusive reactive hyperemic blood flow (RHBF, ultrasound/Doppler) and vascular conductance in healthy humans with each limb at three different positions – horizontal, up and down. Limb posture was varied by raising or lowering the arm or leg from the horizontal position by 45°. In both limbs, peak RHBF and vascular conductance was highest in the down or horizontal position and lowest in the up position (arm up 338 ± 38, supine 430 ± 52, down 415 ± 52 ml/min, P < 0.05; leg up 1208 ± 88, supine 1579 ± 130, down 1767 ± 149 ml/min, P < 0.05). In contrast, the maximal dynamic fall in blood flow following peak RHBF (in ml/s/s) in both limbs was highest in the limb down position and lowest with the limb elevated (P < 0.05). These data suggest that the magnitude and temporal pattern of limb reactive hyperemia is in part related to changes in vascular transmural pressure and independent of systemic blood pressure and sympathetic control. PMID:21161263

  11. Viscoelastic properties of laryngeal posturing muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Fariborz; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo

    2003-10-01

    Viscoelastic properties of canine laryngeal muscles were measured in a series of in vitro experiments. Laryngeal posturing that controls vocal fold length and adduction/abduction is an essential component of the voice production. The dynamics of posturing depends on the viscoelastic and physiological properties of the laryngeal muscles. The time-dependent and nonlinear behaviors of these tissues are also crucial in the voice production and pitch control theories. The lack of information on some of these muscles such as posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA), and intraarytenoid muscle (IA) was the major incentive for this study. Samples of PCA and LCA muscles were made from canine larynges and mounted on a dual-servo system (Ergometer) as described in our previous works. Two sets of experiments were conducted on each muscle, a 1-Hz stretch and release experiment that provides stress-strain data and a stress relaxation test. Data from these muscles were fitted to viscoelastic models and Young's modulus and viscoelastic constants are obtained for each muscle. Preliminary data indicates that elastics properties of these muscles are similar to those of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. The relaxation response of these muscles also shows some similarity to other laryngeal muscles in terms of time constants.

  12. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-01-01

    Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a “final common pathway” for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies, but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support. PMID:26198889

  13. Artificial balancer - supporting device for postural reflex.

    PubMed

    Wojtara, Tytus; Sasaki, Makoto; Konosu, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masashi; Shimoda, Shingo; Alnajjar, Fady; Kimura, Hidenori

    2012-02-01

    The evolutionarily novel ability to keep ones body upright while standing or walking, the human balance, deteriorates in old age or can be compromised after accidents or brain surgeries. With the aged society, age related balance problems are on the rise. Persons with balance problems are more likely to fall during their everyday life routines. Especially in elderly, falls can lead to bone fractures making the patient bedridden, weakening the body and making it more prone to other diseases. Health care expenses for a fall patient are often very high. There is a great deal of research being done on exoskeletons and power assists. However, these technologies concentrate mainly on the amplifications of human muscle power while balance has to be provided by the human themself. Our research has been focused on supporting human balance in harmony with the human's own posture control mechanisms such as postural reflexes. This paper proposes an artificial balancer that supports human balance through acceleration of a flywheel attached to the body. Appropriate correcting torques are generated through our device based on the measurements of body deflections. We have carried out experiments with test persons standing on a platform subject to lateral perturbations and ambulatory experiments while walking on a balance beam. These experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of our device in supporting balance and the possibility of enhancing balance-keeping capability in human beings through the application of external torque. PMID:22169384

  14. Fitts' Law in early postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bertucco, M; Cesari, P; Latash, M L

    2013-02-12

    We tested a hypothesis that the classical relation between movement time and index of difficulty (ID) in quick pointing action (Fitts' Law) reflects processes at the level of motor planning. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and performed quick and accurate hand movements into targets of different size located at two distances. The movements were associated with early postural adjustments that are assumed to reflect motor planning processes. The short distance did not require trunk rotation, while the long distance did. As a result, movements over the long distance were associated with substantial Coriolis forces. Movement kinematics and contact forces and moments recorded by the platform were studied. Movement time scaled with ID for both movements. However, the data could not be fitted with a single regression: Movements over the long distance had a larger intercept corresponding to movement times about 140 ms longer than movements over the shorter distance. The magnitude of postural adjustments prior to movement initiation scaled with ID for both short and long distances. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that Fitts' Law emerges at the level of motor planning, not at the level of corrections of ongoing movements. They show that, during natural movements, changes in movement distance may lead to changes in the relation between movement time and ID, for example when the contribution of different body segments to the movement varies and when the action of Coriolis force may require an additional correction of the movement trajectory. PMID:23211560

  15. Fitts’ Law in Early Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Bertucco, M.; Cesari, P.; Latash, M.L

    2012-01-01

    We tested a hypothesis that the classical relation between movement time and index of difficulty (ID) in quick pointing action (Fitts’ Law) reflects processes at the level of motor planning. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and performed quick and accurate hand movements into targets of different size located at two distances. The movements were associated with early postural adjustments that are assumed to reflect motor planning processes. The short distance did not require trunk rotation, while the long distance did. As a result, movements over the long distance were associated with substantiual Coriolis forces. Movement kinematics and contact forces and moments recorded by the platform were studied. Movement time scaled with ID for both movements. However, the data could not be fitted with a single regression: Movements over the long distance had a larger intercept corresponding to movement times about 140 ms longer than movements over the shorter distance. The magnitude of postural adjustments prior to movement initiation scaled with ID for both short and long distances. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that Fitts’ Law emerges at the level of motor planning, not at the level of corrections of ongoing movements. They show that, during natural movements, changes in movement distance may lead to changes in the relation between movement time and ID, for example when the contribution of different body segments to the movement varies and when the action of Coriolis force may require an additional correction of the movement trajectory. PMID:23211560

  16. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support. PMID:26198889

  17. The effect of posture and abdominal binding on respiratory pressures.

    PubMed

    Koulouris, N; Mulvey, D A; Laroche, C M; Goldstone, J; Moxham, J; Green, M

    1989-11-01

    We examined the effect of posture on the generation of respiratory pressures in 6 highly trained subjects. Transdiaphragmatic pressure was measured at FRC during bilateral percutaneous phrenic nerve stimulation (twitch Pdi) and maximal sniffs (sniff Pdi), with the abdomen bound and unbound. Maximum static inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory (PEmax) mouth pressures were measured with the abdomen unbound. Three postures were examined: seated (Se), semi-supine (30s), and supine (Su). Changes of posture did not significantly alter twitch Pdi. By contrast, sniff Pdi and static mouth pressures were significantly reduced in the Su posture. Abdominal binding significantly increased twitch Pdi only. We conclude that voluntary respiratory manoeuvres requiring activation, recruitment and coordination of different muscle groups are performed better in the Se position. We suggest that posture be standardised for serial comparative measurements of voluntary respiratory pressures in a given subject.

  18. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  19. Effect of experimentally induced low back pain on postural sway with breathing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-09-01

    Although breathing perturbs balance, in healthy individuals little sway is detected in ground reaction forces because small movements of the spine and lower limbs compensate for the postural disturbance. When people have chronic low back pain (LBP), sway at the ground is increased, possibly as a result of reduced compensatory motion of the trunk. The aim of this study was to determine whether postural compensation for breathing is reduced during experimentally induced pain. Subjects stood on a force plate with eyes open, eyes closed, and while breathing with hypercapnoea before and after injection of hypertonic saline into the right lumbar longissimus muscle to induce LBP. Motion of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower limbs was measured with four inclinometers fixed over bony landmarks. During experimental pain, motion of the trunk in association with breathing was reduced. However, despite this reduction in motion, there was no increase in postural sway with breathing. These data suggest that increased body sway with breathing in people with chronic LBP is not simply because of reduced trunk movement, but instead, indicates changes in coordination by the central nervous system that are not replicated by experimental nociceptor stimulation.

  20. Reductions in self-reported stress and anticipatory heart rate with the use of a semi-automated parallel parking system.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Drivers' reactions to a semi-autonomous technology for assisted parallel parking system were evaluated in a field experiment. A sample of 42 drivers balanced by gender and across three age groups (20-29, 40-49, 60-69) were given a comprehensive briefing, saw the technology demonstrated, practiced parallel parking 3 times each with and without the assistive technology, and then were assessed on an additional 3 parking events each with and without the technology. Anticipatory stress, as measured by heart rate, was significantly lower when drivers approached a parking space knowing that they would be using the assistive technology as opposed to manually parking. Self-reported stress levels following assisted parks were also lower. Thus, both subjective and objective data support the position that the assistive technology reduced stress levels in drivers who were given detailed training. It was observed that drivers decreased their use of turn signals when using the semi-autonomous technology, raising a caution concerning unintended lapses in safe driving behaviors that may occur when assistive technologies are used.

  1. An experimental study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders and postural stress of female craftworkers adopting different sitting postures.

    PubMed

    Maity, Payel; De, Sujaya; Pal, Amitava; Dhara, Prakash C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and postural stress among female craftworkers. The study was carried out on 75 adult female craftworkers in different districts of West Bengal. The prevalence of MSDs, body part discomfort (BPD) rating and body joint angles of the workers were evaluated with standard methods. Electromyography (EMG) of the shoulder and back muscles was recorded with the BIOPAC system. The prevalence of MSDs, BPD rating and deviation of joint angle were comparatively lower in the case of sitting on the floor with folded legs than squatting and sitting on the floor with stretched legs postures. The EMG and rms values of the shoulder and back muscles were comparatively lower in this posture. Therefore, it was concluded that sitting on the floor with folded legs was less hazardous and it imposed less postural stress in comparison to other sitting postures. PMID:27055480

  2. Does extending the dual-task functional exercises workout improve postural balance in individuals with ID?

    PubMed

    Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID.

  3. Effect of Seated Trunk Posture on Eye Blink Startle and Subjective Experience: Comparing Flexion, Neutral Upright Posture, and Extension of Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.; Dankaerts, Wim; Van Diest, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the current study was to explore this. Participants in the present study were requested to assume three different sitting postures: with the spine flexed (slouched), neutral upright, and extended. Each posture was assumed for four minutes, and was followed by the administration of brief self-report questionnaires before proceeding to the next posture. The same series of postures and measures were repeated prior to ending the experiment. Results indicate that, relative to the other postures, the extended sitting posture was associated with an increased startle, was more unpleasant, arousing, had smaller levels of dominance, induced more discomfort, and was perceived as more difficult. The upright and flexed sitting postures differed in the level of self-reported positive affect, but not in eye blink startle amplitudes. PMID:24516664

  4. Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system.

    PubMed

    Woolard, Jennifer L; Harvell, Samantha; Graham, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines age differences in anticipatory injustice, or the expectation of unfair or discriminatory treatment in the legal system. 1,393 adolescents and young adults from the community or from detention centers and jails were interviewed regarding demographic and justice system experience, intelligence, expectations about fair treatment, and legal decisions. African Americans and Latinos and those with more system experience expected greater injustice across multiple legal contexts. Anticipatory injustice increased with age among African Americans and those with the most system experience. It also predicted choices about police interrogation, attorney consultation, and plea agreements. Anticipations of injustice during adolescence may affect future interactions with court officials as well as more general constructs of legal socialization. PMID:18344171

  5. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  6. Robust hopping based on virtual pendulum posture control.

    PubMed

    Sharbafi, Maziar A; Maufroy, Christophe; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad J; Seyfarth, Andre

    2013-09-01

    A new control approach to achieve robust hopping against perturbations in the sagittal plane is presented in this paper. In perturbed hopping, vertical body alignment has a significant role for stability. Our approach is based on the virtual pendulum concept, recently proposed, based on experimental findings in human and animal locomotion. In this concept, the ground reaction forces are pointed to a virtual support point, named virtual pivot point (VPP), during motion. This concept is employed in designing the controller to balance the trunk during the stance phase. New strategies for leg angle and length adjustment besides the virtual pendulum posture control are proposed as a unified controller. This method is investigated by applying it on an extension of the spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model. Trunk, leg mass and damping are added to the SLIP model in order to make the model more realistic. The stability is analyzed by Poincaré map analysis. With fixed VPP position, stability, disturbance rejection and moderate robustness are achieved, but with a low convergence speed. To improve the performance and attain higher robustness, an event-based control of the VPP position is introduced, using feedback of the system states at apexes. Discrete linear quartic regulator is used to design the feedback controller. Considerable enhancements with respect to stability, convergence speed and robustness against perturbations and parameter changes are achieved.

  7. Influence of voluntary teeth clenching on the stabilization of postural stance disturbed by electrical stimulation of unilateral lower limb.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Sachiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between dental occlusion and body balance have suggested that occlusion status contributes to the maintenance of postural balance. However, little has been reported about the effects of voluntary teeth clenching on the stabilization of postural stance in novel environments. In the present study we investigated whether teeth clenching influenced adaptation to the perturbation introduced by electrical stimulation of a unilateral lower limb. Subjects (12 adults) stood on a force plate, from which motion data were obtained in the horizontal plane with and without voluntary teeth clenching and were instructed to maintain the position throughout the experiment. We evoked a novel environment by supramaximal percutaneous electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve. Electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from the masseter and the peroneus longus (PL) muscles with bipolar surface cup electrodes. When the disturbed postural stance was generated by electrical stimulation, the maximum reaction force in the anterior-posterior (A/P) direction with teeth clenching (CL) was significantly smaller than that without voluntary teeth clenching (control; CO) (p<0.05) and the peak time of the ground reaction force/body mass (GRF/BM) in the A/P direction occurred earlier in the CL condition than CO (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the peak-to-peak amplitude of GRF/BM and the peak time of GRF/BM, in the M/L direction under both CL and CO conditions. Thus, the present study showed that voluntary teeth clenching contributed to stabilization of the postural stance perturbed transiently by electrical stimulation. We concluded that voluntary teeth clenching plays an important role in rapid postural adaptation to the anterior-posterior perturbation in the upright position. PMID:19879763

  8. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  9. Putative spinal interneurons mediating postural limb reflexes provide basis for postural control in different planes

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2014-01-01

    The dorsal-side-up trunk orientation in standing quadrupeds is maintained by the postural system driven mainly by somatosensory inputs from the limbs. Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of this system. Earlier we described spinal neurons presumably contributing to the generation of PLRs. The first aim of the present study was to reveal trends in the distribution of neurons with different parameters of PLR-related activity across the gray matter of the spinal cord. The second aim was to estimate the contribution of PLR-related neurons with different patterns of convergence of sensory inputs from the limbs to stabilization of body orientation in different planes. For this purpose, the head and vertebral column of the decerebrate rabbit were fixed, whereas the hindlimbs were positioned on a platform. Activity of individual neurons from L5–L6 was recorded during PLRs evoked by lateral tilts of the platform. In addition, the neurons were tested by tilts of the platform under only the ipsilateral or only the contralateral limb, as well as during in-phase tilts of the platforms under both limbs. We found that, across the spinal gray matter, strength of PLR-related neuronal activity and sensory input from the ipsi-limb decreased in the dorso-ventral direction, while strength of the input from the contra-limb increased. A near linear summation of tilt-related sensory inputs from different limbs was found. Functional roles were proposed for individual neurons. The obtained data present the first characterization of posture-related spinal neurons, forming a basis for studies of postural networks impaired by injury. PMID:25370349

  10. Global Body Posture Evaluation in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS : Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder. PMID:19142549

  11. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  12. Perturbations in action goal influence bimanual grasp posture planning.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Seegelke, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of perturbations in action goal on bimanual grasp posture planning. Sixteen participants simultaneously reached for 2 cylinders and placed either the left or the right end of the cylinders into targets. As soon as the participants began their reaching movements, a secondary stimulus was triggered, which indicated whether the intended action goal for the left or right hand had changed. Overall, the tendency for a single hand to select end-state comfort compliant grasp postures was higher for the nonperturbed condition compared to both the perturbed left and perturbed right conditions. Furthermore, participants were more likely to plan their movements to ensure end-state comfort for both hands during nonperturbed trials, than perturbed trials, especially object end-orientation conditions that required the adoption of at least one underhand grasp posture to satisfy bimanual end-state comfort. Results indicated that when the action goal of a single object was perturbed, participants attempted to reduce the cognitive costs associated with grasp posture replanning by maintaining the original grasp posture plan, and tolerating grasp postures that result in less controllable final postures.

  13. Ergonomic evaluation of postural stress in school workshop.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Adila Md; Dawal, Siti Zawiahmd Md; Yusoff, Nukman

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the evaluation of postural analysis between a self-report questionnaire and physical assessments methods for students aged 13 to 15 years old in school workshop. 336 students were volunteered as participants to fill in the questionnaire and being observed in the workshop. Total of 104 positions were selected and analyzed while students performing their tasks. Questionnaire data was examined to specify the prevalence of postural stress symptoms. The relationship of postural stress by physical assessment methods (RULA and REBA methods) was defined to identify the risk level of students' working posture. From the results, comparison of four factors categorized from total of 22 questions among ages, the mean values were lower for 13 years old students meaning that they were faced higher posture problems while using the workstation. The obtained results from both physical assessment methods and questionnaire analysis have identified 13 years old students faced higher risk exposure. Analysis results emphasized the fact that self-reports questionnaire method has almost accurate as postural evaluation methods to identify physical risks in workplace. The result also shows that an intervention is needed to overcome the posture problems. PMID:22316824

  14. Postural orientation in microgravity depends on straightening up movement performed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2009-08-01

    Whether the vertical body orientation depends on the initial posture and/or the type of straightening up movement is the main question raised in this paper. Another objective was to specify the compensatory role of visual input while adopting an erected posture during microgravity. The final body orientation was analysed in microgravity during parabolic flights. After either (1) straightening up movement from a crouching or (2) a sitting posture, with and without vision. The main results are the following: (1) a vertical erected final posture is correctly achieved after sit to stand movement, whereas all subjects were tilted forward after straightening up from a crouching posture and (2) vision may contribute to correct final posture. These results suggest the existence of a re-weighting of the remaining sensory information, visual information, contact cutaneous cues and proprioceptive information under microgravity condition. We can put forward the alternative hypothesis that the control of body orientation under microgravity condition may also be achieved on the basis of a postural body scheme, that seems to be dependant on the type of movement and/ or the initial position of the whole body.

  15. Emotional and movement-related body postures modulate visual processing.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Maier, Martin E; Avenanti, Alessio; Bertini, Caterina

    2015-08-01

    Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others' emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body images with neutral, fearful or happy expressions. At the early stage of visual structural encoding (N190), we found a difference in the sensitivity of the two hemispheres to observed body postures. Specifically, the right hemisphere showed a N190 modulation both for the motion content (i.e. all the observed postures implying body movements elicited greater N190 amplitudes compared with static postures) and for the emotional content (i.e. fearful postures elicited the largest N190 amplitude), while the left hemisphere showed a modulation only for the motion content. In contrast, at a later stage of perceptual representation, reflecting selective attention to salient stimuli, an increased early posterior negativity was observed for fearful stimuli in both hemispheres, suggesting an enhanced processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. The observed modulations, both at the early stage of structural encoding and at the later processing stage, suggest the existence of a specialized perceptual mechanism tuned to emotion- and action-related information conveyed by human body postures. PMID:25556213

  16. Emotional and movement-related body postures modulate visual processing.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Maier, Martin E; Avenanti, Alessio; Bertini, Caterina

    2015-08-01

    Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others' emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body images with neutral, fearful or happy expressions. At the early stage of visual structural encoding (N190), we found a difference in the sensitivity of the two hemispheres to observed body postures. Specifically, the right hemisphere showed a N190 modulation both for the motion content (i.e. all the observed postures implying body movements elicited greater N190 amplitudes compared with static postures) and for the emotional content (i.e. fearful postures elicited the largest N190 amplitude), while the left hemisphere showed a modulation only for the motion content. In contrast, at a later stage of perceptual representation, reflecting selective attention to salient stimuli, an increased early posterior negativity was observed for fearful stimuli in both hemispheres, suggesting an enhanced processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. The observed modulations, both at the early stage of structural encoding and at the later processing stage, suggest the existence of a specialized perceptual mechanism tuned to emotion- and action-related information conveyed by human body postures.

  17. Postural perturbations: new insights for treatment of balance disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horak, F. B.; Henry, S. M.; Shumway-Cook, A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the neural control of posture as understood through studies of automatic responses to mechanical perturbations. Recent studies of responses to postural perturbations have provided a new view of how postural stability is controlled, and this view has profound implications for physical therapy practice. We discuss the implications for rehabilitation of balance disorders and demonstrate how an understanding of the specific systems underlying postural control can help to focus and enrich our therapeutic approaches. By understanding the basic systems underlying control of balance, such as strategy selection, rapid latencies, coordinated temporal spatial patterns, force control, and context-specific adaptations, therapists can focus their treatment on each patient's specific impairments. Research on postural responses to surface translations has shown that balance is not based on a fixed set of equilibrium reflexes but on a flexible, functional motor skill that can adapt with training and experience. More research is needed to determine the extent to which quantification of automatic postural responses has practical implications for predicting falls in patients with constraints in their postural control system.

  18. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  19. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture. PMID:27390405

  20. Individual Differences in Anticipatory Somatosensory Cortex Activity for Shock is Positively Related with Trait Anxiety and Multisensory Integration

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Steven G.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with an exaggerated expectancy of harm, including overestimation of how likely a conditioned stimulus (CS+) predicts a harmful unconditioned stimulus (US). In the current study we tested whether anxiety-associated expectancy of harm increases primary sensory cortex (S1) activity on non-reinforced (i.e., no shock) CS+ trials. Twenty healthy volunteers completed a differential-tone trace conditioning task while undergoing fMRI, with shock delivered to the left hand. We found a positive correlation between trait anxiety and activity in right, but not left, S1 during CS+ versus CS− conditions. Right S1 activity also correlated with individual differences in both primary auditory cortices (A1) and amygdala activity. Lastly, a seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that trial-wise S1 activity was positively correlated with regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), suggesting that higher-order cognitive processes contribute to the anticipatory sensory reactivity. Our findings indicate that individual differences in trait anxiety relate to anticipatory reactivity for the US during associative learning. This anticipatory reactivity is also integrated along with emotion-related sensory signals into a brain network implicated in fear-conditioned responding. PMID:26751483

  1. Overshadowing as prevention of anticipatory nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emesis and nausea are side effects induced by chemotherapy. These effects lead to enormous stress and strain on cancer patients. Further consequences may include restrictions in quality of life, cachexia or therapy avoidance. Evidence suggests that cancer patients develop the side effects of nausea and vomiting in anticipation of chemotherapy. Contextual cues such as smell, sounds or even the sight of the clinic may evoke anticipatory nausea and vomiting prior to infusion. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting are problems that cannot be solved by administration of antiemetica alone. The purpose of the proposed randomized placebo-controlled trial is to use an overshadowing technique to prevent anticipatory nausea and vomiting and to decrease the intensity and duration of post-treatment nausea and vomiting. Furthermore, the effect on anxiety, adherence and quality of life will be evaluated. Methods/Design Fifty-two pediatric cancer patients will be evenly assigned to two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The participants, hospital staff and data analysts will be kept blinded towards group allocation. The experimental group will receive during three chemotherapy cycles a salient piece of candy prior to every infusion, whereas the control group will receive flavorless placebo tablets. Discussion If an effectiveness of the overshadowing technique is proven, implementation of this treatment into the hospitals’ daily routine will follow. The use of this efficient and economic procedure should aid a reduced need for antiemetics. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30242271/ PMID:23782493

  2. 2.5-year-olds Succeed at a Verbal Anticipatory-Looking False-Belief Task

    PubMed Central

    He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that infants and toddlers succeed at a wide range of nonelicited-response false-belief tasks (i.e., tasks that do not require children to answer a direct question about a mistaken agent’s likely behavior). However, one exception to this generalization comes from verbal anticipatory-looking tasks, which have produced inconsistent findings with toddlers. One possible explanation for these findings is that toddlers succeed when they correctly interpret the prompt as a self-addressed utterance (making the task a nonelicited-response task), but fail when they mistakenly interpret the prompt as a direct question (making the task an elicited-response task). Here, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in a verbal anticipatory-looking task that was designed to help them interpret the anticipatory prompt as a self-addressed utterance: the experimenter looked at the ceiling, chin in hand, during and after the prompt. Children gave evidence of false-belief understanding in this task, but failed when the experimenter looked at the child during and after the prompt. These results reinforce claims of robust continuity in early false-belief reasoning and provide additional support for the distinction between nonelicited- and elicited-response false-belief tasks. Three accounts of the discrepant results obtained with these tasks—and of early false-belief understanding more generally—are discussed. PMID:22429030

  3. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  4. A whole body postural loading simulation and assessment model for workplace analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Francisco; Correia da Silva, K; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the development and validation of a new computer model for simulating human postures at work, and assessing the reaction forces and bending moments in 43 human articulation joints. The proposed model estimates the intradiscal pressure in the vertebral column in response to external loading forces encountered during human interactions with work objects or processes. The model was implemented in a self-contained interactive software package. The simulation results compare favorably with the reported experimental data, and provide reasonable confidence in the quality of the model. Its characteristics and its applications in evaluating physical task performance are also discussed. PMID:23294655

  5. Postural balance in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jessica; Wolff, Don R; Jones, Vincent K; Bloch, Daniel A; Oehlert, John W; Gamble, James G

    2002-01-01

    Postural control deficits have been suggested to be a major component of gait disorders in cerebral palsy (CP). Standing balance was investigated in 23 ambulatory children and adolescents with spastic diplegic CP, ages 5 to 18 years, and compared with values of 92 children without disability, ages 5 to 18 years, while they stood on a force plate with eyes open or eyes closed. The measurements included center of pressure calculations of path length per second, average radial displacement, mean frequency of sway, and Brownian random motion measures of the short-term diffusion coefficient, and the long-term scaling exponent. In the majority of children with CP (14 of 23) all standing balance values were normal. However, approximately one-third of the children with CP (eight of 23) had abnormal values in at least two of the six center of pressure measures. Thus, mean values for path length, average radial displacement, and diffusion coefficient were higher for participants with CP compared with control individuals with eyes open and closed (p<0.05). Mean values for frequency of sway and the long-term scaling exponent were lower for participants with CP compared with control participants (p<0.05). Increased average radial displacement was the most common (nine of 23) postural control deficit. There was no increase in abnormal values with eyes closed compared with eyes open for participants with CP, indicating that most participants with CP had normal dependence on visual feedback to maintain balance. Identification of those children with impaired standing balance can delineate factors that contribute to the patient's gait disorder and help to guide treatment.

  6. Postural responses to changing task conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P D; Woollacott, M H; Debu, B

    1988-01-01

    The experimental goal was to investigate discrepancies in the literature concerning postural adaptation and to determine if the prior presentation of horizontal perturbations affected the amplitude of responses to rotational perturbations. Surface EMG recordings from lower leg muscles (gastrocnemius (GAS) and tibialis anterior (TA)) were recorded in twelve subjects, and the amplitudes of the responses were statistically analyzed. We did not find differences between the responses to rotational perturbations which preceded or followed horizontal perturbations. This finding did not support the hypothesis that differences in the order of presentation of the different types of perturbations accounted for the discrepancies in the literature. Furthermore, our design did not show the progressive elimination of the GAS response within three to five sequential trials. Instead, we found a slow but significant response amplitude reduction over ten trials without yielding a permanent disappearance of the response. When analyzing the GAS responses to the rotational perturbations only, we found two components that contributed to the response reduction: 1) an initial reduction between trials one and subsequent trials, which could be due to habituation of a startle-like response; and 2) a second reduction which was more gradual. Our results also showed an immediate change in the response amplitude on the first trial, when the type of perturbation was changed. This is inconsistent with the view that ankle musculature stretch and joint movement are the primary inputs driving the postural responses. Since small ankle dorsiflexing rotations produced by the platform translations caused large GAS responses while large ankle dorsiflexing rotations produced by direct platform rotations caused small GAS responses, this suggests that multiple sensory inputs contribute to the responses. We propose that an initial compensation to a new perturbation type occurs within the first trial by the

  7. Functional muscle synergies constrain force production during postural tasks

    PubMed Central

    McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a set of five functional muscle synergies were sufficient to characterize both hindlimb muscle activity and active forces during automatic postural responses in cats standing at multiple postural configurations. This characterization depended critically upon the assumption that the endpoint force vector (synergy force vector) produced by the activation of each muscle synergy rotated with the limb axis as the hindlimb posture varied in the sagittal plane. Here, we used a detailed, 3D static model of the hindlimb to confirm that this assumption is biomechanically plausible: as we varied the model posture, simulated synergy force vectors rotated monotonically with the limb axis in the parasagittal plane (r2 = 0.94 ± 0.08). We then tested whether a neural strategy of using these five functional muscle synergies provides the same force-generating capability as controlling each of the 31 muscles individually. We compared feasible force sets (FFS) from the model with and without a muscle synergy organization. FFS volumes were significantly reduced with the muscle synergy organization (F = 1556.01, p ≪ 0.01), and as posture varied, the synergy-limited FFSs changed in shape, consistent with changes in experimentally-measured active forces. In contrast, nominal FFS shapes were invariant with posture, reinforcing prior findings that postural forces cannot be predicted by hindlimb biomechanics alone. We propose that an internal model for postural force generation may coordinate functional muscle synergies that are invariant in intrinsic limb coordinates, and this reduced-dimension control scheme reduces the set of forces available for postural control. PMID:17980370

  8. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses

    PubMed Central

    Deliagina, Tatiana G.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Zelenin, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey) and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat). In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS) neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms – spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed. PMID:25324741

  9. Threshold position control of arm movement with anticipatory increase in grip force.

    PubMed

    Pilon, Jean-François; De Serres, Sophie J; Feldman, Anatol G

    2007-07-01

    The grip force holding an object between fingers usually increases before or simultaneously with arm movement thus preventing the object from sliding. We experimentally analyzed and simulated this anticipatory behavior based on the following notions. (1) To move the arm to a new position, the nervous system shifts the threshold position at which arm muscles begin to be recruited. Deviated from their activation thresholds, arm muscles generate activity and forces that tend to minimize this deviation by bringing the arm to a new position. (2) To produce a grip force, with or without arm motion, the nervous system changes the threshold configuration of the hand. This process defines a threshold (referent) aperture (R(a)) of appropriate fingers. The actual aperture (Q(a)) is constrained by the size of the object held between the fingers whereas, in referent position R(a), the fingers virtually penetrate the object. Deviated by the object from their thresholds of activation, hand muscles generate activity and grip forces in proportion to the gap between the Q(a) and R(a). Thus, grip force emerges since the object prevents the fingers from reaching the referent position. (3) From previous experiences, the system knows that objects tend to slide off the fingers when arm movements are made and, to prevent sliding, it starts narrowing the referent aperture simultaneously with or somewhat before the onset of changes in the referent arm position. (4) The interaction between the fingers and the object is accomplished via the elastic pads on the tips of fingers. The pads are compressed not only due to the grip force but also due to the tangential inertial force ("load") acting from the object on the pads along the arm trajectory. Compressed by the load force, the pads move back and forth in the gap between the finger bones and object, thus inevitably changing the normal component of the grip force, in synchrony with and in proportion to the load force. Based on these notions

  10. Anticipatory care planning and integration: a primary care pilot study aimed at reducing unplanned hospitalisation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adrian; Leak, Paul; Ritchie, Lewis D; Lee, Amanda J; Fielding, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Background Anticipatory care for older patients who are frail involves both case identification and proactive intervention to reduce hospitalisation. Aim To identify a population who were at risk of admission to hospital and to provide an anticipatory care plan (ACP) for them and to ascertain whether using primary and secondary care data to identify this population and then applying an ACP can help to reduce hospital admission rates. Design and setting Cohort study of a service intervention in a general practice and a primary care team in Scotland. Method The ACP sets out patients’ wishes in the event of a sudden deterioration in health. If admitted, a proactive approach was taken to transfer and discharge patients into the community. Cohorts were selected using the Nairn Case Finder, which matched patients in two practices for age, sex, multiple morbidity indexes, and secondary care outpatient and inpatient activity; 96 patients in each practice were studied for admission rate, occupied bed days and survival. Results Survivors from the ACP cohort (n = 80) had 510 fewer days in hospital than in the 12 months pre-intervention: a significant reduction of 52.0% (P = 0.020). There were 37 fewer admissions of the survivors from that cohort post-intervention than in the preceding 12 months, with a significant reduction of 42.5% (P = 0.002). Mortality rates in the two cohorts were similar, but the number of patients who died in hospital and the hospital bed days used in the last 3 months of life were significantly lower for the decedents with an ACP than for the controls who had died (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045 respectively). Conclusion This approach produced statistically significant reductions in unplanned hospitalisation for a cohort of patients with multiple morbidities. It demonstrates the potential for providing better care for patients as well as better value for health and social care services. It is of particular benefit in managing end-of-life care. PMID:22520788

  11. Good Stress, Bad Stress and Oxidative Stress: Insights from Anticipatory Cortisol Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as “peak” cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as “anticipatory” cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-OxoG and IsoP (but not

  12. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  13. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria P.; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  14. Functional asymmetry of posture and body system regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boloban, V. N.; Otsupok, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The manifestation of functional asymmetry during the regulation of an athlete's posture and a system of bodies and its effect on the execution of individual and group acrobatic exercises were studied. Functional asymmetry of posture regulation was recorded in acrobats during the execution of individual and group exercises. It was shown that stability is maintained at the expense of bending and twisting motions. It is important to consider whether the functional asymmetry of posture regulation is left or right sided in making up pairs and groups of acrobats.

  15. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  16. Detection of baseline and near-fall postural stability.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Amy R; Rowley, Blair A

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether there are any measurable warning signs just before a patient falls. This study of postural position just prior to a fall involved a subject standing on a balance beam while wearing a gyroscope-based wireless data acquisition system. Results show a variation in postural position when the subject appeared stable. This occurred well before the subject experienced a fall and could not be classified as pre-fall or fall. The results show that there are two distinguishable levels of postural stability - baseline and near-fall.

  17. Ankle sprain and postural sway in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Leanderson, J; Wykman, A; Eriksson, E

    1993-01-01

    The present study compares postural ankle stability between previously injured basketball players, uninjured players and a control/group. Postural sway was recorded and analysed by stabilometry using a specially designed computer-assisted forceplate. Recordings were obtained for 60 s on each foot. The stabilometric results in the players with no previous injuries did not differ from those in the controls. Players with a previously injured ankle differed significantly from the control group. These players had a larger mean postural sway and used a larger sway area.

  18. Postural responses during volitional and perturbed dynamic balance tasks in new lower limb amputees: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, C T; Vanicek, N; Polman, R C J

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the adaptation of postural responses in transtibial amputees during both perturbed and volitional dynamic balance tasks during a five-month period following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees performed the sensory organisation test (SOT) and the limits of stability (LOS) test protocols on the NeuroCom Equitest(®) at one, three and six months post-discharge from in-patient rehabilitation. Overall balance ability improved significantly (p=0.01) following discharge as did utilisation of somatosensory input (p=0.01), with hip strategy use decreasing. Reaction time and movement velocity did not change significantly in the majority of target directions for the LOS test. However, endpoint COG excursion and directional control were significantly increased in a number of directions (p≤0.05). Although balance ability improved following discharge from rehabilitation, participants were heavily reliant upon vision in order to maintain balance. Following discharge from rehabilitation, amputees were seemingly able to increase the spatial and accuracy aspects of volitional exploration of their LOS. However, temporal aspects did not display any adaptation, suggesting a trade-off between these aspects of postural control. Further practice of performing volitional postural movements under increasing time pressure, for example using low-cost gaming tools, may improve balance ability and postural control. PMID:22921490

  19. Difference in Postural Control during Quiet Standing between Young Children and Adults: Assessment with Center of Mass Acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Naoko; Sasagawa, Shun; Yamamoto, Akio; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    The development of upright postural control has often been investigated using time series of center of foot pressure (COP), which is proportional to the ankle joint torque (i.e., the motor output of a single joint). However, the center of body mass acceleration (COMacc), which can reflect joint motions throughout the body as well as multi-joint coordination, is useful for the assessment of the postural control strategy at the whole-body level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate children’s postural control during quiet standing by using the COMacc. Ten healthy children and 15 healthy young adults were instructed to stand upright quietly on a force platform with their eyes open or closed. The COMacc as well as the COP in the anterior–posterior direction was obtained from ground reaction force measurement. We found that both the COMacc and COP could clearly distinguish the difference between age groups and visual conditions. We also found that the sway frequency of COMacc in children was higher than that in adults, for which differences in biomechanical and/or neural factors between age groups may be responsible. Our results imply that the COMacc can be an alternative force platform measure for assessing developmental changes in upright postural control. PMID:26447883

  20. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  1. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  2. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  3. Anticipatory vomiting in women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-FU (CMF) adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, P M; Fetting, J H; Nettesheim, K M; Abeloff, M D

    1982-08-01

    To determine the incidence of anticipatory vomiting (AV) and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting (PCNV) in women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-FU (CMF) adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma, we studied 52 women randomized to two regimens (standard-dose and low-dose) of CMF. Charts were reviewed for the cycle of onset of AV and PCNV, the severity of PCNV, and relationships of these syndromes to CMF dose and protocol compliance. Among the 52 patients, AV occurred in 17 (33%), while PCNV was experienced by 46 (88%). Severe PCNV (defined as uncontrolled nausea and/or vomiting interfering with performance of daily activities) occurred in 22 of 52 (42%) women. Eighteen of 23 (78%) women receiving standard-dose CMF experienced severe PCNV, and 13 of these had AV. Patients in whom severe PCNV began before cycle 4 were more likely to develop AV than women in whom PCNV began later (P less than 0.01). Ten of 52 (19%) patients discontinued CMF adjuvant chemotherapy because of nausea and vomiting; seven of the ten (70%) were receiving standard-dose CMF and seven had experienced AV. This study demonstrates that both AV an PCNV are significant toxic effects that not only affect the quality of life of a woman receiving CMF chemotherapy for breast cancer but also limit the ability of the clinician to provide maximum therapy to woman at high risk of recurrence of breast carcinoma.

  4. Emotion regulation modulates anticipatory brain activity that predicts emotional memory encoding in women.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Griffiths, Victoria A; Otten, Leun J

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that the effectiveness with which unpleasant events are encoded into memory is related to brain activity set in train before the events. Here, we assessed whether encoding-related activity before an aversive event can be modulated by emotion regulation. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy women while they performed an incidental encoding task on randomly intermixed unpleasant and neutral visual scenes. A cue presented 1.5 s before each picture indicated the upcoming valence. In half of the blocks of trials, the instructions emphasized to let emotions arise in a natural way. In the other half, participants were asked to decrease their emotional response by adopting the perspective of a detached observer. Memory for the scenes was probed 1 day later with a recognition memory test. Brain activity before unpleasant scenes predicted later memory of the scenes, but only when participants felt their emotions and did not detach from them. The findings indicate that emotion regulation can eliminate the influence of anticipatory brain activity on memory encoding. This may be relevant for the understanding and treatment of psychiatric diseases with a memory component.

  5. Reduced anticipatory dopamine responses to food in rats exposed to high fat during early development.

    PubMed

    Naef, L; Moquin, L; Gratton, A; Walker, C-D

    2013-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to high fat (HF) during early development alters the presynaptic regulation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA), and increases incentive motivation for HF food rewards. The goal of the present experiments was to examine the long-term consequences of early exposure to HF on anticipatory and consumatory nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA responses to HF food rewards. Mothers were maintained on a HF (30% fat) or control diet (CD; 5% fat) from gestation day 13 to postnatal day 22 when offspring from both diet groups were weaned and maintained on the CD until adulthood. In vivo NAc DA responses to food anticipation and consumption were measured in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using voltammetry in freely moving rats. HF-exposed offspring displayed reduced NAc DA responses to a tone previously paired with the delivery of HF food rewards. In an unconditioned protocol, consumatory NAc DA responses could be isolated, and were similar in HF and control offspring. These data demonstrate that exposure to HF through maternal diet during early development might program behavioral and functional responses associated with mesolimbic DA neurotransmission, thus leading to an increased HF feeding and obesity.

  6. Anticipatory control using substrate manipulation enables trajectory control of legged locomotion on heterogeneous granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Legged robots must traverse complex terrain consisting of particles of varying size, shape and texture. While much is known about how robots can effectively locomote on hard ground and increasingly on homogeneous granular media, principles of locomotion over heterogeneous granular substrates are relatively unexplored. To systematically discover how substrate heterogeneity affects ambulatory locomotion, we investigate how the presence of a single boulder (3D printed convex objects of different geometries) embedded in fine granular media affects the trajectory of a small (150 g) six legged robot. Using an automated system to collect thousands of locomotion trials, we observed that trajectories were straight before the interaction with the boulder, and scattered to different angles after the interaction depending on the leg-boulder contact positions. However, this dependence of scattering angle upon contact zone was relatively insensitive to boulder shape, orientation and roughness.1 Inspired by this insensitivity, here we develop an anticipatory control scheme which uses the scattering information in coordination with a tail induced substrate jamming. Our scheme allows the robot to "envision" outcomes of the interaction such that the robot can prevent trajectory deviation before the scattering occurs. We hypothesize that (particularly during rapid running or in the presence of noisy sensors) appropriate substrate manipulation can allow a robot to remain in a favorable locomotor configuration and avoid catastrophic interactions.

  7. The integrity of anticipatory coarticulation in fluent and non-fluent tokens of adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Harvey M; Byrd, Courtney T; Guitar, Barry

    2011-03-01

    This article analysed the acoustic structure of voiced stop + vowel sequences in a group of persons who stutter (PWS). This phonetic unit was chosen because successful production is highly dependent on the differential tweaking of right-to-left anticipatory coarticulation as a function of stop place. Thus, essential elements of both speech motor planning and execution can be parsimoniously assessed. Five adult PWS read three passages 3 times in a randomised order. These passages contained an overabundance of words beginning with initial [bV], [dV] and [gV] sequences. Digital audio and visual recordings were analysed to first identify fluent and stuttered target words, which were then spectrally analysed to yield locus equation (LE) regression plots. The slope of the LE regression function directly indexes the coarticulatory extent of the vowel's influence on the preceding stop consonant. The PWS revealed LE parameters falling within the normal ranges based on previously documented data obtained from fluent speakers. Theoretical considerations of possible underlying factors responsible for stuttering disfluencies are discussed relevant to these findings.

  8. The integrity of anticipatory coarticulation in fluent and non-fluent tokens of adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Harvey M; Byrd, Courtney T; Guitar, Barry

    2011-03-01

    This article analysed the acoustic structure of voiced stop + vowel sequences in a group of persons who stutter (PWS). This phonetic unit was chosen because successful production is highly dependent on the differential tweaking of right-to-left anticipatory coarticulation as a function of stop place. Thus, essential elements of both speech motor planning and execution can be parsimoniously assessed. Five adult PWS read three passages 3 times in a randomised order. These passages contained an overabundance of words beginning with initial [bV], [dV] and [gV] sequences. Digital audio and visual recordings were analysed to first identify fluent and stuttered target words, which were then spectrally analysed to yield locus equation (LE) regression plots. The slope of the LE regression function directly indexes the coarticulatory extent of the vowel's influence on the preceding stop consonant. The PWS revealed LE parameters falling within the normal ranges based on previously documented data obtained from fluent speakers. Theoretical considerations of possible underlying factors responsible for stuttering disfluencies are discussed relevant to these findings. PMID:21080828

  9. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Galvan, Guadalupe; Yi, Chun-Xia; van der Vliet, Jan; Jhamandas, Jack H.; Panula, Pertti; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; del Carmen Basualdo, María; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2011-01-01

    Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time estimation. Recent studies suggested the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) as the site for this food-entrained oscillator, which has led to considerable controversy in the literature. Herein we demonstrate by means of c-Fos immunohistochemistry that the neuronal activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which signals the rest phase in nocturnal animals, is reduced when animals anticipate the scheduled food and, simultaneously, neuronal activity within the DMH increases. Using retrograde tracing and confocal analysis, we show that inhibition of SCN neuronal activity is the consequence of activation of GABA-containing neurons in the DMH that project to the SCN. Next, we show that DMH lesions result in a loss or diminution of FAA, simultaneous with increased activity in the SCN. A subsequent lesion of the SCN restored FAA. We conclude that in intact animals, FAA may only occur when the DMH inhibits the activity of the SCN, thus permitting locomotor activity. As a result, FAA originates from a neuronal network comprising an interaction between the DMH and SCN. Moreover, this study shows that the DMH–SCN interaction may serve as an intrahypothalamic system to gate activity instead of rest overriding circadian predetermined temporal patterns. PMID:21402951

  10. Age-related changes in the anticipatory coarticulation in the speech of young children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, Mathew; Lloyd, Amanda; Stoddard, Kelly; Nissen, Shawn L.

    2003-10-01

    This paper investigates the possible patterns of anticipatory coarticulation in the speech of young children. Speech samples were elicited from three groups of children between 3 and 6 years of age and one comparison group of adults. The utterances were recorded online in a quiet room environment using high quality microphones and direct analog-to-digital conversion to computer disk. Formant frequency measures (F1, F2, and F3) were extracted from a centralized and unstressed vowel (schwa) spoken prior to two different sets of productions. The first set of productions consisted of the target vowel followed by a series of real words containing an initial CV(C) syllable (voiceless obstruent-monophthongal vowel) in a range of phonetic contexts, while the second set consisted of a series of nonword productions with a relatively constrained phonetic context. An analysis of variance was utilized to determine if the formant frequencies varied systematically as a function of age, gender, and phonetic context. Results will also be discussed in association with spectral moment measures extracted from the obstruent segment immediately following the target vowel. [Work supported by research funding from Brigham Young University.

  11. Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Alec J.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Yamazaki, Shin; Menaker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian Per1 gene is an important component of the core cellular clock mechanism responsible for circadian rhythms. The rodent liver and other tissues rhythmically express Per1 in vitro but typically damp out within a few cycles. In the liver, the peak of this rhythm occurs in the late subjective night in an ad lib-fed rat, but will show a large phase advance in response to restricted availability of food during the day. The relationship between this shift in the liver clock and food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the circadian behavior entrained by daily feeding, is currently unknown. Insulin is released during feeding in mammals and could serve as an entraining signal to the liver. To test the role of insulin in the shift in liver Per1 expression and the generation of FAA, per-luciferase transgenic rats were made diabetic with a single injection of streptozotocine. Following 1 week of restricted feeding and locomotor activity monitoring, liver was collected for per-luc recording. In two separate experiments, FAA emerged and liver Per1 phase-shifted in response to daytime 8-h food restriction. The results rule out insulin as a necessary component of this system.

  12. Outcome probability modulates anticipatory behavior to signals that are equally reliable

    PubMed Central

    Steegen, Sara; Vadillo, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    A stimulus is a reliable signal of an outcome when the probability that the outcome occurs in its presence is different from in its absence. Reliable signals of important outcomes are responsible for triggering critical anticipatory or preparatory behavior, which is any form of behavior that prepares the organism to receive a biologically significant event. Previous research has shown that humans and other animals prepare more for outcomes that occur in the presence of highly reliable (i.e., highly contingent) signals, that is, those for which that difference is larger. However, it seems reasonable to expect that, all other things being equal, the probability with which the outcome follows the signal should also affect preparatory behavior. In the present experiment with humans, we used two signals. They were differentially followed by the outcome, but they were equally (and relatively weakly) reliable. The dependent variable was preparatory behavior in a Martians video game. Participants prepared more for the outcome (a Martians’ invasion) when the outcome was most probable. These results indicate that the probability of the outcome can bias preparatory behavior to occur with different intensities despite identical outcome signaling. PMID:25419093

  13. Anticipatory control and spatial cognition in locomotion and navigation through typical development and in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural evidence, summarized in this narrative review, supports a developmental model of locomotor control based on increasing neural integration of spatial reference frames. Two consistent adult locomotor behaviours are head stabilization and head anticipation: the head is stabilized to gravity and leads walking direction. This cephalocaudal orienting organization aligns gaze and vestibula with a reference frame centred on the upcoming walking direction, allowing anticipatory control on body kinematics, but is not fully developed until adolescence. Walking trajectories and those of hand movements share many aspects, including power laws coupling velocity to curvature, and minimized spatial variability. In fact, the adult brain can code trajectory geometry in an allocentric reference frame, irrespective of the end effector, regulating body kinematics thereafter. Locomotor trajectory formation, like head anticipation, matures in early adolescence, indicating common neurocomputational substrates. These late-developing control mechanisms can be distinguished from biomechanical problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children's performance on a novel navigation test, the Magic Carpet, indicates that typical navigation development consists of the increasing integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames. In CP, right-brain impairment seems to reduce navigation performance due to a maladaptive left-brain sequential egocentric strategy. Spatial integration should be considered more in rehabilitation. PMID:27027604

  14. Observing working postures in industry: Examples of OWAS application.

    PubMed

    Karhu, O; Härkönen, R; Sorvali, P; Vepsäläinen, P

    1981-03-01

    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), was presented in an earlier paper (Karhu et al, 1977). The application of the method is here described by means of two examples. One is a case study undertaken by members of an ergonomics training course, in which a marked improvement in working posture was achieved by OWAS analysis of critical activities. The second illustrates the effect of setting up a multidisciplinary group in order to develop an alternative method for the installation and maintenance of steel mill equipment. In both examples, application of the OWAS method led to improved posture in the situations studied, and to the likelihood of its wider industrial use.

  15. Correcting working postures in industry: A practical method for analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhu, O; Kansi, P; Kuorinka, I

    1977-12-01

    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie, the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), is presented. The method consists of two parts. The first is an observational technique for evaluating working postures. It can be used by work-study engineers in their daily routine and it gives reliable results after a short training period. The second part of the method is a set of criteria for the redesign of working methods and places. The criteria are based on evaluations made by experienced workers and ergonomics experts. They take into consideration factors such as health and safety, but the main emphasis is placed on the discomfort caused by the working postures. The method has been extensively used in the steel company which participated in its development. Complete production lines have already been redesigned on the basis of information gathered from OWAS, the result being more comfortable workplaces as well as a positive effect on production quality.

  16. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP.

    PubMed

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, I B; Stremmelaar, E F; Touwen, B C

    1999-11-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consisted of a simultaneous recording of video data and surface EMGs of arm, neck, trunk, and leg muscles during reaching in various lying and sitting positions. The basic organization of postural adjustments of the children developing spastic CP was intact. Their main problem was a deficient capacity to modulate the postural adjustments to task-specific constraints - a deficit which was attributed to a combination of an impaired motor coordination and deficits in sensory integration. The child with spastic-dyskinetic CP showed distinct abnormalities in the basic organization of postural adjustments. PMID:10576641

  17. Movement plans for posture selection do not transfer across hands

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Christoph; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In a sequential task, the grasp postures people select depend on their movement history. This motor hysteresis effect results from the reuse of former movement plans and reduces the cognitive cost of movement planning. Movement plans for hand trajectories not only transfer across successive trials, but also across hands. We therefore asked whether such a transfer would also be found in movement plans for hand postures. To this end, we designed a sequential, continuous posture selection task. Participants had to open a column of drawers with cylindrical knobs in ascending and descending sequences. A hand switch was required in each sequence. Hand pro/supination was analyzed directly before and after the hand switch. Results showed that hysteresis effects were present directly before, but absent directly after the hand switch. This indicates that, in the current study, movement plans for hand postures only transfer across trials, but not across hands. PMID:26441734

  18. Movement plans for posture selection do not transfer across hands.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christoph; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In a sequential task, the grasp postures people select depend on their movement history. This motor hysteresis effect results from the reuse of former movement plans and reduces the cognitive cost of movement planning. Movement plans for hand trajectories not only transfer across successive trials, but also across hands. We therefore asked whether such a transfer would also be found in movement plans for hand postures. To this end, we designed a sequential, continuous posture selection task. Participants had to open a column of drawers with cylindrical knobs in ascending and descending sequences. A hand switch was required in each sequence. Hand pro/supination was analyzed directly before and after the hand switch. Results showed that hysteresis effects were present directly before, but absent directly after the hand switch. This indicates that, in the current study, movement plans for hand postures only transfer across trials, but not across hands.

  19. Abnormal postural reflexes in a patient with pontine ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Cantello, Roberto; Magistrelli, Luca; Terazzi, Emanuela; Grossini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The control of body posture is a complex activity that needs a very close relationship between different structures, such as the vestibular system, and the muscle and joint receptors of the neck. Damage of even one of these structures can lead to abnormal postural reflexes. We describe a case of a woman with a left pontine ischaemia who developed a 'dystonic' extensor posture of the left limbs while turned on the right side. This clinical picture differs from previous reports on the subject, and may relate to ischaemic damage of a pontine structure involved in posture control, or of adjacent neural connections to be yet identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature. Clinical examples of an altered interplay between vestibular and neck receptors are rare. PMID:26561222

  20. A quantitative measurement method for comparison of seated postures.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Susan J; Hollington, James

    2016-05-01

    This technical note proposes a method to measure and compare seated postures. The three-dimensional locations of palpable anatomical landmarks corresponding to the anterior superior iliac spines, clavicular notch, head, shoulders and knees are measured in terms of x, y and z co-ordinates in the reference system of the measuring apparatus. These co-ordinates are then transformed onto a body-based axis system which allows comparison within-subject. The method was tested on eleven unimpaired adult participants and the resulting data used to calculate a Least Significant Difference (LSD) for the measure, which is used to determine whether two postures are significantly different from one another. The method was found to be sensitive to the four following standardised static postural perturbations: posterior pelvic tilt, pelvic obliquity, pelvic rotation, and abduction of the thighs. The resulting data could be used as an outcome measure for the postural alignment aspect of seating interventions in wheelchairs. PMID:26920073

  1. Upper extremity function: What's posture got to do with it?

    PubMed

    Harbourne, Regina; Kamm, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper reviews the linkage between developing postural control and upper extremity function. We suggest updated principles for guiding clinical practice, based on current views from motor learning, motor development, and motor control research. Using three clinical examples, we illustrate principles focusing on the use of variability, the importance of errors in learning movement, task specific exploration and practice, and the critical timing necessary to build skill of the upper extremity in a variety of postures. These principles differ from historic approaches in therapeutic exercise, which treated posture as a separate system and a precursor for extremity skill building. We maintain that current movement science supports the tight interaction of posture and upper extremity function through developmental time and in real time, such that one system cannot be considered separate from the other. Specific suggestions for clinical practice flow from the guiding principles outlined in this paper. PMID:25840492

  2. Posture of patients with sleep apnea during sleep.

    PubMed

    Akita, Yasutaka; Kawakatsu, Kenji; Hattori, Chikaya; Hattori, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Kenji; Nishimura, Tadao

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and posture during sleep has been noted and the beneficial effect of an optimal posture on sleep apnea has been empirically indicated. We investigated this effect in a group of subjects that included obese patients and found that the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) may be normalized in the lateral position, even among patients severely affected with apnea. Among those with intermediate or lower AHI values sleeping in a lateral position markedly improved the symptoms, with AHI even approaching the normal range in many patients. A tendency was noted for AHI to rise regardless of posture but in proportion to the increase in body mass index (BMI). In other words, the improvement due to changes in posture became increasingly insignificant with increase in BMI.

  3. Real-time posture reconstruction for Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Shum, Hubert P H; Ho, Edmond S L; Jiang, Yang; Takagi, Shu

    2013-10-01

    The recent advancement of motion recognition using Microsoft Kinect stimulates many new ideas in motion capture and virtual reality applications. Utilizing a pattern recognition algorithm, Kinect can determine the positions of different body parts from the user. However, due to the use of a single-depth camera, recognition accuracy drops significantly when the parts are occluded. This hugely limits the usability of applications that involve interaction with external objects, such as sport training or exercising systems. The problem becomes more critical when Kinect incorrectly perceives body parts. This is because applications have limited information about the recognition correctness, and using those parts to synthesize body postures would result in serious visual artifacts. In this paper, we propose a new method to reconstruct valid movement from incomplete and noisy postures captured by Kinect. We first design a set of measurements that objectively evaluates the degree of reliability on each tracked body part. By incorporating the reliability estimation into a motion database query during run time, we obtain a set of similar postures that are kinematically valid. These postures are used to construct a latent space, which is known as the natural posture space in our system, with local principle component analysis. We finally apply frame-based optimization in the space to synthesize a new posture that closely resembles the true user posture while satisfying kinematic constraints. Experimental results show that our method can significantly improve the quality of the recognized posture under severely occluded environments, such as a person exercising with a basketball or moving in a small room. PMID:23981562

  4. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  5. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  6. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures.

    PubMed

    Faulin, Evandro Francisco; Guedes, Carlos Gramani; Feltrin, Pedro Paulo; Joffiley, Cláudia Maria Mithie Suda Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO). Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III), followed by disk displacement (group II) and muscle disorders (group I). There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  7. Asymmetry of recurrent dynamics as a function of postural stance.

    PubMed

    King, Adam C; Wang, Zheng; Newell, Karl M

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was setup to investigate the deterministic and stochastic properties of the recurrent dynamics of the center of pressure trajectories of each leg (COP(left) and COP(right)) and whole-body (COP(net)) as a function of different foot positions in postural stance (side-by-side, staggered, and tandem standing) and the availability of visual information. The foot position of postural stance can induce degrees of asymmetry of postural instabilities as well as load on each leg that it was hypothesized would influence the deterministic and stochastic properties of COP fluctuations of each leg and of COP(net). Young adults performed two 60 s trials of quiet standing at each posture-vision condition. The availability of visual information increased COP path length, but had no effect on the recurrent dynamics of COP trajectories. Recurrence quantification analysis showed that recurrence, determinism, and entropy were dependent on the direction (AP/ML) of COP motion and foot position during postural stances. The degree of asymmetry between the left and right leg COP dynamics differed across all postural stances and COP(net) dynamics were more similar to those of the more loaded leg. The cross-recurrence quantification analysis also revealed asymmetries in the coordination coupling of AP/ML under each leg; although, these differences were markedly reduced in tandem postures. The findings support the postulation that the asymmetry generated through mechanical constraints (foot position and load) is related to asymmetrical recurrent dynamics of the individual leg and COP(net) based on the degree of postural instability.

  8. Postural sway in diabetic peripheral neuropathy among Indian elderly

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Snehil; Maiya, Arun; Shasthry, B.A.; Kumaran, D. Senthil; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major complication of type 2 diabetes and have long term complications on the postural control of the affected population. The objectives of this study were to evaluate postural stability in patients with DPN and to examine correlation of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) with duration of diabetes, age and postural stability measures. Methods: Participants were included if they had clinical neuropathy which was defined by MNSI. Sixty one patients gave their consent to participate in the study and were evaluated on posturography for postural stability measures in four conditions. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RANOVA) was used to analyze the changes in postural stability measures in different conditions. Results: An increase in mean value of postural stability measures was observed for velocity moment 20.4±1.3, 24.3±2.2, 42.3±20.7, 59±43.03, mediolateral displacement 0.21±0.10, 0.22±0.18, 0.03±0.11, 0.34±0.18, and anteroposterior displacement 0.39 ± 0.09, 0.45±0.12, 0.47±0.13, 0.51±0.20 from EO to EC, EOF, and ECF, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in participants with DPN, with greater sway amplitude on firm and foam surface in all the conditions. Moderate correlation of MNSI with age (r=0.43) and postural stability measures were also observed. Interpretation & conclusions: Evaluation of postural stability in Indian DPN population suggests balance impairments on either firm and foam surfaces, with greater likelihood of fall being on foam or deformable surfaces among elderly adults with neuropathy (CTRI/2011/07/001884). PMID:26831420

  9. Real-time posture reconstruction for Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Shum, Hubert P H; Ho, Edmond S L; Jiang, Yang; Takagi, Shu

    2013-10-01

    The recent advancement of motion recognition using Microsoft Kinect stimulates many new ideas in motion capture and virtual reality applications. Utilizing a pattern recognition algorithm, Kinect can determine the positions of different body parts from the user. However, due to the use of a single-depth camera, recognition accuracy drops significantly when the parts are occluded. This hugely limits the usability of applications that involve interaction with external objects, such as sport training or exercising systems. The problem becomes more critical when Kinect incorrectly perceives body parts. This is because applications have limited information about the recognition correctness, and using those parts to synthesize body postures would result in serious visual artifacts. In this paper, we propose a new method to reconstruct valid movement from incomplete and noisy postures captured by Kinect. We first design a set of measurements that objectively evaluates the degree of reliability on each tracked body part. By incorporating the reliability estimation into a motion database query during run time, we obtain a set of similar postures that are kinematically valid. These postures are used to construct a latent space, which is known as the natural posture space in our system, with local principle component analysis. We finally apply frame-based optimization in the space to synthesize a new posture that closely resembles the true user posture while satisfying kinematic constraints. Experimental results show that our method can significantly improve the quality of the recognized posture under severely occluded environments, such as a person exercising with a basketball or moving in a small room.

  10. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  11. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture.

    PubMed

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  12. Use of Video Analysis System for Working Posture Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Timothy D.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1994-01-01

    In a work environment, it is important to identify and quantify the relationship among work activities, working posture, and workplace design. Working posture may impact the physical comfort and well-being of individuals, as well as performance. The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive menu and button driven software prototype written in Supercard (trademark). Human Factors analysts are provided with a predefined set of options typically associated with postural assessments and human performance issues. Once options have been selected, the program is used to evaluate working posture and dynamic tasks from video footage. PVAT has been used to evaluate postures from Orbiter missions, as well as from experimental testing of prototype glove box designs. PVAT can be used for video analysis in a number of industries, with little or no modification. It can contribute to various aspects of workplace design such as training, task allocations, procedural analyses, and hardware usability evaluations. The major advantage of the video analysis approach is the ability to gather data, non-intrusively, in restricted-access environments, such as emergency and operation rooms, contaminated areas, and control rooms. Video analysis also provides the opportunity to conduct preliminary evaluations of existing work areas.

  13. "Stand up straight": notes toward a history of posture.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-03-01

    The essay presents a set of interlinked claims about posture in modern culture. Over the past two centuries it has come to define a wide range of assumptions in the West from what makes human beings human (from Lamarck to Darwin and beyond) to the efficacy of the body in warfare (from Dutch drill manuals in the 17th century to German military medical studies of soldiers in the 19th century). Dance and sport both are forms of posture training in terms of their own claims. Posture separates 'primitive' from 'advanced' peoples and the 'ill' from the 'healthy.' Indeed an entire medical sub-specialty developed in which gymnastics defined and recuperated the body. But all of these claims were also part of a Western attempt to use posture (and the means of altering it) as the litmus test for the healthy modern body of the perfect citizen. Focusing on the centrality of posture in two oddly linked moments of modern thought--modern Zionist thought and Nationalism in early 20th century China--in terms of bodily reform, we show how "posture" brings all of the earlier debates together to reform the body.

  14. "Stand up straight": notes toward a history of posture.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-03-01

    The essay presents a set of interlinked claims about posture in modern culture. Over the past two centuries it has come to define a wide range of assumptions in the West from what makes human beings human (from Lamarck to Darwin and beyond) to the efficacy of the body in warfare (from Dutch drill manuals in the 17th century to German military medical studies of soldiers in the 19th century). Dance and sport both are forms of posture training in terms of their own claims. Posture separates 'primitive' from 'advanced' peoples and the 'ill' from the 'healthy.' Indeed an entire medical sub-specialty developed in which gymnastics defined and recuperated the body. But all of these claims were also part of a Western attempt to use posture (and the means of altering it) as the litmus test for the healthy modern body of the perfect citizen. Focusing on the centrality of posture in two oddly linked moments of modern thought--modern Zionist thought and Nationalism in early 20th century China--in terms of bodily reform, we show how "posture" brings all of the earlier debates together to reform the body. PMID:24317755

  15. Pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine in a child with postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Filler, Guido; Gow, Robert M; Nadarajah, Renisha; Jacob, Pierre; Johnson, Gillian; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Christians, Uwe

    2006-11-01

    Pyridostigmine has been proposed for the treatment of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in adults at a dose of 60 mg twice daily, but no dosing recommendation exists for children. With the approval of our local ethics board, we tested the pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine in 6 children with myasthenia and a pediatric index patient with severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome whose condition failed all conventional therapy and who had developed significant postural hypertension. Pyridostigmine was quantified by using a validated, semiautomated, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay in combination with online column-switching extraction and turbo electrospray ionization. The patient with postural