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  1. Development of stage-dependent glycans on the Fc domains of IgG antibodies of ALS animals.

    PubMed

    Edri-Brami, Meital; Sharoni, Hila; Hayoun, Dana; Skutelsky, Linor; Nemirovsky, Ana; Porgador, Angel; Lichtenstein, Rachel G

    2015-05-01

    We recently revealed a unique glycan on the Fc domain of IgG antibodies in ALS patients that mediates antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). This glycan has a bi-antennary structure that lacks the core fucose and sialic acid residues but contains a bisecting GlcNAc (A2BG2). Little is known, however, about the incidence of A2BG2 expression and IgG cytotoxicity under ALS conditions within well-defined clinical stages. Here, we characterize the IgG antibodies produced in ALS Tg mice by detecting intra- and extra-cellular antigens of motor neurons that express different glycan patterns during the disease. The increased number of innate immune cells found at the disease onset was insufficient to induce an optimal systemic T-cell response. Nevertheless, IgG antibodies were produced against intracellular antigens at the pre-symptomatic stage in the secondary lymphoid organs under the conditions of a poor systemic immune response. Moreover, while the glycosyltransferases of plasma B-cells that synthesize the Fc-glycans were regulated by IL-2 or IL-4, the observed glycosyltransferase pattern did not match that found in ALS Tg mice. We further found that A2BG2 glycan is specific for ALS, its quantity increased with disease progression and that the IgG antibodies identifying extracellular motor neuron antigens were developed at the final stage of the disease. Therefore, the most effective ADCC of motor neurons was observed at the end stage of the disease. We conclude that in ALS, IgG antibodies are produced despite the poor systemic immune response and that the frequency and quantity of A2BG2 glycan expression on the Fc domain depends on the clinical stage. Therefore, A2BG2 is a potential prognostic biomarker for ALS.

  2. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  3. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingchuan; Cornell, Lynn D

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, increased IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and often tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Elevation of serum IgG4 often accompanies IgG4-RD; however, it is not specific in reaching the diagnosis. Like IgG4-RD in other organs, IgG4-TIN characteristically responds promptly to steroids, although there is a high relapse rate on discontinuation of immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not understood.

  4. Human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibodies with human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 constant domains: electron microscopic and hydrodynamic characterization.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M L; Tao, M H; Morrison, S L; Schumaker, V N

    1994-10-01

    The unique structure of the human IgG3 constant region with its greatly extended hinge can clearly be seen in electron micrographs, which compare a series of recombinant proteins with the same murine anti-dansyl variable domain but constant domains from human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. The hinge region of IgG3 was found to be very long, with some measurements extending to 100 A. It exhibited considerable flexibility allowing the Fc to be displaced far toward either side. Upon addition of bivalent hapten, all of the monoclonal antibodies formed complexes. IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 formed circular dimers, composed of two antibodies forming a ring-shaped complex, presumably through the binding of two bivalent haptens. IgG2, on the other hand, showed a distribution of complexes which was noticeably different from the other subclasses. Some circular dimers, some linear dimers and a large amount of monomer were seen. This was interpreted in terms of an energy barrier to ring closure arising from the orientation of the Fab arms of IgG2 probably leading to linear dimers as the predominate complex seen with the analytical ultracentrifuge. A substantial number of these dimers probably dissociated upon dilution for examination in the electron microscope. The distribution of the angles between the Fab arms of the monoclonal antibodies forming the circular dimers has been measured for the different subclasses. Most were open at wide angles (> 100 degrees) but some formed very shallow angles, with the Fab arms being nearly parallel to each other. The free energy for this transition was calculated from the ratio of open/closed angles, and it was found to be proportional to the length of the upper hinge of the monoclonal antibody, in agreement with previous nanosecond depolarization results (Dangl et al., Eur. molec. Biol. Org. J. 7, 1989-1994, 1988).

  5. IgG subclasses to food antigens.

    PubMed

    Quinti, I; Papetti, C; D'Offizi, G; Cavagni, G; Panchor, M L; Lunardi, C; Paganelli, R

    1988-02-01

    Involvement of sub-classes of IgG that are specific for food allergens in anaphylactoid reactions and some manifestations of atopy no longer needs to be shown. Accordingly, sub-classes of IgG specific for ovalbumin (OVA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) were compared in healthy subjects and those who presented with an intolerance or food allergy to OVA and BLG to decide whether a restrictive diet was necessary. The four sub-classes of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 were isolated in all the groups. IgG4 was highest in the allergic subjects and the IgG sub-class values were modified by the diet differently in each group. Unfortunately, the small number of subjects does not allow the formation of a definite conclusion to this study.

  6. IgG4-related kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Lynn D

    2012-11-01

    IgG4-related kidney disease is a term that refers to any form of renal involvement by IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a recently recognized systemic immune-mediated disease. The most common renal manifestation is IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN), which presents as acute or chronic renal insufficiency, renal mass lesions, or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a plasma cell-rich interstitial inflammatory infiltrate with increased IgG4+ plasma cells, along with expansile interstitial fibrosis; tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits are common. IgG4-TIN usually shows a brisk response to immunosuppressive therapy. Glomeruli may be affected by IgG4-RD, usually in the form of membranous glomerulonephritis. Other patterns of glomerular disease include IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and endocapillary or mesangioproliferative immune complex glomerulonephritis. IgG4-related plasma cell arteritis has also been observed in the kidney. This review describes the histopathologic and immunophenotypic patterns of renal involvement by IgG4-RD, with associated clinical, radiographic, and serologic features.

  7. IgG4-related skin disease.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Y; Yagi, H; Yanaguchi, H; Majima, Y; Kasuya, A; Ito, T; Maekawa, M; Hashizume, H

    2014-11-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently established clinical entity characterized by high levels of circulating IgG4, and tissue infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells. IgG4-RD exhibits a distinctive fibroinflammatory change involving multiple organs, such as the pancreas and salivary and lacrimal glands. The skin lesions of IgG4-RD have been poorly characterized and may stem not only from direct infiltration of plasma cells but also from IgG4-mediated inflammation. Based on the documented cases together with ours, we categorized the skin lesions into seven subtypes: (1) cutaneous plasmacytosis (multiple papulonodules or indurations on the trunk and proximal part of the limbs), (2) pseudolymphoma and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (plaques and papulonodules mainly on the periauricular, cheek and mandible regions), (3) Mikulicz disease (palpebral swelling, sicca syndrome and exophthalmos), (4) psoriasis-like eruption (strikingly mimicking psoriasis vulgaris), (5) unspecified maculopapular or erythematous eruptions, (6) hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura (bilateral asymmetrical palpable purpuric lesions on the lower extremities) and urticarial vasculitis (prolonged urticarial lesions occasionally with purpura) and (7) ischaemic digit (Raynaud phenomenon and digital gangrene). It is considered that subtypes 1-3 are induced by direct infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells, while the other types (4-7) are caused by secondary mechanisms. IgG4-related skin disease is defined as IgG4(+) plasma-cell-infiltrating skin lesions that form plaques, nodules or tumours (types 1-3), but may manifest secondary lesions caused by IgG4(+) plasma cells and/or IgG4 (types 4-7).

  8. IgG4-related nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Roccatello, Dario

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disorder, often with multiple organ involvement, characterized by dense tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and frequently elevated serum IgG4 concentration. The kidney can be involved either directly or indirectly. The most frequent direct renal manifestations of IgG4-RD are IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and membranous glomerulonephropathy. Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is another condition that is frequently IgG4-related and that can indirectly affect the kidney causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography show different imaging findings and are useful tools for monitoring therapeutic response. Steroid treatment is the first line of therapy, but relapsing or refractory forms of the disease are frequently observed and require more aggressive therapeutic approaches. At our centre, we treated three cases of aggressive IgG4-related TIN and two cases of IgG4-related RPF with an intensified, immune suppressive protocol, obtaining good results without severe adverse effects.

  9. [IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2012-02-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions, mainly in exocrine tissue, that consist of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and sclerosis. There are numerous IgG4+ plasma cells in the affected tissues, and the serum IgG4 level is elevated in these patients. Ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease frequently involves bilateral lacrimal glands, and obliterative phlebitis is rare. Moreover, some malignant lymphomas, especially mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, arise from ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease. It is known that hyper IL-6 syndromes, such as multicentric Castleman's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases, fulfill the histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease; therefore, hyper IL-6 syndromes and IgG4-related disease cannot be differentially diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining alone. However, upon laboratory examination, hype IL-6 syndromes show elevation of the CRP level, polyclonal hyper gamma-globulinemia, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia. These findings are quite different from IgG4-related disease, which is not characterized by elevated serum IgA, IgM, and CRP levels. Therefore, laboratory findings are crucial for the differential diagnosis.

  10. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhang; Tongxi, Liu; Jie, Luo; Yujuan, Jiao; Wei, Jiang; Xia, Liu; Yumin, Zheng; Xin, Lu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the clinical, laboratory, imaging pathology, and prognosis features of IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis. We worked with a 55-year-old man suffering from IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis who had the most widespread lesion in his dura mater. We also review previous related studies and discuss the clinical characteristics of this rare disease. In total, eight IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis patients have been reported in the literature since 2009. They were mostly male patients, 51.7 ± 11.9 years old on average. Cervical and thoracic vertebrae were the most common sites for lesions. The most prominent symptom was varying numbness and weakness of the limbs and/or body associated with spinal cord compression. There was one patient (1/5) with elevated serum IgG4 levels and three patients (3/3) with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG4 index. Positive histopathologic findings are the strongest basis for a diagnosis. All the patients with IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis responded well to glucocorticoid therapy. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis is an orphan disease that mainly occurs in cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Older males are the most susceptible group. Serum IgG4 levels were consistently normal in these cases, so analysis of CSF for IgG4 production (IgG4 index) could become a useful tool. Pathological findings remain the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients responded favorably to glucocorticoid treatment.

  11. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  12. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:26617921

  13. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment.

  14. IgG4-related skin manifestations in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuya; Oka, Masahiro; Shimizu, Hideki; Hatakeyama, Mayumi; Kanki, Haruhisa; Kunisada, Makoto; Tsuji, Goh; Morinobu, Akio; Kumagai, Shunichi; Azumi, Atsushi; Negi, Akira; Nishigori, Chikako

    2013-04-01

    We describe two cases of IgG4-related disease associated with skin manifestations with IgG4-positive plasma cells. The first patient was a 52-year-old woman with a 3-year history of IgG4-related sialadenitis who presented with pruritic, indurated erythematous lesions on the auricle, postauricular and submandibular regions and neck. A skin biopsy showed infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the subcutaneous tissue. The second patient was a 53-year-old woman with IgG4-related lesions in the ocular adnexal tissues and nasal cavity who presented with pruritic, indurated erythema on the cheek and submandibular region. Histopathological examination of a skin biopsy revealed a dense, patchy infiltrate comprised of lymphocytes, IgG4-positive plasma cells and eosinophils around blood vessels and sweat glands in the entire dermis and subcutis. The skin lesions in these cases were considered to be skin manifestations of IgG4-related disease. The findings of these two cases together with the three reported cases of IgG4-related disease with skin manifestations in the literature suggest that IgG4-related skin lesions may appear on the scalp, face, neck, auricle and postauricular regions during the course of IgG4-related disease.

  15. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  16. Serum IgG subclasses in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoze; Li, Ping; Wu, Di; Xu, Dong; Hou, Yong; Wang, Qian; Li, Mengtao; Li, Yongzhe; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Shi, Qun

    2015-01-01

    To characterize serum IgG subclass levels in several autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We aimed to analyze serum IgG subclass distribution and to test whether serum IgG4 levels are elevated in these diseases. Serum IgG subclass levels from 102 pSS, 102 SSc, 100 SLE, and 59 PBC patients, as well as 40 healthy controls (HCs), were measured using the immunonephelometric assay. The distribution of IgG subclasses among these autoimmune diseases was analyzed. In this cross-sectional study, serum IgG1 (IgG1/IgG) and/or IgG3 (IgG3/IgG) were significantly increased, compared with those in HCs. Only 6.34% of patients had levels of serum IgG4 >135 mg/dL. There were no significant differences in the frequency of elevated serum IgG4 levels between patients and HC. In pSS, serum IgG1 levels were much higher than those in other disease groups, whereas serum IgG2 and IgG3 levels were most prominently increased in PBC. A strikingly different serum IgG subclass distribution was detected in patients with autoimmune diseases compared with HCs. Serum IgG subclass levels also showed distinct characteristics among different autoimmune diseases. Serum IgG4 levels in these patients were lower or not much higher than those in HCs, which differed from IgG4-related diseases.

  17. IgG4-related kidney disease--A review.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Dinesh; Pattnaik, Niharika; Silowash, Russell; Mohanty, Sambit Kumar

    2015-10-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by high levels of serum IgG4 and dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in multiple organs. The condition was first described as a disease of the pancreas, and has since been recognized in various organ systems including the kidneys. IgG4 related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) signifies any form of renal involvement by IgG4-RD. The most common renal involvement by IgG4-RD is tubulointerstitial nephritis. Glomerular disease, in particular membranous glomerulonephritis, may also be seen. Other co-existent glomerular diseases such as IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and mesangioproliferative immune complex glomerulonephritis may be identified. IgG4-related plasma cell arteritis has also been noted in the kidney. As with IgG4-RD in general, IgG4 related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) usually occurs in middle-aged to elderly men. Common findings in IgG4-RKD are plasma cell-rich interstitial inflammatory infiltrate either in a focal or diffuse pattern with increased IgG4+ plasma cells, expansile swirling interstitial fibrosis, high levels of serum IgG and IgG4, hypocomplementemia, high serum IgE levels and/or peripheral blood eosinophilia. By immunofluorescence, most of the cases show IgG4 dominant tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Similar to IgG4-RD, IgG4-RKD often shows a rapid response to steroid therapy. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on IgG4-RKD and its clinical relevance.

  18. An engineered Fc variant of an IgG eliminates all immune effector functions via structural perturbations.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Omid; Gilliland, Gary L; Brezski, Randall J; Strake, Brandy; Wilkinson, Teresa; Lacy, Eilyn R; Scallon, Bernard; Teplyakov, Alexey; Malia, Thomas J; Strohl, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Fc variant of IgG2, designated as IgG2σ, was engineered with V234A/G237A /P238S/H268A/V309L/A330S/P331S substitutions to eliminate affinity for Fcγ receptors and C1q complement protein and consequently, immune effector functions. IgG2σ was compared to other previously well-characterized Fc 'muted' variants, including aglycosylated IgG1, IgG2m4 (H268Q/V309L/A330S/P331S, changes to IgG4), and IgG4 ProAlaAla (S228P/L234A/L235A) in its capacity to bind FcγRs and activate various immune-stimulatory responses. In contrast to the previously characterized muted Fc variants, which retain selective FcγR binding and effector functions, IgG2σ shows no detectable binding to the Fcγ receptors in affinity and avidity measurements, nor any detectable antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, complement activity, or Fc-mediated cytokine release. Moreover, IgG2σ shows minimal immunogenic potential by T-cell epitope analysis. The circulating half-life of IgG2σ in monkeys is extended relative to IgG1 and IgG2, in spite of similar in vitro binding to recombinant FcRn. The three-dimensional structure of the Fc, needed for assessing the basis for the absence of effector function, was compared with that of IgG2 revealing a number of conformational differences near the hinge region of the CH2 domain that result from the amino acid substitutions. Modeling reveals that at least one of the key interactions with FcγRs is disrupted by a conformational change that reorients P329 to a position that prevents it from interacting with conserved W90 and W113 residues of the FcγRs. Inspection of the structure also indicated significant changes to the conformations of D270 and P329 in the CH2 domain that could negatively impact C1q binding. Thus, structural perturbations of the Fc provide a rationale for the loss of function. In toto, these properties of IgG2σ suggest that it is a superior alternative to previously described IgG variants of minimal effector function, for future

  19. [IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, Juan; Losada López, Inés; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2015-12-21

    IgG4-related disease is a recently described clinicopathological entity showing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that share a common pathology. Its most characteristic feature is the formation of inflammatory tumors in different organs, which makes differentiation mainly with neoplastic diseases fundamental. The inflammatory process is typically comprised of IgG4 lymphoplasmacytic cells. The pathophysiological role of the immunoglobulin is not clear. The treatment of choice is corticosteroids. This article aims to summarize the main features of the disease.

  20. IgG4-related kidney disease – an update

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues such as sarcoidosis. The kidney is a frequently affected organ with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the representative lesion of IgG4-RD. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Recent findings A wide range of renal manifestations of IgG4-RD, that is TIN, membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) and other glomerular lesions, and pyelitis, are collectively referred to as IgG4-RKD. Clinically, decreased renal function, or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography or diffuse thickening of the renal pelvic wall, are typical presenting features. Although a rapid response to corticosteroid therapy is a very important feature of IgG4-TIN, in cases in which renal function is moderately to severely decreased before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. Summary TIN with characteristic imaging findings is a typical manifestation of IgG4-RKD in the interstitium, while MGN is a representative manifestation of the glomerular lesions. Although IgG4 is a central feature of IgG4-RD, the recent discovery of IgG4-negative IgG4-RD raises questions about the causative role of the IgG4 molecule in this context. PMID:25594543

  1. IgG1 Is Pathogenic in Leishmania mexicana Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Niansheng; Thomas, Bolaji N.; Patel, Supriya R.; Buxbaum, Laurence U.

    2010-01-01

    There are over 2 million new cases of leishmaniasis annually, and no effective vaccine has been developed to prevent infection. In murine infection, Leishmania mexicana, which lives intracellularly in host macrophages, has developed pathways to hijack host IgG to induce a suppressive IL-10 response through FcγRs, the cell-surface receptors for IgG. To guide vaccine development away from detrimental Ab responses, which can accompany attempts to induce cell-mediated immunity, it is crucial to know which isotypes of IgG are pathogenic in this infection. We have found that IgG1 and IgG2a/c induce IL-10 from macrophages in vitro equally well but through different FcγR subtypes: IgG1 through FcγRIII, and IgG2a/c through FcγRI primarily, but also through FcγRIII. In sharp contrast, mice lacking IgG1 develop earlier and stronger IgG2a/c, IgG3, and IgM responses to L. mexicana infection and yet are more resistant to the infection. Thus, IgG1, but not IgG2a/c or IgG3, is pathogenic in vivo, in agreement with prior studies indicating that FcγRIII is required for chronic disease. This calls into question the assumption that macrophages, which should secrete IL-10 in response to both IgG1 and IgG2a/c immune complexes, are the most important source of IL-10 generated by IgG-FcγR engagement in L. mexicana infection. Further investigations are required to better determine the cell type responsible for this immunosuppressive FcγRIII-induced IL-10 pathway and whether IgG2a/c is protective. PMID:21037092

  2. Diagnostic performance of serum IgG4 level for IgG4-related disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-long; Ling, Ying-chun; Wang, Zhi-kai; Deng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    An elevated serum IgG4 level is one of the most useful factors in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of the published articles assessing the diagnostic accuracy of serum IgG4 concentrations for IgG4-RD. The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were systematically searched for relevant studies. Sensitivities and specificities of serum IgG4 in each study were calculated, and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model with a random effects model were employed to obtain the individual and pooled estimates of sensitivities and specificities. In total, twenty-three studies comprising 6048 patients with IgG4-RD were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity was 85% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 78–90%; the pooled specificity was 93% with a 95% CI of 90–95%. The HSROC curve for quantitative serum IgG4 lies closer to the upper left corner of the plot, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93, 0.97), which suggested a high diagnostic accuracy of serum IgG4 for the entity of IgG4-RD. Our study suggests that serum IgG4 has high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of IgG4-RD. PMID:27558881

  3. IgG4-related pleuritis with chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eisuke; Takayanagi, Noboru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Kagiyama, Naho; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Presently, 6 cases of IgG4-related pleuritis have been reported. We encountered a patient who developed chylothorax due to IgG4-related disease. To our knowledge, such patients have not been reported. This patient developed right-sided chylothorax and left-sided non-chylothorax lymphocyte-predominant pleuritis. Elevated serum and pleural IgG4 concentrations and histopathological analysis of pleural biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-related pleuritis. Left-sided pleuritis improved with corticosteroid therapy, but right-sided chylothorax persists. IgG4-related disease can be one cause of chylothorax.

  4. Detection of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients with IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenqiong; Wu, Xuefen; Miao, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Bai, Lin; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but can also be observed in other diseases. This study aimed to compare two different testing methods for IgG4: ELISA and nephelometric assay. Both assays were used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations, and to assess the prevalence of high serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD diseases. Methods A total of 80 serum samples were tested using the nephelometric assay and ELISA method that we established. Serum IgG4 concentrations were determined by ELISA for 957 patients with distinct diseases, including 12 cases of IgG4-RD and 945 cases of non-IgG4-RD. Results IgG4 levels from 80 selected serum samples examined by ELISA were in agreement with those detected using the nephelometry assay. Meanwhile, the serum IgG4 concentrations measured by ELISA were also consistent with the clinical diagnoses of patients with IgG4-RD during the course of disease. The Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35 g/L) were detected in all IgG4-RD (12/12) patients, and the prevalence of high IgG4 serum levels was 3.39% in non-IgG4-RD cases. Among them, the positive rates of serum IgG4 were 2.06% in patients with carcinoma and 6.3% in patients with other non-IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Conclusion Our established ELISA method is a reliable and convenient technique, which could be extensively used in the clinic to measure serum IgG4 levels. High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, this phenomenon could also be observed in other diseases, such as carcinomas and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease cannot only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels. PMID:25885536

  5. [Histopathology of IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Detlefsen, S; Klöppel, G

    2016-09-01

    At an international consensus conference in 2011, multifocal chronic fibrosing inflammatory processes, which are associated with elevated IgG4 serum levels and/or tissue infiltration with IgG4 positive plasma cells, were recognized as a distinct disease entity called IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). As IgG4-RD responds well to steroid treatment but imitates a tumor in many organs, particularly in the pancreas, a biopsy for confirmation of the diagnosis is often warranted. The histological criteria for IgG4-RD as defined in 2011 are based on the following main features: 1) dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, 2) storiform fibrosis and 3) obliterative phlebitis. The diagnosis is further supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of an increased infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio. The morphological criteria of IgG4-RD are in most cases detectable in biopsies and can significantly contribute to the diagnosis of this disease, in concert with clinical, serological (elevated serum IgG4 level) and radiological features.

  6. [IgG4 immunohistochemistry in Riedle thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Luo, Y F; Cao, J L; Zhang, H; Shi, X H; Liang, Z Y; Feng, R E

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To observe the histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of IgG4 in Riedle thyroiditis (RT) and to study the relationship between RT and IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). Methods: A total of 5 RT patients were collected from the Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during April 2012 to August 2014. The clinical and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in the 5 patients. Histopathologic analysis was performed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Results: There were one male and four female patients, aged 52 to 78 years (median 59 years). Five cases were characterized by multiple nodules of thyroid, which increased year by year. All patients were found to have surrounding tissue compression symptoms and signs. Two female patients were found to have hypothyroidism. The serum concentration of IgG was elevated in 2 cases, and the serum concentration of IgG was not tested before operation in the remaining patients. By ultrasound, all presented as low echo or medium low echo. Strong echo occasionally appeared in hypoechoic nodules. Microscopically, fibrous tissue hyperplasia was infiltrated with varying numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The occlusion of phlebitis was found in 4 cases and eosinophils were found in 3 cases. IgG4 counts and IgG4/IgG ratios in 5 cases were 20/HPF, 16%; 60/HPF, 82%; 22/HPF, 28%; 400/HPF, 266% and 33/HPF, 71%, respectively. Conclusions: With the similar pathological manifestations between RT and IgG4-RD, immunohistochemical staining shows that the number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio of RT are increased in varying degrees. Some cases meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, and speculate that some cases of RT belong to IgG4-RD.

  7. Phase transitions in human IgG solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil F.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Hideshima, Teru; Richardson, Paul G.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Benedek, George B.

    2013-09-01

    Protein condensations, such as crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, aggregation, and gelation, have been observed in concentrated antibody solutions under various solution conditions. While most IgG antibodies are quite soluble, a few outliers can undergo condensation under physiological conditions. Condensation of IgGs can cause serious consequences in some human diseases and in biopharmaceutical formulations. The phase transitions underlying protein condensations in concentrated IgG solutions is also of fundamental interest for the understanding of the phase behavior of non-spherical protein molecules. Due to the high solubility of generic IgGs, the phase behavior of IgG solutions has not yet been well studied. In this work, we present an experimental approach to study IgG solutions in which the phase transitions are hidden below the freezing point of the solution. Using this method, we have investigated liquid-liquid phase separation of six human myeloma IgGs and two recombinant pharmaceutical human IgGs. We have also studied the relation between crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of two human cryoglobulin IgGs. Our experimental results reveal several important features of the generic phase behavior of IgG solutions: (1) the shape of the coexistence curve is similar for all IgGs but quite different from that of quasi-spherical proteins; (2) all IgGs have critical points located at roughly the same protein concentration at ˜100 mg/ml while their critical temperatures vary significantly; and (3) the liquid-liquid phase separation in IgG solutions is metastable with respect to crystallization. These features of phase behavior of IgG solutions reflect the fact that all IgGs have nearly identical molecular geometry but quite diverse net inter-protein interaction energies. This work provides a foundation for further experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of generic IgGs as well as outliers with large propensity to

  8. Phase transitions in human IgG solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil F; Laubach, Jacob P; Hideshima, Teru; Richardson, Paul G; Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C; Benedek, George B

    2013-09-28

    Protein condensations, such as crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, aggregation, and gelation, have been observed in concentrated antibody solutions under various solution conditions. While most IgG antibodies are quite soluble, a few outliers can undergo condensation under physiological conditions. Condensation of IgGs can cause serious consequences in some human diseases and in biopharmaceutical formulations. The phase transitions underlying protein condensations in concentrated IgG solutions is also of fundamental interest for the understanding of the phase behavior of non-spherical protein molecules. Due to the high solubility of generic IgGs, the phase behavior of IgG solutions has not yet been well studied. In this work, we present an experimental approach to study IgG solutions in which the phase transitions are hidden below the freezing point of the solution. Using this method, we have investigated liquid-liquid phase separation of six human myeloma IgGs and two recombinant pharmaceutical human IgGs. We have also studied the relation between crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of two human cryoglobulin IgGs. Our experimental results reveal several important features of the generic phase behavior of IgG solutions: (1) the shape of the coexistence curve is similar for all IgGs but quite different from that of quasi-spherical proteins; (2) all IgGs have critical points located at roughly the same protein concentration at ~100 mg/ml while their critical temperatures vary significantly; and (3) the liquid-liquid phase separation in IgG solutions is metastable with respect to crystallization. These features of phase behavior of IgG solutions reflect the fact that all IgGs have nearly identical molecular geometry but quite diverse net inter-protein interaction energies. This work provides a foundation for further experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of generic IgGs as well as outliers with large propensity to

  9. Human IgG4: a structural perspective

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna M; Sutton, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    IgG4, the least represented human IgG subclass in serum, is an intriguing antibody with unique biological properties, such as the ability to undergo Fab-arm exchange and limit immune complex formation. The lack of effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, is desirable for therapeutic purposes. IgG4 plays a protective role in allergy by acting as a blocking antibody, and inhibiting mast cell degranulation, but a deleterious role in malignant melanoma, by impeding IgG1-mediated anti-tumor immunity. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between IgG4 and Fcγ receptors. Despite a wealth of structural information for the IgG1 subclass, including complexes with Fcγ receptors, and structures for intact antibodies, high-resolution crystal structures were not reported for IgG4-Fc until recently. Here, we highlight some of the biological properties of human IgG4, and review the recent crystal structures of IgG4-Fc. We discuss the unexpected conformations adopted by functionally important Cγ2 domain loops, and speculate about potential implications for the interaction between IgG4 and FcγRs. PMID:26497518

  10. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Mollie N.; Stone, John H.; Deshpande, Vikram; Khosroshahi, Arezou

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI) based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's granulomatosis (BVAS/WG). The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician's global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure. PMID:22611406

  11. IgG4 plasma cell myeloma: new insights into the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Julia T; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jayabalan, David S; Mathew, Susan; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Geyer, Alexander I; Orazi, Attilio; Ely, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly described systemic fibroinflammatory process, characterized by increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Its pathogenesis, including the role of IgG4, remains poorly understood. Plasma cell myeloma is typically associated with a large monoclonal serum spike, which is frequently of IgG isotype. We sought to identify and characterize a subset of IgG4-secreting myeloma, as it may provide a biological model of disease with high serum levels of IgG4. Six out of 158 bone marrow biopsies (4%) from patients with IgG myeloma expressed IgG4. Four patients were men and two were women, with a mean age of 64 (range 53-87) years. Imaging showed fullness of pancreatic head (1), small non-metabolic lymphadenopathy (1), and bone lytic lesions (6). Two patients developed necrotizing fasciitis. All had elevated serum M-protein (mean 2.4, range 0.5-4.2 g/dl), and none had definite signs or symptoms of IgG4-related disease. Four myelomas had plasmablastic morphology. Four had kappa and two had lambda light chain expression. Three cases expressed CD56. Two patients had a complex karyotype. In conclusion, the frequency of IgG4 myeloma correlates with the normal distribution of IgG4 isoform. The patients with IgG4 myeloma appear to have a high rate of plasmablastic morphology and could be predisposed to necrotizing fasciitis. Despite high serum levels of IgG4, none had evidence of IgG4-related disease. These findings suggest that the increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells is not the primary etiologic agent in IgG4-related disease. Elevated serum levels of IgG4 is not sufficient to produce the typical disease presentation and should not be considered diagnostic of IgG4-related disease.

  12. IgG from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Increases Current Through P-Type Calcium Channels in Mammalian Cerebellar Purkinje Cells and in Isolated Channel Protein in Lipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, R.; Sugimori, M.; Cherksey, B. D.; Smith, R. Glenn; Delbono, O.; Stefani, E.; Appel, S.

    1993-12-01

    The effect of the IgG from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients was tested on the voltage-dependent barium currents (IBa) in mammalian dissociated Purkinje cells and in isolated P-type calcium channels in lipid bilayers. Whole cell clamp of Purkinje cells demonstrates that ALS IgG increases the amplitude of IBa without modifying their voltage kinetics. This increased IBa could be blocked by a purified nonpeptide toxin from Agelenopsis aperta venom (purified funnel-web spider toxin) or by a synthetic polyamine analog (synthetic funnel-web spider toxin) and by a peptide toxin from the same spider venom, ω-Aga-IVA. Similar results were obtained on single-channel recordings from purified P channel protein. The addition of ALS IgG increased single-channel IBa open time without affecting slope conductance. The results described above were not seen with normal human IgG nor with boiled ALS IgG. It is concluded that ALS IgG enhances inward current through P-type calcium channels. Since P-type Ca2+ channels are present in motoneuron axon terminals, we propose that the enhanced calcium current triggered by ALS IgG may contribute to neuronal damage in ALS.

  13. [IgG4-related systemic disease/systemic IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2010-05-01

    IgG4-related systemic disease/systemic IgG4-related disease has been established as a new systemic disease entity. It is characterized by high serum IgG4 concentrations and abundant IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration in the involved organs. The chronic inflammation can attack lacrimal glands, salivary glands, the thyroid, lung, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. The concept includes Mikulicz's disease, Riedel's thyroiditis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary pseudotumor, autoimmune pancreatitis, a part of tubulointerstitial nephritis, and chronic prostatitis. It is important to note that these lesions can occur at different times and sites. So, it is necessary to reconfirm the disease definition and entity in each specialized field. The diagnosis of this disease is confirmed by the above serological and histopathological characteristics. There are clinical diagnostic criteria of Mikulicz's disease (the Japanese Medical Society for Sjögren's Syndrome) and autoimmune pancreatitis (the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Japan Pancreas Society). They are convenient and useful. Glucocorticoid improves the physical abnormalities, and the initial dose of prednisolone is 30 mg/day, tapered in 5-mg reductions every two weeks. Nevertheless, there are some cases unable to achieve complete remission.

  14. IgG subclass co-expression brings harmony to the quartet model of murine IgG function.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    A model of murine IgG function is presented in which the co-expression of the IgG subclasses is a central feature, class switching occurs before the commencement of somatic hypermutation, and there is little switching between subclasses. It is named the quartet model to emphasize the harmony that comes from the simultaneous presence of the four subclasses. In this model, IgG3 and IgG2b antibodies are particularly important early in the response, when T-cell help may be limiting. IgG3 initiates inflammation through complement fixation, whereas IgG2b provides early FcγR-mediated effector functions. As T-cell help strengthens, IgG2a antibodies increase the power of the response, whereas IgG1 production helps limit the inflammatory drive and limits immunopathology. The model highlights the fact that murine IgG subclasses function quite differently to human IgG subclasses. This allows them to serve the special immunological needs of a species that is vulnerable because of its small size.

  15. Epitope-Specific Suppression of IgG Responses by Passively Administered Specific IgG: Evidence of Epitope Masking

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Joakim J. E.; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Specific IgG, passively administered together with particulate antigen, can completely prevent induction of antibody responses to this antigen. The ability of IgG to suppress antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) is intact in mice lacking FcγRs, complement factor 1q, C3, or complement receptors 1 and 2, suggesting that Fc-dependent effector functions are not involved. Two of the most widely discussed explanations for the suppressive effect are increased clearance of IgG–antigen complexes and/or that IgG “hides” the antigen from recognition by specific B cells, so-called epitope masking. The majority of data on how IgG induces suppression was obtained through studies of the effects on IgM-secreting single spleen cells during the first week after immunization. Here, we show that IgG also suppresses antigen-specific extrafollicular antibody-secreting cells, germinal center B-cells, long-lived plasma cells, long-term IgG responses, and induction of memory antibody responses. IgG anti-SRBC reduced the amount of SRBC in the spleens of wild-type, but not of FcγR-deficient mice. However, no correlation between suppression and the amount of SRBC in the spleen was observed, suggesting that increased clearance does not explain IgG-mediated suppression. Instead, we found compelling evidence for epitope masking because IgG anti-NP administered with NP-SRBC suppressed the IgG anti-NP, but not the IgG anti-SRBC response. Vice versa, IgG anti-SRBC administered with NP-SRBC, suppressed only the IgG anti-SRBC response. In conclusion, passively transferred IgG suppressed all measured parameters of an antigen-specific antibody/B cell response and an important mechanism of action is likely to be epitope masking. PMID:28321225

  16. IgG4 Staining in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Irwin; Rajak, Saul N; Kearney, Daniel J; Andrew, Nicholas H; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-09-10

    IgG4-related ophthalmic disease is increasingly widely recognized. Moreover, IgG4 staining can occur in other inflammatory diseases. The authors report a case of IgG4 staining of an enlarged, inflamed levator palpebrae superioris in a patient with a past history of thyroid eye disease. A 78-year-old woman with quiescent hyperthyroidism had clinical and radiological evidence of levator palpebrae superioris inflammation without superior rectus involvement. A biopsy was consistent with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease. There was a marked but incomplete response to an orbital injection of triamcinolone. The authors discuss the association between thyroid eye disease and IgG4 staining and the diagnostic issues that arise when IgG4-related ophthalmic disease criteria are fulfilled in patients with other orbital inflammatory conditions.

  17. Diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hiroshi; Takahira, Masayuki; Takahira, Masahiro; Azumi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a novel clinical entity characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and elevated serum IgG4 concentration accompanied by enlargement of and masses in various organs, including the lacrimal gland, salivary gland, and pancreas. Recent studies have clarified that conditions previously diagnosed as Mikulicz disease as well as various types of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrative disorders of the ocular adnexa are consistent with a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. Against this background, the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related ophthalmic disease have recently been established, based on both the clinical and the histopathologic features of the ocular lesions. This article reviews these new criteria with reference to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease for all systemic conditions reported in 2012.

  18. IgG4 Characteristics and Functions in Cancer Immunity.

    PubMed

    Crescioli, Silvia; Correa, Isabel; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Davies, Anna M; Sutton, Brian J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2016-01-01

    IgG4 is the least abundant subclass of IgG in normal human serum, but elevated IgG4 levels are triggered in response to a chronic antigenic stimulus and inflammation. Since the immune system is exposed to tumor-associated antigens over a relatively long period of time, and tumors notoriously promote inflammation, it is unsurprising that IgG4 has been implicated in certain tumor types. Despite differing from other IgG subclasses by only a few amino acids, IgG4 possesses unique structural characteristics that may be responsible for its poor effector function potency and immunomodulatory properties. We describe the unique attributes of IgG4 that may be responsible for these regulatory functions, particularly in the cancer context. We discuss the inflammatory conditions in tumors that support IgG4, the emerging and proposed mechanisms by which IgG4 may contribute to tumor-associated escape from immune surveillance and implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Reformatting Rituximab into Human IgG2 and IgG4 Isotypes Dramatically Improves Apoptosis Induction In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Könitzer, Jennifer D.; Sieron, Annette; Wacker, Angelika; Enenkel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The direct induction of cell death, or apoptosis, in target cells is one of the effector mechanisms for the anti CD20 antibody Rituximab. Here we provide evidence that Rituximab’s apoptotic ability is linked to the antibody IgG isotype. Reformatting Rituximab from the standard human IgG1 heavy chain into IgG2 or IgG4 boosted in vitro apoptosis induction in the Burkitt’s lymphoma B cell line Ramos five and four-fold respectively. The determinants for this behavior are located in the hinge region and CH1 domain of the heavy chain. By transplanting individual IgG2 or IgG4 specific amino acid residues onto otherwise IgG1 like backbones, thereby creating hybrid antibodies, the same enhancement of apoptosis induction could be achieved. The cysteines at position 131 of the CH1 domain and 219 in the hinge region, involved in IgG2 and IgG4 disulfide formation, were found to be of particular structural importance. Our data indicates that the hybrid antibodies possess a different CD20 binding mode than standard Rituximab, which appears to be key in enhancing apoptotic ability. The presented work opens up an interesting engineering route for enhancing the direct cytotoxic ability of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:26713448

  20. Clinicopathologic analysis of IgG4-related skin disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuharu; Takeuchi, Mai; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Ohno, Kyotaro; Iwaki, Noriko; Orita, Yorihisa; Goto, Naoe; Hida, Akira I; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Asano, Naoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Hanakawa, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, increase in the number of IgG4(+) cells in affected tissues and elevation of serum IgG4 levels. In 2009, we were the first to report skin lesions in patients with IgG4-related disease, but no large case series has been reported and clinicopathological findings remain unclear. To clarify these features, we herein report 10 patients (9 men and 1 woman; median age, 64 years; age range, 46-81 years) with IgG4-related skin disease. All patients had erythematous and itchy plaques or subcutaneous nodules on the skin of the head and neck, particularly in the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions, except for one patient, whose forearm and waist skin were affected. In addition, eight patients had extracutaneous lesions: these were found on the lymph nodes in six patients, the lacrimal glands in three patients, the parotid glands in three patients, and the kidney in one patient. Histologically examined extracutaneous lesions were consistent with IgG4-related disease; five of six lymph node lesions showed progressively transformed germinal centers-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Cases of IgG4-related skin disease were classified into two histological patterns: those exhibiting a nodular dermatitis pattern and those with a subcutaneous nodule pattern. The infiltrate was rich in plasma cells, small lymphocytes, and eosinophils; the majority of the plasma cells were IgG4(+). The IgG4(+) cell count was 49-396 per high-power field (mean±s.d., 172±129), with an IgG4(+)/IgG(+) cell ratio ranging from 62 to 92%. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all examined patients. In conclusion, patients with IgG4-related skin disease had uniform clinicopathology. Lesions were frequently present on the skin of the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions, and were frequently accompanied by IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

  1. Charge variants in IgG1

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sirj; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kwong, Zephania W; Yang, Jihong; Wang, Xiangdan; Yao, Zhenling; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Cano, Tony; Tesar, Devin; Nijem, Ihsan; Allison, David E; Wong, Pin Yee; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Quan, Cynthia; Joshi, Amita; Harris, Reed J; Motchnik, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Antibody charge variants have gained considerable attention in the biotechnology industry due to their potential influence on stability and biological activity. Subtle differences in the relative proportions of charge variants are often observed during routine biomanufacture or process changes and pose a challenge to demonstrating product comparability. To gain further insights into the impact on biological activity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge heterogeneity, we isolated the major charge forms of a recombinant humanized IgG1 and compared their in vitro properties and in vivo PK. The mAb starting material had a pI range of 8.7–9.1 and was composed of about 20% acidic variants, 12% basic variants and 68% main peak. Cation exchange displacement chromatography was used to isolate the acidic, basic and main peak fractions for animal studies. Detailed analyses were performed on the isolated fractions to identify specific chemical modification contributing to the charge differences and were also characterized for purity and in vitro potency prior to being administered either subcutaneously (SC) or intravenously (IV) in rats. All isolated materials had similar potency and rat FcRn binding relative to the starting material. Following IV or SC administration (10 mg/kg) in rats, no difference in serum PK was observed, indicating that physiochemical modifications and pI differences among charge variants were not sufficient to result in PK changes. Thus, these results provided meaningful information for the comparative evaluation of charge-related heterogeneity of mAbs and suggested that charge variants of IgGs do not affect the in vitro potency, FcRn binding affinity or the PK properties in rats. PMID:20818176

  2. A condition closely mimicking IgG4-related disease despite the absence of serum IgG4 elevation and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration.

    PubMed

    Hara, Satoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Fujita, Kentaro; Harada, Kenichi; Matsumura, Masami; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sato, Yasuharu; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Nagata, Michio

    2016-09-01

    We describe a 74-year-old Japanese man with systemic fibroinflammatory conditions closely resembling those of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Radiology and histology showed characteristics of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, despite normal serum IgG4 value and scanty IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in each organ. This case suggests that a condition closely mimicking IgG4-RD may develop without IgG4-positive plasma cells and those exceptional cases should also be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of IgG4-RD.

  3. [IgG4- and MPO-ANCA-associated hypertrophic pachymeningitis].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Josep M; Arias-Rivero, Montserrat; García-Barrionuevo, Joan M; Lucchetti, Gianni

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. La paquimeningitis hipertrofica idiopatica es una enfermedad fibroinflamatoria de la duramadre. Su diagnostico requiere la exclusion de enfermedades infecciosas, tumorales y otras enfermedades inflamatorias. En los ultimos años se han descrito nuevas entidades que pueden presentarse con paquimeningitis hipertrofica: la enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 y la paquimeningitis MPO-ANCA+ como forma de vasculitis limitada al sistema nervioso central. Caso clinico. Varon de 64 años con cefalea y cervicalgia de predominio nocturno y clinica de compresion medular. Tras el diagnostico de paquimeningitis hipertrofica craneocervical facilitado por el estudio de resonancia magnetica, se realizo un estudio etiologico. Se descartaron enfermedades infecciosas y tumorales. La clinica no mostraba afectacion sistemica y en la analitica presentaba IgG4 elevada y MPO-ANCA+. Tras tratamiento con corticoides presento una rapida mejoria de la clinica. Conclusiones. La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 y la vasculitis asociada a MPO-ANCA limitada al sistema nervioso central pueden representar un alto porcentaje de las paquimeningitis hipertroficas que se consideraban idiopaticas, y su diagnostico requiere biopsia y estudio histologico.

  4. [Research hotspot in IgG4-related sialadenitis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Ping, F Y; Pan, H B

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a novel clinical entity which can affect single or multiple organs. IgG4-related sialadenitis is referred to the salivary gland involvement of IgG4-related disease, with or without other organ involvement. IgG4-related sialadenitis is characterized by painless swelling or enlargement of salivary glands, high serum IgG4 level, abundant IgG4+ plasma cells infiltration with fibrosis histologically, and good response to glucocorticoids. With review of related articles, highlight and provide an overview of the most recent and focused findings and concepts of this disease, including the most significant pathogenic process based on kinds of immunocytes, cytokines, as well as participation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, the clinical value of elevated serum IgG4 concentration and pathological role of infiltrated IgG4+ plasma cells, the potential relationship with salivary gland malignant tumor, the applying and usefulness of positron emission tomography-CT, the diagnostic utility of lip biopsy, treatment, prognosis, and also future perspectives.

  5. Heterogeneity of IgG glycosylation in adult periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, J; Tomana, M; Shah, G R; Brown, R; Mestecky, J

    2005-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of bacterial etiology. In many other chronic inflammatory diseases, IgG glycans are galactose-deficient and thus capable of complement activation through the lectin pathway. In this study, we examined whether IgG in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and IgG locally produced by plasma cells in gingiva of periodontal disease patients, display altered glycosylation. We developed a lectin-ELISA to measure levels of galactose-deficient IgG in the fluids and immunofluorescence staining to detect galactose-deficient IgG-producing cells in gingiva. Our results indicated higher levels of galactose-deficient IgG in sera and gingival crevicular fluid from periodontal disease patients, compared with levels in healthy controls. Furthermore, gingivae from periodontal disease patients exhibited infiltration of IgG-producing plasma cells; many of them contained galactose-deficient IgG in the cytoplasm. Analysis of our data suggests that IgG secreted by B-cells was aberrantly glycosylated, which resulted in the production of pro-inflammatory galactose-deficient IgG.

  6. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Isolated Scleritis

    PubMed Central

    Arnon, Ella; Yaakobi, Alona; Cohen, Yuval; Tiosano, Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    A rare case of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) manifesting as nodular scleritis is presented in a 20-year-old female. Patient complained of left eye pain and redness for one week. Ocular examination together with ancillary testing led to the diagnosis of nodular scleritis. Since the patient did not show apparent improvement after one week of systemic steroidal treatment, she underwent a biopsy of the affected area revealing histopathological characteristics of IgG4-RD. Long-term treatment with corticosteroids and a steroid-sparing agent (methotrexate) led to significant improvement in signs and symptoms. This case highlights the significance of IgG4-RD in the differential diagnosis of scleritis and raises the question as to whether various organs affected by IgG4-RD may have different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in which pathogenic T cells play a role. PMID:28149653

  7. Overview of routes of IgG administration.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Troy R

    2013-01-01

    The use of exogenous serum to provide protection against infections began more than a century ago. Over time, this concept matured and led to the preparation of concentrated immunoglobulin (IgG) products that were safe and effective when delivered subcutaneously (SC) or intramuscularly (IM) but were not ideal for intravenous (IV) use. Continued improvements led to the development of IgG preparations that are safe for either subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) or intravenous IgG (IVIG) delivery and allow providers and patients significant flexibility to develop an effective but manageable treatment plan. Factors that influence the choice of IgG product and delivery method can maximize the therapeutic benefit and provide the best possible quality of life for patients.

  8. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called "Inclonals." By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the "Inclonals" technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals.

  9. IgG4-related systemic disease and lymphoplasmacytic aortitis.

    PubMed

    Stone, John H; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Hilgenberg, Alan; Spooner, Amy; Isselbacher, Eric M; Stone, James R

    2009-10-01

    We describe herein a patient who developed a dissection of the ascending aorta in the setting of IgG4-related systemic disease, linking IgG4-related systemic disease with a newly-recognized subset of noninfectious aortitis. At the time of aortic surgery, a transmural lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was detected in the patient's aorta, with a principal focus of inflammation within the media. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that >50% of the plasma cells in the lesion stained for IgG4. By in situ hybridization, the plasma cells showed polytypic staining for kappa and lambda light chains, consistent with a polyclonal plasma cell infiltrate. Serologic evaluation revealed that the patient's IgG4 levels were elevated nearly 10-fold. Four years before aortic surgery, the patient had undergone a mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Reexamination of the lymph node revealed features consistent with IgG4-related systemic disease, which had not been recognized at the time of the original biopsy. Glucocorticoid therapy for the IgG4-related systemic disease yielded a prompt response. Recognition that IgG4-related systemic disease can involve the ascending as well as the descending abdominal aorta indicates the need for a change in the way idiopathic aortitis is regarded. This case offers new potential considerations for short- and long-term management of noninfectious aortitis, because of the frequent good response of IgG4-related systemic disease to glucocorticoid treatment without additional therapy. Treatment of the aortitis may prevent progression of the IgG4-related systemic disease to involvement of other organs. IgG4-related systemic disease should be considered in all patients with aortitis judged to be of unknown etiology.

  10. Ocular adnexal IgG4-producing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuharu; Ohshima, Koh-Ichi; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Huang, Xingang; Cui, Wei; Ohno, Kyotaro; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently proposed clinical entity with several unique clinicopathological features. A chronic inflammatory state with marked fibrosis, which can often be mistaken for malignancy, especially by clinical imaging analyses, unifies these features. In the present report, we describe a case of IgG4-producing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease. The patient was a 55-year-old male who was being followed for right orbital tumor over 1.5 years. The lesion had recently increased in size, so a biopsy was performed. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with IgG4-related disease ; however, IgG4+ plasma cells showed immunoglobulin light-chain restriction and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement was detected in the lesion. Therefore, the lesion was diagnosed as IgG4-producing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In conclusion, in histological diagnosis of IgG4-related disease, it is important to examine not only IgG4-immunostain but also immunoglobulin light-chain restriction.

  11. IgG4-producing lymphoma arising in a patient with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takuro; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Ishiguro, Kazuya; Maruyama, Yumiko; Takeuchi, Mai; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2016-12-01

    We herein report a case in which an IgG4-producing lymphoma arose in a patient with a previous diagnosis consistent with an IgG4-related disease. A 43-year-old man presented with enlarged cervical lymph nodes and was treated with steroids and radiation for what was initially assumed to be Kimura's disease, although the lesions were later histologically re-diagnosed as IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Fourteen years later, when the patient was 58-years-old, he presented with retroperitoneal fibrosis and swollen lymph nodes. The suspicious lesions were not histologically examined as the patient did not give consent. However, the serum IgG4 concentration was high (1400 mg/dL) and he was clinically diagnosed with systemic IgG4-related disease. Although steroid administration reduced the size of the lesions, tapering the dose finally resulted in systemic, prominently enlarged lymph nodes. Analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed that these multiple lymph node lesions were marginal zone B cell lymphomas that themselves expressed IgG4. Complete remission was achieved after a total of six courses of chemotherapy including rituximab. This case suggests that the infiltrating IgG4-expressing cells observed in IgG4-related disease can clonally expand to malignant lymphomas.

  12. Pathogenicity and Epitope Characteristics Do Not Differ in IgG Subclass-Switched Anti-Desmoglein 3 IgG1 and IgG4 Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lo, Agnes S; Mao, Xuming; Mukherjee, Eric M; Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Yu, Xiaocong; Posner, Marshall R; Payne, Aimee S; Cavacini, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is characterized by IgG1 and IgG4 autoantibodies to desmoglein (Dsg) 3, causing suprabasal blistering of skin and mucous membranes. IgG4 is the dominant autoantibody subclass in PV and correlates with disease activity, whereas IgG1 can be associated with remittent disease. It is unknown if switching the same variable region between IgG4 and IgG1 directly impacts pathogenicity. Here, we tested whether three pathogenic PV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from three different patients demonstrate differences in antigen affinity, epitope specificity, or pathogenicity when expressed as IgG1 or IgG4. F706 anti-Dsg3 IgG4 and F779 anti-Dsg3 IgG1, previously isolated as heterohybridomas, and Px43, a monovalent anti-Dsg3/Dsg1 IgG antibody isolated by phage display, were subcloned to obtain paired sets of IgG1 and IgG4 mAbs. Using ELISA and cell surface staining assays, F706 and F779 demonstrated similar antigen binding affinities of IgG1 and IgG4, whereas Px43 showed 3- to 8-fold higher affinity of IgG4 versus IgG1 by ELISA, but identical binding affinities to human skin, perhaps due to targeting of a quaternary epitope best displayed in tissues. All 3 mAb pairs targeted the same extracellular cadherin (EC) domain on Dsg3, caused Dsg3 internalization in primary human keratinocytes, and caused suprabasal blisters in human skin at comparable doses. We conclude that switching IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses of pathogenic PV mAbs does not directly affect their antigen binding or pathogenic properties.

  13. Pathogenicity and Epitope Characteristics Do Not Differ in IgG Subclass-Switched Anti-Desmoglein 3 IgG1 and IgG4 Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Yu, Xiaocong; Posner, Marshall R.; Payne, Aimee S.

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is characterized by IgG1 and IgG4 autoantibodies to desmoglein (Dsg) 3, causing suprabasal blistering of skin and mucous membranes. IgG4 is the dominant autoantibody subclass in PV and correlates with disease activity, whereas IgG1 can be associated with remittent disease. It is unknown if switching the same variable region between IgG4 and IgG1 directly impacts pathogenicity. Here, we tested whether three pathogenic PV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from three different patients demonstrate differences in antigen affinity, epitope specificity, or pathogenicity when expressed as IgG1 or IgG4. F706 anti-Dsg3 IgG4 and F779 anti-Dsg3 IgG1, previously isolated as heterohybridomas, and Px43, a monovalent anti-Dsg3/Dsg1 IgG antibody isolated by phage display, were subcloned to obtain paired sets of IgG1 and IgG4 mAbs. Using ELISA and cell surface staining assays, F706 and F779 demonstrated similar antigen binding affinities of IgG1 and IgG4, whereas Px43 showed 3- to 8-fold higher affinity of IgG4 versus IgG1 by ELISA, but identical binding affinities to human skin, perhaps due to targeting of a quaternary epitope best displayed in tissues. All 3 mAb pairs targeted the same extracellular cadherin (EC) domain on Dsg3, caused Dsg3 internalization in primary human keratinocytes, and caused suprabasal blisters in human skin at comparable doses. We conclude that switching IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses of pathogenic PV mAbs does not directly affect their antigen binding or pathogenic properties. PMID:27304671

  14. Analysis of maternal IgG subpopulations which are transported into the chicken oocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Loeken, M R; Roth, T F

    1983-01-01

    Chicken serum and oocyte IgG were compared. Purified intact IgG and mercuripapain-produced Fc fragments of yolk and serum IgG were analysed by isoelectric focusing. All IgG bands were identical, indicating that all subpopulations of serum IgG were present in the yolk. Upon papain hydrolysis of both serum and yolk IgG, four identical Fc bands were produced from all serum and yolk samples. Sialic acid measurements showed that there was no significant difference in sialic acid content between serum and oocyte IgG. From these results we conclude that: (i) ovarian IgG receptor(s) selectively transports all subpopulations of maternal IgG; (ii) there is no selective destruction of IgG during transport; and (iii) yolk IgG has the same amount of sialic acid as the serum IgG. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6840806

  15. Abnormal regulation of IgG production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Hogan, E L; Arnaud, P

    1982-03-01

    After stimulation with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from patients with active multiple sclerosis (MS) produced significantly more IgG (8595 ng per milliliter, p less than 0.01) then MNC from normal age-matched controls (5477 ng per milliliter), whereas those tested during stable periods produced less IgG (4076 ng per milliliter, p less than 0.01). Treatment of MNC with sodium periodate (SP) generated suppressor cells for PWM-driven IgG production in normal controls and in most of the stable MS patients but in only 26% of those during active disease, in whom an increase in IgG production was often seen. This suggests a deficiency of inducible suppressor T cells associated with a supranormal B-cell response to polyclonal activation; T lymphocytes obtained from MS patients during active episodes strongly suppressed IgG production by normal B lymphocytes, whereas their B cells often produced more IgG in the presence of normal T cells. In active MS, a relative B-cell unresponsiveness to activated suppressor T cells would leave helper signals unbalanced, thus leading to increased B-cell activation, which might deplete the pool of inducible suppressor cells for IgG production.

  16. Genetic segregation analyses of serum IgG2 levels.

    PubMed Central

    Marazita, M. L.; Lu, H.; Cooper, M. E.; Quinn, S. M.; Zhang, J.; Burmeister, J. A.; Califano, J. V.; Pandey, J. P.; Schenkein, H. A.; Tew, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Summary : The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence for a genetic component in the immune response as measured by IgG2 levels. The study was motivated by our studies of early-onset periodontitis (EOP), a group of disorders characterized by rapid destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth in otherwise healthy individuals. EOP has two subforms, localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) and a generalized form (G-EOP). IgG2 levels are elevated in LJP but not G-EOP individuals; and African-American IgG2 levels are higher than Caucasian levels regardless of EOP status. IgG2 levels were determined in 123 EOP families and in 508 unrelated non-EOP control individuals. Segregation analysis under the regressive model approach of Bonney was used to analyze IgG2 levels for evidence of major locus segregation. After adjusting for LJP status, race, sex, and age, the best fitting model was an autosomal codominant major locus model (accounting for approximately 62% of the variance in IgG2), plus residual parent/offspring and spousal correlations. Smoking and GM23 are also known to affect IgG2 levels. If additional adjustments are made for smoking and GM23, the best-fitting model is still a codominant major locus but with no significant residual correlations. PMID:8651265

  17. Glycosylation of plasma IgG in colorectal cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Theodoratou, Evropi; Thaçi, Kujtim; Agakov, Felix; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Štambuk, Jerko; Pučić-Baković, Maja; Vučković, Frano; Orchard, Peter; Agakova, Anna; Din, Farhat V. N.; Brown, Ewan; Rudd, Pauline M.; Farrington, Susan M.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate the potential value of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation as a novel prognostic biomarker of colorectal cancer (CRC). We analysed plasma IgG glycans in 1229 CRC patients and correlated with survival outcomes. We assessed the predictive value of clinical algorithms and compared this to algorithms that also included glycan predictors. Decreased galactosylation, decreased sialylation (of fucosylated IgG glycan structures) and increased bisecting GlcNAc in IgG glycan structures were strongly associated with all-cause (q < 0.01) and CRC mortality (q = 0.04 for galactosylation and sialylation). Clinical algorithms showed good prediction of all-cause and CRC mortality (Harrell’s C: 0.73, 0.77; AUC: 0.75, 0.79, IDI: 0.02, 0.04 respectively). The inclusion of IgG glycan data did not lead to any statistically significant improvements overall, but it improved the prediction over clinical models for stage 4 patients with the shortest follow-up time until death, with the median gain in the test AUC of 0.08. These glycan differences are consistent with significantly increased IgG pro-inflammatory activity being associated with poorer CRC prognosis, especially in late stage CRC. In the absence of validated biomarkers to improve upon prognostic information from existing clinicopathological factors, the potential of these novel IgG glycan biomarkers merits further investigation. PMID:27302279

  18. IgGs containing light chains of the lambda and kappa type and of all subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis hydrolyze DNA.

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, Taisiya A; Legostaeva, Galina A; Doronin, Boris M; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2010-01-01

    We present the first evidence demonstrating that small fractions of IgGs of all four subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) are catalytically active in the hydrolysis of DNA and on average their relative activity (nM supercoiled DNA/1mg IgG/1 h) increases in the order: IgG1 (0.58) < IgG2 (0.94) < IgG3 (1.4) < IgG4 (4.1), while their approximate relative contribution to the total activity of abzymes increases in the order: IgG1 (6.9%) < IgG3 (9.3%) < IgG2 (18.2%) < IgG4 (65.6%). On average IgGs containing light chains of the lambda-type are severalfold more active in the hydrolysis of DNA than IgGs with light chains of the kappa-type. Using different physicochemical methods of antibody analysis we have shown that the immune system of multiple sclerosis patients generates a variety of anti-DNA abzymes of different type and with different catalytic properties, which can play an important role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

  19. The emerging mysteries of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Smit, Wouter; Barnes, Eleanor

    2014-12-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is increasingly recognised in Western societies as a multi-system, inflammatory, fibrosing disease of unknown aetiology that typically, though not exclusively, presents in older men. The clinical manifestations are diverse and almost any organ may be affected. The cardinal histological features are a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and an abundance of IgG4+ plasma cells in affected organs. Serum IgG4 levels are elevated in approximately 70% of patients and are a useful biomarker when present. IgG4-RD is frequently misdiagnosed as malignancy. Making the correct diagnosis is important as the disease is usually steroid responsive, although relapse rates are high. Second-line immunosuppressive agents and B-cell depletion therapy have also been used in retreatment strategies. Recent data suggests that the disease is associated with both progressive organ failure and malignancy. The biological mechanisms driving IgG4-RD remain unclear but this is currently an area of intense scientific investigation. Broadly, IgG4+ B cells are thought to exhibit a regulatory phenotype, but it is not known if these are pathogenic or simply represent a bystander effect. Extending our understanding of the role of IgG4 immunoglobulins in health and disease, the assessment of B and T cell immune phenotype, and large genetic studies of IgG4-RD may enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Ultimately it may be that there is not a single, simple unifying aetiology and so careful stratification of disease by clinical phenotype will be required in multi-centre prospective clinical cohorts. These cohorts will also be essential for the study of treatment outcomes with novel therapies.

  20. Production of anti-horse antibodies induced by IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab applied repeatedly to rabbits. Effect on antivenom pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Hilda; Olvera, Felipe; Alagón, Alejandro; Sevcik, Carlos

    2013-12-15

    We separated whole IgG, Fab and F(ab')2 fragments from horse plasma. We previously studied the pharmacokinetics of these immunoglobulins and fragments in rabbits and shown that Fab and F(ab')2 pharmacokinetics were well described by a three-exponential kinetics, while IgG and IgG(T) pharmacokinetics, however, deviated from the three-exponential kinetics 120 h after injecting a bolus of the immunotherapeutics; this departure was shown to be due to a surge of anti-horse antibodies occurring after 120 h, peaking at ≈260 h and decaying slowly afterward (Vázquez et al., 2010). We now describe antivenom pharmacokinetics and anti-horse IgG production in rabbits receiving three boluses (300 μg/kg, I.V.) of Fab, F(ab')2 or IgG separated by 21 days.

  1. In vitro functional characterization of feline IgGs.

    PubMed

    Strietzel, Catherine J; Bergeron, Lisa M; Oliphant, Theodore; Mutchler, Veronica T; Choromanski, Leszek J; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-04-15

    Very little is known about the functional properties of feline IgGs. Here we report the in vitro characterization of cloned feline IgGs. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and full-length PCR of cat splenic cDNA were used to identify feline sequences encoding IgG heavy chain constant regions (IGHC). Two of the sequences are possibly allelic and have been previously reported in the literature as the only feline IgG, IgG1. Although we confirmed these alleles to be highly abundant (∼98%), analysis of numerous amplification products revealed an additional sequence (∼2%). We cloned and characterized chimeric monoclonal antibodies with each of these heavy chains. Using RACE we revealed the sequences for feline Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) and feline Fc neonatal receptor (FcRn). We constructed these recombinant receptors as well as fFcγRIII and determined their binding affinities to the chimeras. All of the chimeras bound to Protein A but not to Protein G, and bound tightly to fFcRn (KD=2-5 nM). Both IgG1 alleles have a high affinity for fFcγRI (KD=10-20 nM), they bind to the low-affinity fFcγRIII receptor (2-4 μM), and also bind to human complement C1q. Thus, feline IgG1a and 1b are expected to induce strong effector function in vivo. The additional IgG detected does not bind to recombinant fFcγRI or fFcγRIII and has negligible binding to hC1q. Consequently, although this putative subclass is projected to have a similar serum half-life as the IgG1 alleles based on comparable in vitro affinity to FcRn, it may not elicit the effector responses mediated by fFcγRI or fFcγRIII. Further testing with native receptors and functional cell-based assays would confirm effector function capabilities of feline IgG subclasses; however this is the first report characterizing affinities of feline IgGs to their Fc receptors and helps pave the way for construction of feline-specific IgGs for therapeutic use.

  2. Autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and increased IgG4+ plasma cells. Serum IgG4 levels usually are elevated. Patients with AIP frequently have disease affecting other organs or sites; these tissues show similar histologic changes, including increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate and response to corticosteroid therapy. A new clinicopathologic concept of IgG4-related systemic disease (ISD) has been proposed. These diseases often are not limited to the pancreas, and the pancreas may not be involved at all. In this article, we review the literature and our own experience to detail the clinicopathologic features of AIP and extrapancreatic lesions in ISD. PMID:20606730

  3. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) Molecular Genetic Markers1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burkart-Waco, Diana; Kuppu, Sundaram; Britt, Anne; Chetelat, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Genetic markers are essential when developing or working with genetically variable populations. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) markers are primer pairs that amplify single-locus sequences that differ in size for two or more alleles. They are attractive for their ease of use for rapid genotyping and their codominant nature. Here, we describe a heuristic algorithm that uses a k-mer-based approach to search two or more genome sequences to locate polymorphic regions suitable for designing candidate IGG marker primers. As input to the IGG pipeline software, the user provides genome sequences and the desired amplicon sizes and size differences. Primer sequences flanking polymorphic insertions/deletions are produced as output. IGG marker files for three sets of genomes, Solanum lycopersicum/Solanum pennellii, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0/Landsberg erecta-0 accessions, and S. lycopersicum/S. pennellii/Solanum tuberosum (three-way polymorphic) are included. PMID:27436831

  4. IgGs containing λ- and κ-type light chains and of all subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) from the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases and viral and bacterial infections hydrolyze DNA.

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, Taisiya A; Buneva, Valentina N; Doronin, Boris M; Volkova, Margarita V; Senkovich, Sergey A; Generalov, Igor I; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2012-07-01

    We present the first evidence demonstrating that small fractions of IgGs of all four subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) from patients with viral (tick-borne encephalitis), bacterial infections (streptococcal infection or erysipelas), and suppurative surgical infections caused by epidermal staphylococci as well as from patients with autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis) are catalytically active in the hydrolysis of supercoiled DNA. The hydrolysis of DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The catalytic activities of nonfractionated IgGs increased in the following order: tick-borne encephalitis < suppurative surgical infection < streptococcal infection < multiple sclerosis < systemic lupus erythematosus, whereas IgGs of healthy donors were inactive. However, the pools of antibodies corresponding to any particular disease were characterized by a specific ratio of IgGs of all four subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) and IgGs containing λ- and κ-type light chains, and each of these subfractions of immunoglobulins demonstrated characteristic relative DNase activity. The relative activities of IgGs containing λ-type light chains may on average be higher, lower, or comparable with those for IgGs with κ-type light chains. The relative contributions of IgGs of different subclasses to the total activity of IgGs also varied widely in the case of various diseases: IgG1 (7%-45%), IgG2 (0.4%-73%), IgG3 (0%-12%), and IgG4 (9%-66%). Thus, immune systems of patients with different diseases can generate a variety of anti-DNA abzymes of different types and with different catalytic properties, which can play an important role in the pathogenesis or protection from the development of these diseases.

  5. Large vessel involvement by IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Perugino, Cory A.; Wallace, Zachary S.; Meyersohn, Nandini; Oliveira, George; Stone, James R.; Stone, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition that can affect multiple organs and lead to tumefactive, tissue-destructive lesions. Reports have described inflammatory aortitis and periaortitis, the latter in the setting of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), but have not distinguished adequately between these 2 manifestations. The frequency, radiologic features, and response of vascular complications to B cell depletion remain poorly defined. We describe the clinical features, radiology findings, and treatment response in a cohort of 36 patients with IgG4-RD affecting large blood vessels. Methods: Clinical records of all patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD in our center were reviewed. All radiologic studies were reviewed. We distinguished between primary large blood vessel inflammation and secondary vascular involvement. Primary involvement was defined as inflammation in the blood vessel wall as a principal focus of disease. Secondary vascular involvement was defined as disease caused by the effects of adjacent inflammation on the blood vessel wall. Results: Of the 160 IgG4-RD patients in this cohort, 36 (22.5%) had large-vessel involvement. The mean age at disease onset of the patients with large-vessel IgG4-RD was 54.6 years. Twenty-eight patients (78%) were male and 8 (22%) were female. Thirteen patients (36%) had primary IgG4-related vasculitis and aortitis with aneurysm formation comprised the most common manifestation. This affected 5.6% of the entire IgG4-RD cohort and was observed in the thoracic aorta in 8 patients, the abdominal aorta in 4, and both the thoracic and abdominal aorta in 3. Three of these aneurysms were complicated by aortic dissection or contained perforation. Periaortitis secondary to RPF accounted for 27 of 29 patients (93%) of secondary vascular involvement by IgG4-RD. Only 5 patients demonstrated evidence of both primary and secondary blood vessel involvement. Of those treated with

  6. IgGs containing light chains of the λ- and κ- type and of all subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) from the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus hydrolyze myelin basic protein.

    PubMed

    Bezuglova, Anna M; Konenkova, Ludmila P; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2012-12-01

    Human myelin basic protein (hMBP)-hydrolyzing activity was recently shown to be an intrinsic property of antibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Here, we present the first evidence demonstrating a significant diversity of different fractions of polyclonal IgGs (pIgGs) from SLE patients in their affinity for hMBP and in the ability of pIgGs to hydrolyze hMBP at different optimal pH values (5.3-9.5); the pH profiles of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 were unique. IgGs containing the λ-type of light chains demonstrated higher relative activities (RAs) in the hydrolysis of hMBP and its oligopeptides (OPs) than κ-IgGs. IgGs of all four subclasses were catalytically active; their RAs in the hydrolysis of hMBP increased in the following order: IgG4 < IgG2 < IgG3 < IgG1. Metal-dependent proteolytic activity of λ-IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 was higher than their serine protease-like activity, while these activities of κ-IgG were comparable. Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride had almost no effect on the activity of IgG4, while EDTA significantly suppressed its activity. The RAs of λ-IgG in the hydrolysis of four OPs corresponding to different cleavage sites of hMBP were remarkably higher than those for κ-IgGs. IgG1-IgG4 demonstrated different RAs and patterns of hydrolysis of these four OPs. Although combination of Ca²⁺ plus Mg²⁺ was the best in the activation of IgG1 and IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 demonstrated the highest activity in the presence of Ca²⁺ plus Co²⁺. The ratio of the RAs of λ-IgG, κ-IgG and IgG1-IgG4 preparations in all analyzed cases was individual for each preparation.

  7. Coexistence of Acute Crescent Glomerulonephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zeyuan; Yin, Jianyong; Bao, Hongda; Jiao, Qiong; Wu, Huijuan; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Zhang, Zhigang; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that may involve almost each organ or system. IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) refers to renal lesions associated with IgG4-RD. The most frequent morphological type of renal lesions is IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) which is associated with increased IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis. Case Report Herein, we present a rare case with coexisting IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis with concomitant severe tubulointerstitial lesions instead of classic IgG4-TIN. Conclusion IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis can occur in the same patient. This case may give us a clearer viewpoint of the disease. PMID:27504450

  8. Localized IgG4-related Cholecystitis Mimicking Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a case of localized IgG4-cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer with focal/segmental type1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). In this case, we were unable to exclude a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and thus performed radical cholecystectomy. Type1 AIP is often associated with gallbladder lesions, accompanied by generally diffuse, circumferential thickening of the gallbladder wall. Although localized IgG4-related cholecystitis is extremely rare, differentiating this condition from gallbladder cancer is often very difficult.

  9. IgG deposition in IgA nephropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of glomerular disease among young adults. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of IgG deposition with morphologic variables of Oxford classification and some clinical data of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN).A total of 114 biopsies were enrolled to the study (70.2% were male). Mean age of the patients was 37.7±13.6 years. This study showed that, IgG deposition intensity had not significant correlation with serum creatinine. No significant association of sex with IgG was found. There was not significant association of IgG deposits with age below and more that 40 years. There was not significant association of IgG deposit intensity with four morphologic variables of Oxford classification. Less studied published regarding the immunostaining findings in IgA nephropathy patients. Location of deposited immunoglobulin (mesangial versus mesangial-capillary) or the type of immunoglobulin (IgG or IgM) may have prognostic significant. More studies needs to find the clinical significance of immunostaining data.

  10. IgG4-Related Disease in a Urachal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dum, Travis W.; Lee, Eugene K.

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that has the ability to affect nearly every organ system. It is characterized by tumefactive lesions and fibrosis and closely mimics neoplasms. Only one case of IgG4-related bladder mass has been reported in the literature, but there are no reports of IgG4-related disease in a urachal mass. Herein, we report a 26-year-old male who initially presented with symptoms of recurrent UTI. Work-up revealed a 6 cm urachal tumor, a 1.4 cm pulmonary lesion, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy; all metabolically active on PET scan and suspicious for urachal adenocarcinoma. Lung lesion fine needle aspiration and TURBT pathology revealed inflammation but no evidence of malignancy. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy and umbilectomy with pathology demonstrating dense plasmacytic cells, a high rate of immunohistochemistry staining positive for IgG4 plasma cells, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and an obliterative phlebitis. Furthermore, the patient had an elevated serum IgG4 level of 227 mg/dL (range 2.4–121 mg/dL). IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that can mimic neoplastic processes and a high index of suspicion and accurate tissue pathology is necessary for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:25202466

  11. IgG4-related Disease from Head to Toe.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de-Alegría, Anxo; Baleato-González, Sandra; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Bermúdez-Naveira, Anaberta; Abdulkader-Nallib, Ihab; Díaz-Peromingo, José A; Villalba-Martín, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a relatively recently proposed clinical-pathologic entity that is characterized by fibro-inflammatory lesions rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and, often but not always, elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. IgG4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease in 2003, when extrapancreatic manifestations were identified in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Since then, the disease has been reported as affecting virtually every organ system and has been identified in the biliary tree, salivary and lacrimal glands, periorbital tissues, lungs, lymph nodes, thyroid gland, kidneys, prostate gland, testicles, breasts, and pituitary gland. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but findings are consistent with both an autoimmune and an allergic disorder. Although definitive diagnosis requires histopathologic analysis, imaging plays an important role in demonstrating infiltration and enlargement of involved organs. Because of the systemic nature of the disease, imaging workup of IgG4-related disease should always include whole-body examinations to detect multiorgan involvement. Patients often present with subacute development of a mass in or diffuse enlargement of the affected organ, sometimes mimicking a neoplastic process. In every anatomic location, several inflammatory and neoplastic entities must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Because IgG4-related disease usually shows a marked response to corticosteroid therapy, radiologists should be familiar with its clinical and imaging manifestations to avoid a delay in diagnosis and unnecessary surgical interventions.

  12. The clinical spectrum of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Bosch, Xavier; Stone, John H

    2014-12-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging immune-mediated disease with the capability of involving essentially any organ. The epidemiology of this disease has not been explored in detail. A majority of patients reported in the literature to date are from Japan, but the condition has been described all across the world and there is no strong evidence to suggest a predilection for Asian populations. The mean age at diagnosis is approximately 60 years and there is a decided male predominance for many clinical features, with an overall male:female ratio of 8:3. A cardinal feature of IgG4-RD is single or multiple organ swelling that often raises concern for malignancy. IgG4-RD should be suspected in patients presenting with unexplained enlargement or swelling of one or more organs. Presenting features vary substantially according to the specialty to which patients present first; in addition, the disease can be diagnosed unexpectedly in pathological specimens or identified incidentally on radiology studies. Involvement of major organs is common and IgG4-RD may lead to organ failure, particularly in the pancreas, liver and biliary tree, kidneys, thyroid gland, lungs, and aorta. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD relies on the coexistence of various clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings, although none is pathognomonic by itself.

  13. IgG Placental Transfer in Healthy and Pathological Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Palmeira, Patricia; Quinello, Camila; Silveira-Lessa, Ana Lúcia; Zago, Cláudia Augusta; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Placental transfer of maternal IgG antibodies to the fetus is an important mechanism that provides protection to the infant while his/her humoral response is inefficient. IgG is the only antibody class that significantly crosses the human placenta. This crossing is mediated by FcRn expressed on syncytiotrophoblast cells. There is evidence that IgG transfer depends on the following: (i) maternal levels of total IgG and specific antibodies, (ii) gestational age, (iii) placental integrity, (iv) IgG subclass, and (v) nature of antigen, being more intense for thymus-dependent ones. These features represent the basis for maternal immunization strategies aimed at protecting newborns against neonatal and infantile infectious diseases. In some situations, such as mothers with primary immunodeficiencies, exogenous IgG acquired by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy crosses the placenta in similar patterns to endogenous immunoglobulins and may also protect the offspring from infections in early life. Inversely, harmful autoantibodies may cross the placenta and cause transitory autoimmune disease in the neonate. PMID:22235228

  14. Value of serum IgG4 in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease and in differentiation from rheumatic diseases and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Tabeya, Tetsuya; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Yajima, Hidetaka; Ishigami, Keisuke; Shimizu, Yui; Obara, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Yamashita, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Sugaya, Toshiaki; Ishida, Tadao; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Himi, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Honda, Saho; Takahashi, Hiroki; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2012-06-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel disease entity that includes Mikulicz's disease, autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), and many other conditions. It is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and abundant IgG4-bearing plasmacyte infiltration of involved organs. We postulated that high levels of serum IgG4 would comprise a useful diagnostic tool, but little information is available about IgG4 in conditions other than IgG4-RD, including rheumatic diseases. Several reports have described cutoff values for serum IgG4 when diagnosing IgG4-RD, but these studies mostly used 135 mg/dL in AIP to differentiate from pancreatic cancer instead of rheumatic and other common diseases. There is no evidence for a cutoff serum IgG4 level of 135 mg/dL for rheumatic diseases and common diseases that are often complicated with rheumatic diseases. The aim of this work was to re-evaluate the usual cutoff serum IgG4 value in AIP (135 mg/dL) that is used to diagnose whole IgG4-RD in the setting of a rheumatic clinic by measuring serum IgG4 levels in IgG4-RD and various disorders. We therefore constructed ROC curves of serum IgG4 levels in 418 patients who attended Sapporo Medical University Hospital due to IgG4-RD and various rheumatic and common disorders. The optimal cut-off value of serum IgG4 for a diagnosis of IgG4-RD was 144 mg/dL, and the sensitivity and specificity were 95.10 and 90.76%, respectively. Levels of serum IgG4 were elevated in IgG4-RD, Churg-Strauss syndrome, multicentric Castleman's disease, eosinophilic disorders, and in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, chronic hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. The usual cut-off value of 135 mg/dL in AIP is useful for diagnosing whole IgG4-RD, but high levels of serum IgG4 are sometimes observed in not only IgG4-RD but also other rheumatic and common diseases.

  15. Immunology of IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Della-Torre, E; Lanzillotta, M; Doglioni, C

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that derives its name from the characteristic finding of abundant IgG4+ plasma cells in affected tissues, as well as the presence of elevated serum IgG4 concentrations in many patients. In contrast to fibrotic disorders, such as systemic sclerosis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in which the tissues fibrosis has remained largely intractable to treatment, many IgG4-RD patients appear to have a condition in which the collagen deposition is reversible. The mechanisms underlying this peculiar feature remain unknown, but the remarkable efficacy of B cell depletion in these patients supports an important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration. In particular, aberrant T helper type 2 (Th2)/regulatory T cells sustained by putative autoreactive B cells have been proposed to drive collagen deposition through the production of profibrotic cytokines, but definitive demonstrations of this hypothesis are lacking. Indeed, a number of unsolved questions need to be addressed in order to fully understand the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. These include the identification of an antigenic trigger(s), the implications (if any) of IgG4 antibodies for pathophysiology and the precise immunological mechanisms leading to fibrosis. Recent investigations have also raised the possibility that innate immunity might precede adaptive immunity, thus further complicating the pathological scenario. Here, we aim to review the most recent insights on the immunology of IgG4-RD, focusing on the relative contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses to the full pathological phenotype of this fibrotic condition. Clinical, histological and therapeutic features are also addressed. PMID:25865251

  16. Immunology of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Della-Torre, E; Lanzillotta, M; Doglioni, C

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that derives its name from the characteristic finding of abundant IgG4(+) plasma cells in affected tissues, as well as the presence of elevated serum IgG4 concentrations in many patients. In contrast to fibrotic disorders, such as systemic sclerosis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in which the tissues fibrosis has remained largely intractable to treatment, many IgG4-RD patients appear to have a condition in which the collagen deposition is reversible. The mechanisms underlying this peculiar feature remain unknown, but the remarkable efficacy of B cell depletion in these patients supports an important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration. In particular, aberrant T helper type 2 (Th2)/regulatory T cells sustained by putative autoreactive B cells have been proposed to drive collagen deposition through the production of profibrotic cytokines, but definitive demonstrations of this hypothesis are lacking. Indeed, a number of unsolved questions need to be addressed in order to fully understand the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. These include the identification of an antigenic trigger(s), the implications (if any) of IgG4 antibodies for pathophysiology and the precise immunological mechanisms leading to fibrosis. Recent investigations have also raised the possibility that innate immunity might precede adaptive immunity, thus further complicating the pathological scenario. Here, we aim to review the most recent insights on the immunology of IgG4-RD, focusing on the relative contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses to the full pathological phenotype of this fibrotic condition. Clinical, histological and therapeutic features are also addressed.

  17. IgG rheumatoid factors and staphylococcal protein A bind to a common molecular site on IgG.

    PubMed

    Nardella, F A; Teller, D C; Barber, C V; Mannik, M

    1985-12-01

    The antigenic determinant on the Fc region of human IgG for two IgG rheumatoid factors (IgG-RF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were investigated in detail. The RF did not interact with IgG fragments that contained the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 region alone, but required the presence of both regions for binding. The RF binding to solid-phase IgG were poorly inhibited by the IgG3 subclass and strongly inhibited by staphylococcal protein A (SPA) (42 kD), and fragment D of SPA (7 kD), indicating that the binding site is most likely the same as the Ga antigenic determinant described for IgM-RF, and is in the same location as the site on IgG that binds SPA. pH titration studies of the RF binding to IgG indicated the involvement of histidine and lysine or tyrosine side chains. Chemical modification studies showed the histidines were involved on the Fc side of the interactions, and tyrosines were involved on both the antigenic and antibody sides of the interactions. Lysines were not involved. The above information, and the knowledge of the number and position in space of the amino acid residues involved in the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface region of IgG, the binding site for SPA, and the amino acid substitutions in IgG3 that account for its inability to bind protein A, allowed the identification of the site on IgG that bind IgG-RF. This binding site involves some of the same amino acid side chains, His 435, Tyr 436, and one or both His 433 and 310, and is in the same location as the site that binds SPA. The same site is likely to be a common antigenic determinant for other RF. Furthermore, the described molecular mimicry suggests a biological relationship between bacterial Fc-binding proteins and the production of RF in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Ophthalmic manifestations in IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebbo, Mikael; Patient, Matthieu; Grados, Aurelie; Groh, Matthieu; Desblaches, Julien; Hachulla, Eric; Saadoun, David; Audia, Sylvain; Rigolet, Aude; Terrier, Benjamin; Perlat, Antoinette; Guillaud, Constance; Renou, Frederic; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Schleinitz, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by variable tissue or organ involvements sharing common pathological findings. Orbital or orbital adnexa involvement of the disease has been reported in a few case series. The aim of our study was to characterize and analyze ophthalmic manifestations from a nationwide French case-series. Patients with IgG4-RD and orbital or orbital adnexa involvement included in the French multicentric IgG4-RD case-registry were identified. Only patients fulfilling “modified” comprehensive diagnostic criteria with pathological documentation were retained for the study. Clinical, biological, pathological, radiological findings and data regarding the response to treatment were retrospectively analyzed. According to our data registry, the frequency of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) was 17%. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.1 ± 7.1 years with a male/female ratio of 2.2. The 19 cases of IgG4-ROD consisted of lacrimal gland (68.4%), soft tissue (57.9%), extra-ocular muscles (36.8%), palpebral (21.1%), optical nerve (10.5%), orbital bone (10.5%), and mononeuritis (V1 and/or V2, 10.5%) involvements. IgG4-ROD was bilateral in 57.9% of cases. Extra-ophthalmic manifestations were reported in 78.9% of cases. All patients responded to prednisone but two-thirds of patients relapsed within a mean (SD) of 9.8 (3.5) months and 72.2% required long-term glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressive agents. Eight patients were treated by rituximab with a favorable response in 87.5% of cases. Lacrimal involvement is the most frequent ophthalmic manifestation of IgG4-RD and is frequently associated with extra-orbital manifestations. Despite initial favorable response to steroids, the long-term management of relapsing patients needs to be improved. PMID:28272212

  19. Development of IgG responses to mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, C; Costello, A M; Rook, G A; Stanford, J L

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies link mycobacterial and human heat shock protein antigens with autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the development of antibody responses to these antigens in children. IgG responses to mycobacterial antigens were studied in children living in the UK (an environment low in mycobacteria) who had not received BCG vaccination. Age curves of IgG response to sonicates from different species of mycobacteria were similar suggesting that the greater part of the developing IgG response is to the common antigens shared by all mycobacteria. The major part of the IgG response was to carbohydrate antigens: lipoarabinomannan is a mycobacterial cell wall carbohydrate and was confirmed as a major immunodominant antigen. Infants showed a marked early response to the mycobacterial 65 kilodalton (kDa) and 70 kDa heat shock proteins, but not to the human 65 kDa heat shock protein. The early IgG response to heat shock proteins may reflect cross reactivity to proteins released by a wide variety of bacteria (possibly from breakdown in the gut) or recognition of other immunodominant antigens with high levels of cross reactivity to self. PMID:8285775

  20. Selective IgG subclass deficiency: quantification and clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Jefferis, R; Kumararatne, D S

    1990-01-01

    Each of the four human IgG subclasses exhibits a unique profile of effector functions relevant to the clearance and elimination of infecting microorganisms. The quantitative response within each IgG subclass varies with the nature of the antigen, its route of entry and, presumably, the form in which it is presented to the immune system. This results in antibody responses to certain antigens being predominantly or exclusively of a single IgG subclass. An inability to produce antibody of the optimally protective isotype can result in a selective immunodeficiency state. This is particularly apparent for responses to certain bacterial carbohydrate antigens that are normally of IgG2 isotype. A failure to produce the appropriate specific antibody response may result in recurrent upper and/or lower respiratory tract infection. Careful patient investigation can identify such deficiencies and suggest appropriate clinical management. In this review we outline the biology and clinical relevance of the IgG subclasses and summarize current rational treatment approaches. PMID:2204502

  1. Comparison of rosetting, phagocytosis, and IgG binding assays for detection of IgG on old red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bassel, P.; Bosman, G.; Kay, M.

    1986-03-01

    Various methods have been used for detecting or inferring the presence of IgG on senescent red cells. In the authors studies, they have used a method for directly measuring IgG on senescent red cells. In our studies, the authors have used a method for directly measuring IgG on cells (e.g. scanning immunoelectron microscopy) along with determining phagocytosis. Thus, phagocytosis is used as a biological assay for determining the biological significance of the IgG on cells. However, the phagocytosis assay as performed in the authors laboratory is tedious, time-consuming, and requires meticulous technique. In contrast, rosetting is a quick, simple assay that does not require special techniques or supplies. Therefore, the authors compared the phagocytosis assay employed by us to rosetting, and correlated each of these with the amount of IgG present on red cells as determined with an /sup 125/I protein A binding assay. Although senescent red cells were phagocytized, they did not form rosettes with K562 cells even at 25 RBC:K562. Further experiments indicated that the rosette assay depended on the RBC:K561 cell ratio and not on the amount of IgG/red cell. Rosette formation (%) at varying RBC:K562 ratios was as follows: 100:1, 81 +/- 12; 50:1, 65 +/- 18; 25:1, 34 +/- 30, 10:1, 20 +/- 33; 5:1, 15 +/- 29; 1: 1, 3 +/- 7 (n = 14). In contrast, phagocytosis of old RBC correlated well with the amount of IgG present on red cells (r = 0.96, 0.94, 0.92 and 0.94 in each of 4 different experiments with n = 16, 19, 14, and 19 respectively). Thus, the phagocytosis assay the authors have used correlates with IgG on red cells; whereas rosette formation does not.

  2. ANTIDOG IgG SECONDARY ANTIBODY SUCCESSFULLY DETECTS IgG IN A VARIETY OF AQUATIC MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark; Hofmeister, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ), polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ), harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ), northern elephant seal ( Mirounga angustirostris ), California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), Pacific walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter ( Aonyx cinerea ). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.

  3. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-Related Hypophysitis.

    PubMed

    Rotondo, Fabio; Qaddoura, Amro; Syro, Luis V; Karamchandani, Jason; Munoz, David G; Arroyave, Mariam J; Ospina, William P; Cusimano, Michael D; Kovacs, Kalman

    2017-01-13

    We report two different cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis. In the first case, a pituitary lesion was accompanied by lymphocytic meningitis possibly mimicking tuberculous meningitis. The second case was unassociated with involvement of other organs. No histologic differences were noted between the two cases indicating that the morphologic features of the hypophysial lesion do not depend on the presence of other lesions. The pathogenesis of IgG4 hypophysitis is not known, and further study is necessary to explore the cause, progression, and influencing factors of this disease.

  4. Potential Mechanisms for IgG4 Inhibition of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    PubMed

    James, Louisa K; Till, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in human serum, representing less than 5% of all IgG. Increases in IgG4 occur following chronic exposure to antigen and are generally associated with states of immune tolerance. In line with this, IgG4 is regarded as an anti-inflammatory antibody with a limited ability to elicit effective immune responses. Furthermore, IgG4 attenuates allergic responses by inhibiting the activity of IgE. The mechanism by which IgG4 inhibits IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has been investigated using a variety of model systems leading to two proposed mechanisms. First by sequestering antigen, IgG4 can function as a blocking antibody, preventing cross-linking of receptor bound IgE. Second IgG4 has been proposed to co-stimulate the inhibitory IgG receptor FcγRIIb, which can negatively regulate FcεRI signaling and in turn inhibit effector cell activation. Recent advances in our understanding of the structural features of human IgG4 have shed light on the unique functional and immunologic properties of IgG4. The aim of this review is to evaluate our current understanding of IgG4 biology and reassess the mechanisms by which IgG4 functions to inhibit IgE-mediated allergic responses.

  5. [Hypertrophic pachymeningitis secondary to IgG4-related disease: case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castro, Emilio; Fernández-Lebrero, Aida; López-Dequidt, Iria A; Rodríguez-Osorio, Xiana; López-González, Francisco J; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M; Arias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Introduccion. La paquimeningitis hipertrofica es un trastorno infrecuente que produce un engrosamiento focal o difuso de la duramadre. Puede ser idiopatica o secundaria a procesos infecciosos, autoinmunes o neoplasicos. La recientemente descrita 'enfermedad relacionada con IgG4' podria ser la causa de bastantes cuadros considerados criptogenicos. Caso clinico. Mujer de 54 años, con historia de asma bronquial, que consulto por cefalea, vertigo y perdida de audicion por su oido izquierdo. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral con gadolinio se objetivo engrosamiento y realce dural, que se extendia desde la pared lateral del seno cavernoso izquierdo y la parte medial del lobulo temporal al angulo pontocerebeloso y parte del tentorio homolaterales. El liquido cefalorraquideo presentaba 10 leucocitos/µL (90% mononucleares), con 1 g/L de proteinas y sin consumo de glucosa. El estudio anatomopatologico mostro fibrosis y un infiltrado linfoplasmocitario, con 16 celulas plasmaticas IgG4+ por campo de gran aumento. El resto de estudios analiticos y microbiologicos resultaron normales o negativos. La tasa plasmatica de IgG4 estaba dentro de los limites normales. Tratada con esteroides, se produjo mejoria clinica acompañada de la practica desaparicion de las alteraciones detectadas en la neuroimagen. Conclusiones. La paquimeningitis hipertrofica como manifestacion de la enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 puede diagnosticarse basandose en los hallazgos de la resonancia magnetica si la IgG4 plasmatica esta elevada. En casos dudosos, habra que recurrir a la biopsia meningea. La corticoterapia suele ser eficaz y representa la primera linea terapeutica.

  6. Linear models of ovine IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses and predicted pepsin cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-01-05

    Highly purified specific Fab antibody fragments derived from sheep have a long history of therapeutic use as safe and effective emergency medicines. In more recent years simple low-cost methods have been developed, which take advantage of the ability of pepsin under optimally controlled conditions to preferentially digest ovine IgG within the Fc region to produce F(ab')2 and easy to remove low MW Fc sub-fragments. Despite these developments no information is currently available on the pepsin digestion of ovine IgG at the amino acid level hindering the development of improved F(ab')2 processing methods. To gain knowledge of the fragments properties we have constructed linear models of ovine IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, starting from the gamma-1 and gamma-2 chain amino acid sequences, which also incorporate the inter- and intra-chain disulphide bonds. Any potential pepsin cleavage site was initially predicted in silico, then high probability points identified for each of the molecules and mapped onto the individual models. A theoretical order of digestion was subsequently constructed, which appeared to agree with the experimental data, suggesting an accurate prediction model for ovine IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses. These findings lay the foundations for a more detailed analysis of pepsin cleavage fragments in the future. Additionally, the F(ab')2 generated following pepsin digestion were predicted to contain subclass unique C-terminal octapeptide neoepitopes, despite the high 89% sequence identity of the intact gamma-1 and gamma-2 chain constant regions. These neoepitopes have the potential to be utilised for identification purposes once confirmed experimentally.

  7. The placental transfer of IgG subclasses in human pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher-Wilmott, R W; Hindocha, P; Wood, C B

    1980-01-01

    Total IgG concentrations and the concentrations of the four subclasses of IgG were estimated in thirty-four pairs of maternal and foetal sera from pregnancies of various gestations ranging from 28 to 42 weeks using the method of radial immunodiffusion. It was found that: (1) all subclasses of IgG cross the human placenta freely, (2) foetal levels of IgG and each subclass of IgG exceed maternal levels in full-term pregnancies and (3) there was a close linear relationship between gestational age and the placental transfer of IgG and each of its subclasses. PMID:7438556

  8. IgG subclasses of specific antibodies in Ixodes ricinus-borne borreliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, I; Hammarström, L; Smith, C I; Hovmark, A; Asbrink, E

    1987-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus-borne borreliosis may run a protracted course. In this study we investigated the different IgG subclasses of antibodies to borreliae at different stages of the disease. In addition to the dominant subclass IgG1 and IgG3 response was found in most cases. This antibody subclass pattern with contributions of IgG2 often persists into the late stage of the disease and may last for decades. The IgG subclass response elicited by this spirochaetosis does not conform to the expected IgG4 restricted response after chronic antigenic stimulation. PMID:3665187

  9. STM Images of Cytokeratin and Binding IgG Antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernetti, L. A.; Sarid, D.; Gandolfi, A. J.; Cress, A. E.; Nagle, R. B.; McCuskey, R.; Hameroff, S. R.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper we present scanning tunneling microscopy images of cytokeratin proteins and a monoclonal anti-cytokeratin IgG antibody bound to their carboxyl terminal end. The images are consistent with current models of cytokeratin assembly inferred from biochemical analysis, electron microscopy evaluation of disintegrating cytokeratin filaments, and chemical cross-linking of coiled-coils.

  10. Half molecular exchange of IgGs in the blood of healthy humans: chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins containing HL fragments of antibodies of different subclasses (IgG1-IgG4).

    PubMed

    Sedykh, Sergey E; Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Prince, Viktor V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-10-20

    In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins represent products of clonal B cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen (monospecific). There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monospecific molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. But the issue concerning the possibility of exchange by HL-fragments between the antibody molecules in human blood is still unexplored. Different physico-chemical and immunological methods for analysis of half-molecule exchange between human blood IgGs were used. Using eighteen blood samples of healthy humans we have shown unexpected results for the first time: blood antibodies undergo extensive post-transcriptional half-molecule exchange and IgG pools on average consist of 62.4 ± 6.5% IgGs containing kappa light chains (kappa-kappa-IgGs), 29.8.6 ± 5.4% lambda light chains (lambda-lambda-IgGs), and 8.8 ± 2.7% (range 2.6-16.8%) IgGs containing both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained on average (%): IgG1 (36.0 and 32.3), IgG2 (50.9 and 51.4), IgG3 (9.7 and 9.9), and IgG4 (6.5 and 5.7), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 25.5 ± 4.2 IgG1, 50.8 ± 3.9 IgG2, 9.1 ± 2.1 IgG3, and 14.5 ± 2.2 IgG4. Our unexpected data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between blood IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens. The existence of blood chimeric bifunctional IgGs with different binding sites destroys the classic paradigm. Due to the phenomenon of polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of bifunctional IgGs containing HL-fragments of different types to different antigens, such IgGs may be important in human blood for widening their different biological functions.

  11. Subclass specificity of the Fc receptor for human IgG on K562.

    PubMed

    Chiofalo, M S; Teti, G; Goust, J M; Trifiletti, R; La Via, M F

    1988-07-01

    The erythroleukemic cell line K562 bears a 40-kDa Fc receptor (Fc gamma RII) serologically related to and with a similar molecular weight as the Fc gamma R present on a broad range of leukocytes. The human IgG subclass specificity of the Fc gamma R on K562 was investigated using IgG aggregates of defined size, obtained from purified human myeloma proteins. The monoclonal antibody IV.3, which reacts with the Fc gamma RII present on various cell types, totally prevented binding of 125I-IgG2 trimers to K562. Experiments with radiolabeled IgG2 trimers showed that K562 cells bound a mean of 156,764 +/- 9895 molecules per cell with an association constant (Ka) of 1.8 +/- 0.7 X 10(8) M-1. Similar results were obtained with IgG3 oligomers. IgG3 and IgG2 trimers were about two- to threefold more effective in inhibiting binding of 125I-IgG2 trimers to K562 than IgG1 and IgG4 trimers. These results were confirmed by inhibition experiments using IgG monomers. The subclass specificity of the Fc gamma RII on K562 (i.e., IgG2 = IgG3 greater than IgG1 = IgG4) is quite distinct from the one reported for the Fc gamma RI and III of human cells (i.e., IgG1 = IgG3 greater than IgG4 and IgG2).

  12. IgG4-related sialadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fragoulis, G E; Zampeli, E; Moutsopoulos, H M

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has emerged as a new entity in the last decade. It comprises numerous conditions previously thought to be unrelated. Macroscopically, these diseases cause diffuse organ swelling and formation of pseudotumorous masses. Histopathologically, they are characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with increased IgG4+ plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Despite rapid progress within the last years, our knowledge on these conditions is still fragmented. To date, more than forty organs have been reported to be included in IgG4-RD, and salivary gland involvement is amongst the most common organs affected [IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS)]. Interestingly, IgG4-RS shares commonalities with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), like glandular enlargement, sicca symptoms, arthralgias, hypergammaglobulinemia, hypocomplementemia, and circulating antinuclear antibodies. Nonetheless, they differ in that the incidence of anti-Ro and anti-La reactivity is not frequently found in patients with IgG4-RS, their salivary glands are infiltrated by a large number of IgG4+ plasma cells and IgG4-RS symptoms respond promptly to steroids. The aim of this review was to describe the clinical, serological, histopathological and pathophysiological aspects of IgG4-RS in the context of IgG4-RD and highlight the differences between IgG4-RS and SS.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells in IgG4-related lymphadenopathy with comparison with extranodal IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mai; Sato, Yasuharu; Yasui, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Ohno, Kyotaro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Orita, Yorihisa; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tomoo; Asano, Naoko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Swerdlow, Steven H; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    IgG4-related lymphadenopathy with increased numbers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells has been reported but not fully described. We analyzed 31 cases of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and 24 cases of extranodal IgG4-related diseases for their possible relationship with EBV. Other types of reactive lymph nodes (22) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (10) were also studied for comparison. EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization revealed EBER(+) cells in 18 of 31 cases (58%) of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Increased EBER(+) cells were found in only 4 of 22 (18.1%) non-IgG4-related reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in patients of a similar age (P=0.002) and in only 5 of 24 (21%) extranodal IgG4-related biopsies (P=0.006). Interestingly, all patients with EBER(+) progressively transformed germinal center-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy had systemic lymphadenopathy and/or extranodal involvement. AITL also is associated with EBV, and IgG4-related lymphadenopathy sometimes mimics the morphology of AITL; however, the number of IgG4(+) cells in AITL was significantly less than that in IgG4-related lymphadenopathy (P<0.001). Increased numbers of regulatory T cells are seen in IgG4-related disease; however, there was not a significant difference between the EBER(+) and EBER(-) cases. In conclusion, the presence of increased numbers of EBV-infected cells in IgG4-related lymphadenopathy, compared with other reactive lymphadenopathy or extranodal IgG4-related disease, suggests that there may be a relationship at least between nodal IgG4-related disease and EBV. It is important to avoid overdiagnosing these cases as malignant lymphomas or EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders.

  14. Nasal manifestations of IgG4-related disease: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Keiko; Matsuda, Yoko; Arai, Tomio; Kimura, Yurika

    2015-12-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized clinical disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4, tumefaction, tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis. IgG4-RD may occur, either synchronously or metachronously, in a variety of organs throughout the body. We describe herein two representative cases of the nasal manifestations of IgG4-RD, characterized by diffuse, crusty, erosive lesions on nasal mucosa. Oral steroid administration was effective in treating these nasal manifestations. We report a decrease in IgG4 positive plasma cell infiltrates in nasal mucosa biopsy specimens after steroid therapy, demonstrating that infiltration of IgG4-positive cells is reversible.

  15. Maternofetal transplacental transport of recombinant IgG antibodies lacking effector functions.

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Leif K; Andersen, Jan Terje; Grevys, Algirdas; Sandlie, Inger; Michaelsen, Terje E; Hedegaard, Morten; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2013-08-15

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) directs the transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies across the placenta and thus provides the fetus and newborn with passive protective humoral immunity. Pathogenic maternal IgG antibodies will also be delivered via the placenta and can cause alloimmunity, which may be lethal. A novel strategy to control pathogenic antibodies would be administration of a nondestructive IgG antibody blocking antigen binding while retaining binding to FcRn. We report on 2 human IgG3 antibodies with a hinge deletion and a C131S point mutation (IgG3ΔHinge) that eliminate complement activation and binding to all classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and to C1q while binding to FcRn is retained. Additionally, 1 of the antibodies has a single point mutation in the Fc (R435H) at the binding site for FcRn (IgG3ΔHinge:R435H). We compared transplacental transport with wild-type IgG1 and IgG3, and found transport across trophoblast-derived BeWo cells and ex vivo placenta perfusions with hierarchies as follows: IgG3ΔHinge:R435H>wild-type IgG1≥IgG3ΔHinge and IgG3ΔHinge:R435H=wild-type IgG1=wild-type IgG3>IgG3ΔHinge, respectively. Collectively, IgG3ΔHinge:R435H was transported efficiently from the maternal to the fetal placental compartment. Thus, IgG3ΔHinge:R435H may be a good candidate for transplacental delivery of a nondestructive antibody to the fetus to combat pathogenic antibodies.

  16. IgG1 deficiency exacerbates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Huda, Ruksana; Strait, Richard T; Tüzün, Erdem; Finkelman, Fred D; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-04-15

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness due to neuromuscular junction (NMJ) damage by anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) auto-antibodies and complement. In experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), which is induced by immunization with Torpedo AChR in CFA, anti-AChR IgG2b and IgG1 are the predominant isotypes in the circulation. Complement activation by isotypes such as IgG2b plays a crucial role in EAMG pathogenesis; this suggested the possibility that IgG1, which does not activate complement through the classical pathway, may suppress EAMG. In this study, we show that AChR-immunized BALB/c mice genetically deficient for IgG1 produce higher levels of complement-activating isotypes of anti-AChR, especially IgG3 and IgG2a, and develop increased IgG3/IgG2a deposits at the NMJ, as compared to wild type (WT) BALB/c mice. Consistent with this, AChR-immunized IgG1(-/-) BALB/c mice lose muscle strength and muscle AChR to a greater extent than AChR-immunized WT mice. These observations demonstrate that IgG1 deficiency leads to increased severity of EAMG associated with an increase in complement activating IgG isotypes. Further studies are needed to dissect the specific role or mechanism of IgG1 in limiting EAMG and that of EAMG exacerbating role of complement activating IgG3 and IgG2a in IgG1 deficiency.

  17. Recurrent Mastoiditis Mimics IgG4 Related Disease: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Vikram; Zane, Nicolas A; Kraft, Stefan; Stone, John H; Faquin, William C

    2016-09-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized entity that causes progressive fibrosis and formation of mass lesions. IgG4-RD can be diagnosed histologically by its hallmarks of storiform fibrosis, prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and obliterative phlebitis, accompanied by the infiltration of excessive numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells as well as elevations in serum IgG4 concentrations. A recent publication reported a case of IgG4-RD in the mastoid sinus, representing a new anatomic location for this disease. We report two additional cases of IgG4-RD occurring in the mastoid and causing clinical mastoiditis. The presenting symptoms were varied-tinnitus, hearing loss, and cranial nerve palsies. All three cases showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform type fibrosis as well as elevated numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells. The three patients responded to immunosuppressive therapy that included steroids and Rituximab. We further investigated 162 consecutive mastoiditis cases at our institution in order to determine the frequency of IgG4-RD as a previously unrecognized cause of mastoiditis. Within this latter cohort we identified nine cases of mastoiditis that had two of the histologic features of IgG4-RD, specifically storiform fibrosis and a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Two of these cases showed >50 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field with IgG4-IgG ratio of >40 %, thus fulfilling histological criteria for IgG4-RD. However, both were due to severe acute or chronic infection. In conclusion, we reaffirm IgG4 related mastoiditis as a distinct but uncommon cause of recurrent mastoiditis. The diagnosis of IgG4-related mastoiditis should be rendered with caution, and only after the exclusion of potential mimickers, particularly infection.

  18. IgG4-related epididymo-orchitis associated with bladder cancer: possible involvement of BAFF/BAFF-R interaction in IgG4-related urogenital disease.

    PubMed

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Mizuno, Aya; Jiuchi, Yuka; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuo, Manabu; Izumi, Yasumori; Takeoka, Atsushi; Nishino, Ayako; Hayashi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    We describe herein a patient who presented with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) involving the testis and prostate as well as the submandibular glands. Massive infiltration of IgG4-expressing plasma cells was observed in testis and prostate tissues. Serum concentrations of B cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) were elevated in parallel with serum IgG4 concentrations, and infiltration of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R)-expressing B cells and BAFF-expressing lymphoid cells was observed around the ectopic lymphoid foci in the affected urogenital tissues. To date, testicular involvement in a patient diagnosed with IgG4-RD had not been reported, making this the first reported case of IgG4-related epididymo-orchitis. These findings suggest that the immune mechanism underlying ectopic lymphoneogenesis in IgG4-RD may involve enhanced BAFF/BAFF-R interactions among lymphoid cells.

  19. Polyclonal hyperviscosity syndrome in IgG4-related disease and associated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luke YC; Wong, Patrick CW; Noda, Shinji; Collins, David R; Sreenivasan, Gayatri M; Coupland, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Polyclonal hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) is rare and has been reported in various disorders of immune dysregulation and lymphoid hyperplasia. IgG4-Related Disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging disorder often associated with exuberant hypergammaglobulinemia, and this review of seven cases establishes IgG4-RD as an important cause of polyclonal HVS. PMID:25914812

  20. [IgG subclasses in healthy children and in children with frequent respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Griese, M; Walda, M; Meuser, M; Reinhardt, D

    1990-10-01

    A group of 130 children presenting with frequent respiratory tract infections was examined for serum levels of IgG-subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 using radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. Additionally a control group of 175 children not prone to infections was investigated. Both, low and high levels compared to controls were observed for IgG3 and IgG4. 11.5% of the children with frequent airway infections had IgG3 values below 2 SD below the mean for age compared to 2.8% in the control group (p less than 0.01). Likewise a low IgG4 level was observed more frequently in children prone to airway infections (9.8% versus 2.8% in control; p less than 0.05). IgG4 was undetectable (level less than 3.4 mg/dl) in 5 of the 175 control children. Despite an accumulation of low or undetectable IgG3 or IgG4 levels in children with frequent respiratory tract infections, no correlation between low IgG subclass-levels and the degree of the individual disease could be detected. Based on this lack of a simple causal relationship between frequent respiratory tract infections and the finding of low or undetectable IgG-subclass levels, an immunoglobulin replacement therapy has to be considered with reserve.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative investigations of serum IgG subclasses in immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Oxelius, V A

    1979-01-01

    Determinations of IgG subclasses were made by electroimmunoassay and crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and Gm markers were typed in sera from seventeen patients with well-defined immunodeficiency diseases. Certain IgG subclass and Gm patterns were recognized in various diseases: IgG2 deficiency and homozygosity of Gm (4,5) in the cartilage-hair-hypoplasia syndrome, in the ataxia telangiectasia syndrome and in selective IgG subclass deficiency; and IgG3 deficiency and homozygosity of Gm(1,-5) in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The findings suggest a common structural or regulator gene defect in some immunodeficiency diseases. In IgA deficiencies, the levels of IgG1 were raised. In patients with IgG subclass deficiencies there was sometimes a compensatory increase of the remaining IgG subclasses, with a preponderance of IgG1 and IgG3. The increased Ig1 showed restricted heterogeneity with only an increase of the electrophoretically cathodal part. This part contained both kappa and lambda chaings. IgG subclass deficiency indicates treatment with gammaglobulin even if the serum levels of IgG are normal or increased. PMID:466857

  2. Metabolism of radio-iodinated IgG in patients with abnormal serum IgG levels. I. Hypergamma-globulinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. V.; Fudenberg, H. H.

    1971-01-01

    Metabolic turnover studies were performed with radio-iodinated IgG in twelve patients with a serum IgG level greater than 1600 mg/100 ml (six with monoclonal gammopathy and six with a polyclonal increase in IgG associated with liver disease). The six patients with an IgG monoclonal protein comprised four multiple myeloma, one benign monoclonal gammopathy and one biclonal gammopathy presenting as Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. The six patients with liver disease comprised two patients with cirrhosis, two with infective hepatitis and two with chronic active hepatitis. The injected IgG was either autologous normal IgG (five cases), autologous monoclonal IgG (five cases), homologous normal IgG (one case) or therapeutic intravenous HGG (two cases). The plasma volume was increased in six patients; the plasma IgG pool in nine; and the total body IgG pool in seven. The plasma T½ was normal in one patient with monoclonal and one patient with polyclonal gammopathy but shortened in the other ten studies with mean values of 11·3 and 11·0 days in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy respectively. The fractional turnover rate was normal in two studies in polyclonal gammopathy and increased in the other ten with mean values of 13·6% per day in both groups of patients. The IgG synthesis rate was significantly increased in all studies except for a reduced synthesis of normal IgG in one patient with multiple myeloma. The mean synthesis rates in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy were respectively 6·7 and 4·1 times the mean synthesis rate in normal controls. The pattern of increased synthesis and increased catabolism in such patients confirms published reports in some diseases and demonstrates a similar pattern in chronic active hepatitis. The findings are consistent with the `concentration-catabolism' effect. PMID:5003444

  3. IgG purification by bentonite-acrylamide-histidine microcomposite.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Birnur

    2012-04-01

    In this work, a new microcomposite composed of bentonite, acrylamide and histidine, as a pseudospecific ligand, was synthesized by bulk polymerization. The aim of this study was to improve IgG adsorption capacity of bentonite by incorporating histidine. The surface areas of the bentonite and bentonite-acrylamide-histidine microcomposites were 33.4 and 1.42 m(2)/g, respectively. The amount of histidine was found to be 50 μmol/g bentonite via elemental analysis. Adsorption capacity was at the value of 100mg/g from aqueous solution while adsorption capacity was 108 mg/g from human plasma with a purity of 90%. IgG biomolecules were able to be adsorbed and desorbed five times by using the same microcomposites without significant loss in their adsorption capacity.

  4. Effects of human IgG on locomotion of human neutrophils related to IgG binding of a hydrophobic probe.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, P C

    1980-01-01

    Heat-denatured (63 degrees) human IgG had complex effects on locomotion of human neutrophils. At concentrations of 1 mg/ml and below, it stimulated chemotactic locomotion into filters judged by the leading front assay, however, pre-treatment of the cells or of the filters with denatured IgG caused a reduction in the number of locomoting cells, compared to cells locomoting in a medium containing albumin. These effects took place in complement-free media. Native IgG was not chemotactic. The chemotactic activity of denatured IgG correlated well with increased binding by the same IgG preparations of the hydrophobic probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate (ANS), and it is suggested that heating induces a conformational change in the IgG molecule which allows recognition of the altered molecule by neutrophils and activation of a chemotactic response. The integrity of the Fc fragment is required for this activity. As well as a direct chemoattractant activity of IgG, evidence for release of chemotactic factors by cells in contact with aggregated IgG was also obtained. It is suggested that the contrary effects of denatured IgG on neutrophil locomotion are explicable if the protein, like other denatured proteins, activates the sensory chemotactic mechanism in the neutrophil, while at the same time causing a modification of adhesion of cell to substratum which may impair the locomotor capacity of the cells. PMID:7439936

  5. IgG and IgG subclass specific antibody responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in newborns and infants given DTP immunization.

    PubMed

    Dengrove, J; Lee, E J; Heiner, D C; St Geme, J W; Leake, R; Baraff, L J; Ward, J I

    1986-08-01

    To evaluate immune responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in infants we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect total IgG and specific IgG-1, IgG-2, IgG-3, and IgG-4 antibody. One group of infants received a newborn dose and subsequently received the usual three doses of DTP. A second group of infants received only the routine dosage at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. In sera acquired at birth, 6, and 9 months of age, there were no statistically significant differences between the two vaccine groups in IgG antibody responses to diphtheria or tetanus, or in IgG subclass tetanus-specific antibody responses. In individual children, tetanus-specific subclass responses were similar in pattern to that for total IgG tetanus antibody, i.e. each IgG subclass response appeared to be regulated by similar mechanisms in that child, but the regulation differed between children. In contrast to a prior study of pertussis immunity, maternally acquired antibody did not significantly affect immune responses to diphtheria or tetanus toxoid by 9 months of age. There was no discernible tolerance due to early tetanus or diphtheria immunization or to high levels of maternally acquired antibody.

  6. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D.; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from nonneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  7. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D. IV; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from noneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  8. Association between IgG4 Autoantibody and Complement Abnormalities in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Linjie; Wu, Jing; Liao, Huanjin; Lan, Qiaofen; Peng, Yanxia; He, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the association between IgG4 autoantibody and complement abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 72 newly diagnosed SLE patients, 67 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and 41 healthy normals were employed. Serum levels of antinuclear IgG4 and IgG4-specific IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured, and the correlations between serum levels of antinuclear IgG4 and several clinical parameters were analyzed. Also, the levels of IgG subclasses, C1q, and C3 deposition in lupus nephritis (LN) were detected. The results showed that serum levels of antinuclear IgG4 were higher in SLE patients relative to healthy normals (P < 0.01). Serum levels of antinuclear IgG4 in SLE patients were positively correlated with serum levels of total IgG4, albumin, and C3 (r = 0.61, P < 0.05; r = 0.40, P < 0.05; and r = 0.54, P < 0.05, resp.) and negatively correlated with 24-hour urinary protein (r = 0.49, P < 0.05). Serum levels of IgG4-specific IgM-RF were higher in RA patients than in SLE patients (P < 0.001). Also, the ratio of the deposition score for IgG4/(IgG1 + IgG2 + IgG3 + IgG4) was negatively correlated with the score for C1q and C3 deposition in LN (r = 0.34, P < 0.05; r = 0.51, P < 0.01, resp.). In summary, the IgG4 autoantibody may dampen the inflammatory response in SLE, thus maybe providing a novel therapeutic target for SLE. PMID:27597802

  9. IgG4 subclass antibodies impair antitumor immunity in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E.; Josephs, Debra H.; Ali, Niwa; Dodev, Tihomir; Saul, Louise; Correa, Isabel; Roberts, Luke; Beddowes, Emma; Koers, Alexander; Hobbs, Carl; Ferreira, Silvia; Geh, Jenny L.C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Blower, Philip J.; Mitchell, Tracey; Fear, David J.; Spicer, James F.; Lacy, Katie E.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2013-01-01

    Host-induced antibodies and their contributions to cancer inflammation are largely unexplored. IgG4 subclass antibodies are present in IL-10–driven Th2 immune responses in some inflammatory conditions. Since Th2-biased inflammation is a hallmark of tumor microenvironments, we investigated the presence and functional implications of IgG4 in malignant melanoma. Consistent with Th2 inflammation, CD22+ B cells and IgG4+-infiltrating cells accumulated in tumors, and IL-10, IL-4, and tumor-reactive IgG4 were expressed in situ. When compared with B cells from patient lymph nodes and blood, tumor-associated B cells were polarized to produce IgG4. Secreted B cells increased VEGF and IgG4, and tumor cells enhanced IL-10 secretion in cocultures. Unlike IgG1, an engineered tumor antigen-specific IgG4 was ineffective in triggering effector cell–mediated tumor killing in vitro. Antigen-specific and nonspecific IgG4 inhibited IgG1-mediated tumoricidal functions. IgG4 blockade was mediated through reduction of FcγRI activation. Additionally, IgG4 significantly impaired the potency of tumoricidal IgG1 in a human melanoma xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, serum IgG4 was inversely correlated with patient survival. These findings suggest that IgG4 promoted by tumor-induced Th2-biased inflammation may restrict effector cell functions against tumors, providing a previously unexplored aspect of tumor-induced immune escape and a basis for biomarker development and patient-specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:23454746

  10. IgG4 subclass antibodies impair antitumor immunity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E; Josephs, Debra H; Ali, Niwa; Dodev, Tihomir; Saul, Louise; Correa, Isabel; Roberts, Luke; Beddowes, Emma; Koers, Alexander; Hobbs, Carl; Ferreira, Silvia; Geh, Jenny L C; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M; Blower, Philip J; Mitchell, Tracey; Fear, David J; Spicer, James F; Lacy, Katie E; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2013-04-01

    Host-induced antibodies and their contributions to cancer inflammation are largely unexplored. IgG4 subclass antibodies are present in IL-10-driven Th2 immune responses in some inflammatory conditions. Since Th2-biased inflammation is a hallmark of tumor microenvironments, we investigated the presence and functional implications of IgG4 in malignant melanoma. Consistent with Th2 inflammation, CD22+ B cells and IgG4(+)-infiltrating cells accumulated in tumors, and IL-10, IL-4, and tumor-reactive IgG4 were expressed in situ. When compared with B cells from patient lymph nodes and blood, tumor-associated B cells were polarized to produce IgG4. Secreted B cells increased VEGF and IgG4, and tumor cells enhanced IL-10 secretion in cocultures. Unlike IgG1, an engineered tumor antigen-specific IgG4 was ineffective in triggering effector cell-mediated tumor killing in vitro. Antigen-specific and nonspecific IgG4 inhibited IgG1-mediated tumoricidal functions. IgG4 blockade was mediated through reduction of FcγRI activation. Additionally, IgG4 significantly impaired the potency of tumoricidal IgG1 in a human melanoma xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, serum IgG4 was inversely correlated with patient survival. These findings suggest that IgG4 promoted by tumor-induced Th2-biased inflammation may restrict effector cell functions against tumors, providing a previously unexplored aspect of tumor-induced immune escape and a basis for biomarker development and patient-specific therapeutic approaches.

  11. IgG4 related disease of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    IgG4 related disease of the head and neck region represents one of the more common manifestations of IgG4 related disease. Involvement of the submandibular and parotid glands, the orbit and thyroid represent some of the more common sites involved by IgG4 related disease. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis, Mikulicz disease and Riedel thyroiditis are also members of the family of IgG4 related disease. Clinically, the disease is characterized by tumefactive lesions, often multicentric, that show a swift response to immunosuppressive therapy. An elevated serum IgG4 represents the only validated blood based biomarker. However, elevated serum IgG4 is detected in only half the patients with this disease. Histology continues to represent the gold standard for the diagnosis of IgG4 related disease: storiform-type fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis constitute characteristic features of this disease. A definitive diagnosis of IgG4 related disease also requires the presence of elevated numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells as well as an IgG4 to IgG ratio of greater than 40 %. In isolation, elevated numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells represents a non-specific feature, detected in a variety of other inflammatory as well as neoplastic diseases. Attention to the clinical context, histological features, as well as an elevated IgG4 to IgG ratio is critical to avoiding overdiagnosis of IgG4 related disease.

  12. Diagnostic Approach to the Complexity of IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, John H; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Bosch, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-bearing plasma cells and, more importantly, distinctive histopathological features: storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and mild-to-moderate tissue eosinophilia. The diagnostic approach is complex and relies on the coexistence of various clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings, none of which is pathognomonic in and of itself. IgG4-related disease should be suspected in patients presenting with unexplained enlargement or swelling of 1 or more organs or tissue organs. Four laboratory abnormalities often provide initial clues to the diagnosis of IgG4-RD: peripheral eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated serum IgE levels, and hypocomplementemia. Elevated serum IgG4 levels provided critical information in identifying the first cases of IgG4-RD, but recent studies have reported substantial limitations to the measurement of serum IgG4 concentrations, precluding reliance on serum IgG4 concentrations for diagnostic purposes. In contrast, new studies have suggested a promising role of flow cytometry studies in the diagnosis and longitudinal management of IgG4-RD. Demonstration of the classic histopathological features of IgG4-RD remains crucial to diagnosis in most cases, and biopsy proof is preferred strongly by most disease experts before the initiation of treatment. Of note, the multiorgan nature of IgG4-RD was first established in 2003. This review intends to provide most recent knowledge about the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and pathological characteristics of IgG4-RD that may guide the physician to establish an early diagnosis. We searched PubMed and MEDLINE for relevant articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2014, using the search terms IgG4 and IgG4-related.

  13. T15 group A streptococcal Fc receptor binds to the same location on IgG as staphylococcal protein A and IgG rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed

    Nardella, F A; Schröder, A K; Svensson, M L; Sjöquist, J; Barber, C; Christensen, P

    1987-02-01

    Previous work has shown that IgG rheumatoid factors (RF) bind to the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface region of human IgG in the same area that binds staphylococcal protein A (SPA). Group A, C, and G strains of Streptococci possess Fc receptors that bind to IgG but not to fragments containing only the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 domains. This work describes the binding site location on human IgG for the binding of the isolated Fc receptor from the T15 strain of a Group A streptococcus and its relationship to the site that binds SPA and the IgG RF. The isolated T15 Fc receptor (T15) with a molecular mass of 29.5 kD inhibited the binding of IgG RF to IgG. The binding of T15 itself to IgG was strongly inhibited by SPA (42.0 kD) and its monovalent fragment D (7 kD). Human IgG fragments consisting of the C gamma 3 domains did not inhibit the binding of T15 to IgG, whereas those with both domains were effective inhibitors. T15 did not bind to rabbit IgG fragments consisting of either the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 domains, but did bind to those with both domains. An IgG3 myeloma protein was a poor inhibitor and has been shown to bind poorly to the IgG RF. Most IgG3 myeloma proteins did not bind to SPA. The substitution of Arg and Phe for His 435 and Tyr 436 is responsible for the poor binding of IgG3 to SPA and to the IgG RF. Chemical modification of His or Tyr on IgG reduced its ability to inhibit the binding of T15 to IgG. Reversal of the chemical modifications with hydroxylamine resulted in near complete restoration of inhibitory capacity. This information, collectively, coupled with the known positions in space of the His and Tyr residues in the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface region, verified that both His 435 and Tyr 436, and possibly His 310 and 433, are involved. These residues are also involved in binding SPA and the IgG RF. These data therefore indicate that the T15 Group A Streptococcal Fc receptor binds to the same location on the Fc of IgG as SPA and the IgG RF. The

  14. Use of ELISA employing Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; de O Schubach, Armando; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Tânia M P; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Marzochi, Mauro C A

    2007-09-30

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) shows a reduced humoral response in dogs and levels of specific antibodies may therefore not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Although the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is higher than that of indirect immunofluorescence, the best antigen for the diagnosis of ATL in dogs has not been defined. The detection of IgG subclasses represents an alternative to increase the efficiency of the serological diagnosis. In Rio de Janeiro, sporotrichosis is the main differential diagnosis of ATL in dogs, and a sensitive, specific and little invasive method that permits the discrimination of the two diseases is desired. In the present study, 69 serum samples, 34 obtained from dogs with ATL and 35 from dogs with sporotrichosis, all of them with a confirmed etiological diagnosis, were tested. The samples were analyzed by ELISA using Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (L.) chagasi antigens for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1 and IgG2. The use of L. (V.) braziliensis antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG2 yielded the best results. Using L. (L.) chagasi antigen, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgG were 82.4% and 100%, respectively, whereas both sensitivity and specificity were 97.1% with the L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. No improvement in the performance of the test was observed when IgG2 was analyzed separately. The IgG1 assays presented low accuracy, irrespective of the antigen used: sensitivity and specificity of 58.8% and 60% for L. (V.) braziliensis and of 64.7% and 77.1% for L. (L.) chagasi, respectively. The present results suggest that IgG ELISA using the L. (V.) braziliensis shows the best performance for the diagnosis of ATL, permitting the discrimination between cases of ATL and sporotrichosis in dogs.

  15. The birthday of a new syndrome: IgG4-related diseases constitute a clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh

    2010-07-01

    IgG4-related disease is a distinct clinical entity, whose characteristic features are the following; Serum IgG4 is prominently elevated, IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrate in involved tissues, various mass-forming lesions with fibrosis develop in a timely and spatial manner and the response to corticosteroids is prompt and good. IgG4-related diseases mainly target two organs. One is the pancreas (autoimmune pancreatitis; AIP), and the other comprises the lacrimal and salivary glands, the clinical phenotype is Mikulicz's disease (MD). MD has long been considered a manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, we noticed several clinical differences in case of MD from SS; no deflection of female sex differences, mild sicca syndrome, good response to corticosteroids, no positivity of anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies. In addition, elevated level of serum IgG4 and abundant infiltration of plasma cells expressing IgG4 were reported in MD patients. Those are common features of IgG4-related diseases. MD often coexisted with IgG4-related diseases such as AIP, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and IgG4-associated nephropathy. Based on those findings, it has been considered to recognize IgG4-related diseases including MD as a new clinical entity. The etiology of IgG4-related systemic diseases remains to be elucidated. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze larger data from patients worldwide.

  16. Neuron-derived IgG protects neurons from complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Li, Bingjie; McNutt, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Passive immunity of the nervous system has traditionally been thought to be predominantly due to the blood-brain barrier. This concept must now be revisited based on the existence of neuron-derived IgG. The conventional concept is that IgG is produced solely by mature B lymphocytes, but it has now been found to be synthesized by murine and human neurons. However, the function of this endogenous IgG is poorly understood. In this study, we confirm IgG production by rat cortical neurons at the protein and mRNA levels, with 69.0 ± 5.8% of cortical neurons IgG-positive. Injury to primary-culture neurons was induced by complement leading to increases in IgG production. Blockage of neuron-derived IgG resulted in more neuronal death and early apoptosis in the presence of complement. In addition, FcγRI was found in microglia and astrocytes. Expression of FcγR I in microglia was increased by exposure to neuron-derived IgG. Release of NO from microglia triggered by complement was attenuated by neuron-derived IgG, and this attenuation could be reversed by IgG neutralization. These data demonstrate that neuron-derived IgG is protective of neurons against injury induced by complement and microglial activation. IgG appears to play an important role in maintaining the stability of the nervous system.

  17. IgG subclasses compared in maternal and cord serum and breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Gasparoni, A; Avanzini, A; Ravagni Probizer, F; Chirico, G; Rondini, G; Severi, F

    1992-01-01

    Total and specific IgG subclass antibodies against 14 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigens on the cord serum from 11 healthy term infants at birth and on serum from their mothers at delivery were evaluated. The same evaluation was performed five days after delivery on the serum and the milk obtained from the six mothers who were breast feeding their infants. Mean neonatal: maternal serum ratio of total IgG1 was significantly higher than the ratios of total IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 and higher than the ratios of pneumococcal IgG subclass antibodies. Total IgG3 and IgG4 ratios were higher than the specific antibody ratios of the same IgG subclass. Type 1 and type 14 IgG1 antibodies were the highest antipneumococcal ratios. Although the maternal milk:serum ratios of total IgG subclasses were very low, significant amounts of specific antibodies were found in the milk, at about half the concentration observed in mother's serum. PMID:1536584

  18. Feeding neonatal rats with IgG antibodies leads to humoral hyporesponsiveness in the adult.

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, J V

    1992-01-01

    Feeding monoclonal IgG2a or IgG1 anti-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) antibodies to 12-16-day-old neonatal rats caused a profound suppression of the humoral anti-HRP response in these rats as adults. The hyporesponsiveness to HRP was specific and long-lasting (up to 5 months). It was shown to be dose dependent, requiring relatively large doses of IgG (100-600 micrograms) for maximum effect. Secondary IgG (IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b) responses were most depressed. The effect could be reproduced by i.p. injection of antibody. Hyporesponsiveness was not attributable to circulating antiidiotype antibodies directed against the monoclonal IgG, nor to the continued presence of the monoclonal anti-HRP since rats receiving antibody at or some weeks after the time of weaning and gut 'closure' responded well to subsequent HRP challenge. The effect was thus dependent on IgG administered over the identical period during which the neonatal circulation is rich in maternal IgG supplied via the milk. A direct function for maternal IgG in moulding the immune repertoire of the offspring, as well as providing passive protection, is suggested by these results. PMID:1385314

  19. Biophysical and Functional Characterization of Rhesus Macaque IgG Subclasses

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Austin W.; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Crowley, Andrew R.; Chu, Thach H.; Chan, Ying N.; Weiner, Joshua A.; Bharadwaj, Pranay; Hards, Rufus; Adamo, Mark E.; Gerber, Scott A.; Cocklin, Sarah L.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Miles, Adam R.; Eckman, Joshua W.; Belli, Aaron J.; Reimann, Keith A.; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies raised in Indian rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta (MM)] in many preclinical vaccine studies are often evaluated in vitro for titer, antigen-recognition breadth, neutralization potency, and/or effector function, and in vivo for potential associations with protection. However, despite reliance on this key animal model in translation of promising candidate vaccines for evaluation in first in man studies, little is known about the properties of MM immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and how they may compare to human IgG subclasses. Here, we evaluate the binding of MM IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 to human Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) and their ability to elicit the effector functions of human FcγR-bearing cells, and unlike in humans, find a notable absence of subclasses with dramatically silent Fc regions. Biophysical, in vitro, and in vivo characterization revealed MM IgG1 exhibited the greatest effector function activity followed by IgG2 and then IgG3/4. These findings in rhesus are in contrast with the canonical understanding that IgG1 and IgG3 dominate effector function in humans, indicating that subclass-switching profiles observed in rhesus studies may not strictly recapitulate those observed in human vaccine studies. PMID:28018355

  20. Leishmania infantum-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody responses in healthy and ill dogs from endemic areas. Evolution in the course of infection and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Solano-Gallego, L; Riera, C; Roura, X; Iniesta, L; Gallego, M; Valladares, J E; Fisa, R; Castillejo, S; Alberola, J; Ferrer, L; Arboix, M; Portús, M

    2001-04-19

    The expression of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 specific antibodies for Leishmania infantum was studied in five groups of dogs in Catalonia (Spain): I, 99 asymptomatic dogs (infected and uninfected) from a highly endemic area for leishmaniosis; II, 139 untreated dogs with clinically patent leishmaniosis; III, 11 naturally infected asymptomatic dogs monitored for up to 5 years since they were found seropositive to Leishmania antigen and without treatment; IV, 25 naturally infected dogs with clinically patent leishmaniosis and treated with either meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol or allopurinol alone and V, six experimentally infected dogs, treated with meglumine antimoniate and controlled for 5 years. The levels (ELISA units) of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in asymptomatic dogs (group I) were very variable (24+/-33, 32+/-31 and 26+/-31, respectively), and, as expected, lower than in ill dogs (group II) (168+/-34, 84+/-71 and 172+/-31, respectively). In both groups, the correlation between IgG and IgG2 levels (r=0.95, P<0.001 in group I and r=0.63, P<0.001 in group II) was higher than between IgG and IgG1 levels (r=0.01, P>0.05 in group I and r=0.31, P<0.001 in group II). In group III, IgG and IgG2 expression increased during infection, while IgG1 expression remained the same. In dogs of group IV, IgG levels after 1 year of treatment decreased more in responsive (mean values, 163+/-42 before treatment (b.t.) and 100+/-36 after treatment (a.t.)) than in unresponsive dogs (158+/-29 b.t. and 124+/-51 a.t.), especially for IgG1 (94+/-89 b.t. and 20+/-21 a.t. in responsive dogs and 35+/-25 b.t. and 22+/-13 a.t. in unresponsive dogs) rather than for IgG2 (156+/-16 b.t. and 114+/-45 a.t. in responsive and 151+/-11 b.t. and 125+/-36 a.t. in unresponsive dogs). Similar results were observed in the evolution of experimentally infected animals after consecutive and specific treatments. Overall results show the great variation in Leishmania-specific IgG1 expression in asymptomatic and

  1. Covariance structures of fat and protein influence the estimation of IgG in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Engelbrecht, Rikke; Wiking, Lars

    2016-02-01

    On-farm instruments for assessing colostrum quality are needed in order to ensure that the calf is supplied with enough IgG to avoid failure of passive transfer. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for estimating the IgG concentration in cows' colostrum. This research included 126 colostrum samples from 21 Danish farms with different breeds, ensuring a broad variation pattern in IgG, total protein and fat concentration. Approximately one third of the samples did not fulfil the recommendation of >50 g IgG/l colostrum, and the IgG concentration decreased with time from calving to milking. The ratio of IgG to total protein varied from 6 to 61%, however IgG and total protein were correlated with r2 = 0.70. The variation in fat was independent of variations in protein and IgG. The IgG concentration was measured by ELISA and compared to fast measurements by specific gravity by colostrometer, Brix by refractometer and prediction from infrared spectroscopy. The three fast methods were all correlated to the total protein concentration of colostrum; however specific gravity was also influenced by the fat concentration. Furthermore, specific gravity generally overestimated the IgG concentration, and the cut-off level should be raised to 1050 in order to ensure adequate IgG in colostrum. None of the methods estimated IgG concentration better than the correlation of total protein and IgG, meaning that they all depended on the indirect correlation between total protein and IgG. The results suggest that using a refractometer for quality control of colostrum is an easy and feasible method, and a cut-off level of Brix 22 seems sufficient to assure adequate IgG concentration in colostrum fed to the calf.

  2. Multicentric Castleman Disease With Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Mimicking IgG4-related Disease: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Zoshima, Takeshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Hara, Satoshi; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Harada, Kenichi; Sato, Yasuharu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder with heterogenous clinical symptoms and involves systemic organs in addition to lymph nodes. Elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4-positive plasma cell (IgG4+PC) infiltrates have been reported in lymph nodes, lung and skin in some multicentric Castleman disease cases, resembling IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) histologically. However, no report has been available regarding IgG4+PC infiltration in the kidneys of multicentric Castleman disease. Here, we report 2 cases of multicentric Castleman disease complicated by IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) histologically. However, there has been no report published on PC-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis, lymphadenopathy, with numerous IgG4+PC infiltration, and elevated serum IgG4 levels, mimicking IgG4-RD. The blood examinations revealed systemic inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. Corticosteroid therapy was partially effective in both cases, and combination therapy of corticosteroid and tocilizumab was needed in both cases. Moreover, after triple therapy with corticosteroid, rituximab and cyclophosphamide were used in 1 case to tame the severe inflammation. The present cases suggest that if continuously elevated serum C-reactive protein levels and partial corticosteroid responsiveness are encountered, multicentric Castleman disease should be considered rather than IgG4-RD as a differential diagnosis even if serum IgG4 is elevated and IgG4+PCs infiltrate systemic organs.

  3. Study of IgG sub-class antibodies in patients with milk intolerance.

    PubMed

    Shakib, F; Brown, H M; Phelps, A; Redhead, R

    1986-09-01

    An ELISA was applied to measure IgG sub-class antibodies to cow's milk beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and alpha-casein (AC) and to hen's egg ovalbumin (OA) in the sera of nineteen adult patients with milk intolerance causing either asthma, eczema or both. Results were compared with those of forty blood donors and twenty adult patients with either asthma or eczema due to inhalant allergy. Apart from one blood donor, high titres of IgG sub-class antibodies to all three milk proteins were found only in the milk intolerance group. The most frequently detected antibody was AC-specific IgG4; being high (i.e. greater than 9.98 micrograms/ml) in eight milk intolerance cases: six with eczema, one with asthma and one with both. A variable proportion of these eight patients also had high levels of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies to AC and IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies to BLG and ALA. In contrast, IgG antibody to the egg protein, OA, was remarkably restricted to IgG4 and was present in high titres in 68.4% of milk intolerant patients, 60% of inhalant allergy patients and 30% of blood donors. However, the greater incidence of high titres of IgG4 antibody to OA, compared to AC, was due to the superior coating efficiency of OA resulting in a more sensitive assay. We conclude that some adult cases of milk intolerance, particularly those with eczema, can be diagnosed by detecting raised serum levels of IgG sub-class antibodies to milk proteins.

  4. A small subgroup of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jokisch, Friedrich; Kleinlein, Irene; Haller, Bernhard; Seehaus, Tanja; Fuerst, Heinrich; Kremer, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly identified syndrome characterized by high serum IgG4 levels and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in involved organs. The incidence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in the Caucasian population of Europe is unknown. We investigated formalin-fixed thyroid gland samples of 216 patients (191 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 Riedel's thyroiditis, and 20 goiters, as controls), morphologically, and immunohistochemically. Cases were divided into two groups: IgG4-related Hashimoto's thyroiditis (24 cases) together with Riedel thyroiditis (1 case) and 171 non-IgG4-related thyroiditis. Compared to the non-IgG4-related cases, IgG4-related thyroiditis showed a higher IgG4/IgG ratio (0.6 vs. 0.1, p < 0.0001), a higher median IgG4 count (45.2 vs. 6.2, p < 0.0001), an association with younger age (42.1 vs. 48.1 years, p = 0.036), and a lower female-to-male ratio (11:1 vs. 17.5:1). Fibrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 23 of the 24 IgG4-related cases (96 %) and in 13 of 167 (18 %, p > 0.001) non-IgG4-related cases. The single case of IgG4-related Riedel's thyroiditis also showed a higher median IgG4 plasma cell count (56.3 vs. 14.3) and a higher IgG4/IgG ratio (0.5 vs. 0.2) than the four cases of non-IgG4-related Riedel's thyroiditis. Our data suggests the incidence of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) of the thyroid gland in Europe is considerably lower than that observed in other studies. A significant elevation of IgG4-positive plasma cells was only found in a small group of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and then accompanied by intense fibrosis, indicating an association with IgG4-RD. Morphologically, IgG4-RD of the thyroid gland differs from that in other organ systems, exhibiting a dense fibrosis without intense eosinophilia or obliterative phlebitis.

  5. IgG subclass responses to proinflammatory fraction of Brugia malayi in human filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, S.K.; Verma, S.K.; Sahoo, M.K.; Sharma, A.; Srivastava, M.; Reddy, M.V.R.; Murthy, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Earlier we demonstrated that immunization with F6, a proinflammatory molecular fraction isolated from the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi, protected the host and eliminated the infection in Mastomys coucha by a Th1/Th2 response including IgG2a antibody response. Whether F6 molecules become accessible to human host during natural course of infection and elicit similar response is not known. The present study was undertaken to determine the profile of IgG subclasses specifically reactive to F6 in different categories of bancroftian filariasis cases to infer any relationship between the levels of a particular F6-specific IgG subclass and the infection or disease status. Methods: Serum samples of normal individuals from filariasis non-endemic regions of India like Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, and Chandigarh [(NEN-W; n=10), healthy subjects from USA (NEN-U; n=10) and three categories of bancroftian filariasis cases from endemic areas: endemic normals (EN; n=10) with no symptoms and no microfilariae, asymptomatic microfilaremics (ASM; n=10) and chronic symptomatic amicrofilaremics (CL; n=10) were assayed for F6-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 by ELISA using SDS-PAGE-isolated F6 fraction of B. malayi adult worms. Results: Significantly high levels of F6-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 were found in CL (P<0.001) and EN (P<0.01-0.001) bancroftian filariasis cases compared to NEN-U. Significant levels of F6-specific IgG1 (P<0.01) and IgG2 (P<0.01) but not IgG3 were found in ASM cases compared to NEN-U. The most abundant was IgG2 which when compared to NEN-U, was significantly high in CL (P<0.001) and EN cases (P<0.001), followed by ASM (P<0.01). F6-specific IgG4 response in EN, ASM and CL subjects was not significantly different from the levels of NEN-U. Among the non-endemic normals, the NEN-W subjects showed significant reactivity with IgG2 (P<0.001) but not with IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 as compared to NEN-U subjects. IgG subclass levels were

  6. Comparison of the role of tyrosine residues in human IgG and rabbit IgG in binding of complement subcomponent C1q.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, M N; Easterbrook-Smith, S B

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of covalently cross-linked or heat-aggregated oligomers of human IgG with 4 mM-tetranitromethane abrogated their C1q-binding activity. In contrast, tetranitromethane modification of rabbit IgG oligomers, under identical conditions, had no effect upon their C1q-binding activity. The tetranitromethane treatment led to nitration of about ten tyrosine residues per IgG molecule in both species, and the modification was specific for tyrosine residues. Reduction of the nitrated protein with Na2S2O4 did not lead to recovery of C1q-binding activity in human IgG oligomers or to loss of activity in rabbit IgG oligomers. Tryptic peptides from the nitrated proteins were isolated and a peptide containing nitrotyrosine-319 was recovered from human IgG, as well as peptides from both species corresponding to the region around nitrotyrosine-278. These data are consistent with the inactivation of C1q-binding activity in human IgG being the result of nitration of tyrosine-319; the rabbit IgG is unaffected by nitration because position 319 is phenylalanine. The evidence supports the C1q-receptor site proposed by Burton, Boyd, Brampton, Easterbrook-Smith, Emanuel, Novotny, Rademacher, van Schravendijk, Sternberg & Dwek [(1980) Nature (London) 288, 338-344]: residues 316-338. PMID:2784672

  7. IgG Conformer's Binding to Amyloidogenic Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Phay, Monichan; Welzel, Alfred T.; Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Blinder, Veronika; O'Malley, Tiernan T.; Solomon, Alan; Walsh, Dominic M.; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-reactive IgGs isolated from pooled blood of normal individuals (pAbs) have demonstrated clinical utility for amyloid diseases by in vivo targeting and clearing amyloidogenic proteins and peptides. We now report the following three novel findings on pAb conformer's binding to amyloidogenic aggregates: 1) pAb aggregates have greater activity than monomers (HMW species > dimers > monomers), 2) pAbs interactions with amyloidogenic aggregates at least partially involves unconventional (non-CDR) interactions of F(ab) regions, and 3) pAb's activity can be easily modulated by trace aggregates generated during sample processing. Specifically, we show that HMW aggregates and dimeric pAbs present in commercial preparations of pAbs, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), had up to ~200- and ~7-fold stronger binding to aggregates of Aβ and transthyretin (TTR) than the monomeric antibody. Notably, HMW aggregates were primarily responsible for the enhanced anti-amyloid activities of Aβ- and Cibacron blue-isolated IVIg IgGs. Human pAb conformer's binding to amyloidogenic aggregates was retained in normal human sera, and mimicked by murine pAbs isolated from normal pooled plasmas. An unconventional (non-CDR) component to pAb's activity was indicated from control human mAbs, generated against non-amyloid targets, binding to aggregated Aβ and TTR. Similar to pAbs, HMW and dimeric mAb conformers bound stronger than their monomeric forms to amyloidogenic aggregates. However, mAbs had lower maximum binding signals, indicating that pAbs were required to saturate a diverse collection of binding sites. Taken together, our findings strongly support further investigations on the physiological function and clinical utility of the inherent anti-amyloid activities of monomeric but not aggregated IgGs. PMID:26367058

  8. Therapeutic approach to IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Kostov, Belchin; Bosch, Xavier; Acar-Denizli, Nihan; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Stone, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To review the reported evidence on the therapeutic management of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in clinical practice. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. The primary outcome measured was the rate of efficacy of first-line therapeutic approaches. Secondary outcomes measured included the rate of disease relapse, the outcome of untreated patients, the rate of patients without drug therapy at the end of follow-up, the rate of side effects, and mortality. The MOOSE, AHRQ, STROBE, and GRACE recommendations/statements were followed. The results of the systematic search strategy yielded 62 studies that included a total of 3034 patients. Complete information about first-line therapeutic regimens was detailed in 1952 patients, including glucocorticoid-based regimens in 1437 (74%), drug-free regimens in 213 (11%), and other therapies in 38 (2%). No therapy (wait and see management) was reported in 264 (13%) patients. The efficacy of monotherapy with glucocorticoids was specified in 1220 patients, of whom 97% had a therapeutic response. Relapses, however, were reported in 464/1395 (33%) patients despite typically short follow-up periods. Therapeutic efficacy was reported in 219/231 (95%) of relapses treated with glucocorticoids, 56/69 (81%) of those treated with azathioprine, 16/22 (72%) of those treated with other immunosuppressive agents, and in the 9 cases treated with rituximab (100%). In 14 studies, the authors detailed the outcome of 159/246 patients with wait-and-see management; spontaneous improvement or resolution was reported in 68 (43%) cases. Wide heterogeneity was observed with respect to the first-line therapeutic approaches used for the different organ-specific disease subsets, including significant differences in the mean dose of glucocorticoids used. Nearly 70% of reported IgG4-RD patients are treated with oral glucocorticoids in monotherapy. However, the therapeutic management is heavily influenced by geographical, epidemiological

  9. [Review of ear and nose and throat involvement in IgG4-RD].

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Chang; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized disease entity. IgG4-RD is characterized by a single or multiple masses in one or more organs; a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with a high percentage of plasma cells within the lesion staining for IgG4; a peculiar pattern of fibrosis known as "storiform" fibrosis; and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. IgG4-RD can occur in various organs, including pancreas, kidneys, lungs, retroperitoneum, and prostate gland. The head and neck involvements of IgG4-RD have been chiefly described in Mikulicz disease (MD), Küttner's tumor, orbital? inflammatory pseudotumor, and idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) previously. Recent studies reported that IgG4-RD could also involve ear, nose and throat. Here we reviewed the literatures about ear, nose and throat involvement by IgG4-RD, in order to provide some theoretical bases for the diagnosis and treatment of IgG4-RD.

  10. IgG4- related disease as a rare cause of tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lennard Y W; Yap, Hsiu; Sampson, Steve; Ford, Brian; Hayman, Grant; Marsh, James; Bansal, Amolak S

    2014-07-01

    Isolated IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a rare disorder characterized by raised serum IgG4 levels and histological findings of dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells. We report a case of isolated IgG4 TIN that presented with acute kidney injury in an 84 year old man with a polyclonal increase in his total IgG and a raised IgE of 381 kUA/L but without evidence of systemic autoimmunity. We draw a parallel with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and show raised levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Importantly the plasma levels of the T regulatory cell cytokine, IL10, the TH1 cytokines IL12 and IFNγ, the proinflammatory TNF α and immune regulatory IL27 were all highly raised. Furthermore, the level of IL21 that promotes IgG4 production was also very significantly elevated. These results suggest efforts of the immune system to reduce inflammation and suppress an exaggerated Th2 response. A raised serum IgG in the setting of acute kidney injury and in the absence of autoimmunity and chronic infection should encourage an assessment of the IgG subclasses. Prompt steroid treatment of those with a raised IgG4 may reduce ongoing renal damage.

  11. Severe IgG4-Related Disease in a Young Child: A Diagnosis Challenge.

    PubMed

    Corujeira, Susana; Ferraz, Catarina; Nunes, Teresa; Fonseca, Elsa; Vaz, Luísa Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized syndrome that can appear with multiple organ involvement, typically with tumor-like swelling, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. We report the case of a 22-month-old female child with failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory tract infections since 8 months of age. Physical examination was normal except for pulmonary auscultation with bilateral crackles and wheezes. Laboratory tests revealed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated serum IgG and IgG4 with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Thoracic CT and MRI showed multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a nodular posterior mediastinal mass in right paratracheal location with bronchial compression. Initial fine needle aspiration biopsy was compatible with reactive lymphadenopathy but after clinical worsening a thoracoscopic partial resection of the mass was performed and tissue biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and a ratio of IgG4/IgG positive cells above 40%. Glucocorticoids therapy was started with symptomatic improvement, reduction in the size of the mass, and decrease of serum IgG4 levels after 6 weeks. There are very few reports of IgG4-RD in children. Long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor relapses and additional organ involvement.

  12. IgG4-related mastitis, a rare disease, can radiologically and histologically mimic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Rin; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Yamashita, Toshinari; Kamisawa, Terumi

    2016-03-23

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterised by high serum concentrations of IgG4, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, storiform fibrosis and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in tissues. This systemic disease occurs in various organs metachronously, but IgG4-related mastitis appears extremely rare. We report a case of IgG4-related mastitis, radiologically considered to represent breast cancer mainly composed of intraductal component and requiring histological differentiation from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The breast mass disappeared with steroid therapy. When patients have a breast mass, regardless of the presence or absence of IgG4-RD, IgG4-related mastitis should be considered in addition to breast cancer. If histological findings show dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, IgG4-related mastitis should be suspected in addition to malignant lymphoma, and lack of monoclonality should be confirmed. To avoid unnecessary surgery or chemotherapy, knowledge and accurate diagnosis of the entity of IgG4-related mastitis is necessary.

  13. Ophthalmic immunoglobulin G4-related disease IgG4-RD Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Kaustubh; Wick, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a distinct entity that frequently occurs in an ophthalmic location. As such, IgG4-RD is not limited to the orbit but may also involve other anatomical structures in and around the eye. Hence, the term 'ophthalmic IgG4-RD' is preferred over 'orbital IgG4-RD.' A high level of suspicion for the diagnosis can be derived from careful clinicoradiologic examination; the use of immunohistochemical staining for IgG4 in the context of characteristic histopathologic features is needed to reach a correct diagnosis. Recently described diagnostic criteria for ophthalmic IgG4-RD address subtle, yet significant, differences from IgG4-RD as seen in other systemic sites. Serum IgG4 titers are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD and should not relied upon solely. Although most cases respond well to therapy with glucocorticoids, refractoriness to treatment and relapses are common. They necessitate the use of additional immunotherapy in such patients.

  14. Total and specific IgG4 antibody levels in atopic eczema.

    PubMed Central

    Merrett, J; Barnetson, R S; Burr, M L; Merrett, T G

    1984-01-01

    Total IgG4 and IgG4 antibody levels specific for 10 allergens (three inhaled and seven ingested) were measured by radioimmunoassay of sera taken from three groups of adult patients: (1) 32 cases of atopic eczema, (2) 28 cases of respiratory allergy and (3) 156 normal volunteers. In all three groups IgG4 antibody activity was mainly directed against common foods, and generally the group with atopic eczema had higher total and specific IgG4 levels than the cases of respiratory allergy, who in turn had higher titres than the normal group. There was within each group a tendency for men to have more total IgG4 than women and the difference was statistically significant among the normals. There was evidence of an IgG4 restricted response in atopic eczema because despite the group's elevated total IgG4 its total IgG4 remained within normal limits. Furthermore specific IgG4 was correlated with the corresponding specific IgE level in five of the 10 allergens examined. These results are generally consistent with the view that IgG4 levels are raised in cases of atopic eczema due to prolonged exposure to an allergen which initiated an IgE response. PMID:6744664

  15. Erdheim-Chester Disease as a Mimic of IgG4-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gianfreda, Davide; Musetti, Claudio; Nicastro, Maria; Maritati, Federica; Cobelli, Rocco; Corradi, Domenico; Vaglio, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin-G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4RD) is a fibro-inflammatory disorder characterized by tissue-infiltrating IgG4+ plasma cells, and, often, high serum IgG4. Several autoimmune, infectious, or proliferative conditions mimic IgG4RD. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by foamy histiocytic infiltration, fibrosis, and chronic inflammation. ECD and IgG4RD manifestations may overlap. A patient presented with huge fibrous retroperitoneal masses causing compression on neighboring structures; the case posed the challenge of the differential diagnosis between IgG4RD and ECD mainly because of a prominent serum and tissue IgG4 response. Retroperitoneal biopsy led to the diagnosis of ECD; the V600E BRAF mutation was found. Treatment with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib was started. Treatment failed to induce mass regression and the patient died after 3 months of therapy. Prompted by this case, we examined serum and tissue IgG4 in a series of 15 ECD patients evaluated at our center, and found that approximately one-fourth of the cases have increased IgG4 in the serum and often in the tissue. The differential diagnosis between IgG4RD and ECD can be challenging, as some ECD patients have prominent IgG4 responses. This suggests the possibility of common pathogenic mechanisms between ECD and IgG4RD. PMID:27227923

  16. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Decreased Immunosuppressive Potential of the IgG Glycome

    PubMed Central

    Vučković, Frano; Krištić, Jasminka; Gudelj, Ivan; Teruel, Maria; Keser, Toma; Pezer, Marija; Pučić‐Baković, Maja; Štambuk, Jerko; Trbojević‐Akmačić, Irena; Barrios, Clara; Pavić, Tamara; Menni, Cristina; Wang, Youxin; Zhou, Yong; Cui, Liufu; Song, Haicheng; Zeng, Qiang; Guo, Xiuhua; Pons‐Estel, Bernardo A.; McKeigue, Paul; Leslie Patrick, Alan; Gornik, Olga; Spector, Tim D.; Harjaček, Miroslav; Molokhia, Mariam; Wang, Wei; Lauc, Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glycans attached to the Fc portion of IgG are important modulators of IgG effector functions. Interindividual differences in IgG glycome composition are large and they associate strongly with different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IKZF1, HLA–DQ2A/B, and BACH2 genetic loci that affect IgG glycome composition show pleiotropy with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), indicating a potentially causative role of aberrant IgG glycosylation in SLE. We undertook this large multicenter case–control study to determine whether SLE is associated with altered IgG glycosylation. Methods Using ultra‐performance liquid chromatography analysis of released glycans, we analyzed the composition of the IgG glycome in 261 SLE patients and 247 matched controls of Latin American Mestizo origin (the discovery cohort) and in 2 independent replication cohorts of different ethnicity (108 SLE patients and 193 controls from Trinidad, and 106 SLE patients and 105 controls from China). Results Multiple statistically significant differences in IgG glycome composition were observed between patients and controls. The most significant changes included decreased galactosylation and sialylation of IgG (which regulate proinflammatory and antiinflammatory actions of IgG) as well as decreased core fucose and increased bisecting N‐acetylglucosamine (which affect antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity). Conclusion The IgG glycome in SLE patients is significantly altered in a way that decreases immunosuppressive action of circulating immunoglobulins. The magnitude of observed changes is associated with the intensity of the disease, indicating that aberrant IgG glycome composition or changes in IgG glycosylation may be an important molecular mechanism in SLE. PMID:26200652

  17. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  18. Primary Sjögren's syndrome with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and lymphadenopathy mimicking IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Yasunori; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizushima, Ichiro; Matsumura, Masami; Nakajima, Kenichi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    We describe a 62-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) presenting with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and lymphadenopathy mimicking IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Computed tomography revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes. Biopsy of the largest lymph node showed reactive lymphadenopathy with dense IgG4 positive plasma cell (IgG4 + PC) infiltration. Renal biopsy showed chronic plasma cell-rich TIN with IgG4 + PC infiltration. This case suggests that Immunoglobulin G4 immunostaining does not always support the diagnosis of IgG4-RD in the differential diagnosis between SS and IgG4-RD.

  19. A Glycoform of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) as an Early Biomarker of Exposure to Nonhuman Substances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    were greatly elevated in the serum of human patients with liver diseases such as cirrhosis. This led to speculation that the IgGs were produced in...IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 ) or to the helper T cell response. Figure 8. Hypothetical models of (left) non-AAL-reactive...primebody contains a subset of fucosylated G0F or G1F IgGs. The AAL binding of primebody appears to be related to the conformation of the IgG CH2 domain

  20. An autoanalyzer test for the quantitation of platelet-associated IgG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Nathan; Teno, Richard A.; Szymanski, Irma O.

    1986-01-01

    A new quantitative antiglobulin consumption (QAC) test for the measurement of platelet-associated IgG is described. In this test washed platelets are incubated with anti-IgG at a final dilution of 1:2 million. The unneutralized fraction of anti-IgG remaining in solution is then measured with an Autoanalyzer and soluble IgG is used for calibration. The dose-response curves depicting the percent neutralization of anti-IgG by platelets and by soluble IgG were compared in detail and found to be nearly identical, indicating that platelet-associated IgG can be accurately quantitated by this method. The mean IgG values were 2287 molecules/platelet for normal adults and 38,112 molecules/platelet for ITP patients. The Autoanalyzer QAC test is a sensitive and reproducible assay for the quantitation of platelet-associated IgG.

  1. Effect of free radical altered IgG on allergic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, S D; Lunec, J; Morris, C J; Blake, D R

    1987-01-01

    The rheumatoid synovium is capable of producing large amounts of IgG which may become modified by the actions of free radicals. A rat model of synovitis was established and challenged with both normal and free radical altered IgG. IgG was prepared from homologous pooled serum by high performance liquid chromatography, and free radical damage was induced by 15 minutes ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The results showed a worsening in gross assessments of inflammation, increases in biochemical indices of lipid peroxidation, and also a rise in the proportion of IgG which, on reisolation, showed the characteristic fluorescence associated with free radical damage. This demonstrated how the presence of free radical altered IgG might convert an inflammatory insult to a more persistent stimulus, and the capacity of an environment subjected to continuing antigenic stimulation to induce further free radical damage to IgG. Images PMID:3426292

  2. In men at risk of HIV infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M P; Karuna, S T; Mize, G J; Fong, Y; Montano, S M; Ganoza, C; Lama, J R; Sanchez, J; McElrath, M J

    2016-05-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less immunoglobulin A (IgA) and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than that in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively present in the colon, whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (P<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources, and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis.

  3. In Men at Risk of HIV Infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3 and IgA Reach the Human Foreskin Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Maria P.; Karuna, Shelly T.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fong, Youyi; Montano, Silvia M.; Ganoza, Carmela; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually-acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less IgA and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively in the colon; whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (p<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  4. Increased IgG4 responses to multiple food and animal antigens indicate a polyclonal expansion and differentiation of pre-existing B cells in IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Emma L; Vermeulen, Ellen; Makuch, Mateusz; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Sadler, Ross; Cargill, Tamsin; Klenerman, Paul; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ham, S Marieke; Barnes, Eleanor; Rispens, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic fibroinflammatory condition, characterised by an elevated serum IgG4 concentration and abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells in the involved organs. An important question is whether the elevated IgG4 response is causal or a reflection of immune-regulatory mechanisms of the disease. Objectives To investigate if the IgG4 response in IgG4-RD represents a generalised polyclonal amplification by examining the response to common environmental antigens. Methods Serum from 24 patients with IgG4-RD (14 treatment-naive, 10 treatment-experienced), 9 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and an elevated serum IgG4 (PSC-high IgG4), and 18 healthy controls were tested against egg white and yolk, milk, banana, cat, peanut, rice and wheat antigens by radioimmunoassay. Results We demonstrated an elevated polyclonal IgG4 response to multiple antigens in patients with IgG4-RD and in PSC-high IgG4, compared with healthy controls. There was a strong correlation between serum IgG4 and antigen-specific responses. Responses to antigens were higher in treatment-naive compared with treatment-experienced patients with IgG4-RD. Serum electrophoresis and immunofixation demonstrated polyclonality. Conclusions This is the first study to show enhanced levels of polyclonal IgG4 to multiple antigens in IgG4-RD. This supports that elevated IgG4 levels reflect an aberrant immunological regulation of the overall IgG4 response, but does not exclude that causality of disease could be antigen-driven. PMID:25646372

  5. The sequential appearance of IgG subclasses and IgE during the course of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungström, I; Hammarström, L; Kociecka, W; Smith, C I

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that IgG1 and IgG4 are the dominant IgG subclasses in the specific response during a chronic helminthic infection. It has also been suggested that IgG4 production results from chronic or repetitive antigenic stimulation and a correlation between IgG4 and IgE levels exists. An outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infection in Poland provided the opportunity to follow the sequential appearance of the IgG subclass and IgE responses in 15 patients during the early stage of Trichinella infection and to compare these observations in sera obtained one year later from the same patients. The results show that the sequential appearance of the IgG subclasses were IgG1 before IgG3 and IgG3 before IgG4. IgG1 antibodies dominated the immune response in all patients. A statistically significant increase in the number of IgG4 positive sera was observed in patients during the chronic stage compared to the findings during the early stage of infection (13% vs 73%; p less than 0.001), supporting the view that IgG4 results from a chronic antigenic stimulation. A correlation between the appearance of IgG4 and IgE was not found. The highest levels of IgE were seen in the first serum samples obtained, with a decrease during the course of infection. PMID:3224442

  6. Mitochondrial-dependent Autoimmunity in Membranous Nephropathy of IgG4-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buelli, Simona; Perico, Luca; Galbusera, Miriam; Abbate, Mauro; Morigi, Marina; Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Tentori, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Sabadini, Ettore; Saito, Takao; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of glomerular lesions of membranous nephropathy (MN), including seldom-reported IgG4-related disease, is still elusive. Unlike in idiopathic MN where IgG4 prevails, in this patient IgG3 was predominant in glomerular deposits in the absence of circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies, suggesting a distinct pathologic process. Here we documented that IgG4 retrieved from the serum of our propositus reacted against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) at the podocyte surface. In patient's biopsy, glomerular CAII staining increased and co-localized with subepithelial IgG4 deposits along the capillary walls. Patient's IgG4 caused a drop in cell pH followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS production and cytoskeletal reorganization in cultured podocytes. These events promoted mitochondrial superoxide-dismutase-2 (SOD2) externalization on the plasma membrane, becoming recognizable by complement-binding IgG3 anti-SOD2. Among patients with IgG4-related disease only sera of those with IgG4 anti-CAII antibodies caused low intracellular pH and mitochondrial alterations underlying SOD2 externalization. Circulating IgG4 anti-CAII can cause podocyte injury through processes of intracellular acidification, mitochondrial oxidative stress and neoantigen induction in patients with IgG4 related disease. The onset of MN in a subset of patients could be due to IgG4 antibodies recognizing CAII with consequent exposure of mitochondrial neoantigen in the context of multifactorial pathogenesis of disease. PMID:26137589

  7. Structure and antigenicity analysis of the IgG gene for Nyctereutes procyonoides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cui; Guo, Shuyuan; Pang, Xiaoru; Song, Daozhen; Fu, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nyctereutes procyonoides immunoglobulin G (IgG) gene is partially cloned. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (966bp) of Nyctereutes procyonoides immunoglobulin G (IgG), two pairs of primers are designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of canine (GenBank:AF354265, AF354265, AF354266, AF354267) and mink (GenBank: L07789). Using Bioinformatics technology and Western-blot to analyze antigenicity of Nyctereutes procyonoides IgG-B gene. Results The homology for nucleotide sequence of IgG between Nyctereutes procyonoides and canine (IgG A, IgG B, IgG C, IgG D), mink, Homo sapiens, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Mus musculus, Anas platyrhynchos and gallus were respectively (88.1%, 93.6%, 85.4%, 87.2%), 83.7%, 74.8%, 71.8%, 69.2%, 51.6%, 48.4%. It can be seen that there was high homology of aminoacid sequence between IgG of Nyctereutes procyonoides and IgG (A, B, C, D) of canine. And the serum antibody of Nyctereutes procyonoides had obviously cross-reaction with HRP conjugated rabbit anti-dog IgG, compared with those of canine, oryctolagus cuniculus, mus musculus, mink, gallus. Conclusions We successfully got Nyctereutes procyonoides immuneglobulin G (IgG) gene (Gen- Bank: KM010191). There is the closest ties of consanguinity of IgG exist between Nyctereutes procyonoides and canine among the mammal through the genetic evolution. The detection and treament of canine distemper can be used on Nyctereutes procyonoides. PMID:26648768

  8. Pattern and concentration of IgG in cerebrospinal fluid in neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Scott, T F; Seay, A R; Goust, J M

    1989-12-01

    Reports have suggested that the pattern of CSF IgG differentiates neurosarcoidosis from multiple sclerosis. We examined CSF and serum of 7 patients with neurosarcoidosis to determine concentrations of IgG and albumin and the presence of oligoclonal bands. Our results showed that neurosarcoidosis may have associated abnormalities of IgG synthesis and oligoclonal bands present in CSF, but without a consistent pattern.

  9. Highly individual patterns of virus-immune IgG effector responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Trilling, Mirko; Reinhard, Henrike; Falcone, Valeria; Zimmermann, Albert; Adams, Ortwin; Santibanez, Sabine; Hengel, Hartmut

    2016-10-01

    IgG responses are fundamental to adaptive immunity and document immunological memory of previous pathogen encounter. While specific antigen recognition is mediated by the variable F(ab')2 domain of IgG, various effector functions become activated via the constant Fcγ part bridging IgG-opsonized targets to FcγR-expressing immune effector cells. Traditionally, neutralizing IgG is considered the most appropriate correlate of protective humoral immunity to viruses. However, evidence is increasing that antiviral IgG mediates protection to viruses via activation of FcγRs. Using a test system allowing quantitative detection of virus-immune IgG able to activate FcγRs, sera of healthy individuals and vaccinees were assessed with regard to two prototypical human pathogenic viruses: measles and human cytomegalovirus. Marked differences in the capacity of individuals to generate FcγRI-, FcγRII- and FcγRIII-activating responses were noted. Comparison of FcγR-activating IgG with neutralizing and ELISA IgG concentrations did not correlate for HCMV and only very poorly for MV. Since neither neutralizing IgG nor overall IgG responses faithfully predict the activation of FcγRs, only the simultaneous quantification of IgGs activating defined FcγRs will aid to delineate individual "immunograms" of virus IgG immunity. Such new multiparametric assessment of antiviral IgG qualities could be instrumental in defining correlates of protection and disease progression.

  10. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  11. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Priyanka; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Navneet; Singh, Harkant

    2013-12-01

    IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) share morphological features like a prominent fibroblastic/myofibroblastic proliferation and the presence of inflammatory cells. Since IPT is managed conservatively and IMT is treated by surgical excision, it is important to differentiate these two lesions. The aim of this study is to highlight morphological and immunohistochemical features that distinguish IPT and IMT. Clinicopathological characteristics of cases diagnosed as pulmonary IPT or IMT from 1997 to 2013 were reviewed. The histological features were studied on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Immunohistochemistry was done for IgG, IgG4, ALK-1, SMA, desmin, and CD34 for classification into IPT and IMT. Of the ten patients, seven were male and the age ranged from 4 to 58 years. The tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 cm in diameter. Histologically, proliferation of bland-looking spindle cells along with fibrosis and an inflammatory infiltrate comprising of lymphocytes and plasma cells were the common morphological features of both lesions. The spindle cell proliferation was more marked in IMT whereas lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was more prominent in IPT. Obstructive phlebitis was observed only in cases of IPT. IgG4 expression was noted in IPT, and the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and the ratio of IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells were significantly lower in IMT than in IgG4-related IPT. Expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was observed only in IMT, but not in IgG4-related IPT. The proportion of proliferating spindle cells, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, obstructive phlebitis, IgG4+ plasma cells and the ratio of IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells, and ALK expression are helpful in differentiating these morphologically similar but biologically different lesions, which require different treatment modalities.

  12. Mitochondrial-dependent Autoimmunity in Membranous Nephropathy of IgG4-related Disease.

    PubMed

    Buelli, Simona; Perico, Luca; Galbusera, Miriam; Abbate, Mauro; Morigi, Marina; Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Tentori, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Sabadini, Ettore; Saito, Takao; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-05-01

    The pathophysiology of glomerular lesions of membranous nephropathy (MN), including seldom-reported IgG4-related disease, is still elusive. Unlike in idiopathic MN where IgG4 prevails, in this patient IgG3 was predominant in glomerular deposits in the absence of circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies, suggesting a distinct pathologic process. Here we documented that IgG4 retrieved from the serum of our propositus reacted against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) at the podocyte surface. In patient's biopsy, glomerular CAII staining increased and co-localized with subepithelial IgG4 deposits along the capillary walls. Patient's IgG4 caused a drop in cell pH followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS production and cytoskeletal reorganization in cultured podocytes. These events promoted mitochondrial superoxide-dismutase-2 (SOD2) externalization on the plasma membrane, becoming recognizable by complement-binding IgG3 anti-SOD2. Among patients with IgG4-related disease only sera of those with IgG4 anti-CAII antibodies caused low intracellular pH and mitochondrial alterations underlying SOD2 externalization. Circulating IgG4 anti-CAII can cause podocyte injury through processes of intracellular acidification, mitochondrial oxidative stress and neoantigen induction in patients with IgG4 related disease. The onset of MN in a subset of patients could be due to IgG4 antibodies recognizing CAII with consequent exposure of mitochondrial neoantigen in the context of multifactorial pathogenesis of disease.

  13. Effect of the mass of immunoglobulin (Ig)G intake and age at first colostrum feeding on serum IgG concentration in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Osaka, I; Matsui, Y; Terada, F

    2014-10-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves (19 male and 25 female) were used in this study of the relationships among age at first colostrum feeding, IgG intake, and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption. Time of birth was recorded for each calf and the calves were fed colostrum ad libitum after birth at either 0930 or 1630 h. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 24h after colostrum feeding. Data from calves were then categorized into 4 groups representing time from birth to colostrum feeding: A=fed within 1h (n=5); B=fed from 1 to 6h (n=10); C=fed from 6 to 12 h (n=21); and D=fed from 12 to 18 h (n=8) after birth. Average total intake of colostrum was 3.6 ± 0.1L. Over 80% of the calves consumed ≥3 L of colostrum. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption declined remarkably 12 h after birth. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG in group D (15.8 ± 3.0%) was lower than that in groups A (30.5 ± 3.9%) and B (27.4 ± 2.8%). Serum IgG concentration in calves was positively correlated with IgG intake in all groups. The relationship between mass of IgG consumed and calf serum IgG at 24 h was different for each time of colostrum feeding, with only limited differences observed between groups A and B. We concluded that failure of transfer of passive immunity in newborn calves may be avoided if calves consume ≥3 L of colostrum with IgG concentration >40 mg/mL within 6 h after birth. These findings help define the opportunity to minimize failure of transfer of passive immunity to newborn calves under management programs similar to those used on commercial dairy farms.

  14. Recurrent proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits of IgG2λ subtype in a transplanted kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Marui, Yuji; Nakamura, Michio; Takaichi, Kenmei; Tomikawa, Shinji; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi

    2013-09-01

    Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposits (PGNMID) is a recently described disease entity. In the kidney transplantation literature, only 6 recurrent and 2 de novo PGNMID cases, including 7 of the IgG3 subclass (6 with κ light chain and 1 with λ light chain) and 1 of the IgG1 subclass (λ light chain), have been described to date. We describe a 52-year-old man with end-stage renal disease whose primary glomerular disease had been suggested to be membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The patient underwent living related donor kidney transplantation and presented with proteinuria, hematuria, and decreased kidney function at 4 months posttransplantation. Biopsy of the transplanted kidney showed diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed prominent granular glomerular staining for IgG, C3, and λ light chain, with IgM, IgA, and κ light chain undetectable. Immunofluorescence staining for IgG subclass showed signal for IgG2 only. Retrospective analysis of the native kidney biopsy specimen also showed the same monoclonal glomerular staining for the IgG2λ subtype. These findings led us to the diagnosis of PGNMID of the IgG2λ subtype as both the primary glomerular disease and recurrent disease in the transplanted kidney. Recurrence was treated with high-dose prednisolone, which decreased proteinuria, hematuria, and serum creatinine level. The case demonstrates that PGNMID of the IgG2λ subtype also can recur in the transplanted kidney.

  15. IgG1 Fc N-glycan galactosylation as a biomarker for immune activation

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Sanne E.; Selman, Maurice H. J.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Amoah, Abena S.; van Riet, Elly; Kruize, Yvonne C. M.; Raynes, John G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Boakye, Daniel; von Mutius, Erika; Knulst, André C.; Genuneit, Jon; Cooper, Philip J.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc N-glycosylation affects antibody-mediated effector functions and varies with inflammation rooted in both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Worldwide, communicable and non-communicable diseases tend to segregate geographically. Therefore, we studied whether IgG Fc N-glycosylation varies in populations with different environmental exposures in different parts of the world. IgG Fc N-glycosylation was analysed in serum/plasma of 700 school-age children from different communities of Gabon, Ghana, Ecuador, the Netherlands and Germany. IgG1 galactosylation levels were generally higher in more affluent countries and in more urban communities. High IgG1 galactosylation levels correlated with low total IgE levels, low C-reactive protein levels and low prevalence of parasitic infections. Linear mixed modelling showed that only positivity for parasitic infections was a significant predictor of reduced IgG1 galactosylation levels. That IgG1 galactosylation is a predictor of immune activation is supported by the observation that asthmatic children seemed to have reduced IgG1 galactosylation levels as well. This indicates that IgG1 galactosylation levels could be used as a biomarker for immune activation of populations, providing a valuable tool for studies examining the epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. PMID:27306703

  16. A case of progressively transformed germinal center-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Nobuhiko; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Abe, Ayumi; Ikeda, Tatsuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Himi, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Progressively transformed germinal centers (PTGC), a lymph node process unfamiliar to most otolaryngologists, is a morphological variant of reactive lymphofollicular hyperplasia of lymph nodes. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly identified condition, characterized by hyper-IgG4-γ-globulinemia and mass-forming or hypertrophic lesions associated with infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells in the affected organs. Recently, a case study of PTGC was reported that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD (IgG4(+) PTGC) [1]. A 68-year-old male was referred to our hospital with swelling in the left submandibular region. Palpation revealed swollen lymph nodes, the largest of which measured 5cm in diameter. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography identified lymphadenopathy with high (18)F-FDG uptake in the left submandibular region. We strongly suspected malignant lymphoma, and excisional biopsy of the submandibular lymph node was performed under general anesthesia. Pathological findings were consistent with IgG4(+) PTGC, and serological examination demonstrated elevated levels of IgG4. These findings were consistent with IgG4-RD. The patient did not have systemic lesions; therefore, he has not undergone corticosteroid therapy. IgG4(+) PTGC should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cervical lymphadenopathy by otolaryngologists as well as pathologists.

  17. IgG4-related inflammation of the orbit simulating malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kase, Satoru; Noda, Mika; Ishijima, Kan; Yamamoto, Teppei; Hatanaka, Kanako; Ishida, Susumu

    2013-06-01

    Immunoglobulin (IgG) 4-related disease is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We report a case of IgG4-related inflammation of the orbit simulating extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL). A 72-year-old female complained of bilateral eyelid swelling for three years. A MRI scan demonstrated two kinds of lesions, tumor 1, presenting with a predominantly low density, and tumor 2, of relatively high density. Laboratory tests showed high serum IgG4 concentrations, measuring 991 mg/dl. Partial resection of each tumor was conducted in September 2011. Based on the clinicopathological findings, tumors 1 and 2 were diagnosed as IgG4-related inflammation and EMZL, respectively. The patient initially received oral prednisolone at 30 mg/per day, followed by irradiation with a total dosage of 30 Gy to both eyes. The bilateral tumors consequently diminished, and she is currently well with no recurrence or systemic involvement. In conclusion, EMZL can arise from massive IgG4-related orbital inflammation. Since IgG4-related inflammation can represent multiple nodular lesions, biopsies from multiple sites within the lesion are required to make a correct diagnosis in selected cases. Oral prednisolone combined with radiotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease simulating EMZL.

  18. IgG4-related hypophysitis is highly prevalent among cases of histologically confirmed hypophysitis.

    PubMed

    Bernreuther, Christian; Illies, Christopher; Flitsch, Jörg; Buchfelder, Michael; Buslei, Rolf; Glatzel, Markus; Saeger, Wolfgang

    2016-11-19

    IgG4-related disease is an immune-mediated disease with manifestations in most organ systems among them the pituitary gland. To date, few cases of histologically confirmed cases of IgG-related hypophysitis have been reported. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of IgG4-related hypophysitis among cases previously diagnosed as primary hypophysitis (lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis and hypophysitis not otherwise specified). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 12 of 29 cases (41.4%) previously diagnosed as primary hypophysitis fulfilled the criteria for IgG4-related disease and, thus, IgG4-related hypophysitis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary hypophysitis. All cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with more than 10 IgG4-positive cells per high power field and a ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive cells of more than 40%, whereas storiform fibrosis was an inconsistent histological feature and was also seen in few cases of non-IgG-related hypophysitis, thus lacking sensitivity and specificity. Obliterative phlebitis was not seen in any case. Thus, histological criteria defined for IgG4-related disease in other organs should be modified for IgG4-related hypophysitis, accordingly.

  19. [Pathophysiology and Assessment of IgG4-Related Disease--Focus on Autoimmune Pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    IgG4-related disease is well-known, and while the functions of cytokines which affect IgG4 production are being clarified, it remains unclear what causes it. There are many clinicopathological characteristics of IgG4-related disease and, therefore, comprehensive criteria are used for diagnosis. Notably, histopathological findings are the most important of these, with which we cannot make a definite diagnosis. The model disease of an IgG4-related disease is autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Currently, AIP is classified into type 1 (AIP1) and type 2 (AIP2). AIP1 is IgG4-related while AIP2 is not. AIP1 sometimes has localized mass formation, making it difficult to distinguish between AIP1 and pancreatic cancer. Thus, upon biochemical and immunological examination, the IgG4 level is the most useful for the diagnosis, although the levels of IL-2R, β2MG, C4, and monoclonal rheumatoid factor are also useful for the assessment of disease. In addition, histopathological findings are also important to diagnose AIP1. Typical AIP1 cases show lymphoplasmacytic infiltration including IgG4-positive plasma cells with storiform fibrosis. A careful analysis of cases with the typical features of IgG4-related disease will lead to the elucidation of the mechanism behind IgG4-related disease.

  20. IgG4-related disease in the sinonasal cavity accompanied by intranasal structure loss.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akiko; Wada, Kota; Matsuura, Kentaro; Osafune, Hiroshi; Ida, Yutaro; Kosakai, Arifumi; Edamatsu, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related disease was recently proposed under the classification of systemic chronic inflammatory disease. In the field of otolaryngology, organ-specific diagnostic criteria have been established for the occurrence of this condition in the salivary glands, but not in the sinonasal cavity. Here we report a case involving a 70-year-old man with IgG4-related disease in the sinonasal cavity. The patient, with the chief complaint of nasal bleeding, first visited a physician. However, the patient experienced recurrent bleeding with intranasal structure loss and was subsequently referred to our hospital. His IgG4 level was elevated, and histopathological examination of a tissue sample obtained from the edematous sphenoid sinus showed increased IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosclerosis. A definitive diagnosis of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis was made on the basis of comprehensive criteria for IgG4-related disease. The disease showed a progressively destructive course that was clearly different from that of chronic sinusitis and represented a very rare case of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. IgG4-related disease originating in the sinonasal cavity is rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first primary case of IgG4-related disease that originated in one side of the sinonasal cavity and showed progressive destruction.

  1. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: close relationship to IgG4-related periaortitis.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Satomi; Zen, Yoh; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Konishi, Keiko; Sasaki, Hisao; Endo, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Kawakami, Kengo; Kasashima, Fuminori; Moriya, Makio; Kimura, Keiichi; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2008-02-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a member of a family of disorders referred to as "chronic periaortitis" together with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is included in IgG4-related disease, which is characterized by numerous infiltrating IgG4-positive plasma cells and high serum IgG4 concentrations. However, the relationship between IgG4-related disease and inflammatory AAA has not been documented. In this study, we examined the clinicopathologic characteristics of inflammatory (10 cases) and atherosclerotic (22 cases) AAAs, based on the hypothesis that inflammatory AAA might be related to IgG4-related disease. Cases of inflammatory AAA could be classified into 2 groups based on immunostaining of IgG4. Four patients showed diffuse infiltration of abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells (IgG4-related cases), whereas the remaining 6 cases of inflammatory AAA and all cases of atherosclerotic AAA had only a few IgG4-positive plasma cells (non-IgG4-related cases). IgG4-related inflammatory AAA was pathologically characterized by the frequent infiltration of eosinophils, lymph follicle formation, perineural inflammatory extension, and inconspicuous infiltration of neutrophils compared with non-IgG4-related inflammatory AAA. Obliterative phlebitis, which is venous occlusion with inflammatory cell infiltration, is observed in all IgG4-related cases. In addition, serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in IgG4-related inflammatory AAA (109 to 559 mg/dL, normal range: 4 to 110 mg/dL) than non-IgG4-related inflammatory AAA (32 to 59 mg/dL) and all atherosclerotic AAA (12 to 83 mg/dL). In conclusion, inflammatory AAAs might be classified into 2 groups: IgG4-related or nonrelated. The former might be one of the IgG4-related diseases, and could be included in IgG4-related periaortitis together with retroperitoneal fibrosis.

  2. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  3. Immunogenetics of IgG4-Related AIP.

    PubMed

    Ota, Masao; Umemura, Takeji; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by high serum IgG4 concentration and a variety of complicating extra-pancreatic lesions. AIP has the features of a complex disease that is caused by multifactorial genes. However, the genetic factors underlying AIP have not been elucidated conclusively. Association studies by the candidate-gene approach and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed several susceptibility genes for AIP, including HLA DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, FCRL3, CTLA4, and KCNA3, albeit in small-scale analyses. Thus, GWAS of large sample sizes and multinational collaborative meta-analyses are needed to identify the precise genetic variants that are associated with AIP onset. Systems genetics approaches that integrate DNA sequencing, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, proteomics, and metabolomics will also be useful in clarifying the pathogenesis of AIP.

  4. IgG4-related Orbital Disease and Its Mimics in a Western Population.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Judith A; Klepeis, Veronica; Sohani, Aliyah R; Harris, Nancy Lee; Preffer, Frederic I; Stone, John H; Grove, Arthur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Although chronic inflammatory disorders of the ocular adnexa are relatively common, their pathogenesis is in many cases poorly understood. Recent investigation suggests that many cases of sclerosing orbital inflammation are a manifestation of IgG4-related disease; however, most patients reported have been Asian, and it is not clear whether the results of studies from the Far East can be reliably extrapolated to draw conclusions about Western patients. We evaluated 38 cases previously diagnosed as orbital inflammatory pseudotumor or chronic dacryoadenitis to determine whether our cases fulfill the criteria for IgG4-RD (IgG4-related dacryoadenitis when involving the lacrimal gland, and IgG4-related sclerosing orbital inflammation when involving orbital soft tissue). Fifteen patients had IgG4-related dacryoadenitis or orbital inflammation. These patients included 9 men and 6 women, aged 24 to 77 years (median, 64 y). Lesions involved orbital soft tissue (8 cases), lacrimal gland (6 cases), and canthus (1 case). In 1 case, focal in situ follicular neoplasia was seen in a background of IgG4-RD. In another case, a clonal IGH gene rearrangement was detected. Four patients with IgG4-RD had evidence of IgG4-RD in other anatomic sites. Five patients, 1 man and 4 women, aged 26 to 74 years (median 50 y) had orbital lesions (2 involving lacrimal gland, 3 involving soft tissue) suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, IgG4-RD. Of 16 patients with IgG4-RD or probable IgG4-RD with information available regarding the course of their disease, 11 patients experienced recurrent or persistent orbital disease. However, no patient developed lymphoma, and no patient died of complications of IgG4-RD. Eighteen patients had lesions not representing IgG4-RD. They included 6 male and 12 female individuals aged 6 to 77 years (median, 47 y). These patients had a variety of diseases, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (3 cases), Rosai-Dorfman disease (1 case), nonspecific chronic

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris is characterized by low IgG reactivities to specific self-antigens along with high IgG reactivity to desmoglein 3

    PubMed Central

    Fattal, Ittai; Rimer, Jacob; Shental, Noam; Molad, Yair; Gabrielli, Armando; Livneh, Avi; Sarig, Ofer; Goldberg, Ilan; Gafter, Uzi; Domany, Eytan; Cohen, Irun R

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune skin disease, which has been characterized by IgG autoantibodies to desmoglein 3. Here we studied the antibody signatures of PV patients compared with healthy subjects and with patients with two other autoimmune diseases with skin manifestations (systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma), using an antigen microarray and informatics analysis. We now report a previously unobserved phenomenon – patients with PV, compared with the healthy subjects and the two other diseases, show a significant decrease in IgG autoantibodies to a specific set of self-antigens. This novel finding demonstrates that an autoimmune disease may be associated with a loss of specific, healthy IgG autoantibodies and not only with a gain of specific, pathogenic IgG autoantibodies. PMID:24820664

  6. Pemphigus vulgaris is characterized by low IgG reactivities to specific self-antigens along with high IgG reactivity to desmoglein 3.

    PubMed

    Fattal, Ittai; Rimer, Jacob; Shental, Noam; Molad, Yair; Gabrielli, Armando; Livneh, Avi; Sarig, Ofer; Goldberg, Ilan; Gafter, Uzi; Domany, Eytan; Cohen, Irun R

    2014-11-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune skin disease, which has been characterized by IgG autoantibodies to desmoglein 3. Here we studied the antibody signatures of PV patients compared with healthy subjects and with patients with two other autoimmune diseases with skin manifestations (systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma), using an antigen microarray and informatics analysis. We now report a previously unobserved phenomenon--patients with PV, compared with the healthy subjects and the two other diseases, show a significant decrease in IgG autoantibodies to a specific set of self-antigens. This novel finding demonstrates that an autoimmune disease may be associated with a loss of specific, healthy IgG autoantibodies and not only with a gain of specific, pathogenic IgG autoantibodies.

  7. Hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Paul; Gromöller, Silvana; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Wilharm, Gottfried; Jäckel, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular microorganisms' potential role in pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Thus, detection of specific antibodies against occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. For the purpose of IgG titer determination, indirect immunofluorescence on various bacterial isolates from duck hatchery air was combined with image-based quantification of fluorescence intensity. Moreover, in addition to established assays with pure bacterial cultures, a new approach utilized complex bioaerosol samples for detection of anti-microbial antibodies in human sera by determination of percentages of antibody-bound cells in different serum dilutions. Mean titers in sera from hatchery workers and a non-exposed control group did not display significant differences for most tested isolates and application of comprehensive cluster analysis to entire titer data revealed no structure reflecting workers and controls group. Furthermore, determination of immunoreactivity to the complete microbial community in workplace air displayed similar proportions of antibody-bound cells in both groups. Although no general differences in immunoreaction patterns were observed, mean titers to a Proteus mirabilis isolate and to 3 of 4 distinct Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were higher in the group of hatchery workers than in the reference group indicating a potential applicability as exposure markers. We conclude, despite long term bioaerosol exposure, hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to tested antigens did not differ substantially from those of the control group. However, increased workers' titers to A. baumannii and clinical relevance of this species should lead to further investigations regarding potential involvement in pathogenesis of occupational respiratory disorders.

  8. IL-27 induces the production of IgG1 by human B cells.

    PubMed

    Boumendjel, Amel; Tawk, Lina; Malefijt, René de Waal; Boulay, Vera; Yssel, Hans; Pène, Jérôme

    2006-12-01

    It has been reported that IL-27 specifically induces the production of IgG2a by mouse B cells and inhibits IL-4-induced IgG1 synthesis. Here, we show that human naïve cord blood expresses a functional IL-27 receptor, consisting of the TCCR and gp130 subunits, although at lower levels as compared to naïve and memory splenic B cells. IL-27 does not induce proliferative responses and does not increase IgG1 production by CD19(+)CD27(+) memory B cells. However, it induces a low, but significant production of IgG1 by naïve CD19(+)CD27(-)IgD(+)IgG(-) spleen and cord blood B cells, activated via CD40, whereas it has no effect on the production of the other IgG subclasses. In addition, IL-27 induces the differentiation of a population of B cells that express high levels of CD38, in association with a down-regulation of surface IgD expression, and that are surface IgG(+/int), CD20(low), CD27(high), indicating that IL-27 promotes isotype switching and plasma cell differentiation of naive B cells. However, as compared to the effects of IL-21 and IL-10, both switch factors for human IgG1 and IgG3, those of IL-27 are modest and regulate exclusively the production of IgG1. Finally, although IL-27 has no effect on IL-4 and anti-CD40-induced Cepsilon germline promoter activity, it up-regulates IL-4-induced IgE production by naive B cells. These results point to a partial redundancy of switch factors regulating the production of IgG1 in humans, and furthermore indicate the existence of a common regulation of the human IgG1and murine IgG2a isotypes by IL-27.

  9. Glomerular IgG deposition predicts renal outcome in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lim, Beom Jin; Han, In Mi; Han, Seung Gyu; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Glomerular IgG deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy. However, the association between glomerular IgG deposition and progression of IgA nephropathy is uncertain. Six hundred and twenty-seven patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy were recruited. Histological variables of the Oxford classification (Oxford-MEST) and the presence of glomerular IgG deposits were assessed. Renal progression defined as end-stage renal disease or 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression analysis. Of the study population, 200 patients (31.9%) had glomerular IgG deposition on immunofluorescence staining. During a mean follow-up of 56.8±37.5 months, the rate of renal progression was significantly higher in the IgA nephropathy patients with glomerular IgG deposition compared with the IgA nephropathy patients without glomerular IgG deposition (39.8 vs 12.3 per 1000 patient-years; P<0.001). Of patients with IgG deposition, 178 (28.3%), 20 (3.2%), and 2 (0.3%) patients had mild, moderate, and marked glomerular IgG deposits, receptively. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that cumulative renal survival was significantly lower in IgA nephropathy patients with the higher intensity of glomerular IgG deposits (P<0.001). In addition, Cox regression analysis revealed that moderate and marked glomerular IgG deposits significantly predicted renal outcome independent of Oxford-MEST and clinical variables (HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.01-8.77; P=0.04). This study showed that that glomerular IgG deposition was independently associated with poor renal outcome in patient with IgA nephropathy.

  10. The immunoglobulin-binding Eib proteins from Escherichia coli are receptors for IgG Fc.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jack C; Goldman, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    The immunoglobulin-binding proteins from Escherichia coli (Eibs) comprise a family of six proteins homologous to the Yersinia adhesin YadA. These proteins are postulated to bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a non-immune manner. However, a recent study [Ghumra, A., Pleass, R.J., 2007. Escherichia coli do not express Fc-receptors for human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Mol. Immunol. 44, 2144-2146] appeared to show that these proteins do not bind Fc and suggested that the binding seen in earlier studies is due to the polyclonal preparations used in the assays containing antibodies specific to epitopes in the Eib proteins. To resolve this matter, we produced purified, recombinant Eibs for the first time and investigated their binding to intact antibodies and Fc fragments by immunoblot and ELISA techniques. We were able to purify four members of the family, EibA, -C, -D and -F, and show conclusively that these bind IgG Fc. We were also able to block the binding of full-length antibody with IgG Fc, but not with IgG Fab. Binding to IgG Fab was not detectable by surface plasmon resonance, whereas the affinities of Eibs to IgG and IgG Fc were in the range of 50-200 nM. We further demonstrate that deglycosylating IgG Fc does not affect Eib binding. Our results show that the Eib proteins do indeed bind human IgG Fc and that IgG Fc receptors are present in E. coli.

  11. Serum IgG subclass antibodies to gliadin and other dietary antigens in children with coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Husby, S; Foged, N; Oxelius, V A; Svehag, S E

    1986-01-01

    IgG subclasses of antibodies to the dietary antigens gliadin, glycgli (a gluten component), ovalbumin (OA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) were quantified in children with coeliac disease (CD), nine on a gluten-containing diet, 15 on a gluten-free diet, and in appropriate controls. In addition, total serum IgG subclasses were measured. IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to gluten and glycgli were detected in 9/9 and 8/9 CD-patient on a gluten-containing diet, respectively, and in 4/15 and 6/15 patients on a gluten-free diet. None of the controls had appreciable levels of IgG1 antibodies and only 1/22 of the controls had IgG3 antibodies to gliadin and glycgli. IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies to the same antigens were found in a few coeliacs and controls. Consecutive samples from coeliac children (8 patients) showed a clear relation between the exposure to gluten and a rise in IgG1 (8/8) and IgG3 antibody levels (7/8). In contrast, IgG antibodies to OA and BLG were almost exclusively of the IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses. The highest levels were found in children with CD, but the differences between the groups were not significant. Total serum IgG subclasses did not differ between the groups, but the IgG2 and IgG4 levels in most coeliac children were low. The production of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to gluten components may be an important precondition for the development of coeliac disease in susceptible individuals. PMID:3791689

  12. A Comparative Study of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors and Tumefactive IgG4-related Inflammatory Lesions: the Relevance of IgG4 Plasma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Agarwal, Ritesh; Singh, Navneet; Rao, Katragadda L N

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic condition characterized by tumefactive lesions at various sites. Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT), a tumefactive mass lesion with an unknown etiology, belongs to the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), previously considered under the umbrella of IPT, is now classified as a clonal neoplasm. Previously, both the terms were used interchangeably, because of overlapping morphologic features. This study was carried out to compare the morphologic and the immunohistochemical features of these entities and to study the role of IgG4 in their pathogenesis. Thirty-nine cases comprising of IMT (n=18) and IPT (n=21) were retrieved, and their clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features were studied. IMT was more common in children as compared with IPT. IMT cases showed the proliferation of myofibroblastic cells accompanied by a variable inflammatory infiltrate, whereas IPT cases showed predominantly stromal fibrosis and a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with a subset of cases showing a storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1) was positive in 12 of the 18 (66.7%) IMT cases, whereas none of the IPT cases showed ALK-1 immunoreactivity. IPT cases showed significantly increased IgG4+ plasma cells (mean, 127.8/high-power fields vs. 17.8/high-power fields) and a higher IgG4/IgG ratio (mean, 48.2% vs. 10.7%) as compared with IMT. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was positive for ALK rearrangement in 6 of the 9 IMT cases tested. In conclusion, most of the IPT cases can be considered as IgG4 related on the basis of their histopathologic features and immunohistochemistry criteria. However, IMT represents a myofibroblastic neoplasm with ALK-1 overexpression and is clearly not IgG4 related.

  13. IgG antinuclear antibodies with cross-reactive rheumatoid factor activity.

    PubMed

    Darwin, B S; Grudier, J P; Klatt, C L; Pisetsky, D S

    1986-12-15

    To investigate whether IgG antinuclear antibodies have cross-reactive rheumatoid factor activity, monoclonal IgG antibodies to DNA and Sm from autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice were assayed by ELISA for binding to IgG antigens. Of the nine anti-DNA and anti-Sm monoclonals tested, six showed significant binding to affinity-purified rabbit IgG (RIgG) and human IgG (HIgG). To confirm that cross-reactivities were due to a single antibody, immunoabsorption of a representative polyspecific monoclonal termed C11 (anti-DNA, anti-Sm) on either Sepharose-DNA or Sepharose-RIgG resulted in marked loss of activity to the three antigens DNA, Sm and RIgG compared with immunoabsorption on Sepharose-bovine serum albumin. The monomolecular nature of the cross-reacting antibody was also suggested by inhibition analysis of C11; DNA inhibited C11 binding to RIgG 64%, whereas Sm inhibited binding to RIgG 33%. Aggregated RIgG and HIgG, however, did not inhibit binding of C11 to DNA, Sm, or solid-phase RIgG, probably reflecting the low affinity of this antibody for fluid phase Ig. Together, these findings suggest that antinuclear autoantibodies of the IgG, as well as the IgM, class have polyspecific IgG binding activity and suggest that IgG antinuclear antibodies may emerge from rheumatoid factor responses.

  14. Intrathecal IgG Synthesis: A Resistant and Valuable Target for Future Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bonnan, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Intrathecal IgG synthesis is a key biological feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). When acquired early, it persists over time. A growing body of evidence suggests that intrathecal Ig-secreting cells may be pathogenic either by a direct action of toxic IgG or by locally secreting bystander toxic products. Intrathecal IgG synthesis depends on the presence of CNS lymphoid organs, which are strongly linked at anatomical level to cortical subpial lesions and at clinical level to the impairment slope in progressive MS. As a consequence, targeting CNS lymphoid lesions could be a valuable new target in MS, especially during the progressive phase. As intrathecal IgGs are end-products of these lymphoid lesions, intrathecal IgG synthesis may be considered as a specific marker of the persistence of these inflammatory lesions. Here we review the effect upon intrathecal IgG synthesis of all drugs ever used in MS. Except for steroids, all these therapeutic strategies, including rituximab, failed to decrease intrathecal IgG synthesis, with the exception of a questionable incomplete action of natalizumab. Thus, IgG synthesis is a robust marker of persistent intrathecal inflammation and its complete normalization should be one of the goals in future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25653878

  15. Design and Evaluation of the Highly Concentrated Human IgG Formulation Using Cyclodextrin Polypseudorotaxane Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Taishi; Tajima, Anna; Ohshita, Naoko; Hirotsu, Tatsunori; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; Motoyama, Keiichi; Koyama, Sawako; Iibuchi, Ruriko; Mieda, Shiuhei; Handa, Kenji; Kimoto, Tomoaki; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2015-12-01

    To achieve the potent therapeutic effects of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), highly concentrated formulations are required. However, the stabilization for highly concentrated human IgG is laborious work. In the present study, to investigate the potentials of polypseudorotaxane (PPRX) hydrogels consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and α- or γ-cyclodextrin (α- or γ-CyD) as pharmaceutical materials for highly concentrated human IgG, we designed the PPRX hydrogels including human IgG and evaluated their pharmaceutical properties. The α- and γ-CyDs formed PPRX hydrogels with PEG (M.W. 20,000) even in the presence of highly concentrated human IgG (>100 mg/mL). According to the results of (1)H-NMR, powder X-ray diffraction, and Raman microscopy, the formation of human IgG/CyD PPRX hydrogels was based on physical cross-linking arising from their columnar structures. The release profiles of human IgG from the hydrogels were in accordance with the non-Fickian diffusion model. Importantly, the stabilities of human IgG included into the hydrogels against thermal and shaking stresses were markedly improved. These findings suggest that PEG/CyD PPRX hydrogels are useful to prepare the formulation for highly concentrated human IgG.

  16. Anti-fasciola IgG isotypes among patients with fascioliasis before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M M; Mostafa, N E; Ramadan, M; Nassar, A; Hassounah, O; Omar, O

    2000-08-01

    Stool examination using modified Kato thick smear method was performed to detect Fasciola eggs and other parasites. Abdominal pain was the major presenting symptom (83.3%) followed by pallor (71.6%) and fever (16.7%). Anaemia and hepatomegaly were recorded in 70% of patients compared to 25% with splenomegaly. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatomegaly and common bile duct dilatation in 70% of patients. Moreover, 6 cases showed Olympic game rings which is diagnostic. All of patients had positive IgG4 levels, 58 cases were found positive for specific total IgG and IgG1, whereas, only 36 cases had positive IgG2 levels (60%). All negative control group showed no cross reactions. On the other hand, ELISA detecting IgG4 showed the highest specificity (95%), followed by IgG2 (85%) and the least specific test was obtained with detection of IgG (70%) and IgG1 (65%). One week after treatment, 90% of patients were completely cured. One and 3 months after treatment, the cure rate was 83.3%. In completely cured patients, none of anti-Fasciola isotypes was significantly changed.

  17. Increased IgG4 levels in children with autism disorder

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, Amanda; Krakowiak, Paula; Onore, Charity; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.; Van de Water, Judy A.; Ashwood, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that immune dysfunction is associated with autism disorders in a significant subset of children. Previous reports have shown abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, including an increased presence of autoreactive antibodies in the circulation of individuals with autism. As IgG is the predominant antibody isotype in circulation, we expected that an altered immune response could result in an abnormal IgG subclass profile in children with autism. We examined circulating plasma levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 in 241 children from the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) study, a large epidemiologic case-control investigation, including 114 children who meet full criteria for autism disorder (AU), 96 typically developing control children (TD) from a randomly selected sample of the general population, and 31 children with developmental delays (DD). We report significantly increased levels of the IgG4 subclass in children with AU compared with TD control children (p=0.016) and compared with DD controls (p=0.041). These results may suggest an underlying immunological abnormality in AU subjects resulting in elevated IgG4 production. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the relationship between immunological findings and behavioral impairments in autism. PMID:19136055

  18. Enhanced HIV-1 neutralization by a CD4-VH3-IgG1 fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Meyuhas, Ronit; Noy, Hava; Fishman, Sigal; Margalit, Alon; Montefiori, David C.; Gross, Gideon

    2009-08-21

    HIV-1 gp120 is an alleged B cell superantigen, binding certain VH3+ human antibodies. We reasoned that a CD4-VH3 fusion protein could possess higher affinity for gp120 and improved HIV-1 inhibitory capacity. To test this we produced several human IgG1 immunoligands harboring VH3. Unlike VH3-IgG1 or VH3-CD4-IgG1, CD4-VH3-IgG1 bound gp120 considerably stronger than CD4-IgG1. CD4-VH3-IgG1 exhibited {approx}1.5-2.5-fold increase in neutralization of two T-cell laboratory-adapted strains when compared to CD4-IgG1. CD4-VH3-IgG1 improved neutralization of 7/10 clade B primary isolates or pseudoviruses, exceeding 20-fold for JR-FL and 13-fold for Ba-L. It enhanced neutralization of 4/8 clade C viruses, and had negligible effect on 1/4 clade A pseudoviruses. We attribute this improvement to possible pairing of VH3 with CD4 D1 and stabilization of an Ig Fv-like structure, rather than to superantigen interactions. These novel findings support the current notion that CD4 fusion proteins can act as better HIV-1 entry inhibitors with potential clinical implications.

  19. Bovine IgG subclasses and fertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Riesle, Silke; García, María Pía; Hidalgo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Saenz, Leonardo; Paredes, Rodolfo

    2014-09-15

    Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, causing important health problems to humans and major economical losses in infected livestock. Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of hydatid disease, induces a humoral immune response in the intermediate host (human and herbivorous) against hydatid cyst antigens. Specifically, IgGs are found in the laminar and germinal layers and inside the lumen of fertile and infertile hydatid cysts. In the germinal layer of infertile cysts IgGs are found in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer of fertile cysts; a fraction of those IgGs are associated with high affinity to germinal layer proteins, suggesting their binding to specific parasite antigens. We have previously shown that those immunoglobulins, bound with high affinity to the germinal layer of hydatid cysts, induce apoptosis leading to cyst infertility. In the present work the presence of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the germinal layer of both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts is reported. IgG1 is the most relevant immunoglobulin subclass present in the germinal layer of infertile cysts and bound with high affinity to that parasite structure. Contrarily, though the IgG2 subclass was also found in the germinal and adventitial layers, those immunoglobulins show low affinity to parasite antigens. We propose that the binding of an IgG1 subclass to parasite antigens present in the germinal layer is involved in the mechanism of cyst infertility.

  20. Calcifying fibrous tumor: an unrecognized IgG4--related disease?

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent K; Balzer, Bonnie; Goldwasser, Jerome; Dhall, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare benign mass lesion characterized by bland spindle cells embedded in abundant collagenous matrix, interspersed dystrophic or psammomatous calcifications, and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. It shares several clinical and morphologic features with IgG4-related disease, a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder. Characteristic histologic features of IgG4-related lesions include dense fibrosis and abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, similar to calcifying fibrous tumor. They contain high numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the tissue. Patients also often have elevated serum IgG4 levels. We report the case of a patient with an ileal calcifying fibrous tumor that contained 69 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field and an IgG4-to-IgG ratio of 56% in lesional plasma cells. The patient's serum IgG4 level was 185 mg/dL, more than double the normal value. Altogether, these features suggest that calcifying fibrous tumor could be an unrecognized lesion of IgG4-related disease.

  1. IgG4-related disease and the current status of diagnostic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Du, Haitao; Wu, Yinqiao; Yan, Li; Wu, Benyan; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized systemic disease characterized by involving a wide range of organs. It includes the pancreas, biliary tree, salivary glands, periorbital tissues, upper aerodigestive tract, retroperitoneum, mediastinum, aorta, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidneys, prostate, lungs and lymph nodes. The elevated serum titer of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), which is the least common (3 % to 6 %) of the 4 subclasses of IgG, is a special marker for IgG4-related disease. However, its entity is still unknown. This article reviewed the literature to learn the IgG4-related diseases and their current status of diagnostic approaches. PMID:27847453

  2. [Diagnostic value of IgG subtypes in membranous nephropathy: A case report].

    PubMed

    Asmandar, Safaa; Figuères, Marie-Lucile; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Hummel, Aurélie

    2015-06-01

    The study of immunoglobulin G subtypes constituting immune deposits present in membranous nephropathy is useful to guide diagnosis. IgG4 deposits are more often seen in primitive forms of membranous nephropathy due to autoantibody (anti-phospholipase A2 receptor in a majority of cases). These deposits are polytypic. In secondary forms, deposits are constituted of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman whose renal biopsy, done for glomerular proteinuria, shows membranous nephropathy with monotypic IgG4 deposits with no overt hematologic malignancy and no anti-PLA2R antibodies.

  3. IgG4-related Disease of the Ovary: A First Description.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease has been previously described to involve numerous organs and anatomic sites, however, involvement of the ovary has not yet been reported in the literature. In this case report we describe an ovary involved with an inflammatory process with histopathologic features supportive of involvement by IgG4-related disease: a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with an eosinophilic component, obliterative phlebitis, and a prominent proportion of IgG-positive cells with IgG4 expression by immunohistochemistry (40%-50%). The differential diagnosis for this case would include eosinophilic perifolliculitis involving the ovary, another rare entity that shares the eosinophilic component of IgG4-related disease. In short, we present the first description of IgG4-related disease of the ovary providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis.

  4. A case of solely lung-involved IgG4-related disease mimicking tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongyi; Li, Haitao; Hu, Yongbing; Niu, Ruichao; Pan, Pinhua; Hu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease. Solely lung involved IgG4-RD is extremely rare. Herein, we reported a case of IgG4-related disease as mimicking tuberculosis. A 52-year-old male patient was admitted due to cough and hemoptysis for two months and fever for 1 month. The pre-admission diagnosis in another hospital was secondary pulmonary tuberculosis, but the quadruple anti-tuberculosis therapy was ineffective and the disease condition continued to deteriorate. The percutaneous lung biopsy was carried out after admission and the pathological diagnosis was IgG4-related disease. The patient's disease condition was improved following hormonal therapy.

  5. First case of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Hironori; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2014-07-14

    To our knowledge, patients with immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have not been reported previously. Many patients with IgG4-SC have autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and respond to steroid treatment. However, isolated cases of IgG4-SC are difficult to diagnose. We describe our experience with a patient who had IgG4-SC without AIP in whom the presence of AIHA led to diagnosis. The patient was a 73-year-old man who was being treated for dementia. Liver dysfunction was diagnosed on blood tests at another hospital. Imaging studies suggested the presence of carcinoma of the hepatic hilus and primary sclerosing cholangitis, but a rapidly progressing anemia developed simultaneously. After the diagnosis of AIHA, steroid treatment was begun, and the biliary stricture improved. IgG4-SC without AIP was thus diagnosed.

  6. [IgG4-related disease is a rare differential diagnosis of malignant and autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Storgaard, Anders; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-04-06

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an inflammatory and fibrotic disease with the potential to produce diffuse enlargement, massforming lesions or stenoses in a wide range of organs. Elevation of serum IgG4 concentration and high levels of IgG4-positive cells in the inflamed tissue are common denominators. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is one of the main manifestations, and its recognition preceded the definition of IgG4-RD as a novel clinical entity. The aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical long-term outcome of IgG4-RD are not fully elucidated. Steroids are effective in most patients, sometimes combined with other antiinflammatory drugs.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of human IgG4 antibodies by dynamic Fab arm exchange.

    PubMed

    van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Schuurman, Janine; Losen, Mario; Bleeker, Wim K; Martínez-Martínez, Pilar; Vermeulen, Ellen; den Bleker, Tamara H; Wiegman, Luus; Vink, Tom; Aarden, Lucien A; De Baets, Marc H; van de Winkel, Jan G J; Aalberse, Rob C; Parren, Paul W H I

    2007-09-14

    Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.

  8. Myocarditis in different experimental models infected by Trypanosoma cruzi is correlated with the production of IgG1 isotype.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Ivo Santana; Diniz, Livia de Figueiredo; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Matta; Nascimento, Álvaro Fernando da Silva do; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo de; Caldas, Sérgio; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to verify the relationship between IgG antibodies isotypes and myocarditis in Trypanosoma cruzi infection using mice and dogs infected with different T. cruzi strains. The animals were infected with benznidazole-susceptible Berenice-78 and benznidazole-resistant AAS and VL-10 strains. The IgG subtypes were measured in serum samples from dogs (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2) and mice (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b). The infection of dogs with VL-10 strain induced the highest levels of heart inflammation while intermediate and lower levels were detected with Berenice-78 and AAS strains, respectively. Similar results were found in mice infected with VL-10, but not in those infected with AAS or Berenice-78 strains. The AAS strain induced higher levels of heart inflammation in mice, while Berenice-78 strain was not able to induce it. Correlation analysis between myocarditis and antibody reactivity index revealed very interesting results, mainly for IgG and IgG1, the latter being the most exciting. High IgG1 showed a significant correlation with myocarditis in both experimental models, being more significant in dogs (r=0.94, p<0.0001) than in mice (r=0.58, p=0.047). Overall, our data suggest that IgG1 could be a good marker to demonstrate myocarditis intensity in Chagas disease.

  9. Binding kinetics of monomeric and aggregated IgG to Kupffer cells and hepatocytes of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, J; González, E; Escanero, J F; Egido, J

    1984-01-01

    The binding kinetics of human monomeric IgG and stable heat-aggregated IgG (A-IgG) to Fc receptors of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells isolated from mice was studied. After injection of radiolabelled proteins the 60-70% of hepatic uptake was recovered in parenchymal cells (hepatocytes). In experiments in vitro the A-IgG bound in larger amounts to hepatocytes and Kupffer cells than monomeric IgG. The association rate constants of aggregates were somewhat higher for Kupffer cells than for hepatocytes whereas the percentage uptake of aggregates by Kupffer cells was only 5-15% of that of hepatocytes. The equilibrium constants of aggregates binding to both cells amounted to 0.4-1 X 10(8) M-1 for A-IgG compared with an equilibrium constant for monomeric IgG of 1-2 X 10(7)M-1. The maximum number of IgG and A-IgG molecules bound per cell was higher on hepatocytes (mean 14 X 10(6)) than on Kupffer cells (mean 2 X 10(5)) which is in agreement with the higher binding capacity of hepatocytes for these proteins observed in vivo and in vitro experiments. The ability to compete for receptor binding seemed to reside exclusively in the Fc portion of IgG since F(ab')2 fragments of IgG failed to inhibit labelled monomeric IgG or A-IgG. The receptor seems to be specific for IgG since unlabelled monomeric IgA demonstrated no binding inhibition of labelled IgG or A-IgG on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. The overall results further suggest that hepatocytes might through Fc receptors play a collaborative role with the mononuclear phagocytic system in the clearance of circulating immune complexes. PMID:6237982

  10. IgG4-Related Disease: Results From a Multicenter Spanish Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Codina, Andreu; Martínez-Valle, Fernando; Pinilla, Blanca; López, Cristina; DeTorres, Inés; Solans-Laqué, Roser; Fraile-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Casanovas-Martínez, Arnau; López-Dupla, Miguel; Robles-Marhuenda, Ángel; Barragán-González, María Jesús; Cid, Maria Cinta; Prieto-González, Sergio; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Cruces-Moreno, María Teresa; Fonseca-Aizpuru, Eva; López-Torres, Manuel; Gil, Judith; Núñez-Fernández, Manuel Jesús; Pardos-Gea, José; Salvador-Cervelló, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a rare entity consisting of inflammation and fibrosis that has been described in multiple organs. Concrete diagnostic criteria have been established recently and there is a lack of large series of patients. To describe the clinical presentation, histopathological characteristics, treatment and evolution of a series of IgG4-RD Spanish patients. A retrospective multicenter study was performed. Twelve hospitals across Spain included patients meeting the current 2012 consensus criteria on IgG4-RD diagnosis. Fifty-five patients were included in the study, 38 of whom (69.1%) were male. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. Thirty (54.5%) patients were included in the Histologically Highly Suggestive IgG4-RD group and 25 (45.5%) in the probable IgG4-RD group. Twenty-six (47.3%) patients had more than 1 organ affected at presentation. The most frequently affected organs were: retroperitoneum, orbital pseudotumor, pancreas, salivary and lachrymal glands, and maxillary sinuses. Corticosteroids were the mainstay of treatment (46 patients, 83.6%). Eighteen patients (32.7%) required additional immunosuppressive agents. Twenty-four (43.6%) patients achieved a complete response and 26 (43.7%) presented a partial response (<50% of regression) after 22 months of follow-up. No deaths were attributed directly to IgG4-RD and malignancy was infrequent. This is the largest IgG4-RD series reported in Europe. Patients were middle-aged males, with histologically probable IgG4-RD. The systemic form of the disease was frequent, involving mainly sites of the head and abdomen. Corticosteroids were an effective first line treatment, sometimes combined with immunosuppressive agents. Neither fatalities nor malignancies were attributed to IgG4-RD. PMID:26266361

  11. Staphylococcus aureus protein A activates TNFR1 signaling through conserved IgG binding domains.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Marisa I; O'Seaghdha, Maghnus; Magargee, Mariah; Foster, Timothy J; Prince, Alice S

    2006-07-21

    Staphylococcus aureus continues to be a major cause of infection in normal as well as immunocompromised hosts, and the increasing prevalence of highly virulent community-acquired methicillin-resistant strains is a public health concern. A highly expressed surface component of S. aureus, protein A (SpA), contributes to its success as a pathogen by both activating inflammation and by interfering with immune clearance. SpA is known to bind to IgG Fc, which impedes phagocytosis. SpA is also a potent activator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling, inducing both chemokine expression and TNF-converting enzyme-dependent soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1) shedding, which has anti-inflammatory consequences, particularly in the lung. Using a collection of glutathione S-transferase fusions to the intact IgG binding region of SpA and to each of the individual binding domains, we found that the SpA IgG binding domains also mediate binding to human airway cells. TNFR1-dependent CXCL8 production could be elicited by any one of the individual SpA IgG binding domains as efficiently as by either the entire SpA or the intact IgG binding region. SpA induction of sTNFR1 shedding required the entire IgG binding region and tolerated fewer substitutions in residues known to interact with IgG. Each of the repeated domains of the IgG binding domain can affect multiple immune responses independently, activating inflammation through TNFR1 and thwarting opsonization by trapping IgG Fc domains, while the intact IgG binding region can limit further signaling through sTNFR1 shedding.

  12. IgG4-related Hashimoto's thyroiditis--a new variant of a well known disease.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Henrique Vara; Gonçalves, Diogo; Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Nascimento, Isabel; Ribeiro, Ana; Mafra, Manuela; Manita, Isabel; Portugal, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been characterized for many years as a well-defined clinicopathologic entity, but is now considered a heterogeneous disease. IgG4-related HT is a new subtype characterized by thyroid inflammation rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and marked fibrosis. It may be part of the systemic IgG4-related disease. We report a case of a 56-year-old Portuguese man who presented with a one-month history of progressive neck swelling and dysphagia. Laboratory testing revealed increased inflammatory parameters, subclinical hypothyroidism and very high levels of thyroid autoantibodies. Cervical ultrasound (US) demonstrated an enlarged and heterogeneous thyroid gland and two hypoechoic nodules. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology was consistent with lymphocytic thyroiditis. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy and microscopic examination identified typical findings of HT, marked fibrosis limited within the thyroid capsule and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, with >50 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field and an IgG4/IgG ratio of >40%. After surgery, serum IgG4 concentration was high-normal. Symptoms relief and reduction in laboratory inflammatory parameters were noticed. Thyroid function is controlled with levothyroxine. To our knowledge we report the first case of IgG4-related HT in a non-Asian patient. We also perform a review of the literature regarding IgG4-related disease and IgG4-related HT. Our case highlights this new variant of the well known HT, and helps physicians in recognizing its main clinical features, allowing for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies for treatment and prevention of allergy

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sabine; Linhart, Birgit; Wild, Carmen; Wiedermann, Ursula; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    IgE antibody-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. To investigate therapeutic and preventive effects of passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies on allergy in mouse models we used clinically relevant pollen allergens. In a treatment model, mice were sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and to the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 and then received passive immunization with rabbit IgG antibodies specific for the sensitizing or an unrelated allergen. In a prevention model, mice obtained passive immunization with allergen-specific rabbit IgG before sensitization. Kinetics of the levels of administered IgG antibodies, effects of administered allergen-specific IgG on allergen-specific IgE reactivity, the development of IgE and IgG responses and on immediate allergic reactions were studied by ELISA, rat basophil leukaemia degranulation assays and skin testing, respectively. Treated mice showed an approximately 80% reduction of allergen-specific IgE binding and basophil degranulation which was associated with the levels of administered allergen-specific IgG antibodies. Preventive administration of allergen-specific IgG antibodies suppressed the development of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibody responses as well as allergen-induced basophil degranulation and skin reactivity. Our results show that passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies is effective for treatment and prevention of allergy to clinically important pollen allergens in a mouse model and thus may pave the road for the clinical application of allergen-specific antibodies in humans. PMID:23182706

  14. Radioimmunotherapy of colorectal carcinoma xenografts in nude mice with yttrium-90 A33 IgG and Tri-Fab (TFM).

    PubMed Central

    Antoniw, P.; Farnsworth, A. P.; Turner, A.; Haines, A. M.; Mountain, A.; Mackintosh, J.; Shochat, D.; Humm, J.; Welt, S.; Old, L. J.; Yarranton, G. T.; King, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody A33 recognises a tumour-associated antigen on human colorectal carcinoma, and has undergone preliminary evaluation in the clinic where selective localisation to hepatic metastases has been demonstrated [Welt et al. (1994) J. Clin. Oncol. 12, 1561-1571]. A33 and an A33 tri-fab fragment (TFM) were labelled with 90Y via a stable macrocyclic ligand for biodistribution and therapy studies in nude mice bearing SW1222 colon carcinoma xenografts. Biodistribution studies demonstrated tumour localisation for both A33 IgG and TFM with low bone, liver and kidney levels. Clearance of TFM from the blood was much faster than IgG and this led to lower tumour accumulation for TFM but superior tumour-blood ratios. The maximum per cent injected dose per g localised to tumour was 35.9% +/- 5.3% for A33 IgG and 12.9% +/- 4.6% for A33 TFM with tumour-blood ratios at 48 h after administration of 5.6 +/- 1.8 and 29.2 +/- 9.8 respectively. Autoradiography studies with 125I-labelled A33 IgG and TFM demonstrated a homogeneous distribution within tumour tissue which was not observed with other anti-colorectal tumour antibodies. TFM penetrated into the tumour tissue more rapidly than IgG. In therapy studies, a single dose of 90Y-A33 IgG (250 microCi per mouse) or 90Y-A33 TFM (300 microCi per mouse) led to complete regression of 2-week-old tumour xenografts with long-term tumour-free survivors. A transient drop in white blood cell count was observed with both IgG and TFM but was significantly more pronounced with IgG. The cell count fell to 8.4% of control for IgG, whereas with TFM cell counts fell to 51% of control before recovery. These results indicate that the more rapid blood clearance of 90Y-TFM confers reduced toxicity compared with 90Y-IgG although similar therapeutic effects are achieved. When the dose of 90Y-IgG was adjusted to give the same dose to tumour achieved with 300 microCi 90Y-TFM, a lesser therapeutic effect was observed. This may be owing to more

  15. Toxoplasma-SPECIFIC IgG SUBCLASS ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID SAMPLES FROM PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL TOXOPLASMOSIS.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fernanda S; Suzuki, Lisandra A; Branco, Nilson; Franco, Regina M B; Andrade, Paula D; Costa, Sandra C B; Pedro, Marcelo N; Rossi, Cláudio L

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis can be highly debilitating and occasionally fatal in persons with immune system deficiencies. In this study, we evaluated the Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG subclass antibody response in 19 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis who had a positive IgG anti-T. gondii ELISA standardized with a cyst antigen preparation. There were no significant differences between the rates of positivity and the antibody concentrations (arithmetic means of the ELISA absorbances, MEA) for IgG1 and IgG2, but the rates of positivity and MEA values for these two IgG subclasses were significantly higher than those for IgG3 and IgG4. The marked IgG2 response in CSF from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis merits further investigation.

  16. Intravenous IgG (IVIG) and subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) preparations have comparable inhibitory effect on T cell activation, which is not dependent on IgG sialylation, monocytes or B cells.

    PubMed

    Issekutz, Andrew C; Rowter, Derek; Miescher, Sylvia; Käsermann, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    IVIG modulates T cell activation in vitro and inflammatory-autoimmune conditions in vivo. Sialylation of IgG, Fc receptor interactions, modulation of monocyte/macrophage/B cell functions have been implicated in IVIG effects. Subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) therapy is increasingly used for IgG replacement but whether these preparations share the effects of IVIG on T cell modulation is not documented. We compared the potency of SCIG-Hizentra™ (20% IgG preparation) with IVIG-Privigen® (10% IgG) for T cell inhibition, and assessed the involvement of IgG sialylation, monocytes and B cells in this process. Human PBMCs or sorted cells were cultured 3-7 days, and T cells were stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3 mAb or Candida antigen. Thymidine incorporation into DNA was quantitated and cytokines assayed by ELISA/Luminex® assay. IVIG and SCIG both dose-dependently (1-20mg/ml) inhibited (up to >80%) T cell proliferation to anti-CD3 mAb. Response to Candida albicans was comparably inhibited by IVIG and SCIG by 50-80% at 10mg/ml with inhibition even at 3mg/ml (P<0.05). These effects were not affected by depletion of sialic acid containing IgG using neuraminidase treatment or lectin affinity chromatography. With anti-CD3 or Candida stimulation, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, GMCSF, TNF-α, interferon-γ (with anti-CD3) and IL-17 (with Candida) levels were suppressed by IVIG or SCIG, with no effect on IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15 or TGFβ. Monocytes or B cells were not required for IgG-induced suppression of proliferation, in fact depletion of monocytes potentiated the IgG-induced inhibition. Reconstitution with monocytes restored the original inhibitory effect. These data show that IVIG (Privigen®) and SCIG (Hizentra™) have comparable inhibitory effects on T cell activation, which do not require sialylation of IgG. Inhibition is independent of monocytes or B cells. There is a potent suppression of multiple effector cytokines. Like IVIG, SCIG therapy is expected to show

  17. IGG Subclass and Isotype Specific Immunoglobulin Responses to LASSA fever and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis: Natural Infection and Immunication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    DAIC FLL COpy AD-A218 815 A_ ARMY PROJECT ORDER NO: 88PP8804 TITLE: IGG SUBCLASS & ISOTYPE SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RESPONSES TO LASSA FEVER...TITLE (include Security Classification) IGG SUBCLASS & ISOTYPE SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RESPONSES TO LASSA FEVER & VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS...Immunoglobulin; IgG Sub- 06 01 classes; Lassa Fever; VEE; PO; Togavirus; IgG; IgA; IgM; 06 13 Arenavirus; Hemmorhagic Fever: BD; RA I 19, ABSTRACT

  18. Isotype distribution of mucosal IgG-producing cells in patients with various IgG subclass deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Nilssen, D E; Söderström, R; Brandtzaeg, P; Kett, K; Helgeland, L; Karlsson, G; Söderström, T; Hanson, L A

    1991-01-01

    The subclass distribution of IgG-producing immunocytes was examined by immunohistochemistry in nasal and rectal mucosa of infection-prone patients with untreated IgG subclass deficiencies. Biopsy specimens from the two sites were obtained in 18 clinically and serologically well-characterized adult subjects; only a nasal or rectal sample was available from nine similar patients. Chronic lung disease was common in the patient groups with selective serum IgG1 deficiency and combined IgG1 and IgG3 deficiency, whereas the other categories of patients had mainly upper airway and other mild infections. Serum IgG2 or IgG3 deficiency was usually expressed also at the cellular level in rectal mucosa, and the proportion of rectal IgG1 cells was significantly correlated with the IgG1 level (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001). Likewise, there tended to be a decreased expression of the actual subclass at the cellular level in nasal mucosa of patients with serum IgG1 or IgG2 deficiency. Conversely, the median nasal proportion of IgG3 cells was remarkably unaffected by a deficiency of this subclass in serum and rectal mucosa. Interestingly, these patients rather tended to have raised IgG3 and reduced IgG2 cell proportions in their nasal mucosa, although this apparent local IgG3 compensation was nevertheless strongly correlated with the serum IgG3 level (r = 0.87, P less than 0.002). These disparities may reflect different antigenic and mitogenic exposure of the two tissue sites; for example, a persistent protein bombardment of the nasal mucosa that could conceivably override locally a B cell maturation defect. The possible clinical consequences of such variable mucosal expression of IgG subclass deficiencies remain to be studied. PMID:1988226

  19. Evaluation of rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM assays with the new Vidia instrument.

    PubMed

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Martinelli, Monica; Albonetti, Valeria; Chezzi, Carlo; Dettori, Giuseppe

    2008-05-01

    For rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM detection, Vidia assays were compared to Vidas, AxSYM, and Liaison assays with 419 serum samples. Only Vidia produced a sensitivity of 100% for IgG and IgM. Vidia specificities were 98.4% for IgG and 99.8% for IgM, versus Vidas specificities of 100 and 99.3%. Vidia IgG and IgM assays performed equally well.

  20. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  1. [Gastric cancer concurrent with IgG4-related disease: A clinical case and a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, I A; Lishchuk, S V; Gribunov, Yu P; Shestakova, I N; Pavlov, K A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the data available in the literature on IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) concurrent with malignancies at different sites, as well as possible common pathogenetic mechanisms of their development and morphological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. The authors give their own observation of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma concurrent with morphologically verified IgG4-RD.

  2. Highly parallel characterization of IgG Fc binding interactions

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Austin W; Brown, Eric P; Cheng, Hao D; Ofori, Maame Ofua; Normandin, Erica; Nigrovic, Peter A; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Because the variable ability of the antibody constant (Fc) domain to recruit innate immune effector cells and complement is a major factor in antibody activity in vivo, convenient means of assessing these binding interactions is of high relevance to the development of enhanced antibody therapeutics, and to understanding the protective or pathogenic antibody response to infection, vaccination, and self. Here, we describe a highly parallel microsphere assay to rapidly assess the ability of antibodies to bind to a suite of antibody receptors. Fc and glycan binding proteins such as FcγR and lectins were conjugated to coded microspheres and the ability of antibodies to interact with these receptors was quantified. We demonstrate qualitative and quantitative assessment of binding preferences and affinities across IgG subclasses, Fc domain point mutants, and antibodies with variant glycosylation. This method can serve as a rapid proxy for biophysical methods that require substantial sample quantities, high-end instrumentation, and serial analysis across multiple binding interactions, thereby offering a useful means to characterize monoclonal antibodies, clinical antibody samples, and antibody mimics, or alternatively, to investigate the binding preferences of candidate Fc receptors. PMID:24927273

  3. Demonstration by pulsed neutron scattering that the arrangement of the Fab and Fc fragments in the overall structures of bovine IgG1 and IgG2 in solution is similar.

    PubMed Central

    Mayans, M O; Coadwell, W J; Beale, D; Symons, D B; Perkins, S J

    1995-01-01

    The bovine IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes exhibit large differences in effector functions. To examine the structural basis for this, the 12-domain structures of IgG1 and IgG2 were investigated by pulsed neutron scattering using a recently developed camera LOQ. This method reports on the average relative disposition in solution of the Fab and Fc fragments in IgG. The radii of gyration (RG) were found to be similar at 5.64 and 5.71 nm for IgG1 and IgG2 respectively in 100% 2H2O buffers. The two cross-sectional radii of gyration (RXS) were also similar at 2.38-2.41 and 0.98-1.02 nm. Similar values were obtained for porcine IgG. Both bovine IgG1 and IgG2 possess similar overall solution structures, despite sequence differences at the hinge region at the centre of their structures. An automated computer survey of possible IgG structures was developed, in which coordinates for the two Fab fragments were displaced in a two-dimensional plane relative to those of the Fc fragment in 0.25 nm steps. The scattering curves calculated from these structures were found to be sensitive to relative displacements of the three fragments, but not on their rotational orientation about their longest axes. Good agreement with the solution scattering data was obtained with a planar IgG model in which the C-terminus of the CH1 domain of Fab was 3.6 nm from the N-terminus of Fc in both IgG1 and IgG2, with a precision of 0.7 nm. Energy refinement showed that this spatial separation is compatible with the hinge sequences of bovine IgG1 and IgG2. The results show that multidomain protein structures can be modelled using LOQ data, and that a long hinge sequence does not necessarily reflect a large distance between Fab and Fc. The steric accessibility of Fc sites for interactions with cell-surface Fc receptors and C1q of complement is shown to be generally similar for IgG1 and IgG2, and the difference in effector function between IgG1 and IgG2 is probably based on deletions in the IgG2 hinge sequence

  4. Igg Subclasses Targeting the Flagella of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Can Mediate Phagocytosis and Bacterial Killing.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yun Shan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-05-30

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are a common cause of invasive disease in immuno-compromised individuals and in children. Multi-drug resistance poses challenges to disease control, with a critical need for effective vaccines. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate due to surface exposure and high epitope copy number, but its potential as a target for opsonophacytic antibodies is unclear. We examined the effect of targeting flagella with different classes of IgG on the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and a human phagocyte-like cell line, THP-1. We tagged the FliC flagellar protein with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and bacteria were opsonized with a panel of humanised CD52 antibodies with the same antigen-binding V-region, but different constant regions. We found that IgG binding to flagella increases bacterial phagocytosis and reduces viable intracellular bacterial numbers. Opsonisation with IgG3, followed by IgG1, IgG4, and IgG2, resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and in the highest reduction in the intracellular load of viable bacteria. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting flagella with antibodies can increase the antibacterial function of host cells, with IgG3 being the most potent subclass. These data will assist the rational design of urgently needed, optimised vaccines against iNTS disease.

  5. Igg Subclasses Targeting the Flagella of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Can Mediate Phagocytosis and Bacterial Killing

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun Shan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are a common cause of invasive disease in immuno-compromised individuals and in children. Multi-drug resistance poses challenges to disease control, with a critical need for effective vaccines. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate due to surface exposure and high epitope copy number, but its potential as a target for opsonophacytic antibodies is unclear. We examined the effect of targeting flagella with different classes of IgG on the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and a human phagocyte-like cell line, THP-1. We tagged the FliC flagellar protein with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and bacteria were opsonized with a panel of humanised CD52 antibodies with the same antigen-binding V-region, but different constant regions. We found that IgG binding to flagella increases bacterial phagocytosis and reduces viable intracellular bacterial numbers. Opsonisation with IgG3, followed by IgG1, IgG4, and IgG2, resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and in the highest reduction in the intracellular load of viable bacteria. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting flagella with antibodies can increase the antibacterial function of host cells, with IgG3 being the most potent subclass. These data will assist the rational design of urgently needed, optimised vaccines against iNTS disease. PMID:27366588

  6. Optimization of the cutoff value for a commercial anti-dengue virus IgG immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Marrero-Santos, Karla M; Beltrán, Manuela; Carrión-Lebrón, Jessica; Sanchez-Vegas, Carolina; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Santiago, Luis M; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    A commercial anti-dengue virus (anti-DENV) indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological diagnosis was evaluated for its utility in determining previous DENV exposure in U.S. travelers. The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network clinics used Focus Diagnostics anti-DENV IgG ELISA to measure anti-DENV IgG antibodies in 591 pretravel specimens from U.S. residents who had traveled to countries where dengue is endemic. When using the manufacturer's index cutoff value for this ELISA, false-positive results were observed that overestimated the perceived past DENV exposure in U.S. travelers. Validation of 121 of these anti-DENV IgG results by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was used for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve optimization of the index cutoff value from 1 to 3.0, improving the specificity of the anti-DENV IgG ELISA from 24% to 95.7%. Additionally, previous vaccination with yellow fever virus contributed to 52.8% of the false-positive rate in the anti-DENV IgG ELISA results. Optimization of the cutoff value of the anti-DENV IgG ELISA provided better interpretation and confidence in the results and eliminated the need for confirmation by PRNT. The travel history of U.S. travelers was also useful for categorizing these travelers into groups for analysis of previous DENV exposure.

  7. A case of herpetiform pemphigus with anti-desmoglein 3 IgG autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Rieko; Kawada, Akira; Aragane, Yoshinori; Amagai, Masayuki; Tezuka, Tadashi

    2004-05-01

    Herpetiform pemphigus (HP) is a rare variant of pemphigus characterized by a unique clinical phenotype of erythematous or urticarial plaques and vesicles that present in a herpetiform arrangement. Most HP cases have circulating anti-desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) IgG autoantibodies, but some HP cases have anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) IgG. A 92-year-old Japanese woman presented with severely pruritic annular erythema and vesicles in a herpetiform arrangement on the trunk. No oral mucosal lesions were present. Histopathologically, these vesicles showed eosinophilic spongiosis as well as suprabasilar acantholysis. Direct immunofluorescence showed in vivo IgG deposition on keratinocyte cell surfaces, and indirect immunofluorescence showed circulating IgG autoantibodies against keratinocyte cell surfaces at a titer of 1:30. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant Dsg1 and Dsg3 revealed the presence of anti-Dsg3 IgG but no anti-Dsg1 IgG autoantibodies. The lack of oral mucosal involvement and the unique clinical features favored the diagnosis of HP. It remains to be clarified why the anti-Dsg3 IgG autoantibodies in this patient induced this unique features of HP, rather than the mucosal dominant type of pemphigus vulgaris.

  8. Abnormal serum IgG subclass pattern in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to infections is a well known feature of Down's syndrome. The possible relation between this predisposition and the serum concentrations of the IgG subclasses was studied in 38 children with Down's syndrome aged 1-12 years. An age matched group of 50 healthy children served as controls. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly raised among children with Down's syndrome in all three age groups studied (that is 1-2.5, 4-8, and 9-12 years). The serum concentrations of IgG2 were normal in the first two groups but significantly reduced in the third age group. In contrast, the concentrations of IgG4 among children with Down's syndrome were significantly reduced in all three age groups. Moreover, among the children with Down's syndrome aged 4-12 years 68% (15/22) had IgG4 concentrations below 2 SDs of the geometrical mean of the controls. The results may partially explain the proneness of children with Down's syndrome to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Although the underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown, IgG subclass determination seems relevant in the clinical evaluation of children with Down's syndrome. PMID:1534650

  9. Induction of IgG in young nude mice by lipid A or thymus grafts.

    PubMed

    Kolb, C; Di Pauli, R; Weiler, E

    1976-10-01

    Postnatal serum concentrations of IgG2a of paternal allotype, measured in congenitally thymusless nude mice, increase with kinetics and titers comparable to their normal congeneic counterparts. Lipid A, the mitogenic part of LPS, stimulates IgG synthesis in nude mice when it is given 7 days after birth. IgG concentrations at 15 days of age are 6- to 8-fold higher than in untreated control nudes; this is considerably lower, however, than in normal mice, which show up to 45-fold higher IgG2ab levels after lipid A treatment. A thymus graft from nearly congeneic donors of the same age, transplanted at 4 days after birth, also stimulates long-lasting IgG synthesis in the nude recipients. If the grafted nudes are injected with lipid A 3 days later, IgG synthesis is further stimulated 8- to 16-fold. The data are discussed in relation to the thymus dependency of IgG production and the conditions for lipid A stimulation.

  10. Histone-dependent IgG conservation in octanoic acid precipitation and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Toh, Phyllicia; Sun, Yue; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Hoi, Aina; Xian, Mo; Zhang, Haibo; Nian, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-12-01

    Octanoic acid (OA) precipitation has long been used in protein purification. Recently, we reported a new cell culture clarification method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) purification, employing an advance elimination of chromatin heteroaggregates with a hybrid OA-solid phase system. This treatment reduced DNA more than 3 logs, histone below the detection limit (LOD), and non-histone host cell proteins (nh-HCP) by 90 % while conserving more than 90 % of the IgG monomer. In this study, we further investigated the conservation of IgG monomer and antibody light chain (LC) to the addition of OA/OA-solid phase complex, with or without histone and DNA in different combinations. The results showed that highly basic histone protein was the prime target in OA/OA-solid phase precipitation system for IgG purification, and the selective conservation of IgG monomer in this system was histone dependent. Our findings partially support the idea that OA works by sticking to electropositive hydrophobic domains on proteins, reducing their solubility, and causing them to agglomerate into large particles that precipitate from solution. Our findings also provide a new perspective for IgG purification and emphasize the necessity to re-examine the roles of various host contaminants in IgG purification.

  11. Renal FcRn reclaims albumin but facilitates elimination of IgG.

    PubMed

    Sarav, Menaka; Wang, Ying; Hack, Bradley K; Chang, Anthony; Jensen, Mark; Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The widely distributed neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) contributes to maintaining serum levels of albumin and IgG in adults. In the kidney, FcRn is expressed on the podocytes and the brush border of the proximal tubular epithelium. Here, we evaluated the role of renal FcRn in albumin and IgG metabolism. Compared with wild-type controls, FcRn(-/-) mice had a lower t((1/2)) for albumin (28.7 versus 39.9 h) and IgG (29.5 versus 66.1 h). Renal loss of albumin could account for the former, suggested by the progressive development of hypoalbuminemia in wild-type mice transplanted with FcRn-deficient kidneys. Furthermore, serum albumin levels returned to normal in FcRn(-/-) recipients of wild-type kidneys after removing the native FcRn-deficient kidneys. In contrast, renal loss could not account for the enhanced elimination of IgG in FcRn(-/-) mice. These mice had minimal urinary excretion of native and labeled IgG, which increased to wild-type levels in FcRn(-/-) recipients of a single FcRn-sufficient kidney (t((1/2)) of IgG was 21.7 h). Taken together, these data suggest that renal FcRn reclaims albumin, thereby maintaining the serum concentration of albumin, but facilitates the loss of IgG from plasma protein pools.

  12. Enhanced FCGR2A and FCGR3A signaling by HIV viremic controller IgG

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Raymond A.; Maestre, Ana M.; Durham, Natasha D.; Barria, Maria Ines; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Tada, Minoru; Hotta, Mathew T.; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Fierer, Daniel S.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Simon, Viviana; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 viremic controllers (VC) spontaneously control infection without antiretroviral treatment. Several studies indicate that IgG Abs from VCs induce enhanced responses from immune effector cells. Since signaling through Fc-γ receptors (FCGRs) modulate these Ab-driven responses, here we examine if enhanced FCGR activation is a common feature of IgG from VCs. Using an infected cell–based system, we observed that VC IgG stimulated greater FCGR2A and FCGR3A activation as compared with noncontrollers, independent of the magnitude of HIV-specific Ab binding or virus neutralization activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that enhanced FCGR signaling was a significant predictor of VC status as compared with chronically infected patients (CIP) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of patient IgG functions primarily grouped VC IgG profiles by enhanced FCGR2A, FCGR3A, or dual signaling activity. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced FCGR signaling is a common and significant predictive feature of VC IgG, with VCs displaying a distinct spectrum of FCGR activation profiles. Thus, profiling FCGR activation may provide a useful method for screening and distinguishing protective anti-HIV IgG responses in HIV-infected patients and in monitoring HIV vaccination regimens. PMID:28239647

  13. New strategies for the treatment of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa

    2016-01-01

      IgG4-related disease is a chronic and fibroinflammatory disorder, which is characterized with elevated levels of serum IgG4, and prominent infiltration of IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the involved organs. It often affects with lacrimal glands, salivary glands, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, and retroperitoneal cavity. Now, the first line of the induction therapy for IgG4-related disease is glucocorticoid, but almost patients need the maintenance treatment and experience the relapse. It is recently reported that biologic agents, including rituximab and abatacept, are effective for the relapse of IgG4-related disease. It is clear that the tapering effect of glucocorticoid is better than conventional oral immunosuppressants. We can use it in safely if we choose the appropriate cases. The investigator-initiated trial of rituximab for IgG4-related disease is scheduled in Japan. This article reviews the new strategies for the treatment of IgG4-related disease with our data of SMART registry, and discuss the problems of each biologic agents for IgG4-related disease.

  14. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis as a newly recognized manifestation of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Laco, Jan; Örhalmi, Július; Bártová, Jolana; Zimandlová, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Herein we present a case of a 65-year-old woman with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) who presented with anemic syndrome and in whom severe stenosis of the right flexure of large bowel was detected. The microscopic examination revealed fibrosis of the submucosa and lymphoplasmacytic phlebitis of small veins and venules, whereas arteries were spared. There were 110 IgG4-positive and 160 IgG-positive plasma cells in 1 high-power field, respectively, with corresponding IgG4/IgG ratio of 0.69. The IgG4 serum level was 2.42 g/L. According to the currently proposed criteria, this ELP case is the first that may be diagnosed as definite IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Although based on the sole case description, taken together with a recent review and a case report, we presume that a subset of ELPs is a manifestation of IgG4-RD.

  15. IgG4-related Kidney Disease Mimicking Malignant Ureter Tumor: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wen-Hui; Xin, Jun; Shao, Chu-Xiao; Mao, Ming-Feng; Zhu, Chao-Yong; Wu, Chui-Fen; Jin, Lie

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic disease that can affect any organ or tissue in the body, including the kidneys. IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) is an important part of immunoglobulin G4-related disease. The most common renal manifestation of IgG4-RKD is tubulointerstitial nephritis and glomerular lesions. There, however, is few case of IgG4-RKD mimicking malignant ureter tumor leading to severe hydronephrosis. We herein report an unusual case of IgG4-RKD mimicking malignancy.A 66-year-old Asian man presented to the nephrologist with soreness of loins, anorexia, and acute kidney injury in 2010. His renal function spontaneously improved after 2 weeks' hemodialysis without systemic steroid therapy. Four years later, he presented to the urologist with severe left hydronephrosis because of marked thickness of the left ureter wall. As a ureteral malignancy could not be ruled out, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was performed.IgG4-related kidney disease was confirmed by the histologic examination. Then, repeat laboratory test showed almost complete recovery of renal function after initiation of steroidal therapy.This case highlights the rare possibility of IgG4-RKD mimicking malignant ureter tumor. Nephrologist and pathologists should be aware of the possibility that hydronephrosis with ureter obstruction may be involved in IgG4-RKD.

  16. Cutting edge: IL-21 is a switch factor for the production of IgG1 and IgG3 by human B cells.

    PubMed

    Pène, Jérôme; Gauchat, Jean-François; Lécart, Sandrine; Drouet, Elodie; Guglielmi, Paul; Boulay, Vera; Delwail, Adriana; Foster, Don; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Yssel, Hans

    2004-05-01

    IL-21 is a cytokine that regulates the activation of T and NK cells and promotes the proliferation of B cells activated via CD40. In this study, we show that rIL-21 strongly induces the production of all IgG isotypes by purified CD19(+) human spleen or peripheral blood B cells stimulated with anti-CD40 mAb. Moreover, it was found to specifically induce the production of IgG(1) and IgG(3) by CD40-activated CD19(+)CD27(-) naive human B cells. Although stimulation of CD19(+) B cells via CD40 alone induced gamma 1 and gamma 3 germline transcripts, as well as the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, only stimulation with both anti-CD40 mAb and rIL-21 resulted in the production of S gamma/S mu switch circular DNA. These results show that IL-21, in addition to promoting growth and differentiation of committed B cells, is a specific switch factor for the production of IgG(1) and IgG(3).

  17. Elucidation of Acid-induced Unfolding and Aggregation of Human Immunoglobulin IgG1 and IgG2 Fc

    PubMed Central

    Latypov, Ramil F.; Hogan, Sabine; Lau, Hollis; Gadgil, Himanshu; Liu, Dingjiang

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of Fc aggregation is an important prerequisite for developing stable and efficacious antibody-based therapeutics. In our study, high resolution two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to probe structural changes in the IgG1 Fc. A series of 1H-15N heteronuclear single-quantum correlation NMR spectra were collected between pH 2.5 and 4.7 to assess whether unfolding of CH2 domains precedes that of CH3 domains. The same pH range was subsequently screened in Fc aggregation experiments that utilized molecules of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses with varying levels of CH2 glycosylation. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry data were collected over a pH range of 3–7 to assess changes in CH2 and CH3 thermostability. As a result, compelling evidence was gathered that emphasizes the importance of CH2 stability in determining the rate and extent of Fc aggregation. In particular, we found that Fc domains of the IgG1 subclass have a lower propensity to aggregate compared with those of the IgG2 subclass. Our data for glycosylated, partially deglycosylated, and fully deglycosylated molecules further revealed the criticality of CH2 glycans in modulating Fc aggregation. These findings provide important insights into the stability of Fc-based therapeutics and promote better understanding of their acid-induced aggregation process. PMID:22084250

  18. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  19. Can IgG4 Levels Identify the Ulcerative Colitis Subtype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ricardo Jacaranda; Clemente, Cintia Mendes; Carneiro, Fabiana P.; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency may occur as extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, autoimmune pancreatitis and colitis have been described as presentations of IgG4-related disease. IgG4+ plasma cells have been identified in colon tissue from patients with refractory forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The presence of elevated serum/tissue levels of IgG4 and the frequency of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in inflammatory bowel disease are still a source of controversy. Our aim was to investigate the meaning of elevated IgG4 levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods A cross-sectional study analyzed 56 patients with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease recruited by convenience sampling from two tertiary centers in Midwestern Brazil. All patients underwent fecal pancreatic elastase testing for detection of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and serum IgG4 measurement. Findings were correlated with clinical and epidemiological data and disease activity. Results Elevated serum IgG4 levels were found in 10 patients, and were most frequent in ulcerative colitis (nine cases), with a prevalence ratio of 16.42 (95% CI: 3.32 - 79.58). Ten patients (10 of 56, 17.8%) were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which did not correlate with disease activity, and serum IgG4 levels. Conclusion Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is prevalent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but it is not associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels. The high prevalence of elevated serum IgG4 in ulcerative colitis suggests that this parameter has potential for use as a diagnostic biomarker. PMID:27785293

  20. Different culture methods lead to differences in glycosylation of a murine IgG monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, T P; Parekh, R B; Moellering, B J; Prior, C P

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal IgG-1 was produced by culture of a murine hybridoma (3.8.6) by three different methods, namely culture in ascites, in serum-free media and in serum-supplemented media. IgG-1 was purified to homogeneity (as judged by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions) from each medium by ion-exchange chromatography and h.p.l.c. Protein A chromatography. Oligosaccharides were released from each IgG-1 preparation by hydrazinolysis and radiolabelled by reduction with alkaline sodium borotritide, and 'profile' analysis of the radiolabelled oligosaccharide alditols was performed by a combination of paper electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. This analysis indicated clear and reproducible differences in the glycosylation patterns of the three IgG-1 preparations. Sequential exoglycosidase analysis of individual oligosaccharides derived from each IgG-1 preparation was used to define these differences. Ascites-derived material differed from serum-free-culture-derived material only with respect to the content of sialic acid. IgG-1 derived from culture in serum-containing media had an intermediate sialic acid content and a lower incidence of outer-arm galactosylation than the other two preparations. These differences in glycosylation could not be induced in any IgG-1 preparation by incubating purified IgG-1 with ascites or culture medium. It is concluded that the glycosylation pattern of a secreted monoclonal IgG is dependent on the culture method employed to obtain it. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1497622

  1. IgG subclasses and DNA detection of HHV-6 and HHV-7 in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Patricia; Ferreyra, Leonardo; Sicilia, Paola; Carabajal, Claudia; Frattari, Susana; Littvik, Ana; Nates, Silvia; Pavan, Jorge

    2010-10-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) are common opportunistic agents in immunocompromised hosts, although infection with HHV-6 and HHV-7 can also be observed in immunocompetent hosts. Despite similar biology and epidemiology, this study evaluated differences in the IgG subclass distribution associated with HHV-6 and HHV-7 in seropositive, healthy persons. The identified subclasses were also compared with the detection of HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA. For these assays, sera, plasma, and saliva samples were obtained from 40 healthy blood donors in Argentina who were seropositive for both HHV-6 and HHV-7. HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA were detected in saliva and plasma samples using nested PCR, and specific IgG subclasses were determined using immunofluorescent assays of sera samples. HHV-7 DNA was detected in 90% of all plasma samples and in 100% of saliva samples. In contrast, HHV-6 DNA was not detected in any of the plasma samples, and it was detected in only 6 of 40 saliva samples. Determination of IgG subclass distributions showed that HHV-6 was restricted to IgG1, whereas HHV-7 IgG subclasses included two groups, one restricted only to IgG1 and the other to IgG1 and IgG3. These results demonstrate the differences between HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA range detection in saliva and plasma samples, as well as the IgG subclass patterns for each virus type, in healthy persons in Argentina.

  2. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD.

  3. Advanced analyses of kinetic stabilities of iggs modified by mutations and glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Sedlák, Erik; Schaefer, Jonas V; Marek, Jozef; Gimeson, Peter; Plückthun, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The stability of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) affects production, storage and usability, especially in the clinic. The complex thermal and isothermal transitions of IgGs, especially their irreversibilities, pose a challenge to the proper determination of parameters describing their thermodynamic and kinetic stability. Here, we present a reliable mathematical model to study the irreversible thermal denaturations of antibody variants. The model was applied to two unrelated IgGs and their variants with stabilizing mutations as well as corresponding non-glycosylated forms of IgGs and Fab fragments. Thermal denaturations of IgGs were analyzed with three transitions, one reversible transition corresponding to CH2 domain unfolding followed by two consecutive irreversible transitions corresponding to Fab and CH3 domains, respectively. The parameters obtained allowed us to examine the effects of these mutations on the stabilities of individual domains within the full-length IgG. We found that the kinetic stability of the individual Fab fragment is significantly lowered within the IgG context, possibly because of intramolecular aggregation upon heating, while the stabilizing mutations have an especially beneficial effect. Thermal denaturations of non-glycosylated variants of IgG consist of more than three transitions and could not be analyzed by our model. However, isothermal denaturations demonstrated that the lack of glycosylation affects the stability of all and not just of the CH2 domain, suggesting that the partially unfolded domains may interact with each other during unfolding. Investigating thermal denaturation of IgGs according to our model provides a valuable tool for detecting subtle changes in thermodynamic and/or kinetic stabilities of individual domains. PMID:25966898

  4. IgG4-Related Hypophysitis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Decker, Lauren; Crawford, Angela M; Lorenzo, Gamaliel; Stippler, Martina; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; SantaCruz, Karen

    2016-12-01

    IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare, inflammatory process of the pituitary that mimics more commonly seen pituitary tumors. We report a case of IgG4-related hypophysitis in a 16-year-old female with diabetes insipidus who was found to have IgG4-related hypophysitis based on tissue diagnosis. This entity has not been previously described in a pediatric patient. Recognition of certain inflammatory processes of the pituitary may lead to alternative means of diagnosis and medical management without a biopsy.

  5. IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: a laboratory correlate of disease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, K D; Hohmann, A W; Martin, A J; Bradley, J

    1988-01-01

    Serum was collected from 50 patients with cystic fibrosis, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, total IgE and Aspergillus specific IgE antibodies were measured in 41 of the 50. A close association was found between pulmonary function and clinical state, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus. There was no association between pulmonary function or clinical state and IgE antibodies. It is postulated that in patients with cystic fibrosis, Aspergillus fumigatus may contribute to deterioration in pulmonary function by local pathogenicity, or by hypersensitivity mechanisms mediated by IgG. PMID:3046514

  6. A circulating complex between ASAT and IgG in serum in an apparently healthy woman.

    PubMed

    Fex, G; Berntorp, K

    1987-04-15

    An elevated level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) activity in a subjectively healthy woman was shown to be due to circulating ASAT:IgG complexes. The complexes were demonstrated by taking advantage of the specific interaction between protein A and IgG. Thus, greater than 90% of the patient's ASAT activity in serum could be bound to protein A-Sepharose demonstrating that nearly all the patient's serum ASAT was complexed to IgG. The ASAT-binding capacity of patient serum was calculated as approximately 850 micrograms ASAT/l which corresponds to about 0.01% of patient's IgG.

  7. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe renal impairment associated with multisystem IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Rafael Coimbra Ferreira; Friderichs, Maurício; Fior, Bárbara Rayanne; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Silva, Dirceu Reis da; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Seligman, Renato; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo

    2016-01-01

    The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients. Resumo A doença relacionada à IgG4 tem um espectro clínico amplo em que múltiplos órgãos podem ser afetados, e o diagnóstico depende de achados histopatológicos típicos e elevada expressão de IgG4 em plasmócitos no tecido afetado. Descrevemos o quadro clínico e a evolução de um paciente com nefrite túbulo-intersticial aguda, insuficiência renal grave e manifestações sistêmicas como linfoadenomegalias e pancreatite crônica. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelas características clínicas e pela histopatologia renal e de linfonodo, na qual a imunohistoquímica mostrou tecido linfoide com policlonalidade e expressão aumentada de IgG4, com uma relação IgG4/IgG total > 80%. O paciente foi tratado com prednisona na dose de 60 mg/dia, seguido de micofenolato mofetil, e apresentou melhora clínica e da função renal depois de 6 meses de tratamento. O alto índice de suspeição da doença relacionada ao IgG4 com comprometimento multissist

  8. [Evaluation of serum IgG sub-classes in children with recurrent respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Mancini, S; Iacovoni, R; Fierimonte, V; Di Gilio, P; Spaini, A; Pichi, A

    1996-03-01

    Serum IgG sub-classes levels were measured by radial immunodiffusion with policlonal antibodies in 26 children aged 2 years to 8 years, affected with respiratory recurrent infections. These subjects were controlled and compared with normal children values for age groups. In 10 patients a deficit of IgG sub-classes levels was found, in 7 patients an increase level for IgG1 was detected. These data must be taken in account defining IgG-sub-classes deficiencies in children with respiratory recurrent infection.

  9. Distinct histopathological features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with respect to IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Zhou, Gengyin; Ozaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Eijun; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Bai, Yanhua; Liu, Zhiyan; Taniguchi, Emiko; Miyauchi, Akira; Kakudo, Kennichi

    2012-08-01

    A form of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing changes and increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells has recently been reported in the literature. These histopathological features suggest that this subtype of Hashimoto's thyroiditis may be closely related to IgG4-related disease. Therefore, this unique form of IgG4-related Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which is referred to as IgG4 thyroiditis, has its own clinical, serological, and sonographic features that are distinct from those associated with non-IgG4 thyroiditis. IgG4 thyroiditis shares similarities with the well-known fibrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis; however, the detailed histopathological features of IgG4 thyroiditis have not been well established. Based on immunostaining results, 105 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were divided into an IgG4 thyroiditis group (n=28) and a non-IgG4 thyroiditis group (n=77). As in our previous reports, IgG4 thyroiditis was associated with a patient population of a younger age, a lower female-to-male ratio, rapid progression, higher levels of thyroid autoantibodies, subclinical hypothyroidism, and diffuse sonographic echogenicity. Histopathologically, this group revealed severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, dense stromal fibrosis, marked follicular cell degeneration, numerous micro-follicles, and notable giant cell/histiocyte infiltration. Importantly, the IgG4-related group did not completely overlap with fibrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Four cases (14%) in the IgG4 thyroiditis group presented only mild fibrosis in the stroma, whereas 29 cases (38%) in the non-IgG4 thyroiditis group met the diagnostic criteria for fibrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Furthermore, we observed three patterns of stromal fibrosis in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: interfollicular fibrosis, interlobular fibrosis, and scar fibrosis. The IgG4 thyroiditis group was significantly associated with the presence of predominant interfollicular fibrosis. In

  10. IgG4-Related Hypophysitis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Lauren; Crawford, Angela M; Lorenzo, Gamaliel; Stippler, Martina; Konstantinov, Konstantin N

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare, inflammatory process of the pituitary that mimics more commonly seen pituitary tumors. We report a case of IgG4-related hypophysitis in a 16-year-old female with diabetes insipidus who was found to have IgG4-related hypophysitis based on tissue diagnosis. This entity has not been previously described in a pediatric patient. Recognition of certain inflammatory processes of the pituitary may lead to alternative means of diagnosis and medical management without a biopsy. PMID:28083451

  11. Development time of IgG antibodies to West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Danis, Kostas; Tsergouli, Katerina; Tsioka, Katerina; Gavana, Elpida

    2011-09-01

    Following an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in Greece during summer/autumn 2010, a study was conducted to investigate the patterns of WNV IgG reactivity in 255 patients with respect to the day of illness and the type of clinical syndrome. IgG antibodies were detectable after a mean of 8.1 ± 4.9 and 12.6 ± 11.3 days after onset of illness in neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive cases, respectively (p < 0.001), suggesting that a delay in the development of WNV IgG antibodies is seen in non-neuroinvasive cases.

  12. Detection of IgG rheumatoid factor by concanavalin A treatment and complement fixation with IgG rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, K; Moritoh, T; Azuma, T; Horiuchi, Y

    1976-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) froms precipitates with carbohydrate-rich protein such as IgM, IgD, IgE, and IgA. Since IgG contains little carbohydrate and does not react with Con A, the activity of IgG-rheumatoid factor (RF) can be measured in the supernate of the Con A-treated serum. When the latex fixation test (LFT) and the sensitized sheep cell agglutination test (SSCA) were perfromed in the supernate for the detection of IgG-RF, LFT was positive in 32-1% of sera, out of 137 sera originally positive for LFT, and SSCA was positive in 18-5% of sera, out of 119 sera originally positive for SSCA. IgG-RF exhibited lower complement fixing ability than IgM-RF and correlated with agglutination titres of IgG-RF, while the CH50 of the original serum did not correlate with haemolytic activities of either IgM-RF or IgG-RF. PMID:984904

  13. Quantification of IgG on erythrocytes of patients and normals by a radio-ligand-binding assay.

    PubMed

    Giles, C M; Davies, K A; Loizou, S; Moulds, J J; Walport, M J

    1991-12-01

    A monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG, 1B12, was used in a radio-ligand-binding assay to quantify IgG on erythrocytes of patients and normals. The assay detected a range of 10-700 IgG molecules. Good correlation was achieved between the number of molecules and the strength of agglutination in antiglobulin tests performed in capillary tubes. The assay was capable of detecting subagglutinating immune bound IgG on erythrocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

  14. An immunologic assessment of brain-associated IgG in senile cerebral amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Mangum, M; Powers, J M

    1984-09-01

    Frontal and occipital lobes were taken within four hours of death from four senile patients (77-94 years) and frozen at -70 degrees C. After thawing at room temperature, gray and white matter were separated and subjected to sequential elution at pH 7.4 and pH 2.5. The eluates were processed for isoelectric focusing on 2.5% polyacrylamide gels and stained with silver nitrate; immunoblotting was done on agarose gels and stained by immunoperoxidase for IgG and light chains. Quantitation of the amount of IgG present in neutral and acidic eluates was performed by immunonephelometry and ELISA. Only the neutral eluates contained significant amounts of IgG, which were usually polyclonal. These data indicate that IgG associated with senile cerebral amyloid are not bound to any brain or vascular component and the data do not support the occurrence of an intraparenchymal immune response.

  15. Some factors affecting precipitation and complex formation of an IgG cryoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Ulla-Britt; Lindström, Folke D.

    1973-01-01

    A patient with a monoclonal IgG kappa cryoglobulin presented with the purpura-arthralgia syndrome but showed no evidence of plasma cell myeloma. Cold exposure provoked hypocomplementaemia and increased urinary histamine excretion. A papular lesion provoked by cold exposure showed a vasculitis type lesion on biopsy. The cryoglobulin had a higher sedimentation rate, twice as many sulphydryl groups and a markedly lower content of sialic acid, than the non-cryo IgG from the same patient. On cryoprecipitation the monoclonal cryoglobulin preferentially interacted with autologous non-cryo IgG forming intermediate type, 9S IgG–11S IgG complexes. This was thought to depend in part on rheumatoid factor activity of the cryoglobulin. The effect on cryoprecipitation of various low molecular weight substances was studied. PMID:4199093

  16. Immunoglobulin-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. Binding of agaropectin and heparin by human IgG proteins

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of immunoglobulins with certain acidic polysaccharides was demonstrated by the binding of the sulfated glycans agaropectin and heparin by certain human IgG proteins. Heparin-binding IgG proteins can distinguish between the molecular forms of heparin derived from porcine intestine, bovine lung, and rat skin. The major specificity of these proteins is for native and certain high molecular weight subunit components of rat skin heparin. The interactions with multi-chain and single chain rat skin heparin are stable under physiological conditions and involve the Fab and, more specifically, the Fv region of the IgG molecule. These reactions occur as a result of an electrostatic interaction between cationic sites on certain IgG proteins and anionic sulfate resides of agaropectin or heparin. The characteristics of heparin-IgG interaction resemble those of heparin with other plasma proteins, the interactions of which have biological significance. PMID:7252414

  17. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules.

  18. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules. PMID:25517300

  19. The Emerging Importance of IgG Fab Glycosylation in Immunity.

    PubMed

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Rispens, Theo; Rombouts, Yoann

    2016-02-15

    Human IgG is the most abundant glycoprotein in serum and is crucial for protective immunity. In addition to conserved IgG Fc glycans, ∼15-25% of serum IgG contains glycans within the variable domains. These so-called "Fab glycans" are primarily highly processed complex-type biantennary N-glycans linked to N-glycosylation sites that emerge during somatic hypermutation. Specific patterns of Fab glycosylation are concurrent with physiological and pathological conditions, such as pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis. With respect to function, Fab glycosylation can significantly affect stability, half-life, and binding characteristics of Abs and BCRs. Moreover, Fab glycans are associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of IVIgs. Consequently, IgG Fab glycosylation appears to be an important, yet poorly understood, process that modulates immunity.

  20. Clinical review of pulmonary manifestations of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sabrina N; Rubio, Edmundo; Loschner, A Lukas

    2014-11-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic disease characterized by tumefactive lesions in various organ systems. The list of organs that can be involved continues to expand, and recently computed tomography (CT) descriptions of the pulmonary lesions found in the disease have been described. The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and may include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and fever. The appropriate clinical presentation along with elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and pathologic evidence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis is consistent with the disease. Steroids are used to treat this disease in addition to immunosupressives such as cyclosporine or rituxumab for steroid refractory disease. The pulmonary manifestations and imaging features can often mimic malignancy, and as such knowledge of the diagnostic, clinicopathologic, and radiographic features of the disease is required in order to provide appropriate diagnostic workup and treatment.

  1. IgG4-related cholecystitis presenting as biliary malignancy: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Feely, Michael M; Gonzalo, David H; Corbera, Montserrat; Hughes, Steven J; Trevino, Jose G

    2014-09-01

    An increased awareness of IgG4-related diseases has led to an escalation in the number of sites known to be involved by this fibroinflammatory disease. We report three cases of IgG4-related cholecystitis which were thought to represent biliary malignancies both clinically and radiographically. All three cases underwent surgery tailored towards presumed malignant neoplasms. Only following pathologic examination was the true nature of the disease identified. Recognition of the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic presentation of IgG4-related cholecystitis is essential for the consideration of this disease process prior to surgical management for suspected gallbladder malignancies. However, the pre-operative diagnosis remains challenging and extensive surgical intervention is often necessary given the distressing presentation of IgG4-related cholecystitis.

  2. IgG1 variations in the colostrum of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Le Cozler, Y; Guatteo, R; Le Dréan, E; Turban, H; Leboeuf, F; Pecceu, K; Guinard-Flament, J

    2016-02-01

    High-immune quality colostrum (IgG1 concentration ⩾50 g/l) is crucial for the health and development of the young calf. Studies on colostrum quality tend to focus on external factors such as breed, parity or dry period length, but few have focused on within-cow variations. Here we ran experiments to gain a deeper insight into within-cow variation in IgG1 concentrations in dairy cow colostrum. Trials were performed in an experimental farm, located in the Western part of France. Colostrum from each quarter and a composite sample (mix of four quarters) were concomitantly collected on 77 Holstein dairy cows just after calving to assess the influence of sample type on IgG1 concentrations. Variation in IgG1 concentrations during the first milking was studied on samples from nine cows collected every minute from the start of milking. Repeatability of colostral IgG1 concentration was estimated from 2009 and 2010 data on 16 healthy cows. IgG1 concentrations were tested using a radial immunodiffusion method. Sensitivity and specificity were similar regardless of sample type tested (individual quarter or composite milk). Mean average IgG1 concentration was 54.1 g/l in composite colostrum, and was significantly higher in hind quarter teats (56.2 g/l) than front quarter teats (53.1 g/l). Average IgG1 concentration did not change significantly during colostrum milking, and the variations observed (15% or less) were likely due to the laboratory method (CV 15%). IgG1 concentrations in dam colostrum increased slightly from 2009 to 2010 due to BW and parity effects. In 56% of cases, colostrum quality could have been assessed on either individual or composite colostrum samples collected at any time during the first milking without affecting the reliability of the measurement. However, in other cases, differences were significant enough to mean that estimates of average IgG1 concentration in colostrum from any one quarter would not be reliable. It is concluded that colostrum quality

  3. Recombinant AAV Vectors for Enhanced Expression of Authentic IgG

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sebastian P.; Martinez-Navio, José M.; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. Muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against AIDS viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. Here we examined a number of variations to AAV vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules. Expression of rhesus IgG from a single single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) vector (one vector approach) was compared to expression from two self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, one for heavy chain and one for light chain (two vector approach). Both the one vector and the two vector approaches yielded considerable levels of expressed full-length IgG. A number of modifications to the ssAAV expression system were then examined for their ability to increase the efficiency of IgG expression. Inclusion of a furin cleavage sequence with a linker peptide just upstream of the 2A self-cleaving sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A) increased IgG expression approximately 2 fold. Inclusion of these sequences also helped to ensure a proper sequence at the C-terminal end of the heavy chain. Inclusion of the post-transcriptional regulatory element from woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE) further increased IgG expression 1.5–2.0 fold. IgG1 versions of the two rhesus IgGs that were examined consistently expressed better than the IgG2 forms. In contrast to what has been reported for AAV2-mediated expression of other proteins, introduction of capsid mutations Y445F and Y731F did not increase ssAAV1-mediated expression of IgG as determined by transduction experiments in cell culture. Our findings provide a rational basis for AAV vector design for expression of authentic IgG. PMID:27332822

  4. Recombinant AAV Vectors for Enhanced Expression of Authentic IgG.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Sebastian P; Martinez-Navio, José M; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. Muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against AIDS viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. Here we examined a number of variations to AAV vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules. Expression of rhesus IgG from a single single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) vector (one vector approach) was compared to expression from two self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, one for heavy chain and one for light chain (two vector approach). Both the one vector and the two vector approaches yielded considerable levels of expressed full-length IgG. A number of modifications to the ssAAV expression system were then examined for their ability to increase the efficiency of IgG expression. Inclusion of a furin cleavage sequence with a linker peptide just upstream of the 2A self-cleaving sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A) increased IgG expression approximately 2 fold. Inclusion of these sequences also helped to ensure a proper sequence at the C-terminal end of the heavy chain. Inclusion of the post-transcriptional regulatory element from woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE) further increased IgG expression 1.5-2.0 fold. IgG1 versions of the two rhesus IgGs that were examined consistently expressed better than the IgG2 forms. In contrast to what has been reported for AAV2-mediated expression of other proteins, introduction of capsid mutations Y445F and Y731F did not increase ssAAV1-mediated expression of IgG as determined by transduction experiments in cell culture. Our findings provide a rational basis for AAV vector design for expression of authentic IgG.

  5. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients’ IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  6. Lupus vulgaris in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and persistent IgG deficiency.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, N; Duman, M; Sonel, B; Peksari, Y; Erdem, C; Tokgöz, G

    1997-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed a persistent, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia with IgG deficiency. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was probably a complication of high dose corticosteroid treatment. The serum IgG level remained subnormal despite intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Lupus vulgaris, which developed on the nasal cartilage in this patient with SLE, is not an expected finding. This patient is probably the first reported case of SLE associated with lupus vulgaris.

  7. Specific IgG for cat allergens in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Miyama, Anri; Mimura, Tatsuya; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Saito, Yusuke; Okuma, Hiroko; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in type II and type III hypersensitivity. We evaluated the relation between perennial allergic conjunctivitis and serum levels of specific IgG for cat allergens. A prospective study was conducted in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (seasonal group, n = 10), patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (perennial group, n = 10), and healthy control subjects (control group, n = 10). Serum levels of specific IgE and IgG for cat allergens and total tear IgE were measured, and a skin prick test was also performed. In addition, a severity score associated with allergic conjunctivitis was calculated (0-30). The positive rates and scores of for total tear IgE, serum cat-specific IgE, and serum cat-specific IgG were all higher in the seasonal and perennial groups than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Serum cat-specific IgG levels were higher in the perennial group than in the seasonal group (p = 0.0156), but there was no significant difference in the grade of cat-specific IgE between the two groups (p = 0.3008). On multivariate analysis, the mean wheal diameter for cat allergen was associated with the serum level of cat-specific IgG (not IgE) in all patients [odds ratio (OR) = 31.979, p < 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total objective score was strongly associated with serum cat-specific IgG (OR = 23.015, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that specific IgG antibodies may be involved in perennial allergic symptoms caused by indoor allergens such as cat allergens.

  8. Association between IgG4-related disease and progressively transformed germinal centers of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuharu; Inoue, Dai; Asano, Naoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Asaoku, Hideki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Morito, Toshiaki; Okumura, Hirokazu; Ishizawa, Shin; Matsui, Shoko; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Kuroda, Naoto; Orita, Yorihisa; Takagawa, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Masaru; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2012-07-01

    Progressively transformed germinal centers is a benign condition of unknown pathogenesis characterized by a distinctive variant form of reactive follicular hyperplasia in lymph nodes. We recently reported Ig G4-related disease in progressively transformed germinal centers. However, no large case series has been reported and clinicopathologic findings remain unclear. Here, we report 40 Japanese patients (28 men, 12 women; median age, 56 years) with progressively transformed germinal centers of the lymph nodes who fulfilled the histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease (IgG4(+) progressively transformed germinal centers), with asymptomatic localized lymphadenopathy involving the submandibular nodes in 24, submandibular and cervical nodes in 14, cervical nodes only in 1, and cervical and supraclavicular nodes in 1. In all, 16 (52%) of 31 examined patients had allergic disease. Histologically, the lymph nodes demonstrated uniform histological findings, namely marked follicular hyperplasia with progressively transformed germinal centers, and localization of the majority of IgG4(+) plasma cells in the germinal centers. Serum IgG4, serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils were elevated in 87%, 92% and 53% of examined patients, respectively. Eighteen patients subsequently developed extranodal lesions (including five who developed systemic disease), which on histological examination were consistent with IgG4-related disease. IgG4(+) progressively transformed germinal centers presents with uniform clinicopathological features of asymptomatic localized submandibular lymphadenopathy, which persists and/or relapses, and sometimes progresses to extranodal lesions or systemic disease. Nine patients were administered steroid therapy when the lesions progressed, to which all responded well. We suggest that IgG4(+) progressively transformed germinal centers should be included in the IgG4-related disease spectrum.

  9. [IgG4 associated nephritis and recurrent hemoptysis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Erlij, Daniel; Rivera, Ángela; Maya, Juan Carlos; Cuellar, Carolina; Correa, Gonzalo; Michalland, Susana; Méndez, Gonzalo P

    2017-01-01

    IgG4 disease is a multi-systemic condition involving pancreas, salivary glands and lymph nodes. Less frequently, it causes interstitial nephritis and involves the lungs. We report a 58 years old male with a four years history of hemoptysis and renal dysfunction characterized by hematuria and proteinuria, responsive to steroidal therapy. The renal biopsy established the diagnosis of IgG4 associated interstitial nephritis. Lung involvement was considered secondary to the same systemic disease.

  10. Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis: morphology and evaluation of its relationship to IgG4 related disease.

    PubMed

    Karram, Sarah; Kao, Chia-Sui; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Ulbright, Thomas M; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis (IGO) is rare, thought to result from an autoimmune reaction to spermatogenic elements. Its relationship to IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has not been evaluated. Sixteen orchiectomy specimens (1984-2012) with a prominent intratubular granulomatous reaction were reviewed: IGO (n = 6); intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU) with a granulomatous reaction and associated seminoma (GS, n = 6); and unclassified intratubular granulomatous orchitis not fitting into a specific entity (UGO, n = 4). Men with IGO were 32 to 86 years old, presenting with a mass suspicious for malignancy. Only one patient had a history of an inflammatory disease. Clinical follow-up was available for 2 patients with IGO, and both had no evidence of systemic IgG4-RD. All IGO cases had an epithelioid granulomatous reaction confined to seminiferous tubules, an extensive interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, 3 of 6 had prominent interstitial fibrosis, and 3 of 6 cases had plasma cells with an IgG4+/IgG+ ratio >40%. In GS, 10% to 100% of tubules with IGCNU had a granulomatous reaction, which in 3 cases replaced IGCNU cells. In contrast to IGO, GS had more intratubular multinucleated giant cells, more peritubular sclerosis, fewer interstitial plasma cells, and no interstitial fibrosis. Of the 4 UGO cases, most had predominantly interstitial with less intratubular granulomatous inflammation. Only 1 non-IGO case had elevated tissue IgG4 (GS case). It is critical and sometimes difficult to distinguish GS from IGO. IGO shares some features with IgG4-RD, yet current evidence does not support its classification as a localized manifestation of IgG4-RD occurring in the testis.

  11. Hypogalactosylation of serum IgG in patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    HOLLAND, M; TAKADA, K; OKUMOTO, T; TAKAHASHI, N; KATO, K; ADU, D; BEN-SMITH, A; HARPER, L; SAVAGE, C O S; JEFFERIS, R

    2002-01-01

    The triad of small vessel vasculitides (SVV) comprise Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and Churg–Strauss syndrome (CS). All three are associated with presence of circulating IgG antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) which target autoantigens contained, primarily, within neutrophil azurophilic granules. The widely accepted model of pathogenesis suggests that ANCA activate cytokine-primed neutrophils within the microvasculature, leading to by-stander damage to endothelial cells, and rapid escalation of inflammation with recruitment of mononuclear cells. Activation may be initiated, in vitro, by the coligation of the PR3 or MPO antigen, translocated to the cell surface, and FcγRIIa/FcγRIIIb receptors. This suggests that the IgG subclass profile of ANCA and, possibly, its glycosylation status could influence the inflammatory mechanisms activated. The glycosylation status of total IgG isolated from the sera of patients with WG (13), MPA (6) and CSS (1) was determined by analysis of the released oligosaccharides. A deficit in IgG galactosylation is demonstrated for all patient samples, compared to controls. The mean percentage values for the agalactosylated (G0) oligosaccharides were 57% (SD ± 9·71), 47% (SD ± 4·25) and 28% (SD ± 4·09) for WG, MPO and control samples, respectively. The G0 levels for polyclonal IgG isolated from the sera of both WG and MPA patients were significantly increased compared to controls (P < 0·0001). The major glycoform present therefore is agalactosylated (G0) IgG. In previous studies the G0 glycoform of IgG has been shown to bind and activate mannan binding lectin, and hence to activate the complement cascade, and to facilitate mannose receptor binding and the uptake of IgG complexes by macrophages and dendritic cells. Both of these activities could impact on the processing and presentation of self-antigens in autoimmune disease. PMID:12100039

  12. Oxidative Stress and IgG Antibody Modify Periodontitis-CRP Association.

    PubMed

    Singer, R E; Moss, K; Kim, S J; Beck, J D; Offenbacher, S

    2015-12-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated the inverse association of high serum 8-isoprostane levels, a marker for oxidative stress, with decreased serum IgG antibodies to oral bacteria. The association between increased serum IgG with increased plaque and periodontitis (increased probing depths) was attenuated by high systemic oxidative stress. Other investigations have reported a role for systemic oxidative stress as a stimulus of hepatic C-reactive protein (CRP) response. These observations led us to hypothesize that the reported relationship of periodontitis to elevated serum CRP, a systemic inflammatory marker, may be modified by oxidative stress and that the levels of serum antibodies to oral bacteria might be an intermediary explanatory variable linking the association of systemic oxidative stress, periodontal disease, and levels of CRP. This hypothesis was explored as a secondary analysis of the Dental ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study using serum levels of CRP, serum IgG levels to 16 oral organisms, serum levels of 8-isoprostane, and periodontal status. The findings indicate periodontitis is associated with high CRP in the presence of elevated oxidative stress that serves to suppress the IgG response. Only within the highest 8-isoprostane quartile was periodontitis (pocket depth) associated with increased serum CRP levels (P = 0.0003). Increased serum IgG antibody levels to oral bacteria were associated with lowered serum CRP levels. Thus, systemic oxidative stress, which has been demonstrated to be associated with increased levels of CRP in other studies, appears to be associated with the suppression of bacterial-specific IgG levels, which in the presence of periodontal disease can result in an enhanced systemic CRP response. Conversely, individuals with increased serum IgG antibodies to plaque bacteria exhibit lowered serum CRP levels. These 2 factors, oxidative stress and the serum IgG response, appear to function in opposing directions to

  13. IgG Subclasses and Isotypes of VH4-34 Encoded Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Neelima M; Kshirsagar, Mihir A; Bieber, Marcia M; Teng, Nelson N H

    2015-01-01

    VH4-34 gene encoded autoantibodies are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in other diseases associated with B-cell hyperproliferation/dysfunction. One of the autoantigens recognized by VH4-34-encoded antibodies are branched/linear poly N-acetyl lactosamine chains. Since the anti-carbohydrate response in humans is dominated by the IgG2 subclass, here we tested whether VH4-34 encoded IgG showed similar subclass segregation. Serum samples from SLE, infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and hepatitis-C were analyzed. Levels of VH4-34-encoded IgM and IgA isotypes were also tested. VH4-34-IgM and IgA were elevated in all four clinical conditions. VH4-34-IgG was detected in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclass but not in the IgG2 and IgG4 subclass. Interestingly, VH4-34-IgG3 was also detected in serum samples of normal healthy adults. These observations are discussed in context of the VH4-34 gene regulation. VH4-34 repertoire development is of interest since it is the only human VH gene profoundly overrepresented in the naïve repertoire but counter-selected for antibody secretion. VH4-34 B-cell could thus become a unique tool to inspect germinal center independent/dependent pathways of subclass and isotype-specific antibody secretion.

  14. IgG4-related disease with cutaneous manifestations treated with rituximab: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Chris; Prince, H Miles; McCormack, Chris; Lade, Stephen; Cheah, Chan Y

    2014-05-01

    Immunoglobulin type gamma 4 (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a relatively recently described clinical entity characterised by elevated levels of serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells in various organ systems. Cutaneous involvement is rare but is becoming increasingly appreciated; typically presenting as erythematous papules and/or nodules that are commonly pruritic. We report a case of IgG4-RD presenting with persistent pruritic papules and unilateral parotid swelling. His serum IgG4 level was elevated and a histological examination of his skin biopsies found a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an excess of IgG4+ non-clonal plasma cells. The patient was intolerant of oral prednisolone, however complete resolution of the cutaneous lesions was achieved with the anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab.

  15. Distribution of nominal and latent IgG (Gm) allotypes in plaques of multiple sclerosis brain.

    PubMed

    Salier, J P; Glynn, P; Goust, J M; Cuzner, M L

    1983-12-01

    Concentrations of IgG allotypes G1m(1), G1m(3) and G3m(11) in neutral pH eluates from discrete plaques of multiple sclerosis (MS) brain and from white matter of control brain were determined to obtain information about distribution of B cell clones among MS lesions. Within each MS brain a predominant nominal IgG1 allotype was distributed rather homogeneously in all plaques while quantitatively minor allotypes showed some fluctuation. Latent IgG1 allotypes were detected (7-12% of the corresponding nominal allotype level) in some tissue eluates from both MS and control brains, which were homozygous for either G1m(1) or G1m(3). By contrast, the expression of a latent IgG3 allotype, namely G3m(11), was apparently MS restricted. Large amounts of latent allotypes were detected only in recent plaques with lymphoid cells whereas the distribution of total plaque associated IgGs did not correlate with the presence of lymphoid cells. Latent allotypes in recent MS lesions may mark a transient immunological activity which coincides with the infiltration of lymphoid cells and precedes the appearance in these plaques of oligoclonal IgGs, the distribution of which may parallel that of the predominant nominal allotypes.

  16. Distribution of nominal and latent IgG (Gm) allotypes in plaques of multiple sclerosis brain.

    PubMed Central

    Salier, J P; Glynn, P; Goust, J M; Cuzner, M L

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of IgG allotypes G1m(1), G1m(3) and G3m(11) in neutral pH eluates from discrete plaques of multiple sclerosis (MS) brain and from white matter of control brain were determined to obtain information about distribution of B cell clones among MS lesions. Within each MS brain a predominant nominal IgG1 allotype was distributed rather homogeneously in all plaques while quantitatively minor allotypes showed some fluctuation. Latent IgG1 allotypes were detected (7-12% of the corresponding nominal allotype level) in some tissue eluates from both MS and control brains, which were homozygous for either G1m(1) or G1m(3). By contrast, the expression of a latent IgG3 allotype, namely G3m(11), was apparently MS restricted. Large amounts of latent allotypes were detected only in recent plaques with lymphoid cells whereas the distribution of total plaque associated IgGs did not correlate with the presence of lymphoid cells. Latent allotypes in recent MS lesions may mark a transient immunological activity which coincides with the infiltration of lymphoid cells and precedes the appearance in these plaques of oligoclonal IgGs, the distribution of which may parallel that of the predominant nominal allotypes. PMID:6606512

  17. Guiding bispecific monovalent antibody formation through proteolysis of IgG1 single-chain.

    PubMed

    Dimasi, Nazzareno; Fleming, Ryan; Sachsenmeier, Kris F; Bezabeh, Binyam; Hay, Carl; Wu, Jincheng; Sult, Erin; Rajan, Saravanan; Zhuang, Li; Cariuk, Peter; Buchanan, Andrew; Bowen, Michael A; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou

    2017-04-01

    We developed an IgG1 domain-tethering approach to guide the correct assembly of 2 light and 2 heavy chains, derived from 2 different antibodies, to form bispecific monovalent antibodies in IgG1 format. We show here that assembling 2 different light and heavy chains by sequentially connecting them with protease-cleavable polypeptide linkers results in the generation of monovalent bispecific antibodies that have IgG1 sequence, structure and functional properties. This approach was used to generate a bispecific monovalent antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor and the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor that: 1) can be produced and purified using standard IgG1 techniques; 2) exhibits stability and structural features comparable to IgG1; 3) binds both targets simultaneously; and 4) has potent anti-tumor activity. Our strategy provides new engineering opportunities for bispecific antibody applications, and, most importantly, overcomes some of the limitations (e.g., half-antibody and homodimer formation, light chains mispairing, multi-step purification), inherent with some of the previously described IgG1-based bispecific monovalent antibodies.

  18. Embryo-fetal distribution of a biopharmaceutical IgG2 during rat organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, C J; King, L E; Stedman, D B

    2012-08-01

    Embryo-fetal biodistribution of a maternally administered humanized IgG2 in rats was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in dose response and time course studies. Fetal and maternal plasma IgG2 levels increased with dose from 10 to 300mg/kg but fetal:maternal ratio decreased with increasing dose. Plasma IgG2 levels decreased in fetal rat with increasing time post-dose but more slowly than maternal levels. This difference in post-dose kinetics resulted in an increased fetal:maternal ratio with increasing days since last dose. Lastly, IgG2 in embryo-fetal tissue was detected at very low levels on gestation day (GD) 10-12 and levels increased over 100-fold by GD 17. The profile of increasing IgG2 levels as gestation progressed continued in extra-embryonic fluid (GD 12-19) until the end of gestation in fetal plasma (GD 19-21). Based on the current study, there is a potential for direct effects on rat embryo-fetal development following maternal administration of a biopharmaceutical IgG2.

  19. Enhancement of anti-OVA IgG2c production in vivo by enalapril.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L C; Muraro, L S; Albuquerque, D A

    2016-07-11

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have non-hemodynamic, pleiotropic effects on the immune response. The effects of ACE inhibitors on the production of cytokines and T-cell functions are well established. However, little is known on the effects of these medicines on humoral response to foreign antigens. In this study, we investigated the effect of enalapril treatment on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG1 and IgG2c production in mice determined by ELISA. Two groups of 8-week-old C57BL/6 females mice (3-4/group) were subcutaneously immunized with OVA (10 μg/animal) in presence of Alhydrogel (1 mg/mouse) and boosted at day 21. The mice were treated with enalapril (5 mg/kg daily, po) or were left without treatment for one month. The animals were bled from the orbital plexus on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the first immunization and the sera were stored at -20°C until usage. OVA-specific serum IgG1 and IgG2c were determined by ELISA using serum from each individual animal. The results showed that enalapril significantly increased anti-OVA serum IgG2c in the secondary response without affecting IgG1 synthesis. These data expand our understanding on the properties of enalapril on the immune response, including antibody production.

  20. [IgG4-related kidney disease: what the nephrologist needs to know].

    PubMed

    Galeano, Dario; Zanoli, Luca; Scarfia, Viviana Rosalia; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; Malatino, Lorenzo; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Granata, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    IgG4 related disease is a systemic fibro-inflammatory disorder characterized by multiple organ and multiple tissue lesions. The real pathogenesis is currentlyactually unknown. For these reasons many authors compare IgG4 related disease to sarcoidosis. Lesions are often localized in the pancreas, salivary and lacrimal glands, biliary ducts, retroperitoneum and in many other organs. The diagnosisis difficult because of mild symptoms and the possibility of mimicking other severe diseases. Therefore, histopathology together with clinical and radiological typical findings are mandatory tools for diagnosis. Steroidtherapy usually enables disappearance of tumor like lesions and complete recovery. Kidney has an extensive organ involvement in the contextof IgG4-related disease. Historically, tubule - interstitial nephritis(TIN) is considered the main renal feature of renal lesions, however recent studies extend the spectrum of renal lesions also to glomerular tuft. These findings allow to introduce in the nosography the term of IgG4related kidney disease (IgG4 RKD). This review focuses on renal involvement in IgG4related disease, in order to help nephrologists to improve their clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this emerging pleiotropic clinical pattern.

  1. Enhancement of anti-OVA IgG2c production in vivo by enalapril

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, L.C.; Muraro, L.S.; Albuquerque, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have non-hemodynamic, pleiotropic effects on the immune response. The effects of ACE inhibitors on the production of cytokines and T-cell functions are well established. However, little is known on the effects of these medicines on humoral response to foreign antigens. In this study, we investigated the effect of enalapril treatment on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG1 and IgG2c production in mice determined by ELISA. Two groups of 8-week-old C57BL/6 females mice (3–4/group) were subcutaneously immunized with OVA (10 μg/animal) in presence of Alhydrogel (1 mg/mouse) and boosted at day 21. The mice were treated with enalapril (5 mg/kg daily, po) or were left without treatment for one month. The animals were bled from the orbital plexus on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the first immunization and the sera were stored at –20°C until usage. OVA-specific serum IgG1 and IgG2c were determined by ELISA using serum from each individual animal. The results showed that enalapril significantly increased anti-OVA serum IgG2c in the secondary response without affecting IgG1 synthesis. These data expand our understanding on the properties of enalapril on the immune response, including antibody production. PMID:27409332

  2. Reverse single radial immunodiffusion for estimation of titre of anti IgG antibody.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Y S; Kulkarni, C; Pande, S; Dhanvijay, A G; Shrikhande, A V; Saoji, A M

    1993-05-01

    Reverse Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) for estimating titre of anti IgG antisera is reported. Unlike the conventional radial immunodiffusion, the antigen (IgG) is held immobile in the gel while the antibody (Anti IgG) diffuses radially from the well (7 microliters) and the diameter of the resulting immuneprecipitates after immunodiffusion at 4 degrees C for 24 hr, represents a linear correlation with the antibody titre. The procedure was standardised by an extensive trial and error employing different concentrations of human IgG in the gel (60-240 micrograms) against varying dilutions of the standard antibody (titre: 3.8 mg/ml). The best results were obtained at 80 micrograms of IgG in the gel. The locally raised rabbit anti IgG antisera displayed a distinctive titre pattern under optimised conditions. Technical reproducibility, high-sensitivity threshold (0.25 mg/ml), simultaneous visual scrutiny of several antibody batches at a glance and ability to assess the shelf life of the stored antisera are its distinct assets.

  3. A Case of IgG4-Related Hypophysitis Presented with Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Harano, Yumi; Honda, Kazufumi; Akiyama, Yurika; Kotajima, Lisa; Arioka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related systemic syndrome is a recently described entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Pituitary gland can be involved as hypophysitis. We report a case of a 72-year-old man, who presented with general fatigue and weakness. Laboratory tests revealed diabetes insipidus as well as hypopituitarism including adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism. His serum IgG4 was elevated. MR images showed enlargement of the pituitary stalk. Multiple nodules in bilateral kidneys were pointed out in the abdominal CT. Histological examination of the nodules showed increased IgG4-positive plasma cells. We diagnosed him with IgG4-related kidney disease and hypophysitis. After treatment with hydrocortisone, his symptoms improved. The follow-up images showed that almost all renal nodules disap-peared and his pituitary stalk was shrinking. Our case appears to be very sensitive to glucocorticoid and suggests the possibility of treating IgG4-related hypophysitis successfully with a lower dose of glucocorticoid.

  4. The Pathology of IgG4-Related Disease in the Bile Duct and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Zen, Yoh

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the pancreatobiliary system manifests as sclerosing cholangitis (SC), hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The pathology of IgG4-RD involves an inflammatory process and fibrogenic pathway, the combination of which damages the affected organs. Fibroinflammatory injury is characterized by three microscopic findings: a diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, obliterative phlebitis, and storiform fibrosis. Although the diagnosis of IgG4-related pancreatocholangitis is relatively straightforward in surgical specimens, the current clinical requirement is to diagnose patients using biopsy samples, which remains challenging. Histological differential diagnoses include primary SC, follicular cholangitis/pancreatitis, SC with granulocytic epithelial lesions, and type 2 AIP. Although the massive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is a histological hallmark of IgG4-RD, many other immune cells (e.g., Th2 lymphocytes, regulatory T cells, and M2 macrophages) appear to be strongly involved in orchestral immune reactions.

  5. Application of Food-specific IgG Antibody Detection in Allergy Dermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Yine, Hu; Shufang, Dai; Bin, Wang; Wei, Qu; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Junling, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The application of food-specific IgG antibody detection in allergy dermatoses was explored. 181 patients with allergy dermatoses were diagnosed from January to September 2014 and 20 healthy subjects were selected. Fourteen kinds of food-specific IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA method among all the subjects. The positive rates of IgG antibody of the patient group and the healthy group were respectively 65.2% and 5.0%. The positive rates of IgG antibody of egg, milk, shrimp and crab took a large proportion in three groups of patients with three kinds of allergy dermatoses of urticaria, eczema and allergic dermatitis, the proportion of which was respectively 70.2%, 77.8% and 71.7%. Among urticaria and allergic dermatitis patients with positive antibody, the positive rate of children was significantly higher than that of adults (p<0.05) while there was no significant difference between children and adults among eczema patients with positive antibody (p>0.05). Allergy dermatoses are closely related to food-specific IgG antibodies, and the allergy dermatoses patients have a high incidence rate of food intolerance; detecting IgG antibody in the serum of patients is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy dermatoses.

  6. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula.

    PubMed

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease.

  7. Cardiac Mass, Aortic Intramural Hematoma, and IgG4-related Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Luocheng; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Peng; Ruan, Yongle; Jiang, Wanli; Wu, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    As a designated entity within medicine, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is relatively new. It is immune-mediated origin, characterized by a tendency for formation of tumefactive lesions, the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and frequent but not invariable elevations of IgG4 levels in the serum. IgG4-related cardiac mass accompanying aortic intramural hematoma is an extremely rare clinical presentation. Herein we present the case of a patient who was admitted to our department complaining of severe chest pain. Computed tomographic angiography examination revealed a cardiac mass accompanying an aortic intramural hematoma. He underwent a surgical resection of the cardiac mass and a replacement of the ascending aorta with Hemashield Platinum graft and made an uneventful recovery. A diagnosis of an IgG4-related disease was made based on laboratory results and pathological examination. Corticosteroids were administered postoperatively. This case shows that the heart itself can also be a potential site for IgG4-related disease.

  8. Active immunity induced by passive IgG post-exposure protection against ricin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Charles Chen; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Hu, Wei-Gang

    2014-01-21

    Therapeutic antibodies can confer an instant protection against biothreat agents when administered. In this study, intact IgG and F(ab')2 from goat anti-ricin hyperimmune sera were compared for the protection against lethal ricin mediated intoxication. Similar ricin-binding affinities and neutralizing activities in vitro were observed between IgG and F(ab')2 when compared at the same molar concentration. In a murine ricin intoxication model, both IgG and F(ab')2 could rescue 100% of the mice by one dose (3 nmol) administration of antibodies 1 hour after 5 × LD50 ricin challenge. Nine days later, when the rescued mice received a second ricin challenge (5 × LD50), only the IgG-treated mice survived; the F(ab')2-treated mice did not. The experimental design excluded the possibility of residual goat IgG responsible for the protection against the second ricin challenge. Results confirmed that the active immunity against ricin in mice was induced quickly following the passive delivery of a single dose of goat IgG post-exposure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the induced active immunity against ricin in mice lasted at least 5 months. Therefore, passive IgG therapy not only provides immediate protection to the victim after ricin exposure, but also elicits an active immunity against ricin that subsequently results in long term protection.

  9. IgG dimers in multidonor-derived immunoglobulins: aspects of generation and function.

    PubMed

    Gronski, P

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates for therapeutic purposes, like passive immunotherapy, supplementation in inherited or acquired deficiencies or immunomodulation, are prepared from multidonor-derived plasma pools. They usually contain varying amounts of dimeric IgG. The essential factor influencing dimer formation is the pool size; in addition, molecular properties of IgG and a variety of production process- and formulation-specific parameters are important. Numerous experimental findings suggest that dimers are predominantly generated by interactions of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ids, anti-Ids). Ab-inherent crossreactivity, frequency distribution of both the affinities for particular Id-anti-Id interactions and the corresponding dimer concentrations still have to be elucidated. All these parameters influencing molecular features and functional activity of IgG dimers hamper the assay-dependent measurement of biological efficacy and correlation of total IgG content. A more detailed understanding may help to better control the dual nature of dimer-dependent biological activity comprising both undesirable (e.g., hypotension) and desirable effects of dimeric IgG (blockade of the reticuloendothelial system, RES, in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, ITP). These effects are detectable in in vitro and in vivo models and are thought to be of relevance for humans.

  10. Optimizing IgG Therapy in Chronic Autoimmune Neuropathies: A Hypothesis Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Melvin; Allen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is used for the chronic autoimmune neuropathies chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy, but the doses and treatment intervals are usually chosen empirically due to a paucity of data from dose–response studies. Recent studies of the electrophysiology and immunology of these diseases suggest that antibody-induced reversible dysfunction of nodes of Ranvier may play a role in conduction block and disability which responds to immunotherapy more rapidly than would be expected for demyelination or axonal damage per se. Clinical reports suggest that in some cases, the effects of each dose of IVIG may be transient, wearing-off before the next dose is due. These observations lead us to hypothesize that that therapeutic IgG acts by competing with pathologic autoantibodies and that individual patients may require different IgG levels for optimal therapeutic effects. Frequent IVIG dosing and weekly subcutaneous IgG have been tried as ways of continuously maintaining high serum IgG levels, resulting in stabilization of neuromuscular function in small case series. Frequent grip strength and disability measurements, performed by the patient at home and reported electronically, can be used to assess the extent and duration of responses to IgG doses. Individualization of IgG treatment regimens may optimize efficacy, minimize disability, and identify nonresponders. Muscle Nerve 51: 315–326, 2015 PMID:25418426

  11. An Overlapping Case of Lupus Nephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zaarour, Mazen; Weerasinghe, Chanudi; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of a 71-year-old Filipino female who was admitted to the hospital for abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea of 8 days duration. The patient was found to have marked acute kidney injury (AKI), which required hemodialysis in the next 3 days. Extensive workup revealed hematuria, subnephrotic range proteinuria, elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and elevated total immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, with normal IgG4 and anti-dsDNA levels. On kidney biopsy, mild membranous glomerulonephritis was found, along with autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with a "full-house" pattern of immune deposits. These findings were suggestive of lupus interstitial nephritis. However, IgG4+ plasma cells were detected in the interstitium by immunostaining, favoring a diagnosis of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Our case highlights the difficulty in differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from IgG4-RKD in some patients, raising the suspicion that these two entities can co-exist.

  12. An Overlapping Case of Lupus Nephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaarour, Mazen; Weerasinghe, Chanudi; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 71-year-old Filipino female who was admitted to the hospital for abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea of 8 days duration. The patient was found to have marked acute kidney injury (AKI), which required hemodialysis in the next 3 days. Extensive workup revealed hematuria, subnephrotic range proteinuria, elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and elevated total immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, with normal IgG4 and anti-dsDNA levels. On kidney biopsy, mild membranous glomerulonephritis was found, along with autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with a “full-house” pattern of immune deposits. These findings were suggestive of lupus interstitial nephritis. However, IgG4+ plasma cells were detected in the interstitium by immunostaining, favoring a diagnosis of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Our case highlights the difficulty in differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from IgG4-RKD in some patients, raising the suspicion that these two entities can co-exist. PMID:26015827

  13. Identification of the site on IgG Fc for interaction with streptococci of groups A, C and G.

    PubMed

    Schröder, A K; Nardella, F A; Mannik, M; Johansson, P J; Christensen, P

    1987-12-01

    The interaction between living groups A, C and G streptococci and IgG Fc was studied using human IgG, IgG Fc and IgG Fc-intermediate (Fci) fragments, chemically modified human IgG and fragment D of staphylococcal protein A (SPA). Diethylpyrocarbonate modification of His or N-acetylimidazole modification of Tyr of human IgG resulted in the loss of its capacity to inhibit the binding of radiolabelled human IgG Fc to the group A streptococci types M1 and M55, and to the group C strain SC-1, indicating that the amino acids His and Tyr are involved in the binding. Lys seems not to participate in the binding of IgG to these bacteria, however, since reductive methylation of Lys did not reduce its inhibitory capacity. Fragment D of SPA also inhibited the binding of radiolabelled human IgG Fc to strains M1, M55 and SC-1. We have previously shown that these bacteria do not bind to IgG fragments consisting of only the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 domains. On the basis of these results, and the known relative positions in space of the His and Tyr residues on IgG Fc, it is speculated whether streptococci with IgG Fc receptors, like SPA and rheumatoid factors, interact with IgG in the interface between the C gamma 2 and C gamma 3 domains and involve His 435 and one or more of Tyr 436, His 433 and His 310. The similarities in binding sites on IgG for RFs and these bacterial Fc binding proteins suggest structural similarities between them that may be relevant to the production of rheumatoid factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Rituximab impairs immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG (subclass) responses after influenza vaccination in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Westra, J; van Assen, S; Wilting, K R; Land, J; Horst, G; de Haan, A; Bijl, M

    2014-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients severely hampers humoral response after influenza vaccination as determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). It is not known whether HI reflects both immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG (subclass) influenza response, and whether IgM antibodies contribute to the low rate of influenza infection seen in RA patients. Twenty RA patients on methotrexate (MTX), 23 on RTX and 28 healthy controls (HC) received trivalent influenza subunit vaccination. Before and 28 days after vaccination, H1N1- and H3N2-specific antibodies were measured by HI and by IgM and IgG (subclass) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels were determined in serum samples before vaccination. Vaccination induced a significant increase of IgM and IgG (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies against both strains in the HC and MTX groups (all P < 0·01), but not in the RTX group. HI correlated significantly in all cases with IgG (IgG1) but not with IgM. In RTX late patients (RTX treatment 6–10 months before vaccination), IgG (IgG1 and IgG3) response to vaccination was restored, but not IgM response. BAFF levels were significantly increased in RA-RTX patients and correlated with total IgG levels. Haemagglutination inhibition assay, used as gold standard, detects primarily IgG (IgG1) responses. IgM- and IgG influenza-specific antibodies increase after vaccination in HC and RA patients except in patients on RTX treatment. BAFF levels are increased in both early and late RTX-treated patients, but do not correlate with an influenza-specific antibody response. PMID:24889761

  15. Efficient production of bispecific IgG of different isotypes and species of origin in single mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael; Zhou, Jianhui; McCarty, Luke; Ellerman, Diego; Slaga, Dionysos; Junttila, Teemu T.; Sandoval, Wendy; Ovacik, Meric A.; Lin, Kedan; Hu, Zhilan; Spiess, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bispecific IgG production in single host cells has been a much sought-after goal to support the clinical development of these complex molecules. Current routes to single cell production of bispecific IgG include engineering heavy chains for heterodimerization and redesign of Fab arms for selective pairing of cognate heavy and light chains. Here, we describe novel designs to facilitate selective Fab arm assembly in conjunction with previously described knobs-into-holes mutations for preferential heavy chain heterodimerization. The top Fab designs for selective pairing, namely variants v10 and v11, support near quantitative assembly of bispecific IgG in single cells for multiple different antibody pairs as judged by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Single-cell and in vitro-assembled bispecific IgG have comparable physical, in vitro biological and in vivo pharmacokinetics properties. Efficient single-cell production of bispecific IgG was demonstrated for human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 thereby allowing the heavy chain isotype to be tailored for specific therapeutic applications. Additionally, a reverse chimeric bispecific IgG2a with humanized variable domains and mouse constant domains was generated for preclinical proof-of-concept studies in mice. Efficient production of a bispecific IgG in stably transfected mammalian (CHO) cells was shown. Individual clones with stable titer and bispecific IgG composition for >120 days were readily identified. Such long-term cell line stability is needed for commercial manufacture of bispecific IgG. The single-cell bispecific IgG designs developed here may be broadly applicable to biotechnology research, including screening bispecific IgG panels, and to support clinical development. PMID:27929752

  16. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  17. The role of IgG4 (+) plasma cells in the association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taşli, Funda; Ozkök, Güliz; Argon, Asuman; Ersöz, Didem; Yağci, Ayşe; Uslu, Adam; Erkan, Nazif; Salman, Tarik; Vardar, Enver

    2014-12-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be a risk factor for the formation of papillary carcinoma. The association of IgG4-related sclerosing disease with tumor is reported to be as sporadic cases in many organs. In this study, it was intended to re-classify the HT diagnosed cases on the basis of the existence of IgG4 (+) plasma cells; to investigate the clinicopathologic and histopathologic features of the both groups; and in addition, to evaluate the papillary carcinoma prevalence in IgG4 (+) and IgG4 (-) HT cases as well as the prognostic parameters between these groups. Totally 59 cases between the years 2008-2013, 29 of which contain Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosis in total thyroidectomy materials, and 30 of which contain the diagnosis of HT+papillary carcinoma, were included in the study. The materials were immunohistochemically applied IgG and IgG4; and the cases were classified in two groups as IgG4-positive HT and IgG4-negative HT containing cases, on the basis of IgG4/IgG rate. All histopathologic and clinicopathologic parameters between these two groups, as well as their association with papillary carcinoma were investigated. Thirty eight (64.4%) of total 59 cases were NonIgG4 thyroiditis, and 21 (35.5%) were IgG4 thyroiditis. Tumors were detected in 14 (36.8%) of the NonIgG4 thyroiditis cases, and in 16 (76.1%) of the IgG4 thyroiditis cases. The association of IgG4 thyroiditis with tumor is statistically significant (p < 0.004). Multifocality was found to be at a higher rate in IgG4 thyroiditis cases. Perithyroidal extension was detected in six of the cases with tumor, and five of the six cases were IgG4 thyroiditis cases. The association of IgG4 (+) HT cases with increased papillary carcinoma prevalence is suggestive of that IgG4 (+) plasma cells can play a role in carcinogenesis in papillary carcinomas developed in HTs, without a chronic sclerosing ground. In addition, although the number of cases is limited, the high-association of IgG4

  18. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  19. IgG4-related disease with cavernous sinus and intra-orbital lesions diagnosed by nasal mucosa biopsy.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ruka; Yoshimura, Shunsuke; Motomura, Masakatsu; Tsujino, Akira; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Hara, Minoru

    2016-09-29

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease characterized by lesions with IgG4 positive plasma cell infiltration in the involved organs and a raised serum IgG4 level. We report a patient of 70-year-old male presented orbital inflammation of IgG4-related disease. The patient developed right eye pain, double vision, and reduced eye sight. MRI image revealed mild right ocular proptosis and swelling of right carvenous sinus, bilateral intraorbital extraocular muscles and right optic nerve. Right optic nerve showed ring-like enhancement. IgG4-related disease was suspected with increased serum IgG4 level of 355 mg/dl, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and prostate enlargement. Transbronchial lung biopsy and prostate needle biopsy were administered with negative results. The eye related symptoms resolved with time, but serum IgG4 continuously increased. IgG4-related disease was diagnosed by nasal mucosa biopsy, which showed IgG4 positive plasma cells within the inflammatory infiltrate. This report emphasizes the usefulness of nasal mucosa biopsy for the diagnosis of IgG4 related disease with lesions difficult to approach.

  20. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the head and neck manifestations of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels as well as abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes and fibrosis in various organs, including the head and neck region. In particular, the salivary glands, orbit, and thyroid are common sites of disease involvement. IgG4-RD is diagnosed based on various clinical, serological, and histopathological findings, none of which are pathognomonic. Hence, various differential diagnoses, which exhibit elevated serum IgG4 levels and infiltration of IgG4-postive cells into tissues, need to be excluded, especially malignant diseases and mimicking disorders. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in inducing IgG4-RD remission; however, recurrent or refractory cases are common. In addition, although the pathogenic mechanisms of IgG4-RD remain unclear, an antigen-driven inflammatory condition is believed to be involved. Recent studies have indicated the important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration and innate immunity in this disease. Nevertheless, additional research and discussions are needed to resolve many remaining questions. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent insights on the history, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of IgG4-RD in the head and neck region. Furthermore, we have also addressed the pathogenesis of this disease.

  1. Elevated IgG4 in patient circulation is associated with the risk of disease progression in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Villanova, Federica; Josephs, Debra H; Correa, Isabel; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Hobbs, Carl; Saul, Louise; Egbuniwe, Isioma U; Tosi, Isabella; Ilieva, Kristina M; Kent, Emma; Calonje, Eduardo; Harries, Mark; Fentiman, Ian; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce; Burchell, Joy; Spicer, James F; Lacy, Katie E; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests pathological and immunoregulatory functions for IgG4 antibodies and IgG4+ B cells in inflammatory diseases and malignancies. We previously reported that IgG4 antibodies restrict activation of immune effector cell functions and impair humoral responses in melanoma. Here, we investigate IgG4 as a predictor of risk for disease progression in a study of human sera (n = 271: 167 melanoma patients; 104 healthy volunteers) and peripheral blood B cells (n = 71: 47 melanoma patients; 24 healthy volunteers). IgG4 (IgG4/IgGtotal) serum levels were elevated in melanoma. High relative IgG4 levels negatively correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. In early stage (I–II) disease, serum IgG4 was independently negatively prognostic for progression-free survival, as was elevation of IgG4+ circulating B cells (CD45+CD22+CD19+CD3−CD14−). In human tissues (n = 256; 108 cutaneous melanomas; 56 involved lymph nodes; 60 distant metastases; 32 normal skin samples) IgG4+ cell infiltrates were found in 42.6% of melanomas, 21.4% of involved lymph nodes and 30% of metastases, suggesting inflammatory conditions that favor IgG4 at the peripheral and local levels. Consistent with emerging evidence for an immunosuppressive role for IgG4, these findings indicate association of elevated IgG4 with disease progression and less favorable clinical outcomes. Characterizing immunoglobulin and other humoral immune profiles in melanoma might identify valuable prognostic tools for patient stratification and in the future lead to more effective treatments less prone to tumor-induced blockade mechanisms. PMID:26451312

  2. IgG4-related disease involving vital organs diagnosed with lip biopsy: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Yuko; Hayashi, Yutaro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized new disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells in affected tissues. Histological examination is essential for definitive diagnosis, as other pathological conditions can also present with serum IgG4 elevation. However, IgG4-RD frequently involves vital or internal organs that are difficult to perform biopsies. We herein report a unique case of IgG4-RD involving vital organs that could be successfully diagnosed by alternative lip biopsy, an accessible, little invasive procedure, despite no apparent manifestation demonstrating the involvement in labial salivary gland.A 60-year-old man with swelling of both submandibular glands and elevated serum creatinine level visited our hospital. His labial salivary glands appeared normal. His blood test showed high serum IgG4, and positron-emission computed tomography revealed abnormal uptake in submandibular glands, periaorta, and left kidney with hydronephrosis. We suspected him of IgG4-RD; however, the involved organs were difficult to approach for histological examination. Alternatively, we performed lip biopsy and proved massive infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells leading to the diagnosis with IgG4-RD. Treatment with prednisolone resulted in the remarkable improvement of organ involvements and the normalization of serum IgG4 level after 3 months. Prednisolone was gradually tapered without the relapse of disease.The early recognition and diagnosis of IgG4-RD is clinically important because delay in the treatment initiation leads to fibrosis with irreversible organ damage. Our case highlights the possibility that lip biopsy is a promising option for histological examination in patients with IgG4-RD in whom affected organs are difficult to access, leading to early diagnosis with appropriate treatment.

  3. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs.

  4. Comparison of four commercially available avidity tests for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Breit, L; Cimon, B; Franck, J; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis.

  5. Comparison of Four Commercially Available Avidity Tests for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Breit, L.; Cimon, B.; Franck, J.; Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Pelloux, H.; Villena, I.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis. PMID:23239801

  6. Immunoglobulin and IgG subclass levels in a regional pediatric cystic fibrosis clinic.

    PubMed

    Garside, J P; Kerrin, D P; Brownlee, K G; Gooi, H C; Taylor, J M; Conway, S P

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to report serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and IgG subclass levels in a large pediatric population with cystic fibrosis, and relate these to measures of disease severity. Total immunoglobulin levels were measured in 154 patients, and IgG subclass levels were measured in 136 patients and compared to age-related normal population data and to levels reported in previously published studies of children with cystic fibrosis. Clinical data were also collected: genotype; height, weight, and BMI standard deviation scores; FEV(1) (as percent predicted); Shwachmann-Kulczycki (S-K) and Northern chest X-ray scores; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection status. The clinical well-being of patients with hypo- or hyper-gammaglobulinemia was compared with age- and sex-matched control patients who had normal levels of gammaglobulin. IgG subclass levels were measured, and the results were compared with previous studies. Eleven patients had hypergammaglobulinemia (7.8% compared with 0-69% in the published literature). Patients with hypergammaglobulinemia had lower FEV(1) percent-predicted values, and worse S-K and Northern chest X-ray scores than controls. Three patients had hypogammaglobulinemia (1.9% compared with 0-10.8% in the published literature). There was no difference in any clinical parameter between controls and those with hypogammaglobulinemia. Nineteen patients (14%) had low levels of IgG1, and 40 patients (29%) had low levels of IgG2. The low percentage of patients with abnormally high immunoglobulin levels probably reflects the improved respiratory status of today's children with CF. The low percentage of those with low IgG probably reflects better nutritional status. The finding of worse lung function and clinical scores in patients with hypergammaglobulinemia agrees with the published literature. The high percentage of patients with low IgG2 was unexpected and was not previously reported. The clinical significance of this in patients with CF is

  7. Evaluating breast lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates: a multiparameter immunohistochemical study, including assessment of IgG4.

    PubMed

    Berg, Aaron N; Soma, Lorinda; Clark, Beth Z; Swerdlow, Steven H; Roth, Christine G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the breast, a modified skin appendage, include lymphocytic lobulitis, other nonspecific benign proliferations, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma. Distinguishing these entities, all of which may be B-cell rich and may have associated sclerosis, can be difficult. In addition, the proportion that represents IgG4-related disease is unknown, and the similarity of MALT lymphomas to primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma is uncertain. To address these questions, the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 50 benign and malignant breast lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (10 lymphocytic lobulitis, 1 granulomatous, 19 not otherwise specified, 20 MALT lymphomas) were evaluated. Compared with the MALT lymphomas, benign cases had a less dense infiltrate (P < .001), fewer but more histologically apparent germinal centers (P < .001), and more marked fibrosis (P < .0001). Greater than 60% B cells were present in 23% (7/30) benign cases versus 75% (15/20) MALT lymphomas (P = .0003). Plasma cells were predominantly IgG+ in 83% (24/29) benign cases and predominantly IgM+ in 73% (14/19) MALT lymphomas (P < .0001). None of the benign cases had greater than 50 IgG4+ plasma cells/high-power field, and only 1 lymphocytic lobulitis case had an IgG4/IgG ratio exceeding 40% and no clinical evidence for extramammary IgG4-related disease. Although there may be some overlapping features, routine histopathology together with limited immunohistochemical stains can distinguish benign from neoplastic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the breast. Despite frequent sclerosis, the breast is not a common site of unrecognized IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Although there are similarities, breast MALT lymphomas can be separated from cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

  8. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18FDG-PET will show FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. CMR, due to its capability to perform function and tissue characterisation, can offer an integrated imaging of aorta, coronary arteries and the heart, assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and guide further treatment. However, multimodality imaging may be necessary for assessment of disease activity and fibrosis extent in those cases with multifocal CV involvement.

  9. IgG4-related disease: A relatively new concept for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Vasaitis, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized chronic fibrotic inflammation, which can affect almost every organ, and may come to clinical attention first due to visible organ swelling or organ dysfunction, or is identified incidentally by imaging and specific biopsy. The disorder has an allergic background and is immune-mediated. Up-regulated responses of T helper 2 and T regulatory cells and their cytokines play a major role in disease progression. About 30-50% of patients are atopic or have mild eosinophilia. IgG4-RD predominantly affects middle-aged male patients. The cornerstones of diagnosis of the disease are compatible clinical features and typical histopathology. Swelling of salivary and lacrimal glands, lymphadenopathy, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are the most common manifestations of the disease. However, other tissues and organs, such as retroperitoneum, lung, kidney, aorta, upper airways, thyroid gland, meninges, heart, mesenterium and skin may be involved. Typical histopathology is lymphoplasmacytic infiltration abundant in IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform-type fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Elevated serum IgG4 concentration supports the diagnosis. Characteristic imaging features such as a "capsule-like rim" surrounding the pancreatic lesions is highly specific to type 1 AIP. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography enables mapping the sites of inflammation, permits evaluation of the extent of the disease, helps in guiding biopsy decision, and may be used in monitoring response to treatment. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with B-cell depletion with rituximab induces prompt clinical response to IgG4-RD. This article reviews the current understanding, different clinical manifestations, and approaches to diagnosis and treatment of IgG4-RD.

  10. Prohibitin Is Involved in Patients with IgG4 Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongwu; Shi, Lili; Chen, Peng; Yang, Weikang; Xun, Yiping; Yang, Chunhe; Zhao, Lanqing; Zhou, Yabin; Chen, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic systemic disease involved in many organs and tissues. As only limited autoantigens have been found since the beginning of this century, the aim of this study was to reveal new candidate autoantigens of IgG4-RD. Methods Multiple cell lines including HT-29, EA.hy926, HEK 293 and HepG2 were used to test the binding ability of circulating autoantibodies from IgG4-RD sera. The amino-acid sequence was then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. After the cloning and expression of recombinant putative autoantigen in a bacterial expression system, the corresponding immuno assay was set up and utilized to observe the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in a large set of confirmed clinical samples. Results One positive autoantigen was identified as prohibitin. ELISA analysis showed that a majority of patients with IgG4-RD have antibodies against prohibitin. Anti-prohibitin antibodies were present in the sera of patients with definite autoimmune pancreatitis (25/34; 73.5%), Mikulicz’s disease (8/15; 53.3%), retroperitoneal fibrosis (6/11; 54.5%), other probable IgG4-RD (26/29; 89.7%) and Sjögren’s syndrome (4/30; 13.3%) but not in apparently healthy donors (1/70; 1.4%). Conclusions An association between prohibitin and patients with some IgG4-RD was observed, although the results were quite heterogeneous among different individuals within autoimmune pancreatitis, Mikulicz’s disease and retroperitoneal fibrosis. PMID:25932630

  11. IgG4-related disease: current challenges and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Lang, David; Zwerina, Jochen; Pieringer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) represents an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition with a characteristic histopathological appearance that can affect various organs. Although numerous single-organ manifestations have been described more than a century ago, its systemic nature and unique features were only discovered in the last 2 decades, when IgG4-RD emerged as a new entity of disease. IgG4-RD is usually considered a rare disease, but its true epidemiology has not yet been fully clarified. Also, despite recent advances in the identification of the underlying immunological processes, its pathophysiology is only incompletely understood till now. The diagnostic workup of IgG4-RD is complex and usually requires a combination of clinical examination, imaging, histological, and serological analyses. However, no finding alone is specific for IgG4-RD. Therefore, its diagnosis requires careful interpretation of examination results in context with the patient’s clinical appearance as well as the exclusion of a broad variety of differential diagnoses. The past years brought rapid advances concerning this novel disease entity: diagnostic criteria, further insights into the underlying immunological processes, new biomarkers, and novel therapeutic approaches were proposed and widened the knowledge in the field of IgG4-RD. Still, a greater number of questions remain unanswered, and many recent developments require further discussion and proof from clinical trials. This review should give an overview on current knowledge and future perspectives in epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of IgG4-RD. PMID:26929632

  12. Evaluation of a dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of secondary dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shingo; Alonzo, Maria T G; Kurosawa, Yae; Mapua, Cynthia A; Reyes, Joyce D; Dimaano, Efren M; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Saito, Mariko; Oishi, Kazunori; Hasebe, Futoshi; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

    2010-03-01

    To establish a new method for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection, 187 serum samples from the patients with dengue secondary infection, 40 serum samples from the patients with dengue primary infection, and 44 serum samples from the healthy volunteers were tested using the dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DEN IgG ELISA). The results of the test were compared with those from the dengue hemagglutination inhibition (DEN HI) test, which has been recommended as the gold standard by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1997). Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect ELISA (JE IgG ELISA) was also performed to measure anti-flavivirus IgG, which cross-reacts with the Japanese encephalitis virus, to test the possibility of an alternative to DEN IgG ELISA. The results of DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with those of the DEN HI test. In the DEN IgG ELISA, a titer of 1:29,000 was the cut-off value for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection (91.5% accuracy [95% confidence interval, CI], 90.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 92.9% specificity [95%CI]). A titer of 1:52,000 was the cut-off value for dengue secondary infection using JE IgG ELISA (95.6% accuracy [95%CI], 98.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 88.1% specificity [95%CI]). In conclusion, this study confirmed that the results of both DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with the results of DEN HI test. Thus, these ELISAs are simple, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative tests that can be used in the determination of dengue secondary infection.

  13. Intracellular ionic changes induced by bullous pemphigoid IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Harada, S; Owaribe, K; Yaoita, H

    1996-01-01

    To ascertain whether membrane signal transduction is induced by bullous pemphigoid (BP) antibody and whether cell lysis is induced by its complement activation, we assessed the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), intracellular pH, membrane potential and morphology of living cells by following the time course of fluorescence intensity of Fluo-3/AM, Snaff-1/AM, Dioc-5 and Luciffer yellow, respectively. A transient increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity in DJM-1 cells (a squamous cell carcinoma line) was revealed when the cells were incubated with 2 of five IgG1 BP antibodies. However, no transient increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity was revealed when the cells were incubated with IgG2 and IgG4 BP antibodies. A transient increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity was revealed in DJM-1 cells incubated with 3 of seven IgG1 and 1 of four IgG2 BP antibodies in an EGTA-containing low-Ca2+ medium. On the other hand, the Dioc-5 fluorescence intensity did not change significantly, though the increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity was observed. The increase of Snarf-1 fluorescence intensity was revealed in DJM-1 cells incubated with 2 of five IgG1 BP antibodies, but was not revealed in the cells incubated with IgG2 or IgG4 of BP antibodies. Study of complement activation by BP IgG1 showed a transient increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity of with 3 of five IgG1 BP antibodies when DJM-1 cells were incubated with complement-supplemented normal-Ca2+ medium. At the same time, however, endocytosis and cell lysis were not observed with 2 IgG1 BP antibodies which did induce an increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity when Lucifer-yellow-loaded DJM-1 cells were incubated with complement-supplemented normal-Ca2+ medium. We examined next whether anti-180 kD BP antigen monoclonal antibodies (mAbs R-223 and 233) induce an increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. MAb R-223 did not induce any increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity in DJM-1 cells, when incubated

  14. Simultaneous Quantification of Anticardiolipin IgG and IgM by Time Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Li, Mei; Ye, Yan; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The autoimmune disease antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), along with anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) antibodies and lupus anticoagulant (LA). In this study, we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) system for simultaneous quantification of aCL IgG and IgM. A 96-well microtiter plate precoated with the complex of cardiolipin from bovine heart and bovine β2GPI was incubated with the anticardiolipin IgG and IgM standard substance or serum, and the conjugate of Eu3+-labeled anti-human IgG and Sm3+-labeled anti-human IgM was pipetted to the wells to form a tipical double-antibody-sandwich immunoreactions; finally the fluorescent intensity of Eu3+ and Sm3+ was detected to reflect the quantity of anticardiolipin IgG and IgM. This assay showed a good relationship between fluorescence intensities and the concentration of anticardiolipin antibody(aCL) IgG and IgM, with a low-end sensitivity of 0.1 U/ml for IgG and 0.1 U/ml for IgM, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of the calibrators was 3.0% and 4.51% for IgG, and 2.76% and 4.45% for IgM. The average recovery was 100.38% for aCL IgG and 100.45% for aCL IgM. For serum samples, the results of our method showed a good correlation with those obtained with ELISA kit. Simultaneous detection of aCL-IgG and aCL-IgM in the same reaction well can optimize assay performance by avoiding potential influence of different reaction conditions-timing, and well-to-well difference in concentration and characteristics of cardiolipin antigen. The results of a combo aCL-IgG and aCL-IgM assay for the same sample are more consistent and more reliable. This dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay is sensitive for detecting aCL IgG and IgM across a wide concentration range with stable reagents and may assist in the clinical diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:27661084

  15. IgG4-Related Lung Disease Associated with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Frank; Veraldi, Kristen L.; Levesque, Marc C.; Colby, Thomas V.; S. Yi, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of immunoglobulin(Ig)G4-related disease with the radiologic and histopathological manifestations resembling usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The patient was a 62-year-old man who presented with progressive dyspnea of insidious onset. High resolution computed tomography of the chest showed lower-lobe predominant peripheral reticulation and traction bronchiectasis but no honeycomb change. Microscopic examination of the surgical lung biopsy showed characteristic features of UIP including architectural distortion by fibrosis with peripheral and paraseptal accentuation, scattered fibroblast foci and microscopic honeycomb change. In addition there were prominent multifocal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with a marked increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells (79 per high power field in hot spots) and high IgG4/IgG ratio (up to 67%). The serum IgG4 level was elevated at 760 mg/dl (reference range 9-89), with normal levels for the other IgG subclasses and negative serologic markers for autoimmune diseases. The patient’s symptoms improved significantly with oral corticosteroid treatment. PMID:27053971

  16. Clinical evaluation of the Roche Elecsys CMV IgG Avidity assay.

    PubMed

    Vauloup-Fellous, C; Lazzarotto, T; Revello, M G; Grangeot-Keros, L

    2014-08-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has potentially severe consequences in newborns. The testing of pregnant women for CMV-specific antibodies may be useful for the identification of women at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus. The determination of CMV IgG avidity helps to establish the timing of infection as IgG avidity matures during the course of infection. This study examines the performance of the Elecsys CMV IgG Avidity assay using preselected samples from patients at different phases of CMV infection. The Elecsys CMV IgG Avidity assay was tested at three sites using sequential samples from patients with recent primary CMV infection, as well as single samples from patients with recent primary or past CMV infection. The Elecsys assay discriminated well between early (low avidity) and late (high avidity) phases of infection in sequential serum samples. Overall, 98.8% of low-avidity samples corresponded to infection onset <180 days before sampling and 77.8% of all high-avidity results corresponded to infection onset >90 days before sampling. The assay's sensitivity was 90-97%, with specificity ranging from 89 to 100%, depending on the consideration of gray-zone avidity values. Single samples from recent primary or past infection showed similar distributions of avidity results. The Elecsys CMV IgG Avidity assay results are in agreement with preselected samples from patients with primary or past CMV infection, showing that the test is an adequate predictor of the phase of infection.

  17. Hypogammaglobulinaemia in nephrotic rats is attributable to hypercatabolism of IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, M; Oldfield, S; MacLennan, I C; Michael, J; Adu, D

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the nephrotic syndrome induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PA) in rats on specific antibody responses to 2,4 dinitrophenyl (DNP) conjugated to either spider crab haemocyanin (MSH), a T cell-dependent antigen, or hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a T cell-independent type 2 antigen were studied. The serum IgG anti-DNP levels following immunization with both antigens were reduced in nephrotic animals compared with controls while IgM anti-DNP antibody titres were higher. The half-life of IgG anti-DNP antibodies passively transferred into non-immunized nephrotic rats was markedly reduced while the half-life of anti-DNP antibodies of the IgM class was comparable to that in controls. Low serum IgG and elevated IgM levels were seen in nephrotic animals compared to controls. Antibody-forming cells specific for DNP were demonstrated by immunohistology on rat spleens and the numbers of both IgG and IgM-producing cells were found to be significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in nephrotic animals in response to both DNP-HES and DNP-MSH. These data indicate that in nephrotic rats the alteration seen in the serum immunoglobulin levels is not attributable to reduced antibody production but increased catabolism of serum IgG antibodies. PMID:3233791

  18. Albumin and IgG in skin and skeletal muscle after plasmapheresis with saline loading

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, R.J.; Powers, M.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The acute effect of removing plasma equivalent to 1.7% body wt and replacing it with saline equivalent to 10% body wt on the extravascular distribution of water, albumin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in skin and skeletal muscle was studied in anesthetized rabbits. The plasma protein concentration decreased by 43%. Prenodal lymph was collected from hindpaw skin or skeletal muscle. The extracellular and plasma volumes in excised tissue samples were measured using /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and /sup 125/I-labeled albumin, respectively. The protein spaces were calculated from measurements of endogenous albumin and IgG concentrations using immunochemical techniques. Lymph flow both tissues increased more than twice control, whereas the lymph total protein concentration decreased to less than one-half control. Three to six hours after the saline infusion, the skin interstitial volume was 30% greater than control, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were 20% greater than control. For muscle, the interstitial volume was twice the control value, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were not significantly altered. There was a large decrease in the lymph protein concentration after acute plasmapheresis. However, there was not an acute decrease in the extravascular albumin or IgG masses from skin or skeletal muscle. This may be due to the presence of the collagen matrix and edema fluid.

  19. Influence of radioiodination on the adsorption of IgG and serum albumin to polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.; Gosling, J.P.

    1986-11-01

    The adsorption of radioiodinated rabbit IgG and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to polystyrene tubes was investigated. Adsorption isotherms where the proportion of the protein bound was relatively constant over a range of intermediate protein concentrations, and where the proportion bound was protein dependent, were obtained. To investigate the effects of radioiodination, proteins labelled to give a wide range of substitution ratios (0.03 to 3.7 /sup 125/I/ protein molecule) were employed. While labeling did not appear to affect BSA adsorption, the kinetics of IgG binding were altered in a number of ways. The proportion bound in the concentration independent region was decreased even at substitution ratios less than or equal to 0.2. In addition, while all preparations of iodinated BSA, and IgG preparations with less than or equal to 1.6 /sup 125/I/IgG, gave bimodal adsorption isotherms, with more heavily labeled IgG (less than or equal to 2.5 /sup 125/I/IgG) the apparent high affinity binding to the plastic surface was abolished. These results indicate that radioiodination substantially alters the kinetics of the binding of IgG to polystyrene. In addition, the results obtained are discussed with respect to previous relevant and often apparently contradictory findings.

  20. Estrogens regulate glycosylation of IgG in women and men.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Altan; Kohrt, Wendy M; Cui, Jing; Deane, Kevin D; Pezer, Marija; Yu, Elaine W; Hausmann, Jonathan S; Campbell, Harry; Kaiser, Ursula B; Rudd, Pauline M; Lauc, Gordan; Wilson, James F; Finkelstein, Joel S; Nigrovic, Peter A

    2017-02-23

    The immunologic potency of IgG is modulated by glycosylation, but mechanisms regulating this process are undefined. A role for sex hormones is suggested by differences in IgG glycans between women and men, most prominently with respect to galactose. We therefore assessed IgG galactosylation in 713 healthy adults from 2 cohorts as well as in 159 subjects from 4 randomized controlled studies of endocrine manipulation: postmenopausal women receiving conjugated estrogens, raloxifene, or placebo; premenopausal women deprived of gonadal hormones with leuprolide and treated with estradiol or placebo; men deprived of gonadal hormones with goserelin and given testosterone or placebo; and men deprived of gonadal hormones with goserelin and given testosterone or placebo together with anastrozole to block conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Menopause was associated with an increase in agalactosylated IgG glycans, particularly in the most abundant fucosylated nonbisected (G0F) glycoform. Conjugated estrogens and raloxifene reduced G0F glycans in postmenopausal women, while in premenopausal women leuprolide increased G0F glycans in a manner reversed by estradiol. Among men, goserelin increased G0F glycans, an effect blocked by testosterone through conversion to estradiol. These results establish estrogens as an in vivo modulator of IgG galactosylation in both women and men, defining a pathway by which sex modulates immunity.

  1. Rabbit IgG distribution in skin, spinal cord and DRG following systemic injection in rat.

    PubMed

    Tonra, J R; Mendell, L M

    1997-12-01

    In order to determine the distribution of antibodies such as anti-NGF following systemic injection in neonates, immunocytochemical techniques were used to examine the localization of rabbit IgG in rat skin, DRG, and spinal cord after treatments with normal rabbit serum or purified rabbit IgG. Daily subcutaneous injections beginning on postnatal day 2 or on day 15 were given for three days. On the fourth day the animals were sacrificed and tissues were processed for rabbit IgG-IR. In the dorsal and ventral spinal cord, staining intensities suggest a substantial increase in the blood-brain barrier during the first two weeks after birth. Staining intensity in the epidermis of the glabrous skin from the hindpaw was substantially lower than in the adjacent dermis. In addition, IgG infrequently accumulated intracellularly in intensely stained patches in the epidermis. IgG was also able to reach relatively high intracellular concentrations in a small number of sensory neurons. The IgG staining pattern in the skin was similar when anti-NGF itself was administered to the animals. The results are discussed in the context of the effects of anti-NGF on the development of nociceptive afferents.

  2. IgG4-related multiorgan disease: report of the first autopsy case

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Minerva Lazos; Gabiño López, Belem; Cabello, Raúl Romero; Feregrino, Raúl Romero

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD) is a chronic recurring fibro-inflammatory pathology that is considered to be of autoimmune origin. Histopathology is considered to be the gold standard method for diagnosis. IgG4RD affects multiple organs. IgG4RD was first identified in the pancreas and was called autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). During the following years, the disease spectrum was expanded and it was realised that the extrapancreatic lesions can precede, coexist or appear after the diagnosis of AIP. At present, several illnesses such as Mikulicz disease, Küttner tumour, multifocal fibrosclerosis, etc, are considered to be part of the IgG4RD spectrum. The symptoms of the disease tend to appear over months and years and diagnosis is achieved on average 13.5 months (4–60 months) after the onset. The purpose of this report was to provide information about a case that was sadly fatal but that permitted a complete histopathological study of the damaged tissues. PMID:23645656

  3. IgG4-related disease: pathophysiologic insights drive emerging treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Stone, John H

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that can affect essentially any organ. The disease shows similar histopathology findings across organ systems, consisting of a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate enriched in IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4 itself appears to be a reactive phenomenon rather than the primary disease driver. Recent investigations have focused on the interactions between cells of the B cell lineage and a novel CD4+ SLAMF7+ cytotoxic T cells capable of promoting fibrosis. Plasmablasts appear to play a crucial role along with B cells in the presentation of antigen to this T cell. IgG4-RD is marked by responsiveness to glucocorticoids, but frequent disease relapse, the inability to taper glucocorticoids completely, and steroid toxicity are problematic. Targeted treatment approaches against the B cell lineage appear promising, and therapeutic efforts focused upon the CD4+ SLAMF7+ cytotoxic T cell may also be feasible.

  4. Patients with papular urticaria have IgG antibodies to bedbug (Cimex lectularius) antigens.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Lotfy, Ranya Adel; Al-Sherbiny, Maged Mustafa; Sayed Ali, Nehad Mahmoud

    2006-05-01

    IgG and IgE against salivary gland proteins of bedbug (Cimex lectularius) were assessed in comparison with mosquito (Culex pipiens) and flea (Pulex irritans) antigens in the sera of papular urticaria patients (group I), siblings without papular urticaria (group IIa), patients' parents (group IIb), and healthy controls (group III) (Immunoblotting). Anti-C. lectularius IgG was significantly recognized at 66 and 10 kDa in 40% of group I, besides others ranging from 45 to 107 kDa. Group IIa significantly reacted with 70 kDa (57.1%). Group IIb reacted with 21 and 8.5 kDa (26.7%). Sixty percent of group IIb and 100% of group III significantly identified a band of 12.5 kDa. IgG against C. pipiens was significantly recognized at a range of 18-105 kDa in group I, IIb (115, 7 kDa), and III (58, 50 kDa). Anti-P. irritans IgG was significantly recognized by group I (100, 70 kDa) and group IIa (60, 35 kDa). IgE response was confined to C. pipiens at 115 and 54 kDa in groups I and III, respectively, besides 68 and 58 kDa in group IIa. It is concluded that IgG is present against C. lectularius, C. pipiens, and P. irritans in papular urticaria and may contribute to its pathogenesis.

  5. IgG4-related hypophysitis presenting as a pituitary adenoma with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Ming-Tai; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Min

    2013-04-01

    Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder that can mimic a pituitary tumor clinically or radiologically. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related systemic disease is only a just recently characterized disorder. It can manifest as a systemic disease involving multiple organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, lungs, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, kidneys, and retroperitoneum. It is characterized by a high serum level of IgG4 clinically and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with sclerosis and phlebitis histologically. Herein, we report the case of a man 66 years of age who presented with nausea, vomiting, and poor appetite with a body weight loss of 4 kg. Image study revealed a pituitary infundibulum mass, right-posterior mediastinal and paraspinal masses, as well as infiltrating masses in bilateral kidneys. Therefore, he received a thoracoscopic biopsy for the right-posterior mediastinal and paraspinal masses and a pathologic examination reported an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Then, transsphenoidal removal of the infundibulum mass was performed. Histologically, the infundibulum mass represented a IgG4-related hypophysitis manifested as an infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and some eosinophils with a fair number of IgG4-immunoreactive plasma cells. After the operation was complete, the patient took 5 mg of prednisolone every 2 days for 3 months. A follow-up computed tomography scan revealed improvement of the infiltrating masses in the bilateral kidneys.

  6. Estrogens regulate glycosylation of IgG in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Altan; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Cui, Jing; Deane, Kevin D.; Yu, Elaine W.; Campbell, Harry; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Wilson, James F.; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Nigrovic, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    The immunologic potency of IgG is modulated by glycosylation, but mechanisms regulating this process are undefined. A role for sex hormones is suggested by differences in IgG glycans between women and men, most prominently with respect to galactose. We therefore assessed IgG galactosylation in 713 healthy adults from 2 cohorts as well as in 159 subjects from 4 randomized controlled studies of endocrine manipulation: postmenopausal women receiving conjugated estrogens, raloxifene, or placebo; premenopausal women deprived of gonadal hormones with leuprolide and treated with estradiol or placebo; men deprived of gonadal hormones with goserelin and given testosterone or placebo; and men deprived of gonadal hormones with goserelin and given testosterone or placebo together with anastrozole to block conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Menopause was associated with an increase in agalactosylated IgG glycans, particularly in the most abundant fucosylated nonbisected (G0F) glycoform. Conjugated estrogens and raloxifene reduced G0F glycans in postmenopausal women, while in premenopausal women leuprolide increased G0F glycans in a manner reversed by estradiol. Among men, goserelin increased G0F glycans, an effect blocked by testosterone through conversion to estradiol. These results establish estrogens as an in vivo modulator of IgG galactosylation in both women and men, defining a pathway by which sex modulates immunity. PMID:28239652

  7. Multicentric Castleman disease mimicking IgG4-related disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasumori; Takeshita, Hayato; Moriwaki, Yuji; Hisatomi, Keiko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Yamashita, Natsuki; Kawahara, Chieko; Shigemitsu, Yoshika; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Kawakami, Atsushi; Kurohama, Hirokazu; Niino, Daisuke; Ito, Masahiro; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for shoulder joint stiffness. She had a history of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and an elevated C-reactive protein level. Her laboratory data revealed an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) level, hypergammaglobulinemia, and rheumatoid factor positivity in the absence of anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody. [18(F)]-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed significant [18(F)]-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in multiple lymph nodes (axillary, hilar, para-aortic, and inguinal). Biopsy of the inguinal lymph node showed expansion of the interfollicular areas by heavily infiltrating plasma cells, consistent with multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a 37.3% IgG4-positive:IgG-positive plasma cell ratio, indicating overlapping IgG4-related disease. However, serological cytokine analysis revealed elevated levels of interleukin-6 (9.3 pg/ml) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (1210 pg/ml), which are compatible with MCD. Corticosteroid treatment resolved the serological and imaging abnormalities. IgG4-related disease can mimic MCD, and it is crucial to distinguish between these two diseases. Serum interleukin-6 and VEGF levels may help to discriminate MCD from IgG4-related disease.

  8. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kit, Yu Ya; Myronovsky, S L; Kril, I I; Havrylyuk, A M; Chop'yak, V V; Stoika, R S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) in the presence of complete Freund's adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  9. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world’s population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in mice. Here we show bevacizumab suppressed angiogenesis in three mouse models not via Vegfa blockade but rather Fc-mediated signaling through FcγRI (CD64) and c-Cbl, impairing macrophage migration. Other approved humanized or human IgG1 antibodies without mouse targets (adalimumab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, omalizumab, palivizumab and tocilizumab), mouse IgG2a, and overexpression of human IgG1-Fc or mouse IgG2a-Fc, also inhibited angiogenesis in wild-type and FcγR humanized mice. This anti-angiogenic effect was abolished by Fcgr1 ablation or knockdown, Fc cleavage, IgG-Fc inhibition, disruption of Fc-FcγR interaction, or elimination of FcRγ-initated signaling. Furthermore, bevacizumab’s Fc region potentiated its anti-angiogenic activity in humanized VEGFA mice. Finally, mice deficient in FcγRI exhibited increased developmental and pathological angiogenesis. These findings reveal an unexpected anti-angiogenic function for FcγRI and a potentially concerning off-target effect of hIgG1 therapies. PMID:26918197

  10. Conversion of a Mouse Fab into a Whole Humanized IgG Antibody for Detecting Botulinum Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    pentavalent toxoid; Fab, antibody fragment; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; LCκ, kappa light chain ; scFv, single- chain antibody fragments; VL, variable light ...The variable regions from an anti-botulinum Fab were cloned into human IgG heavy and light chain vectors and produced in myeloma cells. Purified...from an anti-botulinum Fab were cloned into human IgG heavy and light chain vectors and produced in myeloma cells. Purified humanized IgG demonstrated

  11. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

  12. Contributions of conventional and heavy-chain IgG to immunity in fetal, neonatal, and adult alpacas.

    PubMed

    Daley-Bauer, L P; Purdy, S R; Smith, M C; Gagliardo, L F; Davis, W C; Appleton, J A

    2010-12-01

    In addition to conventional immunoglobulins, camelids produce antibodies that do not incorporate light chains into their structures. These so-called heavy-chain (HC) antibodies have incited great interest in the biomedical community, as they have considerable potential for biotechnological and therapeutic application. Recently, we have begun to elucidate the immunological functions of HC antibodies, yet little is known about their significance in maternal immunity or about the B lymphocytes that produce them. This study describes the application of isotype-specific reagents toward physiological assessments of camelid IgGs and the B cells that produce them. We document the specificities of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish two conventional IgG1 isotypes and two HC IgG3 variants produced by alpacas. Next, we report that the relative concentrations of five isotypes are similar in serum, milk, and colostrum; however, following passive transfer, the concentrations of HC IgG2 and IgG3 declined more rapidly than the concentration of conventional IgG1 in the sera of neonates. Finally, we assessed the distribution of B cells of distinct isotypes within lymphoid tissues during fetal and adult life. We detected IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 in lymphocytes located in lymph node follicles, suggesting that HC B cells affinity mature and/or class switch. One IgG3 isotype was present in B cells located in ileal Peyer's patches, and one conventional IgG1 isotype was detected in splenic marginal zone B cells. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge pertaining to HC antibodies and are compatible with functional specialization among conventional and HC IgGs in the alpaca.

  13. Isolated IgG4-related interstitial lung disease: unusual histological and radiological features of a pathologically proven case.

    PubMed

    Wibmer, Thomas; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Rüdiger, Stefan; Blanta, Ioanna; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2013-03-19

    IgG4-related lung disease is commonly associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. Recently, isolated IgG4-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) without other organ involvement has newly been reported in two cases with clinical features of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP).We report the first case of an isolated IgG4-related ILD in a 78-year-old man with dry cough and dyspnea, whose clinical findings proved to be different from NSIP. Serum IgG4 levels were increased. Chest CT scan revealed bilateral consolidations especially in the lower lobes, enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and pleural effusions. Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lung biopsy revealed a pattern similar to usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and an abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. He was effectively treated by steroid therapy.Increasing recognition of IgG4 related diseases has led to a growing number of new entities. The novel concept of isolated IgG4-related ILD as a pulmonary manifestation of a systemic IgG4-related disorder should be taken into account as a possible differential diagnosis of ILD and mass-forming lesions, even when no other organ manifestation is clinically apparent at the time of diagnosis. Lung specific diagnostic criteria and algorithms are required to enhance diagnostic accuracy in cases of possible IgG4-related ILD.

  14. Isolated IgG4-related interstitial lung disease: unusual histological and radiological features of a pathologically proven case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related lung disease is commonly associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. Recently, isolated IgG4-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) without other organ involvement has newly been reported in two cases with clinical features of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP). We report the first case of an isolated IgG4-related ILD in a 78-year-old man with dry cough and dyspnea, whose clinical findings proved to be different from NSIP. Serum IgG4 levels were increased. Chest CT scan revealed bilateral consolidations especially in the lower lobes, enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and pleural effusions. Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lung biopsy revealed a pattern similar to usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and an abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. He was effectively treated by steroid therapy. Increasing recognition of IgG4 related diseases has led to a growing number of new entities. The novel concept of isolated IgG4-related ILD as a pulmonary manifestation of a systemic IgG4-related disorder should be taken into account as a possible differential diagnosis of ILD and mass-forming lesions, even when no other organ manifestation is clinically apparent at the time of diagnosis. Lung specific diagnostic criteria and algorithms are required to enhance diagnostic accuracy in cases of possible IgG4-related ILD. PMID:23509921

  15. IgG4 autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase undergo Fab-arm exchange in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Koneczny, Inga; Stevens, Jo A A; De Rosa, Anna; Huda, Saif; Huijbers, Maartje G; Saxena, Abhishek; Maestri, Michelangelo; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Tzartos, Socrates; Verschuuren, Jan; van der Maarel, Silvère M; van Damme, Philip; De Baets, Marc H; Molenaar, Peter C; Vincent, Angela; Ricciardi, Roberta; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Losen, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmunity mediated by IgG4 subclass autoantibodies is an expanding field of research. Due to their structural characteristics a key feature of IgG4 antibodies is the ability to exchange Fab-arms with other, unrelated, IgG4 molecules, making the IgG4 molecule potentially monovalent for the specific antigen. However, whether those disease-associated antigen-specific IgG4 are mono- or divalent for their antigens is unknown. Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to muscle specific kinase (MuSK-MG) is a well-recognized disease in which the predominant pathogenic IgG4 antibody binds to extracellular epitopes on MuSK at the neuromuscular junction; this inhibits a pathway that clusters the acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) receptors and leads to failure of neuromuscular transmission. In vitro Fab-arm exchange-inducing conditions were applied to MuSK antibodies in sera, purified IgG4 and IgG1-3 sub-fractions. Solid-phase cross-linking assays were established to determine the extent of pre-existing and inducible Fab-arm exchange. Functional effects of the resulting populations of IgG4 antibodies were determined by measuring inhibition of agrin-induced AChR clustering in C2C12 cells. To confirm the results, κ/κ, λ/λ and hybrid κ/λ IgG4s were isolated and tested for MuSK antibodies. At least fifty percent of patients had IgG4, but not IgG1-3, MuSK antibodies that could undergo Fab-arm exchange in vitro under reducing conditions. Also MuSK antibodies were found in vivo that were divalent (monospecific for MuSK). Fab-arm exchange with normal human IgG4 did not prevent the inhibitory effect of serum derived MuSK antibodies on AChR clustering in C2C12 mouse myotubes. The results suggest that a considerable proportion of MuSK IgG4 could already be Fab-arm exchanged in vivo. This was confirmed by isolating endogenous IgG4 MuSK antibodies containing both κ and λ light chains, i.e. hybrid IgG4 molecules. These new findings demonstrate that Fab-arm exchanged antibodies

  16. Significance of specific IgG against sensitizing antigens in extrinsic allergic alveolitis: serological methods in EAA.

    PubMed

    Sterclova, M; Vasakova, M; Metlicka, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study is to find differences in IgG in sera of potentially exposed and nonexposed individuals and to detect differences in concentrations of specific serum IgG among subjects with and without EAA. Seventy-two patients being followed for suspected interstitial lung disease were included. Specific IgG in sera were established by ImmunoCAP. Serum concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans IgG and mixture of moulds IgG were higher in subjects with exposure to relevant inhalation antigens (p<0.05). Patients exposed to parrot and mammal hair mixture had higher serum concentration of specific IgG (p<0.05). Subjects without exposure to mites had lower serum IgG to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides microceras and Glycophagus domesticus (p<0.05). Higher concentration of serum specific IgG may show previous exposure to this antigen. Even though mite specific IgG are not commonly tested in EAA patients, we suggest their immunomodulatory activity may influence susceptibility to other inhalation antigens.

  17. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  18. Global and Local Conformation of Human IgG Antibody Variants Rationalizes Loss of Thermodynamic Stability.

    PubMed

    Edgeworth, Matthew J; Phillips, Jonathan J; Lowe, David C; Kippen, Alistair D; Higazi, Daniel R; Scrivens, James H

    2015-12-07

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a major class of medicines, with high specificity and affinity towards targets spanning many disease areas. The antibody Fc (fragment crystallizable) region is a vital component of existing antibody therapeutics, as well as many next generation biologic medicines. Thermodynamic stability is a critical property for the development of stable and effective therapeutic proteins. Herein, a combination of ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) approaches have been used to inform on the global and local conformation and dynamics of engineered IgG Fc variants with reduced thermodynamic stability. The changes in conformation and dynamics have been correlated with their thermodynamic stability to better understand the destabilising effect of functional IgG Fc mutations and to inform engineering of future therapeutic proteins.

  19. Voltage-driven translocation behaviors of IgG molecule through nanopore arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Bing; Sha, Jingjie; Yang, Yue; Hou, Yaozong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2013-05-01

    Nanopore-based biosensing has attracted more and more interests in the past years, which is also regarded as an emerging field with major impact on bio-analysis and fundamental understanding of nanoscale interactions down to single-molecule level. In this work, the voltage-driven translocation properties of goat antibody to human immunoglobulin G (IgG) are investigated using nanopore arrays in polycarbonate membranes. Obviously, the background ionic currents are modulated by IgG molecules for their physical place-holding effect. However, the detected ionic currents do `not' continuously decrease as conceived; the currents first decrease, then increase, and finally stabilize with increasing IgG concentration. To understand this phenomenon, a simplified model is suggested, and the calculated results contribute to the understanding of the abnormal phenomenon in the actual ionic current changing tendency.

  20. Contactin 1 IgG4 associates to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yumako; Devaux, Jérôme J; Fukami, Yuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-06-01

    A Spanish group recently reported that four patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy carrying IgG4 autoantibodies against contactin 1 showed aggressive symptom onset and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin. We aimed to describe the clinical and serological features of Japanese chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients displaying the anti-contactin 1 antibodies. Thirteen of 533 (2.4%) patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy had anti-contactin 1 IgG4 whereas neither patients from disease or normal control subjects did (P = 0.02). Three of 13 (23%) patients showed subacute symptom onset, but all of the patients presented with sensory ataxia. Six of 10 (60%) anti-contactin 1 antibody-positive patients had poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 8 of 11 (73%) antibody-positive patients had good response to corticosteroids. Anti-contactin 1 IgG4 antibodies are a possible biomarker to guide treatment option.

  1. IgG4-related disease: A concise review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Suarez, Oscar; Abril, Andy; Gómez-Puerta, José A

    2016-06-18

    IgG4-related disease is the term used to refer to a condition characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, fibrosis and an increased number of IgG4+ cells present in tissue, in most cases, with an elevated serum IgG4 level. This disease frequently affects the pancreas, salivary glands and lymph nodes, but can involve almost any tissue. Its etiology and the exact role of the different inflammatory cells in the damage to the target organ is still unclear. As yet, there is no international consensus about diagnostic criteria for the disease, but there are important advances in its treatment and in the quest to achieve remission. We include a review of the history, possible pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach and available therapeutic approaches.

  2. The effect of limited proteolysis by trypsin and chymotrypsin on bovine colostral IgG1.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Arzabe, F R; Ortega, F; Piñeiro, A

    1977-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of bovine colostral IgG1 by trypsin caused loss of specific antibody activity but column chromatography showed that relatively little cleavage into fragements had occurred. Polyacrlamide-agarose SDS electrophoresis of the 2-mercaptoethanol-treated digest revealed, however, that extensive cleavage of light chains had occurred even though most of the material before reduction had a mol. wt close to that of undigested IgG1. Although a Fab-type fragment was detected in the digest by immunoelectrophoresis it appeared to be only a minor component. Chymotrypsin had little effect upon either the structure or antibody activity of IgG1. These findings may explain the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin on the bactericidal activity of colostral antibodies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:321343

  3. IgG4-related disease presenting with destructive sinonasal lesion mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Nien

    2016-11-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized systemic fibroinflammatory disorder. We report a 36-year-old man who presented with intractable right nasal pain and frontal headache for 1 month. Computed tomography revealed an ill-defined lesion with bony erosion over the right anterior ethmoid sinus and middle turbinate. The lesion was resected through endoscopic anterior ethmoidectomy and middle turbinectomy. IgG4-related disease was definitively diagnosed according to histopathological features. Prednisolone was administered postoperatively. IgG4-related disease presenting with destructive sinonasal lesion mimicking malignancy is rare. Awareness is essential to avoid delayed diagnosis or unnecessary invasive intervention, because the disorder responds to glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy.

  4. Imaging of inflammatory arthritis with technetium-99m-labeled IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Breedveld, F.C.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Camps, J.A.; Feitsma, H.I.; Markusse, H.M.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (IgG) radiolabeled with 99mTc was compared to that of (99mTc)albumin and (99mTc)nanocolloid in rats with collagen induced arthritis. Serial scintigrams were acquired directly, 4 and 24 hr after injection. A clearly discernable image of the site of synovitis was seen with (99mTc)IgG as early as 4 hr postinjection. The relative intensity of the inflammatory lesion was maximal at 24 hr. Discrimination between arthritic and nonarthritic joints as well as correlations between the relative intensity of the arthritic joint and clinical indices of joint inflammation were superior with IgG compared to albumin or nanocolloid. These studies show that localization and severity of inflammatory joint disease can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific IgG.

  5. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Togashi, Masaru; Sawada, Ken-Ichi; Wakui, Hideki

    2013-06-01

    A 25-year-old woman was admitted because of proteinuria. A renal biopsy showed mesangial/endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis with IgG2-κ deposits. Electron microscopy showed immune complex-type deposits. She also had Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, anticardiolipin antibodies, and antinuclear antibodies. Middle-dose steroid therapy led to improvement of proteinuria and hemolytic anemia. Six years later, she developed crescentic glomerulonephritis with IgG2-κ deposits during pregnancy. Middle-dose steroid therapy improved renal dysfunction. This is an exceptional case of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits (PGNMID), a recently described rare dysproteinemia-related glomerulonephritis, associated with autoimmune disease. This case also suggests that crescentic glomerulonephritis can be superimposed on PGNMID.

  6. Inflammatory aortic aneurysm: possible manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease

    PubMed Central

    Raparia, Kirtee; Molina, Claudia P; Quiroga-Garza, Gabriela; Weilbaecher, Donald; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that IgG4-related autoimmune reaction is involved in the formation of inflammatory aortic aneurysms (IAA). We obtained 23 cases of IAA and 11 cases of atherosclerotic aortic aneurysms (AAA) as control group. We evaluated the expression of IgG4 in both IAA study cases and AAA control cases. In addition, immunohistochemical expression of C-Kit, CD21, CD34, S-100 protein, SMA, vimentin, p53, beta-catenin, and ALK-1, and EBV-LMP1 expression by in situ hybridization were performed only in IAA cases. Of the 23 patients, 20 were males and 3 were females (M: F ratio 6.7:1); age ranged from 43 to 81 years (average 64.3 years). Histologically, all 23 cases of IAA formed a mass that displayed inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor-like features. All lesions stained strongly and diffusely for vimentin and SMA (100%); 17 stained strongly and focally for CD34 (74%); and all were negative for C-Kit, CD21, S-100 protein, p53, beta-catenin, EBV-LMP1, and ALK-1. The numbers of infiltrating IgG4-positive plasma cells in IAA cases exceed that of AAA cases. Score 3 (>50 plasma cells/one 40X field) of IgG4-positive plasma cells was only seen in IAA cases (13/23, 57%), whereas none of the 11 cases of AAA showed score 3 IgG4-positive plasma cells (P=0.0018, Fischer‘s exact test). Our findings suggest that IAA may be an aortic manifestation of the IgG4-related sclerosing disease. The high number of positive plasma cells, >50 plasma cells/one 40X field is more specific for the IAA than for AAA; however, lesser number can be seen in both IAA and AAA patients. PMID:23411750

  7. Sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for IgG using gold nanoparticle as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Honglan; Shangguan, Li; Liang, Lin; Ling, Chen; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2011-11-01

    A sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL-FIA) immunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was developed using gold nanoparticle as CL label. In the configuration, anti-IgG antibody was immobilized on a glass capillary column surface by 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde to form immunoaffinity column. Analyte IgG and gold nanoparticle labeled IgG were passed through the immunoaffinity column mounted in a flow system and competed for the surface-confined anti-IgG antibody. CL emission was generated from the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Au (III), generated from chemically oxidative dissolution of gold nanoparticle by an injection of 0.10 mol L -1 HCl-0.10 mol L -1 NaCl solution containing 0.10 mmol L -1 Br 2. The concentration of analyte IgG was inversely related to the amount of bound gold nanoparticle labeled IgG and the CL intensity was linear with the concentration of analyte IgG from 1.0 ng mL -1 to 40 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The whole assay time including the injections and washing steps was only 30 min for one sample, which was competitive with CL immunoassays based on a gold nanoparticle label and magnetic separation. This work demonstrates that the CL immunoassay incorporation of nanoparticle label and flow injection is promising for clinical assay with sensitivity and high-speed.

  8. Fc gamma receptor IIb participates in maternal IgG trafficking of human placental endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, TOMOKO; TAKIZAWA, TAKAMI; IWAKI, JUN; MISHIMA, TAKUYA; UI-TEI, KUMIKO; TAKESHITA, TOSHIYUKI; MATSUBARA, SHIGEKI; TAKIZAWA, TOSHIHIRO

    2015-01-01

    The human placental transfer of maternal IgG is crucial for fetal and newborn immunity. Low-affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor IIb2 (FCGR2B2 or FcγRIIb2) is exclusively expressed in an IgG-containing, vesicle-like organelle (the FCGR2B2 compartment) in human placental endothelial cells; thus, we hypothesized that the FCGR2B2 compartment functions as an IgG transporter. In this study, to examine this hypothesis, we performed in vitro bio-imaging analysis of IgG trafficking by FCGR2B2 compartments using human umbilical vein endothelial cells transfected with a plasmid vector containing enhanced GFP-tagged FCGR2B2 (pFCGR2B2-EGFP). FCGR2B2-EGFP signals were detected as intracellular vesicular structures similar to FCGR2B2 compartments in vivo. The internalization and transcytosis of IgG was significantly higher in the pFCGR2B2-EGFP-transfected cells than in the mock-transfected cells, and the majority of the internalized IgG was co-localized with the FCGR2B2-EGFP signals. Furthermore, we isolated FCGR2B2 compartments from the human placenta and found that the Rab family of proteins [RAS-related protein Rab family (RABs)] were associated with FCGR2B2 compartments. Among the RABs, RAB3D was expressed predominantly in placental endothelial cells. The downregulation of RAB3D by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a marked reduction in the FCGR2B2-EGFP signals at the cell periphery. Taken together, these findings suggest that FCGR2B2 compartments participate in the transcytosis of maternal IgG across the human placental endothelium and that RAB3D plays a role in regulating the intracellular dynamics of FCGR2B2 compartments. PMID:25778799

  9. Overlapping IgG4 responses to self and environmental antigens in endemic pemphigus foliaceus

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ye; Jeong, Joseph S.; Ye, Jian; Dang, Bim; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aoki, Valeria; Hans-Filhio, Gunter; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Diaz, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of human autoimmune diseases in general remains largely unknown, although the genetic and environmental interplay may be relevant. This applies to the autoimmune diseases of the skin such as the pemphigus phenotypes and others. In this group, there is an endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus [also known as Fogo Selvagem (FS)] where the pathogenic IgG4 autoantibody response to the self-antigen, Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) cross-react with the LJM11 sand fly salivary gland antigen. In this investigation we dissected the IgG4 autoantibody repertoires utilized by FS patients in response to endogenous self Dsg1 and exogenous LJM11 sand fly antigen. Based on analyses of the genetic clonal signatures of these antibodies, our results indicate that there is a significant overlap between these two responses as all identified IgG4 monoclonal antibodies cross-react to both Dsg1 and LJM11 antigens. Germline H and L chain V gene antibodies generated according to mutated cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies preserved their reactivity to both antigens. Our findings suggest that both Dsg1 autoantigen and LJM11 environmental antigen could be the initial antigenic stimulants for the IgG4 autoimmune responses in FS. These results support our hypothesis that LJM11 antigen plays a substantial role in triggering the IgG4 autoantibody development in FS, and provide new insights on how non-infectious environmental antigen(s) may drive the generation of autoantibodies in IgG4-related autoimmune diseases. PMID:26826247

  10. A case of IgG4-related dacryoadenitis that regressed without systemic steroid administration.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Koh-Ichi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    There are no reports on the effect of anti-allergic agents against IgG4-related disease. We herein report a case of IgG4-related dacryoadenitis that is believed to have regressed due to the administration of anti-allergic agents. A 57-year-old woman consulted us because of bilateral temporal upper eyelid swelling and induration. She had also been suffering from allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis for 20 years. We performed an incisional biopsy of the lesion. With respect to the pathology, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type was strongly suspected. On obtaining consent from the patient, follow-up alone was to be continued without radiation therapy. In addition to the observation of lacrimal gland lesions, the administration of epinastine hydrochloride at a dosage of 20 mg/day and 0.01% betamethasone eye drops twice a day to both eyes was commenced in order to treat both allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. The lacrimal gland lesion decreased in size over time, becoming predominantly normal 7 years after the commencement of agent administration. We therefore re-examined the blood and pathology specimens. As a result, the serum IgG4 level was found to have increased to 540 mg/dl, while IgG4/IgG was 36.2%. The pathological diagnosis was revised to IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. The hypotheses of spontaneous remission and/or the effect of epinastine hydrochloride administration can be proposed regarding the mechanism by which the lacrimal gland lesion decreased in size. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(1): 53-56, 2013].

  11. Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C

    2010-01-01

    Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs.

  12. Profiling IgG N-glycans as potential biomarker of chronological and biological ages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinwei; Wang, Youxin; Kristic, Jasminka; Dong, Jing; Chu, Xi; Ge, Siqi; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Liu, Di; Zhao, Zhongyao; Peng, Hongli; Pucic Bakovic, Maja; Wu, Lijuan; Song, Manshu; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As an important post-translation modifying process, glycosylation significantly affects the structure and function of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules and is essential in many steps of the inflammatory cascade. Studies have demonstrated the potential of using glycosylation features of IgG as a component of predictive biomarkers for chronological age in several European populations, whereas no study has been reported in Chinese. Herein, we report various patterns of changes in IgG glycosylation associated with age by analyzing IgG glycosylation in 701 community-based Han Chinese (244 males, 457 females; 23–68 years old). Eleven IgG glycans, including FA2B, A2G1, FA2[6]G1, FA2[3]G1, FA2[6]BG1, FA2[3]BG1, A2G2, A2BG2, FA2G2, FA2G2S1, and FA2G2S2, change considerably with age and specific combinations of these glycan features can explain 23.3% to 45.4% of the variance in chronological age in this population. This indicates that these combinations of glycan features provide more predictive information than other single markers of biological age such as telomere length. In addition, the clinical traits such as fasting plasma glucose and aspartate aminotransferase associated with biological age are strongly correlated with the combined glycan features. We conclude that IgG glycosylation appears to correlate with both chronological and biological ages, and thus its possible role in the aging process merits further study. PMID:27428197

  13. Antibody response of Echinococcus granulosus infected mice: protoscolex specific response during infection is associated with decreasing specific IgG1/IgG3 ratio as well as decreasing avidity.

    PubMed

    Severi, M A; Ferragut, G; Nieto, A

    1997-12-01

    The antibody response was followed during 68 weeks in 17 Balb/c mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) infected with Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (PSC) and in three mice i.p. immunized with dead PSC. Titres of antibodies recognizing peptidic and glucidic PSC epitopes, as well as their isotypic and avidity profiles were followed by ELISA. In addition, antigen recognition patterns were analysed by immunoblot. The response against carbohydrate epitopes was dominant in infected and immunized mice but stronger in the first group. Infected mice showed similar profiles of specific IgG and IgM with maximum titres from week 38 to 53. Although IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant antibody subclasses, the ratio of IgG1/IgG3 antibody titres as well as antibody avidity decreased during the experiment, encompassing a decrease in recognition of peptidic epitopes. Immunized mice did not show significant levels of specific IgM and, after week 15, showed IgG titres lower than the infected mice. IgG1 was the predominant IgG subclass during all the experiment with background levels of IgG3. The mean Ab avidity was high and showed no significant changes during immunization. Different patterns of response were thus produced by dead and developing live parasites. Although high avidity IgG1 antibodies were early found in both cases, lower avidity IgG3 antibodies were increasingly produced afterwards only in infected animals. The isotype switch and avidity decrease observed only during infection are consistent with a possible parasitic mechanism to evade host immunity.

  14. IgG1 and IgG4 Antibody Responses to the Anopheles gambiae Salivary Protein gSG6 in the Sympatric Ethnic Groups Mossi and Fulani in a Malaria Hyperhendemic Area of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Fabrizio; Mangano, Valentina; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Nèbiè, Issa; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Modiano, David; Arcà, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Human antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool for malaria epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. However, the current understanding of the host immune response to mosquito salivary proteins and of the possible crosstalk with early response to Plasmodium parasites is still very limited. We report here the analysis of IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses among anti-gSG6 IgG responders belonging to Mossi and Fulani from Burkina Faso, two ethnic groups which are known for their differential humoral response to parasite antigens and for their different susceptibility to malaria. The IgG1 antibody response against the gSG6 protein was comparable in the two groups. On the contrary, IgG4 titers were significantly higher in the Fulani where, in addition, anti-gSG6 IgG4 antibodies appeared in younger children and the ratio IgG4/IgG1 stayed relatively stable throughout adulthood. Both gSG6-specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies showed a tendency to decrease with age whereas, as expected, the IgG response to the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) exhibited an opposite trend in the same individuals. These observations are in line with the idea that the An. gambiae gSG6 salivary protein induces immune tolerance, especially after intense and prolonged exposure as is the case for the area under study, suggesting that gSG6 may trigger in exposed individuals a Th2-oriented immune response. PMID:24760038

  15. Age related variations of serum concentrations of normally occurring IgG antibodies to Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed Central

    Zarén, E; Schwan, A; Frenckner, B

    1987-01-01

    In studies using indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibodies to Clostridium perfringens were found in sera from healthy adults. Sera from 236 healthy children were examined. The normally occurring IgG antibodies to C perfringens were found to have an age related variation. Preliminary data suggest that they are not correlated to C perfringens alpha toxin. The antigen(s) against which the antibodies are directed is/are probably part of the cell wall, but its/their exact nature is not known. PMID:2881950

  16. Clinical utility of testing AQP4-IgG in CSF

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Masoud; Fryer, James P.; McKeon, Andrew; Lennon, Vanda A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To define, using assays of optimized sensitivity and specificity, the most informative specimen type for aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) detection. Methods: Results were reviewed from longitudinal service testing for AQP4-IgG among specimens submitted to the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory from 101,065 individual patients. Paired samples of serum/CSF were tested from 616 patients, using M1-AQP4-transfected cell-based assays (both fixed AQP4-CBA Euroimmun kit [commercial CBA] and live in-house flow cytometry [FACS]). Sensitivities were compared for 58 time-matched paired specimens (drawn ≤30 days apart) from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or high-risk patients. Results: The frequency of CSF submission as sole initial specimen was 1 in 50 in 2007 and 1 in 5 in 2015. In no case among 616 paired specimens was CSF positive and serum negative. In 58 time-matched paired specimens, AQP4-IgG was detected by FACS or by commercial CBA more sensitively in serum than in CSF (respectively, p = 0.06 and p < 0.001). A serum titer >1:100 predicted CSF positivity (p < 0.001). The probability of CSF positivity was greater around attack time (p = 0.03). No control specimen from 128 neurologic patients was positive by either assay. Conclusions: FACS and commercial CBA detection of AQP4-IgG is less sensitive in CSF than in serum. The data suggest that most AQP4-IgG is produced in peripheral lymphoid tissues and that a critical serum/CSF gradient is required for IgG to penetrate the CNS in pathogenic quantity. Serum is the optimal and most cost-effective specimen for AQP4-IgG testing. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with NMO or NMOSD, CSF is less sensitive than serum for detection of AQP4-IgG. PMID:27144221

  17. IgG antibody response to toxins A and B in patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Wullt, M; Norén, T; Ljungh, A; Åkerlund, T

    2012-09-01

    IgG antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins A and B were followed in controls and in patients with an initial C. difficile infection (CDI). Of the 50 CDI patients, 38 were cured and 12 developed recurrence. Compared to controls, patients had significantly lower anti-toxin A and B IgGs at inclusion, but the subsequent levels rose slightly regardless of clinical outcome. The results imply that the general serum reactivity against toxins A and B in the population reduces the risk of CDI, which suggests implications for vaccine strategies.

  18. Bicentric Evaluation of Six Anti-Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Automated Immunoassays and Comparison to the Toxo II IgG Western Blot▿

    PubMed Central

    Maudry, Arnaud; Chene, Gautier; Chatelain, Rémi; Patural, Hugues; Bellete, Bahrie; Tisseur, Bernard; Hafid, Jamal; Raberin, Hélène; Beretta, Sophie; Tran Manh Sung, Roger; Belot, Georges; Flori, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of the Toxoplasma IgGI and IgGII Access (Access I and II, respectively; Beckman Coulter Inc.), AxSYM Toxo IgG (AxSYM; Abbott Diagnostics), Vidas Toxo IgG (Vidas; bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), Immulite Toxo IgG (Immulite; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.), and Modular Toxo IgG (Modular; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) tests was done with 406 consecutive serum samples. The Toxo II IgG Western blot (LDBio, Lyon, France) was used as a reference technique in the case of intertechnique discordance. Of the 406 serum samples tested, the results for 35 were discordant by the different techniques. Using the 175 serum samples with positive results, we evaluated the standardization of the titrations obtained (in IU/ml); the medians (second quartiles) obtained were 9.1 IU/ml for the AxSYM test, 21 IU/ml for the Access I test, 25.7 IU/ml for the Access II test, 32 IU/ml for the Vidas test, 34.6 IU/ml for the Immulite test, and 248 IU/ml for the Modular test. For all the immunoassays tested, the following relative sensitivity and specificity values were found: 89.7 to 100% for the Access II test, 89.7 to 99.6% for the Immulite test, 90.2 to 99.6% for the AxSYM test, 91.4 to 99.6% for the Vidas test, 94.8 to 99.6% for the Access I test, and 98.3 to 98.7% for the Modular test. Among the 406 serum samples, we did not find any false-positive values by two different tests for the same serum sample. Except for the Modular test, which prioritized sensitivity, it appears that the positive cutoff values suggested by the pharmaceutical companies are very high (either for economical or for safety reasons). This led to imperfect sensitivity, a large number of unnecessary serological follow-ups of pregnant women, and difficulty in determining the serological status of immunosuppressed individuals. PMID:19587151

  19. Study of IgG subclass profiles of anti-HBs in populations with different HBV infection status.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsin; Huang, Chien-Fu; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Ho, Mei-Shang; Wang, Lina; Tsai, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chou; Xu, Fang-Ling; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2006-01-01

    To study IgG-specific subclasses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (anti-HBs), in different populations in Taiwan, a comparison was made between 104 chronic carriers (60 male and 44 female) and 439 recovered individuals (247 male and 192 female). Biochemical analyses of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also performed. Among the 104 chronic carriers, 21 patients had abnormal ALT and AST levels (> 25 IU/ml). When comparing the patients with abnormal ALT and AST levels to chronic carriers with normal ALT and AST levels, no statistical difference was observed for anti-HBs levels (p > 0.05). The IgG subclass pattern of the relative anti-HBs IgG subclass titers was IgG1 > IgG3 = IgG4 in both chronic carriers and recovered individuals (p < 0.05). IgG1 is the predominant anti-HBs antibody after HBV infection, in either chronic carriers or in HBV-cured individuals. This finding is partly inconsistent with data reported from other group who suggested in individuals naturally infected, the anti-HBs IgG consists mainly of IgG3 and IgG1. In contrast to that of our previous studies of anti-HBe and anti-HBc, the mean OD values of anti-HBs total IgG, and all IgG subclasses except for IgG2, of either males or females, were significantly higher in recovered individuals than in chronic carriers, while the mean OD values of anti-HBe and anti-HBc were significantly higher in chronic carriers than in recovered individuals (P < 0.05). The IgG subclass profile of anti-HBs in chronic carriers was not changed with liver inflammation and was independent of sex and age, except in individuals with abnormal ALT and AST for whom anti-HBs IgG1 was not significantly higher than IgG3 (p > 0.05), in spite of that whose mean O.D. value is higher.

  20. [IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Fang, W L; Wang, H J; Lu, Y W; Feng, R E; Bu, X N; Fang, Q H

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical data of a patient with IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue and review the literature so as to improve the understanding level of the disorder. Methods: To analyze the clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, imaging, histopathology, treatment and prognosis of a patient with IgG(4)-related disease trachea and paratracheal soft tissue involved, who was admitted to the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital. The relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: A 18-year-old female was admitted with chief complaint of cough, dyspnea, and neck mass. Neck CT suggested that tracheal stenosis was caused by surrounded soft tissue. Paratracheal mass biopsy showed dense collagen fibers with infiltration of many lymphocytes and plasma cells. Immunohistochemical stain found that IgG(4)-positive plasma cells were >50/high power field (HPF) and a ratio of IgG(4)/IgG positive cells was over 40% .The level of serum IgG(4) was significantly increased (2 930 mg/L). She was diagnosed as IgG(4)-related disease. The patient was treated with 80 mg intravenous methylprednisolone per day for three days, then prednisone 40 mg daily oral. Her dyspnea was significantly relieved.One month later, CT scan showed that the cervical tracheal stenosis was significantly improved. We identified 20 cases of IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue from databases, in which only 1 case was similar as this patient. The other 19 cases were of extratracheal involvement. Elevated serum IgG(4) was detected in 11/12 patients. Most patients were treated with glucocorticoid, some combined with immunosuppressive agents and rituximab. The clinical outcome was good. Conclusion: IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue is a rare condition. Serum IgG(4) level and histopathology should be considered for diagnosis. Glucocorticoid is

  1. The importance of IgG4 screening in patients diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis in the past

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanni; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Song, Wenjing; Karunaratna, Nathasha; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: While primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been recognized for decades, immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) has been correctly diagnosed only in recent years. PSC and IgG4-SC show similar clinical symptoms, serologic markers, and imaging results, but the treatment strategies and prognosis of patients differ. Patient concerns: Here, we present the case report of a patient diagnosed with PSC for 10 years and rediagnosed with IgG4-SC recently, to emphasize the importance of screening serum IgG4 levels in patients with previous diagnosis of PSC. Diagnoses: A 57-year-old woman with 10-year history of PSC was hospitalized due to pruritus. In 2004, the patient underwent cholecystectomy and cholangioenterostomy because of unexplained jaundice with pancreatic swelling. In the last 10 years, her liver enzyme levels were continuously elevated. The latest liver function profile showed elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. IgG4 was 3.69 (0.03–2.01 g/L). Immunohistochemical staining of the surgical specimen showed >10 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells >40%. Interventions and outcomes: She was treated with prednisone 40 mg once-daily and the dose was gradually tapered. The patient remains well after 18 months. Lessons subsections: Patients with IgG4-SC may be misdiagnosed as PSC due to lack of IgG4 screening. It is important to perform IgG4 screening in patients diagnosed as PSC. Steroid is effective to prevent disease progression in these patients. PMID:27977604

  2. A brief contextualization on IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis based on a case report in south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pêgas, Karla Lais; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Lobato, Gisele

    2016-06-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD) is a recent inflammatory process of supposed autoimmune etiology, which is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common renal manifestation, with different degrees of kidney dysfunction and variable clinical findings. Herein, the authors describe a new case of IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4TN), and discuss clinic and pathologic criteria. Male patient, 72 years-old, was admitted on hospital service with clinical complaint of asthenia, loss of strength, emaciation, and anosmia. Previous history included type 2 diabetes mellitus. Laboratorial data included normochromic anemia, proteinuria, and creatinine elevation. Bilateral kidney ultrassonography/computed tomography revealed a heterogenous parenchyma, with diffuse irregular dense zones, areas of fibrosis on upper poles, and hydronephrosys. Kidney biopsy showed a dense interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with more than 50 plasma cell per high power field, irregular areas of fibroblastic and collagenous fibrosis, focal tubulitis, and normal glomeruli. Immunofluorescence revealed mild granular deposition of C3c and IgG in the tubular basement membrane. Immunohistochemestry was positive for CD138, lambda and Kappa light chains, and IgG4 (around forty five IgG4 positive plasma cells per high power field). IgG4 serum level was increased. The diagnosis of IgG4TN was then established. The patient received corticotherapy and strict control of glycemia with insulin, with marked improvement of symptoms and creatinine levels.

  3. Label-free and real-time detections of the interactions of swine IgG with goat anti-swine IgG by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Dai, J.; He, L. P.; Sun, Y.; Lu, H. B.; Jin, K. J.; Yang, G. Z.

    2012-09-01

    With the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique, we successfully label-free detected the interaction of swine IgG with different concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml, and 5 μg/ml goat anti-swine IgG, and real-time detected the reaction dynamic processes of 0.5 mg/ml swine IgG and goat anti-swine IgG with different concentration of 5, 10, and 20 μg/ml, respectively. The interaction times are about 2043, 1828, and 1347 s for the reactions of 0.5 mg/ml swine IgG and goat anti-swine IgG of 5, 10, and 20 μg/ml, respectively. By fitting the reaction dynamic curves, we obtained that the association constant of swine IgG and goat anti-swine IgG is 1620.77 M-1.S-1 at temperature about 22 °C. The experimental results demonstrate that the OIRD is a promising and competing method for label-free and real time detecting the biomolecular interactions and achieving the quantitative information of reaction kinetics.

  4. Site-Specific Hydrolysis Reaction C-Terminal of Methionine in Met-His during Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation of IgG-1.

    PubMed

    Mozziconacci, Olivier; Arora, Jayant; Toth, Ronald T; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Zhou, Shuxia; Volkin, David B; Schöneich, Christian

    2016-04-04

    The metal-catalyzed oxidation by [Fe(II)(EDTA)](2-)/H2O2 of IgG-1 leads to the site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the Fc region. The major hydrolytic cleavage occurs between Met428 and His429, consistent with a mechanism reported for the site-specific hydrolysis of parathyroid hormone (1-34) between Met8 and His9 (Mozziconacci, O.; et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics 2013, 10 (2), 739-755). In IgG-1, to a lesser extent, we also observe hydrolysis reactions between Met252 and Ile253. After 2 h of oxidation (at pH 5.8, 37 °C) approximately 5% of the protein is cleaved between Met428 and His429. For comparison, after 2 h of oxidation, the amount of tryptic peptides containing a Met sulfoxide residue represents less than 0.1% of the protein. The effect of this site-specific hydrolysis on the conformational stability and aggregation propensity of the antibody was also examined. No noticeable differences in structural integrity and conformational stability were observed between control and oxidized IgG-1 samples as measured by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, and static light scattering (SLS). Small amounts of soluble and insoluble aggregates (3-6%) were, however, observed in the oxidized samples by UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Over the course of metal-catalyzed oxidation, increasing amounts of fragments were also observed by SEC. An increase in the concentration of subvisible particles was detected by microflow imaging (MFI).

  5. Two-step chromatography purification of IgGs possessing sialidase activity from human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Kit, Yury; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Korniy, Nataliya; Tomin, Andriy; Chop'yak, Valentyna; Tolstyak, Yaroslav; Antonyuk, Volodymyr; Stoika, Rostyslav

    2015-03-01

    Sialation of cell surface is known to be tightly connected with tumorigenicity, invasiveness, metastatic potential and clearance of aged cells, while sialation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules determines their anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we have found for the first time IgG-antibodies possessing sialidase-like activity (sialylic abzyme) in blood serum of multiple myeloma and systemic lupus erythematosis patients. This abzyme was detected in a pool of IgGs purified by a typical procedure including immunoglobulin's precipitation with ammonium sulfate and following chromatography on protein G-Sepharose column. Here we describe a novel matrix for affinity purification of sialylic abzyme that is based on using bovine submandibular gland mucin conjugated to Sepharose matrix (mucin-Sepharose). This matrix preferentially binds sialidase-like IgGs from a pool of sialidase-active fraction of proteins precipitated with 50% ammonium sulfate from blood serum of the systemic lupus erythematosis patients. That allowed us to develop a new scheme of double-step chromatography purification of sialidase-like IgGs from human blood serum.

  6. [IgG4-associated parotitis:case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Fang, Li-hua; Ping, Jin-liang

    2013-08-01

    A case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-associated parotitis was reported and related literatures were reviewed,in order to improve the recognization of this systemic diseases and reduce the misdiagnosis and mistreatment in clinical practice for the stomatologists.

  7. Standardization of Assays That Detect Anti-Rubella Virus IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Rubella virus usually causes a mild infection in humans but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Vaccination programs have significantly decreased primary rubella virus infection and CRS; however, vaccinated individuals usually have lower levels of rubella virus IgG than those with natural infections. Rubella virus IgG is quantified with enzyme immunoassays that have been calibrated against the World Health Organization (WHO) international standard and report results in international units per milliliter. It is recognized that the results reported by these assays are not standardized. This investigation into the reasons for the lack of standardization found that the current WHO international standard (RUB-1-94) fails by three key metrological principles. The standard is not a pure analyte but is composed of pooled human immunoglobulin. It was not calibrated by certified reference methods; rather, superseded tests were used. Finally, no measurement uncertainty estimations have been provided. There is an analytical and clinical consequence to the lack of standardization of rubella virus IgG assays, which leads to misinterpretation of results. The current approach to standardization of rubella virus IgG assays has not achieved the desired results. A new approach is required. PMID:26607813

  8. IgG responses to antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae in healthy and atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Chun; Pemberton, Alan; Nuttall, Tim; Hill, Peter B

    2005-06-15

    In this study, we used a semi-quantitative electrophoresis and immunoblotting technique to characterise the IgG response to antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae in 20 healthy and 20 atopic dogs. Both groups mounted an IgG response to multiple antigens from the mite. There was no significant difference in the number of bands recognised, or the molecular weights of the bands, between the two groups. The two most obvious bands in both groups were proteins with molecular weights of 98 kDa (likely to be the high molecular weight allergen Der f 15) and 44 kDa, although dogs in both groups recognised a similar pattern of other antigens. The magnitude of the IgG response was greater in the atopic group although this was not statistically significant. The results indicate that the immune system of both healthy and atopic dogs generates an IgG response to multiple antigens from D. farinae. As some of these antigens (such as the 98 and 44 kDa proteins) are also targeted by IgE in atopic dogs, immunoglobulin class switching in response to Th2 cytokines may not be as dominant a process as has been proposed.

  9. Anti-amyloidogenic Activity of IgGs Contained in Normal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans P.; Solomon, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a subpopulation of naturally occurring human IgGs has therapeutic potential for the amyloid-associated disorders. These molecules cross-react with conformational epitopes on amyloidogenic assemblies, including amyloid beta (Aβ) protein fibrils that are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods Using our europium-linked immunosorbant assay, we established that ∼95% of 260 screened donor plasma samples had amyloid fibril-reactive IgGs and Aβ conformer-reactive IgGs with minimal binding to Aβ monomers. Anti-amyloidogenic reactivity was diverse and attributed to Aβ targeting multiple fibril-related binding sites and/or variations in multidentate binding. Results and Discussion There was no correlation between anti-fibril and anti-oligomer reactivity and donor age (19 to 60 years old) or gender. These findings demonstrate the inherent but diverse anti-amyloidogenic activity of natural IgGs contained in normal plasma. Conclusion Our studies provide support for investigating the clinical significance and physiological function of this novel class of antibodies. PMID:20405179

  10. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and its overlap with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni Maria; Rocco, Rossana; Accorsi Buttini, Eugenia; Marvisi, Chiara; Vaglio, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease characterised by fibrous tissue proliferation in the retroperitoneum, with encasement of the ureters and large vessels of the abdomen as the most destructive of potentially severe complications. It can either be idiopathic, or secondary to infections, malignancies, or the use of certain drugs. The idiopathic form accounts for approximately 75% of the cases, and is usually responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. In recent years, the emergence of a new clinical entity, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), shed light on many fibro-inflammatory disorders once thought to be separate clinical entities, although frequently associated in the so-called multifocal fibrosclerosis. Among these, together with sclerosing pancreatitis and cholangitis, pseudotumour of the orbit, idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis and other conditions, is idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF). Both IRF and IgG4-RD can be associated with a wide variety of disorders, usually governed by immune-mediated (and particularly auto-immune) mechanisms. In our review, we discuss the clinical and therapeutic challenges IRF presents to the internist, as well as the meaning of its recent inclusion in the IgG4-RD spectrum from a clinical practice standpoint.

  11. Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sabrina; Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes A; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a severe disease characterized by various symptoms of immune dysfunction. CFS onset is typically with an infection and many patients suffer from frequently recurrent viral or bacterial infections. Immunoglobulin and mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency are frequent causes for increased susceptibility to infections. In this study we retrospectively analysed 300 patients with CFS for immunoglobulin and MBL levels, and B-cell subset frequencies. 25% of the CFS patients had decreased serum levels of at least one antibody class or subclass with IgG3 and IgG4 subclass deficiencies as most common phenotypes. However, we found elevated immunoglobulin levels with an excess of IgM and IgG2 in particular in another 25% of patients. No major alteration in numbers of B cells and B-cell subsets was seen. Deficiency of MBL was found in 15% of the CFS patients in contrast to 6% in a historical control group. In a 2nd cohort of 168 patients similar frequencies of IgG subclass and MBL deficiency were found. Thus, humoral immune defects are frequent in CFS patients and are associated with infections of the respiratory tract.

  12. Binding of normal human IgG to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Aarli, J A; Aparicio, S R; Lumsden, C E; Tönder, O

    1975-01-01

    The binding of normal human serum, purified IgG and IgG fragments to central nervous tissue was studied by the anti-globulin consumption (AGCT) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. In the AGCT, F(ab')2 fragments failed to react, whereas IgG and Fc fragments did so. In IF experiments, the binding was localized to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons; Fab monomers at a protein concentration of 1-3 mg/ml dod not react with the tissue, but purified Fc fragments at 0-0625 mg/ml did. The binding is neither tissue- nor species-specific. Lipid and protein extraction procedures indicated that the factor responsible for binding to myelin was basic protein. It was concluded that the binding of normal IgG to central nervous tissue is medicated by the Fc part of the molecule. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:803915

  13. Immunogenicity of Isogenic IgG in Aggregates and Immune Complexes.

    PubMed

    St Clair, J Benjamin; Detanico, Thiago; Aviszus, Katja; Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Christie, Merry; Carpenter, John F; Wysocki, Lawrence J

    2017-01-01

    A paradox in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is that despite the well-documented tolerogenic properties of deaggregated IgG, most therapeutic IgG mAb induce anti-mAb responses. To analyze CD4 T cell reactions against IgG in various physical states, we developed an adoptive transfer model using CD4+ T cells specific for a Vκ region-derived peptide in the hapten-specific IgG mAb 36-71. We found that heat-aggregated or immune complexes (IC) of mAb 36-71 elicited anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies, while the deaggregated form was tolerogenic. All 3 forms of mAb 36-71 induced proliferation of cognate CD4+ T cells, but the aggregated and immune complex forms drove more division cycles and induced T follicular helper cells (TFH) development more effectively than did the deaggregated form. These responses occurred despite no adjuvant and no or only trace levels of endotoxin in the preparations. Physical analyses revealed large differences in micron- and nanometer-sized particles between the aggregated and IC forms. These differences may be functionally relevant, as CD4+ T cell proliferation to aggregated, but not IC mAb 36-71, was nearly ablated upon peritoneal injection of B cell-depleting antibody. Our results imply that, in addition to denatured aggregates, immune complexes formed in vivo between therapeutic mAb and their intended targets can be immunogenic.

  14. Extraction and purification of IgG by hydrophilic organic solvent salting-out extraction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuesheng; Pang, Bofeng; Yu, Fang; Li, LingLing; Liu, Wencai; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-02-15

    The distribution of IgG in different salting-out extraction systems (SOESs), including ethanol/K2HPO4, Na2CO3, and trisodium citrate, was investigated. The SOESs that were composed of 20% K2HPO4 (w/w)-14% ethanol (w/w), 19% Na2CO3 (w/w)-13% ethanol (w/w) and 25% trisodium citrate (w/w)-19% ethanol (w/w) showed satisfactory results, with IgG recovery rates as high as 97.4%, 93.1%, and 90.2%, respectively. ELISA, CD and IR analyses confirmed the active retention and structural constant of IgG in the K2HPO4-ethanol system. An optimized system that consisted of 14% ethanol (w/w)-20% K2HPO4 (w/w) (pH 7.0) was selected for extracting active plasma proteins directly from pig plasma. As a result, recovery rates as high as 95.7% for IgG and 93.0% for albumin were achieved. In addition, some contaminating proteins were also removed by this system, which may provide a new alternative method for the separation and purification of immunoglobulin.

  15. Current Concepts and Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Pancreatitis (Type 1 AIP).

    PubMed

    Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    Although now considered to be a member of the systemic entity of immunoglobulin G4- (IgG4-) related disease, IgG4-related pancreatitis is generally referred to as type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Type 1 AIP was established based on a pathological background of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, high serum IgG4 concentration, and abundant IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration. The characteristic clinical features of type 1 AIP, such as elderly male preponderance, obstructive jaundice, and mass-forming lesions in the pancreas, often mimic those of pancreatic cancer. However, because AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid treatment, careful differentiation from pancreatic cancer is required. An AIP diagnosis is currently based on the 2011 International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for AIP, which are based on high sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy. Over the long term, AIP can progress to a chronic condition, with pancreatic stone formation and atrophy resembling that of chronic pancreatitis. Although AIP has been linked to the complication of malignancies, it remains controversial whether an association exists between the disease and tumor formation.

  16. IgG antibodies in patients with pemphigus vulgaris before and after diagnosing with immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Hamideh; Majidi, Jafar; Estakhri, Rasul; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-15

    Pemphigus is defined as a group of chronic self-immune vesicular diseases histologically recognized by inter-epidermic vesicles resulting from acantholysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precipitant and circulative IgG antibodies in patients with pemphigus vulgaris before and after treating with immunofluorescence. Sixty-two patients (34 females and 28 males) with clinically and pathologically confirmed P.V. were studied prospectively over a one year period of time during which direct and indirect immunofluorescent tests were performed before and after treatment. They had mild or moderate forms of disease. All patients received prednisolon 1-2 mg/kg/day and Azathioprine 2-3 mg/kg/day or methylpredisolon (1 g day(-1) for 4 days) and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/first day) pulse therapy due to general condition. Thirty- four females and 28 males enrolled, the mean age were 39.5 years (SD = 12.7). Before treatment, 10 and 52 cases were positive for skin depositing + or ++) and circulatory IgG (1/20 -1/60), respectively. Two to 3 month later, 37 were IgG positive with titers 1/20 to 1/160. The correlation between circulatory IgG before and after treatment was weakly positive (p = 0.05, r = 0.415). In the present study, treatment methods used for patients suffering from pemphigus vulgaris were not successful in significantly decreasing the circulative autoantibodies levels.

  17. Survey of genetic diversity of IgG in wild and domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A; Almeida, T; Esteves, P J

    2015-10-01

    We sequenced IgG from genomic DNA of 30 wild European rabbits of O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus subspecies from three regions and 15 domestic O. c. cuniculus. Genetic diversity was highest within Iberian wild populations. Only two new amino acid polymorphisms were found, both in O. c. algirus.

  18. In vitro molecular evolution yields an NEIBM with a potential novel IgG binding property

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Peipei; Ding, Ying-Ying; He, Ting; Yang, Tong; Chen, Qiuli; Feng, Jiaojiao; Wang, Jinhong; Cao, Mingmei; Li, Xiangyu; Peng, Heng; Zhu, Huaimin; Cao, Jie; Pan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) and protein G of groups C and G streptococci (SpG) are two well-defined bacterial immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding proteins (IBPs) with high affinity for specific sites on IgG from mammalian hosts. Both SpA and SpG contain several highly-homologous IgG-binding domains, each of which possesses similar binding characteristic of the whole corresponding proteins. Whether specific combinations of these domains could generate a molecule with novel IgG-binding properties remained unknown. We constructed a combinatorial phage library displaying randomly-rearranged A, B, C, D and E domains of SpA as well as the B2 (G2) and B3 (G3) domains of SpG. In vitro molecular evolution directed by human, rabbit, bovine, or goat polyclonal IgGs and four subclasses of mouse monoclonal IgGs generated one common combination, D-C-G3. A series of assays demonstrated that D-C-G3 exhibited a potential novel IgG binding property that was obviously different from those of both parent proteins. This study provides an example of successful protein engineering through in vitro molecular evolution and useful approaches for structure and function studies of IBPs. PMID:25366194

  19. Lesson of the month 2: IgG4-related renal mass with spontaneous resolution.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Vijaya B P; Trefor, Rhiannon; Rajamani, Kaushik; Santosh, Divya; Griffiths, David; Donovan, Kieron

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic inflammatory condition that may involve any organ in the body, including the kidneys. However, renal parenchymal lesions are not seen frequently and the treatment strategy remains unclear. We describe a case of IgG4-related renal mass, which resolved spontaneously. The patient presented with right loin pain, constitutional symptoms and raised inflammatory markers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large infiltrative mass centered on the right renal hilum and biopsy demonstrated histological changes in keeping with IgG4-RD. A careful 'watch-and-wait' approach was taken and at six months following initial presentation, the patient's symptoms had fully resolved and inflammatory markers had normalised. Repeat MRI showed almost complete resolution of the mass. We propose that a careful 'watch-and-wait' approach could be considered as an alternative to immune suppression for IgG4-related renal masses, especially if they are not causing symptoms or organ compromise.

  20. Isolated IgG4-related cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Wook; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Jinoo; Kim, Min Yeong; Oh, Young Ha; Pyo, Ju Yeon

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain was referred to the radiology department. The patient underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which suggested the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer invading the liver. After surgical removal of the gallbladder, and the adjacent liver parenchyma was performed, the histologic diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was made.

  1. Increased RP105-Negative B Cells in IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Koarada, S; Tashiro, S; Nagao, N; Suematsu, R; Ohta, A; Tada, Y

    2013-01-01

    Four patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) showed increased percentages of RP105-negative B cells in the peripheral blood. Case 1: A 66-year-old man having retroperitoneal fibrosis had 18.8% of RP105-negative B cells. Oral prednisolone improved the affected lesions and the percentage of RP105-negative B cells decreased (3.2%) after the treatment. Case 2: A 53-year-old man with retroperitoneal fibrosis had 27.9% of RP105-negative B cells. Case 3: A 38-year-old man with follicular hyperplasia showed increased percentage of RP105-negative B cells (8.3%). Case 4: A 60-year-old man with interstitial nephritis had 27.5% of RP105-negative B cells. The treatment decreased the numbers of RP105-negative B cells. Increased numbers of RP105-negatvie B cells is possibly associated with disease activity of IgG4-RD. Analysis of expression of RP105 on B cells may be helpful in evaluation of disease activity of IgG4-RD.

  2. IgG4-related disease mimicking chalazion in the upper eyelid with skin manifestations on the trunk.

    PubMed

    Leivo, Tiina; Koskenmies, Sari; Uusitalo, Marita; Tynninen, Olli

    2015-08-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently defined inflammatory process characterized by IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the involved tissues. The most common sites of involvement are the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract, salivary glands, lymph nodes, retroperitoneum and orbit, especially the lacrimal glands. Other ocular or ocular adnexal sites are rare. To our knowledge, there is one reported case of a conjunctival involvement. We describe a patient, who had an IgG4-RD mimicking chalazion in the upper eyelid, confined to the tarsus, with multiple skin lesions on the trunk. This is a case report of a 55-year-old female. A 55-year-old female presented with an upper eyelid lesion, which was clinically diagnosed as chalazion and drained three times. Histopathological diagnoses were chalazion and inflammation with mixed cells, respectively. Additionally, the patient had had skin nodules on the trunk for several years. Finally, after a third recurrence, the tarsal eyelid lesion was completely excised. The tarsal pathology specimen showed 85 IgG4 positive plasma cells per HPF and the IgG4/IgG ratio was 0.64, suggesting a probable IgG4-related disease. The re-examined skin lesions resembled histologically the eyelid lesion. It is essential to be aware of IgG4-related disease, including in recurrent chalazia.

  3. Cross-sectional Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus IgG in Livestock, India, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita M; Sathe, Padmakar S; Sarkale, Prasad C; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Sharma, Gaurav; Upadhyay, Kamlesh J; Gosavi, Surekha; Patil, Deepak Y; Chaubal, Gouri Y; Majumdar, Triparna D; Katoch, Vishwa M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) among livestock in 22 states and 1 union territory of India. A total of 5,636 samples from bovines, sheep, and goats were screened for CCHF virus IgG. IgG was detected in 354 samples, indicating that this virus is widespread in this country.

  4. Microbial exposure and mold-specific serum IgG levels among children with respiratory symptoms in 2 school buildings.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Anne; Husman, Tuula; Laitinen, Sirpa; Meklin, Teija; Taskinen, Taina; Korppi, Matti; Nevalainen, Aino

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the authors determined the association between serum mold-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in primary school children (N = 181) with asthma, wheezing, or cough symptoms and exposure to indoor mold in 2 schools, with and without mold damage. Microbial exposure was determined with environmental sampling. Serum IgG antibody concentrations against 24 microbial strains were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children's microbe-specific IgG levels were often higher in the reference school. There was an association between elevated serum IgG antibody levels to Penicillium notatum and moisture damage in the school. In addition, moisture damage both in school and at home was associated with Penicillium notatum and Eurotium amstelodami IgG levels. These observations comported with microbial findings in the index school. No other positive associations between IgG antibodies and microbial findings for the school buildings were observed. IgG levels in sera of school children did not provide a specific means for assessing the microbial exposure associated with moisture and microbial problems in the school buildings. Thus, IgG analysis cannot be readily suggested as a routine method for the evaluation of these exposures.

  5. IgG1 cytoplasmic tail is essential for cell surface expression in Igβ down-regulated cells.

    PubMed

    Todo, Kagefumi; Koga, Orie; Nishikawa, Miwako; Hikida, Masaki

    2014-03-14

    It has been shown that cytoplasmic tail of the IgG1 B cell receptors (BCRs) are essential for the induction of T-dependent immune responses. Also it has been revealed that unique tyrosine residue in the cytoplasmic tail of IgG2a has the potential of being phosphorylated at tyrosine and that this phosphorylation modulates BCR signaling. However, it still remains unclear whether such phosphorylation of IgG cytoplasmic tail is involved in the regulation of BCR surface expression. In order to approach the issue, we established and analyzed the cell lines which express wild-type or mutated forms of IgG1 BCR. As the result, we found that IgG1 BCR expressed normally on the surface of A20 B cell line independent of the cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, IgG1 BCR whose cytoplasmic tyrosine was replaced with glutamic acid which mimics phosphorylated tyrosine, was expressed most efficiently on the surface of non-B lineage cells and Igβ-down-regulated B cell lines. These results suggest that tyrosine residue in IgG cytoplasmic tail is playing a essential role for the efficient expression of IgG BCR on the cell surface when BCR associated signaling molecules, including Igβ, are down-regulated.

  6. Cross-sectional Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus IgG in Livestock, India, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Sathe, Padmakar S.; Sarkale, Prasad C.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Sharma, Gaurav; Upadhyay, Kamlesh J.; Gosavi, Surekha; Patil, Deepak Y.; Chaubal, Gouri Y.; Majumdar, Triparna D.; Katoch, Vishwa M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) among livestock in 22 states and 1 union territory of India. A total of 5,636 samples from bovines, sheep, and goats were screened for CCHF virus IgG. IgG was detected in 354 samples, indicating that this virus is widespread in this country. PMID:26402332

  7. Bacteroides gingivalis-specific serum IgG and IgA subclass antibodies in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, T; Kusumoto, Y; Hamada, S; McGhee, J R; Kiyono, H

    1990-01-01

    The level of serum IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies including IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1 and IgA2 subclass-specific antibodies to Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis fimbriae and to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analysed in patients with different forms of periodontal disease (PD) and control subjects by ELISA. Among PD subjects, sera obtained from adult periodontitis (AP), rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and gingivitis contained high titres of fimbriae-specific IgG antibodies (7500-15,000 ELISA units) followed by IgA (90-700 units) and IgM (30-90 units). In contrast, sera from localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) subjects exhibited much lower titres of fimbriae-specific IgG (89 +/- 11 units), IgA (31 +/- 5 units) and IgM (17 +/- 3 units) antibodies. A similar response pattern was also seen in sera from normal subjects aged 35-41 years who practice normal oral hygiene, while sera of younger adults (aged 18-24) with superior hygiene did not have any antigen-specific antibodies. Analysis of IgG subclass anti-fimbriae responses revealed that the major response was IgG3 followed by IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 in AP, RPP and gingivitis. Although lower, a similar pattern of IgG subclass titre was seen in LJP and normal subjects aged 35-41 years. When IgA subclass responses were measured in AP and RPP, higher titres of the fimbriae-specific response were noted with IgA1 when compared with IgA2. However, lower but approximately equal levels of fimbriae-specific IgA1 and IgA2 titres were seen in other PD groups. When anti-B. gingivalis LPS-specific responses were measured, the sera of AP patients contained high levels of IgG antibodies (2265 +/- 224 units) followed by IgA (411 +/- 90 units) and IgM (214 +/- 56 units). Further, IgG anti-LPS responses were mainly IgG2 followed by IgG4, IgG3 and IgG1. For IgA subclass responses, higher titres of anti-LPS-specific antibodies were noted in IgA2 subclass over IgA1. These results showed that higher anti-B. gingivalis antibody

  8. IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor of the kidney mimicking renal cell carcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y I; Li, Han-Zhong; Zhang, Yu-Shi

    2016-05-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized clinical entity. It is characterized by diffuse organ swelling or mass formation, a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells with fibrosis and typically an increased serum IgG4 concentration, which may affect various organs. An 80-year-old woman with an otherwise unremarkable previous medical history was revealed to have a renal mass that was indicative of renal malignant carcinoma, for which a radical nephrectomy was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor, which was histopathologically confirmed. The patient is currently well without evidence of IgG4-related disease at 3 months post-surgery, and did not require any additional therapy.

  9. IgG Expression upon Oral Sensitization in Association with Maternal Exposure to Ovalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rucheng; Tang, Xiaoqiao; Fan, Bolin; Liu, Jiafa; Jia, Xudong; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The role of maternal allergen exposure in the allergenicity of the offspring remains controversial. Some studies have shown that maternal exposure is a risk factor for allergy in the offspring, whereas other studies have shown that maternal exposure induces immune tolerance and protects offspring from allergy disease. Therefore, we utilized maternal rat allergen exposure model to evaluate the offspring immune reactions to ovalbumin protein and to determine whether the Brown Norway (BN) rat model is a suitable animal model for studying the allergenicity of food proteins. For three generations, rats received an allergens or non-allergens by gavage during the pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, the offspring rats were used for oral sensitization experiment. In the sensitization experiment, the control rat, which had maternal exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), exhibited full response of IgG to oral exposure to OVA. The IgG level was significantly lower in F1 rats that were sensitized by maternal exposure to ovalbumin(OVA). Moreover, the lowest IgG level was found for the F3b sensitized by maternal rats exposed to OVA allergen for three continuous generations. Compared with maternal OVA exposure prior to postnatal sensitization, the sensitization via maternal PBS led to a higher serum level of OVA-specific IgG. However, the OVA-specific IgG levels for the two generations of maternal PBS exposure prior to postnatal sensitization was not higher than that for the one generation of maternal rats exposed to PBS prior to postnatal sensitization. Our studies demonstrate that maternal OVA exposure during the pregnancy and lactation can affect the results of oral sensitization studies using ovalbumin protein. BN rats must be bred in non-allergen conditions for at least one generation to avoid problems in rat models for studying the allergenicity of food proteins. PMID:26844775

  10. Infectious Mononucleosis Triggers Generation of IgG Auto-Antibodies against Native Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Regenass, Stephan; Wiesmayr, Silke; Azzi, Tarik; Berger, Christoph; Dale, Russell C.; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Rostasy, Kevin; Nadal, David; Lünemann, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    A history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), symptomatic primary infection with the Epstein Barr virus, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases and increases the risk to develop multiple sclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that immune activation during IM triggers autoreactive immune responses. Antibody responses towards cellular antigens using a HEp-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay and native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) using a flow cytometry-based assay were determined in 35 patients with IM and in 23 control subjects. We detected frequent immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity to vimentin, a major constituent of the intermediate filament family of proteins, in IM patients (27/35; 77%) but rarely in control subjects (2/23; 9%). IgG autoantibodies binding to HEp-2 cells were absent in both groups. In contrast, IgG responses to native MOG, present in up to 40% of children with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), were detectable in 7/35 (20%) patients with IM but not in control subjects. Normalization of anti-vimentin IgM levels to increased total IgM concentrations during IM resulted in loss of significant differences for anti-vimentin IgM titers. Anti-MOG specific IgG responses were still detectable in a subset of three out of 35 patients with IM (9%), even after normalization to increased total IgG levels. Vimentin-specific IgM and MOG-specific IgG responses decreased following clinical resolution of acute IM symptoms. We conclude from our data that MOG-specific memory B cells are activated in subset of patients with IM. PMID:26907324

  11. Infectious Mononucleosis Triggers Generation of IgG Auto-Antibodies against Native Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Regenass, Stephan; Wiesmayr, Silke; Azzi, Tarik; Berger, Christoph; Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Rostasy, Kevin; Nadal, David; Lünemann, Jan D

    2016-02-12

    A history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), symptomatic primary infection with the Epstein Barr virus, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases and increases the risk to develop multiple sclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that immune activation during IM triggers autoreactive immune responses. Antibody responses towards cellular antigens using a HEp-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay and native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) using a flow cytometry-based assay were determined in 35 patients with IM and in 23 control subjects. We detected frequent immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity to vimentin, a major constituent of the intermediate filament family of proteins, in IM patients (27/35; 77%) but rarely in control subjects (2/23; 9%). IgG autoantibodies binding to HEp-2 cells were absent in both groups. In contrast, IgG responses to native MOG, present in up to 40% of children with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), were detectable in 7/35 (20%) patients with IM but not in control subjects. Normalization of anti-vimentin IgM levels to increased total IgM concentrations during IM resulted in loss of significant differences for anti-vimentin IgM titers. Anti-MOG specific IgG responses were still detectable in a subset of three out of 35 patients with IM (9%), even after normalization to increased total IgG levels. Vimentin-specific IgM and MOG-specific IgG responses decreased following clinical resolution of acute IM symptoms. We conclude from our data that MOG-specific memory B cells are activated in subset of patients with IM.

  12. Detection of acute inflammation with /sup 111/In-labeled nonspecific polyclonal IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Khaw, B.A.; Callahan, R.J.; Wilkinson, R.; Keech, F.; Nedelman, M.; Dragotakes, S.; Kramer, P.B.; LaMuraglia, G.M.

    1988-10-01

    The detection of focal sites of inflammation is an integral part of the clinical evaluation of the febrile patient. When anatomically distinct abscesses are present, lesion detection can be accomplished by standard radiographic techniques, particularly in patients with normal anatomy. At the phlegmon stage, however, and in patients who have undergone surgery, these techniques are considerably less effective. While radionuclide methods, such as Gallium-67 (67Ga)-citrate and Indium-111 (111In)-labeled WBCs have been relatively successful for the detection of early inflammation, neither approach is ideal. In the course of studies addressing the use of specific organism-directed antibodies for imaging experimental infections in animals, we observed that nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) localized as well as specific antibodies. Preliminary experiments suggested that the Fc portion of IgG is necessary for effective inflammation localization. Since polyclonal IgG in gram quantities has been safely used for therapy in patients with immune deficiency states, we decided to test whether milligram quantities of radiolabeled IgG could image focal sites of inflammation in humans. Thus far, we have studied a series of 84 patients with suspected lesions in the abdomen, pelvis, vascular grafts, lungs, or bones/joints. In 48 of 52 patients with focal lesions detected by surgery, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound (US), the IgG scan correctly localized the site, while 31 patients without focal inflammation had no abnormal focal localization of the radiopharmaceutical. Four patients had false negative scans and one patient had a false positive scan. For this small series, the overall sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 95%, respectively. In this report, we review our experience with this exciting new agent.

  13. Seroprevalences of Specific IgG Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in Korean Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Kyung; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Sung Soon; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the seroprevalences of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in infants were determined to assess the immunization strategy and control measures for these infectious diseases. Serum samples from infants < 1 year of age and their mothers were collected to measure the concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For selected infant serum samples, measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels were determined by using the plaque reduction neutralization test. The sera from 295 of infants and 80 of their mothers were analyzed. No infants had past measles, mumps, or rubella infections. Almost all infants < 2 months of age were positive for measles and rubella IgG antibodies. However, seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies decreased with age, and measles IgG and rubella IgG were barely detectable after 4 months of age. The seroprevalence of mumps antibodies was lower than that of measles and rubella antibodies in infants ≤ 4 months old, and mumps IgG was barely detectable after 2 months of age. The seropositivity of measles-specific neutralizing antibody was 63.6% in infants aged 2 months and undetectable in infants ≥ 6 months old. Because the seropositivity rates of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were low after the first few months of age in Korean infants, active immunization with vaccines is strongly recommended for infants aged 6-11 months when measles is epidemic. Timely administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age should be encouraged in non-epidemic situations.

  14. IgG, IgA, and lysozyme in Martina Franca donkey jennies and their foals.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Maria C; Dall'Ara, Paola; Gloria, Alessia; Servida, Francesco; Sala, Elisabetta; Robbe, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Because immune transfer from jenny to donkey foal is mostly unknown, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, from 5 days before to 10 days after foaling, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and lysozyme peripartal concentrations in serum and mammary secretions of 10 healthy, spontaneously foaling Martina Franca jennies and in serum of their mature, viable, healthy foals, in the first 10 days after birth. The results showed that, in jennies, mammary secretion of IgG levels (ranging between 16 and 75 mg/mL) and IgA (0.9-2 mg/mL), and IgG (6.8-13.5 mg/mL) and IgA (0.5-2.4 mg/mL) serum concentrations were not different along the time of study. Also, IgG concentrations in serum of foals did not show significant differences although a high level was observed at 12 hours after birth (8 mg/mL), and IgA concentrations in serum of foals did not show any significant difference, although a high level was observed at 12 hours after birth (1.2 mg/mL). Lysozyme increased significantly at Day 2 after parturition in mammary secretions of jennies (551.9 μg/mL) and at 12 hours in serum of foals (25.9 μg/mL). The study demonstrated that the pattern of passive immune transfer in donkey foals seems to be similar to that reported for the horse foal, with IgG predominating IgA in serum and mammary secretions of the jenny and also in serum of foals. The most significant early increase in foals' serum concerns lysozyme, which probably plays an important role in the innate immunity of the donkey foal in the first challenging hours after birth.

  15. Seroepidemiology of EBV and interpretation of the "isolated VCA IgG" pattern.

    PubMed

    De Paschale, Massimo; Agrappi, Carlo; Manco, Maria Teresa; Mirri, Paola; Viganò, Egidio Franco; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2009-02-01

    The presence of VCA IgG in the absence of VCA IgM and EBNA-1 IgG antibodies makes classifying EBV infection more difficult as this serological picture can be seen in the case of past infection with EBNA-1 IgG loss or non-appearance, or acute infections with the early disappearance or delayed onset of VCA IgM. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of this pattern in 2,422 outpatients with suspected EBV infection examined in 2005-2006, and to interpret its significance by means of immunoblotting. One hundred and seventy-seven (7.3%) of the patients were VCA IgG-positive, VCA IgM-negative and EBNA-1 IgG-negative, 15 of whom (8.5%) presented with heterophile antibodies. Analysis by age class showed that the prevalence of isolated VCA IgG ranged from 4.5% in the subjects aged 1-10 years to 9% in those aged >60 years. Immunoblotting allowed 18.9% of the cases to be classified as acute and 81.1% as past infections, the latter being observed in about 37% of the patients aged less than 10 years and in 100% of those aged >30 years. Therefore, in our case series, the presence of isolated VCA IgG was associated usually with past infection, particularly among adults. In children aged less than 10 years, it was associated mainly with acute infection but as past infection may be present in about one-third of such children, this possibility should not be overlooked.

  16. Measurement of serum IgG in foals by radial immunodiffusion and automated turbidimetric immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah G; Schaefer, Deanna M W; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Wellman, Maxey L; Willet, V Ellen; Fletcher, Jana M

    2005-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia as a result of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) is an important risk factor for infectious disease in neonatal foals. The current gold standard for determining serum immunoglobulin concentrations is radial immunodiffusion (RID). The purpose of this study was to compare immunoglobulin concentrations measured by RID with those determined by an automated turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA), which has a much shorter turnaround time. Immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by both RID and TIA in serum collected from 84 neonatal foals. Sixty-seven foals had results within the linear range for both assays. Sensitivity and specificity of TIA for diagnosis of FTPI with IgG < or = 800 mg/dL were 0.81 (95% CI 0.70-0.88) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76-0.93) and with IgG < or = 400 mg/dL were 0.63 (95% CI 0.35-0.86) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.95), respectively. A significant linear relationship was found between IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (TIA = 0.9511RID + 8.4354; R2 = .59, P < .0001). The coefficients of variation for between-run and within-run precision for the TIA were 2.5 and 3%, respectively. Storage of samples from 10 foals at -20 degrees C for 10-12 months resulted in a reduction in TIA-measured serum IgG concentration of -17.6% (SD = 3.7%), indicating that long-term storage of samples at -20 degrees C should be avoided. The results of this study indicate that measurement of serum IgG by TIA can be used to evaluate foals for FTPI.

  17. Analysis of Intact Monoclonal Antibody IgG1 by Electron Transfer Dissociation Orbitrap FTMS*

    PubMed Central

    Fornelli, Luca; Damoc, Eugen; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Aizikov, Konstantin; Denisov, Eduard; Makarov, Alexander; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The primary structural information of proteins employed as biotherapeutics is essential if one wishes to understand their structure–function relationship, as well as in the rational design of new therapeutics and for quality control. Given both the large size (around 150 kDa) and the structural complexity of intact immunoglobulin G (IgG), which includes a variable number of disulfide bridges, its extensive fragmentation and subsequent sequence determination by means of tandem mass spectrometry (MS) are challenging. Here, we applied electron transfer dissociation (ETD), implemented on a hybrid Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), to analyze a commercial recombinant IgG in a liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) top-down experiment. The lack of sensitivity typically observed during the top-down MS of large proteins was addressed by averaging time-domain transients recorded in different LC-MS/MS experiments before performing Fourier transform signal processing. The results demonstrate that an improved signal-to-noise ratio, along with the higher resolution and mass accuracy provided by Orbitrap FTMS (relative to previous applications of top-down ETD-based proteomics on IgG), is essential for comprehensive analysis. Specifically, ETD on Orbitrap FTMS produced about 33% sequence coverage of an intact IgG, signifying an almost 2-fold increase in IgG sequence coverage relative to prior ETD-based analysis of intact monoclonal antibodies of a similar subclass. These results suggest the potential application of the developed methodology to other classes of large proteins and biomolecules. PMID:22964222

  18. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

  19. Recent advances in the concept and pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Yanagawa, Masahito; Mitsuyama, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Kazushige

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have proposed nomenclatures of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) (IgG4-related pancreatitis), IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC), IgG4-related cholecystitis, and IgG4-related hepatopathy as IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. In IgG4-related hepatopathy, a novel concept of IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) with the same histopathological features as AIH has been proposed. Among organs involved in IgG4-RD, associations with pancreatic and biliary lesions are most frequently observed, supporting the novel concept of "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts." Targets of type 1 AIP and IgG4-SC may be periductal glands around the bile and pancreatic ducts. Based on genetic backgrounds, innate and acquired immunity, Th2-dominant immune status, regulatory T (Treg) or B cells, and complement activation via a classical pathway may be involved in the development of IgG4-RD. Although the role of IgG4 remains unclear in IgG4-RD, IgG4-production is upregulated by interleukin 10 from Treg cells and by B cell activating factor from monocytes/basophils with stimulation of toll-like receptors/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Based on these findings, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of IgG4-RD in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of IgG4-RD.

  20. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  1. Effect of protein A and its fragment B on the catabolic and Fc receptor sites of IgG.

    PubMed

    Dima, S; Medeşan, C; Moţa, G; Moraru, I; Sjöquist, J; Gheţie, V

    1983-08-01

    Radiolabeled protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) injected i.v. into mice and rabbits forms a soluble [(IgG)2-(SpA)1]2 complex (Mr = 684 000) which is identical in composition to that formed by SpA in vitro with an equivalent amount or an excess of IgG. A soluble rabbit IgG-SpA complex injected into a mice or rabbits dissociates completely in vivo and a new complex is formed with the IgG of the recipient animal. The half-life of SpA administered to a mouse or a rabbit is therefore the half-life of the IgG-SpA complex formed in vivo. In mice and rabbits the half-life of the complexes formed is 9 and 30 h, respectively, whereas the half-life of rabbit IgG in these animals is 106 and 153 h, respectively. Fragment B of SpA (fSpA) reacts with IgG of mouse and rabbit and forms an (IgG)1-(fSpA)1 complex. Complexes of identical composition are formed if fSpA is injected i.v. into mice and rabbits. The half-life of the complexes in mice and rabbits are much shorter than those of the corresponding free IgG in these animals (up to 15 times). This result suggests that the binding of fSpA to the CH2 and the CH3 domains of IgG alters the function of the site, which controls the catabolism of IgG and is located in the CH2 domain. By contrast, fSpA does not change the Fc receptor-binding site of IgG, indicating that the Fc receptor site and the catabolic site are unrelated to each other.

  2. C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis induces lung vasculitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    WEIDEBACH, W; VIANA, V S T; LEON, E P; BUENO, C; LEME, A S; ARANTES-COSTA, F M; MARTINS, M A; SALDIVA, P H N; BONFA, E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse in rats the ability of C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction in triggering inflammatory response on pulmonary tissue. Wistar rats (n = 18) were injected via the the internal jugular vein with 20 mg of total C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction isolated from serum of three different Wegener's granulomatosis patients obtained before therapy. Similarly, control rats were treated with IgG fraction from two rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 7), IgG from six normal human sera (n = 15) or saline (n = 18), respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24h of injection for histological analysis of the lungs. Vasculitis and inflammatory infiltrate were consistently absent in rats injected with rheumatoid arthritis IgG or saline and in 14/15 of normal IgG treated animals. In contrast, marked vasculitis was observed in all 18 animals injected with C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction. The histological features were characterized by the presence of a perivascular pleomorphic cellular sheath, particularly around small vessels, endothelial adherence and diapedesis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and presence of granuloma-like lesions. A dose–response relationship was observed between protein concentration of C-ANCA IgG sample and the intensity of the inflammatory response in the animals. In addition, IgG fraction with undetectable C-ANCA, obtained from one patient in remission after treatment, was not able to reproduce the pulmonary tissue alterations induced by its paired IgG that was positive for C-ANCA taken before therapy. The experimental model described herein may be useful to characterize more effectively the pathogenic mechanism of C-ANCA in Wegener's disease. PMID:12100022

  3. Concomitant occurrence of IgG4-related pleuritis and periaortitis: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Furuya, Aya; Fujishiro, Aya; Okuno, Hiroko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Horinouchi, Akiko; Shirakawa, Ayaka; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing disease is an established disease entity with characteristic clinicopathological features. Some recent reports have demonstrated that this disease can occur in the respiratory system including the pleura. Herein, we describe the first documented case of concomitant occurrence of IgG4-related pleuritis and periaortitis. A 71-year-old Japanese female with a history of essential thrombocythemia presented with persistent cough and difficulty in breathing. Computed tomography demonstrated thickening of the right parietal pleura, pericardium, and periaortic tissue and pleural and cardiac effusions. Histopathological study of the surgical biopsy specimen of the parietal pleura revealed marked fibrous thickening with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Phlebitis was noted, however, only a few eosinophils had infiltrated. Immunohistochemical study revealed abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and high ratio of IgG4-/IgG-positive plasma cells (84%). Therefore, a diagnosis of IgG4-related pleuritis was made with consideration of the elevated serum IgG4 level (684 mg/dL). Recently, the spectrum of IgG4-related sclerosing disease has expanded, and this disease can occur in the pleura, pericardium, and periaortic tissue. Although histopathological analysis of the pericardium and periaortic tissue was not performed in the present case, it was suspected that thickening of the pericardium and periaortic tissue was clinically due to IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Our clinicopathological analyses of IgG4-related pleuritis and pericarditis reveal that this disease can present as dyspnea and pleural and pericardial effusion as seen in the present case, therefore, it is important to recognize that IgG4-related sclerosing disease can occur in these organs for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Clonally expanded cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells and the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Mattoo, Hamid; Stone, John H; Pillai, Shiv

    2017-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic condition of unknown cause characterized by highly fibrotic lesions, with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing a preponderance of IgG4-expressing plasma cells. CD4(+) T cells and B cells constitute the major inflammatory cell populations in IgG4-RD lesions. IgG4-RD patients with active, untreated disease show a marked expansion of plasmablasts in the circulation. Although the therapeutic depletion of B cells suggests a role for these cells in the disease, a direct role for B cells or IgG4 in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is yet to be demonstrated. Among the CD4(+) T-cell subsets, Th2 cells were initially thought to contribute to IgG4-RD pathogenesis, but many previous studies were confounded by the concomitant history of allergic diseases in the patients studied and the failure to use multi-color staining to definitively identify T-cell subsets in tissue samples. More recently, using an unbiased approach to characterize CD4(+) T-cell subsets in patients with IgG4-RD - based on their clonal expansion and ability to infiltrate affected tissue sites - CD4(+) CTLs have been identified as the major CD4(+) T-cell subset in disease lesions as well as in the circulation. CD4(+) CTLs in affected tissues secrete pro-fibrotic cytokines including IL-1β, TGF-β1, and IFN-γ as well as cytolytic molecules such as perforin and granzymes A and B. In this review, we examine possible mechanisms by which activated B cells and plasmablasts may collaborate with the expanded CD4(+) CTLs in driving the fibrotic pathology of the disease and describe the lacunae in the field and in our understanding of IgG4-RD pathogenesis.

  5. Poor response of initial steroid therapy for IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis with multiple organs affected

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Weijie; He, Xiaodong; Qu, Qiang; Hong, Tao; Li, Binglu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is a rare biliary manifestation in which many other organs might be affected. The purpose of our study was to investigate the different clinical characteristics and initial steroid response between IgG4-SC patients with and without other organs affected. A series of patients with IgG4-SC in the period from January 2006 to December 2015 at our hospital were included. The pancreas and major salivary glands were screened, and the initial corticosteroid therapy was given. Clinical information was collected and analyzed including demographics, clinical presentation, IgG4 serology, imaging features, and treatment outcomes. The study identified 72 IgG4-SC patients, including 60 males and 12 females. The mean age was 59.8 years old. Among these IgG4-SC patients, 10 patients had only bile duct involved, 42 patients had 2 organs involved and 20 patients had multiple organs involved. In patients with multiple organs involved, more complaints were given (mean 2.9 kinds), higher serum IgG4 levels were found (23458 ± 19402.7 mg/L), and more stricture lesions of biliary tract were shown. All 72 patients exhibited a disease response within 4 to 6 weeks of starting steroids. The remission rate in the multiple lesions group was lower (60%), and the recurrence rate is higher (83.3%). The relapse-free survival was 20.0 months in the single lesion group, which is longer than that in the multiple lesions group (3.1 months, P < 0.05). The IgG4-SC patients with multiple organs affected had more complaints, higher serum IgG4 levels, and poor response to initial steroids. PMID:28328835

  6. Metal-dependent hydrolysis of myelin basic protein by IgGs from the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Polosukhina, Dar'ya I; Kanyshkova, Tat'yana G; Doronin, Boris M; Tyshkevich, Olga B; Buneva, Valentina N; Boiko, Alexey N; Gusev, Evgenii I; Nevinsky, Georgy A; Favorova, Olga O

    2006-02-28

    Homogeneous IgG fractions were obtained by chromatography of the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on Protein G-Sepharose under conditions that remove non-specifically bound proteins. These IgGs contained several chelated metals, the relative amount of which decreases in the order: Fe>or=Ca>Cu>or=Zn>or=Mg>or=Mn>or=Pb>or=Co>or=Ni. In contrast to homogeneous IgGs of healthy individuals, Abs of MS patients effectively hydrolyzed human myelin basic protein (MBP). A minor metal-dependent fraction was obtained by chromatography of highly purified IgGs from MS patient on Chelex-100. This IgG fraction did not hydrolyze human MBP in the absence of Me(2+) ions but was activated after addition of Me(2+) ions: Mg(2+)>Mn(2+)>Cu(2+)>Ca(2+). Proteolytic activities of IgGs from other MS patients were also activated by other metal ions (Ni(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), and Co(2+)) and especially Ni(2+). Ni(2+)-activated IgGs were separated into distinct MBP-hydrolyzing fractions by chromatography on HiTraptrade mark Chelating Sepharose charged with Ni(2+). Detection of Mg(2+)-dependent proteolytic activity in the SDS-PAGE area corresponding only to IgG provided direct evidence that IgG from sera of MS patients possesses metal-dependent human MBP-hydrolyzing activity. Observed properties of MS abzymes distinguish them from other known mammalian metalloproteases and demonstrate their pronounced catalytic diversity. Metal-dependent IgGs from MS patients represent the first example of abzymes with metal-dependent proteolytic activity.

  7. Dissecting the relationships of IgG subclasses and complements in membranous lupus nephritis and idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Na, Woong; Yi, Kijong; Park, Moon Hyang

    2017-01-01

    Membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) are kidney diseases with similar morphology, but distinct etiologies, both producing glomeruli with immune deposits. Immunoglobulins and complements, the main components of the deposits, can be detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Previous researches characterized the immune deposits only individually, but not the interactions between them. To study these relationships we analyzed an IF profile of IgG subclasses and complements (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, C3, C1q, and C4) in 53 and 95 cases of biopsy-confirmed MLNs and IMNs, respectively, mainly using information theory and Bayesian networks. We identified significant entropy differences between MLN and IMN for all markers except C3 and IgG1, but mutual information (a measure of mutual dependence) were not significantly different for all the pairs of markers. The entropy differences between MLN and IMN, therefore, were not attributable to the mutual information. These findings suggest that disease type directly and/or indirectly influences the glomerular deposits of most of IgG subclasses and complements, and that the interactions between any pair of the markers were similar between the two diseases. A Markov chain of IgG subclasses was derived from the mutual information about each pair of IgG subclass. Finally we developed an integrated disease model, consistent with the previous findings, describing the glomerular immune deposits of the IgG subclasses and complements based on a Bayesian network using the Markov chain of IgG subclasses as seed. The relationships between the markers were effectively explored by information theory and Bayesian network. Although deposits of IgG subclasses and complements depended on both disease type and the other markers, the interaction between the markers appears conserved, independent from the disease type. The disease model provided an integrated and intuitive representation of the

  8. Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Meyers, Jacob I; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D

    2015-05-15

    The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single blood meal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependent manner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A

  9. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  10. Characterization and Comparison of Patient Subgroups Suspicious for IgG4-Related Disease and Malignant Lymphoma in Patients Followed-up for Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szántó, Antónia; Szabó, Katalin; Nagy, Gábor; Molnár, Csaba; Zeher, Margit

    2016-07-01

    Differential diagnosis of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and SS patients having high risk for lymphoma (LHR) can be challenging. Some patients with IgG4-RD might be misdiagnosed as having SS. There are special symptoms of SS that raise the possibility of IgG4-RD whereas other symptoms identify patients as having LHR. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare patients with SS, possible IgG4-RD and SS patients with LHR. Sixty-five SS patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to having possible IgG4-RD (n = 15), LHR (n = 16), eligible for both aforementioned groups (n = 20) and not eligible for either group (n = 14), respectively. Four patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. The serum levels of IgG4 were significantly higher in patients suspicious for IgG4-RD compared to that of LHR patients (0.46 g/l vs. 0.12 g/l, p = 0.032). Shared features of the patient groups (salivary gland swelling (SGS) and lymphadenopathy), were separately analysed: SGS patients had higher IgG4/IgG ratio (p = 0.036), lymphadenopathic patients had higher IgG4 levels (p = 0.042). Some patients may be "hidden" under the diagnosis of SS. Although patients with LHR and patients with possible IgG4-RD share some symptoms, they differ significantly regarding IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratio.

  11. Production and Purification of a Polyclonal Antibody Against Purified Mouse IgG2b in Rabbits Towards Designing Mouse Monoclonal Isotyping Kits

    PubMed Central

    Eivazi, Sadeq; Majidi, Jafar; Aghebati Maleki, leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Yousefi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Majid; Dadashi, Somayeh; Moradi, Zahra; Zolali, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mouse IgG subclasses containing IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 have been defined and described both physiochemically and immunologically. Methods: Sepharose beads conjugated with protein A affinity chromatography was used for purification of mouse IgG2b. Sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH: 3.5) was used for separation of mouse IgG2b. Verification of the purified fractions was monitored by SDS-PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) in reducing condition. Immunized rabbit serum was collected and precipitated at the final concentration of 50% ammonium sulfate. After dialysis against tris-phosphate buffer (pH: 8.1) ion exchange chromatography column was used for purification of rabbit anti-mouse IgG2b. The periodate method was performed for conjugation with some variations. After conjugation, direct ELISA was used to determine the titer of HRP conjugated rabbit IgG against mouse IgG2b. Results: The titer of rabbit anti-mouse IgG2b that determined by ELISA was 32000. The purity of rabbit anti-mouse IgG2b was about 95%. The optimum dilution of prepared HRP conjugated IgG was 1:10000. This study showed that ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography could be appropriate techniques for purification of mouse IgG and IgG subclasses respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that affinity chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG2b antibodies. PMID:25789227

  12. Understanding the Relationship Between Biotherapeutic Protein Stability and Solid–Liquid Interfacial Shear in Constant Region Mutants of IgG1 and IgG4

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli-Keshe, Roumteen; Phillips, Jonathan J; Turner, Richard; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    Relative stability of therapeutic antibody candidates is currently evaluated primarily through their response to thermal degradation, yet this technique is not always predictive of stability in manufacture, shipping, and storage. A rotating disk shear device is proposed that produces defined shear conditions at a known solid–liquid interface to measure stability in this environment. Five variants of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were created using combinations of two discrete triple amino acid sequence mutations denoted TM and YTE. Antibodies were ranked for stability based on shear device output (protein decay coefficient, PDC), and compared with accelerated thermal stability data and the melting temperature of the CH2 domain (Tm1) from differential scanning calorimetry to investigate technique complimentarity. Results suggest that the techniques are orthogonal, with thermal methods based on intramolecular interaction and shear device stability based on localized unfolding revealing less stable regions that drive aggregation. Molecular modeling shows the modifications’ effects on the antibody structures and indicates a possible role for Fc conformation and Fab-Fc docking in determining suspended protein stability. The data introduce the PDC value as an orthogonal stability indicator, complementary to traditional thermal methods, allowing lead antibody selection based on a more full understanding of process stability. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:437–444, 2014 PMID:24357426

  13. Jugular Foramen Collision Tumor (Schwannoma and Plasma Cell Pseudotumor), a Probable IgG4-Related Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bakhit, Mudathir S; Fujii, Masazumi; Jinguji, Shinya; Sato, Taku; Sakuma, Jun; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2017-04-06

    Lower cranial nerve sheath tumors are relatively rare, and cases of schwannoma collision tumors have rarely been reported, with most of the reported cases describing schwannoma and meningioma collision tumors. We report a very rare case of a cerebellopontine angle collision tumor of the 9(th) cranial nerve schwannoma with an IgG4 plasma cell pseudotumor. IgG4 plasma cell pseudotumors comprise a group of diseases called IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs). These diseases usually affect organs such as the pancreas and salivary gland. Few cases of nervous system IgG4-RDs have been reported. Under intraoperative microscopy, the tumor in our case did not appear different from usual cases of schwannoma, but histopathology showed significant infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells. IgG4-RDs have a distinctive histopathological pattern; however, their pathophysiology remains unclear. Special attention must be paid to the diagnosis of such diseases because they mimic other diseases and can be missed.

  14. Value of serum IgG subclasses in the prognosis of asthma in children with immunotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Canós Molinos, J; Muñoz-López, F

    1997-01-01

    Immunotherapy is an empirical treatment with proven clinical efficacy. Different results have been found when comparing the levels of the subclasses for immunoglobulin G and the clinical development during immunotherapy. A follow up study was carried out for one year on the IgG subclasses in 21 asthmatic children of both sexes and ages ranging from 8 to 11 years. The children were sensitized to Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus and had undergone immunotherapy treatment. The clinical and analytical evaluation were carried out before treatment was started and later every four months. In terms of clinical evolution, the children were separated into two groups. The levels of IgG1 show different evolution in terms of a good or not good clinical evolution with a p of 0.056. Levels of IgG2 showed no differences. IgG3 shows a disorderly distribution. A continuous increase in IgG4 levels was observed from the start of immunotherapy though no differences in terms of clinical evolution were recorded. With the results obtained, it can be concluded that the gradual increase of IgG4 together with an early rise in IgG1 levels are related to the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy.

  15. In Vivo Crystallization of Human IgG in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Engineered Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Haruki; Wendling, John; He, Feng; Trilisky, Egor; Stevenson, Riki; Franey, Heather; Kinderman, Francis; Li, Gary; Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Osslund, Timothy; Shen, Min; Ketchem, Randal R.

    2011-01-01

    Protein synthesis and secretion are essential to cellular life. Although secretory activities may vary in different cell types, what determines the maximum secretory capacity is inherently difficult to study. Increasing protein synthesis until reaching the limit of secretory capacity is one strategy to address this key issue. Under highly optimized growth conditions, recombinant CHO cells engineered to produce a model human IgG clone started housing rod-shaped crystals in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. The intra-ER crystal growth was accompanied by cell enlargement and multinucleation and continued until crystals outgrew cell size to breach membrane integrity. The intra-ER crystals were composed of correctly folded, endoglycosidase H-sensitive IgG. Crystallizing propensity was due to the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the model IgG, and the crystallization was reproduced in vitro by exposing a high concentration of IgG to a near neutral pH. The striking cellular phenotype implicated the efficiency of IgG protein synthesis and oxidative folding exceeded the capacity of ER export machinery. As a result, export-ready IgG accumulated progressively in the ER lumen until a threshold concentration was reached to nucleate crystals. Using an in vivo system that reports accumulation of correctly folded IgG, we showed that the ER-to-Golgi transport steps became rate-limiting in cells with high secretory activity. PMID:21464137

  16. Pros and cons of VP1-specific maternal IgG for the protection of Enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-In; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Kim, Ha-Neul; Seo, Min-Duk; Park, KwiSung; Lee, SangWon; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Kweon, Mi-Na; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth diseases and can result in severe neurological disorders when it infects the central nervous system. Thus, there is a need for the development of effective vaccines against EV71 infection. Here we report that viral capsid protein 1 (VP1), one of the main capsid proteins of EV71, efficiently elicited VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the serum of mice immunized with recombinant VP1. The VP1-specific IgG produced in female mice was efficiently transferred to their offspring, conferring protection against EV71 infection immediately after birth. VP1-specific antibody can neutralize EV71 infection and protect host cells. VP1-specific maternal IgG in offspring was maintained for over 6 months. However, the pre-existence of VP1-specific maternal IgG interfered with the production of VP1-specific IgG antibody secreting cells by active immunization in offspring. Therefore, although our results showed the potential for VP1-specific maternal IgG protection against EV71 in neonatal mice, other strategies must be developed to overcome the hindrance of maternal IgG in active immunization. In this study, we developed an effective and feasible animal model to evaluate the protective efficacy of humoral immunity against EV71 infection using a maternal immunity concept.

  17. Development of an IgG4-based Classifier/Predictor of Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus (Fogo Selvagem)

    PubMed Central

    Qaqish, Bahjat F.; Prisayanh, Phillip; Qian, Ye; Andraca, Eugenio; Li, Ning; Aoki, Valeria; Hans-Filho, Gunter; dos Santos, Vandir; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Diaz, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    Fogo Selvagem (FS) is mediated by pathogenic, predominantly IgG4, anti-Dsg1 autoantibodies and is endemic in Limao Verde (LV), Brazil. IgG and IgG-subclass autoantibodies were tested in a sample of 214 FS patients and 261 healthy controls by Dsg1-ELISA. For model selection, the sample was randomly divided into training (50%), validation (25%) and test (25%) sets. Using the training and validation sets, IgG4 was chosen as the best predictor of FS, with index values above 6.43 classified as FS. Using the test set, IgG4 has sensitivity 92% (95% CI: 82−95%), specificity 97% (95% CI: 89−100%) and area under the curve 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94−1.00). The IgG4 positive predictive value (PPV) in LV (3% FS prevalence) was 49%. The sensitivity, specificity and PPV of IgG anti-Dsg1 were 87%, 91% and 23%, respectively. The IgG4-based classifier was validated by testing 11 FS patients before and after clinical disease and 60 Japanese pemphigus patients. It classified 21/96 normal individuals from a LV cohort as having FS serology. Based on its PPV, half of the 21 individuals may currently have preclinical FS and could develop clinical disease in the future. Identifying individuals during preclinical FS will enhance our ability to identify etiological agent(s) triggering FS. PMID:18704107

  18. IgG4-related lung disease: a case series of 6 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Joseph C; Miller, Elizabeth; Jessurun, Jose; Allen, Tadashi; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-18

    IgG4 related disease has been recently proposed as a unifying term for a group of inflammatory conditions previously referred to by a plethora of other names. The common denominator for these entities is the histopathologic finding of lymphocytic infiltrates rich in IgG4 producing plasma cells, often accompanied by storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Many medical conditions have been attributed to IgG4-related disease,but few reports of IgG4-related lung disease have been published, and it remains a rare condition about which little is known. In this report, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of six patients with IgG4-related disease of the lung. Patients were followed 1-5 years following their diagnosis. We describe unique features of IgG4-related lung disease, including one patient who presented with alveolar hemorrhage and a positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and two patients whose disease improved after treatment with mycophenylate mofetil. Two patients presented with pulmonary pseudotumor. We conclude that the clinical presentation of IgG4-related lung disease varies widely, and histopathology remains the key to diagnosis.

  19. Study of natural IgG antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yilai; Yan, Zhaoping; Huang, Yile; Qiu, Cailing; Chen, Xiangyun; Hu, Ying; Meng, Qingyong; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Natural antibodies have been found to have anti-tumorigenic function. This study was designed to investigate whether natural IgG antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) could suppress the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Three HCC cell lines and A549 lung cancer cells were used for this study. They were grown, respectively, with human plasma positive or negative for anti-VEGFR1 IgG. Cell viability, apoptosis and VEGFR1 gene expression were examined. Three patients with HCC were recruited for a case study. The results showed that plasma anti-VEGFR1 IgG significantly inhibited the proliferation of all three HCC cell lines but not A549 cell line; the proportions of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in HCC cells treated with anti-VEGFR1 IgG positive plasma than those treated with IgG negative plasma. The expression of the VEGFR1 gene was significantly higher in HCC cells than A549 cells. Of three HCC patients who received transfusion of anti-VEGFR1 IgG positive plasma, two cases with stage B showed a good response to the treatment but one with distant metastasis did not. Human plasma IgG against VEGFR1 may be a promising agent for anti-HCC therapy.

  20. Proteomic Investigation on Grp94-IgG Complexes Circulating in Plasma of Type 1 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Roveri, Antonella; Zaccarin, Mattia; Pagetta, Andrea; Tramentozzi, Elisa; Finotti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The glucose-regulated protein94 (Grp94) has been found in complexes with IgG in plasma of Type 1 (T1) diabetic subjects; however, the pathogenetic meaning of Grp94-IgG complexes has not yet been elucidated. To shed light on the nature and structure of these complexes in vivo, we conducted a proteomic analysis on plasma of both T1 diabetic subjects and healthy control subjects. IgG purified from plasma was submitted to 2D PAGE followed by Western blotting and mass analysis. Grp94 was detected in plasma of all diabetic but not control subjects and found linked with its N-terminus to the IgG heavy chain. Mass analysis of heavy chain of IgG that binds Grp94 also in vitro, forming stable complexes with characteristics similar to those of native ones, permitted identifying CH2 and CH3 regions as those involved in binding Grp94. At the electron microscopy, IgG from diabetic plasma appeared as fibrils of various lengthes and dimensions, suggestive of elevated aggregating tendency conferred to IgG by Grp94. The nonimmune nature of complexes turned out to be responsible for the particular stability and structure adopted by complexes in plasma of diabetic subjects. Results are of relevance to understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying diabetes and its complications. PMID:26167512

  1. Glyco-engineering of human IgG1-Fc through combined yeast expression and in vitro chemoenzymatic glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yadong; Li, Cishan; Huang, Wei; Li, Bing; Strome, Scott; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2009-01-01

    The presence and precise structures of the glycans attached at the Fc domain of monoclonal antibodies play an important role in determining antibody's effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement activation, and anti-inflammatory activity. This paper describes a novel approach for glyco-engineering of human IgG1-Fc that combines high-yield expression of human IgG1-Fc in yeast and subsequent in vitro enzymatic glycosylation, using the endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation as the key reaction. Human IgG1-Fc was first overproduced in Pichia pastoris. Then the heterogeneous yeast glycans were removed by Endo-H treatment to give the GlcNAc-containing IgG1-Fc as a homodimer. Finally, selected homogeneous glycans were attached to the GlcNAc-primer in the IgG1-Fc through an endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation, using sugar oxazolines as the donor substrates. It was found that the enzymatic transglycosylation was efficient with native GlcNAc-containing IgG1-Fc homodimer without the need to denature the protein, and the reaction could proceed to completion to give homogeneous glycoforms of IgG1-Fc when excess of oligosaccharide oxazolines was used as the donor substrates. The binding of the synthetic IgG1-Fc glycoforms to the FcγIIIa receptor was also investigated. This novel glyco-engineering approach should be useful for providing various homogeneous, natural or synthetic glycoforms of IgG1-Fc for structure-function relationship studies, and for future clinical applications. PMID:18771295

  2. Competition between Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Anti-Glycan Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Xia, Li; Campbell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yalong; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies. PMID:25807519

  3. Persistent Low Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Is Common in Pregnancy: Experience from Antenatal Testing in Norway.

    PubMed

    Findal, Gry; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Holter, Ellen K; Berge, Tone; Jenum, Pål A

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii might harm the fetus if a woman is infected during pregnancy. IgG seroconversion and significant increase in IgG antibody amount in pregnancy indicates maternal infection. Presence of toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and low IgG avidity in a single serum sample indicates possible maternal infection, but positive toxoplasma IgM and low IgG avidity may persist for months and even years. We aimed to evaluate avidity development during pregnancy in a retrospective study. Serial blood samples from 176 pregnant women admitted to Oslo University Hospital 1993-2013 for amniocentesis because of suspected toxoplasma infection were included. Data were obtained from journals and laboratory records. The avidity method used was based on Platelia Toxo IgG assay. Mean maternal age at first serology was 29.9 years (SD 5.2, range 18-42). In 37 (21%) women only the avidity increased from low to high in < 3 months. In 139 (79%) the IgG avidity remained below the high threshold ≥ 3 months and within this group 74 (42%) women had stable low IgG avidity during the observation period. Median gestational age at first test was 10.6 weeks (range 4.6-28.7). Fetal infection was detected in four children, but none among children whose mother had stable low IgG avidity. The first antenatal toxoplasma serology should ideally be collected in early pregnancy and if stable values of toxoplasma IgM and low IgG-avidity are detected in a second sample after three to four weeks, the need for amniocentesis can be questioned.

  4. Persistent Low Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Is Common in Pregnancy: Experience from Antenatal Testing in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Findal, Gry; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Holter, Ellen K.; Berge, Tone; Jenum, Pål A.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii might harm the fetus if a woman is infected during pregnancy. IgG seroconversion and significant increase in IgG antibody amount in pregnancy indicates maternal infection. Presence of toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and low IgG avidity in a single serum sample indicates possible maternal infection, but positive toxoplasma IgM and low IgG avidity may persist for months and even years. We aimed to evaluate avidity development during pregnancy in a retrospective study. Serial blood samples from 176 pregnant women admitted to Oslo University Hospital 1993–2013 for amniocentesis because of suspected toxoplasma infection were included. Data were obtained from journals and laboratory records. The avidity method used was based on Platelia Toxo IgG assay. Mean maternal age at first serology was 29.9 years (SD 5.2, range 18–42). In 37 (21%) women only the avidity increased from low to high in < 3 months. In 139 (79%) the IgG avidity remained below the high threshold ≥ 3 months and within this group 74 (42%) women had stable low IgG avidity during the observation period. Median gestational age at first test was 10.6 weeks (range 4.6–28.7). Fetal infection was detected in four children, but none among children whose mother had stable low IgG avidity. The first antenatal toxoplasma serology should ideally be collected in early pregnancy and if stable values of toxoplasma IgM and low IgG-avidity are detected in a second sample after three to four weeks, the need for amniocentesis can be questioned. PMID:26714282

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Casson, Peter R.; Christman, Gregory M.; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R.; Geisler, William M.; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) seropositivity as detected by the Ct elementary body (EB)-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ct EB ELISA) predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Design Cohort study Setting Outpatient clinics participating in the reproductive medicine network Patients 1250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in one of two randomized controlled trials: PPCOSII and AMIGOS Intervention Sera were analyzed for anti-Ct IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a research Ct EB ELISA. OD405 readings ≥0.35 and ≥0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Results 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-Ct IgG3. They tended to be non-White and smokers. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of HSG-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.40-5.34) times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusions Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-Ct IgG3 seropositivity is associated with lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women have up to 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:26413816

  6. Localization of the binding site on IgG for solubilized placental Fc gamma receptor.

    PubMed

    Matre, R; Tönder, O

    1984-01-01

    Placental Fc gamma R (FcR) inhibited the rosette formation between monocytes and rabbit IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA), whereas the rosette formation with granulocytes was not impaired. Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) inhibited the rosette formation with both cell types. Results obtained in absorption and agglutination experiments showed that SpA blocked the binding of FcR to IgG, and Cl did not. Furthermore, FcR did not interfere with the binding of SpA to IgG, whereas C1 affected this binding. FcR apparently bind to the C gamma 3 region. Since FcR inhibited the binding of EA to monocytes, the monocyte FcR binding site is probably also located within the C gamma 3 region.

  7. Correlation of isotopic cisternographic patterns in multiple sclerosis with CSF IgG values

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, S.; Inzitari, D.; Castagnoli, A.; Amaducci, L.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-eight patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined with isotopic cisternography (IC) in order to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Cisternography was also performed in 15 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in 14 with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type as controls. IC pattern of ''mixed'' type was found in 18 MS patients and all those with Alzheimer senile dementia examined, while the IC examination did not show abnormality in any of 15 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In MS patients, the abnormal IC picture proved to be significantly correlated with the CSF IgG values as calculated by Link's and Tourtelotte's formulas. The abnormal IC in MS may be due to altered CSF reabsorption or increased transependymal flow, or it may be related to the abnormal concentration of IgG.

  8. Decreased HHV-6 IgG in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Gabriel; Blomberg, Jonas; Yun, Zhibing; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Eriksson, Britt-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Human herpesviruses have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but whether they are causal, facilitating, or confounding factors is yet to be established. A total of 50 AD subjects and 52 non-demented (ND) controls were analyzed in a multiplex assay for IgG reactivity toward herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). The HHV-6 IgG reactivity was significantly lower in AD subjects compared to ND controls, whereas there were no differences in HSV, VZV, or CMV antibody levels between the groups. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a subtype-specific HHV-6 PCR revealed no signs of reactivation, as AD and ND subjects presented with comparable HHV-6 DNA levels in PBMCs, and all positive samples were of subtype B. Whether HHV-6 is a factor in AD remains to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:28265256

  9. Topiramate-induced maculopathy in IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    DaCosta, Joanna; Younis, Saad

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of reversible topiramate-induced maculopathy in a 32-year-old female patient with IgG4-related disease. The patient presented with decreased vision associated with anterior uveitis and cystoid macula edema, which was unresponsive to oral and topical steroids. Following topiramate cessation, both cystoid macula edema and vision improved. The ocular side effects of topiramate and putative pharmacological mechanisms for topiramate-induced maculopathy in the context of IgG4-related disease are discussed. This report highlights that neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that patients presenting with topiramate-associated maculopathy should be advised to discontinue topiramate promptly to prevent irreversible loss of vision. PMID:27354829

  10. Multilevel ensemble model for prediction of IgA and IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Divya; Rana, Prashant Singh

    2017-04-01

    Identification of antigen for inducing specific class of antibody is prime objective in peptide based vaccine designs, immunodiagnosis, and antibody productions. It's urge to introduce a reliable system with high accuracy and efficiency for prediction. In the present study, a novel multilevel ensemble model is developed for prediction of antibodies IgG and IgA. Epitope length is important in training the model and it is efficient to use variable length of epitopes. In this ensemble approach, seven different machine learning models are combined to predict variable length of epitopes (4 to 50). The proposed model of IgG specific epitopes achieves 94.43% of accuracy and IgA specific epitopes achieves 97.56% of accuracy with repeated 10-fold cross validation. The proposed model is compared with the existing system i.e. IgPred model and outcome of proposed model is improved.

  11. Global Structure of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody IgG1 b12 is Asymmetric

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish, F.; Solanki, A; Boone, C; Krueger, J

    2010-01-01

    Human antibody IgG1 b12 is one of the four antibodies known to neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The crystal structure of this antibody displayed an asymmetric disposition of the Fab arms relative to its Fc portion. Comparison of structures solved for other IgG1 antibodies led to a notion that crystal packing forces entrapped a 'snap-shot' of different conformations accessible to this antibody. To elucidate global structure of this unique antibody, we acquired small-angle X-ray scattering data from its dilute solution. Data analysis indicated that b12 adopts a bilobal globular structure in solution with a radius of gyration and a maximum linear dimension of {approx}54 and {approx}180 {angstrom}, respectively. Extreme similarity between its solution and crystal structure concludes that non-flexible, asymmetric shape is an inherent property of this rare antibody.

  12. Plant-based Production of Two Chimeric Monoclonal IgG Antibodies Directed against Immunodominant Epitopes of Vibrio cholerae Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kara J.; Giffen, Samantha R.; Pauly, Michael H.; Kim, Do H.; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Whaley, Kevin J.; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    We have produced and characterized two chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind different immunodominant epitopes on Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MAb 2D6 IgG1 recognizes Ogawa O-polysaccharide antigen, while mAb ZAC-3 IgG1 recognizes core/lipid A moiety of Ogawa and Inaba LPS. Both antibodies were expressed using a Nicotiana benthamiana-based rapid antibody-manufacturing platform (RAMP) and evaluated in vitro for activities associated with immunity to V. cholerae, including vibriocidal activity, bacterial agglutination and motility arrest. PMID:25865265

  13. Plant-based production of two chimeric monoclonal IgG antibodies directed against immunodominant epitopes of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Kara J; Giffen, Samantha R; Pauly, Michael H; Kim, Do H; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-07-01

    We have produced and characterized two chimeric human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind different immunodominant epitopes on Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MAb 2D6 IgG1 recognizes Ogawa O-polysaccharide antigen, while mAb ZAC-3 IgG1 recognizes core/lipid A moiety of Ogawa and Inaba LPS. Both antibodies were expressed using a Nicotiana benthamiana-based rapid antibody-manufacturing platform (RAMP) and evaluated in vitro for activities associated with immunity to V. cholerae, including vibriocidal activity, bacterial agglutination and motility arrest.

  14. IgG+ platelets in the marmoset: their induction, maintenance, and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gengozian, N.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    Immunization of marmosets with platelets from another species of marmoset leads to antibody formation to the donor platelets, deposition of IgG on the host's platelets, and thrombocytopenia. This disease closely resembles posttransfusion purpura of man, which may develop after one or two transfusions of whole blood. The mode of immunization in the marmoset was found to be important: intravenous (i.v.) inoculations were without effect, while intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations led to the disease. Intramuscular inoculations were characterized by formation of 7S antibodies, as measured by indirect immunofluorescent (IF) and complement-dependent platelet cytotoxicity (PC) tests; in contrast, i.v. immunizations, while leading to 7S antibodies by the IF test, yielded only 19S antibodies reactive in the PC assay. The titers were also consistently higher with i.m. immunizations. Antibody was not limited to the donor platelets, but auto- or host-type reactivity was also present; this antibody was in very low titer and could be found only when the animal was thrombocytopenic. A primary finding was the ability to maintain increased deposition of IgG on the host's platelets in the absence of thrombocytopenia by biweekly or monthly inoculations of the donor platelet antigen. The amount of IgG found on platelets of normal and immunized marmosets was comparable to that reported for normal humans and patients with cinical immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, platelet survival studies in animals with IgG+ platelets and normal platelet counts indicated a rapid turnover, suggesting operation of a compensatory mechanism to maintain platelet levels.

  15. Regulation of secondary antibody responses in rodents. I. Potentiation of IgG production by cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, R F; MacLennan, I C

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of a single dose of cyclophosphamide on specific IgG production in rats during an established secondary immune response. (PVG X Agus)F1 rats were immunized twice (days 0 and 28) with chicken erythrocytes (CRBC), received cyclophosphamide (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) on day 33 and were killed 8 days later. The production of anti-CRBC IgG antibodies was assessed by testing the supernatants of spleen cell cultures in a cytotoxicity assay with 51Cr-labelled CRBC as target cells and normal rat spleen cells as effector cells. In observations of fifty-nine pairs of treated and untreated rats from eight separate experiments, the administration of cyclophosphamide resulted in: (1) a decrease in the number of spleen cell to a median of 10(8.63) from a median of 10(8.7) (P less than 0.0025); (2) an increase in the anti-CRBC IgG antibody titre of the supernatants of cultured spleen cells to a median of 10(0.67) from a median of 10(0.27 (P less than 0.0025); and (3) the calculated anti-CRBC. IgG antibody production per spleen to be increased in the drug-treated rats to a median of 10(2.26) from a median of 10(2.0) (P less than 0.005). In a cyclophosphamide dose-response study, it was shown that some enhancement of antibody production was induced by doses between 12.5 and 50 mg/m2 and consistently elevated levels of antibody production were associated with doses between 100 and 400 mg/m2. PMID:487659

  16. Immunogenicity of Isogenic IgG in Aggregates and Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    St. Clair, J. Benjamin; Detanico, Thiago; Aviszus, Katja; Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; Christie, Merry; Carpenter, John F.

    2017-01-01

    A paradox in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is that despite the well-documented tolerogenic properties of deaggregated IgG, most therapeutic IgG mAb induce anti-mAb responses. To analyze CD4 T cell reactions against IgG in various physical states, we developed an adoptive transfer model using CD4+ T cells specific for a Vκ region-derived peptide in the hapten-specific IgG mAb 36–71. We found that heat-aggregated or immune complexes (IC) of mAb 36–71 elicited anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies, while the deaggregated form was tolerogenic. All 3 forms of mAb 36–71 induced proliferation of cognate CD4+ T cells, but the aggregated and immune complex forms drove more division cycles and induced T follicular helper cells (TFH) development more effectively than did the deaggregated form. These responses occurred despite no adjuvant and no or only trace levels of endotoxin in the preparations. Physical analyses revealed large differences in micron- and nanometer-sized particles between the aggregated and IC forms. These differences may be functionally relevant, as CD4+ T cell proliferation to aggregated, but not IC mAb 36–71, was nearly ablated upon peritoneal injection of B cell-depleting antibody. Our results imply that, in addition to denatured aggregates, immune complexes formed in vivo between therapeutic mAb and their intended targets can be immunogenic. PMID:28114383

  17. Distribution of the IgG Fc Receptor, FcRn, in the Human Fetal Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Uzma; Dickinson, Bonny L.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Simister, Neil E.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Walker, W. Allan

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal Fc receptor, FcRn, functions in the maternofetal transfer of gamma globulin (IgG) in the neonatal rodent. In humans, most of this transfer is presumed to occur in utero via the placenta. Although the fetus swallows amniotic fluid that contains immunoglobulin, it is unknown whether this transfer also occurs via the fetal intestine. A human FcRn has been identified in the syncytiotrophoblast that mediates the maternofetal transfer of antibody. It has also been identified in human fetal intestine and is postulated to function in IgG transport. We hypothesize that the human fetal intestinal FcRn may play a role in IgG transport from the amniotic fluid into the fetal circulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of the FcRn along the human fetal intestine. Lysates prepared from human fetal intestine and from a nonmalignant human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line (H4) were subjected to Western blot analysis and probed using anti-FcRn antibodies. A 42-kD band, consistent with the known molecular weight of the FcRn, was detected along the human fetal intestine and in H4 cells. Expression of the human FcRn was confirmed with immunohistochemistry. Our study demonstrates the expression of FcRn along the human fetal intestine and in a human nonmalignant fetal intestinal epithelial cell line (H4), which by location indicates that FcRn could play a role in the uptake and transport of IgG in the human fetus. PMID:12538789

  18. Comparison of chemiluminescent immunoassay and ELISA for measles IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; Sanz, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    In the context of measles elimination, the identification of recent infections is important for clinical laboratories. Serological diagnosis is achieved by detecting specific IgG and IgM. Recently an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Liaison, DiaSorin, Italy) has been used to quantify the measles antibody. The aim of this study was to compare this assay with Enzygnost ELISA (Siemens, Germany), with final classification of discrepancies by indirect immunofluorescence (Euroimmun, Germany). For measles IgM, 204 sera were analyzed: 50 IgM-positive, 104 IgM-negative/IgG-positive, and 50 from other viral infections (B19V, rubella, mumps, CMV, and EBV). For the measles IgG assay, 162 samples were tested: 106 were positive and 56 were negative. For measles IgM, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were 94% (95% CI: 83.2-98.6) and 100% (95% CI: 97.1-100), respectively; the corrected figures after the final classification of discrepancies were 100% (95% CI: 91.0-100) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.1-100), respectively. In relation to IgG, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were, respectively, 97.2% (95% CI: 91.7-99.4) and 92.9% (95% CI: 82.5-97.7), and 95.5% (95% CI: 89.5-98.3) and 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100) after the final classification. CLIA showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting measles IgG and IgM antibodies, eliminating the need to aliquot specimens before carrying out the assay.

  19. Assessing Immunity to Rubella Virus: a Plea for Standardization of IgG (Immuno)assays

    PubMed Central

    Bouthry, Elise; Huzly, Daniela; Ogee-Nwankwo, Adaeze; Hao, LiJuan; Adebayo, Adebola; Icenogle, Joseph; Sarasini, Antonella; Revello, Maria Grazia; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to rubella virus (RV) is commonly determined by measuring specific immunoglobulin G (RV IgG). However, RV IgG results and their interpretation may vary, depending on the immunoassay, even though most commercial immunoassays (CIAs) have been calibrated against an international standard and results are reported in international units per milliliter. A panel of 322 sera collected from pregnant women that tested negative or equivocal for RV IgG in a prior test (routine screening) was selected. This panel was tested with two reference tests, immunoblotting (IB) and neutralization (Nt), and with 8 CIAs widely used in Europe. IB and Nt gave concordant results on 267/322 (82.9%) sera. Of these, 85 (26.4%) sera were negative and 182 (56.5%) sera were positive for both tests. All 85 IB/Nt-negative samples were classified as negative with all CIAs. Of the 182 IB/Nt-positive samples, 25.3 to 61.5% were classified as equivocal and 6 to 64.8% were classified as positive with the CIAs. Wide variations in titers in international units per milliliter were observed. In our series, more than half of the women considered susceptible to RV based on CIA results tested positive for RV antibodies by IB/Nt. Our data suggest that (i) sensitivity of CIAs could be increased by considering equivocal results as positive and (ii) the definition of immunity to RV as the 10-IU/ml usual cutoff as well as the use of quantitative results for clinical decisions may warrant reconsideration. A better standardization of CIAs for RV IgG determination is needed. PMID:27147722

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG titres and coronary heart disease: prospective study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, John; Whincup, Peter; Walker, Mary; Lennon, Lucy; Thomson, Andrew; Appleby, Paul; Wong, Yuk-ki; Bernardes-Silva, Martine; Ward, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between coronary heart disease and serum markers of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Design “Nested” case-control analysis in a prospective cohort study and an updated meta-analysis of previous relevant studies. Setting General practices in 18 towns in Britain. Participants Of the 5661 men aged 40-59 who provided blood samples during 1978-80, 496 men who died from coronary heart disease or had non-fatal myocardial infarction and 989 men who had not developed coronary heart disease by 1996 were included. Main outcome measures IgG serum antibodies to C pneumoniae in baseline samples; details of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease from medical records and death certificates. Results 200 (40%) of the 496 men with coronary heart disease were in the top third of C pneumoniae titres compared with 329 (33%) of the 989 controls. The corresponding odds ratio for coronary heart disease was 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.21), which fell to 1.22 (0.82 to 1.82) after adjustment for smoking and indicators of socioeconomic status. No strong associations were observed between C pneumoniae IgG titres and blood lipid concentrations, blood pressure, or plasma homocysteine concentration. In aggregate, the present study and 14 other prospective studies of C pneumoniae IgG titres included 3169 cases, yielding a combined odds ratio of 1.15 (0.97 to 1.36), with no significant heterogeneity among the separate studies (χ2=10.5, df=14; P>0.1). Conclusion This study, together with a meta-analysis of previous prospective studies, reliably excludes the existence of any strong association between C pneumoniae IgG titres and incident coronary heart disease. Further studies are required, however, to confirm or refute any modest association that may exist, particularly at younger ages. PMID:10903653

  1. Neutralizing antibodies in mucosal secretions: IgG or IgA?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Rashada; Mestecky, Jiri

    2007-11-01

    The mucosal immune response to HIV weighs in heavily on the battle against it, as the majority of infections occur via the mucosal route. The antibody response in the mucosae, specifically the genital tract, is characterized by binding and, in some studies, neutralizing HIV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies. Ample evidence, however, points to discrepancies and difficulties in the detection of HIV-specific IgA in HIV-positive subjects, and an even more pronounced divide surfaces in studies done with individuals exposed to HIV, but uninfected. Reports in the literature detail HIV-specific (in some cases, neutralizing) IgA antibodies, in the absence of specific IgG, in the serum and mucosal secretions of virus-exposed, seronegative subjects; this has given rise to speculation that HIV-specific IgA provides a protective immune response to the virus in high-risk individuals who remain seronegative. Contradictory results, however, describe the absence of both IgA and IgG HIV antibodies in the mucosal secretions of similar cohorts. Considering the importance of the antibody response to ascertaining the correlates of HIV immunity, as well as on vaccine research and development, this review addresses the relevant studies and their implications.

  2. Production of stable bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Michael J; van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; van Kampen, Muriel D; Kundu, Amitava; Kopfmann, Peter; Etter, Eric; Stinehelfer, David; Long, Justin; Lannom, Tom; Noordergraaf, Esther H; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Labrijn, Aran F; Schuurman, Janine; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of >95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 structural integrity was maintained, including function and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques. PMID:23995617

  3. Recent advances in understanding and managing IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Anna R.; Hamilos, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    IgG4-related disease was only recently discovered, so its description, management, and new discoveries related to its etiology are rapidly evolving. Because IgG4 itself is a unique antibody which is intimately related to the diagnosis of the disease, the role of plasmablasts in the pathophysiology remains an active area of discussion. Recent studies have uncovered a possible role for CD4-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, T follicular helper cells, and M2 macrophages. The clinical presentation is variable and can be vague, as this disease affects many organs and new presentations are continuing to be described. The diagnosis depends on clinical and histopathological assessment. The mainstay of treatment is with glucocorticoids, but rituximab has recently shown promise. Monitoring disease activity using imaging modalities (including positron emission tomography) and serum markers is imperative, as relapses are common. IgG4-related disease spans many medical disciplines but is a treatable condition with which all clinicians should be familiar. PMID:28299186

  4. [Central nervous system in IgG4-related disease: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Vanegas-Garcia, A L; Calle-Lopez, Y; Zapata, C H; Alvarez-Espinal, D M; Saavedra-Gonzalez, Y A; Arango-Viana, J C

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 es una entidad clinica multisistemica recientemente descrita y que se presenta con diferentes manifestaciones clinicas. Los organos que estan afectados con mayor frecuencia son el pancreas, la via biliar y las glandulas salivales, y es menos frecuente la afeccion del sistema nervioso central. Caso clinico. Mujer de 33 años con alteraciones cognitivas, alucinaciones, cefalea, sindrome convulsivo, sinusitis maxilar con afeccion osea y evidencia de paquimeningitis y panhipopituitarismo, con biopsia meningea que confirmo una enfermedad relacionada con IgG4, tras haberse descartado causas secundarias. Se inicio tratamiento con glucocorticoides y azatioprina, sin recaidas despues de 12 meses de seguimiento. Conclusiones. Se debe considerar el diagnostico de enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 en casos de paquimeningitis hipertrofica e hipofisitis, incluso sin que se acompañen de otras manifestaciones sistemicas, siempre que se hayan descartado otras causas mas frecuentes. El tratamiento de eleccion son los glucocorticoides, y puede ser necesario añadir otro inmunosupresor como ahorrador de esteroides y para evitar las recaidas. Se necesitan estudios prospectivos para evaluar las diferentes manifestaciones clinicas y paraclinicas y establecer los resultados del tratamiento a largo plazo.

  5. [Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease. A review of head and neck manifestations].

    PubMed

    Agaimy, A; Ihrler, S

    2014-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (also known as hyper-IgG4 disease) is a recently defined emerging condition with highly heterogeneous clinicopathological features and variable disease manifestations. This disorder is characterized by unifocal or multifocal (multiorgan) involvement by tumefactive plasma cell-rich inflammatory infiltrates associated with prominent fibrosclerosis. This not uncommonly interferes with organ function resulting in diverse clinical symptoms. The autoimmune pancreatitis represents the prototype of this disease; however, to date almost all organs have been reported to be involved in this disorder. In the head and neck area several presentations of this disease may be encountered in salivary glands, lacrimal glands, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, soft tissue of the neck, ear and sinonasal tract. However, IgG4 positive plasma cells are occasionally prominent in non-specific chronic inflammatory conditions of the head and neck and the oral cavity unrelated to autoimmune diseases or systemic disorders, thus representing diagnostic pitfalls. The diagnosis of IgG4-related disease should be based on a combination of typical histological, clinical and serological findings.

  6. Plakophilin-1 protects keratinocytes from pemphigus vulgaris IgG by forming calcium-independent desmosomes.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Dana K; Stahley, Sara N; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2014-04-01

    Plakophilin-1 (PKP-1) is an armadillo family protein critical for desmosomal adhesion and epidermal integrity. In the autoimmune skin-blistering disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoantibodies (IgG) target the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) and compromise keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Here, we report that enhanced expression of PKP-1 protects keratinocytes from PV IgG-induced loss of cell-cell adhesion. PKP-1 prevents loss of Dsg3 and other desmosomal proteins from cell-cell borders and prevents alterations in desmosome ultrastructure in keratinocytes treated with PV IgG. Using a series of Dsg3 chimeras and deletion constructs, we find that PKP-1 clusters Dsg3 with the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin in a manner dependent on the plakoglobin-binding domain of the Dsg3 tail. Furthermore, PKP-1 expression transforms desmosome adhesion from a calcium-dependent to a calcium-independent and hyperadhesive state. These results demonstrate that manipulating the expression of a single desmosomal plaque protein can block the pathogenic effects of PV IgG on keratinocyte adhesion.

  7. Generation and Characterization of an IgG4 Monomeric Fc Platform

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lu; Colazet, Magali; Rosenthal, Kim L.; Yu, Xiang-Qing; Bee, Jared S.; Ferguson, Andrew; Damschroder, Melissa M.; Wu, Herren; Dall’Acqua, William F.; Tsui, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The immunoglobulin Fc region is a homodimer consisted of two sets of CH2 and CH3 domains and has been exploited to generate two-arm protein fusions with high expression yields, simplified purification processes and extended serum half-life. However, attempts to generate one-arm fusion proteins with monomeric Fc, with one set of CH2 and CH3 domains, are often plagued with challenges such as weakened binding to FcRn or partial monomer formation. Here, we demonstrate the generation of a stable IgG4 Fc monomer with a unique combination of mutations at the CH3-CH3 interface using rational design combined with in vitro evolution methodologies. In addition to size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation, we used multi-angle light scattering (MALS) to show that the engineered Fc monomer exhibits excellent monodispersity. Furthermore, crystal structure analysis (PDB ID: 5HVW) reveals monomeric properties supported by disrupted interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface. Monomeric Fc fusions with Fab or scFv achieved FcRn binding and serum half-life comparable to wildtype IgG. These results demonstrate that this monomeric IgG4 Fc is a promising therapeutic platform to extend the serum half-life of proteins in a monovalent format. PMID:27479095

  8. IgG4-related Disease Presenting as a Pancreatic Mass and Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Saqib, Amina; Nalluri, Nikhil; Raza, Muhammad R; Goldstein, Mark

    2017-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is characterized by multi-system inflammation and possible elevation in serum immunoglobulin-G4 level. Treatment regimens include glucocorticoids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic agents and recently, rituximab infusions have been reported to be effective in treatment-refractory disease. We present a case of a 64-year-old male presenting with acute abdominal pain and scleral icterus. An abdominal ultrasound demonstrated extensive biliary ductal dilatation. A computed tomography (CT) scan and a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed a 4.8 cm pancreatic head mass. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy, and a pathologic examination of the mass revealed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient’s IgG subclass 2 level was elevated. A review of the patient’s medical records revealed that, in 1992, he presented with bilateral periorbital discomfort not severe enough to require intervention. In 2006, he presented with bilateral periorbital swelling and discomfort. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed gross enlargement of the lacrimal glands, and a biopsy revealed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. He was treated with corticosteroids, cyclosporine and methotrexate. The regimen was repeated in 2009 for recurrent symptoms. Hence, on our encounter, a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was made and he was treated with rituximab that resulted in complete remission. PMID:28367391

  9. IgG N-glycans as potential biomarkers for determining galactose tolerance in Classical Galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Coss, K P; Byrne, J C; Coman, D J; Adamczyk, B; Abrahams, J L; Saldova, R; Brown, A Y; Walsh, O; Hendroff, U; Carolan, C; Rudd, P M; Treacy, E P

    2012-02-01

    N-glycan processing and assembly defects have been demonstrated in untreated and partially treated patients with Classical Galactosaemia. These defects may contribute to the ongoing pathophysiology of this disease. The aim of this study was to develop an informative method of studying differential galactose tolerance levels and diet control in individuals with Galactosaemia, compared to the standard biochemical markers. Ten Galactosaemia adults with normal intellectual outcomes were analyzed in the study. Five subjects followed galactose liberalization, increments of 300 mg to 4000 mg/day over 16 weeks, and were compared to five adult Galactosaemia controls on a galactose restricted diet. All study subjects underwent clinical and biochemical monitoring of red blood cell galactose-1-phosphate (RBC Gal-1-P) and urinary galactitol levels. Serum N-glycans were isolated and analyzed by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) with galactosylation of IgG used as a specific biomarker of galactose tolerance. IgG N-glycan profiles showed consistent individual alterations in response to diet liberalization. The individual profiles were improved for all, but one study subject, at a galactose intake of 1000 mg/day, with decreases in agalactosylated (G0) and increases in digalactosylated (G2) N-glycans. We conclude that IgG N-glycan profiling is an improved method of monitoring variable galactosylation and determining individual galactose tolerance in Galactosaemia compared to the standard methods.

  10. Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia: age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; N'Guyen, L; Cartel, J L

    1995-01-01

    The age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, Og4C3 antigenemia, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 were assessed in 3 villages of low, medium and high transmission level for Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. The prevalence rates for each of the 4 markers were clearly age dependent and their patterns strongly associated with the transmission level. The antigenemia prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaremia prevalence rate, in all age groups. The prevalences of anti-B. malayi IgG and IgG4 responses were very similar and much higher than those of microfilaremia or antigenemia. Antibody responses reached the plateau at an earlier age and at a higher prevalence with increased intensity of transmission. For all the markers, the prevalence rates were significantly higher in males than in females.

  11. The Fab Conformations in the Solution Structure of Human Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Restrict Access to Its Fc Region

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lucy E.; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K.; Dalby, Paul A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:24876381

  12. Subclass distribution of IgG antibodies to the rat oesophagus stratum corneum (so-called anti-keratin antibodies) in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, C; Serre, G; Basile, J P; Lestra, H C; Girbal, E; Sebbag, M; Soleilhavoup, J P

    1990-01-01

    Serum IgG, labelling the stratum corneum of the rat oesophagus epithelium, so-called anti-keratin antibodies (AKA) constitute the most specific marker for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated 31 IgG AKA-positive rheumatoid sera and 21 control sera from patients with non-rheumatoid inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The serum level of IgG1,2,3 and 4 was determined by radial immunodiffusion and the subclass distribution of IgG AKA by a three-step semi-quantitative immunofluorescence assay using standard monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the four human IgG subclasses. In the rheumatoid sera, the serum level of IgG1 was found to be significantly increased and the level of IgG2 significantly decreased with regard to the control sera, while the levels of IgG3 and 4 as well as total IgG were in the normal range. IgG1,2,3, and 4 AKA were detected in 27 (87%), 6 (19%), 4 (13%) and 11 (35%) of the 31 rheumatoid sera, respectively, and were found to be independent of the clinical and biological indices of the disease. In spite of inter-individual heterogeneity, two predominant profiles were distinguished: IgG1 (alone) and IgG(1 + 4), which together represented 18 sera (58%). The large predominance of IgG1 AKA and the quasi-absence of IgG2 AKA suggest that the recognized antigen may be partly comprised of protein. Moreover, the high frequency of occurrence of IgG4 AKA might result from chronic exposure to the eliciting antigen, which could be a genuine autoantigen since we demonstrated that it is also present in the stratum corneum of human epidermis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1696185

  13. Performance of IgG and IgG1 anti-HTLV-1 reactivity by an indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometric assay for the identification of persons infected with HTLV-1, asymptomatic carriers and patients with myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; de Brito-Melo, Gustavo Eustáquio Alvim; Gallego, Sandra; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Souza, Jaqueline Gontijo; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the performance of IgG and IgG1 anti-HTLV-1 reactivity obtained by a flow cytometric assay was evaluated to verify its applicability for the diagnosis of persons infected with HTLV-1, including asymptomatic carriers and patients with myelopathy. The ability to identify patients with myelopathy among persons infected with HTLV-1 was also examined. Western blot assays were performed to assess the reactivity profiles of sera from asymptomatic carriers and patients with myelopathy against viral proteins. The data showed that IgG1 detected by flow cytometric assay is effective for the diagnosis of persons infected with HTLV-1 with 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. IgG and IgG1 exhibited high performance in distinguishing patients with myelopathy from asymptomatic carriers. Using serum dilutions and cut-off points established previously a second HTLV-1 carrier group was tested using flow cytometric assay to detect IgG and IgG1. The data demonstrated sensitivity of 93% and 98%, respectively, confirming the high reactivity of persons infected with HTLV-1 detected by this method. Western blot assays confirmed the high specificity of MT-2 cells as a reliable source of viral antigen since only sera from persons infected with HTLV-1 recognised MT-2 proteins. Furthermore, a high reactivity to Gag and Env proteins was observed, especially among patients with myelopathy. These data suggest that flow cytometric detection of IgG1 is a valuable, non-conventional serological method to diagnose HTLV-1 infection and for research purposes.

  14. Studies on the antigenic determinants in the self-association of IgG rheumatoid factor

    PubMed Central

    Nardella, FA; Teller, DC; Mannik, M

    1981-01-01

    The number, location, and other characteristics of the antigenic determinants for self-association of IgG-rheumatoid factors (IgG-RF) were examined using the IgG-RF isolated from the plasma of one patient as a model system. Affinity chromatography was employed for isolation of the IgG-RF. Sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation was used to study the various interactions. The antigenic valence of IgG-RF Fc, normal human Fc, and rabbit Fc fragments was two for the interaction with Fab fragments from IgG-RF, as might be expected from the molecular symmetry of IgG. The antigenic valence of intact normal IgG, however, was only one, indicating that when one of the available antigenic determinants interacted with the Fab fragment of IgG-RF, the other determinant becomes sterically inaccessible. Reduction and alkylation, known to increase the flexibility of the hinge region, did not alter the antigenic valence of IgG for Fab fragments of IgG-RF. The antigenic valence of IgG-RF in self-association could not be experimentally determined but must be two to permit the observed concentration-dependent further polymer formation of IgG-RF dimers. Unique antigenic determinants on the Fc fragments of IgG-RF were sought and not found, thus reaffirming the formation of two antigen-antibody bonds as the basis for dimerization of IgG-RF molecules. The pFc’ and Fc’ fragments, representing Cγ3 domains of IgG, failed to show significant interaction with Fab fragments of IgG-RF, indicating that the antigenic determinants were not expressed by the Cγ3 regions but are located either on Cγ2 region or require intact Cγ2 and Cγ3 regions for expression. These conclusions were corroborated by the antigenic valence of one for the Fc(i) fragment, a new papain-generated intermediate fragment of Fc, composed of two intact Cγ3 domains and one intact Cγ2 domain. Normal IgG, because of its valence of one for interaction with IgG-RF, would effectively terminate further polymerization of

  15. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  16. Brief characterization of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) immunoglobulin G (IgG) separated from serum on protein A.

    PubMed

    Borucinska, J D; Ayoub, I; Garmendia, A E

    1996-10-01

    Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) immunoglobulin fraction was separated from whole serum by Protein A Sepharose chromatography. In serum electrophoresis, this fraction had a gamma motility; when electrophoresed on a polyacrylamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate it resolved into two protein bands of approximately 52 and 25 kilodaltons, respectively. These bands were consistent with molecular weights of known heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in other closely related species. Furthermore, the putative muskrat immunoglobulins had a strong cross-reactivity with mouse IgG1, IgG3, and kappa chain in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We propose, that the proteins bound to the Protein A Sepharose represent muskrat immunoglobulins of the IgG class.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: a solid phase radioassay for IgG and IgM antiglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Nineham, L J; Hay, F C; Roitt, I M

    1976-01-01

    A technique suitable for the routine estimation of IgM and IgG antiglobulins has been devised. The assay involves the binding of antiglobulins to plastic tubes coated with rabbit immunoglobulin: the amount of antiglobulin bound is then determined by adding radiolabelled antihuman IgG or IgM. The conditions for the assay have been examined and optimal incubation times and amounts of reagents established. Verification of the antibody nature of antiglobulin activity has been obtained. Both IgG and IgM antiglobulins were raised in virtually all seropositive rheumatoid arthritics, and most seronegative patients gave elevated values for either IgM or IgG rheumatoid factors. The use of an anti-light chain reagent as a screening test for total antiglobulins was investigated. These tests should prove valuable in diagnosis and permit quantitative evaluation of research studies. PMID:1087638

  18. Thoracoscopic resection for a pulmonary nodule with the infiltrate of IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Odaka, Makoto; Mori, Shohei; Asano, Hisatoshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Kamiya, Noriki; Morikawa, Toshiaki

    2012-11-01

    This report describes a rare case of IgG4-related lung disease that was difficult to distinguish from lung cancer. CT revealed a well-demarcated round tumor in S10 of the right lung of a 56-year-old man suspected of having lung cancer. PET revealed high fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with a maximum standardized uptake value of 14.0. Because primary lung cancer was strongly suspected, lower lobectomy was performed via the thoracoscopic approach without mini-thoracotomy. Histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Immunostaining revealed numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells diffusely infiltrating the tumor. Serum IgG4 levels increased, thereby confirming the diagnosis of IgG4-related lung disease.

  19. Low positive predictive value of anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 serology for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for anti-Brugia malayi immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgG4 were evaluated on sera from 1561 subjects in French Polynesia for the serodiagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis, compared with the test for Onchocerca gibsoni circulating antigen (Og4C3) as a 'gold standard'. The sensitivity of the ELISA-IgG and ELISA-IgG4 assays was 90.8% and 94.5%, and the specificity was 45.9% and 50.7%. The positive predictive values were 41% and 45% respectively for an antigen prevalence rate of 30%. Thus antibody prevalences exceeded by two-fold the antigen prevalence, which itself exceeded by two-fold the prevalence of microfilaraemia.

  20. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  1. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    van der Giessen, M; Rossouw, E; van Veen, T A; van Loghem, E; Zegers, B J; Sander, P C

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of the four subclasses of IgG was determined in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age, using the radial immunodiffusion technique. A relation between the concentration of IgG subclasses and Gm type was studied in adults. No influence of Gm type on IgG1 concentration could be shown, except that the group of Gm(fb) individuals had a higher level than the others. The mean concentration of IgG2 was higher in sera positive for Gm(n) than in those lacking this genetic marker. High IgG3 concentrations corresponded to the presence of Gm(b). No clearcut evidence was obtained for a relation between IgG4 concentration and Gm factors, although in general Gm(n) positive individuals had higher and Gm (zag) positive individuals lower concentrations of this subclass in their serum. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera from healthy children of different ages revealed that the amount of IgG2 rises slowly with age, having not yet reached the adult level at the age of 12 years. This also holds for IgG4, although in a lesser degree. No significant differences from the adult level were found for the concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3. PMID:54236

  2. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-08-03

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool.

  3. Human polyreactive IgM monoclonal antibodies with blocking activity against self-reactive IgG.

    PubMed

    Melero, J; Tarragó, D; Núñez-Roldán, A; Sánchez, B

    1997-04-01

    Natural IgM antibodies have been found to be involved in the control of IgG reactivity in normal serum. The authors investigated the blocking activity of four human IgM monoclonal antibodies (BY-2, BY-7, BY-10 and IRM-7) derived from B-cells from blood samples of three renal dialysis patients, which had shown multispecific properties similar to those observed for natural polyreactive autoantibodies. To achieve this, competitive inhibition assays were performed with these MoAbs on the binding of IgG purified from a healthy control, three patients with SLE, and two patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, to histone, dsDNA, RNP and thyroglobulin. MoAbs inhibited binding of self-reactive IgG to histone and dsDNA, but not to thyroglobulin or RNP, of natural and active or inactive phase disease-associated autoreactive IgG. The inhibitory effect of the MoAbs was mediated by V-region dependent interactions with autoreactive IgG, as shown by the ability of these MoAbs to block the binding of F(ab')2 fragments of autoreactive IgG to antigens (histone and dsDNA). The blocking of autoantibody activity was dose-dependent with maximal inhibition occurring at a specific molar ratio between the patient's IgG and a given MoAb. In contrast, MoAbs did not inhibit binding of IgG alloantibodies present in the sera of four polytransfused renal dialysis patients to target antigens on the surface of different cells. These results support the concept of a functional idiotypic network regulating autoimmune responses, and suggest that the IgM MoAbs under study may be natural polyreactive antibodies belonging to the physiological network of autoantibodies with highly connected V-regions, capable of binding and functionally neutralizing V-regions of natural and pathologic autoantibodies.

  4. A quantitative study of the distribution of IgG sub-classes in a group of normal human sera.

    PubMed

    Shakib, F; Stanworth, D R; Drew, R; Catty, D

    1975-01-01

    The radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini has been applied to quantitative study of IgG subclasses in a normal population. The method was assessed in terms of both reproducibility and antiserum consumption. The distribution of IgG subclasses in a group of normal individuals was studied, and compared with their incidence in a series of monoclonal proteins investigated by previous workers and particularly with other quantitative studies on groups of normal individual's sera.

  5. Jacks of all trades?--Probably not. The E. coli Eib proteins bind IgG Fc.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jack C; Goldman, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    We recently published a paper in Molecular Immunology (Leo and Goldman, 2009) showing that the Eib proteins from certain E. coli strains bind IgG Fc, in contrast to a previous report (Ghumra and Pleass, 2007). Richard J. Pleass has commented on our paper (Pleass, 2009) and expressed a series of unjustified misgivings about our conclusions. Here, we address the points raised by Pleass, and reassert our claim that the Eibs are indeed genuine receptors for IgG Fc.

  6. Chronic Mastitis in Egypt and Morocco: Differentiating between Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis and IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven G; Soliman, Amr S; Toy, Kathleen; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer; Karkouri, Mehdi; Ayad, Essam; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmed; Tahri, Ali; Oltean, Hanna N; Kleer, Celina G; Merajver, Sofia D

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, frequently severe chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast. Its etiology remains unknown and reported cases vary in their presentation and histologic findings with an optimal treatment algorithm yet to be described owing mainly to the disease's heterogeneity. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic fibroinflammatory condition characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with many IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Immunosuppressive therapy is considered to be an effective first-line therapy for IgG4-RD. We sought to clarify and classify chronic mastitis according to the histologic findings of IgG4-RD mastitis with respect to IGM and to develop a robust diagnostic framework to help select patients for optimal treatment strategies. Using the largest collection to date (43 cases from Egypt and Morocco), we show that despite sharing many features, IGM and IgG4-RD mastitis are separate diseases. To diagnostically separate the diseases, we created a classification schema-termed the Michigan Classification-based upon our large series of cases, the consensus statement on IgG4-RD, and the histologic description of IGM in the literature. Using our classification, we discerned 17 cases of IgG4-RD and 8 cases of IGM among the 43 chronic mastitis cases, with 18 indeterminate cases. Thus, our Michigan Classification can form the basis of rational stratification of chronic mastitis patients between these two clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous diseases.

  7. Detection of Impaired IgG Antibody Formation Facilitates the Decision on Early Immunoglobulin Replacement in Hypogammaglobulinemic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hermann M.; Thon, Vojtech; Litzman, Jiri; Eibl, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG lower than 2 SD below the age-matched mean) and clinical symptoms such as increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune manifestations, granulomatous disease, and unexplained polyclonal lymphoproliferation are considered to be diagnostic hallmarks in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent clinically severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome. In the present study, we investigated patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and no clinical or immunological signs of defective cell-mediated immunity and differentiated two groups on the basis of their IgG antibody formation capacity against a variety of different antigens (bacterial toxins, polysaccharide antigens, viral antigens). Patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and intact antibody production (HIAP) displayed no or only mild susceptibility to infections, while CVID patients showed marked susceptibility to bacterial infections that normalized following initiation of IVIG or subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. There was a substantial overlap in IgG serum levels between the asymptomatic HIAP group and the CVID patients examined before immunoglobulin treatment. HIAP patients showed normal levels of switched B-memory cells (CD19+CD27+IgD−), while both decreased and normal levels of switched B-memory cells could be found in CVID patients. IgG antibody response to a primary antigen, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), was defective in CVID patients, thus confirming their substantial defect in IgG antibody production. Defective IgG antibody production against multiple antigens could also be demonstrated in an adult patient with recurrent infections but normal IgG levels. To facilitate early treatment before recurrent infections may lead to organ damage, the antibody formation capacity should be examined in hypogammaglobulinemic patients and the decision to treat should be based on the finding of impaired IgG antibody production. PMID:25699049

  8. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of serum IgG and its effect on antibody activity in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaneshige, H

    1987-07-01

    Susceptibility to infection is assumed to be increased in diabetic patients, although its mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether glycosylation of circulating immunoglobulins is related to the decrease of antibody activity in diabetic patients. Thirty-five patients with type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and 14 age-matched normal controls were examined. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in vivo was measured by two different techniques, colorimetry and affinity chromatography. The levels of glycosylated IgG were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal controls. To evaluate the antibody activity of glycosylated IgG, anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers after in vitro glycosylation of IgG and antibody titers before and after in vivo immunization with influenza vaccine were determined. IgG specific for streptolysin O purified by affinity chromatography decreased ASO titers after in vitro glycosylation. In diabetic patients, serum titers of hemagglutinin-inhibiting antibody against influenza viruses 4 wk after initial immunization were significantly lower than those in normal controls. These results indicate that serum IgG in diabetic patients was nonenzymatically glycosylated, and this modification in vivo might be associated with its functional alteration.

  9. [An evaluation of fibronectin and IgG in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Lu, C J; Li, Z H

    1994-04-01

    FN and IgG levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were evaluated in 25 patients with ILD and in 11 normal controls. The results showed: (1) In normal group, the level of lavage fluid FN was similar to that of plasma (P > 0.05). FN levels in BALF of patients with ILD were not only significantly higher than those of controls, but also than those of their own plasma (P < 0.01). However, plasma FN levels showed no remarkable changes in all study groups. (2) IgG levels were significantly increased in BALF of patients with ILD and were somewhat elevated in serum. (3) There were significant correlations between lavage FN or IgG levels and total cell counts in ILD, lavage FN and percentage of neutrophils in IPF, and lavage FN or IgG and percentage of lymphocytes in non-IPF. (4) A highly significant correlation existed between FN and IgG levels in BALF of patients with ILD. These data suggested that FN is significantly increased in patients with ILD. Elevation of lavage FN in ILD may be served as a marker of activity in assessment of alveolitis and elevation of lavage IgG appears to reflect an aspect of activity of humoral immunologic reaction in patients with ILD.

  10. Nano-visualization of oriented-immobilized IgGs on immunosensors by high-speed atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Masumi; Somiya, Masaharu; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2012-11-01

    Oriented immobilization of sensing molecules on solid phases is an important issue in biosensing. In case of immunosensors, it is essential to scrutinize not only the direction and shape of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in solution but also the real-time movement of IgGs, which cannot be achieved by conventional techniques. Recently, we developed bio-nanocapsules (BNCs) displaying a tandem form of the IgG Fc-binding Z domain derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A (ZZ-BNC) to enhance the sensitivity and antigen-binding capacity of IgG via oriented-immobilization. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to reveal the fine surface structure of ZZ-BNC and observe the movement of mouse IgG3 molecules tethered onto ZZ-BNC in solution. ZZ-BNC was shown to act as a scaffold for oriented immobilization of IgG, enabling its Fv regions to undergo rotational Brownian motion. Thus, HS-AFM could decipher real-time movement of sensing molecules on biosensors at the single molecule level.

  11. Serum or breast milk immunoglobulins mask the self-reactivity of