Science.gov

Sample records for anticuerpos anti lkm-1

  1. Immunoglobulin GM and KM Allotypes and Prevalence of Anti-LKM1 Autoantibodies in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Paolo; Sutherland, Susan E.; Muratori, Luigi; Granito, Alessandro; Guidi, Marcello; Pappas, Georges; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B.; Pandey, Janardan P.

    2006-01-01

    GM and KM allotypes—genetic markers of immunoglobulin (Ig) γ and κ chains, respectively—are associated with humoral immunity to several infection- and autoimmunity-related epitopes. We hypothesized that GM and KM allotypes contribute to the generation of autoantibodies to liver/kidney microsomal antigen 1 (LKM1) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons. To test this hypothesis, we characterized 129 persons with persistent HCV infection for several GM and KM markers and for anti-LKM1 antibodies. The heterozygous GM 1,3,17 23 5,13,21 phenotype was significantly associated with the prevalence of anti-LKM1 antibodies (odds ratio, 5.13; P = 0.002), suggesting its involvement in this autoimmune phenomenon in HCV infection. PMID:16641304

  2. Anti-LKM-1 antibodies determined by use of recombinant P450 2D6 in ELISA and western blot and their association with anti-HCV and HCV-RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, R; Renz, M; Bünger, G; Schröter, H; Seelig, H P

    1993-01-01

    Several subtypes of anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies (LKM) are known. LKM-1 antibodies associated with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis recognize P450 2D6, a cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase. The frequent association of anti-LKM-1 antibodies and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and the probable existence of an infectious and autoimmune form of anti-LKM-1-associated hepatitis, requiring different therapeutical strategies, necessitates the exact determination of anti-LKM-1 specificities. Therefore, we compared various antibody tests (immunofluorescence, ELISA with recombinant P450 2D6, and Western blot with recombinant and natural antigens and agargel double diffusion) with sera of 27 anti-LKM-1-positive chronic active hepatitis (CAH) patients, with 61 sera harbouring anti-mitochondrial antibodies, 100 sera each from HCV-RNA-positive and HCV-RNA-negative patients, and 50 sera of healthy persons. Western blot techniques using recombinant MS2-polymerase P450 2D6 fusion protein were found to be the most sensitive and specific method for anti-LKM-1 antibody determination in routine laboratory. The recently recognized association of anti-LKM-1 antibody and HCV infection was confirmed by the results of this study. In anti-HCV and HCV-RNA-positive patients with anti-LKM-1 antibodies there was a preponderance of males with higher mean age and lower antibody titres. The results support the hypothesis of the existence of an autoimmune as well as an infectious (HCV triggered) subgroup of anti-LKM-1-positive hepatitis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8390333

  3. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  4. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  5. A rare case of Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyreoiditis, positive IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and partial IgA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Snejina; Yankova, Petja; Atanasova, Iliana; Nikolova-Vlahova, Milena; Naumova, Elissaveta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most prevalent type of primary immune deficiencies, but partial IgA deficiency is even more common. Addison's disease is a rare condition associated with primary adrenal insufficiency due to infection or autoimmune destruction of the adrenals. The association between IgA deficiency and Addison's disease is very rare. Case and laboratory data We observed a 22-year-old male patient with marked darkening of the skin, especially on the palms and areolae, jaundice on the skin and sclera, astheno-adynamia, hypotension (80/50 mm Hg), and pain in the right hypochondrium. The laboratory investigations revealed increased serum levels of total and indirect bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT and LDH, negative HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV and anti-HAV IgM, very low serum IgA levels (0.16 g/l) with normal IgG and IgM, negative ANA, ANCA, AMA, LKM-1, anti-GAD-60, anti-IA-2, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, a mild increase in anti-TPO antibodies titer, a marked increase in IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, with no typical changes in cellular immunity, negative T-SPOT-TB test, HLA – A*01; B*08; DRB1*03; DQB1*02, karyotype – 46, XY. Conclusions We present a rare case of partial IgA deficiency with Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyroiditis and positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. IgAD and some autoimmune disorders share several predisposing HLA genes, thus explaining the increased prevalence of IgAD in certain patient groups. PMID:27536208

  6. An Overlap Syndrome involving systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hepatitis in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Battagliotti, Cristina; Rispolo Klubek, Daniela; Karakachoff, Mario; Costaguta, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    La superposición del lupus eritematoso sistémico y la hepatitis autoinmune se describe ocasionalmente. Aunque ambas enfermedades pueden compartir ciertos hallazgos, como poliartralgias, hipergammaglobulinemia y anticuerpo antinúcleo positivo, son consideradas dos diferentes. Se presenta a una paciente de 14 años con lupus eritematoso sistémico, que, luego de dos años, consultó por ictericia. Sin antecedentes de ingesta de drogas, alcohol o exposición a virus hepatotropos. Tenia un aumento de las enzimas hepáticas con anticuerpos antinúcleo, anti-ADN de doble cadena y LKM 1 positivos. La biopsia hepática mostró una hepatitis de interfase con infiltrado linfoplasmocitario. De esta manera, cumplia con los criterios diagnósticos tanto para lupus eritematoso sistémico como para hepatitis autoinmune. Tratada con corticoides y micofenolato mofetil, mejoró su clinica y laboratorio. Conclusión. La hepatitis autoinmune puede ocurrir en el curso del lupus eritematoso sistémico. Un diagnóstico temprano es importante para prevenir el avance de la enfermedad; es obligatoria la realización de la biopsia hepática.

  7. Epitope spreading of the anti-CYP2D6 antibody response in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and in the CYP2D6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hintermann, Edith; Holdener, Martin; Bayer, Monika; Loges, Stephanie; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Granier, Claude; Manns, Michael P; Christen, Urs

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the liver with yet unknown etiology and largely uncertain immunopathology. The hallmark of type 2 AIH is the generation of liver kidney microsomal-1 (LKM-1) autoantibodies, which predominantly react to cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The identification of disease initiating factors has been hampered in the past, since antibody epitope mapping was mostly performed using serum samples collected late during disease resulting in the identification of immunodominant epitopes not necessarily representing those involved in disease initiation. In order to identify possible environmental triggers for AIH, we analyzed for the first time the spreading of the anti-CYP2D6 antibody response over a prolonged period of time in AIH patients and in the CYP2D6 mouse model, in which mice infected with Adenovirus-human CYP2D6 (Ad-h2D6) develop antibodies with a similar specificity than AIH patients. Epitope spreading was analyzed in six AIH-2-patients and in the CYP2D6 mouse model using SPOTs membranes containing peptides covering the entire CYP2D6 protein. Despite of a considerable variation, both mice and AIH patients largely focus their humoral immune response on an immunodominant epitope early after infection (mice) or diagnosis (patients). The CYP2D6 mouse model revealed that epitope spreading is initiated at the immunodominant epitope and later expands to neighboring and remote regions. Sequence homologies to human pathogens have been detected for all identified epitopes. Our study demonstrates that epitope spreading does indeed occur during the pathogenesis of AIH and supports the concept of molecular mimicry as a possible initiating mechanism for AIH.

  8. [Anti-TPO autoantibodies].

    PubMed

    Kotani, T

    1998-04-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a member of the thyroid autoantigens. Anti-thyroid autoantibodies, anti-TPO,-thyroglobulin and -TSH receptor autoantibodies, are important in diagnosing autoimmune thyroid diseases and for judging treatment efficacy. To diagnose chronic thyroiditis, anti-TPO autoantibody detection is the most sensitive among the three anti-thyroid autoantibodies. Eighty-five to ninety percent of patients with chronic thyroiditis have anti-TPO autoantibodies. Using recombinant human TPO protein, a kit measuring anti-TPO antibodies specifically have been developed. The developmental process and specificity of the kit are discussed. Compared with the microsome test, the most greatest advantage of the anti-TPO EIA kit can specifically measure anti-TPO antibodies. Structure of anti-TPO antibody immunoglobulin, which has been demonstrated over the last several years using the phage display method, is also discussed. The most prominent feature is that VL is believed to be important in determining anti-TPO antibody specificity in contrast to that of other autoantibodies, although VL itself does not have TPO-binding activity.

  9. Discrete anti-gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P. ); Starson, S. )

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.

  10. Discrete anti-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre; Starson, Scott

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance, allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound.

  11. Anti-Shock Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  12. Anti-reflux surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... much stomach acid is coming back into your esophagus). Upper endoscopy. Almost all people who have this anti-reflux surgery have already had this test. If you have not had this test, ... of the esophagus. Always tell your provider if: You could be ...

  13. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  14. Anti-antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J.; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23737519

  15. Characterization of anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies that bind antigen and an anti-idiotype

    PubMed Central

    Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Dall’Acqua, William; Fossati, Carlos A.; Fields, Barry A.; Braden, Bradford C.; Poljak, Roberto J.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALB/c mice with rabbit polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an “internal image” monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 × 109 M−1 and 2.4 × 107 M−1, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 × 106 M−1 and 3.8 × 106 M−1). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in AF14 and AF52 compared with D1.3. Therapeutic immunizations against different pathogenic antigens using anti-Id antibodies have been proposed. Our experiments show that a response to an anti-Id immunogen elicits anti-anti-Id antibodies that are optimized for binding the anti-Id antibodies rather than the antigen. PMID:9238040

  16. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... reflux disease. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, ... surgery - children - discharge Anti-reflux surgery - discharge ...

  17. Anti-vibration gloves?

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered.

  18. Anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Kehoe, John; Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2009-09-15

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  19. [Anti-synthetase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Novak, Srdan

    2012-01-01

    Antysynthetase syndrome is considered as a group ofidiopathic inflammatory myositis with charcteristic serologic hallmark--antibodies which recognise the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetasses (ARS). Clinical picture of those patients contains myositis and/or intersticial lung disease (ILD) and/or arthritis and/or fever and/or Raynaud phenomenon and sometimes characteristic look of mechanic's hands. Myositis can be overt, sometimes even absent, while IBP is major cause of morbidity and determines the outcome of the disease. Untill now eight different any-synthetase autoantibodies are recognised, and most frequent are findings of anti-histidyl-tRNa synthetase antibodies. Patients with other ARS autoantibodies usually have severe ILD. Drug of choice are steroids in dosage of 1 mg/kg with immunosupresive agent (azatioprin or methotrexate) while in severe IBP cyclophosphamide is needed. Recently succsesful treatment with rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide is reported.

  20. [Investigation of the presence of autoantibodies in patients with toxocariasis].

    PubMed

    Kaya, Selçuk; Demirci, Mustafa; Sesli Cetin, Emel; Cicioğlu Aridoğan, Buket; Sahin, Mehmet; Taş, Tekin; Korkmaz, Metin

    2009-10-01

    Immunopathologic reactions may occur during toxocariasis due to tissue invasion and destruction by the secretions of larvae containing various enzymes with broad spectrum. The aim of this study was to search for autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear (ANA), anti-mitochondrial (AMA), anti-smooth muscle (ASMA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic (ANCA), anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) and liver-kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM-1) antibodies in patients with toxocariasis, in order to investigate the role of toxocariasis as a trigger factor for autoimmune reactions. Forty patients (22 were male; mean age: 35.6 +/- 10.7 years) diagnosed as toxocariasis by clinical findings (abdominal pain, allergic symptoms and/or eosinophilia, without detection of any other causative agents, and without liver dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, cardiac or renal failure, and autoimmune disease) and in-house ELISA positivity and 32 healthy controls (16 were male; mean age: 40.7 +/- 11.2 years) were included to the study. ANA (screen), dsDNA, SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70, LKM-1, MPO and M2 autoantibodies have been investigated by ELISA (Euroimmun, Germany), while ANCA, AMA and ASMA antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IMMCO, NY) methods. Autoantibody positivity was detected in 18 (45%) patients of whom 11 yielded a single type, and 7 yielded > or = 2 types of autoantibodies. This rate was 12.5% for control group (two subjects were positive for ANA-Screen, one for anti-M2 and one for anti-LKM-1). The difference between the total positivity rates in patient and control groups was found statistically significant (chi2 = 5.72, p = 0.004). The most frequent autoantibody type among patients were ASMA (n = 6), followed by anti-dsDNA (n = 5), anti-M2 (n = 5), anti-SS-B (n = 4), anti-LKM-1 (n = 3), anti-SS-A (n = 2), ANCA (n = 2) and anti-MPO (n = 1). Positivity rate for ASMA was found statistically significant in patients' group compared to controls (chi2 = 12.24, p = 0.03), while there was no significant difference

  1. Television and Anti-Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Yasmin

    The "new" anti-racists of the 1980s in contemporary Britain consider racism, particularly against blacks, as both a structural and a white problem. Anti-racist activists, whose attitude is a mirror-image of the political left's general concern about the media--where blacks are in the minority--regard the media, especially television, as…

  2. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  3. Pharmacogenomics of Anti-platelet and Anti-coagulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, Adam S.; Perry, Christina G.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Horenstein, Richard B.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial thrombosis is a major component of vascular disease, especially myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Current anti-thrombotic therapies such as warfarin and clopidogrel are effective in inhibiting cardiovascular events; however, there is great inter-individual variability in response to these medications. In recent years, it has been recognized that genetic factors play a significant role in drug response, and, subsequently, common variants in genes responsible for metabolism and drug action have been identified. These discoveries along with the new diagnostic targets and therapeutic strategies on the horizon hold promise for more effective individualized anti-coagulation and anti-platelet therapy. PMID:23797323

  4. [Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: two paediatric cases].

    PubMed

    González-Toro, M Cristina; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Sempere-Pérez, Ángela; Martínez-Pastor, Pedro; Jover-Cerdá, Jenaro; Gómez-Gosálvez, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. La encefalitis asociada a anticuerpos antirreceptores de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una patologia neurologica autoinmune documentada en la poblacion pediatrica de manera creciente en los ultimos años. Se presentan dos casos de nuestra experiencia con clinica similar. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: niña de 5 años que inicia un cuadro de convulsiones y alteracion de conciencia, asociando trastornos del movimiento y regresion de habilidades previamente adquiridas que evoluciona a autismo. Caso 2: niña de 13 años que presenta hemiparesia izquierda, movimientos anomalos, trastorno de conducta y disautonomia. En ambos casos se obtienen anticuerpos antirreceptores de NMDA positivos en el liquido cefalorraquideo y se diagnostican de encefalitis antirreceptor de NMDA. En el primer caso se inicia el tratamiento con perfusion intravenosa de corticoides e inmunoglobulinas y es necesario asociar rituximab. En el segundo, corticoides e inmunoglobulinas. La evolucion fue favorable en ambas pacientes, con una leve alteracion del lenguaje como secuela en el primer caso y una recaida en el segundo caso, con resolucion completa. Conclusion. La encefalitis antirreceptor de NMDA es un trastorno tratable y es importante el diagnostico y tratamiento precoz, ya que mejora el pronostico y disminuye las recaidas.

  5. Targeted anti bacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Yacoby, Iftach; Benhar, Itai

    2007-09-01

    The increasing development of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has reached alarming levels, thus necessitating a strong need to develop new antimicrobial agents. These new antimicrobials should possess novel modes of action and/or different cellular targets compared with the existing antibiotics. As a result, new classes of compounds designed to avoid defined resistance mechanisms are undergoing pre clinical and clinical evaluation. Microbial and phage genomic sequencing are now being used to find previously unidentified genes and their corresponding proteins. In both traditional and newly developed antibiotics, the target selectivity lies in the drug itself, in its ability to affect a mechanism that is unique to prokaryotes. As a result, a vast number of potent agents that, due to low selectivity, in addition to the pathogen also affect the eukaryote host have been excluded from use as therapeutics. Such compounds could be re-considered for clinical use if applied as part of a targeted delivery platform where the drug selectivity is replaced by target-selectivity borne by the targeting moiety. With a large number of antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates already approved or near approval as cancer therapeutics, targeted therapy is becoming increasingly attractive and additional potential targeting moieties that are non-antibody based, such as peptides, non-antibody ligand-binding proteins and even carbohydrates are receiving increasing attention. Still, targeted therapy is mostly focused on cancer, with targeted anti bacterial therapies being suggested only very recently. This review will focus in the various methods of antimicrobial targeting, by systemic and local application of targeted antimicrobial substances.

  6. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Miguel, Maria G

    2014-04-01

    Essential oils (EO) possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties, among others. In the present work, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial EOs (Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Cupressus sempervirens, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated and compared with their main constituents. T. vulgaris EO showed the best free radicals scavenging capacity. This EO was also the most effective against lipid peroxidation along with C. limon and F. vulgare EOs. C. sempervirens EO was the most effective in scavenging NO free radicals, whereas C. limon EO showed the best chelating power. Not all of the major compounds of the EO were responsible for the whole activity of the EOs. T. vulgaris EO showed the best anti-proliferative activity against THP-1 cells in contrast to that of F. vulgare. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the EOs were plant species dependent and not always attributable to the EOs main components. Nevertheless, the EOs anti-proliferative activities were more related to their main components, as with T. vulgaris, C. limon, E. globulus and C. sempervirens.

  7. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82

  8. Anti-DNA antibodies in SLE

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 8 chapters. Some of the titles are: Anti-DNA Antibodies in SLE: Historical Perspective; Specificity of Anti-DNA Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Monoclonial Autoimmune Anti-DNA Antibodies; and Structure--Function Analyses of Anti-DNA Autoantibodies.

  9. [Reversible cortical atrophy secondary to anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Acosta-Yebra, Danae; Grimaldo-Zapata, Ilse P; Reyes-Vaca, Guillermo

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. La encefalitis por anticuerpos antirreceptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) inicialmente se describio como un sindrome paraneoplasico asociado a teratoma de ovario, pero cada vez con mas frecuencia se han ido publicando casos en mujeres jovenes y niños como un cuadro encefalopatico autoinmune secundario en el 40-50% de los casos a un proceso viral. Clinicamente, se caracteriza por un cuadro progresivo de manifestaciones psiquiatricas, crisis convulsivas, discinesias y disautonomias. Un hallazgo neurorradiologico poco comunicado es la atrofia cortical reversible, de la cual se desconoce su mecanismo. Caso clinico. Niña que a los 6 años comenzo con crisis convulsivas focales, con electroencefalograma epileptogeno y tomografia de craneo inicial normal. Se inicio tratamiento anticonvulsionante. A las tres semanas aparecieron nuevas crisis convulsivas, manifestaciones psiquiatricas y alteraciones en el ciclo de sueño-vigilia. Ante la sospecha de encefalitis por anticuerpos antirreceptor de NMDA, estos se determinaron en el suero y el liquido cefalorraquideo con resultado positivo. Resonancia magnetica durante el ingreso con atrofia cortical generalizada. Oncologia Pediatrica descarto asociacion a tumores. A los dos años del cuadro, con la paciente libre de crisis convulsivas, una valoracion neuropsicologica mostro la afectacion de funciones ejecutivas y una resonancia magnetica de control evidencio la recuperacion de la atrofia cortical. Conclusion. El mecanismo de la atrofia cortical reversible se desconoce, pero en pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos antirreceptor de NMDA podria ser directamente proporcional a la cantidad de anticuerpos circulantes y el tiempo de exposicion a estos en la corteza cerebral. Es muy importante el diagnostico temprano y el inicio de inmunomodulacion.

  10. Anti-regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-04-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells-termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)-that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase (TDO), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). These proteins are highly expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells under various physiological conditions, such as inflammation and stress. Therefore, self-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles in immune homeostasis and their potential future clinical applications.

  11. Hypericum in Infection: Identification of Anti-viral and Anti-inflammatory Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum and Prunella supplements for human-health benefit, focusing on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain effects. This paper reports on ongoing anti-viral and anti-inflammatory studies on Hypericu...

  12. On Mathematical Anti-Evolutionism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2016-03-01

    The teaching of evolution in American high schools has long been a source of controversy. The past decade has seen an important shift in the rhetoric of anti-evolutionists, toward arguments of a strongly mathematical character. These mathematical arguments, while different in their specifics, follow the same general program and rely on the same underlying model of evolution. We shall discuss the nature and history of this program and model and describe general reasons for skepticism with regard to any anti-evolutionary arguments based upon them. We shall then survey the major arguments used by anti-evolutionists, to show how our general considerations make it possible to quickly identify their weakest points.

  13. Anti-cocaine vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Berma M; Kosten, Thomas R; Orson, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is an ongoing and serious problem which has lead to the growth of a brutal criminal enterprise, particularly in the Americas and Europe. At present, there are no effective pharmacological agents available to treat the addiction by blocking cocaine or reversing its effects. In order to help motivated addicts conquer their addiction, vaccines against cocaine are being developed, and one has progressed to clinical trials. This review will discuss the concept of anti-drug vaccines in general, the successes and limitations of the various anti-cocaine vaccine approaches, the results of the clinical trials with an anti-cocaine vaccine, and some new vaccine-mediated approaches to combat cocaine addiction. PMID:20822352

  14. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes.

  15. Anti-G with concomitant anti-C and anti-D: A case report in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Rabeya; Mustafa, Ahmad Nasirudin; Ho, Siew-Ling; Tang, Yee-Loong; Leong, Chooi-Fun

    2017-01-01

    The G antigen of Rh blood group system is present in almost all D-positive or C-positive red cells but absent from red cells lacking D and C antigens. The differentiation of anti-D and anti-C from anti-G is not necessary for routine transfusion; however, during pregnancy, it is important because anti-G can masquerade as anti-D and anti-C with initial antibody testing. The false presence of anti-D will exclude the patient from receiving anti-D immunoglobulin (RhIG) when the patient actually is a candidate for RhIG prophylaxis. Moreover, patients with positive anti-D or anti-G are at risk of developing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and need close monitoring. Thus, proper identification allows the clinicians to manage patients properly. This case report highlights a rare case of anti-G together with anti-D and anti-C in a pregnant woman. This report disseminates knowledge on identification of anti-G and its importance in pregnant women. PMID:28316444

  16. Anti-inflammatory, Anti-estrogenic, and Anti-implantation Activity of Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Sandeep Kumar; Jivrajani, Mehul; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl (Syn. Bergia odorata Edgew) (Elatinaceae family) is used traditionally to repair bones and is applied as a poultice on sores. It is also used for stomach troubles and as an antidote to scorpion stings. So far, very little scientific work has been reported to validate its ethnomedical uses in the alleviation of pain, bone repair, etc., Objective: This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-implantation potential of n-hexane extract of B. suffruticosa whole plant in mice along with identification of its chemical constituents. Materials and Methods: n-Hexane extract of B. suffruticosa whole plant was screened for acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity followed by an anti-estrogenic activity. Eventually, n-hexane extract was tested for anti-implantation activity by exploiting markers of uterine receptivity, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide enzyme activity. The extract was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in each study. Results: Thin layer chromatography fingerprint profile of n-hexane extract revealed the presence of lupeol and β-sitosterol. The n-hexane extract reduced the edema by 80% in acute inflammation, whereas it reduced edema to 75% on the 5th day in chronic inflammation. The n-hexane extract reduced elevated malonaldehyde level from 6 to 2.5 nmol/g × 10−5 and increased superoxide dismutase enzyme activity from 0 to 350 units/g in treated animals on the 5th day of pregnancy. Moreover, extract decreased uterine weight from 0.33 to 0.2 g in estradiol treated animals. Conclusion: These results indicate that n-hexane extract of B. suffruticosa is having potent anti-inflammatory, anti-estrogenic, and anti-implantation activity. This is the first report of all the pharmacological activities of B. suffruticosa mentioned above. SUMMARY TLC fingerprint profile of n-hexane extract of Bergia suffruticosa whole plant revealed the presence of lupeol and

  17. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  18. Anti-creationism in America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee-Joo

    This thesis documents the development of organised anti-creationism in America. The revival of creationism culminated in the late 1970s with the success of creationists' national campaign for the introduction of legislation mandating "equal-time" for scientific creationism and evolution in the public schools. This prompted a proliferation of local protest groups which were eventually linked by the network called the Committees of Correspondence. This network became the political arm of the anti-creation movement at the grass-roots level. On the other hand, a small group of evolutionists responded to the creationist arguments by launching a journal, Creation/Evolution, which disseminated anti-creationism arguments. At the educational front, the National Association of Biology Teachers led the battle. These political, polemical and educational efforts were combined and evolved into the National Center for Science Education in 1986. With the NCSE, the evolution camp for the first time had its own full-time defenders to oppose large well-financed anti-evolution efforts. It appears, however, that the impact of organised anti-creationism was fairly limited. Evidence suggests that, despite anti-creationists' concerted efforts, the creationist movement in the nineties is as vigorous as ever and its influence on public beliefs about origins of the organic world remains strong. Gallup Polls have consistently shown that almost half of the adult population in the U.S. believes in the creation of humans about 10,000 years ago. Despite this dismal situation, major scientific bodies have failed to become directly engaged in the anti-creationism campaign due to their concern over public relation. Scientific organisations depend on public support for their research funds and therefore they generally do not want to offend the public by directly challenging its cherished beliefs such as creationism. Therefore, the ongoing battle has been largely left in the hands of individual

  19. Skin anti-aging strategies.

    PubMed

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2012-07-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall "well-being" and the perception of "health" in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures.

  20. Selective anti-cancer agents as anti-aging drugs.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-12-01

    Recent groundbreaking discoveries have revealed that IGF-1, Ras, MEK, AMPK, TSC1/2, FOXO, PI3K, mTOR, S6K, and NFκB are involved in the aging process. This is remarkable because the same signaling molecules, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, are well-known targets for cancer therapy. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs aimed at some of these targets have been already developed. This arsenal could be potentially employed for anti-aging interventions (given that similar signaling molecules are involved in both cancer and aging). In cancer, intrinsic and acquired resistance, tumor heterogeneity, adaptation, and genetic instability of cancer cells all hinder cancer-directed therapy. But for anti-aging applications, these hurdles are irrelevant. For example, since anti-aging interventions should be aimed at normal postmitotic cells, no selection for resistance is expected. At low doses, certain agents may decelerate aging and age-related diseases. Importantly, deceleration of aging can in turn postpone cancer, which is an age-related disease.

  1. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Suja, S R; Sini, S; Shyama, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-05-01

    Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro. Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 microg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 microg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity.

  2. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lançon, Allan; Frazzi, Raffaele; Latruffe, Norbert

    2016-03-02

    Resveratrol (3,4',5 trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is one of the best known phytophenols with pleiotropic properties. It is a phytoalexin produced by vine and it leads to the stimulation of natural plant defenses but also exhibits many beneficial effects in animals and humans by acting on a wide range of organs and tissues. These include the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, anti-cancer potential, neuroprotective effects, homeostasia maintenance, aging delay and a decrease in inflammation. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main causes of deterioration of vision in adults in developed countries This review deals with resveratrol and ophthalmology by focusing on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic effects of this molecule. The literature reports that resveratrol is able to act on various cell types of the eye by increasing the level of natural antioxidant enzymatic and molecular defenses. Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effects are due to its capacity to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukins and prostaglandins, and also to decrease the chemo-attraction and recruitment of immune cells to the inflammatory site. In addition to this, resveratrol was shown to possess anti-VEGF effects and to inhibit the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Resveratrol has the potential to be used in a range of human ocular diseases and conditions, based on animal models and in vitro experiments.

  3. Anti-aging effects of anti-lipolytic drugs.

    PubMed

    Donati, Alessio; Cavallini, Gabriella; Carresi, Cristiano; Gori, Zina; Parentini, Ilaria; Bergamini, Ettore

    2004-07-01

    Genetic disruption of insulin and insulin-like signaling pathways may extend lifespan. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance may accelerate aging. The hypothesis was tested that a once-a-week life-long inhibition of insulin secretion by the administration of anti-lipolytic drugs might have anti-aging effects. Groups of 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were (a) given standard laboratory food ad libitum (AL); (b) fed AL 6 days and fasted 1 day every week (FW); (c) fed AL every other day (EOD), (d) fed like FW and given Acipimox (50 mg/kg b.w.) on the day of fasting (FWA) by the gastric tube. The AL, FW and EOD groups received saline intragastrically. Treatment with ACIPIMOX transiently decreased plasma free fatty acids, glucose and insulin and increased valine plasma levels, and had no long-term effect on food consumption and body weight. By age 6, 12 and 24 months subgroups were taken and the age-related changes in liver dolichol and autophagic proteolysis--which are correlated with life-expectancy--were measured. Liver dolichol levels increased and autophagic proteolysis decreased in mature and older AL rats; EOD and FWA fully counteracted these changes; FW rats had significant but smaller beneficial effects. It is concluded that life-long weekly-repeated transient inhibition of insulin secretion by antilipolytic drugs may have an anti-aging effect, additive to the anti-aging effect of a milder caloric restriction. Speculation is that transiently lower plasma insulin levels might stimulate the anti-aging cell-repair mechanism autophagy, which has longer lasting effects on cell housekeeping.

  4. Marine algal natural products with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For their various bioactivities, biomaterials derived from marine algae are important ingredients in many products, such as cosmetics and drugs for treating cancer and other diseases. This mini-review comprehensively compares the bioactivities and biological functions of biomaterials from red, green, brown, and blue-green algae. The anti-oxidative effects and bioactivities of several different crude extracts of algae have been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Natural products derived from marine algae protect cells by modulating the effects of oxidative stress. Because oxidative stress plays important roles in inflammatory reactions and in carcinogenesis, marine algal natural products have potential for use in anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23724847

  5. On Mathematical Anti-Evolutionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The teaching of evolution in American high schools has long been a source of controversy. The past decade has seen an important shift in the rhetoric of anti-evolutionists, toward arguments of a strongly mathematical character. These mathematical arguments, while different in their specifics, follow the same general program and rely on the same…

  6. Anti-Sulfoglucuronosyl Paragloboside Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongpei; Usuki, Seigo; Quarles, Brandy; Rivner, Michael H.; Ariga, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology of ALS is obscure, genetic studies of familiar ALS suggest a multifactorial etiology for this condition. Similarly, there probably are multiple causes for sporadic ALS. Autoimmune-mediated motor neuron dysfunction is one proposed etiology for sporadic ALS. In the present study, anti-glycolipid antibodies including GM1, GD1b, GD3, and sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside (SGPG) were investigated in the sera of a large number of patient samples, including 113 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls, by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with affinity parametric complex criterion evaluation and thin-layer chromatography immunooverlay (immuno-TLC). Anti-SGPG antibodies were found in the sera of 13.3% ALS patients (15 out of 113). The highest titer reached 1:1600. The presence of anti-SGPG antibodies in the serum samples was also confirmed by immuno-TLC. Importantly, a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of anti-SGPG antibody was positively correlated with age (p < .01) and negatively correlated with ALS Functional Rating Scale score (p < .05). Moreover, the localization of SGPG-immunoreactivity on the motor neurons of rat spinal cord and a mouse motor neuronal cell line, NSC-34 was observed by an immunofluorescence method. These data suggest that SGPG could represent a specific pathogenic antigen in those ALS patients. The presence of anti-SGPG antibodies in the serum of ALS patients should represent a diagnostic biomarker of ALS, and it could reflect the severity of the disease. PMID:27683876

  7. Effects of C-glycosylation on anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Eon Ji; Kim, Young Myeong; Jung, Hyun Ah

    2014-02-01

    Apigenin has gained particular interests in recent years as a beneficial and health promoting agent because of its low intrinsic toxicity. Vitexin and isovitexin, naturally occurring C-glycosylated derivatives of apigenin, have been known to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD), and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin and its two C-glycosylated derivatives, vitexin and isovitexin by in vitro assays including rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), β-site amyloid precursor (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among them, isovitexin was found as the most potent inhibitor against RLAR, HRAR, AGE, AChE, and BChE while vitexin showed the most potent PTP1B inhibitory activity. Despite the relatively weak anti-diabetic and anti-AD potentials, apigenin showed powerful antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression while vitexin and isovitexin were inactive. Therefore, it could be speculated that C-glycosylation of apigenin at different positions might be closely linked to relative intensity of anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potentials.

  8. Polymeric anti-HIV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this review is to highlight the application of polymer therapeutics in an effort to curb the transmission and infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following a description of the HIV life cycle, the use of approved antiretroviral drugs that inhibit critical steps in the HIV infection process is highlighted. After that, a comprehensive overview of the structure and inhibitory properties of polymeric anti-HIV therapeutic agents is presented. This overview will include inhibitors based on polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, polymer conjugates as well as polymeric DC-SIGN antagonists. The review will conclude with a section that discusses the applications of polymers and polymer conjugates as systemic and topical anti-HIV therapeutics.

  9. Compact anti-radon facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fajt, L.; Kouba, P.; Mamedov, F.; Smolek, K.; Štekl, I.

    2015-08-17

    Suppression of radon background is one of main tasks in ultra-low background experiments. The most promising technique for suppression of radon is its adsorption on charcoal. Within the frame of the NEMO-3 experiment, radon trapping facility (RTF) was installed in Modane underground laboratory in 2004. Based on long-term experience with this facility a new compact transportable anti-radon facility was constructed in cooperation among IEAP CTU, SÚRO and ATEKO company. The device provides 20m{sup 3}/h of purified air (air radon activity at the output ∼10mBq/m{sup 3}). The basic features and preliminary results of anti-radon device testing are presented.

  10. Brane - Anti-Brane Democracy

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaraman, Arvind

    2003-06-02

    We suggest a duality invariant formula for the entropy and temperature of nonextreme black holes in supersymmetric string theory. The entropy is given in terms of the duality invariant parameter of the deviation from extremality and 56 SU(8) covariant central charges. It interpolates between the entropies of Schwarzschild solution and extremal solutions with various amount of unbroken supersymmetries and therefore serves for classification of black holes in supersymmetric string theories. We introduce the second auxiliary 56 via E(7) symmetric constraint. The symmetric and antisymmetric combinations of these two multiplets are related via moduli to the corresponding two fundamental representations of E(7): brane and anti-brane ''numbers.'' Using the CPT as well as C symmetry of the entropy formula and duality one can explain the mysterious simplicity of the non-extreme black hole area formula in terms of branes and anti-branes.

  11. Anti-clogging filter system

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  12. Anti-fouling bioactive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Zhang, Yanxia; Wang, Hongwei; Brash, John; Chen, Hong

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive surfaces refer to surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules aimed specifically at promoting or supporting particular interactions. Such surfaces are of great importance for various biomedical and biomaterials applications. In the past few years, considerable effort has been made to create bioactive surfaces by forming specific biomolecule-modified surfaces on a non-biofouling "base" or "background". Hydrophilic and bioinert polymers have been widely used as anti-fouling layers that resist non-specific protein interactions. They can also serve as "spacers" to effectively move the immobilized biomolecule away from the surface, thus enhancing its bioactivity. In this review we summarize several successful approaches for the design and preparation of bioactive surfaces based on different types of anti-fouling/spacer materials. Some perspectives on future research in this area are also presented.

  13. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  14. Autoantibodies and their antigens in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2009-08-01

    Autoantibody detection assists in the diagnosis and allows differentiation of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1 (AIH-1), characterized by antinuclear antibody (ANA) and/or smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and type 2 (AIH-2), distinguished by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or antibodies to liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1). Detection of atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies can act as an additional pointer toward the diagnosis of AIH, particularly in the absence of the conventional autoantibodies. Routine autoantibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence has been recently complemented by molecular assays based on purified or recombinant antigens. Although the AIH-1-specific ANA and SMA targets need better definition, those of anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 in AIH-2 have been clearly identified; the fine specificity of antibody reactivity and its clinical relevance to disease pathogenesis are the focus of ongoing investigation. This article critically discusses the current knowledge of the diagnostic and clinical significance of AIH-related autoantibody reactivities, focusing on key issues that the physician needs to be aware of to be able to request the appropriate testing and to interpret correctly the laboratory results within the clinical context of the patient.

  15. Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Statins: Relevance to Anti-Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dulak, Józef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is indispensable for the growth of solid tumors and angiogenic factors are also involved in the progression of hematological malignancies. Targeting the formation of blood vessels is therefore regarded as a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Interestingly, besides demonstration of some beneficial effects of novel anti-angiogenic compounds, recent data on the activity of already available drugs point to their potential application in anti-angiogenic therapy. Among these are the statins, the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Statins are very efficient in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in cardiovascular disorders; however, their effects are pleiotropic and some are not directly related to the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Some reports particularly highlight the pro-angiogenic effects of statins, which are caused by low, nanomolar concentrations and are regarded as beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, the anti-angiogenic activities, observed at micromolar concentrations of statins, may be of special significance for cancer therapy. Those effects are caused by the inhibition of both proliferation and migration and induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells. Moreover, the statin-mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis, the major angiogenic mediator, may contribute to the attenuation of angiogenesis. It has been suggested that the anti-cancer effect of statins can be potentially exploited for the cancer therapy. However, several clinical trials aimed at the inhibition of tumor growth by treatment with very high doses of statins did not provide conclusive data. Herein, the reasons for those outcomes are discussed and the rationale for further studies is presented. PMID:16375664

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Agents for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Ezell, Scharri J.; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is closely linked to cancer, and many anti-cancer agents are also used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, chronic inflammation increases the risk for various cancers, indicating that eliminating inflammation may represent a valid strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This article explores the relationship between inflammation and cancer with an emphasis on epidemiological evidence, summarizes the current use of anti-inflammatory agents for cancer prevention and therapy, and describes the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of anti-inflammatory agents. Since monotherapy is generally insufficient for treating cancer, the combined use of anti-inflammatory agents and conventional cancer therapy is also a focal point in discussion. In addition, we also briefly describe future directions that should be explored for anti-cancer anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:20333321

  17. Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (Anti-CCP) and Anti-Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin (Anti-MCV) Relation with Extra-Articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Ponce-Guarneros, Manuel; Flores-Chavez, Alejandra; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte Selene; Zavaleta-Muñiz, Soraya Amali; Garcia-Cobian, Teresa; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the association between anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies (anti-MCV) with the presence of extra-articular (ExRA) manifestations in 225 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ninety-five patients had ExRA and 130 had no ExRA. There was no association of anti-CCP and anti-MCV levels with the presence of ExRA as total group (P = 0.40 and P = 0.91, resp.). Making an analysis of individual manifestations, rheumatoid nodules were associated with positivity for rheumatoid factor (RF); (P = 0.01), anti-CCP (P = 0.048), and anti-MCV (P = 0.02). Instead, RF, anti-CCP, or anti-MCV were not associated with SS, chronic anemia, or peripheral neuropathy. Levels of anti-CCP correlated with the score of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-Di) (r = 0.154, P = 0.03), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); (r = 0.155, P = 0.03), and RF (P = 0.254, P < 0.001), whereas anti-MCV titres only correlated with RF (r = 0.169, P = 0.02). On adjusted analysis, ExRA was associated with longer age (P = 0.015), longer disease duration (P = 0.007), higher DAS-28 score (P = 0.002), and higher HAQ-DI score (P = 0.007), but serum levels of anti-CCP and anti-MCV were not associated. These findings show the need to strengthen the evaluation of the pathogenic mechanisms implied in each specific ExRA manifestation. PMID:24804270

  18. Anti-Leu3a induces combining site-related anti-idiotypic antibody without inducing anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J P; Buck, D; Berkower, I; Murphy, D; Epstein, S L

    1991-01-01

    Development of a vaccine for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has proven difficult, and so alternative approaches such as idiotypic manipulation have been suggested. As applied to AIDS, this approach could involve immunizing with an anti-CD4 antibody resembling gp120, to induce anti-idiotypic antibodies which would bind to gp120. The CD4 binding site on gp120 is conserved, and so, such an immune response should protect against all variants. Induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity has been reported using anti-Leu3a, and this result has led to testing in humans. Negative results obtained by others have been attributed to differences in immunization protocols. Because of the importance of this question, we reinvestigated the potential of anti-Leu3a to induce anti-HIV antibodies, compared with control immunizations with OKT4A (another anti-CD4 antibody) and the irrelevant Ig MOPC-21. Responses to anti-Leu3a showed induction of high-titer anti-idiotypic activity, and included combining-site-related activity. Yet sera showed no binding to gp160 above controls and no detectable neutralizing activity in a sensitive HIV plaque assay, so the anti-idiotypes induced were not internal images of CD4. We conclude that the pronounced anti-HIV responses reported with anti-Leu3a cannot be generalized, and thus that anti-Leu3a does not offer promise as an HIV vaccine. However, these results do not negate the promise of the idiotypic approach, and a vaccine for AIDS based on idiotype manipulation remains a possibility.

  19. In vitro screening for anti-acetylcholiesterase, anti-oxidant, anti-glucosidase, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effect of three traditional medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Doaa A.; ElAhwany, Amani M.D.; El-mallawany, Sherif M.; Saif, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the phytoconstituents Calluna vulgaris, Ferula hermonis and Tribulus terrestris, and then assessed their possible biological activities by using standard methods. A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the three extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, lipids, phenolic compounds, saponins, sterols and amino acids. Three extracts showed anti-oxidant effect as they inhibited the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) oxidation and production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Moreover, three extracts showed anti-acetylcholiesterase (AChE) and this effect was concentration dependent. C. vulgaris was the most potent inhibitor of AChE. Furthermore, the three plant extracts had an inhibitory effect toward α-glucosidase. The inhibitory effect was concentration dependent and the most potent inhibitor for α-glucosidase was the extract from T. terrestris. Calluna vulgaris showed anti-inflammatory effect at tested concentrations while the other two extracts exhibited this effect only at concentration of 25 μg/mL. Finally, C. vulgaris had a significant effect against pathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia sp., Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in comparison to other extracts from Ferula sp., or Tribulus sp. In conclusion, all tested extracts could be promising sources for the treatment of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, infectious diseases and oxidative stress related disorders because they are rich in phenols and flavonoids that give anti-oxidant molecules and produce an inhibitory effect against the tested enzymes. PMID:26740784

  20. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  1. Counterfeit anti-infective drugs.

    PubMed

    Newton, Paul N; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2006-09-01

    The production of counterfeit or substandard anti-infective drugs is a widespread and under-recognised problem that contributes to morbidity, mortality, and drug resistance, and leads to spurious reporting of resistance and toxicity and loss of confidence in health-care systems. Counterfeit drugs particularly affect the most disadvantaged people in poor countries. Although advances in forensic chemical analysis and simple field tests will enhance drug quality monitoring, improved access to inexpensive genuine medicines, support of drug regulatory authorities, more open reporting, vigorous law enforcement, and more international cooperation with determined political leadership will be essential to counter this threat.

  2. Environmentally friendly anti-icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockyer, Robert T. (Inventor); Zuk, John (Inventor); Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention describes an aqueous, non-electrolytic, non-toxic, biodegradable, continuous single phase liquid anti-icing or deicing composition for use on the surfaces of, for example, aircraft, airport pavements, roadways, walkways, bridges, entrances, structures, canals, locks, components, vessels, nautical components, railroad switches, and motor vehicles. The anti-icing or deicing composition comprises: (a) water; (b) a non-toxic freezing point depressant selected from the group consisting of monohydric alcohols having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, polyhydric alcohols having from 3 to 12 carbon atoms, monomethyl or ethyl ethers of polyhydric alcohols having from 3 to 12 atoms or mixtures thereof, wherein the freezing point depressant present is between about 14 to 60 percent by weight; (c) a thickener which is present in between about 0.01 and 10 percent by weight; and (d) optionally a corrosion inhibitor which is present in between about 0.01 and 0.1 percent by weight of the total composition. In one embodiment, the deicing composition further includes (e) a monohydric primary aliphatic unbranched alcohol as a means of forming a thin layer of the composition on the surface of the structure to be given ice protection, and/or as means of forming a homogenized foam with xanthan thickener; which alcohol is selected from the group consisting of alcohols having between 8 to 24 carbon atoms, preferably, 1-dodecanol. Compositions of water, propylene glycol, and/or propanol and xanthan are preferred.

  3. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Q-Han

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies.

  4. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Q-Han Park

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies. PMID:23320143

  5. Anti-platelets in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Grantham, N M; Magliano, D J; Tai, G; Cohen, N; Shaw, J E

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-platelet use, and the extent to which contraindications to anti-platelet therapy prevent its use, in 726 diabetic patients attending a private clinic. Among those who reported a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), 87.1% were on anti-platelet therapy. Of those without prior CVD but with at least one CVD risk factor, 59.8% were not on anti-platelet therapy, but only 7.1% of these had a contraindication to anti-platelet therapy. This study showed that high usage of anti-platelet therapy in diabetic patients with prior CVD is achievable, and that contraindications did not explain low use in those without prior CVD.

  6. Anti-tetanus immunisation in orienteers.

    PubMed Central

    Folan, J C

    1985-01-01

    The present state of anti-tetanus immunisation amongst orienteering runners from 20 countries was assessed by questioning the orienteers as to when they last received an anti-tetanus injection. The results demonstrate that approximately 55% were within five years of their last injection, 18% were within 5-10 years, 12% were greater than 10 years and a further 15% did not know when or had never had an anti-tetanus injection. Images p39-a PMID:3995228

  7. Anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry

    SciTech Connect

    Linthicum, D.S.; Farid, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a review of new methods and results in anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry. It begins with a discussion of the theoretical background of the anti-idiotypic network, it's role in the regulation of immune response, and the physical characteristics of anti-idiotypic antibodies. It then goes on to explore many applications in such areas as insulin action, thyroid cell function, the neurosciences, cardiology, virology, pharmacology, and reproduction.

  8. On Anti-Elite Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M"Uller, Tom

    2007-09-01

    An odd prime number p is called anti-elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers are quadratic non-residues to p. This concept is the exact opposite to that of elite prime numbers. We study some fundamental properties of anti-elites and show that there are infinitely many of them. A computational search among all the numbers up to 100 billion yielded 84 anti-elite primes.

  9. Exploring heterosexual women's anti-lesbian attitudes.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on attitudes toward gays has mostly focused on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men, with little research specifically directed at anti-lesbian attitudes. Using a sample of 269 undergraduate heterosexual women, the present study tested two feminist propositions: Anti-lesbian attitudes would be associated with (1) conservative beliefs regarding the female gender-role and (2) attitudes toward men that support the differential status of women and men in the patriarchy. Findings based on a series of multiple regression analyses support these propositions across three components of anti-lesbian attitudes (contact apprehension, morality beliefs, and stereotypic beliefs). Directions for future research on anti-lesbian attitudes are discussed.

  10. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed.

  11. Preclinical testing of Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom against Bothrops andianus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Francisco S; Starling, Maria C; Duarte, Clara G; Machado de Avila, Ricardo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Silva Suarez, Walter; Tintaya, Benigno; Flores Garrido, Karin; Seraylan Ormachea, Silvia; Yarleque, Armando; Bonilla, César; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Bothrops andianus is a venomous snake found in the area of Machu Picchu (Peru). Its venom is not included in the antigenic pool used for production of the Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom. B. andianus venom can elicit many biological effects such as hemorrhage, hemolysis, proteolytic activity and lethality. The Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom displays consistent cross-reactivity with B. andianus venom, by ELISA and Western Blotting and is also effective in neutralizing the venom's toxic activities.

  12. The Anti-Matter Spectrometer for high sensitivity searches of anti-nuclei in space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallraff, W.

    The apparent absence of antimatter (anti-helium, anti-carbon, etc.) in the universe is a major puzzle of particle physics. The Anti-Matter Spectrometer is a high resolution tracking detector under construction, that will improve the sensitivity for antimatter searches by a factor of more than 104, while orbiting around the Earth on the space station ISSA for >3 years.

  13. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kisacik, Bunyamin; Dag, Muhammet Said; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Ugurlu, Kenan; Mercan, Ozge Kaya; Aydinli, Musa; Devay, Seda Duygulu; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Onat, Ahmet Mesut

    2014-06-01

    Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) was positive in 11.5 % and rheumatoid factor was positive in 8.8 % of the patients with Brucella. After a comparative evaluation, we have found out that there was not a statistical significance concerning the anti-CCP levels between the patients with brucellosis and healthy control.

  14. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  15. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  16. Media Toolkit for Anti-Drug Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This toolkit provides proven methods, models, and templates for tying anti-drug efforts to the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. It helps organizations deliver the Campaign's messages to the media and to other groups and individuals who care about keeping the nation's youth drug free. Eight sections focus on: (1) "Campaign…

  17. SCIENCE LOOKS AT ANTI-SEMITISM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Human Rights, New York, NY.

    THE CENTRAL FACT THAT EMERGES FROM RESEARCH ON ANTI-SEMITISM IS THAT PREJUDICE PERFORMS A PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTION. TO THE INTENSE BIGOT, PREJUDICE IS AN EMOTIONAL OUTLET ESSENTIAL FOR MAINTAINING A SENSE OF SELF-IMPORTANCE. EVEN TO THE MODERATE OR MILD ANTI-SEMITE, PREJUDICE IS A SUBSTITUTE FOR A TRUE FEELING OF PERSONAL OR GROUP WORTH. THERE ARE…

  18. Children and Anti-Poverty Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ruth; Long, Gil

    1998-01-01

    Examines a selection of local anti-poverty strategies in Great Britain. Outlines findings on child poverty and links findings with current debates on children's rights. Concludes that issues affecting children living in poverty are insufficiently addressed and that anti-poverty strategies should be refocused to consider the needs and rights of…

  19. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Troxell, Megan L.; Houghton, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease classically presents with aggressive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, often with pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic hallmark is linear staining of GBMs for deposited immunoglobulin G (IgG), usually accompanied by serum autoantibodies to the collagen IV alpha-3 constituents of GBMs. Methods Renal pathology files were searched for cases with linear anti-GBM to identify cases with atypical or indolent course. Histopathology, laboratory studies, treatment and outcome of those cases was reviewed in detail. Results Five anti-GBM cases with atypical clinicopathologic features were identified (accounting for ∼8% of anti-GBM cases in our laboratory). Kidney biopsies showed minimal glomerular changes by light microscopy; one patient had monoclonal IgG deposits in an allograft (likely recurrent). Three patients did not have detectable serum anti-GBM by conventional assays. Three patients had indolent clinical courses after immunosuppressive treatment. One patient, untreated after presenting with brief mild hematuria, re-presented after a short interval with necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Conclusions Thorough clinicopathologic characterization and close follow-up of patients with findings of atypical anti-GBM on renal biopsy are needed. Review of the literature reveals only rare well-documented atypical anti-GBM cases to date, only one of which progressed to end-stage kidney disease. PMID:26985371

  20. What's Missing? Anti-Racist Sex Education!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…

  1. Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes.

  2. Anti-Semitism: A Warrant for Genocide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson plan illustrating the breadth and scope of German anti-Semitism before and during World War II. Includes four lists describing anti-Semitic and German Jewry laws. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and instructions for students. (CFR)

  3. Anti-Semitism: Background to the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleg, Milton

    1995-01-01

    Contends that teaching only about the 1933-1945 period of German persecution of Jews serves a very limited purpose. Argues that the foundations of anti-Semitic beliefs and practices have a long history and should be part of Holocaust education. Describes the origins, development, and key events in anti-Semitism in Europe. (CFR)

  4. FISH OIL AND VITAMIN E CHANGE LIPID PROFILES AND ANTI-LDL-ANTIBODIES IN TWO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF WOMEN TRANSITIONING THROUGH MENOPAUSE.

    PubMed

    Alves Luzia, Liania; Mendes Aldrighi, José; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel; Rodrigues Sampaio, Geni; Aparecida Manólio Soares, Rosana; Tande Silva, Isis; De Queiroz Mello, Ana Paula; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Ferraz da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: diversos estudios han investigado la relación entre la transición a la menopausia y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Generalmente, la población de etnia blanca posee bajos niveles de factores de riesgo coronarios, particularmente dislipidemia, hipertensión, obesidad, diabetes y bajas tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades del corazón en comparación con la población de etnia negra. Además, varios estudios demostraron efectos cardioprotectores y antiinflamatorios provenientes de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega-3 (ácido eicosapentaenoico y ácido docosahexaenoico) de origen marino. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar el efecto de la suplementación de omega-3 combinado o no con vitamina E en biomarcadores oxidativos y perfiles lipídicos en mujeres blancas y no blancas con dislipidemia en transición hacia la menopausia. Métodos: fue realizado un estudio randomizado, duplo- ciego, placebo-controlado. Setenta y cuatro mujeres elegibles fueron escogidas para recibir: aceite de pescado, aceite de pescado con vitamina E y placebo durante tres meses. Fueron recogidas muestras de sangre en de referencia, 45 y 90 días para realizar exámenes bioquímicos y de biomarcadores para estrés oxidativo. Las variables socioeconómicas y de estilo de vida fueron recogidas por medio de cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: después de 90 días, el grupo tratado con aceite de pescado con vitamina E tuvo una disminución significativa para colesterol total y LDL-C. Además, hubo una disminución de anticuerpos anti-LDL después de 45 días. La concentración de plasma TBARS aumentó después de 90 días en el grupo que recibió solamente aceite de pescado, comparado con los grupos placebo y aceite de pescado con vitamina E. Todos los efectos observados fueron independientes del grupo étnico. Conclusión: la suplementación con aceite de pescado y vitamina E redujo el colesterol total y LDL-C, pero tuvo un efecto opuesto en el estrés oxidativo

  5. Salinomycin: a novel anti-cancer agent with known anti-coccidial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Fengfei; Wong, Eric T; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M; Wu, Erxi

    2013-01-01

    Salinomycin, traditionally used as an anti-coccidial drug, has recently been shown to possess anti-cancer and anti-cancer stem cell (CSC) effects, as well as activities to overcome multi-drug resistance based on studies using human cancer cell lines, xenograft mice, and in case reports involving cancer patients in pilot clinical trials. Therefore, salinomycin may be considered as a promising novel anti-cancer agent despite its largely unknown mechanism of action. This review summarizes the pharmacologic effects of salinomycin and presents possible mechanisms by which salinomycin exerts its anti-tumorigenic activities. Recent advances and potential complications that might limit the utilization of salinomycin as an anti-cancer and anti-CSC agent are also presented and discussed.

  6. [Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Engen, Kristine; Agartz, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007 a clinical disease caused by autoantibodies directed against the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was described for the first time. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis is a subacute, autoimmune neurological disorder with psychiatric manifestations. The disease is a form of limbic encephalitis and is often paraneoplastic. The condition is also treatable. In this review article we examine the development of the disease, clinical practice, diagnostics and treatment.MATERIAL AND METHOD The article is based on references retrieved from searches in PubMed, and a discretionary selection of articles from the authors' own literature archive.RESULTS The disease most frequently affects young women. It may initially be perceived as a psychiatric condition, as it usually presents in the form of delusions, hallucinations or mania. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients who later develop neurological symptoms such as various movement disorders, epileptic seizures and autonomic instability. Examination of serum or cerebrospinal fluid for NMDA receptor antibodies should be included in the assessment of patients with suspected encephalitis. MRI, EEG and assessment for tumours are important tools in diagnosing the condition and any underlying malignancy.INTERPRETATION If treatment is initiated early, the prognosis is good. Altogether 75 % of patients will fully recover or experience significant improvement. Apart from surgical resection of a possible tumour, the treatment consists of immunotherapy. Because of good possibilities for treatment, it is important that clinicians, particularly those in acute psychiatry, are aware of and alert to this condition.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-itch activity of sertaconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liebel, Frank; Lyte, Peter; Garay, Michelle; Babad, Jeffrey; Southall, Michael D

    2006-09-01

    Cutaneous fungal infections are frequently associated with an inflammatory component including irritated skin, itching and stinging/burning. Therapeutic anti-fungal agents that have anti-inflammatory activity have the potential to provide clinical benefit beyond fungus eradication. Recently, certain anti-fungal agents have been shown to have intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity, therefore we sought to determine the extent of the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of eight anti-fungal agents (butoconazole, ciclopirox olamine, fluconazole, miconazole nitrate, sertaconazole nitrate, terconazole, tioconazole and ketoconazole) were compared in a number of preclinical models of dermal inflammation and pruritus. While butoconazole, ciclopirox olamine, fluconazole, and miconazole nitrate were all found to have anti-inflammatory activity, only sertaconazole nitrate reduced the release of cytokines from activated lymphocytes and mitigated inflammation in animal models of irritant contact dermatitis and neurogenic inflammation. In addition, sertaconazole nitrate inhibited contact hypersensitivity and scratching responses in a murine model of pruritus. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of sertaconazole nitrate was found to be greater than other topical anti-fungal agents examined. These studies demonstrate that topical administration of clinically relevant concentrations of sertaconazole nitrate resulted in an efficacious anti-inflammatory activity against a broad spectrum of dermal inflammation models and itch. The anti-inflammatory properties of sertaconazole may contribute to the efficacy of the drug in the treatment of cutaneous fungal conditions and provide greater anti-inflammatory activity compared with other anti-fungal agents.

  8. Anti-malarial, anti-algal, anti-tubercular, anti-bacterial, anti-photosynthetic, and anti-fouling activity of diterpene and diterpene isonitriles from the tropical marine sponge Cymbastela hooperi.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony D; McCluskey, Adam; Robertson, Mark J; MacGregor, Kylie A; Gordon, Christopher P; Guenther, Jana

    2011-01-21

    In an investigation into their potential ecological role(s), a group of mainly diterpene isonitriles, nine in total, isolated from the tropical marine sponge Cymbastela hooperi, and the sesquiterpene axisonitrile-3, isolated from the tropical marine sponge Acanthella kletra, were evaluated in a series of bioassays including anti-fouling, anti-algal, anti-photosynthetic, anti-bacterial (Gram +ve and -ve), anti-fungal, and anti-tubercular. The results of these assays showed that all of the tested compounds, with the exception of diterpene 9, were active in at least two of the applied test systems, with axisonitrile-3 (10) and diterpene isonitrile 1 being the two most active compounds overall, closely followed by diterpene isonitrile 3. Based on the results of the photosynthetic study a molecular modelling investigation was undertaken with all of the compounds used in that study. The results showed a positive correlation between reduction in photosynthetic activity and the interaction of the modelled compounds with a potential enzyme active site.

  9. Electromagnetic anti-jam telemetry tool

    DOEpatents

    Ganesan, Harini; Mayzenberg, Nataliya

    2008-02-12

    A mud-pulse telemetry tool includes a tool housing, a motor disposed in the tool housing, and a magnetic coupling coupled to the motor and having an inner shaft and an outer shaft. The tool may also include a stator coupled to the tool housing, a restrictor disposed proximate the stator and coupled to the magnetic coupling, so that the restrictor and the stator adapted to generate selected pulses in a drilling fluid when the restrictor is selectively rotated. The tool may also include a first anti-jam magnet coupled to the too housing, and an second anti-jam magnet disposed proximate the first anti-jam magnet and coupled to the inner shaft and/or the outer shaft, wherein at least one of the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet is an electromagnet, and wherein the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet are positioned with adjacent like poles.

  10. Liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Gnad-Vogt, Senta Ulrike; Beyer, Ulrich; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    Among several drug delivery systems, liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer agents represent an advanced and versatile technology. Several formulations of liposomal anthracyclines are approved, e.g. for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) or AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and liposomal daunorubicin). Meanwhile, virtually all anti-cancer drugs have been encapsulated in liposomes using different technologies. This review will summarize preclinical and clinical data of approved and exemplary emerging liposomal anti-cancer agents.

  11. [Antioxidants as anti-ageing medicine].

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2009-07-01

    As a mechanism of the ageing becomes clear by the scientific study, it has been believed that oxidative stress is an accelerator of the ageing. Still it is too critical to take antioxidants in large quantities for anti-ageing, and it should be needed to clarify the efficacy of anti-oxidative therapy by the scientific evidence. In this chapter, we explained it to positioning of the antioxidant for general anti-ageing strategy, Sara about the present conditions of the molecular mechanism elucidation study on effects of the antioxidant.

  12. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils

  13. Marine Organisms with Anti-Diabetes Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lauritano, Chiara; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes. Both in vitro and in vivo screenings have been used to test anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of marine organisms. This review summarizes recent discoveries in anti-diabetes properties of several marine organisms as well as marine wastes, existing patents and possible future research directions in this field. PMID:27916864

  14. Anti-glomerular basement membrane blood test

    MedlinePlus

    GBM antibody test; Antibody to human glomerular basement membrane; Anti-GBM antibodies ... Normally, there are none of these antibodies in the blood. Normal ... labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk ...

  15. Anti-aging cosmetics: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Celem, Livia Ribeiro; Ramos-e-Silva, Stella; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    The authors review ageing in its extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, as well as the therapies available for improving its effects, and present some of the facts and controversies related to anti-aging cosmetics.

  16. Future innovations in anti-platelet therapies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, N E; Holbrook, L; Jones, S; Kaiser, W J; Moraes, L A; Rana, R; Sage, T; Stanley, R G; Tucker, K L; Wright, B; Gibbins, J M

    2008-01-01

    Platelets have long been recognized to be of central importance in haemostasis, but their participation in pathological conditions such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation is now also well established. The platelet has therefore become a key target in therapies to combat cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet therapies are used widely, but current approaches lack efficacy in a proportion of patients, and are associated with side effects including problem bleeding. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding the regulation of platelet function, including the characterization of new ligands, platelet-specific receptors and cell signalling pathways. It is anticipated this progress will impact positively on the future innovations towards more effective and safer anti-platelet agents. In this review, the mechanisms of platelet regulation and current anti-platelet therapies are introduced, and strong, and some more speculative, potential candidate target molecules for future anti-platelet drug development are discussed. PMID:18587441

  17. Development of Prophylactic Anti-Fungal Preparations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    telly OW blocke Topical Anti-fungal Prophylaxis Sodium Pyrithione Chemical Assay Drug Persistence, Stratum Corneum Experimental Human Ringworm ...against common ringworm infection.a chemical assay for sodium pyrithione (a known anti-fungal drug) was developed in stratum corneum and its...prophylactic use when and if needed to combat superficial ringworm infections./ Work carried out under this contract and the citations of commercial

  18. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan

    2011-03-01

    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  19. Alkene anti-Dihydroxylation with Malonoyl Peroxides.

    PubMed

    Alamillo-Ferrer, Carla; Davidson, Stuart C; Rawling, Michael J; Theodoulou, Natalie H; Campbell, Matthew; Humphreys, Philip G; Kennedy, Alan R; Tomkinson, Nicholas C O

    2015-10-16

    Malonoyl peroxide 1, prepared in a single step from the commercially available diacid, is an effective reagent for the anti-dihydroxylation of alkenes. Reaction of 1 with an alkene in the presence of acetic acid at 40 °C followed by alkaline hydrolysis leads to the corresponding diol (35-92%) with up to 13:1 anti-selectivity. A mechanism consistent with experimental findings is proposed that accounts for the selectivity observed.

  20. Cultural diversity and anti-poverty policy.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Michèle; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between culture and behaviour. In fact, we suggest that cultural differences may be positively employed in comprehensive anti-poverty strategies.

  1. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-04

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  2. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-01

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  4. Anti-foam System design description

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.A.

    1994-09-30

    The Anti-foam System is a sub-system of the 242-A Evaporator facility. The Anti-foam is used within the C-A-1 Vapor-Liquid Separator, to reduce the effect of foaming and reduce fluid bumping while the vapor and liquid are separated within the C-A-1 Vapor-Liquid Separator. Excessive foaming within the vessel may possibly cause the liquid slurry mixture in the evaporator vessel to foul the de-entrainment pads and cause plant shutdown. The Anti-foam System consists of the following primary elements: the Anti-foam Tank and the Metering Pump. The upgrades to Anti-foam System include the following: installation of a new pump, instruments, and valves; and connection of the instruments, pump and agitator associated with the Anti-foam System to the Monitoring and Control System (MCS). The 242-A Evaporator is a waste treatment facility designed to reduce liquid waste volumes currently stored in the Hanford Area double shell Waste Storage Tanks. The evaporator uses evaporative concentration to achieve this volume reduction, returning the concentrated slurry to the double-shell tanks for storage and, at the same time, releasing the process effluent to a retention facilities for eventual treatment and release to the environment.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  6. Resveratrol and related stilbenes: their anti-aging and anti-angiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Pratsinis, Harris; Kletsas, Dimitris; Haroutounian, Serkos A

    2013-11-01

    Dietary stilbenes comprise a class of natural compounds that display significant biological activities of medicinal interest. Among them, their antioxidant, anti-aging and anti-angiogenesic properties are well established and subjects of numerous research endeavors. This mini-review aspires to account and present the literature reports published on research concerning various natural and synthetic stilbenes, such as trans-resveratrol. Special focus was given to most recent research findings, while the mechanisms underlying their anti-aging and anti-angiogenic effects as well as the respective signaling pathways involved were also presented and discussed.

  7. Anti-oxidants show an anti-hypertensive effect in diabetic and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Lefebvre, P J

    1991-12-01

    1. In this study an acute anti-hypertensive effect of three anti-oxidant agents (vitamin C, thiopronine and glutathione) in hypertensive subjects and in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive diabetic patients is reported. 2. The anti-oxidants had no effect on blood pressure in healthy normal subjects at a dose of 6 mmol, but thiopronine and glutathione produced a significant hypotensive effect at a dose of 12 mmol. 3. These data suggest that anti-oxidants might have a dilatatory effect and that an imbalance of the nitric oxide-free radical interaction might facilitate the development of hypertension in humans.

  8. Sleeve gastrectomy with anti-reflux procedures

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Sergio; Lacombe, Arnaldo; de Aquino, Caio Gustavo Gaspar; Malzoni, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleeve gastrectomy is the fastest growing surgical procedure to treat obesity in the world but it may cause or worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article originally aimed to describe the addition of anti-reflux procedures (removal of periesophageal fats pads, hiatoplasty, a small plication and fixation of the gastric remnant in position) to the usual sleeve gastrectomy and to report early and late results. Methods Eighty-eight obese patients that also presented symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were submitted to sleeve gastrectomy with anti-reflux procedures. Fifty of them were also submitted to a transit bipartition. The weight loss of these patients was compared to consecutive 360 patients previously submitted to the usual sleeve gastrectomy and to 1,140 submitted to sleeve gastrectomy + transit bipartition. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms were specifically inquired in all anti-reflux sleeve gastrectomy patients and compared to the results of the same questionnaire applied to 50 sleeve gastrectomy patients and 60 sleeve gastrectomy + transit bipartition patients that also presented preoperative symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Results In terms of weight loss, excess of body mass index loss percentage after anti-reflux sleeve gastrectomy is not inferior to the usual sleeve gastrectomy and anti-reflux sleeve gastrectomy + transit bipartition is not inferior to sleeve gastrectomy + transit bipartition. Anti-reflux sleeve gastrectomy did not add morbidity but significantly diminished gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and the use of proton pump inhibitors to treat this condition. Conclusion The addition of anti-reflux procedures, such as hiatoplasty and cardioplication, to the usual sleeve gastrectomy did not add morbidity neither worsened the weight loss but significantly reduced the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms as well as the use of proton pump inhibitors. PMID:25295447

  9. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.407 Section 238.407... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages. (b) Interior train coupling points between...

  10. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.407 Section 238.407... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages. (b) Interior train coupling points between...

  11. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.407 Section 238.407... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages. (b) Interior train coupling points between...

  12. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.407 Section 238.407... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages. (b) Interior train coupling points between...

  13. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.407 Section 238.407... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages. (b) Interior train coupling points between...

  14. Mimotope and anti-idiotypic vaccines to induce an anti-IgE response.

    PubMed

    Stadler, B M; Zürcher, A W; Miescher, S; Kricek, F; Vogel, M

    1999-01-01

    We have defined epitopes on human IgE by screening different phage display random peptide libraries with a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody termed BSW17. The selected mimotopes and epitopes within the Cepsilon3 and Cepsilon4 region of IgE induced antibodies that were nonanaphylactogenic and had biological activity similar to BSW17. The chemically synthesized and KLH-coupled IgE epitopes or mimotopes were used to induce an anti-IgE response in rhesus monkeys. The immunized rhesus monkeys were subsequently protected in a PCA test when sensitized with human IgE and triggered with the corresponding allergen. Furthermore, using the same monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, we also generated an anti-idiotypic antibody that showed sequence homology with the IgE epitope in the Cepsilon3 domain. This anti-idiotypic antibody as well as the mimotopes were then used in a mouse model to induce orally an anti-IgE immune response. For this purpose mice were fed by intragastric gavages with bacteriophages displaying the small IgE-homologous structures. Orally immunized mice produced serum anti-IgE antibodies that were inhibited by BSW17 suggesting that it may be possible to induce a systemic anti-IgE response orally.

  15. Anti-cytokine biologic treatment beyond anti-TNF in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Arida, Aikaterini; Sfikakis, Petros P

    2014-01-01

    Unmet therapeutic needs in Behçet's disease have drawn recent attention to biological agents targeting cytokines other than TNF. The anti-IL-17 antibody secukinumab and the anti-IL-2 receptor antibody daclizumab were not superior to placebo for ocular Behçet's in randomised controlled trials, comprising 118 and 17 patients, respectively. The anti-IL-1 agents anakinra and canakinumab and the anti-IL-6 agent tocilizumab were given to isolated refractory disease patients, who were either anti-TNF naïve (n=9) or experienced (n=18). No new safety signals were reported. Although a potential for bias to report positive effects and underreport negative cases may exist, Anakinra was partially effective, whereas disease remission was noted after canakinumab in some anti-TNF resistant patients. Tocilizumab appeared effective for neuro-Behçet's, but not for mucocutaneous manifestations. Finally, in a pilot study of 7 patients with relapsing posterior uveitis refractory to azathioprine and/or cyclosporine, the anti-IL-1β antibody Gevokizumab was beneficial. Collectively, it seems that IL-1 and IL-6 are promising targets in patients refractory or intolerant to other regimens including anti-TNFs. However, controlled studies are surely needed.

  16. Immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties of triptolide: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Ziaei, Samira; Halaby, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Triptolide, the active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F has been used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory conditions for over two hundred years in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the processes through which triptolide exerts immunosuppression and anti-inflammation are not understood well. In this review, we discuss the autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions that are currently treated with triptolide. Triptolide also possesses anti-tumorigenic effects. We discuss the toxicity of various triptolide derivatives and offer suggestions to improve its safety. This study also examines the clinical trials that have investigated the efficacy of triptolide. Our aim is to examine the mechanisms that are responsible for the immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of triptolide. Materials and Methods: The present review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature with respect to the immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties of triptolide. Results: Triptolide possesses immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Conclusion: Triptolide can be used alone or in combination with existing therapeutic modalities as novel treatments for autoimmune disorders, cancers, and for immunosuppression. PMID:27222828

  17. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs.

    PubMed

    El-Aarag, Bishoy Y A; Kasai, Tomonari; Zahran, Magdy A H; Zakhary, Nadia I; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Agwa, Hussein S; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Hiroki; Seno, Masaharu

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. The anti-angiogenicity of thalidomide has inspired a second wave of research on this teratogenic drug. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of two thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs by studying their anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Their action on the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 was also assessed. Furthermore, their effect on angiogenesis was evaluated through wound healing, migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Results illustrated that the proliferation of HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells was not significantly affected by thalidomide at 6.25-100μM. Thalidomide failed to block angiogenesis at similar concentrations. By contrast, thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs exhibited significant anti-proliferative action on HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells without causing cytotoxicity and also showed powerful anti-angiogenicity in wound healing, migration, tube formation, and NO assays. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 demonstrated more potent activity to suppress expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 than thalidomide. Analog 1 consistently, showed the highest potency and efficacy in all the assays. Taken together, our results support further development and evaluation of novel thalidomide analogs as anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agents.

  18. Clinical significance of autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2013-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) rely upon the detection of characteristic autoantibodies. Positivity for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle (SMA) autoantibodies defines AIH type 1 (AIH-1), whereas anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) define AIH type 2 (AIH-2). ANA and SMA, and less commonly anti-LKM1, have also been detected in de-novo autoimmune hepatitis developing after liver transplantation, a condition that may affect patients transplanted for non-autoimmune liver disease. The diagnostic autoantibodies associated with AIH-1 are also detected in the paediatric AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome, referred to as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). ASC, like adult primary sclerosing cholangitis, is often associated with atypical perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA), although p-ANCA are also detected in other autoimmune liver diseases. These associations highlight the necessity for simple and prompt diagnostic autoantibody testing, and the requirement for the accurate interpretation of the results of the tests in the clinical context. Fine-mapping of antigenic autoantibody targets has facilitated the development of rapid molecular assays that have the potential to revolutionise the field if properly standardised and when used in combination with classical immunofluorescence. Despite their diagnostic significance, the pathogenic role of the various autoantibodies and the mechanisms by which they can potentially inflict damage onto the liver cell remain a topic for further research.

  19. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint. PMID:28106787

  20. Anti-icing performance of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, S.; Farzaneh, M.; Kulinich, S. A.

    2011-05-01

    This article studies the anti-ice performance of several micro/nano-rough hydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography. The coatings were prepared by spin-coating or dip coating and used organosilane, fluoropolymer or silicone rubber as a top layer. Artificially created glaze ice, similar to the naturally accreted one, was deposited on the nanostructured surfaces by spraying supercooled water microdroplets (average size ˜80 μm) in a wind tunnel at subzero temperature (-10 °C). The ice adhesion strength was evaluated by spinning the samples in a centrifuge at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. The results show that the anti-icing properties of the tested materials deteriorate, as their surface asperities seem to be gradually broken during icing/de-icing cycles. Therefore, the durability of anti-icing properties appears to be an important point for further research. It is also shown that the anti-icing efficiency of the tested superhydrophobic surfaces is significantly lower in a humid atmosphere, as water condensation both on top and between surface asperities takes place, leading to high values of ice adhesion strength. This implies that superhydrophobic surfaces may not always be ice-phobic in the presence of humidity, which can limit their wide use as anti-icing materials.

  1. Anti-CCP: History and its Usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Herold, M.; Boeser, V.; Russe, E.; Klotz, W.

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies directed to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can easily be detected in sera by using commercially available immunoassays. The second version of the anti-CCP test (anti-CCP2) demonstrated high specificity (89-98%) and good sensitivity (41-88%) for RA. Commercially available ELISA methods from three different companies are on the market. All three CCP2 assays show similar results as all CCP2 assays use the same antigen-coated plates. This study was an evaluation of a new automated method for the determination of anti-CCP2 in a routine laboratory setting. Five hundred and fourty three serum samples were tested for anti-CCP2 within normal routine diagnostic using a commercially available ELISA and retested with a prelaunch version of a new and fully-automated method (EliA™). The results were comparable. The new automated assay is easy to use and demonstrated a diagnostic sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 97%. PMID:16050144

  2. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2017-01-18

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.

  3. Gauge theories in anti-selfdual variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochicchio, Marco; Pilloni, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    Some years ago the Nicolai map, viewed as a change of variables from the gauge connection in a fixed gauge to the anti-selfdual part of the curvature, has been extended by the first named author to pure Yang-Mills from its original definition in = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We study here the perturbative one-particle irreducible effective action in the anti-selfdual variables of any gauge theory, in particular pure Yang-Mills, QCD and = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We prove that the one-loop one-particle irreducible effective action of a gauge theory mapped to the anti-selfdual variables in any gauge is identical to the one of the original theory. This is due to the conspiracy between the Jacobian of the change to the anti-selfdual variables and an extra functional determinant that arises from the non-linearity of the coupling of the anti-selfdual curvature to an external source in the Legendre transform that defines the one-particle irreducible effective action. Hence we establish the one-loop perturbative equivalence of the mapped and original theories on the basis of the identity of the one-loop one-particle irreducible effective actions. Besides, we argue that the identity of the perturbative one-particle irreducible effective actions extends order by order in perturbation theory.

  4. Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Li, H.; Shen, Y. F.; Yuan, X. Z.; Zi, J.

    2010-01-01

    The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges (~10-15 m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.

  5. A case of Crohn's disease that developed anti-infliximab and anti-adalimumab antibodies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Fujimoto, Takehide; Shioya, Makoto; Nishida, Atsushi; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-04-01

    There are few reports about the rapid appearance of anti-adalimumab antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease positive for anti-infliximab antibodies. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease who revealed a loss of response to infliximab due to high levels of antibodies to infliximab, and did not respond to the subsequent therapy by adalimumab, with a rapid appearance of antibodies to adalimumab. As one of the possible mechanisms of non-response to adalimumab, immunologic reactivity of infliximab to adalimumab was suspected, since the patient's IgG that was obtained just before the induction of adalimumab reacted with infliximab and adalimumab. We should pay attention to the easy appearance of anti-adalimumab antibodies in association with reactivity of anti-infliximab antibodies to adalimumab in patients with high levels of anti-infliximab antibodies.

  6. Anti-Ca/anti-ARHGAP26 antibodies associated with cerebellar atrophy and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Doss, Sarah; Nümann, Astrid; Ziegler, Annerose; Siebert, Eberhard; Borowski, Kathrin; Stöcker, Winfried; Prüss, Harald; Wildemann, Brigitte; Endres, Matthias; Jarius, Sven

    2014-02-15

    Recently, we identified a novel Purkinje cell-specific autoantibody (termed anti-Ca) targeting rhoGTPase-activating-protein-26 (ARHGAP26) in a patient with cerebellar ataxia. Here we describe a new case of anti-Ca/ARHGAP26 antibody-positive cerebellar ataxia. Cerebellar ataxia was associated with signs of possible limbic encephalitis in this case. The 24-year-old man presented with subacute pancerebellar ataxia, flattened affect, and cognitive decline. Neuropsychological testing revealed working memory deficits, compromised verbal learning and recall, attention deficits, slowed information processing, interference difficulty, and reduced spatial recognition. MRI showed severe pancerebellar atrophy. Serological examinations revealed high-titre anti-Ca/anti-ARHGAP26 antibodies. The antibodies belonged to the IgG1 subclass and were produced intrathecally. This case further corroborates the association of anti-Ca antibodies with cerebellar ataxia, expands the clinical spectrum, and highlights the necessity of antigen-specific diagnostic testing in immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia.

  7. Antibodies as an unlimited source of anti-infective, anti-tumour and immunomodulatory peptides.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Giovati, Laura; Sperindé, Martina; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Giorgio; Conti, Stefania; Polonella, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) are emerging as an important class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of various human diseases, often conjugated to drugs or toxic substances. In recent years, the incidence of cancer and infectious diseases has increased dramatically making it imperative to discover new effective therapeutic molecules. Among these, small peptides are arousing great interest. Synthetic peptides, representative of variable and constant region fragments of Abs, were proved to exert in vitro, ex vivo and/or in vivo anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-tumour and/or immunomodulatory activities, mediated by different mechanisms of action and regardless of the specificity and isotype of the Ab. Some of these synthetic peptides possess the ability to spontaneously and reversibly self-assemble in an organised network of fibril-like structure. Ab fragments may represent a novel model of targeted anti-infective and anti-tumour auto-delivering drugs.

  8. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Caesalpinia decapetala

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Amna; Sajid Hamid Akash, Muhammad; Rehman, Kanwal; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In many pathological conditions, pain, inflammation and fever are interdependent to each other. Due to the use of synthetic drugs, many unwanted effects usually appear. Various studies have been conducted on Caesalpinia decapetala (C. decapetala) to evaluate its effects in the treatment of various diseases but no sufficient scientific literature is available online to prove its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities. Methods: The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of 70% aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extracts of C. decapetala was evaluated using Swiss albino mice (20-30 g). Results: The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala at the dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited significant (p< 0.05) activities in various pain models including acetic acid-induced writhing (18.4 ± 0.53), formalin-induced licking (275 ± 4.18) and hot plate method (2.3 ± 0.0328); whereas,  n-hexane extract showed its effects in acetic acid-induced writhing (20 ± 0.31), formalin-induced licking (293 ± 1.20) and hot plate method (2.224 ± 0.029) compared to the effects observed in control group animals. Similarly, the aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala after 2 h of treatment exhibited more significant anti-inflammatory (0.66 ± 0.06) and anti-pyretic (38.81 ± 0.05) activities compared to the control group animals. Conclusion: From the findings of our present study, we concluded that the aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala has stronger analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects than its n-hexane extract. Further studies are required to investigate the active constituents of C. decapetala that exhibit analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities. PMID:24790898

  9. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Stéphane; Pin, Jean-Christophe; Pierre, Fabrice; Ciron, Jonathan; Iljicsov, Anna; Lamy, Matthias; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-MMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated encephalitis mainly affecting young women. We describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who developed a classical form of anti-NMDAR encephalitis during the 10th week of gestation. The patient had been treated with methylpredinsolone and intravenous immunoglobulins. Birth history of the child was normal, with normal APGAR score. The clinical symptoms of the patient have improved after a few months. This rare occurrence during pregnancy (only 9 other cases described) presents an opportunity to highlight the importance of making the earliest possible diagnosis of this treatable and potentially reversible encephalitis, and to educate gynecologists, psychiatrists, anesthetists, and neurologists on this potential cause of psychiatric and neurological manifestations during pregnancy. PMID:26131809

  10. Refinery anti-foulant-asphaltene dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, W.K.; Mercer, B.D.; Comer, D.G.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a method of dispersing asphalt and asphaltene in petroleum, crude oil, or any hydrocarbon fraction thereof exposed to heat transfer processes in an oil refinery. It comprises: adding an effective anti-foulant amount of asphalt-asphaltene polymeric anti-foulant to the petroleum, crude oil, or fraction thereof, the polymeric anti-foulant comprising an admixture of Polymer A and Polymer B ranging from 95 to 5 weight percent A and from 5 to 95 weight percent B, wherein Polymer A is an alkyl substituted phenol-formaldehyde liquid resin having a weight average molecular weight ranging from about 1,000 to about 20,000, and an alkyl substituent may be a linear or branched alkyl group; an Polymer B is a hydrophilic-lipophilic vinylic polymer.

  11. Anti-integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Eiji; Nakahashi, Susumu; Okamoto, Takayuki; Imai, Hiroshi; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are the foremost family of cell adhesion molecules that regulate immune cell trafficking in health and diseases. Integrin alpha4 mediates organ-specific migration of immune cells to the inflamed brain, thereby playing the critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Anti-alpha4 integrin therapy aiming to block infiltration of autoreactive lymphocytes to the inflamed brain has been validated in several clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This paper provides readers with an overview of the molecular and structural bases of integrin activation as well as rationale for using anti-alpha4 integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis and then chronicles the rise and fall of this treatment strategy using natalizumab, a humanized anti-alpha4 integrin.

  12. What is an anti-aging treatment?

    PubMed

    Gems, David

    2014-10-01

    Key objectives of biogerontology are to understand the biology of aging and to translate scientific insight into interventions that improve late-life health - or anti-aging treatments. In this context, when considering the problem of how to effect translational research, it is useful to have a clear, consensus view on what exactly constitutes an anti-aging treatment. This essay critically assesses the understanding of this concept common among biogerontologists, and proposes a new definition. A current conception of anti-aging treatment imagines a primary cause of aging that is causally upstream of, and the cause of, all age-related pathology. Intervening in this aging process thus protects against the totality of age-related diseases. However, this underlying aging process remains an abstraction. By contrast, what is demonstrable is that interventions in model organisms can improve late-life health and extend lifespan. Furthermore, a safe deduction is that treatments that extend lifespan do so by reducing age-related pathology, both florid and subtle. What is currently identifiable about aging (i.e. senescence) is that it is a very complex disease syndrome, likely involving a number of biological mechanisms. Treatments that substantially extend lifespan must suppress multiple pathologies that otherwise limit lifespan, but whether they suppress the entire aging process remains undemonstrated. A more pragmatic and realistic definition of anti-aging treatment is any preventative approach to reduce late-life pathology, based on the understanding that senescence is a disease syndrome. This definition would encompass preventative approaches aimed at both broad and narrow spectra of age-related pathologies. Its adoption would facilitate translation, since it would shift the emphasis to medical practice, particularly the introduction of preventative approaches. Narrow spectrum anti-aging treatments (e.g. the cardiovascular polypill) could establish a practice that

  13. Systematic review: new serological markers (anti-glycan, anti-GP2, anti-GM-CSF Ab) in the prediction of IBD patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, J; Dumestre-Perard, C; Rinaudo-Gaujous, M; Genin, C; Sparrow, M; Roblin, X; Paul, S

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, IBD diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and histological criteria. Biomarkers are needed in cases of uncertain diagnosis, or to predict disease course and therapeutic response. No guideline recommends the detection of antibodies (including ASCA and ANCA) for diagnosis or prognosis of IBD to date. However, many recent data suggest the potential role of new serological markers (anti-glycan (ACCA, ALCA, AMCA, anti-L and anti-C), anti-GP2 and anti-GM-CSF Ab). This review focuses on clinical utility of these new serological markers in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic monitoring of IBD. Literature review of anti-glycan, anti-GP2 and anti-GM-CSF Ab and their impact on diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE up to June 2014. Anti-glycan, anti-GP2 and anti-GM-CSF Ab are especially associated with CD and seem to be correlated with complicated disease phenotypes even if results differ between studies. Although anti-glycan Ab and anti-GP2 Ab have low sensitivity in diagnosis of IBD, they could identify a small number of CD patients not detected by other tests such as ASCA. Anti-glycan Abs are associated with a progression to a more severe disease course and a higher risk for IBD-related surgery. Anti-GP2 Ab could particularly contribute to better stratify cases of pouchitis. Anti-GM-CSF Ab seems to be correlated with disease activity and could help predict relapses. These new promising biomarkers could particularly be useful in stratification of patients according to disease phenotype and risk of complications. They could be a valuable aid in prediction of disease course and therapeutic response but more prospective studies are needed.

  14. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSE

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, N.; Venkatesh, Sama; Suresh, B.

    1998-01-01

    Dodonaea viscose, Linn is a widely grown plant of Nilgiris district of Tamil and is commonly used by the tribals of Nilgiris as a traditional medicine for done fracture and joint sprains. Since it is generally believed tat fractures are accompanied by either some degree of injury or inflammations, it was felt desirable to carry our anti inflammatory activity of Dodonaea viscose. Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant was carried out by carrageenin induced paw edema method in Wister albino rats. PMID:22556883

  15. Future prospects for anti-cytokine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, M.; Miotla, J.; Paleolog, E.; Williams, R.; Malfait, A.; Taylor, P.; Brennan, F.; Maini, R.

    2000-01-01

    The era of anti-cytokine treatment in rheumatology has just begun. The first generation therapeutic agents, biological agents that block tumour necrosis factor α such as monoclonal antibodies or receptor Ig fusion proteins are safe and effective, and so this has generated much interest in how to increase the benefit or deliver it more cost effectively. This article provides a personal view of the coming trends in anti-cytokine treatment. Which of these will be realised in the future will be of interest.

 PMID:11053102

  16. Anti-Cancer Effects of Green Tea by Either Anti- or Pro- Oxidative Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Sumio; Saito, Kieko; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ohishi, Tomokazu; Oishi, Yumiko; Miyoshi, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Tea derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is consumed worldwide. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects, and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases including cancer, diabetes and hepatitis, as well as obesity. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation and among the catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Our research group has postulated that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-α are targets of green tea constituents including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate for their anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-hepatitis effects, respectively. Published papers were reviewed to determine whether the observed changes in these factors can be correlated with anti-cancer effects of green tea. Two major action mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate have been proposed; one associated with its anti-oxidative properties and the other with its pro-oxidative activity. When reactive oxygen species are assumed to be involved, our findings that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate down- regulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-α may explain the anti-cancer effect of green tea as well. However, further studies are required to elucidate which determinant directs (-)-epigallocatechin gallate action as an anti-oxidant or a pro-oxidant for favorable activity.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of Yucca schidigera: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheeke, P R; Piacente, S; Oleszek, W

    2006-03-29

    Yucca schidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. According to folk medicine, yucca extracts have anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant contains several physiologically active phytochemicals. It is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and is used commercially as a saponin source. Saponins have diverse biological effects, including anti-protozoal activity. It has been postulated that saponins may have anti-arthritic properties by suppressing intestinal protozoa which may have a role in joint inflammation. Yucca is also a rich source of polyphenolics, including resveratrol and a number of other stilbenes (yuccaols A, B, C, D and E). These phenolics have anti-inflammatory activity. They are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkB stimulates synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which causes formation of the inflammatory agent nitric oxide. Yucca phenolics are also anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers, which may aid in suppressing reactive oxygen species that stimulate inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, further studies on the anti-arthritic effects of Yucca schidigera are warranted.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of yucca schidigera: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cheeke, PR; Piacente, S; Oleszek, W

    2006-01-01

    Yucca schidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. According to folk medicine, yucca extracts have anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant contains several physiologically active phytochemicals. It is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and is used commercially as a saponin source. Saponins have diverse biological effects, including anti-protozoal activity. It has been postulated that saponins may have anti-arthritic properties by suppressing intestinal protozoa which may have a role in joint inflammation. Yucca is also a rich source of polyphenolics, including resveratrol and a number of other stilbenes (yuccaols A, B, C, D and E). These phenolics have anti-inflammatory activity. They are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkB stimulates synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which causes formation of the inflammatory agent nitric oxide. Yucca phenolics are also anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers, which may aid in suppressing reactive oxygen species that stimulate inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, further studies on the anti-arthritic effects of Yucca schidigera are warranted. PMID:16571135

  19. Quantitation of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies by enzymoimmunoassay: methodology and applications.

    PubMed

    Virella, G; Hyman, B

    1991-01-01

    We have developed enzymoimmunoassays (EIA) for the quantitation of antibodies (Ab) to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TT, DT) using Immulon I plates coated with the appropriate toxoid. A preparation of human tetanus immunoglobulin with a known concentration of anti-TT Ab was used as calibrator of the anti-TT antibody assay. The assay of anti-DT Ab is calibrated with a pool of human sera whose anti-DT Ab concentration was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using a horse anti-DT with known Ab concentration as calibrator. A peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgG was used in both assays. ABTS was used as substrate, and the reaction was stopped after 1 min incubation with citric acid and the OD measured at 414 nm on a Vmax reader. The assays have been applied to a variety of clinical situations. In patients suspected of having tetanus, the quantitation of antibodies has been helpful in establishing a diagnosis. In patients with a history of hypersensitivity to tetanus toxoid, verification of the levels of anti-TT antibody may prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful immunizations. The assays have also been used for the diagnostic evaluation of the humoral immune response to TT and DT, both in pediatric patients and in immunosuppressed patients. Several non-responders have been detected, and we have recently used the assay to monitor the effects of fish oil administration on the humoral immune response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Administration of Anti-Reg I and Anti-PAPII Antibodies Worsens Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Viterbo, Domenico; Callender, Gordon E; DiMaio, Theresa; Mueller, Cathy M; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar; Zenilman, Michael E; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Context The regeneration protein family (Reg), which includes Reg I and PAPII, is expressed in pancreas acinar cells, and increases in acute pancreatitis. We have demonstrated that Reg gene knockdown worsens severity of acute pancreatitis in the rat and hypothesize that the proteins offer a protective effect in this disease. Objective We investigated the ability of anti-Reg and anti-PAP antibody to neutralize pancreatic Reg protein and affect pancreatitis severity. Intervention Pancreatitis was induced in rats by retrograde ductal injection of 4% sodium taurocholate. Animals Eighty-four rats: 48 with induced pancreatitis, 30 sham operated, and 6 normal animals. Setting Intraductal anti-Reg I and/or anti-PAPII antibody was administered at induced pancreatitis and sham operated subgroups of 6 rats each. Main outcome measure Serum and pancreata were harvested 24 and/or 48 hours later and assessed for pancreatitis severity by pancreatic wet weight, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), amylase, PAPII levels, and histopathology. Results Animals induced with pancreatitis with administration of anti-Reg/PAP antibodies had significantly higher wet weights compared with taurocholate and histopathological analysis revealed that anti-Reg/PAP treated animals had worse tissue inflammation and necrosis compared with controls. Serum CRP, amylase, and Reg levels did not significantly differ between experimental and sham control groups. Conclusions Administration of anti-Reg/PAP antibody worsened taurocholate-induced organ specific pancreatitis. These data suggest that the Reg family of proteins is protective in acute pancreatitis. PMID:19129610

  1. Anti-erythropoietin and anti-thrombopoietin antibodies induced after administration of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sug Kyun; Pack, Seung Pil; Oh, Jin-Gyo; Kang, Nam Kyu; Chang, Myung Hee; Chung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Sung-Jo; Lee, Jong Wook; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2011-12-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been successfully used for correcting renal anemia. However, recent studies have raised some concerns about the safety of rhEPO treatment due to its immunogenic side effect - pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). We now report a case of development of anti-EPO neutralizing antibodies (Abs) implicated in thrombocytopenia as well as erythrocytopenia. A 35-year-old man had a history of administering rhEPO (epoetin alfa, epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa) for 2years to treat renal anemia. The hematological parameters were collected. Anti-EPO, anti-platelet, and anti-thrombopoietin (TPO) Ab assays were performed to test the presence of autoreactive Abs. After performing antibody assays due to severe resistance to rhEPO treatment, a high titer of anti-EPO neutralizing Abs was detected. However, unexpectedly, this patient also showed thrombocytopenia rather than PRCA. We investigated the cause of the marked thrombocytopenia and found anti-TPO Abs in patient serum. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the development of anti-TPO Abs during rhEPO treatment for anemia.

  2. Anti-cancer small molecule JP-8g exhibits potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yao, Jia; Kai, Ming; Jiang, Xianxing; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Spirooxindoles are a class of compounds with diverse biological activity. Previously, we identified a series of spirooxindole-pyranopyrimidine compounds that exhibited broad-spectrum anti-cancer activity. In this study, we evaluated one of these compounds, JP-8g, on mouse models and found that it showed potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Further investigation suggested that JP-8g may execute its anti-inflammatory activity through nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways. Our results suggest that these spirooxindole-pyranopyrimidine class compounds have potential for not only cancer treatment but also inflammation therapy. PMID:24626153

  3. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  4. Anti-Semitism in First Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Matthew; Myers, Gerald M.

    2011-01-01

    Robert Cohen, Assistant Professor English at Fairbanks University, has just completed a contentious meeting of his First Year Composition class, which had discussed a paper written by one of the students. Joe Anderson's paper contained statements that have been historically used as anti-Semitic slogans. Cohen attempted to avoid embarrassing…

  5. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  6. Anti-tubercular agents from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Komal; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity guided isolation of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae / Fabaceae) roots resulted in the characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid as a major anti-tubercular agent. Further, GA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into its nine derivatives, which were in-vitro evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using BACTEC-460 radiometric susceptibility assay. All the derivatives were active, but the benzylamide (GA-8, MIC 12.5μg/ml) and ethyl oxylate (GA-3, MIC 25.0 μg/ml) derivatives were significantly active against the pathogen. This was further supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for GA-3 (120.3) and GA-8 (112.6) with respect to the standard anti-tubercular drug, rifampicin (92.94) on the DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) target site. Finally, the in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA-3 and GA- 8 possesses drug-like properties. This is the first ever report on the anti-tubercular potential of GA and its derivatives. These results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non toxic natural product.

  7. Utopian Education and Anti-Utopian Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the connection of education, utopia and anthropology, aiming to tease out some educational implications of anti-utopian anthropological essentialism and to show why these should be staved off. It will be shown how an anthropology that tarnishes human nature operates and how it affects educational intervention in the shaping…

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hye-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook; Lim, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Myeong; Park, Eun-Hee

    2008-01-04

    Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and an anti-angiogenic activity in the chicken chorioallantoic (CAM) assay. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, TEE inhibited production of exudate, and significantly diminished nitric oxide (NO) and leukocyte levels in the exudate. It also possessed an inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and caused a dose-dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice. Suppressive effects of TEE on the production of NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages were also assessed. Among the fractions, the n-butanol fraction (BuOH) was identified to be most effective in the CAM assay. Collectively, Taraxacum officinale contains anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities through its inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression and/or its antioxidative activity.

  9. The Anti-Trash Costume Bash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2010-01-01

    To educate one's students about recycling garbage, art teachers can plan an "anti-trash costume bash" to promote public awareness of the ugly, unhealthy, and costly effects of litter. Such an event was brainstormed by the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG), a regional agency made up of the valley communities in Arizona working to…

  10. Inexpensive anti-fog coating for windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmin, D. L., Jr.; Morrison, H. D.

    1971-01-01

    Coating applications include anti-fog protection for deep-sea diving equipment, fire protection helmets, and windows of vehicles used in hazardous environments. Basic coating composition includes liquid detergent, deionized water, and oxygen compatible fire-resistant oil. Composition prevents visor fogging under maximum metabolic load for 5 hours and longer.

  11. Anti-Depressants, Suicide, and Drug Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Jens; Marcotte, Dave E.

    2005-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly concerned that a relatively new class of anti-depressant drugs, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI), may increase the risk of suicide for at least some patients, particularly children. Prior randomized trials are not informative on this question because of small sample sizes and other limitations. Using…

  12. Structural Liberalism and Anti-Bullying Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism, meliorism,…

  13. Myc mouse and anti-ageing therapy.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif; Partridge, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Reduction in the expression and activity of a well-known proto-oncogene, Myc, has a beneficial effect on mouse health and survival to old age, in part independently of cancer impact, a recent study reveals. Is this new anti-ageing intervention pointing a way towards new treatments for age-related diseases?

  14. Dietary flavonoids: molecular mechanisms of action as anti- inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Marzocchella, Laura; Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenolic compounds, which are ubiquitously expressed in plants. They are grouped according to their chemical structure and function into flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, flavanones and isoflavones. Many of flavonoids are found in fruits, vegetables and beverages. Flavonoids have been demonstrated to have advantageous effects on human health because their anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-tumor and anti-oxidant behavior. This report reviews the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of action of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents and also discusses the relevant patents.

  15. The significance of anti-streptokinase antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, M; Pentecost, B L; Littler, W A; Stockley, R A

    1994-01-01

    Antibodies to streptokinase (SK) are widespread in the population, but reports of their effect on the action of SK are conflicting. Specific anti-SK IgG was purified from the sera of 10 patients, five with low titres of anti-SK IgG and five with high titres. The effect of increasing specific anti-SK IgG antibodies on the action of SK was evaluated in vitro using a fluorimetric assay for plasmin and by a fibrin plate lysis assay. The inhibition of SK by whole plasma from a further group of patients was also assessed by the fibrin plate assay. There was a positive correlation between the serum antibody concentration and the quantity of specific anti-SK eluted (r = 0.797; P < 0.005). The addition of specific anti-SK IgG caused a dose-related decrease in SK activity (fluorimetric assay r = -0.93; P = 0.02; fibrin plate assay r = -0.98; P < 0.001). The addition of patient plasma to the fibrin plate assay also resulted in decreased lysis, which was dependent upon antibody titre (r = -0.95; P < 0.0001). Significant in vitro reduction of the activity of SK by specific antibody was demonstrated, and this was similar with plasma containing comparable amounts of antibody. The findings suggest that treatment with SK would be unlikely to induce an effective thrombolytic state when antibody titres are high (such as those seen within 2 years of an initial dose of SK). PMID:8004811

  16. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Aging, and Anti-Melanogenic Properties of the Essential Oils from Two Varieties of Alpinia zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pham Thi Be; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-09-14

    Here, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-aging effects of essential oils (EOs) from the leaves of Alpinia zerumbet (tairin and shima) in vitro and anti-melanogenic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-oxidant activities were performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS); nitric oxide; singlet oxygen; hydroxyl radical scavenging; and xanthine oxidase. The inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, and tyrosinase were employed for anti-aging. The anti-melanogenic was assessed in B16F10 melanoma cells by melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EO was a complex mixture mainly consisting of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The results revealed that tairin and shima EOs showed strong anti-oxidant activities against DPPH and nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and xanthine oxidase inhibition. Compared to shima EO; tairin EO exhibited strong anti-aging activity by inhibiting collagenase, tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, and elastase (IC50 = 11 ± 0.1; 25 ± 1.2; 83 ± 1.6; and 213 ± 2 μg/mL, respectively). Both EOs inhibited intracellular tyrosinase activity; thus, reducing melanin synthesis. These results suggest that tairin EO has better anti-oxidant/anti-aging activity than shima EO, but both are equally anti-melanogenic.

  17. More than being against it: anti-racism and anti-oppression in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Corneau, Simon; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2012-04-01

    Anti-racism and anti-oppression frameworks of practice are being increasingly advocated for in efforts to address racism and oppression embedded in mental health and social services, and to help reduce their impact on mental health and clinical outcomes. This literature review summarizes how these two philosophies of practice are conceptualized and the strategies used within these frameworks as they are applied to service provision toward racialized groups. The strategies identified can be grouped in seven main categories: empowerment, education, alliance building, language, alternative healing strategies, advocacy, social justice/activism, and fostering reflexivity. Although anti-racism and anti-oppression frameworks have limitations, they may offer useful approaches to service delivery and would benefit from further study.

  18. Sericins exhibit ROS-scavenging, anti-tyrosinase, anti-elastase, and in vitro immunomodulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Chlapanidas, Theodora; Faragò, Silvio; Lucconi, Giulia; Perteghella, Sara; Galuzzi, Marta; Mantelli, Melissa; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Tosca, Marta Cecilia; Marazzi, Mario; Vigo, Daniele; Torre, Maria Luisa; Faustini, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Some biological properties of Bombyx mori sericins from twenty strains were investigated, fourteen fed with artificial diet, two with fresh mulberry leaves and four with both diets. Sericin exhibited ROS-scavenging, anti-tyrosinase and anti-elastase properties, the strain significantly influenced these properties, while diet only influenced the anti-tyrosinase activity. Sericins were clustered into 5 groups and one sericin from each group was further studied: sericins showed anti-proliferative activity on in vitro stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; some strains decreased in vitro secretion of IFNγ, while no effects were observed on TNFα and IL10 release. Therefore, a mixture of sericins extracted from the most promising strains may be useful for dermatological and cosmetic use.

  19. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  20. [Wegener's granulomatosis with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against anti-cathepsin G antigen].

    PubMed

    Ocaña Pérez, E; Peña Casas, A M; del Campo Muñoz, T; Avila Casas, A; Luque Barona, R

    2013-12-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis belongs to the group of small vessel vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies characterized by granulomatous inflammation and necrotising vasculitis in various organs with particular involvement of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare disorder in childhood and early diagnosis of this disease is critical to the long-term prognosis of the disease. The presence of positive cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody staining or a high titre of proteinase 3 antibodies were added as new criteria of vasculitis in childhood. This article presents a case of Wegener's granulomatosis, with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies with cytoplasmic pattern with absence of anti-proteinase 3 antibodies and presence of high levels of anti-cathepsin G antibodies, rarely described in Wegener's granulomatosis.

  1. Metformin - its potential anti-cancer and anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Podhorecka, Monika; Ibanez, Blanca; Dmoszyńska, Anna

    2017-03-02

    The generally accepted mechanism of metformin's effect is stimulation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is directly activated by an increase in AMP:ATP ratio in metabolic stress conditions including hypoxia and glucose deprivation. Lately, many novel pathways, besides AMPK induction, have been revealed, which can explain some of metformin's beneficial effects. It may help to identify new targets for treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, metformin is now attracting the attention of researchers in fields other than diabetes, as it has been shown to have anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and anti-aging effects. The aim of this review is to describe the potential anti-cancer and anti-aging properties of metformin and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms.

  2. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (p<0.05). Results: Results illustrated that the brittle star extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (p<0.05). Conclusion: These finding revealed the anti-angiogenic effects of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies. PMID:26989740

  3. Anti-aging and anti-microbial effects of melleolide on various types of yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Kobori, Hajime; Sekiya, Atsushi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we found that the sesquiterpene aryl ester melleolide expands the CLS of budding yeast. In contrast, melleolide compromised the CLS of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This indicates that melleolide might have a potential anti-aging activity against some types of cell, and that it might be useful as a selective anti-fungal drug.

  4. Licorice: a possible anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer drug.

    PubMed

    Aly, Adel M; Al-Alousi, Laith; Salem, Hatem A

    2005-09-20

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activities of both glycerrhitinic acid (GA) and the aqueous licorice extract (ALE) in comparison with diclofenac sodium (DS) (10 mg/kg), using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in male albino rats. In addition, the anti-ulcer activities of ALE, famotidine (FT), and a combination of ALE and FT using indomethacin-induced ulceration technique in rat stomach were investigated. Conventional DS tablets containing GA, as well as DS chewable tablets containing either GA or ALE with different tastes were prepared. Also, rapidly disintegrating FT tablets were prepared using direct compression and camphor sublimation methods. ALE or GA produced significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to DS, and when taken concomitantly, there is no possible antagonism. The anti-ulcer activity of licorice was found to be similar to that of FT in indomethacin-induced ulceration technique in rat stomach. Combination therapy of both FT and licorice showed higher anti-ulcer activity than either of them alone. Generally, tablets containing the crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (AcDisol) showed more rapidly disintegrating effect than those including Sodium starch glycolate (Primojel). The oral disintegration was very rapid for all the tested formulations. Also, the amount of FT absorbed from the oral cavity was nearly 9 from 10 mg theoretically present in each formula. It could be concluded that both GA and ALE have anti-inflammatory activity comparable with DS. It may be recommended to add ALE to either FT or diclofinac for more effective anti-inflammatory or anti-ulcer formulations, respectively.

  5. Assessment of anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral potentials of Origanum onites L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bostancıoğlu, Rakibe Beklem; Kürkçüoğlu, Mine; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Koparal, Ayşe Tansu

    2012-06-01

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs with anti-angiogenic and little toxicity properties have gained importance. Non-toxic anti-angiogenic phytochemicals are useful in combating cancer by preventing the formation of new blood vessels to support the tumor growth. We have investigated the essential oil of Origanum onites L. (OOEO), for a possible anti-angiogenic activity. OOEO was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The anti-proliferative activities (by MTT assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide), anti-angiogenic activities (by tube formation assay), cell migration inhibiting capability (migration assay) and apoptotic potential (DAPI staining) of OOEO were evaluated on rat adipose tissue endothelial cells (RATECs) and 5RP7 (c-H-ras transformed rat embryonic fibroblasts) cells. Our results revealed that OOEO could markedly inhibit cell viability and induced apoptosis of 5RP7 cells and also could block in vitro tube formation and migration of RATEC. These results imply that OOEO having anti-angiogenic activity might be useful in preventing angiogenesis-related diseases and in combating cancer.

  6. The anti-melanogenic effect of pycnogenol by its anti-oxidative actions.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jung; Kang, Ki Sung; Yokozawa, Takako

    2008-07-01

    Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from pine bark that contains compounds that have anti-oxidative, free-radical scavenging properties. In this work, utilizing cultured B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells), pycnogenol was investigated for its ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis. We also examined the anti-oxidative power of pycnogenol by measuring its suppressive effect against peroxynitrite (ONOO-), superoxide (.O2), nitric oxide (NO.), and hydroxyl radical (.OH)-scavenging activities using an electron spin resonance spectrometer. Results show that pycnogenol had a strong anti-tyrosinase activity and suppressed melanin biosynthesis. Further, our results showed that through its anti-oxidative properties, pycnogenol suppressed .O2) NO., ONOO-, and .OH in in vitro assays, and reactive species, ONOO-, .O2, and NO., while up-regulating the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in B16 cells. Based on the findings, we propose that pycnogenol exerts anti-melanogenic activity via its anti-oxidative actions.

  7. Sterols from Mytilidae show anti-aging and neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2014-11-25

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  8. Lectins with anti-HIV activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun; Singh, Senjam Sunil; Yin, Cuiming; Dan, Xiuli; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai

    2015-01-06

    Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus). The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightly. Anti-seizure medications may also help with fibromyalgia, a chronic condition that causes muscular pain and ... nerves (neuropathy) or overly sensitized nerves, as in fibromyalgia. Some anti-seizure drugs work particularly well for ...

  10. Paeoniflorin attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    TAO, YE; WEN, ZHIHONG; SONG, YINGQIAN; WANG, HUI

    2016-01-01

    During liver surgery, hepatic blood flow needs to be blocked in order to reduce bleeding, which inevitably results in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HI/R). Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine peony, which has been shown to exert anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, a mouse model of HI/R was generated by clamping the hepatoportal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic duct of BALB/c mice with a vascular clamp for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. Six mice in the three PF treatment groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were then injected with PF, via the tail vein. A sham group, consisting of six mice that did not undergo the procedure, and a vehicle group, consisting of 6 mice that underwent the procedure but subsequently received injections of physiological saline only, were used as controls. Liver injury was indicated by serum levels of the enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The activities of oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were also measured. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 was analyzed in hepatic tissue using a commercial kit. Treatment with PF significantly attenuated HI/R injury histologically, as compared with the vehicle group. In addition, significant reductions in the serum levels of ALT and AST were observed in the PF-treated ischemic mice. Furthermore, treatment with PF enhanced the activities of hepatic tissue SOD, GSH and GSH-PX, but decreased the MDA content. Treatment of ischemic mice with PF markedly reduced the expression levels of inflammatory mediators, including nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, and decreased the HI/R injury-induced expression of caspase-3. The results of the present study suggest that PF attenuates the HI/R injury of mice via anti

  11. [The anti-asylum movement in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lüchmann, Lígia Helena Hahn; Rodrigues, Jefferson

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the history of the national anti-asylum struggle in Brazil. It analyzes some of the movement's difficulties, achievements and challenges. The theory of social movements is used here as an important analytical tool to understand this collective action, to the degree in which theory allows an appraisal of this type of social action rooted in its many configurations, evidencing the complexity of the contemporary world. The anti-asylum movement is composed of many stakeholders whose struggles and conflicts have been developed through different social-political-institutional dimensions. It encompasses at different moments and to different degrees, a movement which articulates solidarity and conflict relations and social denunciations in an attempt to transform relations and conceptions that are discriminatory and which are intended to control the "insane" and "insanity" in our country.

  12. [Anti-aging medicine: science or marketing ?].

    PubMed

    Cogan, E

    2015-09-01

    Anti-aging medicine is self defined as a preventive medicine, combining nutritional recommendations, dietary supplements, prescriptions for hormones and various aesthetic techniques. The essential aim is to reduce the risk of aging, both psychically, physically and aesthetically. Although many scientific studies in animals or in vitro models have demonstrated the deleterious role of oxidative stress and of hormonal, vitamin or trace elements deficiencies, the transposition to humans of these findings is marginal and does not justify the therapeutic proposals advocated by the anti aging medicine. These practices are mostly not based on any scientific basis both in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields. These approaches are particularly costly for gullible patients in search of well being and abused by a carefully organized marketing involving tacit complicity of doctors, laboratories and firms producing hormones and dietary supplements and various substances devoted for aesthetic purposes.

  13. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture.

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, Freek J; van den Berg-de Lange, Ineke; Huygen, Frank J P M; Klein, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of beta-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 are discussed. PMID:12775355

  14. Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2011-04-15

    We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.

  15. Anti-aging pharmacology: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Lushchak, Oleh V; Koliada, Alexander K

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways (i.e., calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics etc.) are now under investigation. This review summarizes the literature related to advances, perspectives and challenges in the field of anti-aging pharmacology.

  16. Anti-shock garment in postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Miller, Suellen; Martin, Hilarie B; Morris, Jessica L

    2008-12-01

    The non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) is a first-aid device that reverses hypovolaemic shock and decreases obstetric haemorrhage. It consists of articulated neoprene segments that close tightly with Velcro, shunting blood from the lower body to the core organs, elevating blood pressure and increasing preload and cardiac output. This chapter describes the controversial history of the predecessors of NASG, pneumatic anti-shock garments (PASGs), relates case studies of PASG for obstetric haemorrhage, compares pneumatic and non-pneumatic devices and posits why the NASG is more appropriate for low-resource settings. This chapter discusses the only evidence available about NASGs for obstetric haemorrhage - two pre-post pilot trials and three case series - and describes recently initiated randomized cluster trials in Africa. Instructions and an algorithm for ASGs in haemorrhage and shock management are included. Much remains unknown about the NASG, a promising intervention for obstetric haemorrhage management.

  17. The bizarre anti-de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowski, Leszek M.

    2016-08-01

    Anti-de Sitter spacetime is important in general relativity and modern field theory. We review its geometrical features and properties of light signals and free particles moving in it. By applying only the elementary tools of tensor calculus, we derive ab initio of all these properties and show that they are really weird. One finds superluminal velocities of light and particles, infinite particle energy necessary to escape at infinite distance and spacetime regions inaccessible by a free fall, though reachable by an accelerated spaceship. Radial timelike geodesics are identical to the circular ones and actually all timelike geodesics are identical to one circle in a fictitious five-dimensional space. Employing the latter space, one is able to explain these bizarre features of anti-de Sitter spacetime; in this sense the spacetime is not self-contained. This is not a physical world.

  18. Anti-Progressivism in Education: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay takes a look at what I call anti-progressivism in education or, more particularly, criticism of progressive education that was so vocal and visceral that it earns a label, at least initially, of anti-progressivism. After a brief introduction discussing the terms in general, I look at three instances of anti-progressivism in the 1950s…

  19. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  20. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  1. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  2. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  3. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  4. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  5. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  6. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  7. 49 CFR 238.205 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.205 Section 238.205... Equipment § 238.205 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all..., 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting...

  8. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  9. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  10. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  11. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  12. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  13. 48 CFR 352.203-70 - Anti-lobbying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-lobbying. 352.203-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.203-70 Anti-lobbying. As prescribed in 303.808-70, the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Anti-Lobbying...

  14. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan...

  15. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan...

  16. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan...

  17. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan...

  18. 49 CFR 238.205 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.205 Section 238.205... Equipment § 238.205 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all..., 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting...

  19. 49 CFR 238.205 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.205 Section 238.205... Equipment § 238.205 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all..., 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting...

  20. 49 CFR 238.205 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.205 Section 238.205... Equipment § 238.205 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all..., 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting...

  1. 49 CFR 238.205 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.205 Section 238.205... Equipment § 238.205 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all..., 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting...

  2. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State...

  3. Laying the Foundation for Literacy: An Anti-Bias Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Defines an anti-bias curriculum as accepting the legitimacy of children's home languages, acknowledging all attempts at communication, and promoting active involvement of traditional, extended, and non-traditional families. Examines anti-bias education, language, and literacy. Identifies six tenets of anti-bias educators. Advocates laying the…

  4. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  5. Anti-Icing Chitin Coating System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    DEVELOPMENT Authors Craig T. Miller, Gail Bowers-Irons, P.I. Performing Organization Sponsoring OganiaAtion Technical Research Associates, Inc. Office of...coverage. Evidence from new tests show that sieving is required to produce a more evenly dispersed and invariable chitin grain size. These tests indicate...thinner mixture. Polished and dipped samples have been produced and evaluated for anti-icing qualities. A series of icebox, icephobic tests have been

  6. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  7. Anti-reflective coating for multipatterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Gibbons, Steve; Lowes, Joyce; Mercado, Ramil

    2008-03-01

    New bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) have been developed that can be incorporated into multiple patterning schemes utilizing scanner-track-only processes. The BARCs have modifiable optical properties and can be removed during the resist development step. Several dual patterning schemes were investigated for trench printing. The most promising process produced 110 nm trenches with approximately 1:1 space ratios. The etch characteristics of these BARCs under fluorinated and oxygenated gases were determined.

  8. Anti-Idiotype Probes for Toxin Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-13

    used for polyclonal and mono- clonal antibody production . We have identified proteins on the cell surface of thymocytes that bind to exfoliative Toxin A...of toxins represents the novel aspect of this proposal. It will rely upon the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies to the receptor molecules. Such...specifically Ser-197 results in loss of biological activity suggests that the toxins may autodigest. This has yet to be proven. AnOibody Production At about the

  9. Protease Mediated Anti-Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    anticancer therapy and focal light illumination is expected to be an effective treatment with reduced phototoxicity given the quenched state of the...to months following photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, we report a novel design of protease-mediated photosensitization by which phototoxicity can...W81XWH-05-1-0515 TITLE: Protease Mediated Anti-Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ching-Hsuan Tung CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  10. Biomimetic microfingerprints for anti-counterfeiting strategies.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyung Jong; Bae, Sangwook; Park, Cheolheon; Han, Sangkwon; Kim, Junhoi; Kim, Lily Nari; Kim, Kibeom; Song, Suk-Heung; Park, Wook; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2015-03-25

    An unclonable, fingerprint-mimicking anti-counterfeiting strategy is presented that encrypts polymeric particles with randomly generated silica film wrinkles. The generated wrinkle codes are as highly unique as human fingerprints and are technically irreproducible. Superior to previous physical unclonable functions, codes are tunable on demand and generable on various geometries. Reliable authentication of real-world products that have these microfingerprints is demonstrated using optical decoding methods.

  11. Anti-fogging and anti-frosting behaviors of layer-by-layer assembled cellulose derivative thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibraen, Mahmoud H. M. A.; Yagoub, Hajo; Zhang, Xuejian; Xu, Jian; Yang, Shuguang

    2016-05-01

    Two cellulose derivatives, quaternized cellulose (QC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled to prepare a thin film. QC was also LbL assembled with two synthetic polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), separately. The anti-fogging and anti-frosting properties of the assembled films were studied. QC/CMC thin film exhibits anti-fogging and anti-frosting behaviors, whereas QC/PAA and QC/PSS films do not have capacity for anti-fogging and anti-frosting. The anti-fogging and anti-frosting properties of QC/CMC film are attributed to that water molecules can be quickly adsorbed into the matrix of the film. The water adsorption of QC/CMC film was illustrated by the optical thickness increment.

  12. News exposure predicts anti-Muslim prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Chris G.; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media’s role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950’s, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world’s most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice. PMID:28362823

  13. [Adiponectin: an anti-carcinogenic adipokine?].

    PubMed

    Fève, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    Adipose tissue has long been considered as an « organ » of energy storage. Although many works had previously identified the secretory nature of adipocyte, it was only in 1994, when the leptin gene was cloned, that adipose tissue earned the status of endocrine tissue. It was the first demonstration that an adipose tissue-derived hormone was able to communicate with the central nervous system to control satiety and energy balance. In fact, it is almost at the same time that another major adipokine produced by adipocytes, adiponectin, has been discovered. It took several years to identify the insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties of this hormone. More recently, several epidemiological, genetic and experimental findings suggest an anti-carcinogenic role for adiponectin. In this brief review we will present the arguments supporting a protective role of adiponectin in tumor progression, particularly in the context of breast cancer. Adiponectin deficiency commonly observed in obesity may contribute to the natural history of several cancers, as well as the elevation of leptin and other hormonal disturbances associated with excessive adiposity.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Selected Dihydroxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    Sangeetha, K.S.Sridevi

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanism of inflammation is attributed, to release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils and macrophages. Over production of reactive oxygen species may result in tissue injury by damaging macromolecules. Flavones are the polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant property. This antioxidant property of flavones may have beneficial effect against inflammation. Aim To study the anti-inflammatory effect of selected dihydroxyflavones (DHF) in albino rats. The prime objective of the present study is to identify safe and effective agents to treat inflammation from among the selected DHF group of compounds. Materials and Methods The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of four selected dihydroxyflavone derivatives; 2’,3’- dihydroxyflavone and 2’, 4’ -dihydroxyflavones, 5, 3’- dihydroxyflavone and 7, 3’ dihydroxyflavone. The anti-inflammatory activity of selected DHF was studied in rats by carrageenan induced hind paw oedema method. Results All the selected dihydroxyflavone derivatives showed dose and time dependent inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema. PMID:26155493

  15. ICAO's anti-SARS airport activities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Silvio; Curdt-Christiansen, Claus M

    2003-11-01

    To prevent SARS from spreading through air travel and in order to rebuild the confidence of the traveling public in the safety of air travel, ICAO has set up an "Anti-SARS Airport Evaluation Project." The first phase of this project was to develop a set of protective measures for international airports in affected areas to adopt and implement and then to send out, on the request of Contracting States, a team of inspectors to evaluate and assess airports and issue a "statement of evaluation" that the airport inspected complies with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. In cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the first part of phase 1 was completed in early June this year, and the second part of phase 1 followed soon after. By mid-July, five international airports in Southeast Asia had been inspected and found to be in full compliance with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. The success of this ICAO project is believed to have contributed significantly to the recovery of international air travel and related industries now taking place. Phase 2 of the project is now being developed. It is aimed at preventing a resurgence of SARS, but it also contains elements to make the methodology developed applicable to future outbreaks of any other communicable disease in which the mode of transmission could involve aviation and/or the need to prevent the spread of the disease by air travel.

  16. Talking back to the anti-nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, H.

    1980-01-28

    When Jane Fonda and Tom Hayden were in their recent 52-city anti-nuclear roadshow, two quiet-spoken nuclear engineers dogged their steps, correcting their misstatements and challenging them to debate. If the truth squad does not appear on the same program with the anti-nuclear team, they are given equal time for rebuttals later. One specific tactic is to expose the anti-nuclear's side of its ability to offer alternatives for the nation's power needs that are more cost-effective, and that involve less risk to human life and the environment. The opposition to nuclear power has never quantified what the health effects are and what the costs would be of the alternatives for providing the electricity we need in this country. Gus Taylor, a member of the Campus America nuclear industry team, says this is not being honest with the public. The Campus America group stresses that there is not such a thing as riskless energy, but that there have been no deaths from nuclear radiation in power plant operation. When the issue of waste disposal is debated, the nuclear industry people counter that 16 Federal agencies are bickering over 23 scientifically feasible options for disposing of the waste. Attitudes before and after Three Mile Island are reviewed. (MCW)

  17. Progress towards recombinant anti-infective antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Jennifer C.; Sutherland, Jamie N.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    The global market for monoclonal antibody therapeutics reached a total of $11.2 billion in 2004, with an impressive 42% growth rate over the previous five years and is expected to reach ~$34 billion by 2010. Coupled with this growth are stream-lined product development, production scale-up and regulatory approval processes for the highly conserved antibody structure. While only one of the 21 current FDA-approved antibodies, and one of the 38 products in advanced clinical trials target infectious diseases, there is increasing academic, government and commercial interest in this area. Synagis, an antibody neutralizing respiratory syncitial virus (RSV), garnered impressive sales of $1.1 billion in 2006 in spite of its high cost and undocumented effects on viral titres in human patients. The success of anti-RSV passive immunization has motivated the continued development of anti-infectives to treat a number of other infectious diseases, including those mediated by viruses, toxins and bacterial/fungal cells. Concurrently, advances in antibody technology suggest that cocktails of several monoclonal antibodies with unique epitope specificity or single monoclonal antibodies with broad serotype specificity may be the most successful format. Recent patents and patent applications in these areas will be discussed as predictors of future anti-infective therapeutics. PMID:19149692

  18. Cannabis in sport: anti-doping perspective.

    PubMed

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsibility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of cannabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete's health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology.

  19. Standardization of anti-DNA antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, David S

    2013-07-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus and represent important biomarkers for clinical and research purposes. These antibodies are part of a family of antibodies to nucleosomes and bind to conserved sites widely present on DNA. While the value of anti-DNA as a biomarker is well established, the assay for these antibodies has involved a variety of DNA sources and systems to detect DNA-anti-DNA interactions. The influence of these variations on antibody detection has complicated assay standardization. As an antigen, DNA has unique features since it is a highly charged polymer that has structural heterogeneity. This heterogeneity can affect antigenicity which can vary on the basis of DNA origin, size, conformation and mobility. In addition, as a polymer, DNA can promote patterns of antibody binding based on monogamous or bivalent interaction which require an extended polynucleotide structure. Understanding the nature of DNA as an antigen can facilitate interpretation of serological tests and underpin efforts at better standardization.

  20. More Insight into BDNF against Neurodegeneration: Anti-Apoptosis, Anti-Oxidation, and Suppression of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hwang, Wei-Chao; Yang, Ding-I

    2017-01-01

    In addition to its well-established neurotrophic action, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also possesses other neuroprotective effects including anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidation, and suppression of autophagy. We have shown before that BDNF triggers multiple mechanisms to confer neuronal resistance against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in primary rat cortical cultures. The beneficial effects of BDNF involve the induction of anti-oxidative thioredoxin with the resultant expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) as well as erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent stimulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH). We further revealed that BDNF may bring the expression of sulfiredoxin, an ATP-dependent antioxidant enzyme, to offset mitochondrial inhibition in cortical neurons. Recently, we provided insights into another novel anti-oxidative mechanism of BDNF, which involves the augmentation of sestrin2 expression to endow neuronal resistance against oxidative stress induced by 3-NP; BDNF induction of sestrin2 entails the activation of a pathway involving nitric oxide (NO), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Apart from anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidation, we demonstrated in our most recent study that BDNF may activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with resultant activation of transcription factor c-Jun, thereby stimulating the expression of p62/sequestosome-1 to suppress heightened autophagy as a result of 3-NP exposure. Together, our results provide in-depth insight into multi-faceted protective mechanisms of BDNF against mitochondrial dysfunction commonly associated with the pathogenesis of many chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Delineation of the protective signaling pathways elicited by BDNF would endow a rationale to develop novel therapeutic regimens to halt or prevent the progression of neurodegeneration. PMID:28273832

  1. Mechanisms responsible for delayed and immediate hemolytic transfusion reactions in a patient with anti-E + Jk(b)+ Di(b) and anti-HLA alloantibodies.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Makiko; Samejima, Hirokazu; Mori, Ako; Wakabayashi, Mari; Takeda, Akira; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Naruse, Hitoshi; Bouike, Yoshihiro; Araki, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    Immediate hemolytic transfusion reactions (IHTR) occurred in the course of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTR). An 84-year-old man had received a blood transfusion 20 years ago. Progressive anemia developed, because of continuous bleeding from a bladder tumor. He was transfused with concentrated red blood cells (CRC) which were Rh-E antigen negative, because he had anti-E antibodies (day 0). He received CRC on day 3, and underwent resection of bladder tumor on day 6. Although crossmatch-compatible CRCs were prepared for the operation, those were not required and were kept in a refrigerator in the ward. On day 9, when a CRC kept in the ward was transfused, he suddenly had a IHTR. In order to analyze a mechanism of IHTR, the anti-Jk(b) and anti-Di(b) antibodies, anti-HLA antibodies and the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum samples. The anti-Jk(b) and anti-Di(b) antibodies increased prior to IHTR experienced on day 9. The concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1beta increased from day 2, while the concentration of IL-8 increased from day 7. The anti-HLA class I antibody could be detected 2 days before IHTR. Thus, the anti-Jk(b) and anti-Di(b) antibodies induced the production of inflammatory cytokines and symptoms of DHTR and IHTR. The anti-HLA class I antibody could be produced in spite of using the filer for removing leukocytes, and may take part in the induction of IHTR. Further, blood products should be transfused soon after completing a crossmatch test in patients with anti-RBC alloantibodies.

  2. Anti-tubulin drugs conjugated to anti-ErbB antibodies selectively radiosensitize

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Stephen R.; Yang, Howard C.; Savariar, Elamprakash N.; Aguilera, Joe; Crisp, Jessica L.; Jones, Karra A.; Whitney, Michael A.; Lippman, Scott M.; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Advani, Sunil J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour resistance to radiotherapy remains a barrier to improving cancer patient outcomes. To overcome radioresistance, certain drugs have been found to sensitize cells to ionizing radiation (IR). In theory, more potent radiosensitizing drugs should increase tumour kill and improve patient outcomes. In practice, clinical utility of potent radiosensitizing drugs is curtailed by off-target side effects. Here we report potent anti-tubulin drugs conjugated to anti-ErbB antibodies selectively radiosensitize to tumours based on surface receptor expression. While two classes of potent anti-tubulins, auristatins and maytansinoids, indiscriminately radiosensitize tumour cells, conjugating these potent anti-tubulins to anti-ErbB antibodies restrict their radiosensitizing capacity. Of translational significance, we report that a clinically used maytansinoid ADC, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), with IR prolongs tumour control in target expressing HER2+ tumours but not target negative tumours. In contrast to ErbB signal inhibition, our findings establish an alternative therapeutic paradigm for ErbB-based radiosensitization using antibodies to restrict radiosensitizer delivery. PMID:27698471

  3. Anti-amyloidogenic effect of thiacremonone through anti-inflamation in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui Hua; Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Han, Sang Bae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Moon, Dong Cheul; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Myung Koo; Oh, Ki-Wan; Jeong, Heon Sang; Leem, Jae Yoon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Jung Hwa; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated for amyloidogenesis. Sulfur compounds extracted from garlic have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we have investigated that thiacremonone, a sulfur compound isolated from garlic has anti-inflammatory effects. To investigate thiacremonone's potential effect on anti-neuroinflammation and anti-amyloidogenesis, 4 week old ICR mice were given different doses of thiacremonone (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) in drinking water for 1 month and received intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 μg/kg/day) at last 7 days of treatment. Our data show thiacremonone decreased LPS-induced memory impairment, glial activation, pro-inflammatory mediators' expression, and amyloidogenesis. In an in vitro study, we obtained similar results, with thiacremonone (1, 2, and 5 μg/ml) effectively decreased LPS (1 μg/ml)-induced glial activation and inflammatory mediators generation which are implicated in amyloidogenesis. Our data also demonstrated that thiacremonone inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. NF-κB, a critical transcriptional factor regulating not only inflammation but also amyloid-β generation, was inhibited by thiacremonone via blocking of phosphorylation of IκBα in mice brain as well as cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory compound, thiacremonone, inhibited neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis through inhibition of NF-κB activity, and thus could be applied for intervention of inflammation-related neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Superbacterial Properties of Sulforaphane from Shepherd's Purse

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo Jin; Kim, Seong Keun; Park, Hee Kuk; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2014-01-01

    Shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., has been considered a health food for centuries in Asia and is known to contain the isothiocyanate compound sulforaphane. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of a sulforaphane-containing solution (SCS) isolated from shepherd's purse. SCS had significant anti-inflammatory activity indicated by the decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and IL-10), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In addition, SCS decreased the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) levels, which confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of SCS. Further, SCS inhibited vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Bacillus anthracis. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 250 µg/ml for VRE and 1,000 µg/ml for B. anthracis. Taken together, these data indicate that SCS has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-superbacterial properties, and thus it can be used as a functional food or pharmaceutical. PMID:24634594

  5. Repurposing the anti-malarial drug, quinacrine: new anti-colitis properties

    PubMed Central

    Chumanevich, Alexander A.; Witalison, Erin E.; Chaparala, Anusha; Chumanevich, Anastasiya; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Hofseth, Lorne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in 8-10 years after disease onset. Current colitis treatment strategies do not offer a cure for the disease, but only treat the symptoms with limited success and dangerous side-effects. Also, there is no preventive treatment for either UC or colorectal cancer. Quinacrine is an anti-malarial drug with versatile use in the treatment of diseases involving inflammatory response such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. It also has putative anti-cancer effect. Quinacrine's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant properties, and anti-tumorigenic properties make it a potential small molecule preventive agent for both UC and associated colorectal cancer. Results There were obvious changes in the CDI, histology, and inflammatory load in quinacrine-treated groups in a dose and time dependent manner in both models of UC, induced by chemical or haptenating agent. Methods We tested quinacrine at two different doses as a colitis treatment agent in two mouse models of UC - the dextran sulfate sodium and oxazolone. The clinical disease index (CDI), histological changes of the colon, levels of inflammatory markers (Cox-2, iNOS, p53) and overall health vitals were evaluated. Conclusions We demonstrate that quinacrine successfully suppresses colitis without any indication of toxicity or side-effects in two mouse models of UC. PMID:27447967

  6. Nobiletin ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Malik, Salma; Bhatia, Jagriti; Suchal, Kapil; Gamad, Nanda; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Yogender Kumar; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug which causes remarkable toxicity to kidney by generating reactive oxygen species and by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathway. Citrus flavonoid, like nobiletin has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate these properties of nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavone in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Nobiletin was administered at the dose of 1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg for a period of 10 days. On 7th day, a single injection of cisplatin (8 mg/kg) was injected to rats. Cisplatin administration resulted in renal dysfunction as evident by increase in serum creatinine and BUN levels. Oxidative stress in cisplatin group was reflected by increase in MDA level, and depletion of anti-oxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase in renal tissue. Furthermore, cisplatin increased the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and DNA damage along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 in the renal tissue. Histological analysis also revealed acute tubular necrosis. However, pretreatment with nobiletin preserved renal function and restored anti-oxidant status. Nobiletin supplementation inhibited activation of apoptotic pathways and DNA damage. It also attenuated tubular injury histologically. Collectively, the result of this study suggests the nephroprotective potential of nobiletin which may be related to its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. Effect of monoclonal antibodies anti-2H9, anti-IRac, and anti-HeFi-1 on the surface antigens of Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S M; Ho, Y S; Hsu, P L

    1987-11-01

    The interaction of 3 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)--anti-HeFi-1, anti-2H9, and anti-IRac--with Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells was examined in vitro. MAb anti-2H9 induced specific modulation of the corresponding antigen (Ag) from the cell surface. Cell-bound anti-2H9 antibody (Ab)-Ag complexes rapidly disappeared during incubation of cells at 37 degrees C for 2-4 hours. This early loss was followed by reappearance of the Ag on the cell surface within 4-12 hours. In contrast, anti-HeFi-1 and anti-IRac bound avidly to the surface of RS cells and persisted for more than 3 days. During this period, there were no significant changes in the expression of HeFi-1 or IRac Ag on the surface of tumor cells. Cell surface-bound Abs were distributed uniformly, and there was no evidence of microaggregation, as determined by electron microscopy. None of the 3 MAbs was directly cytotoxic or exhibited complement-mediated cytotoxicity. On the basis of these findings (persistence of anti-HeFi-1 and anti-IRac on the cell surface), these 2 MAbs may be suitable for immunoimaging and immunotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.

  8. 'Medusa-head ataxia': the expanding spectrum of Purkinje cell antibodies in autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Part 1: Anti-mGluR1, anti-Homer-3, anti-Sj/ITPR1 and anti-CARP VIII.

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B

    2015-09-17

    Serological testing for anti-neural autoantibodies is important in patients presenting with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, since these autoantibodies may indicate cancer, determine treatment and predict prognosis. While some of them target nuclear antigens present in all or most CNS neurons (e.g. anti-Hu, anti-Ri), others more specifically target antigens present in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Purkinje cells (PC). In this series of articles, we provide a detailed review of the clinical and paraclinical features, oncological, therapeutic and prognostic implications, pathogenetic relevance, and differential laboratory diagnosis of the 12 most common PC autoantibodies (often referred to as 'Medusa-head antibodies' due to their characteristic somatodendritic binding pattern when tested by immunohistochemistry). To assist immunologists and neurologists in diagnosing these disorders, typical high-resolution immunohistochemical images of all 12 reactivities are presented, diagnostic pitfalls discussed and all currently available assays reviewed. Of note, most of these antibodies target antigens involved in the mGluR1/calcium pathway essential for PC function and survival. Many of the antigens also play a role in spinocerebellar ataxia. Part 1 focuses on anti-metabotropic glutamate receptor 1-, anti-Homer protein homolog 3-, anti-Sj/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor- and anti-carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII-associated autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA); part 2 covers anti-protein kinase C gamma-, anti-glutamate receptor delta-2-, anti-Ca/RhoGTPase-activating protein 26- and anti-voltage-gated calcium channel-associated ACA; and part 3 reviews the current knowledge on anti-Tr/delta notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor-, anti-Nb/AP3B2-, anti-Yo/cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2- and Purkinje cell antibody 2-associated ACA, discusses differential diagnostic aspects and provides a summary and outlook.

  9. 'Medusa head ataxia': the expanding spectrum of Purkinje cell antibodies in autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Part 2: Anti-PKC-gamma, anti-GluR-delta2, anti-Ca/ARHGAP26 and anti-VGCC.

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B

    2015-09-17

    Serological testing for anti-neural autoantibodies is important in patients presenting with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, since these autoantibodies may indicate cancer, determine treatment and predict prognosis. While some of them target nuclear antigens present in all or most CNS neurons (e.g. anti-Hu, anti-Ri), others more specifically target antigens present in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Purkinje cells (PC). In this series of articles, we provide a detailed review of the clinical and paraclinical features, oncological, therapeutic and prognostic implications, pathogenetic relevance, and differential laboratory diagnosis of the 12 most common PC autoantibodies (often referred to as 'Medusa head antibodies' due their characteristic somatodendritic binding pattern when tested by immunohistochemistry). To assist immunologists and neurologists in diagnosing these disorders, typical high-resolution immunohistochemical images of all 12 reactivities are presented, diagnostic pitfalls discussed and all currently available assays reviewed. Of note, most of these antibodies target antigens involved in the mGluR1/calcium pathway essential for PC function and survival. Many of the antigens also play a role in spinocerebellar ataxia. Part 1 focuses on anti-metabotropic glutamate receptor 1-, anti-Homer protein homolog 3-, anti-Sj/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor- and anti-carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII-associated autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA); part 2 covers anti-protein kinase C gamma-, anti-glutamate receptor delta-2-, anti-Ca/RhoGTPase-activating protein 26- and anti-voltage-gated calcium channel-associated ACA; and part 3 reviews the current knowledge on anti-Tr/delta notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor-, anti-Nb/AP3B2-, anti-Yo/cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2- and Purkinje cell antibody 2-associated ACA, discusses differential diagnostic aspects, and provides a summary and outlook.

  10. Four dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies-anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5-in adult and juvenile patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in a Hungarian cohort.

    PubMed

    Bodoki, Levente; Nagy-Vincze, Melinda; Griger, Zoltán; Betteridge, Zoe; Szöllősi, Lászlóné; Dankó, Katalin

    2014-12-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are chronic systemic autoimmune diseases characterised by symmetrical, proximal muscle weakness. Dermatomyositis represents one subset of IIMs, in which skin rashes are present in addition to muscle weakness. Myositis-specific antibodies can only be detected in myositis, and they are directed against specific proteins found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of cells. With this case-based article, we introduce the recently detected anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5 antibodies that form various clinical groups. These antibodies could be detected in patients with dermatomyositis. The myositis-specific autoantibodies of three hundred and thirty-seven Hungarian patients with IIM were detected. Retrospective analysis of the clinical findings has also been introduced by revision of the medical history. We had twelve patients with anti-TIF1γ positivity, four patients with anti-NXP2 positivity and four patients with anti-SAE positivity. We did not have any positive anti-MDA5 patients. The most relevant clinical findings were similar to those seen in previously published reports. Eleven of the twelve patients with anti-TIF1γ positivity had classical dermatomyositis. Three of the twelve anti-TIF1γ patients had cancer during the disease progression. This was two out of four for the anti-NXP2 subgroup and one in four for the anti-SAE subgroup. In two juvenile dermatomyositis cases, typical ulceration was seen in patients with anti-TIF1γ positivity. The frequency of pulmonary fibrosis during the disease progression was 2/12, 1/4 and 1/4 in anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2 and anti-SAE, respectively. Other extra-muscular manifestations, such as arthralgia, dysphagia, dysphonia and dyspnoea, were also detectable. The myositis subgroups determined by these myositis-specific autoantibodies differ from each other in their symptoms, prognosis and therapy responsiveness. Their detection is helpful for the preparation of an adequate

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of halloysite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, José Ascención; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Ramírez-Apán, María Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Halloysite is a naturally-occurring nanomaterial occurring in the thousands of tons and that serves as biomaterial, with applications in the areas of biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medical research. This study reports on the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and anti-oxidant activity of halloysite Jarrahdale (collected at ∼ 45 km SE of Perth, Western Australia; JA), Dragon Mine (provided by Natural Nano Inc., Rochester, New York; NA), and Kalgoorie Archean (collected at Siberia, ∼ 85km NW of Kalgoorlie, West Australia; PA). Prior to biological testing, halloysites were characterized by 27Al and 29Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, the anti-inflammatory activity was determined by (a) the mouse ear edema method, using 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as anti-inflammatory agent; and (b) the myeloperoxidase enzymatic activity method (MPO). Cell viability was determined using the MTT method. Sample characterization by NMR method showed similar symmetry and atomic environments, with no evidence of distortion(s) due to shiftings in atomic ordering or electron density. The anti-inflammatory activity followed the order: PA>JA>NA, and remained invariant with time. Prolonged anti-inflammatory activity related inversely to surface area and lumen space. The low extent of infiltration at shorter reaction times confirmed a limiting number of active surface sites. EPR intensity signals followed the order: JA>NA>PA. The poor stabilization of RO species in PA suspensions was explained by tube alignment provoking occlusion, thus limiting transfer of H(+) or e(-) from-and-to the surface, and decreases in acidity associated to Al(oct). Cell viability (%) varied from one surface to the other, PA(92.3 ± 6.0), JA(84.9 ± 7.8), and NA(78.0 ± 5.6), but related directly to SBET values.

  12. The (Sea)Quest to map anti-up and anti-down quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenthaler, Markus

    2015-10-01

    The SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab continues a series of Drell-Yan measurements to explore the antiquark content of the nucleon and to study the modifications to nucleon structure when the nucleon is embedded into a nuclei. To extend existing measurements to larger values of Bjorken-x, a 120 GeV proton beam extracted from Fermilab's Main Injector is used, resulting in 50 times more luminosity than previous experiments and enabling access to values of x up to 0.9. One of the key physics goals of the SeaQuest collaboration is the exploration of the origin of the intrinsic nucleon sea. The scale dependence observed in high-energy scattering experiments reflects the quantum fluctuations predicted by QCD. A sea of virtual gluons arises in the nucleon; these gluons radiate other gluons or pairs of quarks and antiquarks. Gluon splitting, e.g. into an u anti-u quark pair or a d anti-d quark pair, is a perturbative QCD process and flavor symmetric. However, there is clear experimental evidence that the nucleon sea is not flavor symmetric. The distributions for anti-d quarks and anti-u quarks differ by up to 50% and suggest a substantial role of non-perturbative QCD processes in the creation of the nucleon sea. Measuring the ratio of the anti-d quark and anti-u quark distributions with high accuracy and within a large x-range is the key measurement of the SeaQuest experiment. The SeaQuest results will help to identify effective theories that can describe the intrinsic nucleon sea and help to explore its origin. On behalf of the SeaQuest Collaboration.

  13. Treating asthma with anti-IgE or anti-IL5.

    PubMed

    Lötvall, J; Pullerits, T

    1999-10-01

    In the last decades, several key mechanisms driving asthma pathophysiooogy have been discovered. These include the role of IgE in allergic disease, and the role of IL-5 in eosinophilic inflammation. In the last few years, tools to block each of these have been developed. At this time, early clinical studies with neutralizing antibodies against both IgE and IL-5 have been performed in asthma patients, with promising results, and larger studies are underway. The mechanisms of, and possible role of, both anti-IgE and anti-IL-5 treatment in asthma are discussed in this review article.

  14. Anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings for self-cleaning properties

    DOEpatents

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Nair, Vinod; Dave, Bakul Champaklal

    2016-05-31

    The disclosure discloses abrasion resistant, persistently hydrophobic and oleophobic, anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings for glass. The coatings described herein have wide application, including for example the front cover glass of solar modules. Methods of applying the coatings using various apparatus are disclosed. Methods for using the coatings in solar energy generation plants to achieve greater energy yield and reduced operations costs are disclosed. Coating materials are formed by combinations of hydrolyzed silane-base precursors through sol-gel processes. Several methods of synthesis and formulation of coating materials are disclosed.

  15. Regulation of the anti-Sm autoantibody response in systemic lupus erythematosus mice by monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, R A; Pisetsky, D S; Craven, S Y; Grudier, J P; O'Donnell, M A; Cohen, P L

    1990-01-01

    The administration of certain monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies (2G7, 7.13) induced most MRL/lpr mice to become anti-Sm positive by 5 mo of age, although other anti-Sm monoclonals (Y2, Y12) suppressed the spontaneous response. Positive anti-Sm antibody enhancement occurred efficiently only in MRL/lpr mice and not in other systemic lupus erythematosus mice that have little spontaneous anti-Sm production. The enhancement by anti-Sm antibodies was specific for the anti-Sm response. The mechanism of the passive antibody enhancement was apparently not isotype- or idiotype-related. The fine specificity of the anti-Sm monoclonal antibody may be essential to its enhancing or suppressing effects, since both enhancing monoclonals recognized only the D Sm polypeptide, whereas both suppressing monoclonals saw the D and the B polypeptides. Furthermore, analysis of serial bleeds from unmanipulated MRL mice that developed anti-Sm positivity showed that the D specificity almost always appeared first. We hypothesize, therefore, that those animals in which an anti-Sm response is initiated by D-specific B-cell clones can become serologically positive with the aid of a positive feedback loop. In contrast, animals in which the initial specificity is for both B and D peptides would be prevented from developing a full anti-Sm response.

  16. Tubal teratoma causing anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Power, Laura; James, Joann; Masoud, Ibtisam; Altman, Alon

    2014-12-01

    Contexte : L’encéphalite à anticorps anti-récepteur du N-méthyl d-aspartate (NMDA) est considérée comme un trouble auto-immun rare qui est habituellement causé par un tératome ovarien. La maladie se caractérise, sur le plan clinique, par des symptômes neuropsychiatriques suivis de convulsions réfractaires et d’une hypoventilation; sans traitement, elle est mortelle. Cas : Nous présentons un cas d’encéphalite à anticorps anti-récepteur du NMDA comptant des caractéristiques classiques chez une jeune femme pour laquelle le diagnostic et le traitement ultimes ont été différés en raison de multiples circonstances évitables qui n’ont été mises au jour qu’a posteriori. Conclusion : Nous estimons que ce trouble est en fait plus courant que ce que les signalements à son égard peuvent nous porter à croire. La présence possible d’une encéphalite à anticorps anti-récepteur du NMDA doit être envisagée dans le cadre du diagnostic différentiel de toute jeune femme présentant des symptômes psychiatriques d’apparition nouvelle. Chez les jeunes femmes qui connaissent une baisse aiguë du niveau de conscience, une surveillance immédiate et continue visant à repérer la présence d’une tumeur sous-jacente devrait être mise en œuvre, particulièrement en présence d’une réaction différée au traitement empirique.

  17. Anti-TNF and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Sulli, Alberto; Capellino, Silvia; Villaggio, Barbara; Montagna, Paola; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Seriolo, Bruno; Felli, Lamberto; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-06-01

    Whenever serum estrogen concentrations are normal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, lower androgen concentrations (i.e., testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS]) are detected in the serum as well as in the synovial fluid of male and female RA patients. The presence in the RA synovial fluid of a significant altered sex hormone balance resulting in lower immunosuppressive androgens and higher immuno-enhancing estrogens, might determine a favorable condition for the development of the immunomediated RA synovitis. The inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-alpha), particularly increased in RA synovitis, are able to markedly stimulate the aromatase activity in peripheral tissues and, therefore, induce the peripheral metabolism from androgens to estrogens. The effects of TNF blockers (and generally of anticytokine agents) on peripheral sex hormone levels seem exerted in a faster way at the level of the RA synovial tissue (before any influence on serum levels) where they seem to block the conversion from androgens (anti-inflammatory) to estrogens (proinflammatory) induced by aromatase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of restoring synovial androgens might be clinically more evident in male RA patients (as recently observed in ANTARES study) since they suffer more for the lack of androgens (anti-inflammatory) on account of the action of TNF-alpha on peripheral hormonal conversion. However, therapy (3 months) with anti-TNF did not change serum levels of typical sex hormones in patients with RA, although baseline values were largely different from controls. In patients with at least long-standing RA, this indicates that alterations of serum sex hormones and altered activity of respective converting enzymes are imprinted for a long-lasting period over at least 12 weeks.

  18. Retinal Vasculitis in Anti-Synthetase Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Christopher P; Pecen, Paula E; Baynes, Kimberly; Ehlers, Justis P; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-09-01

    A 31-year-old woman with a history of anti-synthetase syndrome-related myositis and interstitial lung disease presented with acute-onset blurry vision and rash on her hands and feet. Visual acuity was hand motion in her right eye and 20/40 in her left eye. Dilated fundus exam showed extensive retinal vasculitis, diffuse intraretinal hemorrhages, and subretinal fluid. Optical coherence tomography revealed significant macular thickening, and fluorescein angiography revealed vascular leakage with peripheral nonperfusion. Aggressive systemic immunosuppression was initiated, with gradual resolution of her disease during 8 months of follow-up. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:874-879.].

  19. Erdosteine: antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a multifactorial drug currently used in COPD for its rheologic activity on bronchial secretions and its positive effects on bacterial adhesiveness. Erdosteine produces an active metabolite (Met 1) which was shown to produce antioxidant effects during the respiratory burst of human PMNs, due to the presence of an SH group. The substantial antitussive effects of erdosteine were first documented in clinical trials even though mucolytic agents are regarded as not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Actually, a mucolytic drug could exert antitussive effects if it also affects mucus consistency and enhances ciliary function. In the last decade, data from several studies on animal models pointed to the possible antitussive and anti-inflammatory properties of erdosteine and an indirect anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was suggested. Recently, data from some controlled versus placebo studies documented the antioxidant properties of erdosteine in humans and in current smokers with COPD. The mechanism of action was described as related to erdosteine's ability to inhibit some inflammatory mediators and some pro-inflammatory cytokines that are specifically involved in oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also presumed to impair beta-adrenoceptor function and contribute to airway obstruction, specific controlled studies recently investigated the effect of antioxidant intervention on short-term airway response to salbutamol in nonreversible COPD, according to a double-blind design versus placebo and NAC. Only erdosteine consistently restored a significant short-term reversibility in COPD subjects, previously unresponsive to beta(2) adrenergics. This peculiar activity of erdosteine (to our knowledge never previously assessed) proved related to the ROS scavenging activity (which actually proved equal to that of N), and its significant inhibiting effect on

  20. Anti-thrombotic technologies for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Karen S; Rhodes, Candace; Mcgraw, Adam; Eppihimer, Michael J

    2016-08-03

    Thrombosis associated with medical devices may lead to dramatic increases in morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. Innovative strategies are being developed to reduce this complication and provide a safe biocompatible interface between device and blood. This article aims to describe the biological phenomena underlying device-associated thrombosis, and surveys the literature describing current and developing technologies designed to overcome this challenge. To reduce thrombosis, biomaterials with varying topographical properties and incorporating anti-thrombogenic substances on their surface have demonstrated potential. Overall, there is extensive literature describing technical solutions to reduce thrombosis associated with medical devices, but clinical results are required to demonstrate significant long-term benefits.

  1. Optical "anti-transient" detected by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Yecheistov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Punanova, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Shurpakov, S.; Shumkov, V.; Podvorotny, P.; Levato, H.; Saffe, C.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Podest, F.

    2013-02-01

    We have started the search for the disappearing stars (optical "anti-transients", OATs) in the MASTER database. The first result is the detection of a deep (~3.5 magnitudes) fading of the bright star TYC 2505-672-1 whose variability was previously unknown. This star has the coordinates 09 53 10.00 +33 53 52.7 and magnitudes V=10.71, B=12.51 in Tycho2 catalogue and J=7.61, H=6.78, K=6.57 in 2MASS.

  2. p anti p collider physics: summary talk

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Progress is very briefly summarized in these areas: Drell-Yan production of W and Z; inclusive spectra of jets; angular distribution of two jet final states; Dalitz plot analysis of three jet final states; interior structure of jets; minijets; issues and relevent data in soft-collision physics; structure of the pomeron; W, Z, and electroweak theory; heavy quark physics; extinct exotica; extant exotica, including monojets, the top quark, and possibly anomalous same-sign isolated dimuons. Future directions are anticipated for the Sp anti pS, Tevatron I, instrumentation and detectors, group theory, and the physics at SSC energies. 39 refs., 18 figs. (LEW)

  3. Anti-inflammatory flavonoids from Cryptocarya chingii.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Guo, Zhi Kai; Yan, Chun Min; Li, Er Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ge, Hui Ming

    2012-04-01

    Six flavonoids named cryptogiones A-F, and nine known compounds were isolated from an ethanol extract of stems of Cryptocaryachingii. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by interpretation of comprehensive spectroscopic data and X-ray analysis. A majority of these flavonoids contained an acetic acid/lactone moiety, a possible taxonomic marker. Anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were evaluated using in vitro assays. At 20 μM concentration, three compounds significantly inhibited TNFα-induced NF-кB activation and LPS-induced IL-1β expression.

  4. An investigation of the {anti p}p {yields} {anti {Lambda}} {Lambda} and {anti p}p {yields} {anti {Sigma}}{sup 0} {Lambda} + c.c. reactions near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.; PS185 Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    Experiment PS 185 studies the production of antihyperon-hyperon pairs in antiproton-proton collisions at LEAR in the near-threshold energy region. The {ital {anti p} p} {r_arrow} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} reaction has been thoroughly studied by PS185 and many high-quality data have been reported. New results, including total and differential cross sections along with spin observables, are presented here for the channels {ital {anti p} p} {r_arrow} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {ital {anti p}p} {r_arrow} {anti {Sigma}}{sup 0}{Lambda} + c.c at incident lab antiproton momenta of 1.726 and 1. 771 GeV/c. The data from the relatively unstudied and complementary {ital {anti p}p} {r_arrow} {anti {Sigma}}{sup 0}{Lambda} + c.c channel is compared to that from {ital {anti p}p} {r_arrow} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} at similar energies above the reaction threshold.

  5. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect. PMID:24753740

  6. [Anti-NEP and anti-PLA2R antibodies in membranous nephropathy: an update].

    PubMed

    Pozdzik, A A; Debiec, H; I Brochériou; Husson, C; Rorive, S; Broeders, N; Le Moine, A; Ronco, P; Nortier, J

    2015-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause for nephrotic syndrome in adults and occurs as an idiopathic (primary) or secondary disease. Since the early 2000's, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular bases of MN. The neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and the receptor for secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2R) have been identified as target antigens for circulating and deposited antibodies in allo-immune neonatal and adult " idiopathic " MN, respectively. These antibodies recognize specific antigens of podocytes, precipitate as subepithelial immune complexes and activate complement leading to proteinuria. Anti-PLA2R antibodies are of particular clinical importance. Indeed, they are detected in approximately 70% of primary MN in adults, demonstrating that MN actually is an autoimmune condition specific to the kidney. In Europeans, genome-wide studies have shown an association between alleles of PLA2R1 and HLA DQA1 (class II genes of tissue histocompatibility complex) genes and idiopathic MN. Newly developed diagnostic tests detecting circulating anti-PLA2R antibody and PLA2R antigen in glomerular deposits have induced a change in paradigm in the diagnostic approach of idiopathic MN. Measurement of circulating anti-PLA2R antibody is also very useful for the monitoring of MN activity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of anti-PLA2R antibodies as well as those involved in the progression of MN to end-stage renal disease remain to be defined.

  7. In vitro anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal effects of new SbIII carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ring opening of phthalic anhydride has been carried out in acetic acid with glycine, β-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield, respectively, 2-{[(carboxymethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (I), 2-{[(2-carboxyethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (II), 2-{[(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (III), and 2-[(4-carboxyanilino)carbonyl]benzoic acid (IV). Compounds I-IV have been employed as ligands for Sb(III) center (complexes V-VIII) in aqueous medium. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra proved the deprotonation of carboxylic protons and coordination of imine group and thereby tridentate behaviour of the ligands as chelates. Elemental, MS, and TGA analytic data confirmed the structural hypothesis based on spectroscopic results. All the compounds have been assayed in vitro for anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities against five leishmanial strains L. major (JISH118), L. major (MHOM/PK/88/DESTO), L. tropica (K27), L. infantum (LEM3437), L. mex mex (LV4), and L. donovani (H43); and Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Fumigants, Aspergillus Niger, and Fusarium Solani. Compound VII exhibited good anti-leishmanial as well as anti-fungal impacts comparable to reference drugs.

  8. Evading anti-angiogenic therapy: resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nandini; De, Pradip; Brian, Leyland-Jones

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) dependent tumor angiogenesis is an essential step for the initiation and promotion of tumor progression. The hypothesis that VEGF-driven tumor angiogenesis is necessary and sufficient for metastatic progression of the tumor, has been the major premise of the use of anti-VEGF therapy for decades. While the success of anti-VEGF therapy in solid tumors has led to the success of knowledge-based-therapies over the past several years, failures of this therapeutic approach due to the development of inherent/acquired resistance has led to the increased understanding of VEGF-independent angiogenesis. Today, tumor-angiogenesis is not a synonymous term to VEGF-dependent function. The extensive study of VEGF-independent angiogenesis has revealed several key factors responsible for this phenomenon including the role of myeloid cells, and the contribution of entirely new phenomenon like vascular mimicry. In this review, we will present the cellular and molecular factors related to the development of anti-angiogenic resistance following anti-VEGF therapy in different solid tumors. PMID:26692917

  9. Assessment of the anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of ethyl vanillin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Song, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2010-02-01

    The present work aimed to assess novel pharmacological properties of ethyl vanillin (EVA) which is used as a flavoring agent for cakes, dessert, confectionary, etc. EVA exhibited an inhibitory activity in the chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis. Anti-inflammatory activity of EVA was convinced using the two in vivo models, such as vascular permeability and air pouch models in mice. Antinociceptive activity of EVA was assessed using acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice. EVA suppressed production of nitric oxide and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. However, EVA could not suppress induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in the LPS-activated macrophages. EVA diminished reactive oxygen species level in the LPS-activated macrophages. EVA also suppressed enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-9 gelatinolytic activity in the LPSactivated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. EVA at the used concentrations couldn't diminish viability of the macrophage cells. Taken together, the anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of EVA are based on its suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide possibly via decreasing the reactive oxygen species level.

  10. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Thymus linearis.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Parveen, Amna; Abbas, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extract of Thymus linearis. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 μl of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51°C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced mice paw edema. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% yeast. The results showed that both the extracts had significant analgesic activity (p<0.05); anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05) and anti-pyretic activity (p<0.05). Therefore, it was concluded from this study that the extracts of Thymus linearis may be used against pain, pyrexia and inflammation.

  11. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways.

  12. Anti-inflammatory potential of silk sericin.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Towiwat, Pasarapa; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-04-01

    Silk sericin was found to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are related to the inflammatory reaction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sericin in vivo using the carrageenan-induced rat edema model and changes in the histology of tissues. The effects of sericin on the expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also evaluated. Sericin solutions at 0.004-0.080 mg/mL were applied topically to the top of the hind paw and carrageenan (1.0 mg) was injected subcutaneously to the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Our results indicated that sericin significantly reduced the inflammation in rats' paw compared with the negative control (water and acetone) and its effect at 0.080 mg/mL was only slightly lower than that of 1.0% w/v indomethacin. Similar numbers of polymorphonuclear and macrophage cells were found in rats' tissue treated with indomethacin and sericin solution, while the numbers were significantly higher in their absence. The gene expression results by RT-PCR showed that the COX-2 and iNOS genes were down-regulated in samples treated with sericin in a dose dependent manner. These data indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of sericin may be partly attributable to the suppression of the COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production.

  13. Oral anti-diabetics in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Islam, Najmul

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes fast during the month of Ramadan worldwide. Hypoglycaemia is one of the major complications associated with long periods without food during the fasting hours. There is also a risk of hyperglycaemia due to over indulgence in food during the two main meals of Suhur and Iftar. Healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the risk of fasting and be competent to provide Ramadan adjusted diabetes care particularly adjustment of oral anti diabetics. This review article has taken into consideration observational studies, randomized trial data, pathophysiology and practical experience in recommending adjustment in oral anti-diabetics during fasting in type-2 diabetics. Metformin and Thiazolidinediones (TZD'S) being insulin sensitizers need minimum adjustment with low risk of hypoglycaemia. Older generation Sulphonylureas (SU) pose a high risk of hypoglycaemia but the newer generations of Sulphonylureas have a reasonable safety profile. Alpha- Glucosidase inhibitors are safe during fasting but their use is limited due to the side effects.

  14. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of anti-microbial peptides.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Laszlo

    2016-09-01

    Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) were originally thought to exert protecting actions against bacterial infection by disintegrating bacterial membranes. Upon identification of internal bacterial targets, the view changed and moved toward inhibition of prokaryote-specific biochemical processes. However, the level of none of these activities can explain the robust efficacy of some of these peptides in animal models of systemic and cutaneous infections. A rapidly growing panel of reports suggests that AMPs, now called host-defense peptides (HDPs), act through activating the immune system of the host. This includes recruitment and activation of macrophages and mast cells, inducing chemokine production and altering NF-κB signaling processes. As a result, both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are elevated together with activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, wound healing, and apoptosis. HDPs sterilize the systemic circulation and local injury sites significantly more efficiently than pure single-endpoint in vitro microbiological or biochemical data would suggest and actively aid recovering from tissue damage after or even without bacterial infections. However, the multiple and, often opposing, immunomodulatory functions of HDPs require exceptional care in therapeutic considerations.

  16. Interleukin-35 limits anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turnis, Meghan E.; Sawant, Deepali V.; Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L.; Andrews, Lawrence P.; Delgoffe, Greg M.; Yano, Hiroshi; Beres, Amy J.; Vogel, Peter; Workman, Creg J.; Vignali, Dario A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regulatory T (Treg) cells pose a major barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. Although Treg cell depletion enhances tumor rejection, the ensuing autoimmune sequelae limits its utility in the clinic and highlights the need for limiting Treg cell activity within the tumor microenvironment. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a Treg cell-secreted cytokine that inhibits T cell proliferation and function. Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, we observed substantial enrichment of IL-35+ Treg cells in tumors. Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. Limiting intratumoral IL-35 enhanced T cell proliferation, effector function, antigen-specific responses, and long-term T cell memory. Treg cell-derived IL-35 promoted the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (PD1, TIM3, LAG3), thereby facilitating intratumoral T cell exhaustion. These findings reveal previously unappreciated roles for IL-35 in limiting anti-tumor immunity and contributing to T cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26872697

  17. Interleukin-35 Limits Anti-Tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Turnis, Meghan E; Sawant, Deepali V; Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Andrews, Lawrence P; Delgoffe, Greg M; Yano, Hiroshi; Beres, Amy J; Vogel, Peter; Workman, Creg J; Vignali, Dario A A

    2016-02-16

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells pose a major barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. Although Treg cell depletion enhances tumor rejection, the ensuing autoimmune sequelae limits its utility in the clinic and highlights the need for limiting Treg cell activity within the tumor microenvironment. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a Treg cell-secreted cytokine that inhibits T cell proliferation and function. Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, we observed substantial enrichment of IL-35(+) Treg cells in tumors. Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. Limiting intratumoral IL-35 enhanced T cell proliferation, effector function, antigen-specific responses, and long-term T cell memory. Treg cell-derived IL-35 promoted the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (PD1, TIM3, LAG3), thereby facilitating intratumoral T cell exhaustion. These findings reveal previously unappreciated roles for IL-35 in limiting anti-tumor immunity and contributing to T cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment.

  18. Optical enhancing durable anti-reflective coating

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Varadarajan, Aravamuthan; Movassat, Meisam

    2016-07-05

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In embodiments, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in the polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, Si--OH condensation catalyst and/or nanofillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating, and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  19. High gain durable anti-reflective coating

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.

    2016-07-26

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane-based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In one embodiment, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, thermal radical initiator, photo radical initiators, crosslinkers, Si--OH condensation catalyst and nano-fillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of Anti-Diabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Johanna K.; Watanabe, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of treatment modalities exist for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). In addition to dietary and physical activity interventions, T2D is also treated pharmacologically with nine major classes of approved drugs. These medications include insulin and its analogues, sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), meglitinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, amylin analogues, incretin hormone mimetics, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors. Pharmacological treatment strategies for T2D are typically based on efficacy, yet favorable responses to such therapeutics are oftentimes variable and difficult to predict. Characterization of drug response is expected to substantially enhance our ability to provide patients with the most effective treatment strategy given their individual backgrounds, yet pharmacogenetic study of diabetes medications is still in its infancy. To date, major pharmacogenetic studies have focused on response to sulfonylureas, biguanides, and TZDs. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of pharmacogenetics investigations of these specific anti-diabetes medications. We focus not only on the results of these studies, but also on how experimental design, study sample issues, and definition of ‘response’ can significantly impact our interpretation of findings. Understanding the pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetes medications will provide critical baseline information for the development and implementation of genetic screening into therapeutic decision making, and lay the foundation for “individualized medicine” for patients with T2D. PMID:20936101

  1. Pharmacogenetics of Anti-Diabetes Drugs.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Johanna K; Watanabe, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    A variety of treatment modalities exist for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). In addition to dietary and physical activity interventions, T2D is also treated pharmacologically with nine major classes of approved drugs. These medications include insulin and its analogues, sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), meglitinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, amylin analogues, incretin hormone mimetics, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors. Pharmacological treatment strategies for T2D are typically based on efficacy, yet favorable responses to such therapeutics are oftentimes variable and difficult to predict. Characterization of drug response is expected to substantially enhance our ability to provide patients with the most effective treatment strategy given their individual backgrounds, yet pharmacogenetic study of diabetes medications is still in its infancy. To date, major pharmacogenetic studies have focused on response to sulfonylureas, biguanides, and TZDs. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of pharmacogenetics investigations of these specific anti-diabetes medications. We focus not only on the results of these studies, but also on how experimental design, study sample issues, and definition of 'response' can significantly impact our interpretation of findings. Understanding the pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetes medications will provide critical baseline information for the development and implementation of genetic screening into therapeutic decision making, and lay the foundation for "individualized medicine" for patients with T2D.

  2. Natural compounds with anti-ageing activity.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-10-11

    Ageing is a complex molecular process driven by diverse molecular pathways and biochemical events that are promoted by both environmental and genetic factors. Specifically, ageing is defined as a time-dependent decline of functional capacity and stress resistance, associated with increased chance of morbidity and mortality. These effects relate to age-related gradual accumulation of stressors that result in increasingly damaged biomolecules which eventually compromise cellular homeostasis. Nevertheless, the findings that genetic or diet interventions can increase lifespan in evolutionarily diverse organisms indicate that mortality can be postponed. Natural compounds represent an extraordinary inventory of high diversity structural scaffolds that can offer promising candidate chemical entities in the major healthcare challenge of increasing health span and/or delaying ageing. Herein, those natural compounds (either pure forms or extracts) that have been found to delay cellular senescence or in vivo ageing will be critically reviewed and summarized according to affected cellular signalling pathways. Moreover, the chemical structures of the identified natural compounds along with the profile of extracts related to their bioactive components will be presented and discussed. Finally, novel potential molecular targets for screening natural compounds for anti-ageing activity, as well as the idea that anti-ageing interventions represent a systemic approach that is also effective against age-related diseases will be discussed.

  3. Resveratrol alleviate hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant pathways in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dunquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Yi; Luo, Ying; Niu, Wen; Dong, Mingqing; Liu, Manling; Dong, Haiying; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound and a phytoestrogen, was shown to possess multiple protective effects including anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease characterized by sustained vascular resistance and marked pulmonary vascular remodeling. The exact mechanisms of HPH are still unclear, but inflammatory response and oxidative stress was demonstrated to participate in the progression of HPH. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on HPH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged by hypoxia exposure for 28 days to mimic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension along with treating resveratrol (40 mg/kg/day). Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data were then obtained, and the anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol was determined by in vitro assays. The anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative effects of resveratrol were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The present study showed that resveratrol treatment alleviated right ventricular systolic pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by hypoxia. In vitro experiments showed that resveratrol notably inhibited proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in an ER-independent manner. Data showed that resveratrol administration inhibited HIF-1 α expression in vivo and in vitro, suppressed inflammatory cells infiltration around the pulmonary arteries, and decreased ROS production induced by hypoxia in PAMSCs. The inflammatory cytokines' mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β were all suppressed by resveratrol treatment. The in vitro assays showed that resveratrol inhibited the expression of HIF-1 α via suppressing the MAPK/ERK1 and PI3K/AKT pathways. The antioxidant axis of Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ Thioredoxin 1 (Nrf-2/Trx-1) was up-regulated both in lung tissues and in cultured PASMCs. In general, the current study

  4. Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean.

    PubMed

    McCue, Patrick; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2005-01-01

    Long-term type 2 diabetes can lead to numerous biological complications, such as hypertension and cardio-vascular disease. Key enzymes involved in the enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates,pancreatic alpha-amylase and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, have been targeted as potential avenues for modulation of type 2 diabetes-associated post-prandial hyperglycemia through mild inhibition of their enzymatic activities so as to decrease meal-derived glucose absorption. Further, inhibition of hypertension-linked angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was targeted as a potential approach for modulation of diabetes-linked hypertension. Water-soluble extracts of soybean optimized for phenolic content via sprouting or bioprocessing by dietary fungus (Rhizopus oligosporus, Lentinus edodes) were investigated for inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), yeast alpha-glucosidase, and rabbit lung ACE in vitro. PPA was allowed to react with each phenolic-optimized extract and the derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. Alpha-glucosidase and ACE activities were determined in the presence of each phenolic-optimized extract. All of the soybean extracts possessed marked anti-amylase activity, with extracts of R. oligosporus-bioprocessed soybean having the strongest inhibitory activity, but only slight anti-glucosidase activity. The anti-amylase activity of each extract seemed associated with extract antioxidant activity. Anti-enzyme activity was slightly associated with total soluble phenolic content per se, but seemed more associated to the length of sprouting or bioprocessing of the soybean substrate. Short-term sprouting or bioprocessing seemed to improve anti-amylase activity, while long-term sprouting or bioprocessing seemed to aid anti-glucosidase activity. While ACE activity was strongly inhibited by all of the soybean extracts (44-97%), only sprouting was found to increase this inhibition

  5. Resveratrol alleviate hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dunquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Yi; Luo, Ying; Niu, Wen; Dong, Mingqing; Liu, Manling; Dong, Haiying; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound and a phytoestrogen, was shown to possess multiple protective effects including anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease characterized by sustained vascular resistance and marked pulmonary vascular remodeling. The exact mechanisms of HPH are still unclear, but inflammatory response and oxidative stress was demonstrated to participate in the progression of HPH. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on HPH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged by hypoxia exposure for 28 days to mimic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension along with treating resveratrol (40 mg/kg/day). Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data were then obtained, and the anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol was determined by in vitro assays. The anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative effects of resveratrol were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The present study showed that resveratrol treatment alleviated right ventricular systolic pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by hypoxia. In vitro experiments showed that resveratrol notably inhibited proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in an ER-independent manner. Data showed that resveratrol administration inhibited HIF-1 α expression in vivo and in vitro, suppressed inflammatory cells infiltration around the pulmonary arteries, and decreased ROS production induced by hypoxia in PAMSCs. The inflammatory cytokines' mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β were all suppressed by resveratrol treatment. The in vitro assays showed that resveratrol inhibited the expression of HIF-1 α via suppressing the MAPK/ERK1 and PI3K/AKT pathways. The antioxidant axis of Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ Thioredoxin 1 (Nrf-2/Trx-1) was up-regulated both in lung tissues and in cultured PASMCs. In general, the current study

  6. Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass: the effect on anti-Xa and anti-IIa heparin activity.

    PubMed

    Despotis, G J; Levine, V; Filos, K S; Joiner-Maier, D; Joist, J H

    1997-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that heparin concentrations during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may vary considerably, which may be related to variability in redistribution, cellular and plasma protein binding, and clearance of heparin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hemofiltration removes lower molecular weight fractions of heparin from plasma and thus contributes to variability of blood levels of heparin. Twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB were enrolled in this study after informed consent was obtained. The study was subdivided into two phases. The first 10 patients were enrolled in Phase I, which was designed to determine whether hemofiltration removes lower molecular weight fractions of heparin from blood. Blood specimens obtained from the inflow line and outflow lines of the hemofiltration unit were used to measure complete blood counts (CBC) and plasma heparin activity by anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays. Phase II was designed to evaluate the effect of hemofiltration on circulating plasma heparin activity. In Phase II, blood specimens were obtained from 10 patients via the arterial cannula of the extracorporeal circuit prior to and after hemofiltration for measurements of CBCs, anti-Xa plasma heparin, as well as whole blood heparin concentration using an automated protamine titration assay (Hepcon instrument, Medtronic Inc., Parker, CO). Ultrafiltrate and reservoir volumes were measured in both phases of the study. Hemofiltration did not remove lower (anti-Xa measurable) molecular weight heparin, but it resulted in a considerable increase in heparin activity in the outflow line, as measured by both anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays. The plasma anti-Xa heparin activity obtained after hemofiltration (5 +/- 1.8 U/mL) was substantially (P = 0.003) greater than heparin activity obtained prior to hemofiltration (3.9 +/- 1.7 U/mL). The increase in heparin activity with hemofiltration was directly related to ultrafiltrate volume (r = 0

  7. Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Coplan, J D; Tamir, H; Calaprice, D; DeJesus, M; de la Nuez, M; Pine, D; Papp, L A; Klein, D F; Gorman, J M

    1999-04-01

    The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of

  8. Sex differences in anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-edema effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Craft, Rebecca M; Kandasamy, Ram; Davis, Seth M

    2013-09-01

    Cannabinoid agonists such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are more potent and/or efficacious antinociceptive agents in female than male rats using acute pain models. We tested the hypothesis that THC is more effective in females than males using a model of longer-lasting, inflammatory pain. THC's anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and anti-edema effects were examined 1, 3, and 7 days after injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind paw. Systemically administered THC (0.32-3.2mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.], same dose each day) was significantly more effective in females than males in attenuating CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but was also more sedative in females. When administered locally into the inflamed hind paw, THC (250-500 μg intraplantar, i.pl.) did not affect locomotor activity in either sex, yet produced greater anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in females than males. Despite THC's greater anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in females, both i.p. and i.pl. THC reduced hind paw thickness (edema) more in males. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of i.p. THC was blocked by the CB1 receptor-selective antagonist rimonabant in both sexes. Similarly, i.pl. rimonabant antagonized i.pl. THC's effects in both sexes; in contrast, the CB2 antagonist SR144528 significantly attenuated i.pl. THC's anti-allodynic effect only in females. Intraplantar SR144528 also antagonized i.pl. THC's anti-edema effect in males. This study suggests that cannabinoids may be better at reducing edema in males while being more effective against inflammatory pain in females. Furthermore, sex differences in THC's peripheral effects against inflammatory pain may be a result of activation of both types of cannabinoid receptors in females, in contrast to predominantly CB1 receptors in males.

  9. Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kim, Myeong-ok; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Younjoo; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Léveille, an endemic species in Korea, is best known as a tree that produces a resinous sap. Although D. morbifera is used in folk medicine, its biological activities are poorly understood. In this study, the methanolic extracts of D. morbifera branches, debarked stems, bark, and two different stages of leaves were evaluated for anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer potential. The debarked stem extract exhibited strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and reducing power compared with other samples. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of these extracts were investigated in human tumour cell lines. The results suggested that the extracts of debarked stems, green leaves, and yellow leaves were the potent source of anti-cancer compounds, particularly in Huh-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with the extracts of debarked stems, green leaves, and yellow leaves caused an increase of apoptotic or senescent cells in Huh-7 cells. Twenty-four hour treatment with debarked stems extract resulted in the strong induction of p53 and p16, whereas both leaf extracts inhibited the activation of ERK. The debarked stems and green leaf extracts reduced Akt levels in Huh-7 cells, indicating that D. morbifera extracts caused the activation of p16 and p53 pathways. This, together with the inhibition of Akt or ERK signalling, resulted in suppression of Huh-7 cell proliferation. These results suggest that methanolic leaf and debarked stems extracts are a source of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer compounds, and could be developed as a botanical drug.

  10. Therapeutic uses of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Philips, George K; Atkins, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive investigation over the past three decades, cancer immunotherapy has produced limited success, with few agents achieving approval by the Food and Drug Administration and even the most effective helping only a minority of patients, primarily with melanoma or renal cancer. In recent years, immune checkpoints that maintain physiologic self-tolerance have been implicated in the down-regulation of anti-tumor immunity. Efforts to restore latent anti-tumor immunity have focused on antibody-based interventions targeting CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) on T lymphocytes and its principal ligand (PD-L1) on tumor cells. Ipilimumab, an antibody targeting CTLA-4, appears to restore tumor immunity at the priming phase, whereas anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies restore immune function in the tumor microenvironment. Although ipilimumab can produce durable long-term responses in patients with advanced melanoma, it is associated with significant immune-related toxicities. By contrast, antibodies targeting either PD-1 or PD-L1 have produced significant anti-tumor activity with considerably less toxicity. Activity was seen in patients with melanoma and renal cancer, as well as those with non-small-cell lung, bladder and head and neck cancers, tumors not previously felt to be sensitive to immunotherapy. The tolerability of PD-1-pathway blockers and their unique mechanism of action have made them ideal backbones for combination regimen development. Combination approaches involving cytotoxic chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, alternative immune-checkpoint inhibitors, immunostimulatory cytokines and cancer vaccines are currently under clinical investigation. Current efforts focus on registration trials of single agents and combinations in various diseases and disease settings and identifying predictive biomarkers of response.

  11. Anti-leukemic activity and tolerability of anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, E C; Dong, J; Cardoso, R; Zhang, X; Chin, D; Hawkins, R; Dinh, T; Zhou, M; Strake, B; Feng, P-H; Rocca, M; Santos, C Dos; Shan, X; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Shi, F; Kaiser, E; Millar, H J; Fenton, S; Swanson, R; Nemeth, J A; Attar, R M

    2017-02-24

    CD47, a broadly expressed cell surface protein, inhibits cell phagocytosis via interaction with phagocyte-expressed SIRPα. A variety of hematological malignancies demonstrate elevated CD47 expression, suggesting that CD47 may mediate immune escape. We discovered three unique CD47-SIRPα blocking anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with low nano-molar affinity to human and cynomolgus monkey CD47, and no hemagglutination and platelet aggregation activity. To characterize the anti-cancer activity elicited by blocking CD47, the mAbs were cloned into effector function silent and competent Fc backbones. Effector function competent mAbs demonstrated potent activity in vitro and in vivo, while effector function silent mAbs demonstrated minimal activity, indicating that blocking CD47 only leads to a therapeutic effect in the presence of Fc effector function. A non-human primate study revealed that the effector function competent mAb IgG1 C47B222-(CHO) decreased red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit and hemoglobin by >40% at 1 mg/kg, whereas the effector function silent mAb IgG2σ C47B222-(CHO) had minimal impact on RBC indices at 1 and 10 mg/kg. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting CD47 is an attractive therapeutic anti-cancer approach. However, the anti-cancer activity observed with anti-CD47 mAbs is Fc effector dependent as are the side effects observed on RBC indices.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of fibrates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Athyros, Vasilios G; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Several cardiovascular drugs exert anti-inflammatory effects and accumulating data suggest that fibrates also share this property. This review summarizes the mechanisms implicated in the anti-inflammatory actions of fibrates. We also provide an overview of the existing clinical studies addressing the effects of fibrates on markers of inflammation. Several, but not all, studies reported that fibrates exert anti-inflammatory actions. The small number of patients included in some studies, as well as differences in diagnoses and duration of follow up might partly explain this discrepancy. It is also possible that fibrates differ substantially in terms of anti-inflammatory effects. It is not clear whether an anti-inflammatory action of fibrates is clinically relevant. Future studies should assess whether the anti-inflammatory actions of fibrates (or for that matter, other drugs) will translate into a reduced risk of vascular disease.

  13. Potential Anti-HIV Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and is a global public health issue. Anti-HIV therapy involving chemical drugs has improved the life quality of HIV/AIDS patients. However, emergence of HIV drug resistance, side effects and the necessity for long-term anti-HIV treatment are the main reasons for failure of anti-HIV therapy. Therefore, it is essential to isolate novel anti-HIV therapeutics from natural resources. Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding marine-derived anti-HIV agents such as phlorotannins, sulfated chitooligosaccharides, sulfated polysaccharides, lectins and bioactive peptides. This contribution presents an overview of anti-HIV therapeutics derived from marine resources and their potential application in HIV therapy. PMID:21339954

  14. Foreword to the Air Anti-Submarine Warfare Theme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. FOREWORD TO THE AIR ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE THEME Air ASW Board: RADM Mike Manazir, Director Air...Mission Programs (Received April 1, 2014) We are honored to introduce the Air Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) themed compendium for the Journal of Underwater...reflect upon. Three main themes emerge from the last decade relating to the air community’s positioning relative to anti-submarine warfare: a shift in

  15. Advance of studies on anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of berberine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Wang, Jie; Liu, Long-tao

    2010-04-01

    Coptis Chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine herb that has the effect of clearing heat and drying dampness, purging fire to eliminate toxin. Berberine is the main alkaloid of Coptis Chinensis, and, recent researches showed that berberine had the effect of anti-atherosclerosis. This paper reviewed the anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of berberine, which may be related to regulating lipids, anti-inflammation, decompression, reducing blood sugar, and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

  16. [Advance on study in anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of berberine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Wang, Jie

    2008-09-01

    Coptis chinensis is a traditional Chinese herb that has the effect of clearing heat and drying dampness, purging fire to eliminate toxin. Berberine is the main alkaloid of C. chinensis, and researches showed recently, berberine had the effect of anti-atherosclerosis. This paper has reviewed the mechanism of berberine in anti-atherosclerosis from anti-inflammation, regulating lipid, decompression, reducing blood sugar, and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

  17. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  18. Enhancing Anti-Prostate Cancer Immunity through OX40 Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    in the subcutaneous TC 1 model and saw no increase in therapy with the combined treatment . We will also attempt this strategy in the TRAMP mice that...that androgen ablation followed by anti-OX40 treatment will enhance anti-tumor immunity in these patients and we propose to exploit our discovery in...immunotherapy against prostate cancer, and 3) To investigate whether the combination of androgen ablation and anti-OX40 treatment are synergistic in the

  19. The anti-cancer activity of noscapine: a review.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    Noscapine is an isoqiunoline alkaloid found in opium latex. Unlike most other alkaloids obtained from opium latex, noscapine is not sedative and has been used as antitussive drug in various countries. Recently, it has been introduced as an anti-mitotic agent. This drug can be used orally. When the resistance to other anti-cancer drugs such as paclitaxel manifests, noscapine might be effective. Therefore, noscapine and its analogs have great potential as novel anti-cancer agents.

  20. Anti-hydrogen production with positron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Itahashi, Takahisa

    2008-08-08

    In low-energy antiproton physics, it is advantageous to be able to manipulate anti-particles as freely as normal particles. A robust production and storage system for high-quality positrons and antiprotons would be a substantial advance for the development of anti-matter science. The idea of electron beam ion trap could be applied for storage of anti-particle when the electron beam could be replaced by the positron beam. The bright positron beam would be brought about using synchrotron radiation source with a superconducting wiggler. The new scheme for production of anti-particles is proposed by using new accelerator technologies.

  1. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  2. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seung Ha; Jung, Yu Ri; Park, Soon Won; Jung, Dae Soo

    2015-06-01

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation.

  3. Anti-inflammatory new coumarin from the Ammi majus L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the aerial parts of the Egyptian medicinal plant Ammi majus L. led to isolation of new coumarin, 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4 methyl coumarin (2) and 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy coumarin (3); this is the first time they have been isolated from this plant. The structures of the compounds (2 &3) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-viral activity. Graphical abstract An efficient, one-new coumarin (2) was isolated from the aerial parts of the A. Majus L. was evaluated for their anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:22373472

  4. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, M; Feniman, D; Skare, T S; Nisihara, Renato M

    2012-05-01

    Anti-CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide) is considered the most useful laboratory tool in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some authors have also found this autoantibody in patients with scleroderma (SSc). The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anti-CCP antibodies in SSc patients from Southern Brazil and their association with clinical and serological profile of the disease. We studied 76 patients with SSc and 100 healthy volunteers for presence of anti-CCP. SSc patients charts were reviewed for clinical and laboratory data. In the SSc group, the diffuse form was present in 20.5%; 62.8% had the limited form; 14.1% had overlap with systemic lupus or polymyositis and 2.5% had SSc sine scleroderma. Anti-CCP was found in nine of 78 (11.5%) SSc patients and in one of 100 healthy volunteers (p = 0.0054). No relationship was found with arthritis, skin Rodnan m score, esophageal dysmotility, myocarditis, pulmonary hypertension and lung fibrosis. Positive association was observed with arthralgias (p = 0.02). Also, no relationship was noted with the presence of anti-centromere antibodies, anti-Scl-70, anti-RNP or rheumatoid factor. Anti-CCP are more common in SSc patients than in controls. Arthralgias but not arthritis or rheumatoid factor are more frequent in anti-CCP positive patients.

  5. Syndrome in question: antisynthetase syndrome (anti-PL-7)*

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Ana Cláudia Cavalcante; Gige, Tatiana Cristina; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by interstitial lung disease and/or inflammatory myositis, with positive antisynthetase antibodies (anti-Jo-1, anti-PL-7, anti-PL-12, ZO, OJ, anti-KE or KS). Other symptoms described include: non-erosive arthritis, fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, and "mechanic's hands." The first therapeutic option is corticotherapy, followed by other immunosuppressants. The prognosis of the disease is quite limited when compared to other inflammatory myopathies with negative antisynthetase antibodies. PMID:27828653

  6. [Dynamic monitoring risk of anti-hepatoma new drug development].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Wei; Li, Hong-Fa; Man, Shu-Li; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Risk monitoring of new Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs is tracking recognized risks and residual risks, identifying emerging risk and ensure the implementation of the plan, estimating the process of reducing effectiveness. The paper is mainly through understanding the status of Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs, the content, characteristic and analysis method of dynamic risk monitoring, and then select the risk control indicators, collect risk information. Finally, puts forward the thought of anti-hepatoma drugs listed evaluation in our country, and try to establish the model of dynamic risk management of anti-hepatoma drugs.

  7. A Systematic Review of Anti-malarial Properties, Immunosuppressive Properties, Anti-inflammatory Properties, and Anti-cancer Properties of Artemisia Annua

    PubMed Central

    Alesaeidi, Samira; Miraj, Sepide

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua belongs to the asteraceae family, indigenous to the mild climate of Asia. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-malarial properties, immunosuppressive properties, anti-inflammatory properties and anti-cancer properties. This systematic review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified approximately ninety eight references. In this study, forty six studies were accepted for further screening and met all of our inclusion. The search terms were “Artemisia annua”, “therapeutic properties”, “and pharmacological effects”. Artemisia annua is commonly used for its anti-malarial, immunosuppressive anti-inflammatory properties. Artemisia annua contributes to the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema and possesses various effects such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticoccidial, and antiviral effects. Furthermore, it was said to be good for cancer treatment. In this study, anti-malarial, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory properties of this plant are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:27957318

  8. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-S antibody in patient with anti-Jk(a) autoantibody and multiple alloantibodies.

    PubMed

    Guastafierro, S; Sessa, F; Cuomo, C; Tirelli, A

    2004-05-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR). She had a history of an ulcerative colitis, blood transfusion because of rectal bleeding, and surgical removal of descendent and sigmoid colon. At admission, laboratory data showed Hb 6.3 g/dL, reticulocytes 120 x 10(9)/L, serum total bilirubin 1.2 mg/dL (direct bilirubin: 0.2 mg/dL). Pretransfusion antibody screening procedures were positive. A monospecific autoanti-Jk(a) and three alloantibodies (anti-c, -E, -K) were identified by immunohematologic studies. The patient received two units of crossmatch compatible concentrated red blood cells. Six days later biochemical serum values showed Hb 6.2 g/dL, LDH 975 I.U./L and total bilirubin 2.95 mg/dL (direct 0.35 mg/dL). Crossmatches with red cell suspension of transfused blood units and a post-transfusion serum were repeatedly positive. Laboratory tests showed the presence of anti-S alloantobody in the serum and eluate. Moreover, pre-transfusion serum of the patient was retrospectively retested: anti-S was not detected. These data suggested a DHTR. The present case is unusual and interesting because of the association of a rare autoanti-Jk(a), non responsible for anemia, and four alloantibodies of which anti-S involved in a DHTR.

  9. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Elena V.; Koskimaki, Jacob E.; Rivera, Corban G.; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Tamiz, Amir P.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2011-01-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques. PMID:21470139

  10. Polynucleotides encoding anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Kehoe, John [Saint Davids, PA; Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-01-11

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  11. Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Noriyuki; Walsh, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation. Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone, which is downregulated in obesity. Adiponectin displays protective actions on the development of various obesity-linked diseases. Several clinical studies demonstrate the inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and several inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein. Adiponectin attenuates inflammatory responses to multiple stimuli by modulating signaling pathways in a variety of cell types. The anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin may be a major component of its beneficial effects on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. In this reviews, we focus on the role of adiponectin in regulation of inflammatory response and discuss its potential as an antiinflammatory marker. PMID:17343838

  12. Multivalent glycoconjugates as anti-pathogenic agents†

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Anna; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesus; Casnati, Alessandro; De Castro, Cristina; Darbre, Tamis; Fieschi, Franck; Finne, Jukka; Funken, Horst; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Lahmann, Martina; Lindhorst, Thisbe K.; Marradi, Marco; Messner, Paul; Molinaro, Antonio; Murphy, Paul V.; Nativi, Cristina; Oscarson, Stefan; Penadés, Soledad; Peri, Francesco; Pieters, Roland J.; Renaudet, Olivier; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Richichi, Barbara; Rojo, Javier; Sansone, Francesco; Schäffer, Christina; Turnbull, W. Bruce; Velasco-Torrijos, Trinidad; Vidal, Sébastien; Vincent, Stéphane; Wennekes, Tom; Zuilhof, Han; Imberty, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Multivalency plays a major role in biological processes and particularly in the relationship between pathogenic microorganisms and their host that involves protein–glycan recognition. These interactions occur during the first steps of infection, for specific recognition between host and bacteria, but also at different stages of the immune response. The search for high-affinity ligands for studying such interactions involves the combination of carbohydrate head groups with different scaffolds and linkers generating multivalent glycocompounds with controlled spatial and topology parameters. By interfering with pathogen adhesion, such glycocompounds including glycopolymers, glycoclusters, glycodendrimers and glyconanoparticles have the potential to improve or replace antibiotic treatments that are now subverted by resistance. Multivalent glycoconjugates have also been used for stimulating the innate and adaptive immune systems, for example with carbohydrate-based vaccines. Bacteria present on their surfaces natural multivalent glycoconjugates such as lipopolysaccharides and S-layers that can also be exploited or targeted in anti-infectious strategies. PMID:23254759

  13. Anti-depressants, suicide, and drug regulation.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Jens; Marcotte, Dave E

    2005-03-01

    Policymakers are increasingly concerned that a relatively new class of anti-depressant drugs, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI), may increase the risk of suicide for at least some patients, particularly children. Prior randomized trials are not informative on this question because of small sample sizes and other limitations. Using variation across countries over time in SSRI sales and suicide, we find that an increase of one pill per capita (a 13 percent increase over 1999 levels) is associated with a 2.5 percent reduction in suicide rates, a relationship that is more pronounced for adults than for children. Our findings suggest that expanding access to SSRIs for adults may be a cost-effective way to save lives, although policymakers are right to remain cautious about pediatric use of SSRIs.

  14. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  15. Eco-epidemiology as anti-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard E

    Eco-epidemiology is a promising model for cross-disciplinary anti-terrorism. Derived from epidemiology's dominance of agents to illness and injury, the eco-epidemiological paradigm considers natural systems that generate causal pathways to disease and dynamic morbidity. Within this model is a hierarchy of systems interconnecting at biological, human, and social levels. Eco-epidemiology capitalizes on interacting components within and between system levels to identify contact patterns and apply mechanisms of control. Considering the complex and paradoxical nature of the threat-fear dynamic, a systematic, ecological approach would be more adaptive to terrorism's changing rules of engagement. To counter terrorism and nullify threat-fear, eco-epidemiology must be shared by public health researchers with threat assessment and harm reduction disciplines.

  16. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rosca, Elena V; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Rivera, Corban G; Pandey, Niranjan B; Tamiz, Amir P; Popel, Aleksander S

    2011-08-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques.

  17. Monolithic geometric anti-spring blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, G.; Sannibale, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Márka, S.; Takamori, A.

    2005-03-01

    In this article we investigate the principle and properties of a vertical passive seismic noise attenuator conceived for ground based gravitational wave interferometers. This mechanical attenuator based on a particular geometry of cantilever blades called monolithic geometric anti springs (MGAS) permits the design of mechanical harmonic oscillators with very low resonant frequency (below 10 mHz). Here we address the theoretical description of the mechanical device, focusing on the most important quantities for the low-frequency regime, on the distribution of internal stresses, and on the thermal stability. In order to obtain physical insight of the attenuator peculiarities, we devise some simplified models, rather than use the brute force of finite element analysis. Those models have been used to optimize the design of a seismic attenuation system prototype for LIGO advanced configurations and for the next generation of the TAMA interferometer.

  18. Anti-stiction coating for microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hankins, Matthew G.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2006-05-16

    A method for depositing an anti-stiction coating on a MEMS device comprises reacting the vapor of an amino-functionalized silane precursor with a silicon surface of the MEMS device in a vacuum chamber. The method can further comprise cleaning the silicon surface of the MEMS device to form a clean hydroxylated silicon surface prior to reacting the precursor vapor with the silicon surface. The amino-functionalized silane precursor comprises at least one silicon atom, at least one reactive amino (or imine) pendant, and at least one hydrophobic pendant. The amino-functionalized silane precursor is highly reactive with the silicon surface, thereby eliminating the need for a post-process anneal step and enabling the reaction to occur at low pressure. Such vapor-phase deposition of the amino-functionalized silane coating provides a uniform surface morphology and strong adhesion to the silicon surface.

  19. Anti-tumor necrosis factor modulates anti-CD3-triggered T cell cytokine gene expression in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ferran, C; Dautry, F; Mérite, S; Sheehan, K; Schreiber, R; Grau, G; Bach, J F; Chatenoud, L

    1994-01-01

    De novo expression of TNF, IFN gamma, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-6 genes was initiated rapidly by treatment of mice with anti-CD3. A specific feature of this reaction was that TNF was derived exclusively from T cells. TNF was produced both as a mature soluble trimeric protein and as a 26-kD anti-TNF-reactive protein compatible with membrane-anchored TNF. Pretreatment with anti-TNF did not affect anti-CD3-triggered TNF mRNA expression in T cells. In contrast, in vivo and in vitro anti-TNF treatment upregulated anti-CD3-induced IFN gamma mRNA expression and inhibited IL-4 mRNA expression. These latter effects were not dependent on TNF neutralization: pretreatment with soluble recombinant 55-kD TNF receptor (TBPI) as an alternative TNF-neutralizing agent did not modify the anti-CD3-induced cytokine profile. These results suggest that a direct interaction between anti-TNF and T cell membrane-anchored TNF could account for the observed modulation of cytokine gene expression. The increased expression of INF gamma mRNA observed in anti-TNF-treated animals correlated with a decrease in IL-3 and IL-6 mRNA expression. Conversely, IFN gamma blockade by a neutralizing anti-IFN gamma mAb led to a substantial increase in both IL-3 and IL-6 gene expression induced by anti-CD3. Taken together, these results strongly argue for the existence, in the anti-CD3-induced cytokine cascade, of IFN gamma-dependent regulation of IL-3 production, which in turn modulates IL-6 production. Images PMID:8182150

  20. Evaluation of LIAISON® XL system for HBsAg, and anti-HCV and anti-HIV/Ag p24.

    PubMed

    De Paschale, Massimo; Manco, Maria Teresa; Belvisi, Luisa; Cagnin, Debora; Cerulli, Teresa; Paganini, Alessia; Arpino, Olivia; Cianflone, Annalisa; Agrappi, Carlo; Mirri, Paola; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained using the new LIAISON® XL chemiluminescence system to search for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV1-2/p24 Ag with those obtained using the VITROS system currently adopted by the Microbiology Unit of the Hospital of Legnano. Routine samples of patients who were referred by practitioners for the determination of HBsAg (1,000 samples) and/or anti-HCV (1,002 samples) and/or anti-HIV1-2 (995 samples) were simultaneously analyzed using both systems. The concordant positive and discordant samples were re-examined for confirmation by means of an HBsAg neutralization assay, anti-HCV immunoblot, or anti-HIV1-2 Western blot; HBV-DNA, or HCV-RNA or HIV-RNA was also sought in the discordant samples. Samples of patients known to be positive were tested (100 HBsAg positive, 100 anti-HCV positive, and 100 HIV 1-2 positive) as well throughout treatment, with viremia levels becoming undetectable after treatment. The HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV1-2 concordance between the two systems in routine series was respectively 99.8%, 98.5% and 99.7%, and 100% for all markers in samples known positive. The various molecular biology and confirmatory tests of the discordant samples were all negative (except for one anti-HCV positive sample). Measure of Cohen's kappa coefficient for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV gave K values of respectively 0.992, 0.946, and 0.980. In conclusion, the performance of the LIAISON® XL system in the routine laboratory determination for all three markers was comparable with that of the VITROS system. J. Med. Virol. 89:489-496, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Resveratrol: anti-obesity mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Arias, Noemí; Portillo, Maria P

    2014-11-14

    Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol which belongs to the stilbenes group and is produced naturally in several plants in response to injury or fungal attack. Resveratrol has been recently reported as preventing obesity. The present review aims to compile the evidence concerning the potential mechanisms of action which underlie the anti-obesity effects of resveratrol, obtained either in cultured cells lines and animal models. Published studies demonstrate that resveratrol has an anti-adipogenic effect. A good consensus concerning the involvement of a down-regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ in this effect has been reached. Also, in vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol can increase apoptosis in mature adipocytes. Furthermore, different metabolic pathways involved in triacylglycerol metabolism in white adipose tissue have been shown to be targets for resveratrol. Both the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and adipose tissue fatty acid uptake mediated by lipoprotein lipase play a role in explaining the reduction in body fat which resveratrol induces. As far as lipolysis is concerned, although this compound per se seems to be unable to induce lipolysis, it increases lipid mobilization stimulated by β-adrenergic agents. The increase in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, and consequently the associated energy dissipation, can contribute to explaining the body-fat lowering effect of resveratrol. In addition to its effects on adipose tissue, resveratrol can also acts on other organs and tissues. Thus, it increases mitochondriogenesis and consequently fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle and liver. This effect can also contribute to the body-fat lowering effect of this molecule.

  2. Anti-TNFs: Originators and Biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Mantzaris, Gerassimos J

    2016-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the advent of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biologics has revolutionized the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the cost of biologic therapy now constitutes a large proportion of all healthcare expenditures. Patent expiration has sparked the healthcare industry's interest in the production of biosimilar (BS) versions of first generation biologics (originators [ORGs]) for market sharing. Having no access to the production line of the ORG, the sponsor of a BS needs to develop his own manufacturing process to produce a highly similar version of the reference product. Similarity in structure, physicochemical properties, biologic activity, efficacy and safety must be demonstrated by a comprehensive comparability exercise that includes the most sensitive in vitro tests, models and clinical condition with pre-defined equivalence margins. Extrapolation of indications, inter-changeability and automatic substitution between BS and ORG depend on a legal framework that varies between different agencies. It is not, therefore, unexpected that marketing authorization by the European Medicines Agency and other regulatory agencies (but not Health Canada) of CT-P13 (Remsima/Inflectra) as infliximab (Remicade) BSs for IBD by indication extrapolation has led to stormy discussions in the IBD community and beyond regarding the scientific adequacy of this decision. However, as we now have to live with BSs, we hope that the impeding automatic substitution in association with post-marketing pharmacovigilance, full traceability, registries and new studies will settle the controversy and will increase the confidence of physicians and patients. A universally adopted legal framework should be implemented because, as expected, the non-anti-TNFα BSs will be soon on the stage.

  3. Corneal reepithelialization and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, B D

    1982-01-01

    These studies have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors) can inhibit PMN arrival in the tear fluid following corneal injury but do not inhibit the reepithelialization either by corneal epithelial cells or by conjunctival epithelial cells. Therefore, they can be used safely in ocular inflammatory conditions even when corneal epithelial defects are present. Corticosteroids, on the other hand, inhibit reepithelialization by conjunctival epithelial cells and not by corneal epithelial cells in the doses tested. This inhibition does not occur with pretreatment prior to injury, suggesting that corticosteroids can be used clinically in conditions that have intact corneal epithelium without fear of slowing down wound healing should epithelial defects occur when not on steroid therapy. Furthermore, the steroid inhibition is temporary since there is a breakthrough in steroid inhibition with time, and occurs only if the steroids have been used shortly after deepithelialization. The steroid inhibition can be reversed by specific steroid antagonist, indicating that the steroid effect is mediated through specific receptors. An exciting and new hypothesis proposes that corticosteroids induce the formation of an inhibitory protein that inhibits the phospholipase enzyme to cause a block in arachidonic acid release from cell membranes. This mechanism of action may also be prevalent in the steroid effect on corneal reepithelialization, and experiments are under way to isolate this inhibitory protein from steroid-treated conjunctival epithelium. This isolation and pharmacologic characterization of this inhibitory protein is of obvious advantage to the field of ophthalmic therapeutics since this protein may have the anti-inflammatory potential of the steroids without their steroid sideeffects. Images FIGURE 3 a FIGURE 3 b PMID:6763806

  4. Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that a high intake of plant foods is associated with lower risk of chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and the components involved in this effect have not been identified clearly. In recent years, the scientific community has agreed to focus its attention on a class of secondary metabolites extensively present in a wide range of plant foods: the flavonoids, suggested as having different biological roles. The anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids in vitro or in cellular models involve the inhibition of the synthesis and activities of different pro-inflammatory mediators such as eicosanoids, cytokines, adhesion molecules and C-reactive protein. Molecular activities of flavonoids include inhibition of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and activating protein-1 (AP-1), as well as activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, the in vitro evidence might be somehow of limited impact due to the non-physiological concentrations utilized and to the fact that in vivo flavonoids are extensively metabolized to molecules with different chemical structures and activities compared with the ones originally present in the food. Human studies investigating the effect of flavonoids on markers of inflammation are insufficient, and are mainly focused on flavonoid-rich foods but not on pure molecules. Most of the studies lack assessment of flavonoid absorption or fail to associate an effect on inflammation with a change in circulating levels of flavonoids. Human trials with appropriate placebo and pure flavonoid molecules are needed to clarify if flavonoids represent ancillary ingredients or key molecules involved in the anti-inflammatory properties of plant foods.

  5. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  6. Anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings with self-cleaning properties

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Vinod; Brophy, Brenor L.

    2016-10-04

    Disclosed herein is a coated glass element including a glass component and a coating adhered to the glass component through siloxane linkages, the coating having at least one of an anti-reflective property, a high abrasion resistance property and a hydrophobic property, wherein the coating comprises a dried gel formed from at least one hydrolyzed alkoxysilane-based sol and at least one hydrolyzed organosilane-based sol.

  7. Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Ying; Yang, Chao; Sang, Zitai; Yang, Tao; Ang, Wei; Ye, Weiwei; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang; Luo, Youfu

    2014-03-01

    Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite.

  9. Anti program death-1/anti program death-ligand 1 in digestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    de Guillebon, Eléonore; Roussille, Pauline; Frouin, Eric; Tougeron, David

    2015-01-01

    Human tumors tend to activate the immune system regulatory checkpoints as a means of escaping immunosurveillance. For instance, interaction between program death-1 (PD-1) and program death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) will lead the activated T cell to a state of anergy. PD-L1 is upregulated on a wide range of cancer cells. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), called immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have consequently been designed to restore T cell activity. Accumulating data are in favor of an association between PD-L1 expression in tumors and response to treatment. A PD-L1 expression is present in 30% to 50% of digestive cancers. Multiple anti-PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 mAbs (MPDL3280A, Medi4736) are under evaluation in digestive cancers. Preliminary results in metastatic gastric cancer with pembrolizumab are highly promising and phase II will start soon. In metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), a phase III trial of MPDL3280A as maintenance therapy will shortly be initiated. Trials are also ongoing in metastatic CRC with high immune T cell infiltration (i.e., microsatellite instability). Major challenges are ahead in order to determine how, when and for which patients we should use these ICIs. New radiologic criteria to evaluate tumor response to ICIs are awaiting prospective validation. The optimal therapeutic sequence and association with cytotoxic chemotherapy needs to be established. Finally, biomarker identification will be crucial to selection of patients likely to benefit from ICIs. PMID:26306141

  10. Anti program death-1/anti program death-ligand 1 in digestive cancers.

    PubMed

    de Guillebon, Eléonore; Roussille, Pauline; Frouin, Eric; Tougeron, David

    2015-08-15

    Human tumors tend to activate the immune system regulatory checkpoints as a means of escaping immunosurveillance. For instance, interaction between program death-1 (PD-1) and program death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) will lead the activated T cell to a state of anergy. PD-L1 is upregulated on a wide range of cancer cells. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), called immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have consequently been designed to restore T cell activity. Accumulating data are in favor of an association between PD-L1 expression in tumors and response to treatment. A PD-L1 expression is present in 30% to 50% of digestive cancers. Multiple anti-PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 mAbs (MPDL3280A, Medi4736) are under evaluation in digestive cancers. Preliminary results in metastatic gastric cancer with pembrolizumab are highly promising and phase II will start soon. In metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), a phase III trial of MPDL3280A as maintenance therapy will shortly be initiated. Trials are also ongoing in metastatic CRC with high immune T cell infiltration (i.e., microsatellite instability). Major challenges are ahead in order to determine how, when and for which patients we should use these ICIs. New radiologic criteria to evaluate tumor response to ICIs are awaiting prospective validation. The optimal therapeutic sequence and association with cytotoxic chemotherapy needs to be established. Finally, biomarker identification will be crucial to selection of patients likely to benefit from ICIs.

  11. Anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening effects of jucá (Libidibia ferrea Mart.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Barros, Aline Oliveira; Nogueira, Jéssica Rodrigues; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo da; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2016-11-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the human body that may be accelerated due to extrinsic causes. Libidibia ferrea, popularly known as jucá, is a small tree, which possesses an abundant phenolic composition with potential antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening potentials of jucá trunk bark (LFB) and pod (LFP) extracts. A comprehensive analysis of LFB and LFP phenolic composition was accomplished by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Effects on skin degradation were assessed by inhibitory enzymatic activity against elastase, hyaluronidase and collagenase through colorimetric assays. Cellular viability in B16F10 and primary fibroblasts were determined by Trypan Blue exclusion assay. Anti-melanogenic effects on B16F10 cells were evaluated using cellular tyrosinase, melanin content, western blot, and RT-qPCR analyses. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was determined by gelatin zymography and western blot methodologies. LC-MS/MS analyses of LFB and LFP extracts allowed the characterization of 18 compounds, among them, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and secoridoids. Additionally the pod and trunk bark compositions were compared. Hyaluronidase inhibitory activity for both extracts, LFB (IC50 = 8.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and LFP (IC50 = 16 ± 0.5 µg/mL), was stronger than standard rutin (IC50 = 27.6 ± 0.06). Pro-MMP-2 was significantly inhibited by both extracts. LFB and LFP decreased the melanin content in B16F10 due to tyrosinase inhibitory activity. L. ferrea extracts has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle and depigmentant effects.

  12. Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

    2013-05-31

    Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities.

  13. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shu-Yuan; Ha, Choi-Lan; Wu, Pei-Shan; Yeh, Chiu-Ling; Su, Ying-Shan; Li, Man-Po; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2015-12-10

    Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM) reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  14. Therapeutic uses of anti-α4-integrin (anti-VLA-4) antibodies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicholas; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Wiendl, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder of putative autoimmune origin, where immune cells invade the central nervous system and cause damage by attacking the myelin sheath of nerve cells. The blockade of the integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) with the monoclonal antibody natalizumab has become the most effective therapy against MS since its approval in 2004. It is assumed that the inhibition of VLA-4-mediated immune cell adhesion to the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) alleviates pathogenic processes of MS and, therefore, reduces disease severity and burden. Not all approaches to treat additional immune-mediated disorders (e.g. Rasmussen encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica) with natalizumab have been successful, but allowed researchers to gain additional insight into mechanisms of specific immune cell subsets' migration through the BBB in the human system. While the long-term efficacy and general tolerability of natalizumab in MS are clear, the over 400 cases of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) have been of great concern and methods of risk stratification in patients have become a major area of research. Modern risk stratification includes established factors such as treatment duration, previous immune-suppressive therapy, and anti-John Cunningham virus (JCV) antibody seropositivity, but also experimental factors such as anti-JCV antibody titers and levels of L-selectin. Today, anti-VLA-4 therapy is reserved for patients with highly active relapsing-remitting MS and patients are monitored closely for early signs of potential PML.

  15. Anti-Tat and anti-HIV activities of trimers of n-alkylglycines.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Nieves; Sancho, Rocío; Macho, Antonio; Moure, Alejandra; Masip, Isabel; Messeguer, Angel; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2006-02-28

    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is activated by viral Tat protein which regulates HIV-LTR transcription and elongation. In the present report, the evaluation of the anti-Tat activity of a combinatorial library composed of 5120 N-trialkylglycines is reported. The antiviral activity was studied through luciferase-based assays targeting the HIV-1 promoter activation induced by the HIV-1 Tat protein. We identified five peptoids with specific anti-HIV-1 Tat activity; none of these peptoids affected the binding of HIV-1 Tat protein to the viral TAR RNA. Using a recombinant-virus assay in which luciferase activity correlates with the rate of HIV-1 transcription we have detected that one of the five selected peptoids, NC37-37-15C, is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1-LTR transcription in both primary T lymphocytes and transformed cell lines. The inhibitory effect of NC37-37-15C, which is additive with azidothymidine (AZT), correlates with its ability to inhibit CTD phosphorylation and shows a suitable profile for development of novel anti-HIV-1 drugs. Likewise, the structural simplicity of N-alkylglycine oligomers makes these peptidomimetics amenable to structural manipulation, thus facilitating the optimisation of lead molecules for drug-like properties.

  16. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shu-Yuan; Ha, Choi-Lan; Wu, Pei-Shan; Yeh, Chiu-Ling; Su, Ying-Shan; Li, Man-Po; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2015-01-01

    Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM) reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries. PMID:26690417

  17. Carnosol: A promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet and more specifically certain meats, fruits, vegetables, and olive oil found in certain parts of the Mediterranean region have been associated with a decreased cardiovascular and diabetes risk. More recently, several population based studies have observed with these lifestyle choices have reported an overall reduced risk for several cancers. One study in particular observed an inverse relationship between consumption of Mediterranean herbs such as rosemary, sage, parsley, and oregano with lung cancer. In light of these findings there is a need to explore and identify the anti-cancer properties of these medicincal herbs and to identify the phytochemicals therein. One agent in particular, carnosol, has been evaluated for anti-cancer property in prostate, breast, skin, leukemia, and colon cancer with promising results. These studies have provided evidence that carnosol targets multiple deregulated pathways associated with inflammation and cancer that include nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), apoptotic related proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt, androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as molecular targets. In addition, carnosol appears to be well tolerated in that it has a selective toxicity towards cancer cells versus non-tumorigenic cells and is well tolerated when administered to animals. This mini-review reports on the pre-clinical studies that have been performed to date with carnosol describing mechanistic, efficacy, and safety/tolerability studies as a cancer chemoprevention and anti-cancer agent. PMID:21382660

  18. Ortho-eugenol exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; Aragão Neto, Humberto de C; Golzio, Adriana M F O; Caldas Filho, Marcelo R D; Melo, Cynthia G F; Leite, Fagner C; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Barbosa Filho, José M; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-09-01

    Ortho-eugenol is a much used phenylpropanoid whose ability to reduce pain and inflammation has never been studied. Researching ortho-eugenol's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanisms of action is therefore of interest. The administration of vehicle, ortho-eugenol (50, 75 and 100mg/kg i.p.), morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) or dexamethasone (2mg/kg, s.c.) occurred 30min before the completion of pharmacological tests. Pretreatment with ortho-eugenol did not change motor coordination test results, but reduced the number of writhes and licking times in the writhing test and glutamate test, respectively. The reaction time from thermal stimulus was significantly increased in the hot plate test after administration of ortho-eugenol. Treatment with yohimbine reversed the antinociceptive effect of ortho-eugenol, suggesting involvement of the adrenergic system. In anti-inflammatory tests, ortho-eugenol inhibited acetic acid induced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β by virtue of its suppression of NF-κB and p38 phosphorylated forms in the peritonitis test. From these results, ortho-eugenol antinociceptive effects mediated by the adrenergic system and anti-inflammatory activity through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-kB and p38 become evident for the first time.

  19. Evaluating the Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ketotifen and Fexofenadine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Anoush, Mahdieh; Mohammad Khani, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As H1 and H3 receptors’ roles has been defined in peripheral pains in some papers and because histamine is known for its role in inflammatory responses; this study investigated the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ketotifen and fexofenadine as relatively safe long acting anti histamines in both chronic chemical pain and acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 225-250 grams were used. In order to evaluate the chemical chronic pain, sub-plantar injection of formalin applied and the pain scores were recorded every 15 seconds during 60 minutes. Carrageenan injection to the right hind paw was used for induction of acute inflammation and the paw edema was measured every 60 minutes for 4 hours. Results: Based on the results, both ketotifen and fexofenadine were able to significantly diminish chemical acute and chronic pain as well as inflammation in comparison with the control group and the effects were acceptable according to the standard treatment. Both effects for fexofenadine started later than those of ketotifen. Conclusion: According to the outcomes of the study, ketotifen and fexofenadine demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory characteristics in both models of chemical pain and acute inflammation in laboratory animals. PMID:26236660

  20. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with “beyond antioxidant” functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polyacetylene from Dendropanax dentiger.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Hsu, Wei-Ning; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Dendropanax dentiger has been used as a folk medicine since ancient times. In our current study, we observed that D. dentiger exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity, which could efficiently inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammation assay. (9Z,16S)-16-Hydroxy-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid (HODA) was isolated from the leaves of D. dentiger following a bioactivity guided fractionation protocol. Our data indicated that HODA significantly inhibited the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells (IC50 = 4.28 μM). Consistent with these observations, the mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS were also inhibited by HODA in a dose-dependent manner. HODA also reduced the translocation of NF-κB into nuclear fractions. Meanwhile, HODA enhanced Nrf-2 activation and its downstream antioxidant gene HO-1. We concluded that HODA possessed significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity; the compound may have a potential for development as a chemoprevention agent.

  2. Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A M; Pérez, A; Hernández, A M; Macías, A; Alfonso, M; Bombino, G; Pérez, R

    1998-12-01

    An IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb), named P3, has the characteristic to react specifically with a broad battery of N-glycolyl containing-gangliosides and with antigens expressed on breast tumors. When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, this Ab2 response was increased when P3 MAb was injected coupled to a carrier protein and in the presence of Freund's adjuvant. Spleen cells from these mice were used in somatic-cell hybridization experiments, using the murine myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8.653 as fusion partner. Five Ab2 MAbs specific to P3 MAb were selected. These IgG1 Ab2 MAbs were able to block the binding of P3 MAb to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside and to a human breast carcinoma cell line. Cross-blocking experiments demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are recognizing the same or very close sites on the Abl MAb. The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response. While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not "internal image" antibodies, but they could define "regulatory idiotopes."

  3. Comparative anti-inflammatory effects of anti-arthritic herbal medicines and ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joshua J; Samad, Mohammed A; Kim, Kye S; Bae, Soochan

    2014-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen, are widely used over-the-counter drugs to treat arthritis, but they are often associated with side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat various diseases such as arthritis, but the scientific profiles are not well understood. In this study, we examined, in comparison with ibuprofen, the inhibitory effects on various inflammatory markers of the most commonly used herbal medicines to treat arthritis, boswellia (Boswellia sapindales), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), guggul (Commiphora wightii), and neem (Azadirachta indica). To elicit inflammatory response, we exposed mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which are cytokines activated during an inflammatory response, were determined. The optimal non-toxic concentration was determined by exposing different concentrations of drugs (from 0.01 to 10 mg/mL). Cell death measurement revealed that the drug concentrations lower than 0.05 mg/mL were non-toxic concentrations for each drug, and these doses were used for the main experiments. We found that neem and licorice showed robust anti-inflammatory responses compared with ibuprofen. However, boswellia and guggul did not demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory responses. We concluded that neem and licorice are more effective than ibuprofen in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation in C2C12 cells.

  4. Anti-oxidative assays as markers for anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Krueyos, Narumol; Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn

    2016-11-01

    The complexity of in vitro anti-inflammatory assays, the cost and time consumed, and the necessary skills can be a hurdle to apply to promising compounds in a high throughput setting. In this study, several antioxidative assays i.e. DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and xanthine oxidase (XO) were used to examine the antioxidative activity of three sub groups of flavonoids: (i) flavonol: quercetin, myricetin, (ii) flavanone: eriodictyol, naringenin (iii) flavone: luteolin, apigenin. A range of flavonoid concentrations was tested for their antioxidative activities and were found to be dose-dependent. However, the flavonoid concentrations over 50ppm were found to be toxic to the THP-1 monocytes. Therefore, 10, 20 and 50ppm of flavonoid concentrations were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 monocytes. Expression of inflammatory genes, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α was found to be sequentially decreased when flavonoid concentration increased. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the relationship between the data sets of antioxidative assays and the expression of inflammatory genes. The results showed that DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays have an opposite correlation with the reduction of inflammatory genes. Pearson correlation exhibited a relationship between the ABTS assay and the expression of three out of five analyzed genes; IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Our findings indicate that ABTS assay can potentially be an assay marker for anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids.

  5. Anti-synthetase syndrome associated with anti PL-12 and anti-Signal recognition particle antibodies and a necrotizing auto-immune myositis.

    PubMed

    Malkan, Ashish; Cappelen-Smith, Cecilia; Beran, Roy; Griffith, Neil; Toong, Catherine; Wang, Min-Xia; Cordato, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    We report a 37-year-old woman with a 2 month history of proximal muscle weakness and extremely high creatine kinase (21,808 U/L) due to necrotizing auto-immune myositis (NAM) in association with anti-synthetase syndrome. Myositis-specific auto-immune antibody panel was positive for anti-Signal recognition particle and anti-PL-12. CT scan of the chest confirmed interstitial lung disease. Prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and cyclophosphamide therapy was given with gradual improvement. This patient is notable for the unusual combination of NAM and anti-synthetase syndrome with the rare finding of two myositis-specific autoantibodies, which directed testing for associated extramuscular features and management with more aggressive immunotherapy.

  6. Information Fusion and Visualisation in Anti Asymmetric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Information Fusion and Visualisation in Anti Asymmetric Warfare Felix Opitz, Thilo Trapp, Kaeye Dästner, Thomas Kausch Defence and Communications...Anti Asymmetric Warfare Felix Opitz, Thilo Trapp, Kaeye Dästner, Thomas Kausch IST-063/RWS-010 Workshop on Visualising Network Information Seite 2

  7. The Varieties of Anti-Americanism: Reflex and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseler, Stephen

    The phenomenon of anti-Americanism is presented as an assortment of apparently disparate expressions of hostility toward U.S. society which combine to reinforce one another. Chapter 1 discusses what is not anti-Americanism, including: (1) opposition to particular U.S. policies or administration; (2) reassessment by foreign publics and elites of…

  8. Anti-photoaging and Photoprotective Compounds Derived from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pallela, Ramjee; Na-Young, Yoon; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B) leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM). These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:20479974

  9. Anti-fat prejudice reduction: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ciao, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Prejudice against those who are perceived as 'fat' or obese (anti-fat prejudice) is rife, increasing, and associated with negative outcomes for those targeted for such treatment. The present review sought to identify and describe published research on interventions to reduce anti-fat prejudice. A systematic search of relevant databases (e.g. PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus) found 16 published studies that had sought to reduce anti-fat prejudice. Most notable was the lack of research on interventions for reducing anti-fat prejudice. Methodological problems that limit the interpretability of results were identified in the majority of studies found. Interventions employing more rigorous experimental designs provided at best mixed evidence for effectiveness. Although several studies reported changes in beliefs and knowledge about the causes of obesity, reductions in anti-fat prejudice did not typically accompany these changes. Anti-fat prejudice interventions adopting social norm- and social consensus-based approaches appear encouraging but are scarce. The lack of prejudice reduction following most interventions suggests that psychological mechanisms other than, or additional to, those being manipulated may underpin anti-fat prejudice. New directions for researching anti-fat prejudice are suggested. Given the strength of antipathy displayed toward those who are perceived as 'fat' or obese, research in this area is urgently required.

  10. 48 CFR 352.203-70 - Anti-lobbying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-lobbying. 352.203-70 Section 352.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.203-70 Anti-lobbying....

  11. Colorful Horizons with Charge in Anti-de Sitter Space

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2008-11-07

    An Abelian gauge symmetry can be spontaneously broken near a black hole horizon in anti-de Sitter space using a condensate of non-Abelian gauge fields. A second order phase transition is shown to separate Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter solutions from a family of symmetry-breaking solutions which preserve a diagonal combination of gauge invariance and spatial rotational invariance.

  12. 45 CFR 2543.87 - Byrd anti-lobbying amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. 2543.87 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.87 Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. Contractors who apply... disclose any lobbying with non-Federal funds that takes place in connection with obtaining any...

  13. Marine microbes-derived anti-bacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Cao, X; Liu, X; Jiao, B

    2010-10-01

    This review covers natural products isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes published in the recent years. The emphasis is mainly about new compounds, together with their anti-bacterial activities, source organisms and country of origin, biosynthetic studies as well as the mechanisms involved in their anti-bacterial activities.

  14. 7 CFR 1485.31 - Anti-fraud requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-fraud requirements. 1485.31 Section 1485.31.... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.31 Anti-fraud requirements. (a) All MAP Participants. (1) All MAP Participants annually shall submit to CCC for approval a detailed fraud prevention...

  15. Idiotypic analysis of a monoclonal anti-Sm antibody.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D S; Lerner, E A

    1982-10-01

    Among murine models of autoimmunity, MRL mice are unique in their expression of antibodies to the nuclear antigen Sm. To assess genetic mechanisms in the control of this response, the idiotypes borne by a monoclonal anti-Sm antibody of MRL-Ipr/Ipr origin were investigated. Rabbit antisera were prepared against Y2, a hybridoma product with anti-Sm activity, and were rendered specific for idiotype by extensive absorption with normal globulins from BALB/c mice. In assays of idiotype by an inhibition ELISA, Y2 was shown to share idiotypes with Y12, another monoclonal anti-Sm derived from the same fusion as Y2; other monoclonal autoantibodies of MRL origin but different antigenic specificity failed to display idiotype activity in this assay. The presence of other anti-idiotypic specificities was revealed by absorption and elution of the anti-idiotype from an MRL globulin column; sera from both anti-Sm-positive and negative mice demonstrated these idiotypes. These results suggest that the predominant specificities detected by the anti-idiotype were unique to the monoclonal antibodies of the same animal, although there was also activity to idiotypes not related to anti-Sm binding molecules.

  16. Anti-C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Stojan, G; Petri, M

    2016-07-01

    C1q is the first component of the classical complement pathway. Both clinically validated in-house ELISA assays as well as commercial ELISA kits are used for detection of anti-C1q antibodies. Anti-C1q autoantibodies can be detected in a wide range of autoimmune diseases and are highly sensitive for hypocomplementemic uticarial vasculitis. In SLE, anti-C1q are strongly associated with proliferative lupus nephritis, and their absence carries a negative predictive value for development of lupus nephritis of close to 100%. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement has the strongest serological association with renal involvement. The anti-C1q titers correlate with global disease activity scores in patients with renal involvement, and higher titers seem to precede renal flares. After the successful treatment of a renal flare, anti-C1q has the tendency to decrease or even become undetectable. The main obstacle to the inclusion of anti-C1q in the classification criteria and clinical management of SLE is the lack of standardized laboratory assays.

  17. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  18. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  19. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  20. Anti-estrogenic activity of lignans from Acanthopanax chiisanensis root.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Piao, Xiang Lan; Kim, Ju Sun; Kang, Sam Sik; Shin, Kuk Hyun

    2005-02-01

    Anti-estrogenic activity of (-)-sesamin (1), helioxanthin (2), savinin (3), taiwanin C (4), and 3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)butyrolactone (5) isolated from the root of Acanthopanax chiisanensis was tested using Ishikawa cells. Among them, compound 3 exhibited anti-estrogenic activity (IC50 = 4.86 microM).

  1. Anti-Bias Curriculum: Tools for Empowering Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman-Sparks, Louise; And Others

    Young children are aware that color, language, gender, and physical ability are connected to privilege and power. Racism and sexism have a profound influence on children's developing sense of self and others. This book on the creation of anti-bias curriculum can be used to help young children develop anti-bias attitudes, learn to think critically,…

  2. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  3. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  4. Anti-Social Behaviour: Children, Schools and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Under Prime Minister Tony Blair's New Labour government, increased criminalisation of previously non-criminal behaviour, anti-social behaviour and greater accountability of children and parents for their behaviour were evident. The article provides an overview of anti-social behaviour legislation and the implications for children, schools and…

  5. Discourses that Silence: Teachers and Anti-Lesbian Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the way lesbian identities are silenced in schools particularly through anti-lesbian harassment. Based on research with 30 self-identified lesbian teachers working across high schools in New South Wales, Australia, the discussion illustrates how various responses to anti-lesbian harassment silence the recognition of such…

  6. The Implications of Christian Anti-Semitism for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the history of anti-Semitism has historical links to Christian theology. Asserts that Christianity provided ample fuel for the secular anti-Semitism preached by Hitler and the Nazi party. Contends that educators can draw important lessons on the value of education and the pedagogy of teaching history. (CFR)

  7. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody

    PubMed Central

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. KEY RESULTS Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. PMID:25176316

  8. Indications of neutralising anti-idiotypic antibodies and selective proteolytic fragmentation in polyclonal anti-D IgG preparations.

    PubMed

    Gronski, P; Haas, T; Kanzy, E J; Lang, W; Röder, J; Ruhwedel, K; Simshäuser, K

    2003-09-01

    Proteolytic fragmentation is the only suggested cause of potency losses during storage of liquid human polyclonal anti-D Ig. Besides the effect of fragmentation, we have investigated the potential contribution of neutralising anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids). Potency changes during storage and/or upon pH reduction in anti-D IgG batches with or without addition of plasminogen and urokinase were quantitatively analysed by the autoanalyser (AA) method or by a special procedure of flow cytometry (FC). Moreover, simultaneous changes of the molecular size distribution pattern have been determined by size exclusion chromatography. In contrast to the AA procedure, the particular FC methodology was found to be almost insensitive to proteolysis comprising up to 30% of total IgG. Data interpretation was based on the assumption that both assays cannot detect Ids with neutralised paratopes. In the absence of detectable neutralisation (functional absence of anti-Ids), it could be demonstrated that the anti-D IgG subpopulation is more sensitive to fragmentation by endogenous protease as compared to the unrelated bulk. However, both methods detected batch- and assay-dependently variable potency losses during storage. Moreover, the increase of potency induced by pH reduction correlated with the increase of monomeric IgG, essentially on the expense of dimers. This finding was interpreted to indirectly indicate the neutralising action of anti-Ids known to be the major driving force of dimer formation in polyclonal IgG. A more or less pronounced pH-dependent potency increase was also detectable in three arbitrarily selected batches of two other manufacturers. The data allows to assume that anti-Id-mediated neutralisation can significantly contribute to losses of anti-D potency. In addition, it turned out that anti-D plasma itself can be the source of anti-Ids.

  9. Therapeutic application of anti-angiogenic nanomaterials in cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a vital role in physiological and pathological processes (embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis). The overall balance of angiogenesis inside the human body is maintained by pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The processes by which drugs inhibit angiogenesis as well as tumor growth are called the anti-angiogenesis technique, a most promising cancer treatment strategy. Over the last couple of decades, scientists have been developing angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. However, conventional anti-angiogenic therapy has several limitations including drug resistance that can create problems for a successful therapeutic strategy. Therefore, a new comprehensive treatment strategy using antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of cancer is urgently needed. Recently researchers have been developing and designing several nanoparticles that show anti-angiogenic properties. These nanomedicines could be useful as an alternative strategy for the treatment of various cancers using anti-angiogenic therapy. In this review article, we critically focus on the potential application of anti-angiogenic nanomaterial and nanoparticle based drug/siRNA/peptide delivery systems in cancer therapeutics. We also discuss the basic and clinical perspectives of anti-angiogenesis therapy, highlighting its importance in tumor angiogenesis, current status and future prospects and challenges.Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a vital role in physiological and pathological processes (embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis). The overall balance of angiogenesis inside the human body is maintained by pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The processes by which drugs inhibit angiogenesis as well as tumor growth are called the anti-angiogenesis technique, a most promising cancer treatment strategy. Over the

  10. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Tina Bøgelund; Knutsson, Malin L. T.; Wehland, Markus; Laursen, Britt Elmedal; Grimm, Daniela; Warnke, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Nils E.

    2014-01-01

    Neo-angiogenesis is a critical process for tumor growth and invasion and has become a promising target in cancer therapy. This manuscript reviews three currently relevant anti-angiogenic agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor system: bevacizumab, ramucirumab and sorafenib. The efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in adjuvant therapy or as neo-adjuvant treatment has been estimated in clinical trials of advanced breast cancer. To date, the overall observed clinical improvements are unconvincing, and further research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in breast cancer treatments. The outcomes of anti-angiogenic therapy have been highly variable in terms of tumor response. New methods are needed to identify patients who will benefit from this regimen. The development of biomarkers and molecular profiling are relevant research areas that may strengthen the ability to focus anti-angiogenic therapy towards suitable patients, thereby increase the cost-effectiveness, currently estimated to be inadequate. PMID:25514409

  11. Development of individualized anti-metastasis strategies by engineering nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    He, Qianjun; Guo, Shengrong; Qian, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-07

    Metastasis is deadly and also tough to treat as it is much more complicated than the primary tumour. Anti-metastasis approaches available so far are far from being optimal. A variety of nanomedicine formulae provide a plethora of opportunities for developing new strategies and means for tackling metastasis. It should be noted that individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines are different from common anti-cancer nanomedicines as they specifically target different populations of malignant cells. This review briefly introduces the features of the metastatic cascade, and proposes a series of nanomedicine-based anti-metastasis strategies aiming to block each metastatic step. Moreover, we also concisely introduce the advantages of several promising nanoparticle platforms and their potential for constructing state-of-the-art individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines.

  12. Recent progress in the development of anti-malarial quinolones.

    PubMed

    Beteck, Richard M; Smit, Frans J; Haynes, Richard K; N'Da, David D

    2014-08-30

    Available anti-malarial tools have over the ten-year period prior to 2012 dramatically reduced the number of fatalities due to malaria from one million to less than six-hundred and thirty thousand. Although fewer people now die from malaria, emerging resistance to the first-line anti-malarial drugs, namely artemisinins in combination with quinolines and arylmethanols, necessitates the urgent development of new anti-malarial drugs to curb the disease. The quinolones are a promising class of compounds, with some demonstrating potent in vitro activity against the malaria parasite. This review summarizes the progress made in the development of potential anti-malarial quinolones since 2008. The efficacy of these compounds against both asexual blood stages and other stages of the malaria parasite, the nature of putative targets, and a comparison of these properties with anti-malarial drugs currently in clinical use, are discussed.

  13. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    PubMed Central

    Runyoro, Deborah KB; Matee, Mecky IN; Ngassapa, Olipa D; Joseph, Cosam C; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Results Twenty- seven (48%) out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds. PMID:16571139

  14. Development of Individualized Anti-Metastasis Strategies by Engineering Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    He, Qianjun; Guo, Shengrong; Qian, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is deadly and also tough to treat as it is much more complicated than the primary tumour. Anti-metastasis approaches available so far are far from being optimal. A variety of nanomedicine formulas provide a plethora of opportunities for developing new strategies and means for tackling metastasis. It should be noted that individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines are different from common anti-cancer nanomedicines as they specifically target different populations of malignant cells. This review briefly introduces the features of the metastatic cascade, and proposes a series of nanomedicine-based anti-metastasis strategies aiming to block each metastatic step. Moreover, we also concisely introduce the advantages of several promising nanoparticle platforms and their potential for constructing state-of-the-art individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines. PMID:26056688

  15. Autologous anti-metatype immune response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Voss, E W; Moore, J K; Weidner-McGufficke, K M; Denzin, L K; Bedzyk, W D; Voss, V H

    1992-02-01

    Rabbits hyperimmunized with fluorescyl-conjugated KLH exhibited bound ligand associated with a high affinity circulating IgG anti-fluorescein population. After cessation of immunogen administration the liganded complexes were eventually spontaneously cleared from the circulation. Individual rabbits synthesized autologous anti-metatype antibodies specific for ligand-antibody complexes. Autologous anti-metatype antibodies reacted optimally with autologous liganded anti-fluorescein antibodies. However, cross reactivity was noted with allogenic rabbit liganded antibodies from three affinity-purified pools. An autologous anti-metatype response, reminiscent of autoanti-idiotype responses, has important implications concerning in vivo clearance of antigen-antibody complexes and may serve as a model to study immune complex diseases.

  16. Anti-melanin deposition activity of ceramicines from Chisocheton ceramicus.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Chie; Wong, Chin Piow; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Sotozono, Yayoi; Someya, Saki; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kaneda, Toshio; Hadi, A Hamid A; Morita, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    The ceramicines, a series of limonoids from Chisocheton ceramicus (Meliaceae), were evaluated for anti-melanin deposition activity on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-treated B16-F10 melanoma cell, and several ceramicines were found to be active. The structure-activity relationship of ceramicines as anti-melanin deposition inhibitors was deduced. Furthermore, the mechanism of anti-melanin deposition activity of ceramicine B, a major constituent of C. ceramicus that showed potent anti-melanin deposition activity, was investigated. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity and tyrosinase mRNA expression were not affected by ceramicine B. The anti-melanin deposition activity of ceramicine B was shown to be related to the downregulation of tyrosinase protein expression. These results suggest that ceramicines have potential to be used as depigmentation agents.

  17. Potential anti-inflammatory natural products from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds. These include polyphenols, sulfated polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactives. Consumption of these marine algae could provide defense against the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases. With further investigation, algal anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have the potential to be used as therapeutics or in the synthesis of structural analogs with profound anti-inflammatory activity with reduced side effects. The current review summarizes the latest knowledge about the potential anti-inflammatory compounds discovered from marine algae.

  18. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis misdiagnosed as Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli-Badenier, M; Biancheri, R; Morana, G; Fornarino, S; Siri, L; Celle, M E; Veneselli, E; Vincent, A; Gaggero, R; Mancardi, M M

    2014-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a well-defined autoimmune disorder. Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a still controversial entity, lacking definite diagnostic criteria. We described a 14-year-old-girl presenting with a clinical picture consistent with the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, confirmed by NMDAR antibody testing. Four years earlier, she had presented a similar episode of acute encephalopathy diagnosed as HE. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and HE share similar clinical features so that the differential diagnosis can be difficult if specific antibodies are not tested. The correct diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is crucial to plan the appropriate management and follow-up, namely in term of oncological screening, since it can be paraneoplastic in origin. We suggest to re-evaluate the clinical history of all subjects with previous HE diagnosis in order to evaluate the possible diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and plan the appropriate management of these patients.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  20. Lack of anti-tumor activity by anti-VEGF treatments in hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minsu; Choi, Jin-Young; Lim, Joon Seok; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Honsoul

    2016-04-01

    Recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have been described in the literature as a valid treatment option for symptomatic liver hemangiomas, but only limited evidence supports this notion. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether or not the administration of anti-VEGF agents can reliably achieve a size reduction in liver hemangiomas. We examined patients with incidental hemangiomas who received anti-angiogenic agents for the treatment of other malignancies. Our study population consisted of 17 colorectal cancer patients and one lung cancer patient carrying 21 hemangiomas who received bevacizumab, and seven renal cell carcinoma patients carrying nine hepatic hemangiomas who received sunitinib. We have measured the liver hemangioma volume on both the pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography images and then calculated the volume alteration rates. No statistically significant difference (P = 0.365) in the volume of the liver hemangiomas was observed before (1.1-168.8 cm(3); mean ± SD 19.8 ± 39.7 cm(3)) or after (1.2-163.6 cm(3); 19.3 ± 38.0 cm(3)) bevacizumab treatment. The volume reduction rate ranged from -35.0 to 11.2 % (mean ± SD -1.3 ± 10.8 %). The sunitinib treatment group also showed no statistically significant difference (P = 0.889) in hemangioma volume before (1.2-6.5 cm(3); 3.0 ± 1.8 cm(3)) or after (1.2-6.0 cm(3); 3.0-1.7 cm(3)) treatment. The volume reduction rate ranged from -13.3 to 7.7 % (median: mean ± SD -2.5 ± 6.6 %). We did not observe liver hemangioma shrinkage after bevacizumab or sunitinib treatment. Our data do not support the application of anti-VEGF agents for the treatment of hepatic hemangiomas.

  1. Recombinant anti-tenascin antibody constructs

    SciTech Connect

    ZALUTSKY, MICHAEL R

    2006-08-29

    The general objective of this research is to combine genetically derived molecular constructs reactive with tenascin, with appropriate radionuclides and labeling methods in order to generate more effective diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for oncologic nuclear medicine. Tenascin, a polymorphic extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is of interest because of its high expression on glioma, melanoma, as well as prostate and breast carcinoma. Recently, we have also documented high levels of tenascin in lymphomas, particularly those of higher grade, making the potential clinical impact of tenascin-specific radiodiagnostics and therapeutics even greater. An essential feature of our work plan is the ability to exploit our extensive clinical experience in order to design second-generation constructs with properties which could improve clinical efficacy. To date, we have treated over 150 brain tumor patients with 131I-labeled murine 81C6, an antibody which binds specifically to the alternatively spliced fibronectin type III repeats CD of the tenascin molecule. During the current grant period, we have made several observations which form the basis for our proposed specific aims. First, tissue distribution and catabolism experiments in animal models have demonstrated enhanced stability for a chimeric construct composed of murine variable regions and human IgG2 constant domains. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies in patients with 131I-labeled chimeric 81C6 have shown significantly longer retention in glioma tumor resection cavities compared with its murine parent. Second, we have initiated the first clinical trial of an endoradiotherapeutic labeled with the 7.2-hr -particle emitter 211At. Twelve glioma patients have received 211At-labeled chimeric 81C6 directly into their brain tumor resection cavity, and very encouraging results have been obtained. Now that the feasibility of human studies with 211At, has been demonstrated, the development and evaluation of anti

  2. Anti-tumoral, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic efficacy of a tetravalent bispecific antibody (TAvi6) targeting VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2

    PubMed Central

    Scheuer, Werner; Thomas, Markus; Hanke, Petra; Sam, Johannes; Osl, Franz; Weininger, Diana; Baehner, Monika; Seeber, Stefan; Kettenberger, Hubert; Schanzer, Jürgen; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Weidner, K. Michael; Regula, Jörg; Klein, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A blockade has been validated clinically as a treatment for human cancers. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a key regulator of blood vessel remodeling and maturation. In tumors, Ang-2 is up-regulated and an unfavorable prognostic factor. Recent data demonstrated that Ang-2 inhibition mediates anti-tumoral effects. We generated a tetravalent bispecific antibody (Ang-2-VEGF-TAvi6) targeting VEGF-A with 2 arms based on bevacizumab (Avastin®), and targeting Ang-2 with 2 arms based on a novel anti-Ang-2 antibody (LC06). The two Ang-2-targeting single-chain variable fragments are disulfide-stabilized and fused to the C-terminus of the heavy chain of bevacizumab. Treatment with Ang-2-VEGF-A-TAvi6 led to a complete abrogation of angiogenesis in the cornea micropocket assay. Metastatic spread and tumor growth of subcutaneous, orthotopic and anti-VEGF-A resistant tumors were also efficiently inhibited. These data further establish Ang-2-VEGF bispecific antibodies as a promising anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic and anti-tumor agent for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26864324

  3. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  4. 31 CFR 103.170 - Exempted anti-money laundering programs for certain financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempted anti-money laundering... TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.170 Exempted anti-money... establishment of anti-money laundering programs: (1) An agency of the United States Government, or of a State...

  5. Anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents: important targeted therapies of colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qing-Yang; Wei, Ye; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chang, Wen-Ju; Ye, Le-Chi; Zhu, De-Xiang; Xu, Jian-Min

    2014-04-21

    Colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) is common worldwide. Targeted therapies with monoclonal antibodies have been proven effective in numerous clinical trials, and are now becoming standards for patients with CLM. The development and application of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibodies represents significant advances in the treatment of this disease. However, new findings continue to emerge casting doubt on the efficacy of this approach. The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) has been proven to be a crucial predictor of the success of anti-EGFR treatment in CLM. Whereas a recent study summarized several randomized controlled trials, and showed that patients with the KRAS G13D mutation significantly benefited from the addition of cetuximab in terms of progress-free survival (PFS, 4.0 mo vs 1.9 mo, HR = 0.51, P = 0.004) and overall survival (OS, 7.6 mo vs 5.7 mo, HR = 0.50, P = 0.005). Some other studies also reported that the KRAS G13D mutation might not be absolutely predictive of non-responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy. At the same time, "new" RAS mutations, including mutations in neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS) and exons 3 and 4 of KRAS, have been suggested to be predictors of a poor treatment response. This finding was first reported by the update of the PRIME trial. The update showed that for patients with non-mutated KRAS exon 2 but other RAS mutations, panitumumab-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX)4 treatment led to inferior PFS (HR = 1.28, 95%CI: 0.79-2.07) and OS (HR = 1.29, 95%CI: 0.79-2.10), which was consistent with the findings in patients with KRAS mutations in exon 2. Then, the update of the PEAK trial and the FIRE-III trial also supported this finding, which would reduce candidates for anti-EGFR therapy but enhance the efficacy. In first-line targeted combination therapy, the regimens of cetuximab plus FOLFOX was called into

  6. Anti-matter propulsion: feasibility, status, and possible enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The possible use of advanced propulsion techniques must be considered if the currently envisioned launch date of the Manned Mars Mission were to be delayed until 2020 or later. Within the next 30 years, technological advances may allow such methods as beaming power to the ship, inertial-confinement fusion, or mass-conversion of anti-protons to become feasible. Of the possible methods, the anti-proton (anti p), reaction offers the highest potential, the greastest problems, and the most fascination. An Isp of 5000 s would allow the currently envisioned ship to fly to Mars in 3 months and would require about one million pounds to be assembled in Earth orbit. Anti-protons are currently being produced in the world in amounts of about 10/sup 14/ particles per year. With sufficient effort, almost a mg/yr (6 x 10/sup 20/) could be produced by the early 2000s. Current experiments plan to decelerate and capture about 10/sup 10/ or greater anti-protons in an electrostatic Penning trap. Such traps may provide a source of low energy anti p's for development of better storage mechanisms suitable for propulsion. Recently, proposals have been investigated which would amplify the average energy released per anti p used. The proposals entail using the anti p's to produce inertial confinement fusion of a capsule or to produce negative muons which can catalyze fusion. By increasing the energy released per anti p, the effective specific cost, $/joule, can be reduced to attractive levels. These two proposals and other areas of research can be investigated now and will help in assessing the feasibility of an anti p engine.

  7. Intestinal anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in potential coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Tosco, A; Aitoro, R; Auricchio, R; Ponticelli, D; Miele, E; Paparo, F; Greco, L; Troncone, R; Maglio, M

    2013-01-01

    Anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies are present in the serum of the great majority of untreated coeliac disease (CD) patients. They are produced and deposited in the small intestinal mucosa. Potential CD patients present serum anti-TG2 antibodies higher than cut-off, but a normal duodenal mucosa where mucosal deposits of anti-TG2 are not always detectable. The aim of our work was to investigate the presence of anti-TG2 intestinal antibodies in patients with potential CD, and identify the most sensitive test to detect them. Twelve active CD patients, 28 potential CD patients and 39 non-CD controls were enrolled. Biopsy fragments from all patients were analysed by double immunofluorescence to detect mucosal deposits of anti-TG2 antibodies. Fragments from the same subjects were also cultured for 24 h with medium in the presence or absence of gliadin peptides. Anti-TG2 autoantibodies secreted into supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All active CD, 68% of potential CD patients and 20% of non-CD controls showed mucosal deposits of immunoglobulin (Ig)A anti-TG2; at the same time 100, 96 and 8% of active CD, potential CD and non-CD control patients secreted these antibodies in culture supernatants, respectively. Our data showed that, to detect intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies, the measurement of antibodies secreted into culture supernatants has higher sensitivity and specificity (97·5 and 92·3%, respectively) than the detection of mucosal deposits (77·5 and 80·0%, respectively). The measurement of intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies may prove useful in clinical practice to predict evolution towards mucosal atrophy in potential coeliac patients and identify patients with gluten sensitivity.

  8. Anti-rheumatic drugs and cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P

    1988-08-01

    In this chapter an attempt has been made to draw together the known biology of cartilage and some of the mechanisms thought to be responsible for its failure in arthritis. The picture is far from complete but we are now in a good position to use this information to help appraise the pros and cons of the wide range of drugs now available to treat articular disorders. For convenience, these drugs were classified as NSAIDs, corticosteroids and chondroprotective agents. The influence of each of these classes on the metabolism of cartilage was examined in the light of published laboratory and clinical studies. It has been clearly shown that not all NSAIDs are the same. While many of the older drugs provided no benefit to cartilage metabolism, and in some instances suppressed it, the more recently discovered molecules appear to be free of these undesirable effects. Tiaprofenic acid, diclofenac and piroxicam emerged as drugs with little or no harmful effects on cartilage metabolism when used at concentrations within the human therapeutic range. For all NSAIDs, their potential effects on cartilage must be weighed against their respective anti-inflammatory potency, half-life, and effects on the gastric mucosa and other tissues. Other chapters in this book have addressed these important problems. The long-acting corticosteroids, betamethasone and triamcinolone hexacetonide, also appear to offer some benefit in the management of OA; however, as in RA, their use should be restricted to short-term applications. In terms of cartilage metabolism the chondroprotective agents pentosan polysulphate, Arteparon and Rumalon have been the most extensively studied class of drugs. While the laboratory studies have provided convincing evidence of their chondroprotective efficacy, it has been difficult to prove this clinically. This dichotomy of opinion (laboratory versus clinical) stems largely from the inadequacy of the methodologies currently available for the objective clinical

  9. Synthesis of modified steroids as a novel class of non-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Mohareb, Rafat M; Elmegeed, Gamal A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Doss, Senot H; William, Marian G

    2011-01-01

    The identification of compounds able to treat both pain and inflammation with limited side effects is one of the prominent goals in biomedical research. This study aimed at the synthesis of new modified steroids with structures justifying non-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. The steroid derivatives were synthesized via straightforward and efficient methods and their structures were established based on the analytical and spectral data. The in vivo anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities of some of these compounds were studied. The newly synthesized compounds 8b, 19b, 24 and 31a showed anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activity with various intensities. Oedema was significantly reduced by either dose 25 or 50 mg/kg of all tested compounds at 3 and 4 h post-carrageenan. Compound 19b was the most effective in alleviating thermal pain. The analgesic activity of either dose of the compounds 8b, 24, 31a as well as the high dose 19b was significantly higher than that for indomethacin (IND). Gastric mucosal lesions caused in the rats by the administration of 96% EtOH and IND were inhibited by all tested compounds administered at (50 mg/kg) dose in the study.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties of Spirulina platensis and Spirulina lonar: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Mohamed, Nor Azura; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Shamsuddin, Lokman; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian; Kadir, Arifah Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Spirulina spp. is a blue-green algae belongs to the family of Oscillatoriaceae, which having diverse biological activity. The aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Spirulina platensis/SP and Spirulina lonar/SL extracts. In the anti-pyretic study, the ability to reduce the rectal temperature of rats induced pyrexia with 2g/kg Brewer's Yeast (BY) was performed. Rats were dosed either 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. Rectal temperature was taken every hour for 8 hours. Results shown that there were significant dose-dependent (p<0.05) reduction of both treatments. However, SP treatment revealed faster reduction in rectal temperature. For anti-inflammatory activity, the reduction in the volume of paw edema induced by Prostaglandin E2 (100 IU/rat intraplantar) was measured. Rats were dosed orally with 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. The paw edema was measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours using plethysmometer. Results had shown a significant dose dependent reduction in diameter of paw edema (p<0.05). The finding suggests that SP and SL extracts have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, SP was found to be more effective than SL as anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  11. The Effect of Polyphenols Isolated from Cynanchi wilfordii Radix with Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-bacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sunyoung; Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Woo Jin; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Cynanchi wilfordii Radix has gained wide use in Asian countries as a functional food effective for relieving fatigue, osteoporosis, and constipation, particularly in menopausal disorders. However, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities have not been explored in detail to date. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties of the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts obtained with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone were compared. All 4 polyphenol-containing extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The ethanol extract was found to elicit the most potent reduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) levels, as well as inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The evaluation of antioxidant activity also revealed the ethanol extract to have the highest free radical scavenging activity, measured as 85.3±0.4%, which is equivalent to 99.9% of the activity of α -tocopherol. In the assessment of anti-bacterial activity, only ethanol extract was found to inhibit the growth of the Bacillus species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. These results show that polyphenols of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties that can be exploited and further improved for use as a supplementary functional food, in cosmetics, and for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:25729277

  12. Anti-TNF levels and anti-drug antibodies, immunosuppressants and clinical outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ha, Christina; Mathur, Jagrati; Kornbluth, Asher

    2015-04-01

    The anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) antibodies have revolutionized the management of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The development of assays to allow for the measurements of serum drug levels and anti-drug antibodies have provided a more objective means of therapeutic decision making, particularly among patients losing response to treatment. Additionally, more evidence is emerging that indicates the relationship between drug levels and response to therapy including clinical response, mucosal healing and sustained remission. The use of combination therapies of the anti-TNF agents and the thiopurine immunosuppressants may also decrease immunogenicity to the anti-TNF agents and potentiate response to therapy. With more evidence emerging evidence of the importance of therapeutic drug levels and anti-drug antibodies, clinicians may be able to better optimize the current arsenal of inflammatory bowel disease therapeutics to achieve greater rates of durable remission and improved quality of life.

  13. Gravitational anti-screening and binary galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Previously, in Penner (Astrophys. Space Sci. 361:124, 2016a; Astrophys. Space Sci. 361:361, 2016b), a theory of gravitational anti-screening was shown to lead naturally to the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. In addition, it was shown to agree with the observed rotational curve of the Galaxy, the observed features in the rotational curves of other spiral galaxies, with observations of the Coma cluster, and with a geometrically flat universe. In this paper the theory will now be applied to binary galaxies. It is shown that there is a relationship between the line-of-sight velocity difference of the pair and the individual rotational velocities of the galaxies. The resulting probability function for β, defined as the ratio of the line-of-sight velocity difference to the rotational velocity of the larger galaxy of the pair, is in excellent agreement with the observations taken by multiple researchers for the case of the binaries being on radial orbits.

  14. Anti-Trypanosomatid Activity of Ceragenins

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Diana; Feng, Yanshu; Bader, Julia; Savage, Paul B.; Maldonado, Rosa A.

    2010-01-01

    Cationic steroid antibiotics (CSAs), or ceragenins, are amphiphilic compounds consisting of cholic acid backbone that is attached to several cationic amines. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CSAs possess anti-parasitic activities with minimal to no effects on mammalian cells, and thus could be used as potential therapeutic agents against pathogenic trypanosomatids. To investigate this, we synthesized CSAs and determined their trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities in vitro. The 3 ceragenins, i.e., CSA-8, CSA-13, and CSA-54, assayed showed several degrees of parasiticidal activity. CSA-13 was the most effective compound against Leishmania major promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, LD50 4.9 and 9 μM, respectively. The trypanocidal activities of these ceragenins were also assessed by infectivity experiments. We found CSA-8 was more effective on T. cruzi intracellular amastigotes, when the infected host cells were treated during 24 hr (LD50 6.7 μM). Macrophages and LLC-MK2 (treated for 72 hr) showed relative low susceptibility to these compounds. Our results suggest that ceragenins are indeed promising chemotherapeutic agents against trypanosomatids, but require further investigation. PMID:19958044

  15. Anti-infective immunoadhesins from plants

    PubMed Central

    Wycoff, Keith; Maclean, James; Belle, Archana; Yu, Lloyd; Tran, Y; Roy, Chad; Hayden, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immunoadhesins are recombinant proteins that combine the ligand-binding region of a receptor or adhesion molecule with immunoglobulin constant domains. All FDA-approved immunoadhesins are designed to modulate the interaction of a human receptor with its normal ligand, such as Etanercept (Enbrel®), which interferes with the binding of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to the TNF-alpha receptor and is used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Like antibodies, immunoadhesins have long circulating half-lives, are readily purified by affinity-based methods and have the avidity advantages conferred by bivalency. Immunoadhesins that incorporate normal cellular receptors for viruses or bacterial toxins hold great, but as yet unrealized, potential for treating infectious disease. As decoy receptors, immunoadhesins have potential advantages over pathogen-targeted monoclonal antibodies. Planet Biotechnology has specialized in developing anti-infective immunoadhesins using plant expression systems. An immunoadhesin incorporating the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin, CMG2, potently blocks toxin activity in vitro and protects animals against inhalational anthrax. An immunoadhesin based on the receptor for human rhinovirus, ICAM-1, potently blocks infection of human cells by one of the major causes of the common cold. An immunoadhesin targeting the MERS coronavirus is in an early stage of development. We describe here the unique challenges involved in designing and developing immunoadhesins targeting infectious diseases in the hope of inspiring further research into this promising class of drugs. PMID:26242703

  16. Anti-human papillomavirus therapeutics: facts & future.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Alok C; Shukla, Shirish; Mahata, Sutapa; Hedau, Suresh; Das, Bhudev C

    2009-09-01

    Even after 25 years of establishing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative agent for cervical cancer, effective treatment of HPV infection still unavailable. Comprehensive efforts especially for targeting HPV infection have been made only in recent years. Conventional physical ablation of HPV-induced lesions such as cryo-therapy, photo-therapy, LEEP, laser cone-biopsy and localized radiotherapy are shown to be effective to some extent in treating localized lesions where the removal of diseased tissue is associated with removal of transforming keratinocytes harboring HPV. Apart from currently available prophylactic vaccines which prevent the viral entry and should be given prior to viral exposure, several attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines that could treat prevailing HPV infection. In addition, immunomodulators like interferons and imiquimod that have been shown to elicit cytokine milieu to enhance host immune response against HPV infection. Also, antiviral approaches such as RNA interference (RNAi) nucleotide analogs, antioxidants and herbal derivatives have shown effective therapeutic potential against HPV infection. These leads are being tested in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Present article provides a brief overview of conventional therapies for HPV-associated diseases. Potential of non-ablative anti-HPV treatment modalities that could prove useful for either elimination of HPV in early stages of infection when the virus is not integrated into the host cell genome or suppression of the expression of viral oncogenes that dys-regulate the host cell cycle following transformation is discussed.

  17. Hyaluronan: towards novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Karbownik, Michał S; Nowak, Jerzy Z

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the role of hyaluronan in physiology and various pathological conditions has changed since the complex nature of its synthesis, degradation and interactions with diverse binding proteins was revealed. Initially perceived only as an inert component of connective tissue, it is now known to be involved in multiple signaling pathways, including those involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Hyaluronan presents a mixture of various length polymer molecules from finely fragmented oligosaccharides, polymers intermediate in size, to huge aggregates of high molecular weight hyaluronan. While large molecules promote tissue integrity and quiescence, the generation of breakdown products enhances signaling transduction, contributing to the pro-oncogenic behavior of cancer cells. Low molecular weight hyaluronan has well-established angiogenic properties, while the smallest hyaluronan oligomers may counteract tumor development. These equivocal properties make the role of hyaluronan in cancer biology very complex. This review surveys recent data on hyaluronan biosynthesis, metabolism, and interactions with its binding proteins called hyaladherins (CD44, RHAMM), providing themolecular background underlying its differentiated biological activity. In particular, the article critically presents current ideas on actual role of hyaluronan in cancer. The paper additionally maps a path towards promising novel anti-cancer therapeutics which target hyaluronan metabolic enzymes and hyaladherins, and constitute hyaluronan-based drug delivery systems.

  18. Anti-infective immunoadhesins from plants.

    PubMed

    Wycoff, Keith; Maclean, James; Belle, Archana; Yu, Lloyd; Tran, Y; Roy, Chad; Hayden, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    Immunoadhesins are recombinant proteins that combine the ligand-binding region of a receptor or adhesion molecule with immunoglobulin constant domains. All FDA-approved immunoadhesins are designed to modulate the interaction of a human receptor with its normal ligand, such as Etanercept (Enbrel(®) ), which interferes with the binding of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to the TNF-alpha receptor and is used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Like antibodies, immunoadhesins have long circulating half-lives, are readily purified by affinity-based methods and have the avidity advantages conferred by bivalency. Immunoadhesins that incorporate normal cellular receptors for viruses or bacterial toxins hold great, but as yet unrealized, potential for treating infectious disease. As decoy receptors, immunoadhesins have potential advantages over pathogen-targeted monoclonal antibodies. Planet Biotechnology has specialized in developing anti-infective immunoadhesins using plant expression systems. An immunoadhesin incorporating the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin, CMG2, potently blocks toxin activity in vitro and protects animals against inhalational anthrax. An immunoadhesin based on the receptor for human rhinovirus, ICAM-1, potently blocks infection of human cells by one of the major causes of the common cold. An immunoadhesin targeting the MERS coronavirus is in an early stage of development. We describe here the unique challenges involved in designing and developing immunoadhesins targeting infectious diseases in the hope of inspiring further research into this promising class of drugs.

  19. Anti-Idling Battery for Truck Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kelly

    2011-09-30

    In accordance to the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001036, the objective of this project was to develop an advanced high voltage lithium-ion battery for use in an all-electric HVAC system for Class-7-8 heavy duty trucks. This system will help heavy duty truck drivers meet the tough new anti-idling laws being implemented by over 23 states. Quallion will be partnering with a major OEM supplier of HVAC systems to develop this system. The major OEM supplier will provide Quallion the necessary interface requirements and HVAC hardware to ensure successful testing of the all-electric system. At the end of the program, Quallion will deliver test data on three (3) batteries as well as test data for the prototype HVAC system. The objectives of the program are: (1) Battery Development - Objective 1 - Define battery and electronics specifications in preparation for building the prototype module. (Completed - summary included in report) and Objective 2 - Establish a functional prototype battery and characterize three batteries in-house. (Completed - photos and data included in report); (2) HVAC Development - Objective 1 - Collaborate with manufacturers to define HVAC components, layout, and electronics in preparation for establishing the prototype system. (Completed - photos and data included in report) and Objective 2 - Acquire components for three functional prototypes for use by Quallion. (Completed - photos and data included in report).

  20. Adolescent experiences of anti-obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    White, B; Jamieson, L; Clifford, S; Shield, J P H; Christie, D; Smith, F; Wong, I C K; Viner, R M

    2015-06-01

    Only two anti-obesity drugs (AODs) are frequently prescribed in paediatric obesity, orlistat and metformin. Meta-analyses show modest benefit in clinical trials, yet analyses of prescribing databases show high levels of discontinuation in routine clinical practice. Increased understanding of young people's experiences taking AOD could result in improved prescribing and outcomes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people aged 13-18 years and their parents from three specialist obesity clinics, analysed using a general thematic coding methodology. Theme saturation was achieved after interviews with 15 young people and 14 parents (13 parent-child dyads). Three models were developed. Model 1 explored factors influencing commencement of AOD. Six themes emerged: medication as a way out of obesity, enthusiasm and relief at the prospect of pharmaceutical treatment, last ditch attempt for some but not all, passive acceptance of medication, fear as a motivating factor, and unique treatments needed for unique individuals. Model 2 described the inter-relationship between dosing and side effects; side effects were a significant experience for many young people, and few adhered to prescribed regimens, independently changing lifestyle and dosage to tolerate medications. Model 3 described the patient-led decision process regarding drug continuation, influenced primarily by side effects and efficacy. Use of AODs is challenging for many adolescents. Multiple factors were identified that could be targeted to improve concordance and maximize efficacy.

  1. Antidepressant augmentation with anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Antidepressant augmentation strategies are commonly employed to treat depressed patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in depression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found effective in animal models of depression both in monotherapy and when used to augment antidepressant drugs. However, results with NSAIDs have been mixed in human observational studies, with both better and worse depression outcomes reported. Four small (pooled N = 160) randomized controlled trials suggest that celecoxib (200-400 mg/d) augmentation of antidepressant medication improves 4-6 week outcomes in major depressive disorder. There are no data, however, to support the use of celecoxib or other NSAIDs in antidepressant-resistant depression. There are also concerns about adverse events associated with NSAID treatment, and about pharmacodynamic drug interactions between these drugs and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A reasonable conclusion for the present is that NSAID augmentation of antidepressants is, at best, a tentative approach in nonrefractory major depression.

  2. An anti-glitch in a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Archibald, R F; Kaspi, V M; Ng, C-Y; Gourgouliatos, K N; Tsang, D; Scholz, P; Beardmore, A P; Gehrels, N; Kennea, J A

    2013-05-30

    Magnetars are neutron stars with X-ray and soft γ-ray outbursts thought to be powered by intense internal magnetic fields. Like conventional neutron stars in the form of radio pulsars, magnetars exhibit 'glitches' during which angular momentum is believed to be transferred between the solid outer crust and the superfluid component of the inner crust. The several hundred observed glitches in radio pulsars and magnetars have involved a sudden spin-up (increase in the angular velocity) of the star, presumably because the interior superfluid was rotating faster than the crust. Here we report X-ray timing observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 (ref. 8), which exhibited a clear 'anti-glitch'--a sudden spin-down. We show that this event, like some previous magnetar spin-up glitches, was accompanied by multiple X-ray radiative changes and a significant spin-down rate change. Such behaviour is not predicted by models of neutron star spin-down and, if of internal origin, is suggestive of differential rotation in the magnetar, supporting the need for a rethinking of glitch theory for all neutron stars.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Constituents from Bidens frondosa.

    PubMed

    Le, Jiamei; Lu, Wenquan; Xiong, Xiaojuan; Wu, Zhijun; Chen, Wansheng

    2015-10-09

    A new polyacetylene glucoside (3E,5E,11E)-tridecatriene-7,9-diyne-1,2,13-triol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), a new phenylpropanoid glucoside 2'-butoxyethylconiferin (2), and a new flavonoid glycoside 8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-(6''-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated from Bidens frondosa together with fifty-three known compounds 4-56. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. mainly ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1-34, 36, 39, 43, 47, 51, and 52 were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in 293-NF-κB-luciferase report cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 were tested for the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 in RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by LPS. In conclusion, the isolated compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 exhibited significant activity in anti-inflammatory activity assays.

  4. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies in neurological disorders: cross-reaction with anti-single stranded DNA activity.

    PubMed Central

    Colaço, C B; Scadding, G K; Lockhart, S

    1987-01-01

    Antiphospholipid (PL) antibodies have been detected in sera from patients with chronic neurological diseases associated with disorders of immunity. In an isotype specific radioimmunoassay for anti-cardiolipin (CL) antibodies, we found IgM anti-CL (greater than 2 s.d. above mean of controls) in 17/25 (68%) patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), 8/25 (32%) with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), 5/17 (29%) with multiple sclerosis and 3/11 (27%) cases of migraine. IgG anti-CL was only found in low titres in sera from 10 patients with MG and three with LEMS. Significant anti-CL activity could not be detected in sera from nine patients with acute Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), 12 chronic cases of epilepsy, 8/9 with oat cell carcinoma and 9/10 with acute stroke. Further tests on 39 sera with the highest anti-CL activity, from all of the above disease groups, showed a significant correlation between IgM anti-CL and IgM anti-ss DNA activities. In a series of competitive inhibition assays six sera from patients with MG were shown to have a proportion of both specific and cross-reactive IgM anti-CL and IgM anti-ss DNA antibodies. Anti-phospholipid antibodies occur in certain neurological diseases, at lower titres than seen in SLE, yet their cross-reactive binding to ss DNA suggests similar antibacterial origins as have been proposed for lupus auto-antibodies. In the absence of overt infection they might reflect a breakdown of tolerance for non-organ specific membrane antigens in diseases with predominantly organ specific membrane bound putative autoimmunogens. PMID:3498571

  5. Non-tumor-Associated Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Encephalitis in Chinese Girls With Positive Anti-thyroid Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenjuan; Fu, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Hui; Jing, Lijun; Lu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Jia, Yanjie

    2015-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a new category of autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. The disease was first described in 2007, and it predominantly affects young women with or without ovarian teratomas. Most patients typically present with seizures, a decreased consciousness level, dyskinesia, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies in non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis was first described in 2010. Additionally, anti-thyroid antibodies were found in teratoma-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report the cases of 3 Chinese girls with non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with positive anti-thyroid antibodies. We followed up the details of their titers and suggest that anti-thyroid antibodies were an indicator of autoimmune predisposition in the development of non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

  6. Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitors Promote Macrophage Anti-Infective Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Donato, Nicholas J.; Wobus, Christiane E.; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

    2014-01-01

    The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity. PMID:25093325

  7. Small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitors promote macrophage anti-infective capacity.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J; Showalter, Hollis D; Donato, Nicholas J; Wobus, Christiane E; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2014-01-01

    The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity.

  8. The promising alliance of anti-cancer electrochemotherapy with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Christophe Y; Mir, Lluis M

    2016-06-01

    Anti-tumor electrochemotherapy, which consists in increasing anti-cancer drug uptake by means of electroporation, is now implanted in about 140 cancer treatment centers in Europe. Its use is supported by the English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the palliative treatment of skin metastases, and about 13,000 cancer patients were treated by this technology by the end of 2015. Efforts are now focused on turning this local anti-tumor treatment into a systemic one. Electrogenetherapy, that is the electroporation-mediated transfer of therapeutic genes, is currently under clinical evaluation and has brought excitement to enlarge the anti-cancer armamentarium. Among the promising electrogenetherapy strategies, DNA vaccination and cytokine-based immunotherapy aim at stimulating anti-tumor immunity. We review here the interests and state of development of both electrochemotherapy and electrogenetherapy. We then emphasize the potent beneficial outcome of the combination of electrochemotherapy with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors or strategies based on electrogenetherapy, to simultaneously achieve excellent local debulking anti-tumor responses and systemic anti-metastatic effects.

  9. Evidences for anti-mycobacterium activities of lipids and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Afzal; Singh, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most widespread and deadly airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two-pronged lethal effect on the bacteria using lipids/surfactants and anti-tubercular drugs may render the miniaturization of dose owing to synergistic and tandem effect of both. The current research has been focused on screening and evaluating various lipids/surfactants possessing inherent anti-mycobacterium activity that can ferry the anti-tubercular drugs. In vitro anti-mycobacterium activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, time-concentration dependent killing and DNA/RNA content release studies were performed to correlate the findings. The exact mechanism of bacterial killing was further elucidated by electron/atomic force microscopy studies. Finally, to negate any toxicity, in vitro hemolysis and toxicity studies were performed. The study revealed that capmul MCM C-8, labrasol and acconon C-80 possessed highest in vitro anti-mycobacterium activity. Electron/atomic force microscopy results confirmed in vitro studies and verified the killing of Mycobacterium owing to the release of cytoplasmic content after cell wall fragmentation and disruption. Moreover, the least hemolysis and hundred percent survivals rate of mice using the excipients demonstrated the safety aspects of explored excipients that can ferry the anti-tubercular drugs. The present study concluded the safe, efficient and synergistic activity of the explored excipients and anti-tubercular drugs in controlling the menace of tuberculosis.

  10. Anti-PEG immunity: emergence, characteristics, and unaddressed questions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    The modification of protein and nanoparticle therapeutics with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a flexible, uncharged, and highly hydrophilic polymer, is a widely adopted approach to reduce RES clearance, extend circulation time, and improve drug efficacy. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature, generated by numerous research groups, demonstrates that the immune system can produce antibodies that specifically bind PEG, which can lead to the 'accelerated blood clearance' of PEGylated therapeutics. In animals, anti-PEG immunity is typically robust but short-lived and consists of a predominantly anti-PEG IgM response. Rodent studies suggest that the induction of anti-PEG antibodies (α-PEG Abs) primarily occurs through a type 2 T-cell independent mechanism. Although anti-PEG immunity is less well-studied in humans, the presence of α-PEG Abs has been correlated with reduced efficacy of PEGylated therapeutics in clinical trials. The prevalence of anti-PEG IgG and reports of memory immune responses, as well as the existence of α-PEG Abs in healthy untreated individuals, suggests that the mechanism(s) and features of human anti-PEG immune responses may differ from those of animal models. Many questions, including the incidence rate of pre-existing α-PEG Abs and immunological mechanism(s) of α-PEG Ab formation in humans, must be answered in order to fully address the potential complications of anti-PEG immunity.

  11. Anti-PEG immunity: emergence, characteristics, and unaddressed questions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Lai, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    The modification of protein and nanoparticle therapeutics with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a flexible, uncharged and highly hydrophilic polymer, is a widely adopted approach to reduce RES clearance, extend circulation time, and improve drug efficacy. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature, generated by numerous research groups, demonstrates that the immune system can produce antibodies that specifically bind PEG, which can lead to the “accelerated blood clearance” of PEGylated therapeutics. In animals, anti-PEG immunity is typically robust but short-lived and consists of a predominantly anti-PEG IgM response. Rodent studies suggest that the induction of anti-PEG antibodies (α-PEG Abs) primarily occurs through a type 2 T-cell independent mechanism. Although anti-PEG immunity is less well-studied in humans, the presence of α-PEG Abs has been correlated with reduced efficacy of PEGylated therapeutics in clinical trials. The prevalence of anti-PEG IgG and reports of memory immune responses, as well as the existence of α-PEG Abs in healthy untreated individuals, suggests that the mechanism(s) and features of human anti-PEG immune responses may differ from those of animal models. Many questions, including the incidence rate of pre-existing α-PEG Abs and immunological mechanism(s) of α-PEG Ab formation in humans, must be answered in order to fully address the potential complications of anti-PEG immunity. PMID:25707913

  12. Severe asthma: anti-IgE or anti-IL-5?

    PubMed Central

    Papathanassiou, Evgenia; Loukides, Stelios; Bakakos, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Severe asthma is a discrete clinical entity characterised by recurrent exacerbations, reduced quality of life and poor asthma control as ordinary treatment regimens remain inadequate. Difficulty in managing severe asthma derives partly from the multiple existing phenotypes and our inability to recognise them. Though the exact pathogenetic pathway of severe allergic asthma remains unclear, it is known that numerous inflammatory cells and cytokines are involved, and eosinophils represent a key inflammatory cell mediator. Anti-IgE (omalizumab) and anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) antibodies are biological agents that interfere in different steps of the Th2 inflammatory cascade and are licensed in severe asthma. Both exhibit a favourable clinical outcome as they reduce exacerbation rate and improve asthma control and quality of life, while mepolizumab also induces an oral steroid sparing effect. Nevertheless, it is still questionable which agent is more suitable in the management of severe allergic asthma since no comparable studies have been conducted. Omalizumab's established effectiveness in clinical practice over a long period is complemented by a beneficial effect on airway remodelling process mediated mainly through its impact on eosinophils and other parameters strongly related to eosinophilic inflammation. However, it is possible that mepolizumab through nearly depleting eosinophils could have a similar effect on airway remodelling. Moreover, to date, markers indicative of the patient population responding to each treatment are unavailable although baseline eosinophils and exacerbation rate in the previous year demonstrate a predictive value regarding anti-IL-5 therapy effectiveness. On the other hand, a better therapeutic response for omalizumab has been observed when low forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and increased IgE concentrations are present. Consequently, conclusions are not yet safe to be drawn based on existing knowledge

  13. Anti-ganglioside anti-idiotypic vaccination: more than molecular mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ana M. H.; Rodrèguez-Zhurbenko, Nely; López, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment, but the effectiveness of these treatments has reached a plateau. Thus, other strategies are being explored to combine with the current treatment paradigms in order to reach better clinical results. One of these approaches is the active immunotherapy based on the induction of anti-tumor responses by anti-idiotypic vaccination. This approach arose from Jerne’s idiotypic network theory, which postulates that B lymphocytes forms a functional network, with a role in the establishment of the immune repertoires, in the regulation of natural antibody production and even in the establishment of natural tolerance. Due to the large potential diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotypes repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes, even those of non-protein nature, like gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids that have been considered attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy, based on the qualitative and quantitative changes they suffer during malignant transformation and due to their importance for tumor biology. Although any idiotype could be able to mimic any antigen, only those related to antigens involved in functions relevant for organism homeostasis, and that in consequence has been fixed by evolution, would be able not only to mimic, but also to activate the idiotypic cascades related with the nominal antigen. The present review updates the results, failures and hopes, obtained with ganglioside mimicking anti-idiotypic antibodies and presents evidences of the existence of a natural response against gangliosides, suggesting that these glycolipids could be idiotypically relevant antigens. PMID:23181219

  14. Pilot Fullerton dons EES anti-gravity suit lower torso on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit lower torso on forward port side middeck above potable water tank. Anti-g suit is an olive drab inner garment that complements EES.

  15. The Clinical Relevance of Anti-DFS70 Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Karsten; Röber, Nadja; Andrade, Luis E C; Mahler, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite all the progress in the establishment of specific autoantibody assays, screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells for quality-oriented laboratory diagnosis of ANA associated rheumatic diseases (AARD) remains indispensable but is not without limitations. Recent data on the relevance of the dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern and anti-DFS70 antibodies disclosed novel possibilities to optimize the serological stepwise diagnostics of AARD. The DFS pattern on HEp-2 cells is well differentiated from the classic "homogeneous" ANA pattern associated with dsDNA antibodies. This is the most frequent pattern in high titer ANA-positive healthy persons. The most characteristic ANA specificity associated with DFS pattern is the anti-DFS70 antibody (synonym LEDGF antibody). The prevalence of anti-DFS70 antibodies in AARD patients is significantly lower compared with the prevalence in ANA-positive healthy persons. There is a negative association between anti-DFS70 antibodies and AARD, especially if no concomitant AARD-specific autoantibodies are found. Isolated anti-DFS70 antibodies are detectable in less than 1 % of AARD but are detectable in 2-22 % of healthy persons. In the presence of an isolated anti-DFS70 antibody, the posttest probability for AARD is reduced significantly. The significance of anti-DFS70 antibodies as a criterion that helps to exclude AARD is also confirmed by follow-up studies on anti-DFS70 antibodies of positive, healthy individuals, who did not develop any AARD during a 4 year observation period. Consequently, anti-DFS70 antibodies are valuable novel biomarkers for better interpretation of positive ANA in cases of negative AARD-associated autoantibodies and should be integrated in modified test algorithms to avoid unnecessary referrals and examinations of ANA-positive persons.

  16. Thermometry of plasmonic nanostructures by anti-S tokes electronic Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xu; Cahill, David G.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of temperature of optically excited plasmonic nanostructures are needed to evaluate their functionality and thermal stability. Here, we describe a simple, accurate, and non-invasive thermometry based on anti-Stokes electronic Raman scattering. We validate the approach using an array of uniformly heated Au nanodisks and perform experiments on the heating of individual nanodisk by a focused laser beam. The steady-state temperature rise of an individual nanodisk has comparable contributions from the thermal conductance of the Au/quartz interface and heat spreading in the quartz substrate. The temperature measurements have an accuracy of 3% of the absolute temperature in the range of temperatures 300 < T < 700 K.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of the wild edible cruciferous: Diplotaxis simplex.

    PubMed

    Jdir, Hamida; Khemakham, Bassem; Najjaa, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Jridi, Mourad; Ben Arfa, Abdelkarim; Ben Ali, Yassine; Zouari, Nacim

    2016-10-01

    Context The present study deals with new biological properties of the wild edible Diplotaxis simplex (Viv.) Spreng (Brassicaceae). Objectives The current study evaluates the antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory and the anti-cancer properties of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from D. simplex flowers. Materials and methods The anti-proliferative activity of the extracts (10-70 μg/mL) was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of the extracts (1.5-7.5 mg/mL) on phospholipase A2 activity as well as on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Extracts (200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (50 mg/kg) as positive control were injected intraperitoneally for albino mice prior to the induction of the oedema by carrageenan. Antioxidant activities were investigated using various complementary methods. Results Flower extracts contained a high level of polyphenolics (17.10-52.70 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (74.20-100.60 mg QE/g), which correlate with its appreciable antioxidant potential in β-carotene peroxidation (IC50 value: 12.50-27.10 μg/mL), DPPH(•) radical-scavenging (IC50 value: 0.20-0.40 mg/mL), Fe(3+ )reducing (EC50 value: 0.10-0.14 mg/mL) and Fe(2+ )chelating (IC50 value: 0.20-0.60 mg/mL) assays. These extracts were effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth (IC50 value: 62.0-63.25 μg/mL). Besides, the ethyl acetate extract inhibited phospholipase A2 activity (IC50 value: 2.97 mg/mL) and reduced the paw oedema in mice (from 0.38 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 cm), 4 h post-carrageenan challenge. Conclusion These data suggest that D. simplex may be useful as a candidate in the treatment of inflammation and the colon cancer.

  18. Regioselective synthesis of phenanthrenes and evaluation of their anti-oxidant based anti-inflammatory potential.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Yogesh; Basha, Khalander; Duche, Sharad; Gupte, Rajan; Kapat, Arnab

    2013-09-01

    Regioselective synthesis of 9,10-dihydro-2,5-dimethoxyphenanthrene-1,7-diol (1) and 9,10-dihydro-2,7-dimethoxyphenanthrene-1,5-diol (2) was achieved using regioselective methylation, Wittig reaction, intramolecular cyclization and hydrogenation as key steps. The synthesis was successfully completed in total of 15 steps with 3.3% overall yield in case of 1 and in total of 13 steps with 9.0% overall yield in case of 2. All compounds (1-4) showed good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays and these activities were found to be due the presence of phenolic hydroxyl groups.

  19. The World Anti-Doping Code in sport

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Some athletes cheat by using drugs or medical methods such as transfusion to enhance their performance. However, this may put their health at risk. The World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits certain methods and drugs that may enhance performance, harm the athlete or violate the spirit of sport. Some may be banned only during competitions, but others are banned at all times. Prohibited substances include over-the-counter and prescription medicines. It is therefore important for athletes and health professionals to check what is permitted. There are many resources available through organisations such as the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:26648655

  20. The anti-implantation action of tamoxifen in mice.

    PubMed

    Pugh, D M; Sumano, H S

    1982-01-01

    The process of implantation of the blastocyst in utero in the mouse is normally triggered by oestradiol-17 beta. It can, however, be prevented by the drug tamoxifen whose actions in other species are classified as anti-oestrogenic, but which the mouse is held to be a weak oestrogen. Results are presented which support the claim that the anti-implantation action of tamoxifen is dose dependent, oestrogenicity dominating at high doses and anti-oestrogenicity being of major importance at lower doses.

  1. Anti-HIV activity of some synthetic lignanolides and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Rocío; Medarde, Manuel; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Madrigal, Blanca M; Alcamí, José; Muñoz, Eduardo; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2004-09-06

    The evaluation of the anti-HIV-1 activity of synthetic lignanolides and their intermediates is reported. The antiviral activity was studied through luciferase-based assays targeting the HIV-1 promoter activation induced by either, the HIV-1 Tat protein or the cellular transcription factor NF-kappaB, both known as crucial factors in HIV-1 replication. Among the compounds tested, three of them 2, 4 and 13 were further analysed for their anti-HIV-1 activity by recombinant virus assays, showing a suitable profile for development of novel anti-HIV-1 drugs.

  2. Tobacco socialization and anti-tobacco ad effectiveness among children.

    PubMed

    Khalbous, Slim; Bouslama, Heifa

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent smoking onset among children, it is essential to know the process of smoking socialization and its various dimensions before being able to design any effective anti-tobacco advertisements. This research aims to conceptualize this process and to test the effectiveness of certain styles of anti-tobacco advertising addressed to children. The results show that both attitudinal and behavioral smoking socialization influence anti-tobacco advertisements effectiveness and that the least offensive and humoristic are most effective in Tunisia.

  3. Plants of Zimbabwe used as anti-fertility agents.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R

    2010-04-03

    Ethnomedicine has gained a lot of recognition in post-independence Zimbabwe and yet little research on anti-fertility medicines has been done. Information on plants used as anti-fertility medicines was obtained by interviewing women, men, traditional healers and traditional midwives in urban Harare and surrounding rural areas of Mvurwi, Seke and Chiweshe. The use of 31 species belonging to 17 families for antifertility purposes is described. This survey forms a basis to initiate a study into the efficacy and toxicology of plants used by Zimbabwean women as traditional anti-fertility medicines.

  4. [Nitric oxide and anti-protozoan chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gradoni, L; Ascenzi, P

    2004-06-01

    Constitutive nitric oxide (NO) is generated by constitutively expressed types of NO-synthase enzymes (NOS-I and -III), being involved in physiological processes such as nervous transmission and vasodilatation. Inducible NO, synthesized by the NO-synthase isoform NOS-II, is an anti-pathogen and tumoricidal agent. However, inducible NO production requires a tight control because of cytotoxic and immune-modulation activity. NO produced by human and canine macrophages has long been demonstrated to be involved in the intracellular killing of Leishmania. Mechanisms of parasite survival and persistence in the host have been throughly investigated, and include suppression of NOS-II and the parasite entry into NOS-II negative cells. Both intracellular and extracellular morphotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi are killed by NO in vitro and in vivo, although a role of NO in the pathogenesis of heart disease has been reported. Killing of extracellular protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Naegleria fowleri by activated macrophages is also mediated by NO. The main control of Plasmodium spp infection in human and murine hepatocytes, and in human monocytes is achieved by NO-mediated mechanisms. Protection from severe malaria in African children has been found associated with polymorphisms of the NOS-II promoter; however, a pathogenic role of endogenous NO has been documented in cerebral malaria. Although several macromolecules are putative NO targets, recent experimental work has shown that NO-releasing compounds inhibit cysteine proteases (CP) of P. falciparum, T. cruzi and L. infantum in a dose-dependent manner. CPs are present in a wide range of parasitic protozoa and appear to be relevant in several aspects of the life cycle and of the parasite-host relationships. Comparative analysis of 3-D amino acid sequence models of CPs from a broad range of living organisms, from viruses to mammals, suggests that the Sy atom of the Cys catalytic residue undergoes NO-dependent chemical

  5. Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids: changing concepts.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert

    2014-02-05

    Despite being the most effective anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) effect repression of inflammatory gene expression remain incompletely understood. Direct interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) with inflammatory transcription factors to repress transcriptional activity, i.e. transrepression, represents one mechanism of action. However, transcriptional activation, or transactivation, by NR3C1 also represents an important mechanism of glucocorticoid action. Glucocorticoids rapidly and profoundly increase expression of multiple genes, many with properties consistent with the repression of inflammatory gene expression. For example: the dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP1, reduces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases; glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (TSC22D3) represses nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional responses; inhibitor of κBα (NFKBIA) inhibits NF-κB; tristraprolin (ZFP36) destabilises and translationally represses inflammatory mRNAs; CDKN1C, a cell cycle regulator, may attenuate JUN N-terminal kinase signalling; and regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2), by reducing signalling from Gαq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is bronchoprotective. While glucocorticoid-dependent transrepression can co-exist with transactivation, transactivation may account for the greatest level and most potent repression of inflammatory genes. Equally, NR3C1 transactivation is enhanced by β2-adrenoceptor agonists and may explain the enhanced clinical efficacy of β2-adrenoceptor/glucocorticoid combination therapies in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, NR3C1 transactivation is reduced by inflammatory stimuli, including respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus. This provides an explanation for glucocorticoid resistance. Continuing efforts to understand roles for glucocorticoid

  6. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  7. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Nagarkatti, Prakash; Pandey, Rupal; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Hegde, Venkatesh L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2009-10-01

    Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors. The discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the major psychoactive principle in marijuana, as well as the identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, has led to a significant growth in research aimed at understanding the physiological functions of cannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors include CB1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, and CB2, which is primarily found on the cells of the immune system. The fact that both CB1 and CB2 receptors have been found on immune cells suggests that cannabinoids play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Recent studies demonstrated that administration of THC into mice triggered marked apoptosis in T cells and dendritic cells, resulting in immunosuppression. In addition, several studies showed that cannabinoids downregulate cytokine and chemokine production and, in some models, upregulate T-regulatory cells (Tregs) as a mechanism to suppress inflammatory responses. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in immunoregulation. For example, administration of endocannabinoids or use of inhibitors of enzymes that break down the endocannabinoids, led to immunosuppression and recovery from immune-mediated injury to organs such as the liver. Manipulation of endocannabinoids and/or use of exogenous cannabinoids in vivo can constitute a potent treatment modality against inflammatory disorders. This review will focus on the potential use of cannabinoids as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents against a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are primarily triggered by activated T cells or other cellular immune components.

  8. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  9. Measurement of anti-TNF agents and anti-drug antibodies serum levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Iván; Chaparro, María; Bermejo, Fernando; Gisbert, Javier P

    2014-01-01

    Despite its undoubted benefit in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, anti-TNF therapy has some limitations including the lack of primary response and the loss of response to treatment in some patients. An empirical approach to these problems is frequently used based on clinical outcome. The measurement of anti-TNF drug serum levels and anti-drug antibodies (ADAb) levels has been proposed for improving the management of anti-TNF drugs. Although their role in routine clinical practice has not been clearly defined, current data support their relationship with clinical outcomes and suggest their clinical utility primarily in patients with loss of response to anti-TNF agents. The presence of pre-existing ADAb before starting the anti-TNF therapy has recently been described. Transient ADAb, non-neutralizing ADAb and some cut-offs points have been proposed, extending the knowledge about this topic. A standardized and widely available test with cut-off points for each anti-TNF agent and the definition of the most appropriate actions to be taken given the serum concentration of the drugs and ADAb are needed before recommending their routine use.

  10. Anti inflammatory and anti angiogenic effect of black raspberry extract on human esophageal and intestinal microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Medda, Rituparna; Lyros, Orestis; Schmidt, Jamie L.; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Nie, Linghui; Link, Benjamin J.; Otterson, Mary F.; Stoner, Gary D.; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoid glycosides) in berries prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in rat’s digestive tract and esophagus, in part, via anti-inflammatory pathways. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of black raspberry extract (BRE) on two organ specific primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells, (HIMEC) and human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC), isolated from surgically resected human intestinal and donor discarded esophagus, respectively. HEMEC and HIMEC were stimulated with TNF-α/IL-1β with or without BRE. The anti-inflammatory effects of BRE were assessed based upon COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression, PGE2 production, NFκB p65 subunit nuclear translocation as well as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion. The anti-angiogenic effects of BRE were assessed on cell migration, proliferation and tube formation following VEGF stimulation as well as on activation of Akt, MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. BRE inhibited TNF-α/IL-1β-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation, PGE2 production, up-regulation of COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression and leukocyte binding in HEMEC but not in HIMEC. BRE attenuated VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in both HEMEC and HIMEC. The anti-angiogenic effect of BRE is mediated by inhibition of Akt, MAPK and JNK phosphorylations. BRE exerted differential anti-inflammatory effects between HEMEC and HIMEC following TNF-α/IL-1β activation whereas demonstrated similar anti-angiogenic effects following VEGF stimulation in both cell lines. These findings may provide more insight into the anti-tumorigenic capacities of BRE in human disease and cancer. PMID:25446010

  11. Screening and evaluation of commonly-used anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines based on anti-neuraminidase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Guo, Yu-Ming; Feng, Wu-Wen; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Cong-En; Zhou, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines (anti-flu CHMs) have advantages in preventing and treating influenza virus infection. Despite various data on antiviral activities of some anti-flu CHMs have been reported, most of them could not be compared using the standard evaluation methods for antiviral activity. This situation poses an obstacle to a wide application of anti-flu CHMs. Thus, it was necessary to develop an evaluation method to estimate antiviral activities of anti-flu CHMs. In the present study, we searched for anti-flu CHMs, based on clinic usage, to select study objects from commonly-used patented anti-flu Chinese medicines. Then, a neuraminidase-based bioassay, optimized and verified by HPLC method by our research group, was adopted to detect antiviral activities of selected 26 anti-flu CHMs. Finally, eight of these herbs, including Coptidis Rhizoma, Isatidis Folium, Lonicerae Flos, Scutellaria Radix, Cyrtomium Rhizome, Houttuynia Cordata, Gardeniae Fructus, and Chrysanthemi Indici Flos, were shown to have strong antiviral activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values being 2.02 to 6.78 mg·mL(-1) (expressed as raw materials). In contrast, the IC50 value of positive control peramivir was 0.38 mg·mL(-1). Considering the extract yields of CHMs, the active component in these herbs may have a stronger antiviral activity than peramivir, suggesting that these herbs could be further researched for active compounds. Moreover, the proposed neuraminidase-based bioassay was high-throughput and simple and could be used for evaluation and screening of anti-flu CHMs as well as for their quality control.

  12. Anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Tricholoma matsutake

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Hongqing; Ma, Binxiang; Xu, Ting; Li, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many more fungal polysaccharides have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including anti-tumor, immunostimulation, anti-oxidation, and so on. The non-starch polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive natural products. Objective: To investigate the anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide (TMP-A) isolated from Tricholoma matsutake. Materials and Methods: The anti-microorganism activity of purified polysaccharides (TMP-A) was evaluated by the inhibition zone diameter, the anti-tumor activity was evaluated by the S180 tumor cells that were implanted subcutaneously into the Kunming strain male mice in vivo, and the immune activity was evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage stimulation, respectively. Results: In this study, the most susceptible bacteria of TMP-A at a concentration of 20 mg/ml was Micrococcus lysodeikticus (inhibition zone diameter 24.38 ± 1.19 mm) and the TMP-A did not show any antifungal activity for the tested stains of the fungi. In addition, the inhibitory rate in mice treated with 80 mg/kg TMP-A could reach 68.422%, being the highest in the three doses, which might be comparable to mannatide. The anti-tumor activity of the TMP-A was usually believed to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, because it could significantly promote the lymphocyte and macrophage cells in the dose range of 50–200 μg/mL and in the dose range of 100 – 400 μg/mL in vitro, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the purification polysaccharide of Tricholoma matsutake is a potential source of natural broad-spectrum, anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immunomodulation. PMID:23930009

  13. Anti inflammatory and anti angiogenic effect of black raspberry extract on human esophageal and intestinal microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Medda, Rituparna; Lyros, Orestis; Schmidt, Jamie L; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Nie, Linghui; Link, Benjamin J; Otterson, Mary F; Stoner, Gary D; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoid glycosides) in berries prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in rat's digestive tract and esophagus, in part, via anti-inflammatory pathways. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of black raspberry extract (BRE) on two organ specific primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells, (HIMEC) and human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC), isolated from surgically resected human intestinal and donor discarded esophagus, respectively. HEMEC and HIMEC were stimulated with TNF-α/IL-1β with or without BRE. The anti-inflammatory effects of BRE were assessed based upon COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression, PGE2 production, NFκB p65 subunit nuclear translocation as well as endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion. The anti-angiogenic effects of BRE were assessed on cell migration, proliferation and tube formation following VEGF stimulation as well as on activation of Akt, MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. BRE inhibited TNF-α/IL-1β-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation, PGE2 production, up-regulation of COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression and leukocyte binding in HEMEC but not in HIMEC. BRE attenuated VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in both HEMEC and HIMEC. The anti-angiogenic effect of BRE is mediated by inhibition of Akt, MAPK and JNK phosphorylations. BRE exerted differential anti-inflammatory effects between HEMEC and HIMEC following TNF-α/IL-1β activation whereas demonstrated similar anti-angiogenic effects following VEGF stimulation in both cell lines. These findings may provide more insight into the anti-tumorigenic capacities of BRE in human disease and cancer.

  14. Nifuroxazide exerts potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Yu, Xi; Lei, Qian; Yang, Fangfang; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Deng, Hongxia; Gao, Tiantao; Peng, Cuiting; Zuo, Weiqiong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Lidan; Wang, Ningyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Luoting; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-02-02

    Melanoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of melanocytes with considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway plays an important role in melanoma and has been validated as promising anticancer target for melanoma therapy. In this study, nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3, was evaluated for its anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo. It had potent anti-proliferative activity against various melanoma cell lines and could induce G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Src, phosphorylated-FAK, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vimentin. It also significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects in the A375-bearing mice model by inducing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation and metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide significantly inhibited pulmonary metastases, which might be associated with the decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These findings suggested that nifuroxazide might be a potential agent for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of melanoma.

  15. Nifuroxazide exerts potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Yu, Xi; Lei, Qian; Yang, Fangfang; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Deng, Hongxia; Gao, Tiantao; Peng, Cuiting; Zuo, Weiqiong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Lidan; Wang, Ningyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Luoting; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of melanocytes with considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway plays an important role in melanoma and has been validated as promising anticancer target for melanoma therapy. In this study, nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3, was evaluated for its anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo. It had potent anti-proliferative activity against various melanoma cell lines and could induce G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Src, phosphorylated-FAK, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vimentin. It also significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects in the A375-bearing mice model by inducing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation and metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide significantly inhibited pulmonary metastases, which might be associated with the decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These findings suggested that nifuroxazide might be a potential agent for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of melanoma. PMID:26830149

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-cholinesterase, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Culinary Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Im, Kyung Hoan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Shin, Pyung Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor. It also exhibited protective effect against cytotoxicity to PC-12 cells induced by glutamate (10~100 µg/mL), inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the ME of P. pulmonarius contained at least 10 phenolic compounds and some of them were identified by the comparison with known standard phenolics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius possess antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities. PMID:28154487

  17. Ultra rapid in vivo screening for anti-Alzheimer anti-amyloid drugs

    PubMed Central

    Espargaró, Alba; Medina, Aina; Di Pietro, Ornella; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego; Sabate, Raimon

    2016-01-01

    More than 46 million people worldwide suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. A large number of potential treatments have been proposed; among these, the inhibition of the aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), considered one of the main culprits in Alzheimer’s disease. Limitations in monitoring the aggregation of Aβ in cells and tissues restrict the screening of anti-amyloid drugs to in vitro studies in most cases. We have developed a simple but powerful method to track Aβ aggregation in vivo in real-time, using bacteria as in vivo amyloid reservoir. We use the specific amyloid dye Thioflavin-S (Th-S) to stain bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs), in this case mainly formed of Aβ in amyloid conformation. Th-S binding to amyloids leads to an increment of fluorescence that can be monitored. The quantification of the Th-S fluorescence along the time allows tracking Aβ aggregation and the effect of potential anti-aggregating agents. PMID:27000658

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Properties of Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Kawser Hossain, Mohammed; Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Han, Jihae; Yin, Yingfu; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kumar Saha, Subbroto; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Choi, Hye Yeon; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are the most prevailing health concerns worldwide and their incidence is increasing at a high rate, resulting in enormous social costs. Obesity is a complex disease commonly accompanied by insulin resistance and increases in oxidative stress and inflammatory marker expression, leading to augmented fat mass in the body. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells or diminished insulin secretion and action insulin. Obesity causes the development of metabolic disorders such as DM, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation-based pathologies. Flavonoids are the secondary metabolites of plants and have 15-carbon skeleton structures containing two phenyl rings and a heterocyclic ring. More than 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been reported from various plants and have been found to possess many beneficial effects with advantages over chemical treatments. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of natural flavonoids in treating obesity and DM, and show increased bioavailability and action on multiple molecular targets. This review summarizes the current progress in our understanding of the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potential of natural flavonoids and their molecular mechanisms for preventing and/or treating obesity and diabetes. PMID:27092490

  19. Anti-carcinogenic and Anti-bacterial Properties of Selected Spices: Implications in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Ganjre, Anjali; Bagul, Neeta; Pawar, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food", as said by the father of medicine, Hippocrates in 431 B.C. Nature has provided us with a variety of treatment modalities in the form of food. For the first 5,000 years of civilization, humans relied on herbs and foods for medicine. Only in the past 60 years have we forgotten our medicinal "roots" in favor of patented medicines. While pharmaceutical ingredients have their value, we should not overlook the well-documented, non-toxic and inexpensive healing properties of food. As an individual we consume food several times a day without a complete understanding of its innate qualities. As part of a daily diet, food plays a significant role in helping our bodies function at their best. There are hundreds of extremely nutritious foods, but the items in this article do more than providing healthy nutrients. Many of them consist of ingredients with hidden pharmaceutical qualities ranging from anti-inflammatory to anti-carcinogenic agent. They not only boost our innate immunity but also act as an adjunct to medicines for specific treatment. Prevention and management of symptoms can often be improved significantly through the foods we consume regularly. This paper overviews these beneficial traits of food ingredients, consumed on a daily basis, in various oral diseases. PMID:26566515

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Properties of Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Kawser Hossain, Mohammed; Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Han, Jihae; Yin, Yingfu; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kumar Saha, Subbroto; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Choi, Hye Yeon; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2016-04-15

    Obesity and diabetes are the most prevailing health concerns worldwide and their incidence is increasing at a high rate, resulting in enormous social costs. Obesity is a complex disease commonly accompanied by insulin resistance and increases in oxidative stress and inflammatory marker expression, leading to augmented fat mass in the body. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells or diminished insulin secretion and action insulin. Obesity causes the development of metabolic disorders such as DM, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation-based pathologies. Flavonoids are the secondary metabolites of plants and have 15-carbon skeleton structures containing two phenyl rings and a heterocyclic ring. More than 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been reported from various plants and have been found to possess many beneficial effects with advantages over chemical treatments. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of natural flavonoids in treating obesity and DM, and show increased bioavailability and action on multiple molecular targets. This review summarizes the current progress in our understanding of the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potential of natural flavonoids and their molecular mechanisms for preventing and/or treating obesity and diabetes.

  1. Anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory actions of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, has now been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil has anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study, we have determined the mechanisms by which sesame oil might modulate atherosclerosis by identifying genes and inflammatory markers. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) female mice were fed with either an atherogenic diet or an atherogenic diet reformulated with sesame oil (sesame oil diet). Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for cytokine analysis. RNA was extracted from the liver tissue and used for global gene arrays. The sesame oil diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDLR(-/-) mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, RANTES, IL-1α, IL-6, and CXCL-16, were significantly reduced, demonstrating an anti-inflammatory property of sesame oil. Gene array analysis showed that sesame oil induced many genes, including ABCA1, ABCA2, APOE, LCAT, and CYP7A1, which are involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. In conclusion, our studies suggest that a sesame oil-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism.

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-cholinesterase, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Culinary Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Im, Kyung Hoan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-12-01

    Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor. It also exhibited protective effect against cytotoxicity to PC-12 cells induced by glutamate (10~100 µg/mL), inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the ME of P. pulmonarius contained at least 10 phenolic compounds and some of them were identified by the comparison with known standard phenolics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius possess antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities.

  3. Moxifloxacin increases anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity of irinotecan in human xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Debby; Halperin, Drora; Fabian, Ina; Tsarfaty, Galia; Askenasy, Nadir; Shalit, Itamar

    2010-04-15

    Camptothecins (CPTs) are topoisomerase I inhibitors chemotherapeutic agents used in combination chemotherapy. We showed previously that combination of moxifloxacin (MXF) and CPT induced inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I activity, on proliferation of HT-29 cells in vitro and enhanced apoptosis, compared to CPT alone. Analysis of secretion of the pro-angiogenic factors IL-8 and VEGF showed significant reduction by MXF. Using a murine model of human colon carcinoma xenograft, we compared the effects of MXF/CPT in vitro to MXF/irinotecan combination in vivo. We show that the MXF/CPT inhibitory effects observed in vitro are reflected in the inhibition of the progressive growth of HT-29 cells implanted in SCID mice. Using caliper measurements, Doppler ultrasonography, image analyses and immunohistochemistry of nuclear proteins (Ki-67) and vascular endothelial cells (CD-31) we show that addition of MXF (45mg/kg) to a relatively ineffective dose of irinotecan (20mg/kg), results in a 50% and 30% decrease, respectively, in tumor size and a decrease in Ki-67 staining. Power Doppler Ultrasound showed a significant, pronounced decrease in the number of blood vessels, as did CD-31 staining, indicating decreased blood flow in tumors in mice treated with MXF alone or MXF/irinotecan compared to irinotecan. These results suggest that the combination of MXF/irinotecan may result in enhanced anti-neoplastic/anti-angiogenic activity.

  4. Search for ZX {yields} {nu}{anti {nu}} b {anti b} Events in the D-Zero Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    We report on a search for a new particle, X, decaying via X {yields} b{anti b}, made through associated production with a Z boson. We use data collected with the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron p{anti p} collider with {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. We utilize muon-tagged jets to identify b-quarks and the {nu}{anti {nu}} channel to detect Z bosons. Preliminary results on cross section limits for X masses between 90 GeV/c{sup 2} and 180 GeV/c{sup 2} are presented.

  5. Anti-Invasive and Anti-Proliferative Synergism between Docetaxel and a Polynuclear Pd-Spermine Agent

    PubMed Central

    Batista de Carvalho, Ana L. M.; Medeiros, Paula S. C.; Costa, Francisco M.; Ribeiro, Vanessa P.; Sousa, Joana B.; Marques, Maria P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the antitumour properties of a Pd(II) dinuclear complex with the biogenic polyamine spermine, by investigating: i) the anti-angiogenic and anti-migration properties of a Pd(II) dinuclear complex with spermine (Pd2Spm); ii) the anti-proliferative activity of Pd2Spm against a triple negative human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231); and finally iii) the putative interaction mediated by combination of Pd2Spm with Docetaxel. Anti-invasive (anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory) as well as anti-proliferative capacities were assessed, for different combination schemes and drug exposure times, using the CAM assay and VEGFR2 activity measurement, the MatrigelTM method and the SRB proliferation test. The results thus obtained evidence the ability of Pd2Spm to restrict angiogenesis and cell migration: Pd2Spm induced a marked inhibition of migration (43.8±12.2%), and a higher inhibition of angiogenesis (81.8±4.4% for total length values, at 4 μM) as compared to DTX at the clinical dosage 4x10-2 μM (26.4±14.4%; n = 4 to 11). Combination of Pd2Spm/DTX was more effective as anti-invasive and anti-proliferative than DTX or Pd2Spm in sole administration, which is compatible with the occurrence of synergism: for the anti-angiogenic effect, IC50(Pd2Spm/DTX) = 0.5/0.5x10-2 μM vs IC50(DTX) = 1.7x10-2 μM and IC50(Pd2Spm) = 1.6 μM. In conclusion, the reported effects of Pd2Spm on angiogenesis, migration and proliferation showed that this compound is a promising therapeutic agent against this type of breast cancer. Moreover, combined administration of Pd2Spm and DTX was found to trigger a substantial synergetic effect regarding angiogenesis inhibition as well as anti-migratory and anti-proliferative activities reinforcing the putative use of Pd(II) complexes in chemotherapeutic regimens. This is a significant outcome, aiming at the application of these combined strategies towards metastatic breast cancer (or other type of resistant cancers

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic coating via spraying method and its applications in anti-icing and anti-corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sai; Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by spraying the mixture of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNs) on steel surface. Anti-icing tests were carried out in two ways: freezing water (0 °C) dripping and condensation of atmospheric humidity in low temperature (-20 °C). In the water dripping test, no ice film could be observed compared with steel substrate, due to the bouncing behavior of water droplet; while in the condensing condition, the superior anti-icing behavior could be attributed to the overcooled water that formed on superhydrophobic coating. Besides, the prepared surface exhibited outstanding anti-corrosion character.

  7. Tailoring insoluble nanobelts into soluble anti-UV nanopotpourris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinmin; Sun, Xiao Wei; Jiao, Zhihui; Khoo, Eugene; Lee, Pooi See; Ma, Jan; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2011-11-01

    Soluble, transparent and anti-UV nanopotpourris have been prepared by tailoring long nanobelts. The strains and layered structures facilitate the breaking of the as-synthesized nanobelts under an applied mechanical action. The developed tailoring process of nanobelts is a general top-down secondary processing of layered nanostructures at the nanoscale level, which can be expended to the modifications of layered nanowires, nanotubes and hierarchical nanostructures. By tailoring, the size, morphology and solubility are modified, which may open up an area of advanced processing of nanomaterials and hint at some potential applications. Because of the excellent solubility of the tailored nanopotpourris, they are easily dispersed in cosmetics or polymer films, which are quite useful for some anti-UV protection applications, such as anti-UV sunscreen creams and anti-UV window films for vehicles and buildings.

  8. Research of technology of anti cyber-spy in BBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chilong; Sha, Jichang; Luan, Xidao; Zhu, Jianghan

    2005-10-01

    Anti cyber-spy technology in BBS is the key technology of net-media war. The technology of anti cyber-spy technology is brought out firstly, which frame is bought forward from the view of information theory in the paper. The frame of anti cyber-spy technology is divided into four steps. Firstly cyber-spy characteristics are extracted from three levels of information: syntactic information, semantic information and pragmatic information. Secondly based on the matching of syntactic information the concerned BBS users are confirmed. Thirdly suspects of cyber-spy are confirmed according to the matching of semantic information. Fourthly the possibilities of cyber-spies are calculated on the basis of pragmatic information matching. The result of prototypal system of an anti cyber-spy is put forward in this paper finally.

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M

    2016-10-21

    The asymmetric (er > 99:1) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation is the key asymmetric transformation used in the synthesis of this intermediate. It is carried out on an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials, making the overall synthetic sequence very concise. The common diol intermediate derived from the Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation is converted into either a trans- or cis-epoxide, and these are subsequently converted to (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of derivatives of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine is used to lay to rest a 40 year argument regarding the absolute stereochemistry of the mefloquines. A formal asymmetric (er > 99:1) synthesis of (+)-anti-mefloquine hydrochloride is also presented that uses a Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation as a key step.

  10. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  11. Directionality compensation for linear multivariable anti-windup synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegbege, Ambrose A.; Heath, William P.

    2015-11-01

    We develop new synthesis procedures for optimising anti-windup control applicable to open-loop exponentially stable multivariable plants subject to hard bounds on the inputs. The optimising anti-windup control falls into a class of compensator commonly termed directionality compensation. The computation of the control involves the online solution of a low-order quadratic programme in place of simple saturation. We exploit the structure of the quadratic programme to incorporate directionality information into the offline anti-windup synthesis using a decoupled architecture similar to that proposed in the literature for anti-windup schemes with simple saturation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the design compared to several schemes using a simulated example. Preliminary results of this work have been published in the proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando, 2011 (Adegbege & Heath, 2011a).

  12. Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-09-01

    Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control; MILSATs, ASATs, and national security; ASAT capabilities and countermeasures; ASAT arms control: history; ASAT arms control: options; and a comparative evaluation of ASAT policy options are discussed.

  13. Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Zi Jing; Xu, Ye-Long; Kim, Jeongmin; O'Brien, Kevin; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-12-01

    Lasing, light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, is a key attribute for many important applications in optical communications, medicine and defence. Conversely, anti-lasing represents the time-reversed counterpart of laser emission, where incoming radiation is coherently absorbed. Here, we experimentally realize lasing and anti-lasing at the same frequency in a single cavity using parity-time symmetry. Because of the time-reversal property, the demonstrated lasing and anti-lasing resonances share common resonant features such as identical frequency dependence, coherent in-phase response and fine spectral resolution. Lasing and anti-lasing in a single device offers a new route for light modulation with high contrast approaching the ultimate limit.

  14. Canadian Anti-Poverty Programmes--A Dimensional View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, B. Y.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reviews Canadian anti-poverty programs according to which of five dimensions is dominant in their activities--biological and demographic, geographical and ecological, structural, psychological and cultural, and/or poverty-as-social-problem. (JM)

  15. Experiments with a Class of Nonlinear Anti-Diffusion Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    The use of artificial viscosity in the simulation of viscous flows with separation, as well as inviscid flows with shocks is demonstrated first, based on standard central difference schemes. The effects of a class of nonlinear anti-diffusion schemes are studied. Furthermore, the anti-diffusion scheme is used to simulate turbulent flows over a flat plate and an ellipse, based on a primitive variable formulation in curvilinear coordinates and the artificial compressibility method. Both Baldwin-Lomax and Spalart-Allamaras models are implemented and the results are compared to those of the NASA CFL3D code. The results based on the anti-diffusion scheme are encouraging as third order upwinding results are recovered with first order upwinding with anti-diffusion.

  16. Anti-biofilm Activity as a Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Miquel, Sylvie; Lagrafeuille, Rosyne; Souweine, Bertrand; Forestier, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The formation and persistence of surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, are responsible for 75% of human microbial infections (National Institutes of Health). Biofilm lifestyle confers several advantages to the pathogens, notably during the colonization process of medical devices and/or patients’ organs. In addition, sessile bacteria have a high tolerance to exogenous stress including anti-infectious agents. Biofilms are highly competitive communities and some microorganisms exhibit anti-biofilm capacities such as bacterial growth inhibition, exclusion or competition, which enable them to acquire advantages and become dominant. The deciphering and control of anti-biofilm properties represent future challenges in human infection control. The aim of this review is to compare and discuss the mechanisms of natural bacterial anti-biofilm strategies/mechanisms recently identified in pathogenic, commensal and probiotic bacteria and the main synthetic strategies used in clinical practice, particularly for catheter-related infections. PMID:27199924

  17. [Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Cossermelli, W; Pastor, E H

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) comprise an important class of medicaments that reduced the symptoms of inflamation in rheumatic disease. This article emphasizes similarities and class characteristics of the NSAID, mechanisms of action, and drug-interactions.

  18. Vitamin D and the anti-viral state

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Jeremy A.; Bearden, Allison; Striker, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D has long been recognized as essential to the skeletal system. Newer evidence suggests that it also plays a major role regulating the immune system, perhaps including immune responses to viral infection. Interventional and observational epidemiological studies provide evidence that vitamin D deficiency may confer increased risk of influenza and respiratory tract infection. Vitamin D deficiency is also prevalent among patients with HIV infection. Cell culture experiments support the thesis that vitamin D has direct anti-viral effects particularly against enveloped viruses. Though vitamin D’s anti-viral mechanism has not been fully established, it may be linked to vitamin D’s ability to up-regulate the anti-microbial peptides LL-37 and human beta defensin 2. Additional studies are necessary to fully elucidate the efficacy and mechanism of vitamin D as an anti-viral agent. PMID:21242105

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude E; Udoh, Anwanga E; Frank, Samuel G; Amazu, Louis U

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods The crude leaf extract (39–111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant. PMID:23569885

  20. Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.

  1. Pharmacological interactions of anti-microbial agents in odontology.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José-Luis

    2009-03-01

    In this third article we describe the pharmacological interactions resulting from the use of anti-microbial agents. Although the antimicrobials prescribed in odontology are generally safe they can produce interactions with other medicaments which can give rise to serious adverse reactions which are well documented in clinical studies. Antibiotics with grave and dangerous life threatening consequences are erythromycin, clarithromycin and metronidazol and the anti-fungal agents are ketoconazol and itraconazol. Regarding the capacity of the anti-microbials to reduce the efficacy of oral anti-contraceptives the clinical studies to date are inconclusive, however, it would be prudent for the oral cavity specialist to point out the risk of a possible interaction. Therefore the specialist should be aware of possible interactions as a consequence of administering an antibiotic together with other medicaments the patient may be taking.

  2. Anti-Cancer Potential of a Novel SERM Ormeloxifene

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Rishi Kumar; Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Jaggi, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Ormeloxifene is a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) that is used as an oral contraceptive. Recent studies have shown its potent anti-cancer activities in breast, head and neck, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Several in vivo and clinical studies have reported that ormeloxifene possesses an excellent therapeutic index and has been well-tolerated, without any haematological, biochemical or histopathological toxicity, even with chronic administration. A reasonably long period of time and an enormous financial commitment are required to develop a lead compound into a clinically approved anti-cancer drug. For these reasons and to circumvent these obstacles, ormeloxifene is a promising candidate on a fast track for the development or repurposing established drugs as anti-cancer agents for cancer treatment. The current review summarizes recent findings on ormeloxifene as an anti-cancer agent and future prospects of this clinically safe pharmacophore. PMID:23895678

  3. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Are Caspase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christina E; Soti, Subada; Jones, Torey A; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Xue, Ding; Yin, Hang

    2017-02-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. While the role of NSAIDs as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors is well established, other targets may contribute to anti-inflammation. Here we report caspases as a new pharmacological target for NSAID family drugs such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketorolac at physiologic concentrations both in vitro and in vivo. We characterize caspase activity in both in vitro and in cell culture, and combine computational modeling and biophysical analysis to determine the mechanism of action. We observe that inhibition of caspase catalysis reduces cell death and the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, NSAID inhibition of caspases is COX independent, representing a new anti-inflammatory mechanism. This finding expands upon existing NSAID anti-inflammatory behaviors, with implications for patient safety and next-generation drug design.

  4. [Hypothermia due to anti-tuberculosis drugs: first case].

    PubMed

    Oualil, H; Nejjari, S; Bourkadi, J E; Iraqi, G

    2014-10-01

    Hypothermia - an adverse reaction of drug use potentially severe - requires an early diagnosis and an adapted management. We report the first case, to our knowledge of hypothermia due to anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  5. In vitro anti-acanthamoeba action by thioureidic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Saturnino, Carmela; Buonerba, Mariafrancesca; Paesano, Nicola; Lancelot, Jean-Charles; De Martino, Giovanni

    2003-09-01

    The anti-amoebic power of a series of bis-thioureidic derivatives against amoeba, responsible for a serious form of keratitis of the cornea, has been analysed. The synthesis of these products is also described.

  6. Nanostructured Anti-Reflecting and Water-Repellent Surface Coatings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-11-23

    A nanotechnology-based surface-texturing method developed at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials imparts perfect anti-reflection and robust water-repellency to silicon, glass, and some plastics.

  7. Nanostructured Anti-Reflecting and Water-Repellent Surface Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-08

    A nanotechnology-based surface-texturing method developed at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials imparts perfect anti-reflection and robust water-repellency to silicon, glass, and some plastics.

  8. How to Select Anti-Aging Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin care products Dermatologists share their insider tips Shopping for an anti-aging skin care product can ... every day can make a noticeable difference. When shopping for sunscreen, select one that offers all of ...

  9. Anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Preethi, Johnson; Vijayan, Raji; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Ameen, Fuad; Suresh, Sadhasivam; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2016-10-01

    In this present investigation, AgNPs were green synthesised using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract. The physicochemical properties of AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectrophotometer, field emission scanning microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Further, in vitro anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised AgNPs were assessed against Propionibacterium acnes MTCC 1951, Malassezia furfur MTCC 1374 and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line, respectively. The flavonoids present in the plant extract were responsible for the AgNPs synthesis. The green synthesised nanoparticles size was found to be ≈37nm. The BET analysis result shows that the surface area of the synthesised AgNPs was found to be 33.72m(2)g(-1). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for acne causative agent P. acnes and dandruff causative agent M. furfur was found to be at 3.1 and 25μgmL(-1), respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the AgNPs for MCF-7 cells was calculated as 30.5μgmL(-1) and complete inhibition was observed at a concentration of 100μgmL(-1). Finally, our results proved that green synthesised AgNPs using C. sativum have great potential in biomedical applications such as anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer treatment.

  10. U.S.-ROK Frictions: Causes for Anti-Americanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-02

    CUSAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER U.S.-ROK FRICTIONS: CAUSES FOR ANTI-AMERICANISM An Individual Study Project Intended for Publication by...Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U.S.-ROK Frictions: Causes for Anti-Americanism 1Individual Study Project 6 PERFORMING ORG, REPORT NL.IBER 7...and Identify by block number) 20. ASTRACT Cof- fm e m revere., stit Ff nacoeary m a denittr by block number) This study focuses on frictions between

  11. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    members on a state visit to Rangoon, Burma . In 1987 North Korea shot down a Korean Air Lines commercial flight.9 Besides the North Korean threat, South...arrivals of North Korean defectors ................................................37 Figure 4. Anti-terrorism-related organizations in Korea after 9.11...study will determine whether current Korean anti-terrorism programs effectively address all terrorist threats, including threats from North Korea

  12. REDIR: Automated Static Detection of Obfuscated Anti-Debugging Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    challenging. The Rule Engine Detection by Intermediate Representation (REDIR) system for automated static detection of obfuscated anti-debugging...understanding. 1.4 Approach The Rule Engine Detection by Intermediate Representation (REDIR) system for automated static detection of obfuscated anti...directed or automated [14]. The user interface in a knowledge-based system should provide, as natural as possible, access to the knowledge stored in

  13. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (FAR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA, PACIFIC) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE... whales ” China and Japan. South Korea may be the fuse for an unprecedented shift in balance of power in the region. The implications for regional...South Korea. Therefore, historical study of the anti-Americanism is crucial to understand the sources of the increase in anti-Americanism. Chapter II

  14. Anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Dotan, N; Altstock, R T; Schwarz, M; Dukler, A

    2006-01-01

    Glycans (sugars or carbohydrates) are predominant surface components of cells such as erythrocytes, immune cells and microorganisms. As such, they give rise to high levels of anti-glycan antibodies of all classes. Antibodies to certain defined mono, di and oligosaccharides that are common in bacterial, fungal and parasite cells exist in human sera and can be profiled using glycan arrays. The use of glycan arrays for systematic screening of blood samples from multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients in versus to blood samples from control groups, have lead to the discovery of a few anti glycan antibodies biomarkers enabling diagnosis and prognosis in MS and CD patients. Anti-Glc(alpha1,4)Glc(alpha) IgM antibodies were found to be specific for MS patients, enabling differentiation between MS patients and patients with other neurological diseases, with 54% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Anti-Glc(alpha1,4)Glc(alpha) IgM were found to be predictive for the conversion of patients in first acute neurological event to clinically defined MS. Anti-laminaribioside (ALCA), anti-mannobioside (AMCA) and anti-chitobioside (ACCA) antibodies were found to be specific for CD. The combined use of these antibodies enables improved diagnosis of CD versus ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal diseases, as well as stratification of CD patients with a more complicated disease and high risk for surgery. Anti-glycan antibodies profiling (AGAP) is a new and promising approach for development of biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

  15. Update on rosacea and anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brian; Perez, Oliver A; Zell, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 13 million individuals in the United Sates suffer from rosacea, a recurrent disease that may require long-term therapy. Topical and oral antibiotics have been used to treat rosacea; however, high-dose antibiotics or long-term, low-dose antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of rosacea flares or for rosacea maintenance therapy, respectively, can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant organisms. The first oral medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of rosacea in the United States is Oracea (CollaGenex Pharmaceuticals Inc., Newtown, PA, USA). Oracea is a 40 mg capsule of doxycycline monohydrate, containing 30 mg immediate-release and 10 mg delayed-release doxycycline beads ("anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline"). Anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline is not an antibiotic and does not lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Each capsule of anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline contains a total of 40 mg of anhydrous doxycycline as 30 mg of immediate-release and 10 mg of delayed-release beads. In contrast to other oral therapies, anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline is taken once daily, which may increase treatment compliance. The results of two phase III trials have been encouraging, leading to the recent release (summer 2006) of Oracea for the treatment of rosacea in the United States. Anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline should not be used by individuals with known hypersensitivity to tetracyclines or increased photosensitivity, or by pregnant or nursing women (anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline is a pregnancy category-D medication). The risk of permanent teeth discoloration and decreased bone growth rate make anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline contraindicated in infants and children. However, when used appropriately in patients with rosacea, anti-inflammatory-dose doxycycline may help prolong the effectiveness and life span of our most precious antibiotics.

  16. Amplification of Anti-Tumor Immunity Without Autoimmune Complications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    access in the same animal the effect of tumor regression and mouse thyroglobulin immunization and observed a synergy between anti-neu and anti-mTg...ELISPOT. II. Establish the read-outs for autoimmune response, including antibody and T cell reactivity to mouse thyroglobulin (mTg) and inflammatory...cell reactivity to mouse thyroglobulin and inflammatory infiltration in the thyroid Results from Objectives 1B-I and II have been reported in

  17. Anti-inflammatory Strategies to Prevent Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Jialal, I; Devaraj, S

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes is a proinflammatory state and inflammation is crucial in the genesis of vascular complications. While there are many anti-inflammatory strategies, most of which have been shown to reduce inflammation in diabetes, there is sparse data on reduction in cardiovascular events (CVEs). To date, the only anti-inflammatory strategies that have been shown to reduce CVE in diabetes include statins, angiotensin receptor blockers, metformin, and pioglitazone. We also discuss the role of novel emerging therapies.

  18. Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Aurelia; Giangaspero, Anna; Sosa, Silvio; Negri, Roberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Casano, Salvatore; Della Loggia, Roberto; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    A selection of seven phytocannabinoids representative of the major structural types of classic cannabinoids and their corresponding cannabivarins was investigated for in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity in the Croton oil mouse ear dermatitis assay. Differences in the terpenoid moiety were far more important for anti-inflammatory activity than those at the C-3 alkyl residue, suggesting the involvement not only of cannabinoid receptors, but also of other inflammatory end-points targeted by phytocannabinoids.

  19. Anti-ulcer activity of essential oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Francisco de Assis; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Sousa, Elida Batista Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-05-05

    Essential oils have attracted considerable worldwide attention over the last few decades. These natural products have wide-ranging pharmacological activities and biotechnological applications. Faced with the need to find new anti-ulcer agents and the great effort on the development of drugs for the treatment of ulcers, in this review, the anti-ulcer activities of 21 bioactive compounds found in essential oils are discussed.

  20. Induced Stokes or anti-Stokes nuclear transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Eliezer, S. |; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Velarde, G.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that laser-generated soft x rays can be used to induce Stokes or anti-Stokes nuclear transitions. Isomeric transitions in {sup 99}Tc and {sup 179}Hf are considered as Stokes and anti-Stokes transitions, respectively. It is shown that success of the proposed scheme may open the way for a gamma-ray laser. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  2. Antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities of Phyllanthus emblica, Manilkara zapota and silymarin: an in vitro comparative study for anti-aging applications.

    PubMed

    Pientaweeratch, Sirinya; Panapisal, Vipaporn; Tansirikongkol, Anyarporn

    2016-09-01

    Context Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) (amla), Manilkara zapota L.P. Royen (Sapotaceae) (sapota) and silymarin are reported to contain antioxidant effects. However, information on other biological activities relating to the anti-aging properties is limited. Objective To compare in vitro antioxidants, anti-collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-2) and anti-elastase properties as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of amla, sapota and silymarin as potential anti-aging ingredients. Materials and methods The ethanol amla and sapota fruit extracts were prepared by three cycles of maceration with 24 h duration each. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents were determined. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The effects of MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase inhibitions were determined by using the EnzChek® assay kits (Molecular-Probes, Eugene, OR). Results Amla exhibited the highest in TPC (362.43 ± 11.2 mg GAE/g) while silymarin showed the highest in TFC (21.04 ± 0.67 mg QE/g). Results of antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS methods showed that amla possessed the most potent capacity with IC50 values of 1.70 ± 0.07 and 4.45 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. Highest inhibitions against MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase were detected for sapota with IC50 values of 89.61 ± 0.96, 86.47 ± 3.04 and 35.73 ± 0.61 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion Test extracts offered anti-aging properties in different mechanisms. Amla showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant property with moderate anti-collagenase. Silymarin exhibited measurable flavonoid content with anti-elastase effect. Sapota showed the highest collagenase and elastase inhibitions with moderate antioxidant effect. Thus, extracts might be added as a mixture to gain the overall anti-aging effects.

  3. Butein is a novel anti-adipogenic compound.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Yoon, Hyang-Jin; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, So-Ra; Jang, Woo-Seok; Seo, Cho-Rong; Lee, Young Min; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Hong, Joung-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Park, Ki-Moon; Lee, Kang Ro; Park, Kye Won

    2013-05-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for its various biological activities including anti-adipogenic effects. Activity-guided separation led to the identification of the anti-adipogenic functions of butein. Butein, a novel anti-adipogenic compound, robustly suppressed lipid accumulation and inhibited expression of adipogenic markers. Molecular studies showed that activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways were mediated by butein. Analysis of the temporal expression profiles suggests that TGF-β signaling precedes the STAT3 in the butein-mediated anti-adipogenic cascade. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of STAT3 or SMAD2/3 blunted the inhibitory effects of butein on adipogenesis indicating that an interaction between two signaling pathways is required for the action of butein. Upon butein treatments, stimulation of TGF-β signaling was still preserved in STAT3 silenced cells, whereas regulation of STAT3 signaling by butein was significantly impaired in SMAD2/3 silenced cells, further showing that TGF-β acts upstream of STAT3 in the butein-mediated anti-adipogenesis. Taken together, the present study shows that butein, a novel anti-adipogenic compound from RVS, inhibits adipocyte differentiation through the TGF-β pathway followed by STAT3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ signaling, further implicating potential roles of butein in TGF-β- and STAT3-dysregulated diseases.

  4. The nature of the TRAP–Anti-TRAP complex

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Heddle, Jonathan G.; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Unzai, Satoru; Akashi, Satoko; Park, Sam-Yong; Tame, Jeremy R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Tryptophan biosynthesis is subject to exquisite control in species of Bacillus and has become one of the best-studied model systems in gene regulation. The protein TRAP (trp RNA-binding attenuation protein) predominantly forms a ring-shaped 11-mer, which binds cognate RNA in the presence of tryptophan to suppress expression of the trp operon. TRAP is itself regulated by the protein Anti-TRAP, which binds to TRAP and prevents RNA binding. To date, the nature of this interaction has proved elusive. Here, we describe mass spectrometry and analytical centrifugation studies of the complex, and 2 crystal structures of the TRAP–Anti-TRAP complex. These crystal structures, both refined to 3.2-Å resolution, show that Anti-TRAP binds to TRAP as a trimer, sterically blocking RNA binding. Mass spectrometry shows that 11-mer TRAP may bind up to 5 AT trimers, and an artificial 12-mer TRAP may bind 6. Both forms of TRAP make the same interactions with Anti-TRAP. Crystallization of wild-type TRAP with Anti-TRAP selectively pulls the 12-mer TRAP form out of solution, so the crystal structure of wild-type TRAP–Anti-TRAP complex reflects a minor species from a mixed population. PMID:19164760

  5. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents. PMID:27092497

  6. Targeting anti-smoking messages: does audience race matter?

    PubMed

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S; Shadel, William G

    2012-07-01

    This study examined whether an adolescent's self-identified race moderates the perceived effectiveness of anti-smoking messages. A sample of 94 never smoking adolescents (59% African-American; 41% European-American) participated in this two-part study. First, they rated the persuasive strength of a series of five decontextualized anti-smoking messages (i.e., messages delivered in text format). Second, they were exposed to five sets of anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs; viewed as TV advertisements) that had embedded in them the five anti-smoking messages used in the first part of the study and rated their smoking refusal self-efficacy after each one. Although race moderated participants' ratings of the decontextualized messages, there were no significant moderating effects of race when those messages were embedded in PSAs. The results of this study support the notion that anti-smoking PSAs should not be targeted to adolescent racial background, but suggests that decontextualized anti-smoking messages may be more effective if targeted to adolescent race.

  7. Chemotaxis of human B lymphocytes to anti-IgD.

    PubMed Central

    Komai-Koma, M; Wilkinson, P C

    1996-01-01

    The resting population of small surface IgM+ and surface IgD+ B cells from the human tonsil can be preactivated by overnight culture in interleukin-4 (IL-4) to show locomotor responses to anti-IgM and anti-IgD at between 10 ng and 1 microgram/ml. Because this locomotion is activated through the antigen receptor and may simulate a response to antigen, we set out to establish whether this was a chemotactic response using a checkerboard filter assay with a range of concentrations and concentration gradients of anti-IgD. At high concentrations (100 ng/ml to 1 microgram/ml), a chemokinetic response, but no chemotaxis, to anti-IgD was seen. However, in concentration gradients set up at lower concentrations (0-50 ng/ml) a chemotactic response was demonstrable. During the period of culture in anti-IgD at 1 microgram/ml, a progressive loss of surface IgD from the cells was seen, but there was no loss at 10 ng/ml. This receptor loss from the cell surface may account for the lack of chemotactic effect of the anti-IgD at higher concentrations. PMID:8881763

  8. On the Anti-critical Temperature for Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. T.; Tautz, M.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, evidence has been found for the existence of a critical temperature for the onset of spacecraft charging to high voltages. Spacecraft charging to high voltages affects scientific instruments on board. However, less attention has been given to low-voltage charging which can also affect scientific experiments on board and is relevant to surface chemistry. There also can exist an anti-critical temperature for low-voltage spacecraft surface charging. Ambient electrons at very low temperatures tend to cause negative surface charging, albeit at low voltages and as the electron temperature increases, the charging ceases at a critical value depending on the surface material. We present the theory and numerical results of anti-critical temperatures for typical surface materials in Maxwellian space plasmas. The change in anti-critical temperature due to a low incident-energy enhancement of the electron backscatter yield, consistent with recent measurements, is discussed. Approximate expressions for the anti-critical temperature upper limits are given, based on Taylor expansions at low temperature of the charging onset equation. It is shown that that the existence of the anti-critical temperature slightly modifies the possible triple root configurations in the flux-voltage characteristic curve for a material. The surface charging effect of a Maxwellian plasma with flux components spanning the anti-critical and critical temperatures is considered. A comparison with an empirical low-voltage charging curve is given.

  9. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fangbo; Zhong, Yu; Li, Mengqiu; Chang, Qi; Liao, Yonghong; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile

    2015-10-26

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we divided okra pods (OPD) into seeds (OSD) and skins (OSK), and compared the contents of total polysaccharides, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose and the antioxidant activity in vitro and anti-fatigue activity in vivo between OSD and OSK. The contents of total polyphenols and total polysaccharides were 29.5% and 14.8% in OSD and 1.25% and 43.1% in OSK, respectively. Total flavonoids, isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (5.35%, 2.067% and 2.741%, respectively) were only detected in OSD. Antioxidant assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power test, and weight-loaded swimming test showed OSD possessed significant antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. Moreover, biochemical determination revealed that that anti-fatigue activity of OSD is caused by reducing the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA) and urea nitrogen (BUN), enhancing hepatic glycogen storage and promoting antioxidant ability by lowering malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. These results proved okra seeds were the anti-fatigue part of okra pods and polyphenols and flavonoids were active constituents.

  10. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX. PMID:26184238

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fangbo; Zhong, Yu; Li, Mengqiu; Chang, Qi; Liao, Yonghong; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile

    2015-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we divided okra pods (OPD) into seeds (OSD) and skins (OSK), and compared the contents of total polysaccharides, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose and the antioxidant activity in vitro and anti-fatigue activity in vivo between OSD and OSK. The contents of total polyphenols and total polysaccharides were 29.5% and 14.8% in OSD and 1.25% and 43.1% in OSK, respectively. Total flavonoids, isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (5.35%, 2.067% and 2.741%, respectively) were only detected in OSD. Antioxidant assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power test, and weight-loaded swimming test showed OSD possessed significant antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. Moreover, biochemical determination revealed that that anti-fatigue activity of OSD is caused by reducing the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA) and urea nitrogen (BUN), enhancing hepatic glycogen storage and promoting antioxidant ability by lowering malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. These results proved okra seeds were the anti-fatigue part of okra pods and polyphenols and flavonoids were active constituents. PMID:26516905

  12. Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Voigtländer, Nico; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Attempts at modifying public opinions, attitudes, and beliefs range from advertising and schooling to “brainwashing.” Their effectiveness is highly controversial. In this paper, we use survey data on anti-Semitic beliefs and attitudes in a representative sample of Germans surveyed in 1996 and 2006 to show that Nazi indoctrination––with its singular focus on fostering racial hatred––was highly effective. Between 1933 and 1945, young Germans were exposed to anti-Semitic ideology in schools, in the (extracurricular) Hitler Youth, and through radio, print, and film. As a result, Germans who grew up under the Nazi regime are much more anti-Semitic than those born before or after that period: the share of committed anti-Semites, who answer a host of questions about attitudes toward Jews in an extreme fashion, is 2–3 times higher than in the population as a whole. Results also hold for average beliefs, and not just the share of extremists; average views of Jews are much more negative among those born in the 1920s and 1930s. Nazi indoctrination was most effective where it could tap into preexisting prejudices; those born in districts that supported anti-Semitic parties before 1914 show the greatest increases in anti-Jewish attitudes. These findings demonstrate the extent to which beliefs can be modified through policy intervention. We also identify parameters amplifying the effectiveness of such measures, such as preexisting prejudices. PMID:26080394

  13. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents.

    PubMed

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung

    2016-04-16

    The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents.

  14. Cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung-Ick; Lee, Soon-Tae; Moon, Jangsup; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Shin, Jung-Won; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lim, Jung-Ah; Shin, Yong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2015-12-01

    Patients with anti-NMDA receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis frequently suffer from autonomic dysfunctions, which can cause substantial morbidity. This study assessed cardiac autonomic functions in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This was a retrospective single-center case-control study. Eleven patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. To ensure that autonomic dysfunction does not occur in any encephalitis, we additionally analyzed HRV of 9 patients with herpes encephalitis (HSE) and compared with that of NMDAR encephalitis patients and controls. Five minute resting stationary electrocardiogram was collected from each subject, and HRV was analyzed. Total power and low frequency (LF) power were lower in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients than those in controls (p=0.005, 0.001 respectively), indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction especially in sympathetic system. Patients with HSE showed no significant difference in HRV parameters compared with that of controls. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction was associated with 3 month functional outcome in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients.

  15. [Anti-NMDA Receptor Antibody-Related Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Shigemi; Tanaka, Keiko

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the search for diagnostic antibody markers has drawn considerable attention in relation to autoimmune encephalitis. Among the antibody markers, the most frequently detected is the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)antibody. Patients with this antibody develop characteristic clinical features. This disease tends to affect young women, and starts with psychiatric symptoms followed by seizures, involuntary movements, autonomic failure, and respiratory failure. Nearly half of these female patients have ovarian teratoma. Some of the patients with anti-NMDAR antibody show atypical clinical features. Approximately 4% show only psychiatric symptoms, which might lead to a diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Other reports describe patients experiencing refractory seizures to have the anti-NMDAR antibody. Some of the antibody-positive patients are associated with demyelinating disorders, and some develop anti-NMDAR encephalitis after recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis. It is important to test the anti-NMDAR antibody in these groups since immunotherapy ameliorates their symptoms. The anti-NMDAR antibody binds to the constitutional epitope at the extracellular domain of GluN1 and disrupts its function. Early introduction of immunotherapy together with tumor resection will results in improvement of neurological symptoms.

  16. Hypoglycemic agents and potential anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Vishal; Galdo, John A; Mathews, Suresh T

    2016-01-01

    Current literature shows an association of diabetes and secondary complications with chronic inflammation. Evidence of these immunological changes include altered levels of cytokines and chemokines, changes in the numbers and activation states of various leukocyte populations, apoptosis, and fibrosis during diabetes. Therefore, treatment of diabetes and its complications may include pharmacological strategies to reduce inflammation. Apart from anti-inflammatory drugs, various hypoglycemic agents have also been found to reduce inflammation that could contribute to improved outcomes. Extensive studies have been carried out with thiazolidinediones (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and metformin (AMP-activated protein kinase activator) with each of these classes of compounds showing moderate-to-strong anti-inflammatory action. Sulfonylureas and alpha glucosidase inhibitors appeared to exert modest effects, while the injectable agents, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, may improve secondary complications due to their anti-inflammatory potential. Currently, there is a lack of clinical data on anti-inflammatory effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors. Nevertheless, for all these glucose-lowering agents, it is essential to distinguish between anti-inflammatory effects resulting from better glucose control and effects related to intrinsic anti-inflammatory actions of the pharmacological class of compounds. PMID:27114714

  17. Specific suppression of anti-DNA production in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liebling, M.R.; Wong, C.; Radosevich, J.; Louie, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    To investigate the regulation of anti-DNA antibody production, we generated anti-DNA-specific suppressor cells by exposing normal human T cells and a small percentage of adherent cells to high concentrations of DNA. These cells suppressed the production of anti-DNA by both autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and allogeneic PBMC derived from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Anti-DNA production was suppressed significantly more than anti-RNA, antitetanus, or total immunoglobulin production. Specific suppression was enhanced by increasing the numbers of DNA-primed CD8+ cells and was obliterated by irradiation of the DNA-primed cells. In contrast to T cells from normal individuals, T cells obtained from two intensively studied SLE patients were unable to generate specific suppressor cells for anti-DNA production in both autologous and allogeneic test systems. Despite this defect, these patients were still capable of generating specific suppressor cells for antibody production directed against an exogenous antigen, tetanus toxoid.

  18. Alternative for Anti-TNF Antibodies for Arthritis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders. PMID:21811249

  19. Alternative for anti-TNF antibodies for arthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent

    2011-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  20. Anti-idiotypic antibodies of a predefined specificity generated against CDR3VH synthetic peptides define a private anti-CD4 idiotype.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, R; Kennedy, R C; Allan, J S; Maino, V C; Buck, D; Kanda, P

    1990-06-01

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to the third complementarity determining region (CDR) of the heavy chain (CDR3VH) of anti-Leu3a, a monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody which inhibits HIV gp120 binding to CD4, was used to elicit specific anti-peptide antibodies in rabbits. The anti-peptide antisera showed anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) activity and recognized both the immunizing peptide and the intact cognate protein by ELISA. In addition, the antisera reacted with isolated heavy chains of anti-Leu3a by Western blot analysis. The lack of reactivity with a panel of monoclonal anti-CD4 antibodies suggested that the anti-peptide antisera recognize a private idiotype (Id) associated with the anti-Leu3a CDR3VH region. Further studies demonstrated the inability of the rabbit antisera to inhibit the binding of anti-Leu3a to the CD4 molecule. In addition, soluble recombinant CD4 was unable to inhibit the binding of the rabbit anti-peptide antisera to anti-Leu3a indicating that the CDR3VH region may not be involved in CD4 recognition. Anti-Id containing sera from mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates immunized with the intact anti-Leu3a molecule did not bind the CDR3VH synthetic peptide, suggesting that the corresponding region of anti-Leu3a may not represent an immunodominant idiotypic determinant in thes e species. These results suggest the potential use of synthetic peptides corresponding to immunoglobulin variable (V) region amino acid sequences in generating anti-Id reagents of a predefined specificity. In addition, V-region synthetic peptides may be useful in mapping the idiotopes recognized by an anti-Id response to the cognate molecule.

  1. A comparison of the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of nitroaspirin and aspirin

    PubMed Central

    al-Swayeh, O A; Clifford, R H; del Soldato, P; Moore, P K

    2000-01-01

    Nitroaspirin (2.5–50 mg kg−1, i.p. or 2.5–100 mg kg−1, p.o.) and aspirin (2.5–100 mg kg−1, i.p. or p.o.) exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hindpaw oedema model in the rat. When administered i.p., nitroaspirin was a more effective anti-oedema agent than aspirin particularly in the ‘early' phase (i.e. up to 60 min) of the response. The ED50 values for nitroaspirin and aspirin as inhibitors of the ‘late' phase response (measured at 180 min) were 64.3 μmol kg−1 and >555 μmol kg−1, respectively. When administered p.o., neither nitroaspirin nor aspirin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the ‘early' phase and were of similar potency in the ‘late' phase. Thus, at the highest dose used (100 mg kg−1, 360 min) orally administered nitroaspirin (aspirin in parenthesis) inhibited oedema formation by 46.9±1.6% (47.2±3.8%, both n=6, P<0.05). Nitroaspirin and aspirin (25–200 mg kg−1, p.o.) caused dose-related inhibition of the hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation following intraplantar injection of carrageenan in the rat. ED50 values were 365 μmol kg−1 and 784 μmol kg−1, respectively. Neither drug influenced the threshold for mechanical stimulation in the contralateral (i.e. untreated) hindpaw. Nitroaspirin and aspirin (2.5–100 mg kg−1, p.o.) caused dose-related inhibition of acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions in the mouse (ED50 values of 154.7 μmol kg−1 and 242.8 μmol kg−1, respectively). Nitroaspirin and aspirin (>200 mg kg−1, p.o.) reduced the ‘late' phase (but not the ‘early' phase) of the formalin-induced hindpaw licking assay in the mouse. Similarly, nitroaspirin and aspirin (>50 mg kg−1, p.o.) prolonged tail withdrawal latency following application of a noxious heat stimulus in the mouse. PMID:10694241

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect of Agaricus blazei extract in bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Chae, Hee-Sung; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Chin, Young-Won

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the chloroform-soluble extract of Agaricus blazei in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were investigated. The chloroform-soluble extract inhibited IL-6 production in PMA plus A23187-stimulated BMMCs, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, this extract demonstrated inhibition of the degranulation of β-hexosaminidase and the production of IL-6, prostaglandin D(2) and leukotriene C(4) in PMA plus A23187-induced BMMCs. In conclusion, the chloroform-soluble extract of Agaricus blazei exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities mediated by influencing IL-6, prostaglandin D(2), leukotriene C(4), and the phosphorylation of Akt.

  3. Red wines and flavonoids diminish Staphylococcus aureus virulence with anti-biofilm and anti-hemolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Seob; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus presents a worldwide problem that requires non-antibiotic strategies. This study investigated the anti-biofilm and anti-hemolytic activities of four red wines and two white wines against three S. aureus strains. All red wines at 0.5-2% significantly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation and hemolysis by S. aureus, whereas the two white wines had no effect. Furthermore, at these concentrations, red wines did not affect bacterial growth. Analyses of hemolysis and active component identification in red wines revealed that the anti-biofilm compounds and anti-hemolytic compounds largely responsible were tannic acid, trans-resveratrol, and several flavonoids. In addition, red wines attenuated S. aureus virulence in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is killed by S. aureus. These findings show that red wines and their compounds warrant further attention in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection.

  4. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia with mimicking anti-e specificity causing intravascular hemolysis in a chronic ITP patient.

    PubMed

    Datta, Suvro Sankha; Reddy, Mahua; Basu, Sabita

    2015-10-01

    A 12-year-old male child presented to the emergency room with three days history of cola-colored urine, mild icterus, dyspnea, palpitation and fatigue. He had a history of chronic ITP two years ago and had since been on steroid for maintenance of platelet count. He was subsequently diagnosed as a case of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Laboratory investigations were suggestive of intravascular hemolysis, and on immuno-hematological evaluation it was diagnosed that the patient had autoantibody with mimicking anti-e specificity. The specificity of autoantibody was further confirmed by adsorption study. The patient was successfully managed by transfusion of Rh(e)-negative red cells,steroid and rituximab therapy. So an autoantibody with mimicking anti-e specificity was identified in this case, which was significant in clinical point of view.

  5. Harmonization of anti-doping rules in a global context (World Anti-Doping Agency-laboratory accreditation perspective).

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Victoria; Miller, John H M; Rabin, Olivier; Squirrell, Alan; Westwood, Steven

    2012-07-01

    This article provides a review of the leading role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the context of the global fight against doping in sport and the harmonization of anti-doping rules worldwide through the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Program. Particular emphasis is given to the WADA-laboratory accreditation program, which is coordinated by the Science Department of WADA in conjunction with the Laboratory Expert Group, and the cooperation with the international accreditation community through International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and other organizations, all of which contribute to constant improvement of laboratory performance in the global fight against doping in sport. A perspective is provided of the means to refine the existing anti-doping rules and programs to ensure continuous improvement in order to face growing sophisticated challenges. A viewpoint on WADA's desire to embrace cooperation with other international organizations whose knowledge can contribute to the fight against doping in sport is acknowledged.

  6. Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Green and Red Kohlrabi Cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Karki, Subash; Ehom, Na-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Hee; Kim, Eon Ji; Choi, Jae Sue

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant potential, and total phenolic content (TPC) of green and red kohlrabi cultivars. Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) and rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory assays and cell-based lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory assays in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In addition, scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical, and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) were used to evaluate antioxidant potential and TPC was selected to assess phytochemical characteristics. Between the two kohlrabi cultivars, red kohlrabi (RK) had two times more TPC than green kohlrabi (GK) and showed significant antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS, and ONOO− scavenging assays. Likewise, methanol (MeOH) extracts of RK and GK inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose dependent manner that was further clarified by suppression of iNOS and COX-2 protein production. The MeOH extracts of RK and GK exhibited potent inhibitory activities against PTP1B with the corresponding IC50 values of 207±3.48 and 287±3.22 μg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the RK MeOH extract exhibited significantly stronger anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant effects than that of GK MeOH extract. As a result, our study establishes that RK extract with a higher TPC might be useful as a potent anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25580392

  7. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision

  8. Identification of an iridium(III) complex with anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Liu, Li-juan; Chao, Wei-chieh; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Li, Ruei-nian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-09-29

    Group 9 transition metal complexes have been widely explored as therapeutic agents due to their unique geometry, their propensity to undergo ligand exchanges with biomolecules and their diverse steric and electronic properties. These metal complexes can offer distinct modes of action in living organisms compared to carbon-based molecules. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative abilities of a series of cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes. The iridium(III) complex 1 inhibited the growth of S. aureus with MIC and MBC values of 3.60 and 7.19 μM, respectively, indicating its potent bactericidal activity. Moreover, complex 1 also exhibited cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines, with particular potency against ovarian, cervical and melanoma cells. This cyclometallated iridium(III) complex is the first example of a substitutionally-inert, Group 9 organometallic compound utilized as a direct and selective inhibitor of S. aureus.

  9. Anti-stress and anti-oxidant effects of roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Santa Pau & Fernandes).

    PubMed

    Kenjale, R D; Shah, R K; Sathaye, S S

    2007-11-01

    The aqueous extract of C. borivilianum (250 mg/kg for 7 days) significantly reverted the elevated levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and serum corticosterone and also reduced the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight more as effectively as the standard drug (diazepam) in rats. At 125 mg/kg po, it showed a mild anti-stress activity. Under in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation assay the extract considerably inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the levels of DPPH* free radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively thus showing significant antioxidant property. The results suggested that it could be used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced disorders.

  10. Identification of an iridium(III) complex with anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Liu, Li-Juan; Chao, Wei-chieh; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Li, Ruei-nian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Group 9 transition metal complexes have been widely explored as therapeutic agents due to their unique geometry, their propensity to undergo ligand exchanges with biomolecules and their diverse steric and electronic properties. These metal complexes can offer distinct modes of action in living organisms compared to carbon-based molecules. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative abilities of a series of cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes. The iridium(III) complex 1 inhibited the growth of S. aureus with MIC and MBC values of 3.60 and 7.19 μM, respectively, indicating its potent bactericidal activity. Moreover, complex 1 also exhibited cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines, with particular potency against ovarian, cervical and melanoma cells. This cyclometallated iridium(III) complex is the first example of a substitutionally-inert, Group 9 organometallic compound utilized as a direct and selective inhibitor of S. aureus. PMID:26416333

  11. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-03-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

  12. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

    1995-11-17

    Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro.

  13. Anti-cytochrome P450 IIE1 (anti IIE1) and dimethyl sulfoxide inhibit acetaminophen and dimethylnitrosamine oxidation similarly

    SciTech Connect

    Jaw, S.; Jeffery, E.H. ); Roberts, D.W. )

    1991-03-11

    To evaluate specificity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the authors compared anti IIE1 and DMSO inhibition of P450 oxidations. Hepatic microsomes from control and acetone-induced female Swiss-Webster mice were preincubated with polyclonal anti IIE1 or IgG for 20 min at 4C before addition of an NADPH-generating system, DMSO or buffer, and substrate (Ethylmorphine, EM; dimethylnitrosamine, DMN; or acetaminophen, AP; 1 mM final concentration). After 20 min at 37C, the incubations were terminated by adding 20% trichloroacetic acid or methanol. Formaldehyde was determined by the Nash method when using EM or DMN as substrate. AP-glutathione conjugate was determined by HPLC when using AP as substrate. Anti IIE1 and DMSO did not inhibit EM demethylation in control or acetone microsomes. However, DMSO inhibited DMN demethylation by 26% and 64% in control and 30% and 75% in acetone microsomes. Anti IIE1 inhibited DMN demethylation by 44% and 24% in control and acetone microsomes, respectively. DMSO inhibited AP metabolism by 31% and 56% and anti IIE1 inhibited AP metabolism by 33%, in control microsomes. The inhibitions of DMN and AP metabolism by anti IIE1 and DMSO were only additive at submaximal inhibitor concentrations and confirm that DMSO specifically inhibits IIE1 activity.

  14. Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Opoku, A R; Geheeb-Keller, M; Hutchings, A D; Terblanche, S E; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    1999-12-15

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). The extracts of R. digitata-leaf and of R. rhomboidea-root exhibited the highest inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with 53 and 56%, respectively. The results suggest that Rhoicissus digitata leaves and of Rhoicissus rhomboidea roots may have the potential to be used as anti-inflammatory agents. All the screened plant extracts showed some degrees of anti-microbial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The methanolic extracts of C. natalitium-stem and root, R. rhomboidea-root, and R. tomentosa-leaf/stem, showed different anti-microbial activities against almost all micro-organisms tested. Generally, these plant extracts inhibited the gram-positive micro-organisms more than the gram-negative ones. Several plant extracts inhibited the growth of Candida albicans while only one plant extract showed inhibitory activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All the plant extracts which demonstrated good anti-inflammatory activities also showed better inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.

  15. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla L. (Saltcedar) in mice.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Hamayun, Rahma; Ali, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol (70:30) as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition (p<0.005) of acetic acid- induced writhing, 63% reduction (p<0.005) in formalin-induced paw licking, and 42% increase (p<0.05) in reaction time as compared to normal control. The extract did not show significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, it showed significant antipyretic effect (p<0.005). The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Atrioventricular Conduction Delay in Fetuses Exposed to Anti-SSA/Ro and Anti-SSB/La Antibodies: A Magnetocardiography Study

    PubMed Central

    Wacker-Gußmann, Annette; Paulsen, Henrike; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Henes, Joerg; Muenssinger, Jana; Weiss, Magdalene; Goelz, Rangmar; Preissl, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Background. The presence of anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies during pregnancy is associated with fetal congenital heart block (CHB), which is primarily diagnosed through fetal echocardiography. Conclusive information about the complete electrophysiology of the fetal cardiac conducting system is still lacking. In addition to echocardiography, fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) can be used. fMCG is the magnetic analogue of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG). Patients and Methods. Forty-eight pregnant women were enrolled in an observational study; 16 of them tested positive for anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. In addition to routine fetal echocardiography, fMCG was used. Fetal cardiac time intervals (fCTIs) were extracted from the magnetic recordings by predefined procedures. ECGs in the neonates of the study group were performed within the first month after delivery. Results. The PQ segment of the fCTI was significantly prolonged in the study group (P = 0.007), representing a delay of the electrical impulse in the atrioventricular (AV) node. Other fCTIs were within normal range. None of the anti-SSA/Ro and/or anti-SSB/La fetuses progressed to a more advanced heart block during pregnancy or after birth. Conclusion. The study identified a low-risk population within antibody positive mothers, where PQ segment prolongation is associated with a lack of progression of the disease. PMID:23320018

  17. Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of SIP-S: A sulfated polysaccharide with anti-metastatic effect.

    PubMed

    Zong, Aizhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Jiang, Wenjie; Du, Fangling; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-09-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that SIP-S had anti-metastatic activity and inhibited the growth of metastatic foci. Here we report the anti-tumor and immunoregulatory potential of SIP-S. SIP-S could significantly inhibit tumor growth in S180-bearing mice, and the inhibition rates was 43.7% at 30 mg/kg d. Besides, SIP-S could improve the thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice and the mice treated with CTX. The combination of SIP-S (15 mg/kg d) with CTX (12.5 mg/kg d) showed higher anti-tumor potency than CTX (25 mg/kg d) alone. These results indicated that SIP-S had immunoenhancing and anticancer activity, and the immunoenhancing activity might be one mechanism for its anti-tumor activity. Flow cytometry results showed that SIP-S could induce tumor cells apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that SIP-S could upregulate the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax, and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein PARP-1 in tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, SIP-S has anti-tumor activity, which may be associated with its immunostimulating and pro-apoptotic activity.

  18. Anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and other pharmacologic and biological activities of penta-galloyl-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hagerman, Ann E.; Lü, Junxuan

    2010-01-01

    1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) is a polyphenolic compound highly enriched in a number of medicinal herbals. Several in vitro and a handful of in vivo studies have shown that PGG exhibits multiple biological activities which implicate a great potential for PGG in the therapy and prevention of several major diseases including cancer and diabetes. Chemically and functionally, PGG appears to be distinct from its constituent gallic acid or tea polyphenols. For anti-cancer activity, three published in vivo preclinical cancer model studies with PGG support promising efficacy to selectively inhibit malignancy without host toxicity. Potential mechanisms include anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative actions through inhibition of DNA replicative synthesis and S-phase arrest and also G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Putative molecular targets include p53, Stat3, Cox-2, VEGFR1, AP-1, SP-1, Nrf-2 and MMP-9. For anti-diabetic activity, PGG and analogues appear to improve glucose uptake. However, very little is known about the absorption, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PGG, nor its toxicity profile. The lack of large quantity of highly pure PGG has been a bottleneck limiting in vivo validation of cancer preventive and therapeutic efficacies in clinically relevant models. PMID:19575286

  19. Combination treatment with anti-CD20 and oral anti-CD3 prevents and reverses autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changyun; Ding, Heyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2013-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, although B cells also play an important role in T1D development. Both T cell- and B cell-directed immunotherapies have shown efficacy in the prevention and reversal of T1D. However, whether the combined strategy of targeting both T and B cells could further improve therapeutic efficacy remains to be explored. We show that combined treatment with intravenous antihuman CD20 (hCD20) and oral anti-CD3 significantly delays diabetes development in prediabetic hCD20 transgenic NOD mice. More importantly, the combined treatment reverses diabetes in >60% of mice newly diagnosed with diabetes. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the addition of oral anti-CD3 to the B-cell depletion therapy synergistically enhances the suppressive function of regulatory T cells. Of note, the oral anti-CD3 treatment induced a fraction of interleukin (IL)-10-producing CD4 T cells in the small intestine through IL-10- and IL-27-producing dendritic cells. Thus, the findings demonstrate that combining anti-CD20 and oral anti-CD3 is superior to anti-CD20 monotherapy for restoring normoglycemia in diabetic NOD mice, providing important preclinical evidence for the optimization of B cell-directed therapy for T1D.

  20. Oxidized LDL, anti-oxidized LDL and anti-annexin A5 antibodies in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Becarevic, Mirjana; Singh, Sandra; Majkic-Singh, Nada

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare whether oxidized LDL (oxLDL), anti-oxLDL and anti-annexin (anx) A5 antibodies are associated with clinical features of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), and to compare these to well-defined groups of non-PAPS myocardial infarction survivors (non-PAPS MI) and to non-PAPS patients with pulmonary emboli (non-PAPS PE). All parameters investigated were analyzed by ELISA using commercial reagents. PAPS patients with MI, in comparison to the group of non-PAPS MI survivors, had significantly elevated concentrations of oxLDL (p = 0.003) and anti-oxLDL antibodies (p = 0.024). Anti-anxA5 antibodies of the IgG isotype were associated with recurrent abortions (OR = 4.788, p = 0.036, 95% CI: 1.104 - 20.762). OxLDL and anti-oxLDL antibodies represent additional risk factors which, together with other factors, might lead to complications of arterial thromboses, such as myocardial infarctions in PAPS, while association of IgG anti-anxA5 antibodies with recurrent abortions is a reflection of the small number of patients with this feature involved in the study and should therefore be investigated further.