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Sample records for antifreeze protein activity

  1. Protein-water dynamics in antifreeze protein III activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Meister, Konrad; Bischak, Connor G.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina

    2016-03-01

    We combine Terahertz absorption spectroscopy (THz) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism for the antifreeze activity of one class of antifreeze protein, antifreeze protein type III (AFP-III) with a focus on the collective water hydrogen bond dynamics near the protein. After summarizing our previous work on AFPs, we present a new investigation of the effects of cosolutes on protein antifreeze activity by adding sodium citrate to the protein solution of AFP-III. Our results reveal that for AFP-III, unlike some other AFPs, the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate does not affect the hydrogen bond dynamics at the protein surface significantly, as indicated by concentration dependent THz measurements. The present data, in combination with our previous THz measurements and molecular simulations, confirm that while long-range solvent perturbation is a necessary condition for the antifreeze activity of AFP-III, the local binding affinity determines the size of the hysteresis.

  2. Polycarboxylates Enhance Beetle Antifreeze Protein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Duman, John G.; Wen, Xin

    2008-01-01

    Summary Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) lower the noncolligative freezing point of water in the presence of ice below the ice melting point. The temperature difference between the melting point and the noncolligative freezing point is termed thermal hysteresis (TH). The magnitude of the TH depends on the specific activity and the concentration of AFP, and the concentration of enhancers in the solution. Known enhancers are certain low molecular mass molecules and proteins. Here, we investigated a series of polycarboxylates that enhance the TH activity of an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Triethylenetetramine-N,N,N′,N″,N‴,N‴-hexaacetate, the most efficient enhancer identified in this work, can increase the TH of DAFP by nearly 1.5 fold over than that of the published best enhancer, citrate. The Zn2+ coordinated carboxylate results in loss of the enhancement ability of the carboxylate on antifreeze activity. There is not an additional increase in TH when a weaker enhancer is added to a stronger enhancer solution. These observations suggest that the more carboxylate groups per enhancer molecule the better the efficiency of the enhancer and that the freedom of motion of these molecules is necessary for them to serve as enhancers for AFP. The hydroxyl groups in the enhancer molecules can also positively affect their TH enhancement efficiency, though not as strongly as carboxylate groups. Mechanisms are discussed. PMID:18620083

  3. Increased flexibility decreases antifreeze protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti N; Graether, Steffen P

    2010-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins protect several cold-blooded organisms from subzero environments by preventing death from freezing. The Type I antifreeze protein (AFP) isoform from Pseudopleuronectes americanus, named HPLC6, is a 37-residue protein that is a single α-helix. Mutational analysis of the protein showed that its alanine-rich face is important for binding to and inhibiting the growth of macromolecular ice. Almost all structural studies of HPLC6 involve the use of chemically synthesized protein as it requires a native N-terminal aspartate and an amidated C-terminus for full activity. Here, we examine the role of C-terminal amide and C-terminal arginine side chain in the activity, structure, and dynamics of nonamidated Arg37 HPLC6, nonamidated HPLC6 Ala37, amidated HPLC6 Ala37, and fully native HPLC6 using a recombinant bacterial system. The thermal hysteresis (TH) activities of the nonamidated mutants are 35% lower compared with amidated proteins, but analysis of the NMR data and circular dichroism spectra shows that they are all still α-helical. Relaxation data from the two nonamidated mutants indicate that the C-terminal residues are considerably more flexible than the rest of the protein because of the loss of the amide group, whereas the amidated Ala37 mutant has a C-terminus that is as rigid as the wild-type protein and has high TH activity. We propose that an increase in flexibility of the AFP causes it to lose activity because its dynamic nature prevents it from binding strongly to the ice surface. PMID:20936690

  4. Antifreeze activity enhancement by site directed mutagenesis on an antifreeze protein from the beetle Rhagium mordax.

    PubMed

    Friis, Dennis Steven; Kristiansen, Erlend; von Solms, Nicolas; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-05-01

    The ice binding motifs of insect antifreeze proteins (AFPs) mainly consist of repetitive TxT motifs aligned on a flat face of the protein. However, these motifs often contain non-threonines that disrupt the TxT pattern. We substituted two such disruptive amino acids located in the ice binding face of an AFP from Rhagium mordax with threonine. Furthermore, a mutant with an extra ice facing TxT motif was constructed. These mutants showed enhanced antifreeze activity compared to the wild type at low concentrations. However, extrapolating the data indicates that the wild type will become the most active at concentrations above 270 μmol.

  5. Analysis of antifreeze protein activity using colorimetric gold nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Choi, Ho-seok; Park, Ji-In; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-01

    High activity and long stability of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as ice-binding proteins (IBPs), are necessary for exerting their physiological functions in biotechnology and cryomedicine. Here we report a simple analysis of antifreeze protein activity and stability based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via freezing and thawing cycles. While the mercaptosuccinic acid-capped AuNP (MSA-AuNP) was easily self-assembled after a freezing/thawing cycle, due to the mechanical attack of ice crystal on the MSA-AuNP surface, the presence of AFP impeded the self-assembly of MSA-AuNP via the interaction of AFP with ice crystals via freezing and thawing cycles, which led to a strong color in the MSA-AuNP solution. As a result, the aggregation parameter (E520/E650) of MSA-AuNP showed the rapid detection of both activity and stability of AFPs. We suggest that our newly developed method is very suitable for measuring antifreeze activity and stability in a simple and rapid manner with reliable quantification.

  6. A serendipitous discovery of antifreeze protein-specific activity in C-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogs.

    PubMed

    Eniade, Adewale; Purushotham, Madhusudhan; Ben, Robert N; Wang, J B; Horwath, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Structurally diverse carbon-linked (C-linked) analogs of antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) have been prepared via linear or convergent solid phase synthesis. These analogs range in molecular weight from approx 1.5-4.1 KDa and do not possess the beta-D-galactose-1,3-alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate moiety or the L-threonine-L-alanine-L-alanine polypeptide backbone native to the AFGP wild-type. Despite these dramatic structural modifications, the 2.7-KDa and 4.1-KDa analogs possess antifreeze protein-specific activity as determined by recrystallization-inhibition (RI) and thermal hysteresis (TH) assays. These analogs are weaker than the wild-type in their activity, but nanoliter osmometry indicates that these compounds are binding to ice and affecting a localized freezing point depression. This is the first example of a C-linked AFGP analog that possesses TH and RI activity and suggests that the rational design and synthesis of chemically and biologically stable AFGP analogs is a feasible and worthwhile endeavor. Given the low degree of TH activity, these compounds may prove useful for the protection of cells during freezing and thawing cycles. PMID:12777711

  7. Utilizing avidity to improve antifreeze protein activity: a type III antifreeze protein trimer exhibits increased thermal hysteresis activity.

    PubMed

    Can, Özge; Holland, Nolan B

    2013-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice growth inhibitors that allow the survival of several species living at temperatures colder than the freezing point of their bodily fluids. AFP activity is commonly defined in terms of thermal hysteresis, which is the difference observed for the solution freezing and melting temperatures. Increasing the thermal hysteresis activity of these proteins, particularly at low concentrations, is of great interest because of their wide range of potential applications. In this study, we have designed and expressed one-, two-, and three-domain antifreeze proteins to improve thermal hysteresis activity through increased binding avidity. The three-domain type III AFP yielded significantly greater activity than the one- and two-domain proteins, reaching a thermal hysteresis of >1.6 °C at a concentration of <1 mM. To elucidate the basis of this increase, the data were fit to a multidomain protein adsorption model based on the classical Langmuir isotherm. Fits of the data to the modified isotherms yield values for the equilibrium binding constants for the adsorption of AFP to ice and indicate that protein surface coverage is proportional to thermal hysteresis activity.

  8. Interaction of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with an antifreeze protein from Dendroides canadensis: mechanistic implication of antifreeze activity enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Houghton, Eric A.; Sacco, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) found in many organisms can noncolligatively lower the freezing point of water without altering the melting point. The difference between the depressed freezing point and the melting point, termed thermal hysteresis (TH), is usually a measure of the antifreeze activity of AFPs. Certain low molecular mass molecules and proteins can further enhance the antifreeze activity of AFPs. Interaction between an enhancer and arginine is known to play an important role in enhancing the antifreeze activity of an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP-1). Here, we examined the enhancement effects of several prevalent phosphate-containing coenzymes on the antifreeze activity of DAFP-1. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) is identified as the most efficient enhancer of DAFP-1, which increases the antifreeze activity of DAFP-1 by around 10 times. Examination of the enhancement abilities of a series of NADH analogs and various molecular fragments of NADH reveals that the modifications of nicotinamide generate a series of highly efficient enhancers, though none as effective as NADH itself, and the whole molecular structure of NADH is necessary for its highly efficient enhancement effect. We also demonstrated a 1:1 binding between DAFP-1 and NADH. The binding was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the gel filtration method of Hummel and Dreyer. The data analysis suggests binding between DAFP-1 and NADH with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. Interactions between DAFP-1 and NADH are discussed along with molecular mechanisms of enhancer action. PMID:22038809

  9. Effects of polyhydroxy compounds on beetle antifreeze protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Banatlao, Joseph; Chung, Melody; Velasco, Efrain; Duman, John G.; Wen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) noncolligatively depress the nonequilibrium freezing point of a solution and produce a difference between the melting and freezing points termed thermal hysteresis (TH). Some low-molecular-mass solutes can affect the TH values. The TH enhancement effects of selected polyhydroxy compounds including polyols and carbohydrates on an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis were systematically investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The number of hydroxyl groups dominates the molar enhancement effectiveness of polyhydroxy compounds having one to five hydroxyl groups. However, the above rule does not apply for polyhydroxy compounds having more than five hydroxyl groups. The most efficient polyhydroxy enhancer identified is trehalose. In a combination of enhancers the strongest enhancer plays the major role in determining the TH enhancement. Mechanistic insights into identification of highly efficient AFP enhancers are discussed. PMID:19038370

  10. Antifreeze proteins from the sea raven, Hemitripterus americanus. Further evidence for diversity among fish polypeptide antifreezes

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.; Fletcher, G.L.; Ananthanarayanan, V.S.; Hew, C.L.

    1981-02-25

    The antifreeze proteins of the sea raven, Hemitripterus americanus, were isolated and compared with other fish antifreeze proteins. The sea raven contains one major protein of molecular weight 14,000-16,000 with little or no carbohydrate. Except for its similar seasonal appearance, the sea raven antifreeze protein differs from other polypeptide antifreeze in its amino acid composition, secondary structure, and immunological specificity. Amino acid analysis of sea raven antifreeze showed that it contains a high amount of half-cystine, hydrophilic amino acids, and only an average amount of alanine. In contrast, all other fish antifreeze proteins contain approximately 60% alanine and no half-cystine residues. Furthermore, the sea raven antifreeze protein is sensitive to sulfhydryl reagents. The antifreeze activity was decreased by 67% in the presence of 0.01 M dithiothreitol. Circular dichroism studies indicated the absence of significant amounts of ..cap alpha..-helix and the possible presence of ..beta..-structure. Antibodies raised against the antifreeze protein did not cross-react with the known polypeptide antifreeze from the winter flounder and shorthorn sculpin (Hew, C.L., Fletcher, G.L., and Ananthanarayanan, V.S. (1980) Can. J. Biochem. 58, 377-383). A specific radioimmunoassay was developed for the sea raven antifreeze protein and was used to quantitate the protein concentration in the fish. The seasonal profile obtained by radioimmunoassay was compatible with the antifreeze activity determined with a freezing point osmometer.

  11. Snow-mold-induced apoplastic proteins in winter rye leaves lack antifreeze activity

    PubMed

    Hiilovaara-Teijo; Hannukkala; Griffith; Yu; Pihakaski-Maunsbach

    1999-10-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L.) plants secrete antifreeze proteins that are similar to pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In this experiment, the secretion of PR proteins was induced at warm temperatures by infection with pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale), a pathogen of overwintering cereals. A comparison of cold-induced and pathogen-induced proteins showed that PR proteins accumulated in the leaf apoplast to a greater level in response to cold. The PR proteins induced by cold and by snow mold were similar when separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and examined by immunoblotting. Both groups of PR proteins contained glucanase-like, chitinase-like, and thaumatin-like proteins, and both groups exhibited similar levels of glucanase and chitinase activities. However, only the PR proteins induced by cold exhibited antifreeze activity. Our findings suggest that the cold-induced PR proteins may be isoforms that function as antifreeze proteins to modify the growth of ice during freezing while also providing resistance to the growth of low-temperature pathogens in advance of infection. Both functions of the cold-induced PR proteins may improve the survival of overwintering cereals.

  12. Natural and Artificial Antifreeze Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Hirao, Noriko

    In the blood of winter polar fish an antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) occurs which acts to protect the fish from freezing to death. The AFGP has a unique hydrophilic hydrophobic conformation, involved in non-colligative depression of the freezing temperature of water without altering the melting point of ice. This phenomenon is reportedly a reflection of the ice crystal growth inhibition by the adsorption of the AFGP onto a-axial surfaces of the ice crystal. The authors, on the other hand, have developed an enzymatically modified protein (EMG-12) by covalent attachment of leucine dodecyl ester to the C-terminal position of gelation with the aid of a reverse reaction catalyzed by a protease. EMG-12, having a hydrophilic-hydrophobic structure, is highly surface-active and acts to stabilize a supercooling state of water by antinucleation. Discussions are made on similarities and dissimilarities of structure-function relationships of these natural and artificial antifreeze proteins. The significance of using them as antifreeze agents is also discussed.

  13. Conjugation of type I antifreeze protein to polyallylamine increases thermal hysteresis activity.

    PubMed

    Can, Ozge; Holland, Nolan B

    2011-10-19

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice binding proteins found in some plants, insects, and Antarctic fish allowing them to survive at subzero temperatures by inhibiting ice crystal growth. The interaction of AFPs with ice crystals results in a difference between the freezing and melting temperatures, termed thermal hysteresis, which is the most common measure of AFP activity. Creating antifreeze protein constructs that reduce the concentration of protein needed to observe thermal hysteresis activities would be beneficial for diverse applications including cold storage of cells or tissues, ice slurries used in refrigeration systems, and food storage. We demonstrate that conjugating multiple type I AFPs to a polyallylamine chain increases thermal hysteresis activity compared to the original protein. The reaction product is approximately twice as active when compared to the same concentration of free proteins, yielding 0.5 °C thermal hysteresis activity at 0.3 mM protein concentration. More impressively, the amount of protein required to achieve a thermal hysteresis of 0.3 °C is about 100 times lower when conjugated to the polymer (3 μM) compared to free protein (300 μM). Ice crystal morphologies observed in the presence of the reaction product are comparable to those of the protein used in the conjugation reaction. PMID:21905742

  14. The thermal hysteresis activity of the type I antifreeze protein: A statistical mechanics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Fen; Liang, X. X.; Li, Q. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the adsorption-inhibition theory, a statistical mechanics model is proposed to investigate the thermal hysteresis activity of the type I antifreeze protein. The thermal hysteresis activity is evaluated by determining the AFP molecule coverage rate on the ice surface and the Gibbs function of the system. As examples, the calculated results for the thermal hysteresis temperatures of AFP9, HPLC-6(TTTT) and AAAA2kE as functions of the concentration of the AFP solution are obtained and discussed. The theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Re-Evaluation of a Bacterial Antifreeze Protein as an Adhesin with Ice-Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuaiqi; Garnham, Christopher P.; Whitney, John C.; Graham, Laurie A.; Davies, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII) and region IV (RIV), divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX)-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2) server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice. PMID:23144980

  16. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas R; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2016-09-12

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications-from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action.

  17. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications—from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:27476873

  18. Ice restructuring inhibition activities in antifreeze proteins with distinct differences in thermal hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sally O; Brown, Alan; Middleton, Adam J; Tomczak, Melanie M; Walker, Virginia K; Davies, Peter L

    2010-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) share two related properties: the ability to depress the freezing temperature below the melting point of ice (thermal hysteresis; TH); and the ability to inhibit the restructuring of ice into larger crystals. Since the 'hyperactive' AFPs, which have been more recently discovered, show an order of magnitude more TH than previously characterized AFPs, we have now determined their activities in ice restructuring inhibition (IrI) assays. IrI activities of three TH-hyperactive AFPs and three less TH-active AFPs varied over an 8-fold range. There was no obvious correlation between high TH activity and high IrI activity. However, the use of mutant AFPs demonstrated that severe disruption of ice-binding residues diminished both TH and IrI similarly, revealing that that the same ice-binding residues are crucial for both activities. In addition, bicarbonate ions, which are known to enhance the TH activity of AFPs, also enhanced their IrI activity. We suggest that these seemingly contradictory observations can be partially explained by differences in the coverage of ice by TH-hyperactive and non-hyperactive AFPs, and by differences in the stability of AFP-bound ice under supercooled and recrystallization conditions. PMID:20977900

  19. Antifreeze (glyco)protein mimetic behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol): detailed structure ice recrystallization inhibition activity study.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2013-05-13

    This manuscript reports a detailed study on the ability of poly(vinyl alcohol) to act as a biomimetic surrogate for antifreeze(glyco)proteins, with a focus on the specific property of ice-recrystallization inhibition (IRI). Despite over 40 years of study, the underlying mechanisms that govern the action of biological antifreezes are still poorly understood, which is in part due to their limited availability and challenging synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been shown to display remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity despite its major structural differences to native antifreeze proteins. Here, controlled radical polymerization is used to synthesize well-defined PVA, which has enabled us to obtain the first quantitative structure-activity relationships, to probe the role of molecular weight and comonomers on IRI activity. Crucially, it was found that IRI activity is "switched on" when the polymer chain length increases from 10 and 20 repeat units. Substitution of the polymer side chains with hydrophilic or hydrophobic units was found to diminish activity. Hydrophobic modifications to the backbone were slightly more tolerated than side chain modifications, which implies an unbroken sequence of hydroxyl units is necessary for activity. These results highlight that, although hydrophobic domains are key components of IRI activity, the random inclusion of addition hydrophobic units does not guarantee an increase in activity and that the actual polymer conformation is important.

  20. Dendrimer-Linked Antifreeze Proteins Have Superior Activity and Thermal Recovery.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Corey A; Drori, Ran; Zalis, Shiran; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2015-09-16

    By binding to ice, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) depress the freezing point of a solution and inhibit ice recrystallization if freezing does occur. Previous work showed that the activity of an AFP was incrementally increased by fusing it to another protein. Even larger increases in activity were achieved by doubling the number of ice-binding sites by dimerization. Here, we have combined the two strategies by linking multiple outward-facing AFPs to a dendrimer to significantly increase both the size of the molecule and the number of ice-binding sites. Using a heterobifunctional cross-linker, we attached between 6 and 11 type III AFPs to a second-generation polyamidoamine (G2-PAMAM) dendrimer with 16 reactive termini. This heterogeneous sample of dendrimer-linked type III constructs showed a greater than 4-fold increase in freezing point depression over that of monomeric type III AFP. This multimerized AFP was particularly effective at ice recrystallization inhibition activity, likely because it can simultaneously bind multiple ice surfaces. Additionally, attachment to the dendrimer has afforded the AFP superior recovery from heat denaturation. Linking AFPs together via polymers can generate novel reagents for controlling ice growth and recrystallization. PMID:26267368

  1. Dendrimer-Linked Antifreeze Proteins Have Superior Activity and Thermal Recovery.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Corey A; Drori, Ran; Zalis, Shiran; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2015-09-16

    By binding to ice, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) depress the freezing point of a solution and inhibit ice recrystallization if freezing does occur. Previous work showed that the activity of an AFP was incrementally increased by fusing it to another protein. Even larger increases in activity were achieved by doubling the number of ice-binding sites by dimerization. Here, we have combined the two strategies by linking multiple outward-facing AFPs to a dendrimer to significantly increase both the size of the molecule and the number of ice-binding sites. Using a heterobifunctional cross-linker, we attached between 6 and 11 type III AFPs to a second-generation polyamidoamine (G2-PAMAM) dendrimer with 16 reactive termini. This heterogeneous sample of dendrimer-linked type III constructs showed a greater than 4-fold increase in freezing point depression over that of monomeric type III AFP. This multimerized AFP was particularly effective at ice recrystallization inhibition activity, likely because it can simultaneously bind multiple ice surfaces. Additionally, attachment to the dendrimer has afforded the AFP superior recovery from heat denaturation. Linking AFPs together via polymers can generate novel reagents for controlling ice growth and recrystallization.

  2. Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Hsu; Graham, Laurie A; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    The glycine-rich antifreeze protein recently discovered in snow fleas exhibits strong freezing point depression activity without significantly changing the melting point of its solution (thermal hysteresis). BLAST searches did not detect any protein with significant similarity in current databases. Based on its circular dichroism spectrum, discontinuities in its tripeptide repeat pattern, and intramolecular disulfide bonding, a detailed theoretical model is proposed for the 6.5-kDa isoform. In the model, the 81-residue protein is organized into a bundle of six short polyproline type II helices connected (with one exception) by proline-containing turns. This structure forms two sheets of three parallel helices, oriented antiparallel to each other. The central helices are particularly rich in glycines that facilitate backbone carbonyl-amide hydrogen bonding to four neighboring helices. The modeled structure has similarities to polyglycine II proposed by Crick and Rich in 1955 and is a close match to the polyproline type II antiparallel sheet structure determined by Traub in 1969 for (Pro-Gly-Gly)(n). Whereas the latter two structures are formed by intermolecular interactions, the snow flea antifreeze is stabilized by intramolecular interactions between the helices facilitated by the regularly spaced turns and disulfide bonds. Like several other antifreeze proteins, this modeled protein is amphipathic with a putative hydrophobic ice-binding face. PMID:17158562

  3. Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Hsu; Graham, Laurie A; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    The glycine-rich antifreeze protein recently discovered in snow fleas exhibits strong freezing point depression activity without significantly changing the melting point of its solution (thermal hysteresis). BLAST searches did not detect any protein with significant similarity in current databases. Based on its circular dichroism spectrum, discontinuities in its tripeptide repeat pattern, and intramolecular disulfide bonding, a detailed theoretical model is proposed for the 6.5-kDa isoform. In the model, the 81-residue protein is organized into a bundle of six short polyproline type II helices connected (with one exception) by proline-containing turns. This structure forms two sheets of three parallel helices, oriented antiparallel to each other. The central helices are particularly rich in glycines that facilitate backbone carbonyl-amide hydrogen bonding to four neighboring helices. The modeled structure has similarities to polyglycine II proposed by Crick and Rich in 1955 and is a close match to the polyproline type II antiparallel sheet structure determined by Traub in 1969 for (Pro-Gly-Gly)(n). Whereas the latter two structures are formed by intermolecular interactions, the snow flea antifreeze is stabilized by intramolecular interactions between the helices facilitated by the regularly spaced turns and disulfide bonds. Like several other antifreeze proteins, this modeled protein is amphipathic with a putative hydrophobic ice-binding face.

  4. Hofmeister Effects of Common Monovalent Salts on the Beetle Antifreeze Protein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Banatlao, Joseph; Chung, Melody; Kao, Yu; Wen, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) noncolligatively depress the freezing point of a solution and produce a difference between the melting and freezing points termed thermal hysteresis (TH). While the mechanism of the enhancement effect is not well understood, various low-molecular-mass solutes including neutral salts have been identified to enhance the TH activities of AFPs. Here, the effect of monovalent salts on salting out an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP-1) on the ice was treated using a simple classical theory and the relationship between the TH activity and the salt concentration was developed. The TH activities of DAFP-1 in the presence of the series of monovalent salts were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the salting-out constants of DAFP-1 by these salts were determined. This study demonstrates an indirect way to determine the salting-out constants of AFPs by these salts. The results suggest that the Hofmeister effect is a potential mechanism for the TH enhancement effects of some common monovalent salts. PMID:19778062

  5. Perturbation of bacterial ice nucleation activity by a grass antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Tomalty, Heather E; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-09-26

    Certain plant-associating bacteria produce ice nucleation proteins (INPs) which allow the crystallization of water at high subzero temperatures. Many of these microbes are considered plant pathogens since the formed ice can damage tissues, allowing access to nutrients. Intriguingly, certain plants that host these bacteria synthesize antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Once freezing has occurred, plant AFPs likely function to inhibit the growth of large damaging ice crystals. However, we postulated that such AFPs might also serve as defensive mechanisms against bacterial-mediated ice nucleation. Recombinant AFP derived from the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne (LpAFP) was combined with INP preparations originating from the grass epiphyte, Pseudomonas syringae. The presence of INPs had no effect on AFP activity, including thermal hysteresis and ice recrystallization inhibition. Strikingly, the ice nucleation point of the INP was depressed up to 1.9°C in the presence of LpAFP, but a recombinant fish AFP did not lower the INP-imposed freezing point. Assays with mutant LpAFPs and the visualization of bacterially-displayed fluorescent plant AFP suggest that INP and LpAFP can interact. Thus, we postulate that in addition to controlling ice growth, plant AFPs may also function as a defensive strategy against the damaging effects of ice-nucleating bacteria.

  6. Perturbation of bacterial ice nucleation activity by a grass antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Tomalty, Heather E; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-09-26

    Certain plant-associating bacteria produce ice nucleation proteins (INPs) which allow the crystallization of water at high subzero temperatures. Many of these microbes are considered plant pathogens since the formed ice can damage tissues, allowing access to nutrients. Intriguingly, certain plants that host these bacteria synthesize antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Once freezing has occurred, plant AFPs likely function to inhibit the growth of large damaging ice crystals. However, we postulated that such AFPs might also serve as defensive mechanisms against bacterial-mediated ice nucleation. Recombinant AFP derived from the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne (LpAFP) was combined with INP preparations originating from the grass epiphyte, Pseudomonas syringae. The presence of INPs had no effect on AFP activity, including thermal hysteresis and ice recrystallization inhibition. Strikingly, the ice nucleation point of the INP was depressed up to 1.9°C in the presence of LpAFP, but a recombinant fish AFP did not lower the INP-imposed freezing point. Assays with mutant LpAFPs and the visualization of bacterially-displayed fluorescent plant AFP suggest that INP and LpAFP can interact. Thus, we postulate that in addition to controlling ice growth, plant AFPs may also function as a defensive strategy against the damaging effects of ice-nucleating bacteria. PMID:25193694

  7. Effect of annealing time of an ice crystal on the activity of type III antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Takamichi, Manabu; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Miura, Ai; Tsuda, Sakae

    2007-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) possess a unique ability to bind to a seed ice crystal to inhibit its growth. The strength of this binding has been evaluated by thermal hysteresis (TH). In this study, we examined the dependence of TH on experimental parameters, including cooling rate, annealing time, annealing temperature and the size of the seed ice crystal for an isoform of type III AFP from notched-fin eelpout (nfeAFP8). TH of nfeAFP8 dramatically decreased when using a fast cooling rate (0.20 degrees C x min(-1)). It also decreased with increasing seed crystal size under a slow cooling rate (0.01 degrees C x min(-1)), but such dependence was not detected under the fast cooling rate. TH was enhanced 1.4- and 2.5-fold when ice crystals were annealed for 3 h at 0.05 and 0.25 degrees C below T(m), respectively. After annealing for 2 h at 0.25 degrees C below T(m), TH activity showed marked dependence on the size of ice crystals. These results suggest that annealing of an ice crystal for 2-3 h significantly increased the TH value of type III AFP. Based on a proposed adsorption-inhibition model, we assume that type III AFP undergoes additional ice binding to the convex ice front over a 2-3 h time scale, which results in the TH dependence on the annealing time.

  8. Structure of solvation water around the active and inactive regions of a type III antifreeze protein and its mutants of lowered activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowska, Joanna; Kuffel, Anna; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Water molecules from the solvation shell of the ice-binding surface are considered important for the antifreeze proteins to perform their function properly. Herein, we discuss the problem whether the extent of changes of the mean properties of solvation water can be connected with the antifreeze activity of the protein. To this aim, the structure of solvation water of a type III antifreeze protein from Macrozoarces americanus (eel pout) is investigated. A wild type of the protein is used, along with its three mutants, with antifreeze activities equal to 54% or 10% of the activity of the native form. The solvation water of the ice-binding surface and the rest of the protein are analyzed separately. To characterize the structure of solvation shell, parameters describing radial and angular characteristics of the mutual arrangement of the molecules were employed. They take into account short-distance (first hydration shell) or long-distance (two solvation shells) effects. The obtained results and the comparison with the results obtained previously for a hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana lead to the conclusion that the structure and amino acid composition of the active region of the protein evolved to achieve two goals. The first one is the modification of the properties of the solvation water. The second one is the geometrical adjustment of the protein surface to the specific crystallographic plane of ice. Both of these goals have to be achieved simultaneously in order for the protein to perform its function properly. However, they seem to be independent from one another in a sense that very small antifreeze activity does not imply that properties of water become different from the ones observed for the wild type. The proteins with significantly lower activity still modify the mean properties of solvation water in a right direction, in spite of the fact that the accuracy of the geometrical match with the ice lattice is lost because of the

  9. Structure of solvation water around the active and inactive regions of a type III antifreeze protein and its mutants of lowered activity.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Joanna; Kuffel, Anna; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2016-08-21

    Water molecules from the solvation shell of the ice-binding surface are considered important for the antifreeze proteins to perform their function properly. Herein, we discuss the problem whether the extent of changes of the mean properties of solvation water can be connected with the antifreeze activity of the protein. To this aim, the structure of solvation water of a type III antifreeze protein from Macrozoarces americanus (eel pout) is investigated. A wild type of the protein is used, along with its three mutants, with antifreeze activities equal to 54% or 10% of the activity of the native form. The solvation water of the ice-binding surface and the rest of the protein are analyzed separately. To characterize the structure of solvation shell, parameters describing radial and angular characteristics of the mutual arrangement of the molecules were employed. They take into account short-distance (first hydration shell) or long-distance (two solvation shells) effects. The obtained results and the comparison with the results obtained previously for a hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana lead to the conclusion that the structure and amino acid composition of the active region of the protein evolved to achieve two goals. The first one is the modification of the properties of the solvation water. The second one is the geometrical adjustment of the protein surface to the specific crystallographic plane of ice. Both of these goals have to be achieved simultaneously in order for the protein to perform its function properly. However, they seem to be independent from one another in a sense that very small antifreeze activity does not imply that properties of water become different from the ones observed for the wild type. The proteins with significantly lower activity still modify the mean properties of solvation water in a right direction, in spite of the fact that the accuracy of the geometrical match with the ice lattice is lost because of the

  10. Coarse grained simulation reveals antifreeze properties of hyperactive antifreeze protein from Antarctic bacterium Colwellia sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hung; Van, Thanh Dac; Le, Ly

    2015-10-01

    The novel hyperactive antifreeze protein (AFP) of Antarctic sea ice bacterium Colwellia sp. provides a target for studying the protection of psychrophilic microgoranisms against freezing environment. Interestingly, the Colwellia sp. hyperactive antifreeze protein (ColAFP) was crystallized without the structural dynamic characteristics. Here, the result indicated, through coarse grained simulation of ColAFP under various subfreezing temperature, that ColAFP remains active at temperature of equal and greater than 275 K (∼2 °C). Extensive simulation analyses also revealed the adaptive mechanism of ColAFP in subfreezing environment. Our result provides a structural dynamic understanding of the ColAFP.

  11. Structural basis for antifreeze activity of ice-binding protein from arctic yeast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hyuck; Park, Ae Kyung; Do, Hackwon; Park, Kyoung Sun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Chi, Young Min; Kim, Hak Jun

    2012-03-30

    Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. produces a glycosylated ice-binding protein (LeIBP) with a molecular mass of ∼25 kDa, which can lower the freezing point below the melting point once it binds to ice. LeIBP is a member of a large class of ice-binding proteins, the structures of which are unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of non-glycosylated LeIBP and glycosylated LeIBP at 1.57- and 2.43-Å resolution, respectively. Structural analysis of the LeIBPs revealed a dimeric right-handed β-helix fold, which is composed of three parts: a large coiled structural domain, a long helix region (residues 96-115 form a long α-helix that packs along one face of the β-helix), and a C-terminal hydrophobic loop region ((243)PFVPAPEVV(251)). Unexpectedly, the C-terminal hydrophobic loop region has an extended conformation pointing away from the body of the coiled structural domain and forms intertwined dimer interactions. In addition, structural analysis of glycosylated LeIBP with sugar moieties attached to Asn(185) provides a basis for interpreting previous biochemical analyses as well as the increased stability and secretion of glycosylated LeIBP. We also determined that the aligned Thr/Ser/Ala residues are critical for ice binding within the B face of LeIBP using site-directed mutagenesis. Although LeIBP has a common β-helical fold similar to that of canonical hyperactive antifreeze proteins, the ice-binding site is more complex and does not have a simple ice-binding motif. In conclusion, we could identify the ice-binding site of LeIBP and discuss differences in the ice-binding modes compared with other known antifreeze proteins and ice-binding proteins. PMID:22303017

  12. Antifreeze glycoprotein agents: structural requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Rondanelli, Patricio A; Marshall, Sergio H; Guzman, Fanny

    2011-11-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are considered to be the most efficient means to reduce ice damage to cell tissues since they are able to inhibit growth and crystallization of ice. The key element of antifreeze proteins is to act in a non-colligative manner which allows them to function at concentrations 300-500 times lowers than other dissolved solutes. During the past decade, AFGPs have demonstrated tremendous potential for many pharmaceutical and food applications. Presently, the only route to obtain AFGPs involves the time consuming and expensive process of isolation and purification from deep-sea polar fishes. Unfortunately, it is not amenable to mass production and commercial applications. The lack of understanding of the mechanism through which the AFGPs inhibit ice growth has also hampered the realization of industrial and biotechnological applications. Here we report the structural motifs that are essential for antifreeze activity of AFGPs, and propose a unified mechanism based on both recent studies of short alanine peptides and structure activity relationship of synthesized AFGPs.

  13. Gold Nanoparticle Aggregation as a Probe of Antifreeze (Glyco) Protein-Inspired Ice Recrystallization Inhibition and Identification of New IRI Active Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel E.; Congdon, Thomas; Rodger, Alison; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco)proteins are found in polar fish species and act to slow the rate of growth of ice crystals; a property known as ice recrystallization inhibition. The ability to slow ice growth is of huge technological importance especially in the cryopreservation of donor cells and tissue, but native antifreeze proteins are often not suitable, nor easily available. Therefore, the search for new materials that mimic this function is important, but currently limited by the low-throughout assays associated with the antifreeze properties. Here 30 nm gold nanoparticles are demonstrated to be useful colorimetric probes for ice recrystallization inhibition, giving a visible optical response and is compatible with 96 well plates for high-throughout studies. This method is faster, requires less infrastructure, and has easier interpretation than the currently used ‘splat’ methods. Using this method, a series of serum proteins were identified to have weak, but specific ice recrystallization inhibition activity, which was removed upon denaturation. It is hoped that high-throughput tools such as this will accelerate the discovery of new antifreeze mimics. PMID:26499135

  14. Gold Nanoparticle Aggregation as a Probe of Antifreeze (Glyco) Protein-Inspired Ice Recrystallization Inhibition and Identification of New IRI Active Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Congdon, Thomas; Rodger, Alison; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-26

    Antifreeze (glyco)proteins are found in polar fish species and act to slow the rate of growth of ice crystals; a property known as ice recrystallization inhibition. The ability to slow ice growth is of huge technological importance especially in the cryopreservation of donor cells and tissue, but native antifreeze proteins are often not suitable, nor easily available. Therefore, the search for new materials that mimic this function is important, but currently limited by the low-throughout assays associated with the antifreeze properties. Here 30 nm gold nanoparticles are demonstrated to be useful colorimetric probes for ice recrystallization inhibition, giving a visible optical response and is compatible with 96 well plates for high-throughout studies. This method is faster, requires less infrastructure, and has easier interpretation than the currently used 'splat' methods. Using this method, a series of serum proteins were identified to have weak, but specific ice recrystallization inhibition activity, which was removed upon denaturation. It is hoped that high-throughput tools such as this will accelerate the discovery of new antifreeze mimics.

  15. Structure and function of antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Peter L; Baardsnes, Jason; Kuiper, Michael J; Walker, Virginia K

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures are now available for four of seven non-homologous fish and insect antifreeze proteins (AFPs). For each of these structures, the ice-binding site of the AFP has been defined by site-directed mutagenesis, and ice etching has indicated that the ice surface is bound by the AFP. A comparison of these extremely diverse ice-binding proteins shows that they have the following attributes in common. The binding sites are relatively flat and engage a substantial proportion of the protein's surface area in ice binding. They are also somewhat hydrophobic -- more so than that portion of the protein exposed to the solvent. Surface-surface complementarity appears to be the key to tight binding in which the contribution of hydrogen bonding seems to be secondary to van der Waals contacts. PMID:12171656

  16. Properties, potentials, and prospects of antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Venketesh, S; Dayananda, C

    2008-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a group of proteins that protect organisms from deep freezing temperatures and are expressed in vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, bacteria, and fungi. The nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray structure, and many spectroscopic studies with AFPs have been instrumental in determining the structure-function relationship. Mutational studies have indicated the importance of hydrophobic residues in ice binding. Various studies have pointed out that the mechanism of AFP action is through its adsorption on the ice surface, which leads to a curved surface, preventing further growth of ice by the "Kelvin effect." The AFPs have potential industrial, medical, and agricultural application in different fields, such as food technology, preservation of cell lines, organs, cryosurgery, and cold hardy transgenic plants and animals. However, the applications of AFPs are marred by high cost due to low yield. This review deals with the source and properties of AFPs from an angle of their application and their potential. The possibility of production using different molecular biological techniques, which will help increase the yield, is also dealt with.

  17. Identification and Evaluation of Cryoprotective Peptides from Chicken Collagen: Ice-Growth Inhibition Activity Compared to That of Type I Antifreeze Proteins in Sucrose Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Lihui; Betti, Mirko

    2016-06-29

    The ability of chicken collagen peptides to inhibit the growth of ice crystals was evaluated and compared to that of fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs). This ice inhibition activity was assessed using a polarized microscope by measuring ice crystal dimensions in a sucrose model system with and without collagen peptides after seven thermal cycles. The system was stabilized at -25 °C and cycled between -16 and -12 °C. Five candidate peptides with ice inhibition activity were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry and were then synthesized. Their ice inhibition capacity was compared to that of type I AFPs in a 23% sucrose model system. Specific collagen peptides with certain amino acid sequences reduced the extent of ice growth by approximately 70% at a relatively low concentration (1 mg/mL). These results suggest that specific collagen peptides may act in a noncolligative manner, inhibiting ice crystal growth like type I AFPs, but less efficiently. PMID:27293017

  18. Long-range protein-water dynamics in hyperactive insect antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Ebbinghaus, Simon; Xu, Yao; Duman, John G; DeVries, Arthur; Gruebele, Martin; Leitner, David M; Havenith, Martina

    2013-01-29

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are specific proteins that are able to lower the freezing point of aqueous solutions relative to the melting point. Hyperactive AFPs, identified in insects, have an especially high ability to depress the freezing point by far exceeding the abilities of other AFPs. In previous studies, we postulated that the activity of AFPs can be attributed to two distinct molecular mechanisms: (i) short-range direct interaction of the protein surface with the growing ice face and (ii) long-range interaction by protein-induced water dynamics extending up to 20 Å from the protein surface. In the present paper, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and molecular simulations to prove that long-range protein-water interactions make essential contributions to the high antifreeze activity of insect AFPs from the beetle Dendroides canadensis. We also support our hypothesis by studying the effect of the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate.

  19. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Olijve, Luuk L C; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-04-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application.

  20. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L.; Duman, John G.; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J.; Voets, Ilja K.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application. PMID:26936953

  1. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Olijve, Luuk L C; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-04-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application. PMID:26936953

  2. Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Celik, Yeliz; Graham, Laurie A; Mok, Yee-Foong; Bar, Maya; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2010-03-23

    It has been argued that for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to stop ice crystal growth, they must irreversibly bind to the ice surface. Surface-adsorbed AFPs should also prevent ice from melting, but to date this has been demonstrated only in a qualitative manner. Here we present the first quantitative measurements of superheating of ice in AFP solutions. Superheated ice crystals were stable for hours above their equilibrium melting point, and the maximum superheating obtained was 0.44 degrees C. When melting commenced in this superheated regime, rapid melting of the crystals from a point on the surface was observed. This increase in melting temperature was more appreciable for hyperactive AFPs compared to the AFPs with moderate antifreeze activity. For each of the AFP solutions that exhibited superheating, the enhancement of the melting temperature was far smaller than the depression of the freezing temperature. The present findings clearly show that AFPs adsorb to ice surfaces as part of their mechanism of action, and this absorption leads to protection of ice against melting as well as freezing. PMID:20215465

  3. Antifreeze proteins modify the freezing process in planta.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Marilyn; Lumb, Chelsey; Wiseman, Steven B; Wisniewski, Michael; Johnson, Robert W; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2005-05-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) plants accumulate antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in the apoplast of leaves and crowns. The goal of this study was to determine whether these AFPs influence survival at subzero temperatures by modifying the freezing process or by acting as cryoprotectants. In order to inhibit the growth of ice, AFPs must be mobile so that they can bind to specific sites on the ice crystal lattice. Guttate obtained from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves exhibited antifreeze activity, indicating that the AFPs are free in solution. Infrared video thermography was used to observe freezing in winter rye leaves. In the absence of an ice nucleator, AFPs had no effect on the supercooling temperature of the leaves. However, in the presence of an ice nucleator, AFPs lowered the temperature at which the leaves froze by 0.3 degrees C to 1.2 degrees C. In vitro studies showed that apoplastic proteins extracted from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves inhibited the recrystallization of ice and also slowed the rate of migration of ice through solution-saturated filter paper. When we examined the possible role of winter rye AFPs in cryoprotection, we found that lactate dehydrogenase activity was higher after freezing in the presence of AFPs compared with buffer, but the same effect was obtained by adding bovine serum albumin. AFPs had no effect on unstacked thylakoid volume after freezing, but did inhibit stacking of the thylakoids, thus indicating a loss of thylakoid function. We conclude that rye AFPs have no specific cryoprotective activity; rather, they interact directly with ice in planta and reduce freezing injury by slowing the growth and recrystallization of ice.

  4. Unusual structural properties of water within the hydration shell of hyperactive antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Kuffel, Anna; Czapiewski, Dariusz; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Many hypotheses can be encountered explaining the mechanism of action of antifreeze proteins. One widespread theory postulates that the similarity of structural properties of solvation water of antifreeze proteins to ice is crucial to the antifreeze activity of these agents. In order to investigate this problem, the structural properties of solvation water of the hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana were analyzed and compared with the properties of solvation water present at the surface of ice. The most striking observations concerned the temperature dependence of changes in water structure. In the case of solvation water of the ice-binding plane, the difference between the overall structural ordering of solvation water and bulk water diminished with increasing temperature; in the case of solvation water of the rest of the protein, the trend was opposite. In this respect, the solvation water of the ice-binding plane roughly resembled the hydration layer of ice. Simultaneously, the whole solvation shell of the protein displayed some features that are typical for solvation shells of many other proteins and are not encountered in the solvation water of ice. In the first place, this is an increase in density of water around the protein. The opposite is true for the solvation water of ice - it is less dense than bulk water. Therefore, even though the structure of solvation water of ice-binding plane and the structure of solvation water of ice seem to share some similarities, densitywise they differ. PMID:25106616

  5. Long-range protein–water dynamics in hyperactive insect antifreeze proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Konrad; Ebbinghaus, Simon; Xu, Yao; Duman, John G.; DeVries, Arthur; Gruebele, Martin; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are specific proteins that are able to lower the freezing point of aqueous solutions relative to the melting point. Hyperactive AFPs, identified in insects, have an especially high ability to depress the freezing point by far exceeding the abilities of other AFPs. In previous studies, we postulated that the activity of AFPs can be attributed to two distinct molecular mechanisms: (i) short-range direct interaction of the protein surface with the growing ice face and (ii) long-range interaction by protein-induced water dynamics extending up to 20 Å from the protein surface. In the present paper, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and molecular simulations to prove that long-range protein–water interactions make essential contributions to the high antifreeze activity of insect AFPs from the beetle Dendroides canadensis. We also support our hypothesis by studying the effect of the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate. PMID:23277543

  6. Anti-virulence properties of an antifreeze protein

    PubMed Central

    Heisig, Martin; Abraham, Nabil M.; Liu, Lei; Neelakanta, Girish; Mattessich, Sarah; Sultana, Hameeda; Shang, Zhengling; Ansari, Juliana M.; Killiam, Charlotte; Walker, Wendy; Cooley, Lynn; Flavell, Richard A.; Agaisse, Herve; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Summary As microbial drug-resistance increases, there is a critical need for new classes of compounds to combat infectious diseases. The Ixodes scapularis tick antifreeze glycoprotein, IAFGP, functions as an anti-virulence agent against diverse bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recombinant IAFGP and a peptide, P1, derived from this protein bind to microbes and alter biofilm formation. Transgenic iafgp-expressing flies and mice challenged with bacteria, as well as wild-type animals administered P1, were resistant to infection, septic shock, or biofilm development on implanted catheter tubing. These data show that an antifreeze protein facilitates host control of bacterial infections and suggest new therapeutic strategies to counter pathogens. PMID:25373896

  7. Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein gene identification and regulation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wensheng; Walker, Virginia K

    2006-02-15

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a freeze susceptible, stored product pest. Its winter survival is facilitated by the accumulation of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), encoded by a small gene family. We have now isolated 11 different AFP genomic clones from 3 genomic libraries. All the clones had a single coding sequence, with no evidence of intervening sequences. Three genomic clones were further characterized. All have putative TATA box sequences upstream of the coding regions and multiple potential poly(A) signal sequences downstream of the coding regions. A TmAFP regulatory region, B1037, conferred transcriptional activity when ligated to a luciferase reporter sequence and after transfection into an insect cell line. A 143 bp core promoter including a TATA box sequence was identified. Its promoter activity was increased 4.4 times by inserting an exotic 245 bp intron into the construct, similar to the enhancement of transgenic expression seen in several other systems. The addition of a duplication of the first 120 bp sequence from the 143 bp core promoter decreased promoter activity by half. Although putative hormonal response sequences were identified, none of the five hormones tested enhanced reporter activity. These studies on the mechanisms of AFP transcriptional control are important for the consideration of any transfer of freeze-resistance phenotypes to beneficial hosts.

  8. Function of the hydration layer around an antifreeze protein revealed by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, David; Smith, Jeremy C

    2008-10-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the mechanism by which the antifreeze protein from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, binds to ice. Comparison of structural and dynamic properties of the water around the three faces of the triangular prism-shaped protein in aqueous solution reveals that at low temperature the water structure is ordered and the dynamics slowed down around the ice-binding face of the protein, with a disordering effect observed around the other two faces. These results suggest a dual role for the solvation water around the protein. The preconfigured solvation shell around the ice-binding face is involved in the initial recognition and binding of the antifreeze protein to ice by lowering the barrier for binding and consolidation of the protein:ice interaction surface. Thus, the antifreeze protein can bind to the molecularly rough ice surface by becoming actively involved in the formation of its own binding site. Also, the disruption of water structure around the rest of the protein helps prevent the adsorbed protein becoming covered by further ice growth.

  9. Type-IV Antifreeze Proteins are Essential for Epiboly and Convergence in Gastrulation of Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qing; Xia, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Many organisms in extremely cold environments such as the Antarctic Pole have evolved antifreeze molecules to prevent ice formation. There are four types of antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Type-IV antifreeze proteins (AFP4s) are present also in certain temperate and even tropical fish, which has raised a question as to whether these AFP4s have important functions in addition to antifreeze activity. Here we report the identification and functional analyses of AFP4s in cyprinid fish. Two genes, namely afp4a and afp4b coding for AFP4s, were identified in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In both species, afp4a and afp4b display a head-to-tail tandem arrangement and share a common 4-exonic gene structure. In zebrafish, both afp4a and afp4b were found to express specifically in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL). Interestingly, afp4a expression continues in YSL and digestive system from early embryos to adults, whereas afp4b expression is restricted to embryogenesis. Importantly, we have shown by using afp4a-specific and afp4b-specifc morpholino knockdown and cell lineage tracing approaches that AFP4a participates in epiboly progression by stabilizing yolk cytoplasmic layer microtubules, and AFP4b is primarily related to convergence movement. Therefore, both AFP4 proteins are essential for gastrulation of zebrafish embryos. Our current results provide first evidence that AFP such as AFP4 has important roles in regulating developmental processes besides its well-known function as antifreeze factors. PMID:25013380

  10. Antifreeze proteins in the Antarctic springtail, Gressittacantha terranova.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C; Marshall, C J; Wharton, D A

    2011-08-01

    Antarctic springtails are exemplars of extreme low temperature adaptation in terrestrial arthropods. This paper represents the first examination of such adaptation in the springtail, Gressittacantha terranova. Acclimatization state was measured in field-fresh samples over a 22-day period at the beginning of the austral summer. No evidence of temperature tracking was observed. Mean temperature of crystallization (T(c)) for all samples was -20.67 ± 0.32°C and the lowest T(c) recorded was -32.62°C. Ice affinity purification was used to collect antifreeze proteins (AFPs) from springtail homogenate. The purified ice fraction demonstrated both thermal hysteresis activity and recrystallisation inhibition. Growth-melt observations revealed that ice crystals grow normal to the c-axis (basal plane). Reverse-phased HPLC produce one clearly resolved peak (P1) and one compound peak (P2). Mass spectrometry identified the molecular mass of P1 as 8,599 Da. The P1 protein was also the most prominent in P2, although additional peptides of 6-7 KDa were also prominent. The main AFP of the Antarctic springtail, G. terranova has been isolated, although like other AFP-expressing arthropods, it shows evidence of expressing a family of AFPs. PMID:21399953

  11. Dynamical mechanism of antifreeze proteins to prevent ice growth.

    PubMed

    Kutschan, B; Morawetz, K; Thoms, S

    2014-08-01

    The fascinating ability of algae, insects, and fishes to survive at temperatures below normal freezing is realized by antifreeze proteins (AFPs). These are surface-active molecules and interact with the diffusive water-ice interface thus preventing complete solidification. We propose a dynamical mechanism on how these proteins inhibit the freezing of water. We apply a Ginzburg-Landau-type approach to describe the phase separation in the two-component system (ice, AFP). The free-energy density involves two fields: one for the ice phase with a low AFP concentration and one for liquid water with a high AFP concentration. The time evolution of the ice reveals microstructures resulting from phase separation in the presence of AFPs. We observed a faster clustering of pre-ice structure connected to a locking of grain size by the action of AFP, which is an essentially dynamical process. The adsorption of additional water molecules is inhibited and the further growth of ice grains stopped. The interfacial energy between ice and water is lowered allowing the AFPs to form smaller critical ice nuclei. Similar to a hysteresis in magnetic materials we observe a thermodynamic hysteresis leading to a nonlinear density dependence of the freezing point depression in agreement with the experiments. PMID:25215762

  12. Dynamical mechanism of antifreeze proteins to prevent ice growth.

    PubMed

    Kutschan, B; Morawetz, K; Thoms, S

    2014-08-01

    The fascinating ability of algae, insects, and fishes to survive at temperatures below normal freezing is realized by antifreeze proteins (AFPs). These are surface-active molecules and interact with the diffusive water-ice interface thus preventing complete solidification. We propose a dynamical mechanism on how these proteins inhibit the freezing of water. We apply a Ginzburg-Landau-type approach to describe the phase separation in the two-component system (ice, AFP). The free-energy density involves two fields: one for the ice phase with a low AFP concentration and one for liquid water with a high AFP concentration. The time evolution of the ice reveals microstructures resulting from phase separation in the presence of AFPs. We observed a faster clustering of pre-ice structure connected to a locking of grain size by the action of AFP, which is an essentially dynamical process. The adsorption of additional water molecules is inhibited and the further growth of ice grains stopped. The interfacial energy between ice and water is lowered allowing the AFPs to form smaller critical ice nuclei. Similar to a hysteresis in magnetic materials we observe a thermodynamic hysteresis leading to a nonlinear density dependence of the freezing point depression in agreement with the experiments.

  13. Dynamical mechanism of antifreeze proteins to prevent ice growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschan, B.; Morawetz, K.; Thoms, S.

    2014-08-01

    The fascinating ability of algae, insects, and fishes to survive at temperatures below normal freezing is realized by antifreeze proteins (AFPs). These are surface-active molecules and interact with the diffusive water-ice interface thus preventing complete solidification. We propose a dynamical mechanism on how these proteins inhibit the freezing of water. We apply a Ginzburg-Landau-type approach to describe the phase separation in the two-component system (ice, AFP). The free-energy density involves two fields: one for the ice phase with a low AFP concentration and one for liquid water with a high AFP concentration. The time evolution of the ice reveals microstructures resulting from phase separation in the presence of AFPs. We observed a faster clustering of pre-ice structure connected to a locking of grain size by the action of AFP, which is an essentially dynamical process. The adsorption of additional water molecules is inhibited and the further growth of ice grains stopped. The interfacial energy between ice and water is lowered allowing the AFPs to form smaller critical ice nuclei. Similar to a hysteresis in magnetic materials we observe a thermodynamic hysteresis leading to a nonlinear density dependence of the freezing point depression in agreement with the experiments.

  14. Purification of antifreeze proteins by adsorption to ice.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Michael J; Lankin, Christopher; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Walker, Virginia K; Davies, Peter L

    2003-01-17

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can protect organisms from freezing injury by adsorbing to ice and inhibiting its growth. We describe here a method where ice, grown on a cold finger, is used to selectively adsorb and purify these ice-binding proteins from a crude mixture. Type III recombinant AFP was enriched approximately 50-fold after one round of partitioning into ice and purified to homogeneity by a second round. This method can also be used to purify non-ice-binding proteins by linkage to AFP domains as demonstrated by the recovery of a 50 kDa maltose-binding protein-AFP fusion from a crude lysate of Escherichia coli.

  15. Type I antifreeze proteins: possible origins from chorion and keratin genes in Atlantic snailfish.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert P; Fletcher, Garth L

    2005-10-01

    Type I antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are alanine-rich alpha-helical polypeptides found in some species of right-eye flounders, sculpin, and snailfish. In this study, a shorthorn sculpin skin type I cDNA clone was used to probe an Atlantic snailfish liver cDNA library in order to locate expressed genes corresponding to snailfish plasma AFPs. Clones isolated from the cDNA library had sections with substantial amino acid and nucleotide sequence similarity to snailfish type I AFPs. However, further analysis revealed that the positives were actually three different liver-expressed proteins-two were eggshell proteins, while the third was a type II keratin. We propose that a shift in reading frame could produce alanine-rich candidate AFPs with possible antifreeze activity or ice crystal modification properties. Furthermore, it is plausible that one or more of the liver-expressed proteins represent the progenitors of snailfish type I AFPs.

  16. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and two of its mutants using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The simulations were performed under four conditions: in the gas phase, solvated by water, adsorbed on the ice (2021) crystal plane in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. This study provided details of the ice-binding pattern of the winter flounder AFP. Simulation results indicated that the Asp, Asn, and Thr residues in the AFP are important in ice binding and that Asn and Thr as a group bind cooperatively to the ice surface. These ice-binding residues can be collected into four distinct ice-binding regions: Asp-1/Thr-2/Asp-5, Thr-13/Asn-16, Thr-24/Asn-27, and Thr-35/Arg-37. These four regions are 11 residues apart and the repeat distance between them matches the ice lattice constant along the (1102) direction. This match is crucial to ensure that all four groups can interact with the ice surface simultaneously, thereby, enhancing ice binding. These Asx (x = p or n)/Thr regions each form 5-6 hydrogen bonds with the ice surface: Asn forms about three hydrogen bonds with ice molecules located in the step region while Thr forms one to two hydrogen bonds with the ice molecules in the ridge of the (2021) crystal plane. Both the distance between Thr and Asn and the ordering of the two residues are crucial for effective ice binding. The proper sequence is necessary to generate a binding surface that is compatible with the ice surface topology, thus providing a perfect "host/guest" interaction that simultaneously satisfies both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The results also show the relation among binding energy, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the activity. The activity is correlated to the binding energy, and in the case of the mutants we have studied the number of hydrogen bonds. The greater the number of the hydrogen bonds the greater the antifreeze activity. The roles van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic

  17. Comparison of backbone dynamics of the type III antifreeze protein and antifreeze-like domain of human sialic acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Geun; Park, Chin-Ju; Kim, Hee-Eun; Seo, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Ae-Ree; Choi, Seo-Ree; Lee, Shim Sung; Lee, Joon-Hwa

    2015-02-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in a variety of cold-adapted (psychrophilic) organisms to promote survival at subzero temperatures by binding to ice crystals and decreasing the freezing temperature of body fluids. The type III AFPs are small globular proteins that consist of one α-helix, three 3(10)-helices, and two β-strands. Sialic acids play important roles in a variety of biological functions, such as development, recognition, and cell adhesion and are synthesized by conserved enzymatic pathways that include sialic acid synthase (SAS). SAS consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal antifreeze-like (AFL) domain, which is similar to the type III AFPs. Despite having very similar structures, AFL and the type III AFPs exhibit very different temperature-dependent stability and activity. In this study, we have performed backbone dynamics analyses of a type III AFP (HPLC12 isoform) and the AFL domain of human SAS (hAFL) at various temperatures. We also characterized the structural/dynamic properties of the ice-binding surfaces by analyzing the temperature gradient of the amide proton chemical shift and its correlation with chemical shift deviation from random coil. The dynamic properties of the two proteins were very different from each other. While HPLC12 was mostly rigid with a few residues exhibiting slow motions, hAFL showed fast internal motions at low temperature. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis of thermostability and structural flexibility in homologous psychrophilic HPLC12 and mesophilic hAFL proteins.

  18. An intracellular antifreeze protein from an Antarctic microalga that responds to various environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Yunho; Jung, Woongsic; Lee, Yew; Kim, Ji Sook; Kim, Chul Geun; Ju, Ji-Hyun; Song, Chihong; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Jin, EonSeon

    2014-11-01

    The structure and function of the Antarctic marine diatom Chaetoceros neogracile antifreeze protein (Cn-AFP), as well as its expression levels and characteristics of the ice-binding site, were analyzed in the present study. In silico analysis revealed that the Cn-AFP promoter contains both light- and temperature-responsive elements. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both Cn-AFP transcript and protein expression were strongly and rapidly stimulated by freezing, as well as temperature and high light stress. Immunogold labeling revealed that Cn-AFP is preferentially localized to the intracellular space near the chloroplast membrane. Recombinant Cn-AFP had clear antifreeze activity. Protein-folding simulation was used to predict the putative ice-binding sites in Cn-AFP, and site-directed mutagenesis of the Cn-AFP b-face confirmed their identification.

  19. Variation in blood serum antifreeze activity of Antarctic Trematomus fishes across habitat temperature and depth.

    PubMed

    Fields, Lauren G; DeVries, Arthur L

    2015-07-01

    High latitude waters in the Southern Ocean can be near their freezing point and remain ice-covered throughout the year whereas lower latitude Southern Ocean waters have seasonal ice coverage and comparatively large (6 °C) annual temperature changes. The genus Trematomus (suborder Notothenioidei) is regarded primarily as a high latitude group because of its abundance there, they also inhabit the warmer regions in smaller numbers. Freeze avoidance in the notothenioids is linked to the presence of two antifreeze proteins (AFPs); the antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) and antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP), both of which adsorb to internal ice crystals inhibiting growth. Both high and low latitude trematomids possess sufficient AFP to lower their blood freezing point below that of seawater (-1.9 °C). We investigated the contributions of AFGPs and AFPP to the blood freezing point depression to determine how they varied with depth, water temperature, and the presence of ice. High latitude trematomids had lower blood freezing points than those inhabiting lower latitude waters indicating differences in their freeze avoidance capacities. Lower freezing points were associated with higher levels of antifreeze activity due to higher levels of both AFGP and AFPP. Populations of Trematomus hansoni and Trematomus bernacchii from shallow depths appear more freeze avoidant than populations inhabiting deep, ice-free water based on their lower freezing points and higher antifreeze activities. Gel electrophoresis of the trichloroacetic acid-soluble AFGPs indicates that only high molecular weight isoforms, which contribute more to AFGP activity, vary across species as well as between individuals of a species. PMID:25770668

  20. Using support vector machine and evolutionary profiles to predict antifreeze protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Yin, Minghao

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins. Accurate identification of new AFPs is important in understanding ice-protein interactions and creating novel ice-binding domains in other proteins. In this paper, an accurate method, called AFP_PSSM, has been developed for predicting antifreeze proteins using a support vector machine (SVM) and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM) profiles. This is the first study in which evolutionary information in the form of PSSM profiles has been successfully used for predicting antifreeze proteins. Tested by 10-fold cross validation and independent test, the accuracy of the proposed method reaches 82.67% for the training dataset and 93.01% for the testing dataset, respectively. These results indicate that our predictor is a useful tool for predicting antifreeze proteins. A web server (AFP_PSSM) that implements the proposed predictor is freely available.

  1. Unusual dynamic properties of water near the ice-binding plane of hyperactive antifreeze protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kuffel, Anna; Czapiewski, Dariusz; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-07

    The dynamical properties of solvation water of hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana (CfAFP) are analyzed and discussed in context of its antifreeze activity. The protein comprises of three well-defined planes and one of them binds to the surface of ice. The dynamical properties of solvation water around each of these planes were analyzed separately; the results are compared with the dynamical properties of solvation water of ice around its two crystallographic planes: basal and prism. Three main conclusions are inferred from our investigations. The first one is that the solvation shell of CfAFP does not seem to be particularly far-ranged, at least not beyond what is usually observed for proteins that do not interact with ice. Therefore, it does not appear to us that the antifreeze activity is enhanced by a long-ranged retardation of water mobility. Also the correlation between the collective mobility of water and the collective mobility of protein atoms highly resembles the one measured for the protein that does not interact with ice. Our second conclusion is that the dynamical properties of solvation water of CfAFP are non-uniform. The dynamics of solvation water of ice-binding plane is, in some respects, different from the dynamics of solvation water of the two remaining planes. The feature that distinguishes the dynamics of solvation water of the three planes is the activation energy of diffusion process. The third conclusion is that—from the three analyzed solvation shells of CfAFP—the dynamical properties of solvation water of the ice-binding plane resemble the most the properties of solvation water of ice; note, however, that these properties still clearly differ from the dynamic properties of solvation water of ice.

  2. Animal ice-binding (antifreeze) proteins and glycolipids: an overview with emphasis on physiological function.

    PubMed

    Duman, John G

    2015-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) assist in subzero tolerance of multiple cold-tolerant organisms: animals, plants, fungi, bacteria etc. IBPs include: (1) antifreeze proteins (AFPs) with high thermal hysteresis antifreeze activity; (2) low thermal hysteresis IBPs; and (3) ice-nucleating proteins (INPs). Several structurally different IBPs have evolved, even within related taxa. Proteins that produce thermal hysteresis inhibit freezing by a non-colligative mechanism, whereby they adsorb onto ice crystals or ice-nucleating surfaces and prevent further growth. This lowers the so-called hysteretic freezing point below the normal equilibrium freezing/melting point, producing a difference between the two, termed thermal hysteresis. True AFPs with high thermal hysteresis are found in freeze-avoiding animals (those that must prevent freezing, as they die if frozen) especially marine fish, insects and other terrestrial arthropods where they function to prevent freezing at temperatures below those commonly experienced by the organism. Low thermal hysteresis IBPs are found in freeze-tolerant organisms (those able to survive extracellular freezing), and function to inhibit recrystallization - a potentially damaging process whereby larger ice crystals grow at the expense of smaller ones - and in some cases, prevent lethal propagation of extracellular ice into the cytoplasm. Ice-nucleator proteins inhibit supercooling and induce freezing in the extracellular fluid at high subzero temperatures in many freeze-tolerant species, thereby allowing them to control the location and temperature of ice nucleation, and the rate of ice growth. Numerous nuances to these functions have evolved. Antifreeze glycolipids with significant thermal hysteresis activity were recently identified in insects, frogs and plants.

  3. Animal ice-binding (antifreeze) proteins and glycolipids: an overview with emphasis on physiological function.

    PubMed

    Duman, John G

    2015-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) assist in subzero tolerance of multiple cold-tolerant organisms: animals, plants, fungi, bacteria etc. IBPs include: (1) antifreeze proteins (AFPs) with high thermal hysteresis antifreeze activity; (2) low thermal hysteresis IBPs; and (3) ice-nucleating proteins (INPs). Several structurally different IBPs have evolved, even within related taxa. Proteins that produce thermal hysteresis inhibit freezing by a non-colligative mechanism, whereby they adsorb onto ice crystals or ice-nucleating surfaces and prevent further growth. This lowers the so-called hysteretic freezing point below the normal equilibrium freezing/melting point, producing a difference between the two, termed thermal hysteresis. True AFPs with high thermal hysteresis are found in freeze-avoiding animals (those that must prevent freezing, as they die if frozen) especially marine fish, insects and other terrestrial arthropods where they function to prevent freezing at temperatures below those commonly experienced by the organism. Low thermal hysteresis IBPs are found in freeze-tolerant organisms (those able to survive extracellular freezing), and function to inhibit recrystallization - a potentially damaging process whereby larger ice crystals grow at the expense of smaller ones - and in some cases, prevent lethal propagation of extracellular ice into the cytoplasm. Ice-nucleator proteins inhibit supercooling and induce freezing in the extracellular fluid at high subzero temperatures in many freeze-tolerant species, thereby allowing them to control the location and temperature of ice nucleation, and the rate of ice growth. Numerous nuances to these functions have evolved. Antifreeze glycolipids with significant thermal hysteresis activity were recently identified in insects, frogs and plants. PMID:26085662

  4. Towards a Green Hydrate Inhibitor: Imaging Antifreeze Proteins on Clathrates

    PubMed Central

    Gordienko, Raimond; Ohno, Hiroshi; Singh, Vinay K.; Jia, Zongchao; Ripmeester, John A.; Walker, Virginia K.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of hydrate plugs in oil and gas pipelines is a serious industrial problem and recently there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative hydrate inhibitors as substitutes for thermodynamic inhibitors like methanol. We show here that antifreeze proteins (AFPs) possess the ability to modify structure II (sII) tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate crystal morphologies by adhering to the hydrate surface and inhibiting growth in a similar fashion to the kinetic inhibitor poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effects of AFPs on the formation and growth rate of high-pressure sII gas mix hydrate demonstrated that AFPs are superior hydrate inhibitors compared to PVP. These results indicate that AFPs may be suitable for the study of new inhibitor systems and represent an important step towards the development of biologically-based hydrate inhibitors. PMID:20161789

  5. Perturbation of long-range water dynamics as the mechanism for the antifreeze activity of antifreeze glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2014-10-01

    Very little is known about the mechanism of antifreeze action of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) present in Antarctic teleost fish. Recent NMR and CD studies assisted with total synthesis of synthetic AFGP variants have provided insight into the structure of short AFGP glycopeptides, though the observations did not yield information on the antifreeze mechanism of action. In this study, we use Hamiltonian replica exchange (HREX) molecular dynamics simulations to probe the structure and surrounding aqueous environments of both the natural (AFGP8) and synthetic (s-AFGP4) AFGPs. AFGPs can adopt both amphiphilic and pseudoamphiphilic conformations, the preference of which is related to the proline content of the peptide. The arrangement of carbohydrates allows the hydroxyl groups on terminal galactose units to form stable water bridges which in turn influence the hydrogen-bond network, structure, and dynamics of the surrounding solvent. Interestingly, these local effects lead to the perturbation of the tetrahedral environment for water molecules in hydration layers far (10.0-12.0 Å) from the AFGPs. This structure-induced alteration of long-range hydration dynamics is proposed to be the major contributor to antifreeze activity, a conclusion that is in line with terahertz spectroscopy experiments. The detailed structure-mechanism correlation provided in this study could lead to the design of better synthetic AFGP variants. PMID:25137353

  6. The inhibition of ice nucleators by insect antifreeze proteins is enhanced by glycerol and citrate.

    PubMed

    Duman, J G

    2002-02-01

    Antifreeze proteins depress the freezing point of water while not affecting the melting point, producing a characteristic difference in freezing and melting points termed thermal hysteresis. Larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis accumulate potent antifreeze proteins (DAFPs) in their hemolymph and gut, but to achieve high levels of thermal hysteresis requires enhancers, such as glycerol. DAFPs have previously been shown to inhibit the activity of bacterial and hemolymph protein ice nucleators, however, the effect was not large and therefore the effectiveness of the DAFPs in promoting supercooling of the larvae in winter was doubtful. However, this study demonstrates that DAFPs, in combination with the thermal hysteresis enhancers glycerol (1 M) or citrate (0.5 M), eliminated the activity of hemolymph protein ice nucleators and Pseudomonas syringae ice-nucleating active bacteria, and lowered the supercooling points (nucleation temperatures) of aqueous solutions containing these ice nucleators to those of water or buffer alone. This shows that the DAFPs, along with glycerol, play a critical role in promoting hemolymph supercooling in overwintering D. canadensis. Also, DAFPs in combination with enhancers may be useful in applications which require inhibition of ice nucleators. PMID:11916110

  7. When are antifreeze proteins in solution essential for ice growth inhibition?

    PubMed

    Drori, Ran; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2015-06-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a widespread class of proteins that bind to ice and facilitate the survival of organisms under freezing conditions. AFPs have enormous potential in applications that require control over ice growth. However, the nature of the binding interaction between AFPs and ice remains the subject of debate. Using a microfluidics system developed in-house we previously showed that hyperactive AFP from the Tenebrio molitor beetle, TmAFP, remains bound to an ice crystal surface after exchanging the solution surrounding the ice crystal to an AFP-free solution. Furthermore, these surface-adsorbed TmAFP molecules sufficed to prevent ice growth. These experiments provided compelling evidence for the irreversible binding of hyperactive AFPs to ice. Here, we tested a moderately active type III AFP (AFPIII) from a fish in a similar microfluidics system. We found, in solution exchange experiments that the AFPIIIs were also irreversibly bound to the ice crystals. However, some crystals displayed "burst" growth during the solution exchange. AFPIII, like other moderately active fish AFPs, is unable to bind to the basal plane of an ice crystal. We showed that although moderate AFPs bound to ice irreversibly, moderate AFPs in solution were needed to inhibit ice growth from the bipyramidal crystal tips. Instead of binding to the basal plane, these AFPs minimized the basal face size by stabilizing other crystal planes that converge to form the crystal tips. Furthermore, when access of solution to the basal plane was physically blocked by the microfluidics device walls, we observed enhancement of the antifreeze activity. These findings provide direct evidence that the weak point of ice growth inhibition by fish AFPs is the basal plane, whereas insect AFPs, which can bind to the basal plane, are able to inhibit its growth and thereby increase antifreeze activity. PMID:25946514

  8. A root bond between ice and antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Timothy C

    2016-10-01

    It has always been assumed that a three-dimensional protein structure is essential to antifreeze protein (AFP) ice interactions. Using a 9 kDa AFP isolated from the springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni, it was found that the bond between ice and protein is maintained independent of higher order protein structure. GomplyAFP9 remained bound to ice after denaturing by a range of agents (boiling, extreme pH, DTT, ethanol, urea). Thermal hysteresis was minimal (0.03-0.04 °C), but not lost. Crystal faceting and growth occurred normal to the c-axis, indicating the protein binds primarily to sites along the a-axis. These observations lend additional support to the hypothesis of irreversible binding. More significantly, they suggest that binding to ice and functional hysteresis may be achieved independently (i.e. are different operations). These results are consistent with the view that there is a root bond with ice and it is achieved via an amino acid derived interface that bonds to water molecules in aqueous solutions. PMID:27542583

  9. Solvation structure of ice-binding antifreeze proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, John

    2009-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can be found in organisms which survive at subzero temperatures. They were first discovered in polar fishes since the 1950's [1] and have been isolated meanwhile also from insects, plants, and bacteria. While AFPs shift the freezing point of water below the bulk melting point and hence can prevent recrystallization; the effect is non-colligative and there is a pronounced hysteresis between freezing and melting. For many AFPs it is generally accepted that they function through an irreversible binding to the ice-water interface which leads to a piecewise convex growth front with a lower nonequilibrium freezing point due to the Kelvin effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the AFP from Choristoneura fumiferana reveal that the solvation structures of water at ice-binding and non-ice-binding faces of the protein are crucial for understanding how the AFP binds to the ice surface and how it is protected from being overgrown [2]. We use density functional theory of classical fluids in order to assess the microscopic solvent structure in the vicinity of protein faces with different surface properties. With our method, binding energies of different protein faces to the water-ice-interface can be computed efficiently in a simplified model. [1] Y. Yeh and R.E. Feeney, Chem. Rev. 96, 601 (1996). [2] D.R. Nutt and J.C. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 13066 (2008).

  10. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare).

  11. Structure and Interactions of Fish Type III Antifreeze Protein in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Salvay, Andrés G.; Gabel, Frank; Pucci, Bernard; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I.; Ebel, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested that above a critical protein concentration, fish Type III antifreeze protein (AFP III) self-assembles to form micelle-like structures that may play a key role in antifreeze activity. To understand the complex activity of AFP III, a comprehensive description of its association state and structural organization in solution is necessary. We used analytical ultracentrifugation, analytical size-exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering to characterize the interactions and homogeneity of AFP III in solution. Small-angle neutron scattering was used to determine the low-resolution structure in solution. Our results clearly show that at concentrations up to 20 mg mL−1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 6°C, and 4°C, AFP III is monomeric in solution and adopts a structure compatible with that determined by crystallography. Surface tension measurements show a propensity of AFP III to localize at the air/water interface, but this surface activity is not correlated with any aggregation in the bulk. These results support the hypothesis that each AFP III molecule acts independently of the others, and that specific intermolecular interactions between monomers are not required for binding to ice. The lack of attractive interactions between monomers may be functionally important, allowing for more efficient binding and covering of the ice surface. PMID:20643081

  12. Structure and interactions of fish type III antifreeze protein in solution.

    PubMed

    Salvay, Andrés G; Gabel, Frank; Pucci, Bernard; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I; Ebel, Christine

    2010-07-21

    It has been suggested that above a critical protein concentration, fish Type III antifreeze protein (AFP III) self-assembles to form micelle-like structures that may play a key role in antifreeze activity. To understand the complex activity of AFP III, a comprehensive description of its association state and structural organization in solution is necessary. We used analytical ultracentrifugation, analytical size-exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering to characterize the interactions and homogeneity of AFP III in solution. Small-angle neutron scattering was used to determine the low-resolution structure in solution. Our results clearly show that at concentrations up to 20 mg mL(-1) and at temperatures of 20 degrees C, 6 degrees C, and 4 degrees C, AFP III is monomeric in solution and adopts a structure compatible with that determined by crystallography. Surface tension measurements show a propensity of AFP III to localize at the air/water interface, but this surface activity is not correlated with any aggregation in the bulk. These results support the hypothesis that each AFP III molecule acts independently of the others, and that specific intermolecular interactions between monomers are not required for binding to ice. The lack of attractive interactions between monomers may be functionally important, allowing for more efficient binding and covering of the ice surface.

  13. Solution structure of a hydrophobic analogue of the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, Edvards; Otting, Gottfried; Harding, Margaret M; Ward, Leanne G; Mackay, Joel P; Haymet, A D J

    2002-02-01

    The solution structure of a synthetic mutant type I antifreeze protein (AFP I) was determined in aqueous solution at pH 7.0 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The mutations comprised the replacement of the four Thr residues by Val and the introduction of two additional Lys-Glu salt bridges. The antifreeze activity of this mutant peptide, VVVV2KE, has been previously shown to be similar to that of the wild type protein, HPLC6 (defined here as TTTT). The solution structure reveals an alphahelix bent in the same direction as the more bent conformer of the published crystal structure of TTTT, while the side chain chi1 rotamers of VVVV2KE are similar to those of the straighter conformer in the crystal of TTTT. The Val side chains of VVVV2KE assume the same orientations as the Thr side chains of TTTT, confirming the conservative nature of this mutation. The combined data suggest that AFP I undergoes an equilibrium between straight and bent helices in solution, combined with independent equilibria between different side chain rotamers for some of the amino acid residues. The present study presents the first complete sequence-specific resonance assignments and the first complete solution structure determination by NMR of any AFP I protein.

  14. Microfluidic experiments reveal that antifreeze proteins bound to ice crystals suffice to prevent their growth

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Yeliz; Drori, Ran; Pertaya-Braun, Natalya; Altan, Aysun; Barton, Tyler; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Groisman, Alex; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a subset of ice-binding proteins that control ice crystal growth. They have potential for the cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs, as well as for production and storage of food and protection of crops from frost. However, the detailed mechanism of action of AFPs is still unclear. Specifically, there is controversy regarding reversibility of binding of AFPs to crystal surfaces. The experimentally observed dependence of activity of AFPs on their concentration in solution appears to indicate that the binding is reversible. Here, by a series of experiments in temperature-controlled microfluidic devices, where the medium surrounding ice crystals can be exchanged, we show that the binding of hyperactive Tenebrio molitor AFP to ice crystals is practically irreversible and that surface-bound AFPs are sufficient to inhibit ice crystal growth even in solutions depleted of AFPs. These findings rule out theories of AFP activity relying on the presence of unbound protein molecules. PMID:23300286

  15. Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Christopher P.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca2+-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP∶ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the “anchored clathrate” mechanism of AFP action. PMID:21482800

  16. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  17. Investigations of structure and dynamics of water solvation of the type I antifreeze protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jun; Battle, Keith; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Madura, Jeffry D.

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the water structure and dynamics around the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and its two mutant forms in which the four key threonine residues of the winter flounder AFP are mutated to alanines and serines, respectively. The TIP4P-Ew water model is used to better describe the water interactions and water structure; all simulations are performed at 245.5 K, a temperature near the freezing point of the TIP4P-Ew water model. Analysis of structural and dynamic properties of the water around the threonines in the winter flounder AFP reveals that the water structure is ordered around the threonine residues, especially in the second-solvation shell. Alanine and serine mutations instead promote water hydration in the first-solvation shell. Also our calculations show that in the close vicinity of the threonine residues of the wild-type AFP, the mobility of water molecules is substantially decreased. A smaller effect is observed for the weakly active alanine-substituted mutant, and no effect is observed for the inactive serine-substituted mutant. The results of this study suggest that water ordering and immobilization play important roles in the recognition and adsorption of the antifreeze protein to ice.

  18. Induced ice melting by the snow flea antifreeze protein from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Todde, Guido; Whitman, Christopher; Hovmöller, Sven; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2014-11-26

    Antifreeze proteins (AFP) allow different life forms, insects as well as fish and plants, to survive in subzero environments. AFPs prevent freezing of the physiological fluids. We have studied, through molecular dynamics simulations, the behavior of the small isoform of the AFP found in the snow flea (sfAFP), both in water and at the ice/water interface, of four different ice planes. In water at room temperature, the structure of the sfAFP is found to be slightly unstable. The loop between two polyproline II helices has large fluctuations as well as the C-terminus. Torsional angle analyses show a decrease of the polyproline II helix area in the Ramachandran plots. The protein structure instability, in any case, should not affect its antifreeze activity. At the ice/water interface the sfAFP triggers local melting of the ice surface. Bipyramidal, secondary prism, and prism ice planes melt in the presence of AFP at temperatures below the melting point of ice. Only the basal plane is found to be stable at the same temperatures, indicating an adsorption of the sfAFP on this ice plane as confirmed by experimental evidence.

  19. Systematic size study of an insect antifreeze protein and its interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Jia, Zongchao; Chen, Guangju; Tung, Chenho; Liu, Ruozhuang

    2005-02-01

    Because of their remarkable ability to depress the freezing point of aqueous solutions, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) play a critical role in helping many organisms survive subzero temperatures. The beta-helical insect AFP structures solved to date, consisting of multiple repeating circular loops or coils, are perhaps the most regular protein structures discovered thus far. Taking an exceptional advantage of the unusually high structural regularity of insect AFPs, we have employed both semiempirical and quantum mechanics computational approaches to systematically investigate the relationship between the number of AFP coils and the AFP-ice interaction energy, an indicator of antifreeze activity. We generated a series of AFP models with varying numbers of 12-residue coils (sequence TCTxSxxCxxAx) and calculated their interaction energies with ice. Using several independent computational methods, we found that the AFP-ice interaction energy increased as the number of coils increased, until an upper bound was reached. The increase of interaction energy was significant for each of the first five coils, and there was a clear synergism that gradually diminished and even decreased with further increase of the number of coils. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recently reported experimental observations. PMID:15713600

  20. Effect of type III antifreeze protein dilution and mutation on the growth inhibition of ice.

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, C I; Chao, H; Sönnichsen, F D; Sykes, B D; Davies, P L

    1996-01-01

    Mutation of residues at the ice-binding site of type III antifreeze protein (AFP) not only reduced antifreeze activity as indicated by the failure to halt ice crystal growth, but also altered ice crystal morphology to produce elongated hexagonal bipyramids. In general, the c axis to a axis ratio of the ice crystal increased from approximately 2 to over 10 with the severity of the mutation. It also increased during ice crystal growth upon serial dilution of the wild-type AFP. This is in marked contrast to the behavior of the alpha-helical type I AFPs, where neither dilution nor mutation of ice-binding residues increases the c:a axial ratio of the ice crystal above the standard 3.3. We suggest that the ice crystal morphology produced by type III AFP and its mutants can be accounted for by the protein binding to the prism faces of ice and operating by step growth inhibition. In this model a decrease in the affinity of the AFP for ice leads to filling in of individual steps at the prism surfaces, causing the ice crystals to grow with a longer c:a axial ratio. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:8913575

  1. The biological function of an insect antifreeze protein simulated by molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Michael J; Morton, Craig J; Abraham, Sneha E; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect certain cold-adapted organisms from freezing to death by selectively adsorbing to internal ice crystals and inhibiting ice propagation. The molecular details of AFP adsorption-inhibition is uncertain but is proposed to involve the Gibbs–Thomson effect. Here we show by using unbiased molecular dynamics simulations a protein structure-function mechanism for the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana AFP, including stereo-specific binding and consequential melting and freezing inhibition. The protein binds indirectly to the prism ice face through a linear array of ordered water molecules that are structurally distinct from the ice. Mutation of the ice binding surface disrupts water-ordering and abolishes activity. The adsorption is virtually irreversible, and we confirm the ice growth inhibition is consistent with the Gibbs–Thomson law. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05142.001 PMID:25951514

  2. The biological function of an insect antifreeze protein simulated by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Michael J; Morton, Craig J; Abraham, Sneha E; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2015-05-07

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect certain cold-adapted organisms from freezing to death by selectively adsorbing to internal ice crystals and inhibiting ice propagation. The molecular details of AFP adsorption-inhibition is uncertain but is proposed to involve the Gibbs-Thomson effect. Here we show by using unbiased molecular dynamics simulations a protein structure-function mechanism for the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana AFP, including stereo-specific binding and consequential melting and freezing inhibition. The protein binds indirectly to the prism ice face through a linear array of ordered water molecules that are structurally distinct from the ice. Mutation of the ice binding surface disrupts water-ordering and abolishes activity. The adsorption is virtually irreversible, and we confirm the ice growth inhibition is consistent with the Gibbs-Thomson law.

  3. Revealing Surface Waters on an Antifreeze Protein by Fusion Protein Crystallography Combined with Molecular Dynamic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjun; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice through an extensive, flat, relatively hydrophobic surface. It has been suggested that this ice-binding site (IBS) organizes surface waters into an ice-like clathrate arrangement that matches and fuses to the quasi-liquid layer on the ice surface. On cooling, these waters join the ice lattice and freeze the AFP to its ligand. Evidence for the generality of this binding mechanism is limited because AFPs tend to crystallize with their IBS as a preferred protein-protein contact surface, which displaces some bound waters. Type III AFP is a 7 kDa globular protein with an IBS made up two adjacent surfaces. In the crystal structure of the most active isoform (QAE1), the part of the IBS that docks to the primary prism plane of ice is partially exposed to solvent and has clathrate waters present that match this plane of ice. The adjacent IBS, which matches the pyramidal plane of ice, is involved in protein-protein crystal contacts with few surface waters. Here we have changed the protein-protein contacts in the ice-binding region by crystallizing a fusion of QAE1 to maltose-binding protein. In this 1.9 Å structure, the IBS that fits the pyramidal plane of ice is exposed to solvent. By combining crystallography data with MD simulations, the surface waters on both sides of the IBS were revealed and match well with the target ice planes. The waters on the pyramidal plane IBS were loosely constrained, which might explain why other isoforms of type III AFP that lack the prism plane IBS are less active than QAE1. The AFP fusion crystallization method can potentially be used to force the exposure to solvent of the IBS on other AFPs to reveal the locations of key surface waters.

  4. Creating Anti-icing Surfaces via the Direct Immobilization of Antifreeze Proteins on Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Yunho; Park, Ji-in; Kim, Minjae; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Myong Jong; Oh, Seung Jin; Kim, Young-Pil; Jin, EonSeon

    2015-01-01

    Cryoprotectants such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and sugar molecules may provide a solution for icing problems. These anti-icing substances protect cells and tissues from freezing by inhibiting ice formation. In this study, we developed a method for coating an industrial metal material (aluminum, Al) with AFP from the Antarctic marine diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile (Cn-AFP), to prevent or delay ice formation. To coat Al with Cn-AFP, we used an Al-binding peptide (ABP) as a conjugator and fused it with Cn-AFP. The ABP bound well to the Al and did not considerably change the functional properties of AFP. Cn-AFP-coated Al (Cn-AFP-Al) showed a sufficiently low supercooling point. Additional trehalose coating of Cn-AFP-Al considerably delayed AFP denaturation on the Al without affecting its antifreeze activity. This metal surface–coating method using trehalose-fortified AFP can be applied to other metals important in the aircraft and cold storage fields where anti-icing materials are critical. PMID:26153855

  5. Fluorescence microscopy studies of the hyperactive antifreeze protein from an insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaya, N.; di Prinzio, C. L.; Wilen, L.; Thomson, E.; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Marshall, C. B.; Davies, P. L.; Braslavsky, I.

    2006-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect animals from freezing by binding to extracellular ice and inhibiting its growth. Since the initial discovery of AFPs in fish, non-homologous types have been found in insects, plants, bacteria, fungi, and vertebrates. Different AFP types have diverse structures and varied activities. For example, AFPs produced by insects are much more active in inhibiting ice crystal growth compared to most AFPs found in fish or plants. By putting a fluorescent tag on an insect AFP we were able to visualize AFP binding to ice, to determine the ice crystal surfaces to which the AFP adheres, and to follow the kinetics of AFP binding to ice. We expect this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of AFP activity and in particular the hyperactivity of insect AFPs.

  6. A study of the growth rates and growth habits of ice crystals in a solution of antifreeze (glyco) proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianzhong; Luo, Liaofu

    1996-12-01

    The mechanism of the antifreeze glycoprotein/antifreeze protein interaction on the surface of ice is analyzed. The theory of ice crystal growth in an AF(G)P solution is presented. A quantitative calculation of the growth rates for gain growth has been obtained. The anisotropic growth habits and growth rates of ice crystals in an AF(G)P solution are explained.

  7. Cryoprotective effect of an insect antifreeze protein MpAFP 698 and its mutants from the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Ma, J; Qiu, L M

    2011-01-01

    An insect antifreeze protein, MpAFP698, from the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis, shares 77% similarity with TmTHP (YL-3) from Tenebrio molitor. The predicted tertiary structure for MpAFP698 was modeled as a regular A-helix with TCT motifs arrayed to form the putative ice-binding surface. This model was validated via site-directed mutagenesis. The results suggest that the desert beetle in central Asia has evolved antifreeze proteins similar to those from North America continent. In an additional study, the recombinant MpAFP698 and its mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The thermal hysteresis activity of MpAFP698 was 1.73 degree C at 1.0 mg/ml. MpAFP698 was also tested by in vitro antifreeze activity assay to evaluate its cryoprotective effect at -20 degree C. MpAFP698 displays high cryoprotective effect on bacteria cells at freezing temperatures. PMID:22020466

  8. Crystal Structure of an Insect Antifreeze Protein and Its Implications for Ice Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Aaron; Nguyen, Jennifer B.; Basu, Koli; Zhu, Darren F.; Thakral, Durga; Davies, Peter L.; Isaacs, Farren J.; Modis, Yorgo; Meng, Wuyi

    2013-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) help some organisms resist freezing by binding to ice crystals and inhibiting their growth. The molecular basis for how these proteins recognize and bind ice is not well understood. The longhorn beetle Rhagium inquisitor can supercool to below −25 °C, in part by synthesizing the most potent antifreeze protein studied thus far (RiAFP). We report the crystal structure of the 13-kDa RiAFP, determined at 1.21 Å resolution using direct methods. The structure, which contains 1,914 nonhydrogen protein atoms in the asymmetric unit, is the largest determined ab initio without heavy atoms. It reveals a compressed β-solenoid fold in which the top and bottom sheets are held together by a silk-like interdigitation of short side chains. RiAFP is perhaps the most regular structure yet observed. It is a second independently evolved AFP type in beetles. The two beetle AFPs have in common an extremely flat ice-binding surface comprising regular outward-projecting parallel arrays of threonine residues. The more active, wider RiAFP has four (rather than two) of these arrays between which the crystal structure shows the presence of ice-like waters. Molecular dynamics simulations independently reproduce the locations of these ordered crystallographic waters and predict additional waters that together provide an extensive view of the AFP interaction with ice. By matching several planes of hexagonal ice, these waters may help freeze the AFP to the ice surface, thus providing the molecular basis of ice binding. PMID:23486477

  9. Molecular Recognition of Methyl α-d-Mannopyranoside by Antifreeze (Glyco)Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins [AF(G)Ps] have been well-known for more than three decades for their ability to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice through binding to specific ice crystal faces, and they show remarkable structural compatibility with specific ice crystal faces. Here, we show that the crystal growth faces of methyl α-d-mannopyranoside (MDM), a representative pyranose sugar, also show noteworthy structural compatibility with the known periodicities of AF(G)Ps. We selected fish AFGPs (AFGP8, AFGP1–5), and a beetle AFP (DAFP1) with increasing antifreeze activity as potential additives for controlling MDM crystal growth. Similar to their effects on ice growth, the AF(G)Ps can inhibit MDM crystal growth and recrystallization, and more significantly, the effectiveness for the AF(G)Ps are well correlated with their antifreeze activity. MDM crystals grown in the presence of AF(G)Ps are smaller and have better defined shapes and are of higher quality as indicated by single crystal X-ray diffraction and polarized microscopy than control crystals, but no new polymorphs of MDM were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The observed changes in the average sizes of the MDM crystals can be related to the changes in the number of the MDM nuclei in the presence of the AF(G)Ps. The critical free energy change differences of the MDM nucleation in the absence and presence of the additives were calculated. These values are close to those of the ice nucleation in the presence of AF(G)Ps suggesting similar interactions are involved in the molecular recognition of MDM by the AF(G)Ps. To our knowledge this is the first report where AF(G)Ps have been used to control crystal growth of carbohydrates and on AFGPs controlling non-ice-like crystals. Our finding suggests MDM might be a possible alternative to ice for studying the detailed mechanism of AF

  10. An antifreeze protein folds with an interior network of more than 400 semi-clathrate waters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjun; Lin, Feng-Hsu; Campbell, Robert L; Allingham, John S; Davies, Peter L

    2014-02-14

    When polypeptide chains fold into a protein, hydrophobic groups are compacted in the center with exclusion of water. We report the crystal structure of an alanine-rich antifreeze protein that retains ~400 waters in its core. The putative ice-binding residues of this dimeric, four-helix bundle protein point inwards and coordinate the interior waters into two intersecting polypentagonal networks. The bundle makes minimal protein contacts between helices, but is stabilized by anchoring to the semi-clathrate water monolayers through backbone carbonyl groups in the protein interior. The ordered waters extend outwards to the protein surface and likely are involved in ice binding. This protein fold supports both the anchored-clathrate water mechanism of antifreeze protein adsorption to ice and the water-expulsion mechanism of protein folding.

  11. Low temperature stress modulated secretome analysis and purification of antifreeze protein from Hippophae rhamnoides, a Himalayan wonder plant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi; Deswal, Renu

    2012-05-01

    Plants' distribution and productivity are adversely affected by low temperature (LT) stress. LT induced proteins were analyzed by 2-DE-nano-LC-MS/MS in shoot secretome of Hippophae rhamnoides (seabuckthorn), a Himalayan wonder shrub. Seedlings were subjected to direct freezing stress (-5 °C), cold acclimation (CA), and subzero acclimation (SZA), and extracellular proteins (ECPs) were isolated using vacuum infiltration. Approximately 245 spots were reproducibly detected in 2-DE gels of LT treated secretome, out of which 61 were LT responsive. Functional categorization of 34 upregulated proteins showed 47% signaling, redox regulated, and defense associated proteins. LT induced secretome contained thaumatin like protein and Chitinase as putative antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Phase contrast microscopy with a nanoliter osmometer showed hexagonal ice crystals with 0.13 °C thermal hysteresis (TH), and splat assay showed 1.5-fold ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI), confirming antifreeze activity in LT induced secretome. A 41 kDa polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP), purified by ice adsorption chromatography (IAC), showed hexagonal ice crystals, a TH of 0.19 °C, and 9-fold IRI activity. Deglycosylated PGIP retained its AFP activity, suggesting that glycosylation is not required for AFP activity. This is the first report of LT modulated secretome analysis and purification of AFPs from seabuckthorn. Overall, these findings provide an insight in probable LT induced signaling in the secretome.

  12. Cloning and expression of a novel antifreeze protein AFP72 from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-Hua; Yang, Li; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Hui-Rong; Shao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel antifreeze protein AFP72 cDNA (GenBbank accession No. AY929389) was obtained by RT-PCR from Tenebrio molitor. The 216 bp fragment encodes a protein of 72 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA displays a high degree of homology with T. molitor antifreeze proteins, ranging up to 90.78%. Recombinant plasmids pMAL-p2X-afp72 and pMAL-c2X-afp72 were transferred into E. coil TBI to induce a MBP fusion protein by IPTG. The target fusion protein was released from the periplasm and cytoplasm by the cold osmotic shock procedure and sonication respectively. The content of the fusion protein came up to 38.9 and 41.5% of the total dissolved protein, respectively. The fusion protein was purified through an amylose affinity column, and incised by factor Xa. Molecular sieve chromatography was used to achieve a high state of purity of the target protein. The purified target protein displayed a single band in SDS-PAGE. The fusion protein was shown to increase resistance to low temperatures in bacteria. This finding could help in further investigations of the properties and function of antifreeze proteins. PMID:23113345

  13. Antifreeze proteins govern the precipitation of trehalose in a freezing-avoiding insect at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Wang, Sen; Duman, John G; Arifin, Josh Fnu; Juwita, Vonny; Goddard, William A; Rios, Alejandra; Liu, Fan; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Abrol, Ravinder; DeVries, Arthur L; Henling, Lawrence M

    2016-06-14

    The remarkable adaptive strategies of insects to extreme environments are linked to the biochemical compounds in their body fluids. Trehalose, a versatile sugar molecule, can accumulate to high levels in freeze-tolerant and freeze-avoiding insects, functioning as a cryoprotectant and a supercooling agent. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), known to protect organisms from freezing by lowering the freezing temperature and deferring the growth of ice, are present at high levels in some freeze-avoiding insects in winter, and yet, paradoxically are found in some freeze-tolerant insects. Here, we report a previously unidentified role for AFPs in effectively inhibiting trehalose precipitation in the hemolymph (or blood) of overwintering beetle larvae. We determine the trehalose level (29.6 ± 0.6 mg/mL) in the larval hemolymph of a beetle, Dendroides canadensis, and demonstrate that the hemolymph AFPs are crucial for inhibiting trehalose crystallization, whereas the presence of trehalose also enhances the antifreeze activity of AFPs. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examine the molecular recognition between AFP and trehalose crystal interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations. The theory corroborates the experiments and shows preferential strong binding of the AFP to the fast growing surfaces of the sugar crystal. This newly uncovered role for AFPs may help explain the long-speculated role of AFPs in freeze-tolerant species. We propose that the presence of high levels of molecules important for survival but prone to precipitation in poikilotherms (their body temperature can vary considerably) needs a companion mechanism to prevent the precipitation and here present, to our knowledge, the first example. Such a combination of trehalose and AFPs also provides a novel approach for cold protection and for trehalose crystallization inhibition in industrial applications.

  14. Antifreeze proteins govern the precipitation of trehalose in a freezing-avoiding insect at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Wang, Sen; Duman, John G; Arifin, Josh Fnu; Juwita, Vonny; Goddard, William A; Rios, Alejandra; Liu, Fan; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Abrol, Ravinder; DeVries, Arthur L; Henling, Lawrence M

    2016-06-14

    The remarkable adaptive strategies of insects to extreme environments are linked to the biochemical compounds in their body fluids. Trehalose, a versatile sugar molecule, can accumulate to high levels in freeze-tolerant and freeze-avoiding insects, functioning as a cryoprotectant and a supercooling agent. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), known to protect organisms from freezing by lowering the freezing temperature and deferring the growth of ice, are present at high levels in some freeze-avoiding insects in winter, and yet, paradoxically are found in some freeze-tolerant insects. Here, we report a previously unidentified role for AFPs in effectively inhibiting trehalose precipitation in the hemolymph (or blood) of overwintering beetle larvae. We determine the trehalose level (29.6 ± 0.6 mg/mL) in the larval hemolymph of a beetle, Dendroides canadensis, and demonstrate that the hemolymph AFPs are crucial for inhibiting trehalose crystallization, whereas the presence of trehalose also enhances the antifreeze activity of AFPs. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examine the molecular recognition between AFP and trehalose crystal interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations. The theory corroborates the experiments and shows preferential strong binding of the AFP to the fast growing surfaces of the sugar crystal. This newly uncovered role for AFPs may help explain the long-speculated role of AFPs in freeze-tolerant species. We propose that the presence of high levels of molecules important for survival but prone to precipitation in poikilotherms (their body temperature can vary considerably) needs a companion mechanism to prevent the precipitation and here present, to our knowledge, the first example. Such a combination of trehalose and AFPs also provides a novel approach for cold protection and for trehalose crystallization inhibition in industrial applications. PMID:27226297

  15. Applications of type I antifreeze proteins: studies with model membranes & cryoprotectant properties.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Steven R; Turner, Jennifer J; Harding, Margaret M

    2006-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), found in the body fluids of many species of polar fish allow them to survive in waters colder than the equilibrium freezing point of their blood and other internal fluids. Despite their structural diversity, all AF(G)Ps kinetically depress the temperature at which ice grows in a non-colligative manner and hence exhibit thermal hysteresis. AF(G)Ps also share the ability to interact with and protect mammalian cells and tissues from hypothermic damage (e.g., improved storage of human blood platelets at low temperatures), and are able to stabilize or disrupt membrane composition during low temperature and freezing stress (e.g., cryoprotectant properties in stabilization of sperm and oocytes). This review will summarize studies of AFPs with phospholipids and plant lipids, proposed mechanisms for inhibition of leakage from membranes, and cryoprotectant studies with biological samples. The major focus will be on the alpha-helical type I antifreeze proteins, and synthetic mutants, that have been most widely studied. For completeness, data on glycoproteins will also be presented. While a number of models to explain stabilization and destabilization of different lipid systems have been proposed, it is currently not possible to predict whether a particular AFP will stabilize or destabilize a given lipid system. Furthermore the relationship between the antifreeze property of thermal hysteresis and membrane stabilization is unknown. This lack of detailed knowledge about how AFPs function in the presence of different types of materials has hampered progress toward the development of antifreezes for cold storage of cells, tissues, and organs.

  16. Low thermodynamic but high kinetic stability of an antifreeze protein from Rhagium mordax.

    PubMed

    Friis, Dennis S; Johnsen, Johannes L; Kristiansen, Erlend; Westh, Peter; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-06-01

    The equilibrium heat stability and the kinetic heat tolerance of a recombinant antifreeze protein (AFP) from the beetle Rhagium mordax (RmAFP1) are studied through differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. In contrast to other insect AFPs studied with this respect, the RmAFP1 has only one disulfide bridge. The melting temperature, Tm , of the protein is determined to be 28.5°C (pH 7.4), which is much lower than most of those reported for AFPs or globular proteins in general. Despite its low melting temperature, both biophysical and activity measurements show that the protein almost completely refolds into the native state after repeated exposure of 70°C. RmAFP1 thus appears to be kinetically stable even far above its melting temperature. Thermodynamically, the insect AFPs seem to be dividable in three groups, relating to their content of disulfide bridges and widths of the ice binding motifs; high melting temperature AFPs (high disulfide content, TxT motifs), low melting temperature but high refolding capability AFPs (one disulfide bridge, TxTxTxT motifs) and irreversibly unfolded AFPs at low temperatures (no disulfide bridges, TxTxTxTxT motifs). The property of being able to cope with high temperature exposures may appear peculiar for proteins which strictly have their effect at subzero temperatures. Different aspects of this are discussed.

  17. Low thermodynamic but high kinetic stability of an antifreeze protein from Rhagium mordax

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Dennis S; Johnsen, Johannes L; Kristiansen, Erlend; Westh, Peter; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The equilibrium heat stability and the kinetic heat tolerance of a recombinant antifreeze protein (AFP) from the beetle Rhagium mordax (RmAFP1) are studied through differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. In contrast to other insect AFPs studied with this respect, the RmAFP1 has only one disulfide bridge. The melting temperature, Tm, of the protein is determined to be 28.5°C (pH 7.4), which is much lower than most of those reported for AFPs or globular proteins in general. Despite its low melting temperature, both biophysical and activity measurements show that the protein almost completely refolds into the native state after repeated exposure of 70°C. RmAFP1 thus appears to be kinetically stable even far above its melting temperature. Thermodynamically, the insect AFPs seem to be dividable in three groups, relating to their content of disulfide bridges and widths of the ice binding motifs; high melting temperature AFPs (high disulfide content, TxT motifs), low melting temperature but high refolding capability AFPs (one disulfide bridge, TxTxTxT motifs) and irreversibly unfolded AFPs at low temperatures (no disulfide bridges, TxTxTxTxT motifs). The property of being able to cope with high temperature exposures may appear peculiar for proteins which strictly have their effect at subzero temperatures. Different aspects of this are discussed. PMID:24652821

  18. Interaction of Tenebrio Molitor Antifreeze Protein with Ice Crystal: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ramya, L; Ramakrishnan, Vigneshwar

    2016-07-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFP) observed in cold-adapting organisms bind to ice crystals and prevent further ice growth. However, the molecular mechanism of AFP-ice binding and AFP-inhibited ice growth remains unclear. Here we report the interaction of the insect antifreeze protein (Tenebrio molitor, TmAFP) with ice crystal by molecular dynamics simulation studies. Two sets of simulations were carried out at 263 K by placing the protein near the primary prism plane (PP) and basal plane (BL) of the ice crystal. To delineate the effect of temperatures, both the PP and BL simulations were carried out at 253 K as well. The analyses revealed that the protein interacts strongly with the ice crystal in BL simulation than in PP simulation both at 263 K and 253 K. Further, it was observed that the interactions are primarily mediated through the interface waters. We also observed that as the temperature decreases, the interaction between the protein and the ice increases which can be attributed to the decreased flexibility and the increased structuring of the protein at low temperature. In essence, our study has shed light on the interaction mechanism between the TmAFP antifreeze protein and the ice crystal. PMID:27492241

  19. Antifreeze protein dimer: when two ice-binding faces are better than one.

    PubMed

    Baardsnes, Jason; Kuiper, Michael J; Davies, Peter L

    2003-10-01

    A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the 7-kDa type III antifreeze protein from Antarctic eel pout (Lycodichthys dearborni) is twice as active as the monomer in depressing the freezing point of a solution. We have investigated the basis for this enhanced activity by producing recombinant analogues of the linked dimer that assess the effects of protein size and the number and area of the ice-binding site(s). The recombinant dimer connected by a peptide linker had twice the activity of the monomer. When one of the two ice-binding sites was inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis, the linked dimer was only 1.2 times more effective than the monomer. When the two monomers were linked through a C-terminal disulfide bond in such a way that their two ice-binding sites were opposite each other and unable to engage the same ice surface simultaneously, the dimer was again only 1.2 times as active as the monomer. We conclude from these analyses that the enhanced activity of the dimer stems from the two ice-binding sites being able to engage to ice at the same time, effectively doubling the area of the ice-binding site.

  20. A facile method for determining ice recrystallization inhibition by antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Melanie M; Marshall, Christopher B; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Peter L

    2003-11-28

    Ice recrystallization, the growth of large ice crystals at the expense of small ones, stresses freeze tolerant organisms and causes spoilage of frozen foods. This process is inhibited by antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Here, we present a simple method for determining the ice recrystallization inhibition (RI) activity of an AFP under physiological conditions using 10microl glass capillaries. Serial dilutions were prepared to determine the concentration below which RI activity was no longer detected, termed the RI endpoint. For type III AFP this was 200nM. The capillary method allows samples to be aligned and viewed simultaneously, which facilitates RI endpoint determination. Once prepared, the samples can be used reproducibly in subsequent RI assays and can be archived in a freezer for future reference. This method was used to detect the elution of type III AFP from a Sephadex G-75 size-exclusion column. RI activity was found at the expected V(e) for a 7kDa protein and also unexpectedly in the void volume.

  1. Antifreeze Activity of Xylomannan from the Mycelium and Fruit Body of Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Hidehisa; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Arai, Naoki; Koide, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7.7×10(-2)%, w/w) was higher than that of the mycelium. Although the purified xylomannan from both soures were composed of mannose and xylose in a 2 : 1 molar ratio, the molecular weight of the xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body was 320,000 and 240,000, respectively. The RI activity of mycelial xylomannan was higher than that from the fruit body (RI=0.57) at 45 µg/mL. Although this RI activity was able to remain constant after exposure to various conditions, we confirmed that the decrease of RI activity was stimulated by the decrease of molecular weight that was caused by heating during the alkaline condition. The survival rate of the CHO cells at -20℃ for two days increased to 97% due to the addition of 20 µg/mL of purified xylomannan. This was the first report to indicate that xylomannan from the mycelium of Flammulina velutipes had a high level of ice recrystallization inhibiting activity like antifreeze proteins from plants and had rhe potential to become a new material for cell storage. PMID:27667520

  2. Chemical synthesis of a masked analogue of the fish antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP).

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Hyun; Wojnar, Joanna M; Harris, Paul W R; DeVries, Arthur L; Evans, Clive W; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-08-14

    A recently identified Antarctic fish protein termed antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) is thought to act as an adjunct to the previously characterised antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), the two acting together to inhibit ice crystal growth in vivo. Elucidating the functional properties of the new AFPP requires access to large amounts of pure product, but the paucity of natural material necessitates alternative approaches. We therefore embarked on the total chemical synthesis of the AFPP, through a convergent ligation strategy. After many challenges, mostly due to the solubility issues of the peptide fragments, and several revisions of the original synthetic strategy, we have successfully synthesized a masked analogue of AFPP. The key to the successful synthesis was the use of a solubilising tag attached through a hydrolysable linker.

  3. Rapid amyloid fibril formation by a winter flounder antifreeze protein requires specific interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Dubé, André; Leggiadro, Cindy; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya

    2016-05-01

    A typically α-helical antifreeze protein (wflAFP-6) from winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, forms amyloid fibrils during freezing. In this study, the effects of distinct components of the freezing process were examined. Freezing of wflAFP-6 in the presence of template ice was shown to be necessary for rapid conversion to an amyloid conformation. Neither subfreezing temperature nor phase change was sufficient. Thus, specific interaction with the ice surface was essential. The ice-induced formation of amyloid appeared to be unique to this helical antifreeze, it required high concentrations of protein and it occurred over a range of pH values. These results define a method for rapid formation of amyloid by wflAFP-6 on demand under physiological conditions. PMID:27086686

  4. Adsorption thermodynamics of two-domain antifreeze proteins: theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Narambuena, Claudio F; Sanchez Varretti, Fabricio O; Ramirez-Pastor, Antonio J

    2016-09-21

    In this paper we develop the statistical thermodynamics of two-domain antifreeze proteins adsorbed on ice. We use a coarse-grained model and a lattice network in order to represent the protein and ice, respectively. The theory is obtained by combining the exact analytical expression for the partition function of non-interacting linear k-mers adsorbed in one dimension, and its extension to higher dimensions. The total and partial adsorption isotherms, and the coverage and temperature dependence of the Helmholtz free energy and configurational entropy are given. The formalism reproduces the classical Langmuir equation, leads to the exact statistical thermodynamics of molecules adsorbed in one dimension, and provides a close approximation for two-dimensional systems. Comparisons with analytical data obtained using the modified Langmuir model (MLM) and Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble were performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical predictions. In the MC calculations, the different mechanisms proposed in the literature to describe the adsorption of two-domain antifreeze proteins on ice were analyzed. Indistinguishable results were obtained in all cases, which verifies the thermodynamic equivalence of these mechanisms and allows the choice of the most suitable mechanism for theoretical studies of equilibrium properties. Even though a good qualitative agreement is obtained between MLM and MC data, it is found that the new theoretical framework offers a more accurate description of the phenomenon of adsorption of two-domain antifreeze proteins. PMID:27539563

  5. Antifreeze Protein (AFP) and Antifreeze Glycoprotein (AFGP) Kinetics at the Ice/Solution Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Uda, Yukihiro; Yokoyama, Etsuro; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2007-03-01

    AFPs and AFGPs found in some fish, plants and insects are a necessary tool for surviving sub-freezing environments. They occur in a wide range of compositions and structure, but to some extent they all accomplish the same functions: they suppress the freezing temperature, inhibit recrystallization, and modify ice crystal growth. Here, we observe the exact location of AFGPs, Type I and Type III AFPs by 1-directional growth experiments using fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy as well as free growth experiments using 3-d confocal microscopy. In all cases, the proteins clearly adsorb at the interface. By comparing the fluorescent image with the corresponding phase contrast image we find that AFGPs incorporate only into the solid in veins and not into the ice lattice structure. Type I AFPs show similar behavior as AFGPs, but type III AFPs adsorb to specific planes within the ice lattice. We have also calculated the diffusion constants and the surface adsorption concentration from both types of experiments. Our results indicated that the different types of AFPs or AFGPs accomplish essentially the same function in slightly different ways and that it is not necessary for the protein adsorption to the ice interface to be as rigid as once thought.

  6. Evolution of an antifreeze protein by neofunctionalization under escape from adaptive conflict.

    PubMed

    Deng, Cheng; Cheng, C-H Christina; Ye, Hua; He, Ximiao; Chen, Liangbiao

    2010-12-14

    The evolutionary model escape from adaptive conflict (EAC) posits that adaptive conflict between the old and an emerging new function within a single gene could drive the fixation of gene duplication, where each duplicate can freely optimize one of the functions. Although EAC has been suggested as a common process in functional evolution, definitive cases of neofunctionalization under EAC are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms leading to functional innovation are not well-understood. We report here clear experimental evidence for EAC-driven evolution of type III antifreeze protein gene from an old sialic acid synthase (SAS) gene in an Antarctic zoarcid fish. We found that an SAS gene, having both sialic acid synthase and rudimentary ice-binding activities, became duplicated. In one duplicate, the N-terminal SAS domain was deleted and replaced with a nascent signal peptide, removing pleiotropic structural conflict between SAS and ice-binding functions and allowing rapid optimization of the C-terminal domain to become a secreted protein capable of noncolligative freezing-point depression. This study reveals how minor functionalities in an old gene can be transformed into a distinct survival protein and provides insights into how gene duplicates facing presumed identical selection and mutation pressures at birth could take divergent evolutionary paths. PMID:21115821

  7. Hydration behavior at the ice-binding surface of the Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Midya, Uday Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2014-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 220 K) to study the conformational rigidity of the hyperactive Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its surface. It is found that irrespective of the temperature the ice-binding surface (IBS) of the protein is relatively more rigid than its nonice-binding surface (NIBS). The presence of a set of regularly arranged internally bound water molecules is found to play an important role in maintaining the flat rigid nature of the IBS. Importantly, the calculations reveal that the strategically located hydroxyl oxygens of the threonine (Thr) residues in the IBS influence the arrangements of five sets of ordered waters around it on two parallel planes that closely resemble the basal plane of ice. As a result, these waters can register well with the ice basal plane, thereby allowing the IBS to preferentially bind at the ice interface and inhibit its growth. This provides a possible molecular reason behind the ice-binding activity of TmAFP at the basal plane of ice.

  8. Arginine, a key residue for the enhancing ability of an antifreeze protein of the beetle Dendroides canadensis†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Juwita, Vonny; Kao, Yu; Duman, John G.; Pascal, Tod A.; Goddard, William A.; Wen, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can produce a difference between the nonequilibrium freezing point and the melting point is termed thermal hysteresis (TH). The TH activity of an antifreeze protein (AFP) depends on the specific AFP, its concentration as well as the presence of co-solutes including low-molecular-mass solutes and/or proteins. We recently identified series of carboxylates and polyols as efficient enhancers for an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis. In this study, we chemically modified DAFP-1 using the arginine-specific reagent 1,2-cyclohexanedione. We demonstrated that 1,2-cyclohexanedione specifically modifies one arginine residue and the modified DAFP-1 loses its enhancing ability completely or partially in the presence of previously identified enhancers. The stronger the enhancement ability of the enhancer on the native DAFP-1, the stronger the enhancement effect of the enhancer has on the modified DAFP-1. The weaker enhancers (e.g., glycerol) completely lose their enhancement effect on the modified DAFP-1 due to their inability to compete with 1,2-cyclohexanedione for the arginine residue. Regeneration of the arginine residue using hydroxylamine fully restored the enhancing ability of DAFP-1. These studies indicated that an arginine residue is critical for the enhancing ability of DAFP-1 and the guanidinium group of the arginine residue is important for its interaction with the enhancers, where the general mechanism of arginine-ligand interaction is borne. This work may initiate a complete mechanistic study of the enhancement effect in AFPs. PMID:19746966

  9. A low molecular weight peptide from snow mold with epitopic homology to the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Newsted, W J; Polvi, S; Papish, B; Kendall, E; Saleem, M; Koch, M; Hussain, A; Cutler, A J; Georges, F

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for a small size protein (ca. 3500 kDa) exhibiting epitopic homology to the Atlantic winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) is found in the snow molds Coprinus psychromorbidus, Myriosclerotinia borealis, and Typhula incarnata. The protein shows strong cross-reactivity with antisera specific for the flounder AFP. Preliminary studies suggest that the protein is synthesized in response to lowering the culture temperature, and that it is membrane associated and, therefore, may function in an analogous capacity to the fish AFP. Also, the protein is shown to have antifreeze properties as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging experiments.

  10. Antifreeze proteins in the primary urine of larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Philip K; Sass, Sandra; Verleye, Dawn; Blumenthal, Edward M; Duman, John G

    2013-05-01

    To avoid freezing while overwintering beneath the bark of fallen trees, Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae produce a family of antifreeze proteins (DAFPs) that are transcribed in specific tissues and have specific compartmental fates. DAFPs and associated thermal hysteresis activity (THA) have been shown previously in hemolymph and midgut fluid, but the presence of DAFPs has not been explored in primary urine, a potentially important site that can contain endogenous ice-nucleating compounds that could induce freezing. A maximum mean THA of 2.65±0.33°C was observed in primary urine of winter-collected D. canadensis larvae. THA in primary urine increased significantly through autumn, peaked in the winter and decreased through spring to levels of 0.2-0.3°C in summer, in a pattern similar to that of hemolymph and midgut fluid. THA was also found in hindgut fluid and excreted rectal fluid, suggesting that these larvae not only concentrate AFPs in the hindgut, but also excrete AFPs from the rectal cavity. Based on dafp transcripts isolated from Malpighian tubule epithelia, cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, identifying the presence of transcripts encoding 24 DAFP isoforms. Six of these Malpighian tubule DAFPs were known previously, but 18 are new. We also provide functional evidence that DAFPs can inhibit ice nucleators present in insect primary urine. This is potentially critical because D. canadensis larvae die if frozen, and therefore ice formation in any body fluid, including the urine, would be lethal.

  11. New insights into ice growth and melting modifications by antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Bar-Dolev, Maya; Celik, Yeliz; Wettlaufer, J S; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2012-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in many organisms, allowing them to survive in cold climates by controlling ice crystal growth. The specific interactions of AFPs with ice determine their potential applications in agriculture, food preservation and medicine. AFPs control the shapes of ice crystals in a manner characteristic of the particular AFP type. Moderately active AFPs cause the formation of elongated bipyramidal crystals, often with seemingly defined facets, while hyperactive AFPs produce more varied crystal shapes. These different morphologies are generally considered to be growth shapes. In a series of bright light and fluorescent microscopy observations of ice crystals in solutions containing different AFPs, we show that crystal shaping also occurs during melting. In particular, the characteristic ice shapes observed in solutions of most hyperactive AFPs are formed during melting. We relate these findings to the affinities of the hyperactive AFPs for the basal plane of ice. Our results demonstrate the relation between basal plane affinity and hyperactivity and show a clear difference in the ice-shaping mechanisms of most moderate and hyperactive AFPs. This study provides key aspects associated with the identification of hyperactive AFPs.

  12. New insights into ice growth and melting modifications by antifreeze proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Dolev, Maya; Celik, Yeliz; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in many organisms, allowing them to survive in cold climates by controlling ice crystal growth. The specific interactions of AFPs with ice determine their potential applications in agriculture, food preservation and medicine. AFPs control the shapes of ice crystals in a manner characteristic of the particular AFP type. Moderately active AFPs cause the formation of elongated bipyramidal crystals, often with seemingly defined facets, while hyperactive AFPs produce more varied crystal shapes. These different morphologies are generally considered to be growth shapes. In a series of bright light and fluorescent microscopy observations of ice crystals in solutions containing different AFPs, we show that crystal shaping also occurs during melting. In particular, the characteristic ice shapes observed in solutions of most hyperactive AFPs are formed during melting. We relate these findings to the affinities of the hyperactive AFPs for the basal plane of ice. Our results demonstrate the relation between basal plane affinity and hyperactivity and show a clear difference in the ice-shaping mechanisms of most moderate and hyperactive AFPs. This study provides key aspects associated with the identification of hyperactive AFPs. PMID:22787007

  13. New insights into ice growth and melting modifications by antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Bar-Dolev, Maya; Celik, Yeliz; Wettlaufer, J S; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2012-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in many organisms, allowing them to survive in cold climates by controlling ice crystal growth. The specific interactions of AFPs with ice determine their potential applications in agriculture, food preservation and medicine. AFPs control the shapes of ice crystals in a manner characteristic of the particular AFP type. Moderately active AFPs cause the formation of elongated bipyramidal crystals, often with seemingly defined facets, while hyperactive AFPs produce more varied crystal shapes. These different morphologies are generally considered to be growth shapes. In a series of bright light and fluorescent microscopy observations of ice crystals in solutions containing different AFPs, we show that crystal shaping also occurs during melting. In particular, the characteristic ice shapes observed in solutions of most hyperactive AFPs are formed during melting. We relate these findings to the affinities of the hyperactive AFPs for the basal plane of ice. Our results demonstrate the relation between basal plane affinity and hyperactivity and show a clear difference in the ice-shaping mechanisms of most moderate and hyperactive AFPs. This study provides key aspects associated with the identification of hyperactive AFPs. PMID:22787007

  14. Antifreeze protein from freeze-tolerant grass has a beta-roll fold with an irregularly structured ice-binding site.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Marshall, Christopher B; Faucher, Frédérick; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Campbell, Robert L; Walker, Virginia K; Davies, Peter L

    2012-03-01

    The grass Lolium perenne produces an ice-binding protein (LpIBP) that helps this perennial tolerate freezing by inhibiting the recrystallization of ice. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are also produced by freeze-avoiding organisms to halt the growth of ice and are better known as antifreeze proteins (AFPs). To examine the structural basis for the different roles of these two IBP types, we have solved the first crystal structure of a plant IBP. The 118-residue LpIBP folds as a novel left-handed beta-roll with eight 14- or 15-residue coils and is stabilized by a small hydrophobic core and two internal Asn ladders. The ice-binding site (IBS) is formed by a flat beta-sheet on one surface of the beta-roll. We show that LpIBP binds to both the basal and primary-prism planes of ice, which is the hallmark of hyperactive AFPs. However, the antifreeze activity of LpIBP is less than 10% of that measured for those hyperactive AFPs with convergently evolved beta-solenoid structures. Whereas these hyperactive AFPs have two rows of aligned Thr residues on their IBS, the equivalent arrays in LpIBP are populated by a mixture of Thr, Ser and Val with several side-chain conformations. Substitution of Ser or Val for Thr on the IBS of a hyperactive AFP reduced its antifreeze activity. LpIBP may have evolved an IBS that has low antifreeze activity to avoid damage from rapid ice growth that occurs when temperatures exceed the capacity of AFPs to block ice growth while retaining the ability to inhibit ice recrystallization.

  15. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and homology modeling of the first caudata amphibian antifreeze-like protein in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songyan; Gao, Jiuxiang; Lu, Yiling; Cai, Shasha; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2013-08-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) refer to a class of polypeptides that are produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi, and bacteria and which permit their survival in subzero environments. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, sequence analysis and three-dimensional structure of the axolotl antifreeze-like protein (AFLP) by homology modeling of the first caudate amphibian AFLP. We constructed a full-length spleen cDNA library of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). An EST having highest similarity (∼42%) with freeze-responsive liver protein Li16 from Rana sylvatica was identified, and the full-length cDNA was subsequently obtained by RACE-PCR. The axolotl antifreeze-like protein sequence represents an open reading frame for a putative signal peptide and the mature protein composed of 93 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass and the theoretical isoelectric point (pl) of this mature protein were 10128.6 Da and 8.97, respectively. The molecular characterization of this gene and its deduced protein were further performed by detailed bioinformatics analysis. The three-dimensional structure of current AFLP was predicted by homology modeling, and the conserved residues required for functionality were identified. The homology model constructed could be of use for effective drug design. This is the first report of an antifreeze-like protein identified from a caudate amphibian.

  16. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and homology modeling of the first caudata amphibian antifreeze-like protein in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songyan; Gao, Jiuxiang; Lu, Yiling; Cai, Shasha; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2013-08-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) refer to a class of polypeptides that are produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi, and bacteria and which permit their survival in subzero environments. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, sequence analysis and three-dimensional structure of the axolotl antifreeze-like protein (AFLP) by homology modeling of the first caudate amphibian AFLP. We constructed a full-length spleen cDNA library of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). An EST having highest similarity (∼42%) with freeze-responsive liver protein Li16 from Rana sylvatica was identified, and the full-length cDNA was subsequently obtained by RACE-PCR. The axolotl antifreeze-like protein sequence represents an open reading frame for a putative signal peptide and the mature protein composed of 93 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass and the theoretical isoelectric point (pl) of this mature protein were 10128.6 Da and 8.97, respectively. The molecular characterization of this gene and its deduced protein were further performed by detailed bioinformatics analysis. The three-dimensional structure of current AFLP was predicted by homology modeling, and the conserved residues required for functionality were identified. The homology model constructed could be of use for effective drug design. This is the first report of an antifreeze-like protein identified from a caudate amphibian. PMID:23915159

  17. Type I antifreeze proteins expressed in snailfish skin are identical to their plasma counterparts.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert P; Fletcher, Garth L

    2005-10-01

    Type I antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are usually small, Ala-rich alpha-helical polypeptides found in right-eyed flounders and certain species of sculpin. These proteins are divided into two distinct subclasses, liver type and skin type, which are encoded by separate gene families. Blood plasma from Atlantic (Liparis atlanticus) and dusky (Liparis gibbus) snailfish contain type I AFPs that are significantly larger than all previously described type I AFPs. In this study, full-length cDNA clones that encode snailfish type I AFPs expressed in skin tissues were generated using a combination of library screening and PCR-based methods. The skin clones, which lack both signal and pro-sequences, produce proteins that are identical to circulating plasma AFPs. Although all fish examined consistently express antifreeze mRNA in skin tissue, there is extreme individual variation in liver expression - an unusual phenomenon that has never been reported previously. Furthermore, genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that snailfish AFPs are products of multigene families that consist of up to 10 gene copies per genome. The 113-residue snailfish AFPs do not contain any obvious amino acid repeats or continuous hydrophobic face which typify the structure of most other type I AFPs. These structural differences might have implications for their ice-crystal binding properties. These results are the first to demonstrate a dual liver/skin role of identical type I AFP expression which may represent an evolutionary intermediate prior to divergence into distinct gene families.

  18. Role of ice nucleation and antifreeze activities in pathogenesis and growth of snow molds.

    PubMed

    Snider, C S; Hsiang, T; Zhao, G; Griffith, M

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the ability of snow molds to grow at temperatures from -5 to 30 degrees C and to influence the growth of ice through assays for ice nucleation and antifreeze activities. Isolates of Coprinus psychromorbidus (low temperature basidiomycete variant), Microdochium nivale, Typhula phacorrhiza, T. ishikariensis, T. incarnata, and T. canadensis all grew at -5 degrees C, whereas Sclerotinia borealis and S. homoeocarpa did not grow at temperatures below 4 degrees C. The highest threshold ice nucleation temperature was -7 degrees C. Because snow molds are most damaging to their hosts at temperatures above this, our results imply that the pathogenesis of these fungi is not dependent on ice nucleation activity to cause freeze-wounding of host plants. All snow molds that grew at subzero temperatures also exhibited antifreeze activity in the growth medium and in the soluble and insoluble hyphal fractions, with the exception of M. nivale and one isolate of T. canadensis. The lack of high ice nucleation activity combined with the presence of antifreeze activity in all fungal fractions indicates that snow molds can moderate their environment to inhibit or modify intra- and extracellular ice formation, which helps explain their ability to grow at subzero temperatures under snow cover.

  19. Ice-surface adsorption enhanced colligative effect of antifreeze proteins in ice growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yougang; Ba, Yong

    2006-09-01

    This Communication describes a mechanism to explain antifreeze protein's function to inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We propose that the adsorption of antifreeze protein (AFP) molecules on an ice surface induces a dense AFP-water layer, which can significantly decrease the mole fraction of the interfacial water and, thus, lower the temperature for a seed ice crystal to grow in a super-cooled AFP solution. This mechanism can also explain the nearly unchanged melting point for the ice crystal due to the AFP's ice-surface adsorption. A mathematical model combining the Langmuir theory of adsorption and the colligative effect of thermodynamics has been proposed to find the equilibrium constants of the ice-surface adsorptions, and the interfacial concentrations of AFPs through fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental thermal hysteresis data. This model has been demonstrated by using the experimental data of serial size-mutated beetle Tenebrio molitor (Tm) AFPs. It was found that the AFP's ice-surface adsorptions could increase the interfacial AFP's concentrations by 3 to 4 orders compared with those in the bulk AFP solutions.

  20. Ice-surface adsorption enhanced colligative effect of antifreeze proteins in ice growth inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yougang; Ba, Yong

    2006-09-01

    This Communication describes a mechanism to explain antifreeze protein's function to inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We propose that the adsorption of antifreeze protein (AFP) molecules on an ice surface induces a dense AFP-water layer, which can significantly decrease the mole fraction of the interfacial water and, thus, lower the temperature for a seed ice crystal to grow in a super-cooled AFP solution. This mechanism can also explain the nearly unchanged melting point for the ice crystal due to the AFP's ice-surface adsorption. A mathematical model combining the Langmuir theory of adsorption and the colligative effect of thermodynamics has been proposed to find the equilibrium constants of the ice-surface adsorptions, and the interfacial concentrations of AFPs through fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental thermal hysteresis data. This model has been demonstrated by using the experimental data of serial size-mutated beetle Tenebrio molitor (Tm) AFPs. It was found that the AFP's ice-surface adsorptions could increase the interfacial AFP's concentrations by 3 to 4 orders compared with those in the bulk AFP solutions.

  1. Recombinant Dendroides canadensis antifreeze proteins as potential ingredients in cryopreservation solutions

    PubMed Central

    Halwani, Dina O.; Brockbank, Kelvin G.M.; Duman, John G.; Campbell, Lia H.

    2015-01-01

    Expanding cryopreservation methods to include a wider range of cell types, such as those sensitive to freezing, is needed for maintaining the viability of cell-based regenerative medicine products. Conventional cryopreservation protocols, which include use of cryoprotectants such as dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), have not prevented ice-induced damage to cell and tissue matrices during freezing. A family of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) produced in the larvae of the beetle, Dendroides canadensis allow this insect to survive subzero temperatures as low as −26°C. This study is an assessment of the effect of the four hemolymph D. canadensis AFPs (DAFPs) on the supercooling (nucleating) temperature, ice structure patterns and viability of the A10 cell line derived from the thoracic aorta of embryonic rat. Cryoprotectant solution cocktails containing combinations of DAFPs in concentrations ranging from 0–3mg/mL in Unisol base mixed with 1M Me2SO were first evaluated by cryomicroscopy. Combining multiple DAFPs demonstrated significant supercooling point depressing activity (~9°C) when compared to single DAFPs and/or conventional 1M Me2SO control solutions. Concentrations of DAFPs as low as 1μg/mL were sufficient to trigger this effect. In addition, significantly improved A10 smooth muscle cell viability was observed in cryopreservation experiments with low DAFP-6 and DAFP-2 concentrations in combination with Me2SO. No significant improvement in viability was observed with either DAFP-1 or DAFP-4. Low and effective DAFP concentrations are advantageous because they minimize concerns regarding cell cytotoxicity and manufacturing cost. These findings support the potential of incorporating DAFPs in solutions used to cryopreserve cells and tissues. PMID:24662031

  2. Antifreeze protein gene amplification facilitated niche exploitation and speciation in wolffish.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Mariève; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Fletcher, Garth L

    2012-06-01

    During winter, the coastal waters of Newfoundland can be considered a 'freeze risk ecozone' for teleost fishes, where the shallower habitats pose a high (and the deeper habitats a low) risk of freezing. Atlantic (Anarhichas lupus) and spotted (Anarhichas minor) wolffish, which inhabit these waters, reside at opposite ends of this ecozone, with the Atlantic wolffish being the species facing the greatest risk, because of its shallower niche. In order to resist freezing, this species secretes five times the level of antifreeze protein (AFP) activity into the plasma than does the spotted wolffish. The main basis for this interspecific difference in AFP levels is gene dosage, as the Atlantic wolffish has approximately three times as many AFP gene copies as the spotted wolffish. In addition, AFP transcript levels in liver (the primary source of circulating AFPs) are several times higher in the Atlantic wolffish. One explanation for the difference in gene dosage and transcript levels is the presence of tandemly arrayed repeats in the latter, which make up two-thirds of its AFP gene pool. Such repeats are not present in the spotted wolffish. The available evidence indicates that the two species diverged from a common ancestor at a time when the ebb and flow of northern glaciations would have resulted in the emergence of shallow water 'freeze risk ecozones'. The results of this study suggest that the duplication/amplification of AFP genes in a subpopulation of ancestral wolffish would have facilitated the exploitation of this high-risk habitat, resulting in the divergence and evolution of modern-day Atlantic and spotted wolffish species. PMID:22520964

  3. Recombinant Dendroides canadensis antifreeze proteins as potential ingredients in cryopreservation solutions.

    PubMed

    Halwani, Dina O; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Duman, John G; Campbell, Lia H

    2014-06-01

    Expanding cryopreservation methods to include a wider range of cell types, such as those sensitive to freezing, is needed for maintaining the viability of cell-based regenerative medicine products. Conventional cryopreservation protocols, which include use of cryoprotectants such as dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), have not prevented ice-induced damage to cell and tissue matrices during freezing. A family of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) produced in the larvae of the beetle, Dendroides canadensis allow this insect to survive subzero temperatures as low as -26°C. This study is an assessment of the effect of the four hemolymph D. canadensis AFPs (DAFPs) on the supercooling (nucleating) temperature, ice structure patterns and viability of the A10 cell line derived from the thoracic aorta of embryonic rat. Cryoprotectant solution cocktails containing combinations of DAFPs in concentrations ranging from 0 to 3mg/mL in Unisol base mixed with 1M Me2SO were first evaluated by cryomicroscopy. Combining multiple DAFPs demonstrated significant supercooling point depressing activity (∼9°C) when compared to single DAFPs and/or conventional 1M Me2SO control solutions. Concentrations of DAFPs as low as 1 μg/mL were sufficient to trigger this effect. In addition, significantly improved A10 smooth muscle cell viability was observed in cryopreservation experiments with low DAFP-6 and DAFP-2 concentrations in combination with Me2SO. No significant improvement in viability was observed with either DAFP-1 or DAFP-4. Low and effective DAFP concentrations are advantageous because they minimize concerns regarding cell cytotoxicity and manufacturing cost. These findings support the potential of incorporating DAFPs in solutions used to cryopreserve cells and tissues.

  4. Protein-ice interaction of an antifreeze protein observed with solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Ansgar B; Huang, Kuo-Ying; McDermott, Ann E

    2010-10-12

    NMR on frozen solutions is an ideal method to study fundamental questions of macromolecular hydration, because the hydration shell of many biomolecules does not freeze together with bulk solvent. In the present study, we present previously undescribed NMR methods to study the interactions of proteins with their hydration shell and the ice lattice in frozen solution. We applied these methods to compare solvent interaction of an ice-binding type III antifreeze protein (AFP III) and ubiquitin a non-ice-binding protein in frozen solution. We measured (1)H-(1)H cross-saturation and cross-relaxation to provide evidence for a molecular contact surface between ice and AFP III at moderate freezing temperatures of -35 °C. This phenomenon is potentially unique for AFPs because ubiquitin shows no such cross relaxation or cross saturation with ice. On the other hand, we detected liquid hydration water and strong water-AFP III and water-ubiquitin cross peaks in frozen solution using relaxation filtered (2)H and HETCOR spectra with additional (1)H-(1)H mixing. These results are consistent with the idea that ubiquitin is surrounded by a hydration shell, which separates it from the bulk ice. For AFP III, the water cross peaks indicate that only a portion of its hydration shell (i.e., at the ice-binding surface) is in contact with the ice lattice. The rest of AFP III's hydration shell behaves similarly to the hydration shell of non-ice-interacting proteins such as ubiquitin and does not freeze together with the bulk water.

  5. NMR Characterizations of the Ice Binding Surface of an Antifreeze Protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Congmin; Jia, Zongchao; Xia, Bin; Jin, Changwen

    2010-01-01

    Antifreeze protein (AFP) has a unique function of reducing solution freezing temperature to protect organisms from ice damage. However, its functional mechanism is not well understood. An intriguing question concerning AFP function is how the high selectivity for ice ligand is achieved in the presence of free water of much higher concentration which likely imposes a large kinetic barrier for protein-ice recognition. In this study, we explore this question by investigating the property of the ice binding surface of an antifreeze protein using NMR spectroscopy. An investigation of the temperature gradient of amide proton chemical shift and its correlation with chemical shift deviation from random coil was performed for CfAFP-501, a hyperactive insect AFP. A good correlation between the two parameters was observed for one of the two Thr rows on the ice binding surface. A significant temperature-dependent protein-solvent interaction is found to be the most probable origin for this correlation, which is consistent with a scenario of hydrophobic hydration on the ice binding surface. In accordance with this finding, rotational correlation time analyses combined with relaxation dispersion measurements reveals a weak dimer formation through ice binding surface at room temperature and a population shift of dimer to monomer at low temperature, suggesting hydrophobic effect involved in dimer formation and hence hydrophobic hydration on the ice binding surface of the protein. Our finding of hydrophobic hydration on the ice binding surface provides a test for existing simulation studies. The occurrence of hydrophobic hydration on the ice binding surface is likely unnecessary for enhancing protein-ice binding affinity which is achieved by a tight H-bonding network. Subsequently, we speculate that the hydrophobic hydration occurring on the ice binding surface plays a role in facilitating protein-ice recognition by lowering the kinetic barrier as suggested by some simulation

  6. Analysis of ice-binding sites in fish type II antifreeze protein by quantum mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuhua; Yang, Zuoyin; Tan, Hongwei; Liu, Ruozhuang; Chen, Guangju; Jia, Zongchao

    2002-01-01

    Many organisms living in cold environments can survive subzero temperatures by producing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or antifreeze glycoproteins. In this paper we investigate the ice-binding surface of type II AFP by quantum mechanical methods, which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first time that molecular orbital computational approaches have been applied to AFPs. Molecular mechanical approaches, including molecular docking, energy minimization, and molecular dynamics simulation, were used to obtain optimal systems for subsequent quantum mechanical analysis. We selected 17 surface patches covering the entire surface of the type II AFP and evaluated the interaction energy between each of these patches and two different ice planes using semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods. We have demonstrated the weak orbital overlay phenomenon and the change of bond orders in ice. These results consistently indicate that a surface patch containing 19 residues (K37, L38, Y20, E22, Y21, I19, L57, T56, F53, M127, T128, F129, R17, C7, N6, P5, G10, Q1, and W11) is the most favorable ice-binding site for both a regular ice plane and an ice plane where water O atoms are randomly positioned. Furthermore, for the first time the computation results provide new insights into the weakening of the ice lattice upon AFP binding, which may well be a primary factor leading to AFP-induced ice growth inhibition. PMID:12324437

  7. An Effective Antifreeze Protein Predictor with Ensemble Classifiers and Comprehensive Sequence Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) play a pivotal role in the antifreeze effect of overwintering organisms. They have a wide range of applications in numerous fields, such as improving the production of crops and the quality of frozen foods. Accurate identification of AFPs may provide important clues to decipher the underlying mechanisms of AFPs in ice-binding and to facilitate the selection of the most appropriate AFPs for several applications. Based on an ensemble learning technique, this study proposes an AFP identification system called AFP-Ensemble. In this system, random forest classifiers are trained by different training subsets and then aggregated into a consensus classifier by majority voting. The resulting predictor yields a sensitivity of 0.892, a specificity of 0.940, an accuracy of 0.938 and a balanced accuracy of 0.916 on an independent dataset, which are far better than the results obtained by previous methods. These results reveal that AFP-Ensemble is an effective and promising predictor for large-scale determination of AFPs. The detailed feature analysis in this study may give useful insights into the molecular mechanisms of AFP-ice interactions and provide guidance for the related experimental validation. A web server has been designed to implement the proposed method. PMID:26370959

  8. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on the supercooling ability and mining of antifreeze proteins of the Chinese white wax scale insect.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shu-Hui; Yang, Pu; Sun, Tao; Qi, Qian; Wang, Xue-Qing; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Ying; Liu, Bo-Wen

    2016-06-01

    The Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela, can survive at extremely low temperatures, and some overwintering individuals exhibit supercooling at temperatures below -30°C. To investigate the deep supercooling ability of E. pela, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to delineate the major gene and protein families responsible for the deep supercooling ability of overwintering females. Gene Ontology (GO) classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated that genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase, calcium, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways and pathways associated with the biosynthesis of soluble sugars, sugar alcohols and free amino acids were dominant. Proteins responsible for low-temperature stress, such as cold acclimation proteins, glycerol biosynthesis-related enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs) were identified. However, no antifreeze proteins (AFPs) were identified through sequence similarity search methods. A random forest approach identified 388 putative AFPs in the proteome. The AFP gene ep-afp was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed protein exhibited a thermal hysteresis activity of 0.97°C, suggesting its potential role in the deep supercooling ability of E. pela.

  9. A 9 kDa antifreeze protein from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C; Marshall, C J; Wharton, D A

    2014-08-01

    A 9 kDA antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated and purified from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni. By combining selective sampling procedures and a modified ice affinity purification protocol it was possible to directly isolate a single AFP protein without recourse to chromatographic separation techniques. Mass spectrometry identified a single 9 kDa component in the purified ice fraction. Intramolecular disulphide bonding was suggested by the presence of 12 cysteine residues. The specific amino acid composition is unique, particularly with regard to the presence of histidine (11.5%). But it also shows noticeable commonalities with insect AFPs in the abundance of cysteine (13.8%), while simultaneously hinting, through the presence of glycine (11.5%), that the metabolic building blocks of AFPs in Collembola may have a phylogenetically-determined component. PMID:25025820

  10. Why ice-binding type I antifreeze protein acts as a gas hydrate crystal inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, S Alireza; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A; Englezos, Peter

    2015-04-21

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) prevent ice growth by binding to a specific ice plane. Some AFPs have been found to inhibit the formation of gas hydrates which are a serious safety and operational challenge for the oil and gas industry. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to determine the mechanism of action of the winter flounder AFP (wf-AFP) in inhibiting methane hydrate growth. The wf-AFP adsorbs onto the methane hydrate surface via cooperative binding of a set of hydrophobic methyl pendant groups to the empty half-cages at the hydrate/water interface. Each binding set is composed of the methyl side chain of threonine and two alanine residues, four and seven places further down in the sequence of the protein. Understanding the principle of action of AFPs can lead to the rational design of green hydrate inhibitor molecules with potential superior performance. PMID:25786071

  11. Improvement of texture properties and flavor of frozen dough by carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Gao, Hong; Guo, Xiao Na; Yao, Hui Yuan

    2007-11-14

    The effects of concentrated carrot protein (CCP) containing 15.4% (w/w) carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein on texture properties of frozen dough and volatile compounds of crumb were studied. CCP supplementation lowered the freezable water content of the dough, resulting in some beneficial effects including holding loaf volume steadily and making the dough softer and steadier during frozen storage. Furthermore, SPME-GC-MS analysis showed CCP supplementation did not give any negative influences on volatile compounds of crumb and gave a pleasant aroma felt like Michelia alba DC from trans-caryophyllene simultaneously. Combining our previous results that CCP supplementation improves the fermentation capacity of the frozen dough, CCP could be used as a beneficial additive for frozen dough processing. PMID:17935294

  12. Type I shorthorn sculpin antifreeze protein: recombinant synthesis, solution conformation, and ice growth inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Kayesh; Westman, Belinda J; Pham, Linda H; Haymet, A D J; Harding, Margaret M; Mackay, Joel P

    2002-07-01

    A number of structurally diverse classes of "antifreeze" proteins that allow fish to survive in sub-zero ice-laden waters have been isolated from the blood plasma of cold water teleosts. However, despite receiving a great deal of attention, the one or more mechanisms through which these proteins act are not fully understood. In this report we have synthesized a type I antifreeze polypeptide (AFP) from the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius using recombinant methods. Construction of a synthetic gene with optimized codon usage and expression as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein followed by purification yielded milligram amounts of polypeptide with two extra residues appended to the N terminus. Circular dichroism and NMR experiments, including residual dipolar coupling measurements on a 15N-labeled recombinant polypeptide, show that the polypeptides are alpha-helical with the first four residues being more flexible than the remainder of the sequence. Both the recombinant and synthetic polypeptides modify ice growth, forming facetted crystals just below the freezing point, but display negligible thermal hysteresis. Acetylation of Lys-10, Lys-20, and Lys-21 as well as the N terminus of the recombinant polypeptide gave a derivative that displays both thermal hysteresis (0.4 degrees C at 15 mg/ml) and ice crystal faceting. These results confirm that the N terminus of wild-type polypeptide is functionally important and support our previously proposed mechanism for all type I proteins, in which the hydrophobic face is oriented toward the ice at the ice/water interface.

  13. Experimental investigation of the interactions of hyperactive antifreeze proteins with ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Yeliz

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in cold-adapted organisms and serve to protect them against freezing cold conditions by arresting ice crystal growth and inhibiting ice recrystallization. The freezing point depression by AFPs is defined as thermal hysteresis (TH) and AFPs are classified as hyperactive (hypAFPs) and moderate according to their TH activities. The mechanism of action of AFPs is not well understood. In particular, it is not clear what determines the concentration dependence of TH and whether the binding of AFP to ice is irreversible. Additionally, it is not known why some types of AFP are hyperactive compared to others and it was suggested that hyperactivity might be related to basal plane affinity of hypAFP to ice. The present study utilizes the techniques of microfluidic devices and fluorescence microscopy to study the interaction of AFPs with ice crystals. With novel temperature controlled microfluidic devices, we showed the accumulation and affinity of hypAFPs on the basal plane of ice. This supports the view that hypAFPs adhere to the basal plane. Additionally, for the first time in literature, small ice crystals of 30-50 mum sizes covered with adsorbed GFP tagged hypAFPs were stabilized in supercooled non-AFP solutions for hours with no observed ice growth in temperature controlled microfluidic devices. Repeated TH experiments of ice crystals incubated in AFP solutions before and after the exchange of liquids in microfluidic devices gave the same TH activity. This finding clarifies our understanding of concentration dependence of TH. Furthermore, we found that hypAFPs protect ice against melting as well as freezing, resulting in superheated ice. Ice crystals were superheated up to 0.5°C above their equilibrium melting temperatures and remained stable in this superheated state for hours. Measurements of fast melting velocities added additional evidence to the observed superheating of ice in AFP solutions. The experimental results of the current

  14. The Surface of Ice in the presence of Antifreeze Proteins studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Orme, Christine; Yeh, Yin

    2002-03-01

    The surface of ice has been a topic of interest for centuries. In particular, the surface structure and properties have been explored with the advent of new surface techniques. Several groups have convincingly shown a surface transition layer to exist between the solid-vapor interface as well as the solid-liquid interface. In addition, the characteristics of this region may be directly correlated with growth morphologies of ice. Certain peptide molecules have the ability to significantly alter the growth morphology of an ice crystal. Do these molecules simply disrupt this transition region? Or do they anchor themselves deep into it reaching the bulk-ice phase? And is there a similar mechanism by which they function? We use AFM to study the morphological changes to the true ice surface due to the presence antifreeze proteins. We will discuss the implications of our results on the longstanding debate to the above questions.

  15. Helical Antifreeze Proteins Have Independently Evolved in Fishes on Four Occasions

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Laurie A.; Hobbs, Rod S.; Fletcher, Garth L.; Davies, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Alanine-rich α-helical (type I) antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced by a variety of fish species from three different orders to protect against freezing in icy seawater. Interspersed amongst and within these orders are fishes making AFPs that are completely different in both sequence and structure. The origin of this variety of types I, II, III and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) has been attributed to adaptation following sea-level glaciations that occurred after the divergence of most of the extant families of fish. The presence of similar types of AFPs in distantly related fishes has been ascribed to lateral gene transfer in the case of the structurally complex globular type II lectin-like AFPs and to convergent evolution for the AFGPs, which consist of a well-conserved tripeptide repeat. In this paper, we examine the genesis of the type I AFPs, which are intermediate in complexity. These predominantly α-helical peptides share many features, such as putative capping structures, Ala-richness and amphipathic character. We have added to the type I repertoire by cloning additional sequences from sculpin and have found that the similarities between the type I AFPs of the four distinct groups of fishes are not borne out at the nucleotide level. Both the non-coding sequences and the codon usage patterns are strikingly different. We propose that these AFPs arose via convergence from different progenitor helices with a weak affinity for ice and that their similarity is dictated by the propensity of specific amino acids to form helices and to align water on one side of the helix into an ice-like pattern. PMID:24324684

  16. Distinct molecular features facilitating ice-binding mechanisms in hyperactive antifreeze proteins closely related to an Antarctic sea ice bacterium.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rachana; Chakraborti, Pratim; Bhowmick, Rupa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasish

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins or ice-binding proteins (IBPs) facilitate the survival of certain cellular organisms in freezing environment by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals in solution. Present study identifies orthologs of the IBP of Colwellia sp. SLW05, which were obtained from a wide range of taxa. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of conserved regions (predicted as the 'ice-binding domain' [IBD]) present in all the orthologs, separates the bacterial and archaeal orthologs from that of the eukaryotes'. Correspondence analysis pointed out that the bacterial and archaeal IBDs have relatively higher average hydrophobicity than the eukaryotic members. IBDs belonging to bacterial as well as archaeal AFPs contain comparatively more strands, and therefore are revealed to be under higher evolutionary selection pressure. Molecular docking studies prove that the ice crystals form more stable complex with the bacterial as well as archaeal proteins than the eukaryotic orthologs. Analysis of the docked structures have traced out the ice-binding sites (IBSs) in all the orthologs which continue to facilitate ice-binding activity even after getting mutated with respect to the well-studied IBSs of Typhula ishikariensis and notably, all these mutations performing ice-binding using 'anchored clathrate mechanism' have been found to prefer polar and hydrophilic amino acids. Horizontal gene transfer studies point toward a strong selection pressure favoring independent evolution of the IBPs in some polar organisms including prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes because these proteins facilitate the polar organisms to acclimatize to the adversities in their niche, thus safeguarding their existence.

  17. Characterization of an antifreeze protein from the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus and its relevance in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Giraldi, Maddalena; Weikusat, Ilka; Besir, Hüseyin; Dieckmann, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), characterized by their ability to separate the melting and growth temperatures of ice and to inhibit ice recrystallization, play an important role in cold adaptation of several polar and cold-tolerant organisms. Recently, a multigene family of AFP genes was found in the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, a dominant species within polar sea ice assemblages. This study presents the AFP from F. cylindrus set in a molecular and crystallographic frame. Differential protein expression after exposure of the diatoms to environmentally relevant conditions underlined the importance of certain AFP isoforms in response to cold. Analyses of the recombinant AFP showed freezing point depression comparable to the activity of other moderate AFPs and further enhanced by salt (up to 0.9°C in low salinity buffer, 2.5°C at high salinity). However, unlike other moderate AFPs, its fastest growth direction is perpendicular to the c-axis. The protein also caused strong inhibition of recrystallization at concentrations of 1.2 and 0.12 μM at low and high salinity, respectively. Observations of crystal habit modifications and pitting activity suggested binding of AFPs to multiple faces of the ice crystals. Further analyses showed striations caused by AFPs, interpreted as inclusion in the ice. We suggest that the influence on ice microstructure is the main characteristic of these AFPs in sea ice. PMID:21906587

  18. Structure-function relationship in the globular type III antifreeze protein: identification of a cluster of surface residues required for binding to ice.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, H.; Sönnichsen, F. D.; DeLuca, C. I.; Sykes, B. D.; Davies, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) depress the freezing point of aqueous solutions by binding to and inhibiting the growth of ice. Whereas the ice-binding surface of some fish AFPs is suggested by their linear, repetitive, hydrogen bonding motifs, the 66-amino-acid-long Type III AFP has a compact, globular fold without any obvious periodicity. In the structure, 9 beta-strands are paired to form 2 triple-stranded antiparallel sheets and 1 double-stranded antiparallel sheet, with the 2 triple sheets arranged as an orthogonal beta-sandwich (Sönnichsen FD, Sykes BD, Chao H, Davies PL, 1993, Science 259:1154-1157). Based on its structure and an alignment of Type III AFP isoform sequences, a cluster of conserved, polar, surface-accessible amino acids (N14, T18, Q44, and N46) was noted on and around the triple-stranded sheet near the C-terminus. At 3 of these sites, mutations that switched amide and hydroxyl groups caused a large decrease in antifreeze activity, but amide to carboxylic acid changes produced AFPs that were fully active at pH 3 and pH 6. This is consistent with the observation that Type III AFP is optimally active from pH 2 to pH 11. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, Q44T, N14S, and T18N had 50%, 25%, and 10% of the activity of wild-type antifreeze, respectively. The effects of the mutations were cumulative, such that the double mutant N14S/Q44T had 10% of the wild-type activity and the triple mutant N14S/T18N/Q44T had no activity. All mutants with reduced activity were shown to be correctly folded by NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, a complete characterization of the triple mutant by 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy indicated that the individual and combined mutations did not significantly alter the structure of these proteins. These results suggest that the C-terminal beta-sheet of Type III AFP is primarily responsible for antifreeze activity, and they identify N14, T18, and Q44 as key residues for the AFP-ice interaction. PMID:7849594

  19. Low temperature growth, freezing survival, and production of antifreeze protein by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Griffith, M; Pasternak, J J; Glick, B R

    1995-09-01

    The plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2 was originally isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in the Canadian High Arctic. Here we report that this bacterium was able to grow and promote root elongation of both spring and winter canola at 5 degrees C, a temperature at which only a relatively small number of bacteria are able to proliferate and function. In addition, the bacterium survived exposure to freezing temperatures, i.e., -20 and -50 degrees C. In an effort to determine the mechanistic basis for this behaviour, it was discovered that following growth at 5 degrees C, P. putida GR12-2 synthesized and secreted to the growth medium a protein with antifreeze activity. Analysis of the spent growth medium, following concentration by ultrafiltration, by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of one major protein with a molecular mass of approximately 32-34 kDa and a number of minor proteins. However, at this point it is not known which of these proteins contains the antifreeze activity. PMID:7585354

  20. Functional Analysis of a Bacterial Antifreeze Protein Indicates a Cooperative Effect between Its Two Ice-Binding Domains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Oliver, Erin E; Christner, Brent C; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2016-07-19

    Antifreeze proteins make up a class of ice-binding proteins (IBPs) that are possessed and expressed by certain cold-adapted organisms to enhance their freezing tolerance. Here we report the biophysical and functional characterization of an IBP discovered in a bacterium recovered from a deep glacial ice core drilled at Vostok Station, Antarctica (IBPv). Our study showed that the recombinant protein rIBPv exhibited a thermal hysteresis of 2 °C at concentrations of >50 μM, effectively inhibited ice recrystallization, and enhanced bacterial viability during freeze-thaw cycling. Circular dichroism scans indicated that rIBPv mainly consists of β strands, and its denaturing temperature was 53.5 °C. Multiple-sequence alignment of homologous IBPs predicted that IBPv contains two ice-binding domains, a feature unique among known IBPs. To examine functional differences between the IBPv domains, each domain was cloned, expressed, and purified. The second domain (domain B) expressed greater ice binding activity. Data from thermal hysteresis and gel filtration assays supported the idea that the two domains cooperate to achieve a higher ice binding effect by forming heterodimers. However, physical linkage of the domains was not required for this effect. PMID:27359086

  1. Electro-optical properties characterization of fish type III antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Salvay, Andrés G; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I

    2007-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins that depress the freezing point of water in a non-colligative manner without a significant modification of the melting point. Found in the blood and tissues of some organisms (such as fish, insects, plants, and soil bacteria), AFPs play an important role in subzero temperature survival. Fish Type III AFP is present in members of the subclass Zoarcoidei. AFPIII are small 7-kDa-or 14-kDa tandem-globular proteins. In the present work, we study the behavior of several physical properties, such as the low-frequency dielectric permittivity spectrum, circular dichroism, and electrical conductivity of Fish Type III AFP solutions measured at different concentrations. The combination of the information obtained from these measurements could be explained through the formation of AFP molecular aggregates or, alternatively, by the existence of some other type of interparticle interactions. Thermal stability and electro-optical behavior, when proteins are dissolved in deuterated water, were also investigated.

  2. Electro-Optical Properties Characterization of Fish Type III Antifreeze Protein

    PubMed Central

    Salvay, Andrés G.; Santos, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins that depress the freezing point of water in a non-colligative manner without a significant modification of the melting point. Found in the blood and tissues of some organisms (such as fish, insects, plants, and soil bacteria), AFPs play an important role in subzero temperature survival. Fish Type III AFP is present in members of the subclass Zoarcoidei. AFPIII are small 7-kDa—or 14-kDa tandem—globular proteins. In the present work, we study the behavior of several physical properties, such as the low-frequency dielectric permittivity spectrum, circular dichroism, and electrical conductivity of Fish Type III AFP solutions measured at different concentrations. The combination of the information obtained from these measurements could be explained through the formation of AFP molecular aggregates or, alternatively, by the existence of some other type of interparticle interactions. Thermal stability and electro-optical behavior, when proteins are dissolved in deuterated water, were also investigated. PMID:19669526

  3. Antifreeze and cryoprotective activities of ice-binding collagen peptides from pig skin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Yu Bing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Song; Yuan, Min

    2016-03-01

    A novel "hyperactive" ice-binding peptide from porcine collagen was prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis and a series of column chromatography separations, and then its antifreeze and cryoprotective properties were reported. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermal hysteresis (TH) of ice-binding collagen peptides was closely related to their concentration and crystal fraction. Collagen hydrolysates with maximal TH were obtained by hydrolysis at pH 8.0, DH 15.0%, and 5% alkaline protease at 55°C. After purification by column chromatography, the AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide (GLLGPLGPRGLL) with 1162.8Da molecular weights exhibited the highest TH (5.28°C), which can be classified as "hyperactive". Recrystallisation and melt-resistance of ice cream were improved by AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide at 0.2% (w/v) in a similar manner to natural antifreeze proteins. Moreover, the addition of AP-3 collagen peptides in ice cream greatly elevated the glass transition temperature (Tg) to -17.64°C.

  4. Antifreeze and cryoprotective activities of ice-binding collagen peptides from pig skin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Yu Bing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Song; Yuan, Min

    2016-03-01

    A novel "hyperactive" ice-binding peptide from porcine collagen was prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis and a series of column chromatography separations, and then its antifreeze and cryoprotective properties were reported. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermal hysteresis (TH) of ice-binding collagen peptides was closely related to their concentration and crystal fraction. Collagen hydrolysates with maximal TH were obtained by hydrolysis at pH 8.0, DH 15.0%, and 5% alkaline protease at 55°C. After purification by column chromatography, the AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide (GLLGPLGPRGLL) with 1162.8Da molecular weights exhibited the highest TH (5.28°C), which can be classified as "hyperactive". Recrystallisation and melt-resistance of ice cream were improved by AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide at 0.2% (w/v) in a similar manner to natural antifreeze proteins. Moreover, the addition of AP-3 collagen peptides in ice cream greatly elevated the glass transition temperature (Tg) to -17.64°C. PMID:26471678

  5. Effect of the antifreeze protein from the arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30 on cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Han, Se Jong; Park, Hyun; Lee, Sung Gu

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins are a group of proteins that allow organisms to survive in subzero environments. These proteins possess thermal hysteresis and ice recrystallization inhibition activities. In the present study, we demonstrated the efficiency of a recombinant antifreeze protein from the Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30, LeIBP, in cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which is one of the classical model diatoms and has most widely been studied with regard to its ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. P. tricornutum cells were frozen by either a fast or two-step freezing method in freezing medium containing 10 % dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol, respectively, with or without LeIBP supplement. When cells were frozen using the two-step freezing method, cell survival was significantly increased and statistically the same as that of unfrozen native cells in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml LeIBP in 10 % propylene glycol or 10 % ethylene glycol at day 11 of post-thaw culture. In the presence of LeIBP, the concentration of chlorophyll a was dramatically increased to 14-, 48-, 1.6-, and 8.8-fold when cells were frozen in freezing medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, propylene glycol (PG), and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated that the cells were also successfully preserved and epitheca or hypotheca were not deformed. These results demonstrate that LeIBP was successfully applied to improve cryopreservation of the marine diatom P. tricornutum.

  6. Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, order Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Rod S; Shears, Margaret A; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Fletcher, Garth L

    2011-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced by many species of teleost fish that inhabit potentially lethal ice-laden seawater and afford them protection from freezing. To date type I AFPs have been fully characterized in two teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes. In this study, we report the isolation and complete characterization of a type I AFP present in fish from a third order: cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), order Perciformes (family Labridae). This protein was purified from blood plasma and found to belong to what is now known as classical type I AFP with their small size (mass 4095.16 Da), alanine richness (> 57 mol%), high α-helicity (> 99%) with the ability to undergo reversible thermal denaturation, 11 amino acid (ThrX(10)) repeat regions within the primary structure, the capacity to impart a hexagonal bipyramidal shaping to ice crystals and the conservation of an ice-binding site found in many of the other type I AFPs. Partial de novo sequencing of the plasma AFP accounted for approximately half of the peptide mass. Sequencing of a combined liver and skin cDNA library indicated that the protein is produced without a signal sequence. In addition the translated product of the AFP cDNA suggests that it codes for the AFP isolated from plasma. These results further solidify the hypothesis that type I AFPs are multiphyletic in origin and suggest that they represent remarkable examples of convergent evolution within three orders of teleost fish. PMID:21819541

  7. Wolffish antifreeze protein genes are primarily organized as tandem repeats that each contain two genes in inverted orientation.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, G K; Hayes, P H; Fletcher, G L; Davies, P L

    1988-01-01

    The antifreeze protein genes of the wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) constitute a large multigene family of 80 to 85 copies, which can be classified into two sets. One-third of the genes were linked but irregularly spaced. The other two-thirds were organized as 8-kilobase-pair (kbp) tandem direct repeats that each contained two genes in inverted orientation; DNA sequence analysis suggests that both genes are functional. Except for a single region specific to each gene, the genes and their immediate flanking sequences were 99.2% identical. This degree of identity ended soon after a putative transcription termination sequence; as the 3' ends of the genes were only 1.3 kbp apart, these sequences might confer mutual protection from interference by transcriptional runoff. A Southern blot of wolffish DNA restricted with enzymes that do not cut within the tandem repeats indicated that the repeats were clustered in groups of six or more. The organization of antifreeze protein genes in the wolffish was very similar to that in the unrelated winter flounder, which produces a completely different antifreeze. This similarity might reflect common dynamics by which their progenitors adapted to life in ice-laden sea water. Images PMID:2851724

  8. Investigation of the Ice-Binding Site of an Insect Antifreeze Protein Using Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L C; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Voets, Ilja K; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-04-01

    We study the ice-binding site (IBS) of a hyperactive antifreeze protein from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP-1) using vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. We find that DAFP-1 accumulates at the air-water interface due to the hydrophobic character of its threonine-rich IBS while retaining its highly regular β-helical fold. We observe a narrow band at 3485 cm(-1) that we assign to the O-H stretch vibration of threonine hydroxyl groups of the IBS. The narrow character of the 3485 cm(-1) band suggests that the hydrogen bonds between the threonine residues at the IBS and adjacent water molecules are quite similar in strength, indicating that the IBS of DAFP-1 is extremely well-ordered, with the threonine side chains showing identical rotameric confirmations. The hydrogen-bonded water molecules do not form an ordered ice-like layer, as was recently observed for the moderate antifreeze protein type III. It thus appears that the antifreeze action of DAFP-1 does not require the presence of ordered water but likely results from the direct binding of its highly ordered array of threonine residues to the ice surface. PMID:26262966

  9. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Gas Hydrates by α-Helical Antifreeze Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjun; Davies, Peter L; Walker, Virginia K

    2015-10-20

    Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are used commercially to inhibit gas hydrate formation and growth in pipelines. However, improvement of these polymers has been constrained by the lack of verified molecular models. Since antifreeze proteins (AFPs) act as KHIs, we have used their solved x-ray crystallographic structures in molecular modeling to explore gas hydrate inhibition. The internal clathrate water network of the fish AFP Maxi, which extends to the protein's outer surface, is remarkably similar to the {100} planes of structure type II (sII) gas hydrate. The crystal structure of this water web has facilitated the construction of in silico models for Maxi and type I AFP binding to sII hydrates. Here, we have substantiated our models with experimental evidence of Maxi binding to the tetrahydrofuran sII model hydrate. Both in silico and experimental evidence support the absorbance-inhibition mechanism proposed for KHI binding to gas hydrates. Based on the Maxi crystal structure we suggest that the inhibitor adsorbs to the gas hydrate lattice through the same anchored clathrate water mechanism used to bind ice. These results will facilitate the rational design of a next generation of effective green KHIs for the petroleum industry to ensure safe and efficient hydrocarbon flow. PMID:26488661

  10. Prolonging hypothermic storage (4 C) of bovine embryos with fish antifreeze protein

    PubMed Central

    IDETA, Atsushi; AOYAGI, Yoshito; TSUCHIYA, Kanami; NAKAMURA, Yuuki; HAYAMA, Kou; SHIRASAWA, Atsushi; SAKAGUCHI, Kenichiro; TOMINAGA, Naomi; NISHIMIYA, Yoshiyuki; TSUDA, Sakae

    2014-01-01

    Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24–48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP–embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming. PMID:25311466

  11. Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms.

  12. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Gas Hydrates by α-Helical Antifreeze Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tianjun; Davies, Peter L.; Walker, Virginia K.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are used commercially to inhibit gas hydrate formation and growth in pipelines. However, improvement of these polymers has been constrained by the lack of verified molecular models. Since antifreeze proteins (AFPs) act as KHIs, we have used their solved x-ray crystallographic structures in molecular modeling to explore gas hydrate inhibition. The internal clathrate water network of the fish AFP Maxi, which extends to the protein’s outer surface, is remarkably similar to the {100} planes of structure type II (sII) gas hydrate. The crystal structure of this water web has facilitated the construction of in silico models for Maxi and type I AFP binding to sII hydrates. Here, we have substantiated our models with experimental evidence of Maxi binding to the tetrahydrofuran sII model hydrate. Both in silico and experimental evidence support the absorbance-inhibition mechanism proposed for KHI binding to gas hydrates. Based on the Maxi crystal structure we suggest that the inhibitor adsorbs to the gas hydrate lattice through the same anchored clathrate water mechanism used to bind ice. These results will facilitate the rational design of a next generation of effective green KHIs for the petroleum industry to ensure safe and efficient hydrocarbon flow. PMID:26488661

  13. Structure and Evolutionary Origin of Ca2+-Dependent Herring Type II Antifreeze Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,Y.; Li, Z.; Lin, Q.; Kosinski, J.; Seetharaman, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to survive under extremely cold environments, many organisms produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs). AFPs inhibit the growth of ice crystals and protect organisms from freezing damage. Fish AFPs can be classified into five distinct types based on their structures. Here we report the structure of herring AFP (hAFP), a Ca2+-dependent fish type II AFP. It exhibits a fold similar to the C-type (Ca2+-dependent) lectins with unique ice-binding features. The 1.7 Angstroms crystal structure of hAFP with bound Ca2+ and site-directed mutagenesis reveal an ice-binding site consisting of Thr96, Thr98 and Ca2+-coordinating residues Asp94 and Glu99, which initiate hAFP adsorption onto the [10-10] prism plane of the ice lattice. The hAFP-ice interaction is further strengthened by the bound Ca2+ through the coordination with a water molecule of the ice lattice. This Ca2+-coordinated ice-binding mechanism is distinct from previously proposed mechanisms for other AFPs. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that all type II AFPs evolved from the common ancestor and developed different ice-binding modes. We clarify the evolutionary relationship of type II AFPs to sugar-binding lectins.

  14. Structure and Evolutionary Origin of Ca2+-Dependent Herring Type II Antifreeze Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingsong; Kosinski, Jan; Seetharaman, J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy-Leong

    2007-01-01

    In order to survive under extremely cold environments, many organisms produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs). AFPs inhibit the growth of ice crystals and protect organisms from freezing damage. Fish AFPs can be classified into five distinct types based on their structures. Here we report the structure of herring AFP (hAFP), a Ca2+-dependent fish type II AFP. It exhibits a fold similar to the C-type (Ca2+-dependent) lectins with unique ice-binding features. The 1.7 Å crystal structure of hAFP with bound Ca2+ and site-directed mutagenesis reveal an ice-binding site consisting of Thr96, Thr98 and Ca2+-coordinating residues Asp94 and Glu99, which initiate hAFP adsorption onto the [10-10] prism plane of the ice lattice. The hAFP-ice interaction is further strengthened by the bound Ca2+ through the coordination with a water molecule of the ice lattice. This Ca2+-coordinated ice-binding mechanism is distinct from previously proposed mechanisms for other AFPs. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that all type II AFPs evolved from the common ancestor and developed different ice-binding modes. We clarify the evolutionary relationship of type II AFPs to sugar-binding lectins. PMID:17579720

  15. Determining the Ice-binding Planes of Antifreeze Proteins by Fluorescence-based Ice Plane Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P.; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms. PMID:24457629

  16. The Beneficial Effects of Antifreeze Proteins in the Vitrification of Immature Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a class of polypeptides that permit organismal survival in sub-freezing environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AFP supplementation on immature mouse oocyte vitrification. Germinal vesicle-stage oocytes were vitrified using a two-step exposure to equilibrium and vitrification solution in the presence or absence of 500 ng/mL of AFP III. After warming, oocyte survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage were assessed. Spindle and chromosome morphology, membrane integrity, and the expression levels of several genes were assessed in in vitro matured oocytes. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher and the number of caspase-positive blastomeres was significantly lower in the AFP-treated group compared with the untreated group. The proportion of oocytes with intact spindles/chromosomes and stable membranes was also significantly higher in the AFP group. The AFP group showed increased Mad2, Hook-1, Zar1, Zp1, and Bcl2 expression and lower Eg5, Zp2, Caspase6, and Rbm3 expression compared with the untreated group. Supplementation of the vitrification medium with AFP has a protective effect on immature mouse oocytes, promoting their resistance to chilling injury. AFPs may preserve spindle forming ability and membrane integrity at GV stage. The fertilization and subsequent developmental competence of oocytes may be associated with the modulation of Zar1, Zp1/Zp2, Bcl2, Caspase6, and Rbm3. PMID:22649508

  17. Comparative modeling of the three-dimensional structure of type II antifreeze protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sönnichsen, F. D.; Sykes, B. D.; Davies, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Type II antifreeze proteins (AFP), which inhibit the growth of seed ice crystals in the blood of certain fishes (sea raven, herring, and smelt), are the largest known fish AFPs and the only class for which detailed structural information is not yet available. However, a sequence homology has been recognized between these proteins and the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectins. The structure of this domain from rat mannose-binding protein (MBP-A) has been solved by X-ray crystallography (Weis WI, Drickamer K, Hendrickson WA, 1992, Nature 360:127-134) and provided the coordinates for constructing the three-dimensional model of the 129-amino acid Type II AFP from sea raven, to which it shows 19% sequence identity. Multiple sequence alignments between Type II AFPs, pancreatic stone protein, MBP-A, and as many as 50 carbohydrate-recognition domain sequences from various lectins were performed to determine reliably aligned sequence regions. Successive molecular dynamics and energy minimization calculations were used to relax bond lengths and angles and to identify flexible regions. The derived structure contains two alpha-helices, two beta-sheets, and a high proportion of amino acids in loops and turns. The model is in good agreement with preliminary NMR spectroscopic analyses. It explains the observed differences in calcium binding between sea raven Type II AFP and MBP-A. Furthermore, the model proposes the formation of five disulfide bridges between Cys 7 and Cys 18, Cys 35 and Cys 125, Cys 69 and Cys 100, Cys 89 and Cys 111, and Cys 101 and Cys 117.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7540906

  18. Production of a recombinant type 1 antifreeze protein analogue by L. lactis and its applications on frozen meat and frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chuan-Mei; Kao, Bi-Yu; Peng, Hsuan-Jung

    2009-07-22

    In this study, a novel recombinant type I antifreeze protein analogue (rAFP) was produced and secreted by Lactococcus lactis, a food-grade microorganism of major commercial importance. Antifreeze proteins are potent cryogenic protection agents for the cryopreservation of food and pharmaceutical materials. A food-grade expression and fermentation system (BSE- and antibiotic-free) for the production and secretion of high levels of rAFP was developed. Lyophilized, crude rAFP produced by L. lactis was tested in a frozen meat and frozen dough processing model. The frozen meat treated with the antifreeze protein showed less drip loss, less protein loss, and a high score on juiciness by sensory evaluation. Frozen dough treated with the rAFP showed better fermentation capacity than untreated frozen dough. Breads baked from frozen dough treated with rAFP acquired the same consumer acceptance as fresh bread. PMID:19545118

  19. Antifreeze protein modulates cell survival during cryopreservation: mediation through influence on ice crystal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, J F; Hansen, T N

    1992-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are extremely efficient at inhibiting ice recrystallization in frozen solutions. Knight and Duman [Knight, C. A. & Duman, J. G. (1986) Cryobiology 23, 256-263] have proposed that this may be an important function of the proteins in freeze-tolerant organisms. We have tested this proposal in vitro by characterizing the influence of AFP on the recovery of cryopreserved cells, which often can survive cooling and yet subsequently be damaged by ice crystal growth during warming. Relatively low concentrations (e.g., 5-150 micrograms/ml) of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) AFP enhance survival of red blood cells cryopreserved in hydroxyethyl starch solutions. This effect is most apparent in samples warmed at suboptimal rates, i.e., where ice recrystallization would be exaggerated. Cryomicroscopy demonstrates that AFP inhibits ice recrystallization in the extracellular regions during the latter stages of the warming cycle. AFP concentrations that enhance survival of red cells confer partial inhibition of recrystallization. Relatively high concentrations of AFP (e.g., 1.54 mg/ml) are much more effective at inhibiting extracellular recrystallization. However, extensive growth of ice around the cell, and concomitant cell damage, is noted. The mechanism for this AFP-induced ice growth is unknown. We propose that there is a delicate balance between AFP-induced enhancement of cell preservation and AFP-induced enhancement of cell preservation and AFP-induced enhancement of cell damage and that this balance hinges on the degrees of inhibition of ice recrystallization and of preferential growth of ice around the cells. We conclude that, under appropriate conditions, one of the proposed functions of AFPs in nature can be emulated, and perhaps have application, in cryopreservation of materials of biomedical interest. Images PMID:1409591

  20. Lateral Transfer of a Lectin-Like Antifreeze Protein Gene in Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Laurie A.; Lougheed, Stephen C.; Ewart, K. Vanya; Davies, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    Fishes living in icy seawater are usually protected from freezing by endogenous antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind to ice crystals and stop them from growing. The scattered distribution of five highly diverse AFP types across phylogenetically disparate fish species is puzzling. The appearance of radically different AFPs in closely related species has been attributed to the rapid, independent evolution of these proteins in response to natural selection caused by sea level glaciations within the last 20 million years. In at least one instance the same type of simple repetitive AFP has independently originated in two distant species by convergent evolution. But, the isolated occurrence of three very similar type II AFPs in three distantly related species (herring, smelt and sea raven) cannot be explained by this mechanism. These globular, lectin-like AFPs have a unique disulfide-bonding pattern, and share up to 85% identity in their amino acid sequences, with regions of even higher identity in their genes. A thorough search of current databases failed to find a homolog in any other species with greater than 40% amino acid sequence identity. Consistent with this result, genomic Southern blots showed the lectin-like AFP gene was absent from all other fish species tested. The remarkable conservation of both intron and exon sequences, the lack of correlation between evolutionary distance and mutation rate, and the pattern of silent vs non-silent codon changes make it unlikely that the gene for this AFP pre-existed but was lost from most branches of the teleost radiation. We propose instead that lateral gene transfer has resulted in the occurrence of the type II AFPs in herring, smelt and sea raven and allowed these species to survive in an otherwise lethal niche. PMID:18612417

  1. Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming.

    PubMed

    Cziko, Paul A; DeVries, Arthur L; Evans, Clive W; Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina

    2014-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive value in that, by adsorbing to and inhibiting the growth of internalized environmental ice crystals, they prevent death by inoculative freezing. Paradoxically, systemic accumulation of AFP-stabilized ice could also be lethal. Whether or how fishes eliminate internal ice is unknown. To investigate if ice inside high-latitude Antarctic notothenioid fishes could melt seasonally, we measured its melting point and obtained a decadal temperature record from a shallow benthic fish habitat in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We found that AFP-stabilized ice resists melting at temperatures above the expected equilibrium freezing/melting point (eqFMP), both in vitro and in vivo. Superheated ice was directly observed in notothenioid serum samples and in solutions of purified AFPs, and ice was found to persist inside live fishes at temperatures more than 1 °C above their eqFMP for at least 24 h, and at a lower temperature for at least several days. Field experiments confirmed that superheated ice occurs naturally inside wild fishes. Over the long-term record (1999-2012), seawater temperature surpassed the fish eqFMP in most summers, but never exceeded the highest temperature at which ice persisted inside experimental fishes. Thus, because of the effects of AFP-induced melting inhibition, summer warming may not reliably eliminate internal ice. Our results expose a potentially antagonistic pleiotropic effect of AFPs: beneficial freezing avoidance is accompanied by melting inhibition that may contribute to lifelong accumulation of detrimental internal ice crystals.

  2. Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming

    PubMed Central

    Cziko, Paul A.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Evans, Clive W.; Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive value in that, by adsorbing to and inhibiting the growth of internalized environmental ice crystals, they prevent death by inoculative freezing. Paradoxically, systemic accumulation of AFP-stabilized ice could also be lethal. Whether or how fishes eliminate internal ice is unknown. To investigate if ice inside high-latitude Antarctic notothenioid fishes could melt seasonally, we measured its melting point and obtained a decadal temperature record from a shallow benthic fish habitat in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We found that AFP-stabilized ice resists melting at temperatures above the expected equilibrium freezing/melting point (eqFMP), both in vitro and in vivo. Superheated ice was directly observed in notothenioid serum samples and in solutions of purified AFPs, and ice was found to persist inside live fishes at temperatures more than 1 °C above their eqFMP for at least 24 h, and at a lower temperature for at least several days. Field experiments confirmed that superheated ice occurs naturally inside wild fishes. Over the long-term record (1999–2012), seawater temperature surpassed the fish eqFMP in most summers, but never exceeded the highest temperature at which ice persisted inside experimental fishes. Thus, because of the effects of AFP-induced melting inhibition, summer warming may not reliably eliminate internal ice. Our results expose a potentially antagonistic pleiotropic effect of AFPs: beneficial freezing avoidance is accompanied by melting inhibition that may contribute to lifelong accumulation of detrimental internal ice crystals. PMID:25246548

  3. Effect of Antifreeze Protein on Mouse Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ryeol; Youm, Hye Won; Lee, Hee Jun; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of antifreeze protein (AFP) supplementation on ovarian vitrification and transplantation. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we researched a total of 182 ovaries from 4-week-old ICR mice. The equilibration solution included 20% ethylene glycol (EG), and the vitrification solution included 40% EG, 18% Ficoll, and 0.3 M sucrose. Intact ovaries were first suspended in 1 mL of equilibration solution for 10 min, and then mixed with 0.5 mL of vitrification solution for 5 min. Ovaries were randomly assigned to 3 groups and 0, 5, or 20 mg/mL of type III AFP was added into the vitrification solution (control, AFP5, and AFP20 groups, respectively). The vitrified ovaries were evaluated after warming and 2 weeks after autotransplantation. The main outcome measurements are follicular morphology and apoptosis assessed by histology and the TUNEL assay. Results A significantly higher intact follicle ratio was shown in the AFP treated groups (control, 28.9%; AFP5, 42.3%; and AFP20, 44.7%). The rate of apoptotic follicles was significantly lower in the AFP treated groups (control, 26.6%; AFP5, 18.7%; and AFP20, 12.6%). After transplantation of the vitrified-warmed ovaries, a significantly higher intact follicle ratio was shown in the AFP20 group. The rate of apoptotic follicles was similar among the groups. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that supplementing AFP in the vitrification solution has beneficial effects on the survival of ovarian tissue during cryopreservation and transplantation. PMID:25837185

  4. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Cryopreserved Flagella and Head Plasma Membrane Proteins from Sea Bream Spermatozoa: Effect of Antifreeze Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zilli, Loredana; Beirão, José; Schiavone, Roberta; Herraez, Maria Paz; Gnoni, Antonio; Vilella, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation induces injuries to fish spermatozoa that in turn affect sperm quality in terms of fertilization ability, motility, DNA and protein integrity and larval survival. To reduce the loss of sperm quality due to freezing-thawing, it is necessary to improve these procedures. In the present study we investigated the ability of two antifreeze proteins (AFPI and AFPIII) to reduce the loss of quality of sea bream spermatozoa due to cryopreservation. To do so, we compared viability, motility, straight-line velocity and curvilinear velocity of fresh and (AFPs)-cryopreserved spermatozoa. AFPIII addition to cryopreservation medium improved viability, motility and straight-line velocity with respect to DMSO or DMSO plus AFPI. To clarify the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these findings, the protein profile of two different cryopreserved sperm domains, flagella and head plasma membranes, was analysed. The protein profiles differed between fresh and frozen-thawed semen and results of the image analysis demonstrated that, after cryopreservation, out of 270 proteins 12 were decreased and 7 were increased in isolated flagella, and out of 150 proteins 6 showed a significant decrease and 4 showed a significant increase in head membranes. Mass spectrometry analysis identified 6 proteins (4 from isolated flagella and 2 present both in flagella and head plasma membranes) within the protein spots affected by the freezing-thawing procedure. 3 out of 4 proteins from isolated flagella were involved in the sperm bioenergetic system. Our results indicate that the ability of AFPIII to protect sea bream sperm quality can be, at least in part, ascribed to reducing changes in the sperm protein profile occurring during the freezing-thawing procedure. Our results clearly demonstrated that AFPIII addition to cryopreservation medium improved the protection against freezing respect to DMSO or DMSO plus AFPI. In addition we propose specific proteins of spermatozoa as markers related to

  5. Structure-based characterization and antifreeze properties of a hyperactive ice-binding protein from the Antarctic bacterium Flavobacterium frigoris PS1.

    PubMed

    Do, Hackwon; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2014-04-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) inhibit ice growth through direct interaction with ice crystals to permit the survival of polar organisms in extremely cold environments. FfIBP is an ice-binding protein encoded by the Antarctic bacterium Flavobacterium frigoris PS1. The X-ray crystal structure of FfIBP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution to gain insight into its ice-binding mechanism. The refined structure of FfIBP shows an intramolecular disulfide bond, and analytical ultracentrifugation and analytical size-exclusion chromatography show that it behaves as a monomer in solution. Sequence alignments and structural comparisons of IBPs allowed two groups of IBPs to be defined, depending on sequence differences between the α2 and α4 loop regions and the presence of the disulfide bond. Although FfIBP closely resembles Leucosporidium (recently re-classified as Glaciozyma) IBP (LeIBP) in its amino-acid sequence, the thermal hysteresis (TH) activity of FfIBP appears to be tenfold higher than that of LeIBP. A comparison of the FfIBP and LeIBP structures reveals that FfIBP has different ice-binding residues as well as a greater surface area in the ice-binding site. Notably, the ice-binding site of FfIBP is composed of a T-A/G-X-T/N motif, which is similar to the ice-binding residues of hyperactive antifreeze proteins. Thus, it is proposed that the difference in TH activity between FfIBP and LeIBP may arise from the amino-acid composition of the ice-binding site, which correlates with differences in affinity and surface complementarity to the ice crystal. In conclusion, this study provides a molecular basis for understanding the antifreeze mechanism of FfIBP and provides new insights into the reasons for the higher TH activity of FfIBP compared with LeIBP.

  6. TargetFreeze: Identifying Antifreeze Proteins via a Combination of Weights using Sequence Evolutionary Information and Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    He, Xue; Han, Ke; Hu, Jun; Yan, Hui; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are indispensable for living organisms to survive in an extremely cold environment and have a variety of potential biotechnological applications. The accurate prediction of antifreeze proteins has become an important issue and is urgently needed. Although considerable progress has been made, AFP prediction is still a challenging problem due to the diversity of species. In this study, we proposed a new sequence-based AFP predictor, called TargetFreeze. TargetFreeze utilizes an enhanced feature representation method that weightedly combines multiple protein features and takes the powerful support vector machine as the prediction engine. Computer experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed TargetFreeze over most recently released AFP predictors. We also implemented a user-friendly web server, which is openly accessible for academic use and is available at http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetFreeze. TargetFreeze supplements existing AFP predictors and will have potential applications in AFP-related biotechnology fields.

  7. Structure and Dynamics of Antifreeze Protein--Model Membrane Interactions: A Combined Spectroscopic and Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajiv K; Mroue, Kamal H; Kumar, Dinesh; Tejo, Bimo A; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-02-11

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are the key biomolecules that enable species to survive under subzero temperature conditions. The physiologically relevant activities of AFPs are based on the adsorption to ice crystals, followed by the inhibition of subsequent crystal layer growth of ice, routed with depression in freezing point in a noncolligative manner. The functional attributes governing the mechanism by which AFPs inhibit freezing of body fluids in bacteria, fungi, plants, and fishes are mainly attributed to their adsorption onto the surface of ice within the physiological system. Importantly, AFPs are also known for their application in cryopreservation of biological samples that might be related to membrane interaction. To date, there is a paucity of information detailing the interaction of AFPs with membrane structures. Here, we focus on elucidating the biophysical properties of the interactions between AFPs and micelle models that mimic the membrane system. Micelle model systems of zwitterionic DPC and negatively charged SDS were utilized in this study, against which a significant interaction is experienced by two AFP molecules, namely, Peptide 1m and wfAFP (the popular AFP sourced from winter flounder). Using low- and high-resolution biophysical characterization techniques, such as circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy, a strong evidence for the interactions of these AFPs with the membrane models is revealed in detail and is corroborated by in-depth residue-specific information derived from molecular dynamics simulation. Altogether, these results not only strengthen the fact that AFPs interact actively with membrane systems, but also demonstrate that membrane-associated AFPs are dynamic and capable of adopting a number of conformations rendering fluidity to the system. PMID:26785292

  8. Biomimetic peptoid oligomers as dual-action antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mia L.; Ehre, David; Jiang, Qi; Hu, Chunhua; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Ward, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of natural peptides and proteins to influence the formation of inorganic crystalline materials has prompted the design of synthetic compounds for the regulation of crystal growth, including the freezing of water and growth of ice crystals. Despite their versatility and ease of structural modification, peptidomimetic oligomers have not yet been explored extensively as crystallization modulators. This report describes a library of synthetic N-substituted glycine peptoid oligomers that possess “dual-action” antifreeze activity as exemplified by ice crystal growth inhibition concomitant with melting temperature reduction. We investigated the structural features responsible for these phenomena and observed that peptoid antifreeze activities depend both on oligomer backbone structure and side chain chemical composition. These studies reveal the capability of peptoids to act as ice crystallization regulators, enabling the discovery of a unique and diverse family of synthetic oligomers with potential as antifreeze agents in food production and biomedicine. PMID:23169638

  9. Heterologous expression of antifreeze protein gene AnAFP from Ammopiptanthus nanus enhances cold tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Deng, Long-Qun; Yu, Hao-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Ping; Jiao, Pei-Pei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Su-Zhi; Li, Wan-Chen; Fu, Feng-Ling

    2014-04-10

    Antifreeze proteins are a class of polypeptides produced by certain animals, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival under the subzero environments. Ammopiptanthus nanus is the unique evergreen broadleaf bush endemic to the Mid-Asia deserts. It survives at the west edge of the Tarim Basin from the disappearance of the ancient Mediterranean in the Tertiary Period. Its distribution region is characterized by the arid climate and extreme temperatures, where the extreme temperatures range from -30 °C to 40 °C. In the present study, the antifreeze protein gene AnAFP of A. nanus was used to transform Escherichia coli and tobacco, after bioinformatics analysis for its possible function. The transformed E. coli strain expressed the heterologous AnAFP gene under the induction of isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and demonstrated significant enhancement of cold tolerance. The transformed tobacco lines expressed the heterologous AnAFP gene in response to cold stress, and showed a less change of relative electrical conductivity under cold stress, and a less wilting phenotype after 16 h of -3 °C cold stress and thawing for 1h than the untransformed wild-type plants. All these results imply the potential value of the AnAFP gene to be used in genetic modification of commercially important crops for improvement of cold tolerance. PMID:24502990

  10. Heterologous expression of antifreeze protein gene AnAFP from Ammopiptanthus nanus enhances cold tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Deng, Long-Qun; Yu, Hao-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Ping; Jiao, Pei-Pei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Su-Zhi; Li, Wan-Chen; Fu, Feng-Ling

    2014-04-10

    Antifreeze proteins are a class of polypeptides produced by certain animals, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival under the subzero environments. Ammopiptanthus nanus is the unique evergreen broadleaf bush endemic to the Mid-Asia deserts. It survives at the west edge of the Tarim Basin from the disappearance of the ancient Mediterranean in the Tertiary Period. Its distribution region is characterized by the arid climate and extreme temperatures, where the extreme temperatures range from -30 °C to 40 °C. In the present study, the antifreeze protein gene AnAFP of A. nanus was used to transform Escherichia coli and tobacco, after bioinformatics analysis for its possible function. The transformed E. coli strain expressed the heterologous AnAFP gene under the induction of isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and demonstrated significant enhancement of cold tolerance. The transformed tobacco lines expressed the heterologous AnAFP gene in response to cold stress, and showed a less change of relative electrical conductivity under cold stress, and a less wilting phenotype after 16 h of -3 °C cold stress and thawing for 1h than the untransformed wild-type plants. All these results imply the potential value of the AnAFP gene to be used in genetic modification of commercially important crops for improvement of cold tolerance.

  11. The influence of adsorption orientation on the statistical mechanics model of type I antifreeze protein: The coverage rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Fen; Liang, X. X.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the statistical mechanics model, the coverage rate of the type I antifreeze protein (AFP) on the surface of ice-crystal in a protein solution is studied by including the adsorption orientation, as well as both the AFP-ice and AFP-water hydrophobic interactions. As an example, the computed results for HPLC-6 are given and discussed. It is shown that the coverage rate increases with the AFP concentration for the dilute protein solutions. The effect of the adsorption orientation of AFP molecules on the coverage rate cannot be ignored. Including the adsorption orientation enhances the coverage rate when the AFP solution is very dilute, but reduces it for the slightly thick solution. The stronger the AFP-ice and AFP-water hydrophobic interactions are, the larger the coverage rate is.

  12. Frostbite Protection in Mice Expressing an Antifreeze Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Heisig, Martin; Mattessich, Sarah; Rembisz, Alison; Acar, Ali; Shapiro, Martin; Booth, Carmen J.; Neelakanta, Girish; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms in northern latitudes are seasonally exposed to cold temperatures. To improve survival under cold stress, they use diverse mechanisms to increase temperature resistance and prevent tissue damage. The accumulation of anti-freeze proteins that improve cold hardiness occurs in diverse species including plants, arthropods, fish, and amphibians. We previously identified an Ixodes scapularis anti-freeze glycoprotein, named IAFGP, and demonstrated its cold protective function in the natural tick host and in a transgenic Drosophila model. Here we show, in a transgenic mouse model expressing an anti-freeze glycoprotein, that IAFGP protects mammalian cells and mice from cold shock and frostbite respectively. Transgenic skin samples showed reduced cell death upon cold storage ex vivo and transgenic mice demonstrated increased resistance to frostbite injury in vivo. IAFGP actively protects mammalian tissue from freezing, suggesting its application for the prevention of frostbite, and other diseases associated with cold exposure. PMID:25714402

  13. Will It Be Beneficial To Simulate the Antifreeze Proteins at Ice Freezing Condition or at Lower Temperature?

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajiv K; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-09-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enable the polar living species to survive subzero temperature conditions through effective lowering of the freezing point of body fluids. At the molecular level, AFPs directly interact with the growing seeds of ice crystals to inhibit their formation. To understand the structural and dynamic aspects of this interaction at the atomistic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on several type I AFPs at multiple temperatures, including the physiologically relevant temperature of 273 K, a lower temperature of 227 K, and the conventional 300 K. A comparison of the principal component analysis (PCA) and mean squared deviation plots for Winter flounder AFP, HPLC6 (mutant of winter flounder AFP), Sculpin, and peptide 1m AFPs reveals that simulations at 273 and 227 K result in the formation of more conserved metastable states than at 300 K. Other parameters such as root-mean-square deviation (rmsd), solvent accessibility surface area (SASA), H-bonding and residual density function (RDF) also suggest the same. MD simulations with ice crystal, where AFPs are complexed to ice plane with TIP4P/ice water model, help in finding relevance of dynamic behavior, and physiological temperature becomes more pronounced. Additionally, a control study on a nonantifreeze protein (LL37) is included, which aids in exploring significant information. On the basis of this approach, it was found that AFPs at 273 and 227 K display relevant dynamic properties that appear at 300 K for nonantifreeze proteins. The present study hence emphasizes the importance of performing computational simulations for antifreeze proteins at the physiologically relevant temperature (273 K), and even at lower temperatures (like 227 K), rather than at room temperatures (300 K).

  14. Kinetic pinning and biological antifreezes.

    PubMed

    Sander, Leonard M; Tkachenko, Alexei V

    2004-09-17

    Biological antifreezes protect cold-water organisms from freezing. An example is the antifreeze proteins (AFP's) that attach to the surface of ice crystals and arrest growth. The mechanism for growth arrest has not been heretofore understood in a quantitative way. We present a complete theory based on a kinetic model. We use the "stones on a pillow" picture. Our theory of the suppression of the freezing point as a function of the concentration of the AFP is quantitatively accurate. It gives a correct description of the dependence of the freezing point suppression on the geometry of the protein, and might lead to advances in design of synthetic AFP's.

  15. Effects of Three Different Types of Antifreeze Proteins on Mouse Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Hye Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian tissue (OT) cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function. Objective This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs) on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation. Methodology Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III) and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL) used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair (DDR), respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control). Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared. Principal Findings In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification

  16. Determination of the expression of fish antifreeze protein (AFP) in 7th generation transgenic mice tissues and serum.

    PubMed

    Bagis, Haydar; Tas, Arzu; Kankavi, Orhan

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the presence of antifreeze protein (AFP) gene expression through successive generations in transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene construct of the coding sequence for the AFP protein from ocean pout was investigated. AFP transgenic hemizygote mice were used for AFP gene expression. AFP genome expressions in transgenic mice were analyzed by Western blotting, and tissue location of AFP protein was shown by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques. Seventh transgenic mice from the established founders demonstrated the expression of AFP in organs such as the skin, oviduct, lung, kidney and liver tissues and serum except for the heart. Our results demonstrate successful expression of AFP gene products in several tissues and serum of transgenic mice, the association of in vivo expressed AFP protein, for the first time. These results indicate that the coding sequence for the AFP protein gene (ocean pout type III AFP gene) could be integrated and stably transcribed and expressed in the 7th generation of transgenic mice. In conclusion transgenic mouse lines would be a good model for the cryostudy of AFP and for the determination of AFP roles in several organs and tissues.

  17. Potential of mean force calculation of the free energy of adsorption of Type I winter flounder antifreeze protein on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battle, Keith; Alan Salter, E.; Wesley Edmunds, R.; Wierzbicki, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that inhibit ice growth without changing the melting point of ice. In this work, we study the detailed molecular mechanism of interactions between the hydrophobic side of the winter flounder (WF) AFP and two mutants, AAAA and SSSS, in which threonine residues are substituted by serines and alanines, respectively. Umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations of the separation of the proteins from the (2 0 1) surface in an explicit water box is carried out to calculate the potential of mean force free energies of adsorption using AMBER10i. We estimate wild-type WF's free energy of adsorption to ice to be about -12.0 kcal/mol. Gas-phase pseudopotential plane-wave calculations of methane adsorption onto select surfaces of ice are also carried out under periodic boundary conditions to address the possible enthalpic role of WF's methyl groups in binding. The contributions of hydrophobic residues to the free energy of adsorption are discussed.

  18. Self-oscillatory ice crystal growth in antifreeze protein (AFP) and glycoprotein (AFGP) solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Uda, Yukihiro; Yokoyama, Etsuro; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2006-03-01

    AFPs and AFGPs allow many organisms including fish, plants and insects to survive sub-freezing environments. They occur in a wide range of compositions and structure, but to some extent they all accomplish the same functions: they suppress the freezing temperature, inhibit recrystallization, and modify ice crystal growth. A complete description of the AFGP/AFP surface mechanism as well as other ice surface phenomenon has eluded scientists primarily due to a lack of direct surface studies. We study ice crystal growth in AFGP and AFP solutions with phase contrast microscopy during free solution growth under various conditions including microgravity. Free-solution growth experiments show an anisotropic self-oscillatory growth mode of the steps and interface near the freezing temperature and enhancement of the growth rates in the c-axis. These results contradict the previous ?tight-binding? mechanism thought to be responsible for antifreeze function. To study the effects of temperature driven convective flows on the interface kinetics, microgravity experiments were performed in a jet airplane during a parabolic flight path. Step propagation on the basal plane slows down considerably when entering the microgravity condition and reaches a critical condition just below 0.2g.

  19. Ice-binding site of snow mold fungus antifreeze protein deviates from structural regularity and high conservation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hidemasa; Hanada, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Garnham, Christopher P; Davies, Peter L; Tsuda, Sakae

    2012-06-12

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in organisms ranging from fish to bacteria, where they serve different functions to facilitate survival of their host. AFPs that protect freeze-intolerant fish and insects from internal ice growth bind to ice using a regular array of well-conserved residues/motifs. Less is known about the role of AFPs in freeze-tolerant species, which might be to beneficially alter the structure of ice in or around the host. Here we report the 0.95-Å high-resolution crystal structure of a 223-residue secreted AFP from the snow mold fungus Typhula ishikariensis. Its main structural element is an irregular β-helix with six loops of 18 or more residues that lies alongside an α-helix. β-Helices have independently evolved as AFPs on several occasions and seem ideally structured to bind to several planes of ice, including the basal plane. A novelty of the β-helical fold is the nonsequential arrangement of loops that places the N- and C termini inside the solenoid of β-helical coils. The ice-binding site (IBS), which could not be predicted from sequence or structure, was located by site-directed mutagenesis to the flattest surface of the protein. It is remarkable for its lack of regularity and its poor conservation in homologs from psychrophilic diatoms and bacteria and other fungi.

  20. Ice-binding site of snow mold fungus antifreeze protein deviates from structural regularity and high conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hidemasa; Hanada, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Garnham, Christopher P.; Davies, Peter L.; Tsuda, Sakae

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in organisms ranging from fish to bacteria, where they serve different functions to facilitate survival of their host. AFPs that protect freeze-intolerant fish and insects from internal ice growth bind to ice using a regular array of well-conserved residues/motifs. Less is known about the role of AFPs in freeze-tolerant species, which might be to beneficially alter the structure of ice in or around the host. Here we report the 0.95-Å high-resolution crystal structure of a 223-residue secreted AFP from the snow mold fungus Typhula ishikariensis. Its main structural element is an irregular β-helix with six loops of 18 or more residues that lies alongside an α-helix. β-Helices have independently evolved as AFPs on several occasions and seem ideally structured to bind to several planes of ice, including the basal plane. A novelty of the β-helical fold is the nonsequential arrangement of loops that places the N- and C termini inside the solenoid of β-helical coils. The ice-binding site (IBS), which could not be predicted from sequence or structure, was located by site-directed mutagenesis to the flattest surface of the protein. It is remarkable for its lack of regularity and its poor conservation in homologs from psychrophilic diatoms and bacteria and other fungi. PMID:22645341

  1. Developmental and environmental regulation of antifreeze proteins in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Graham, L A; Walker, V K; Davies, P L

    2000-11-01

    The yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains a family of small Cys-rich and Thr-rich thermal hysteresis proteins that depress the hemolymph freezing point below the melting point by as much as 5. 5 degrees C (DeltaT = thermal hysteresis). Thermal hysteresis protein expression was evaluated throughout development and after exposure to altered environmental conditions. Under favorable growth conditions, small larvae (11-13 mg) had only low levels of thermal hysteresis proteins or thermal hysteresis protein message, but these levels increased 10-fold and 18-fold, respectively, by the final larval instar (> 190 mg), resulting in thermal hysteresis > 3 degrees C. Exposure of small larvae (11-13 mg) to 4 weeks of cold (4 degrees C) caused an approximately 20-fold increase in thermal hysteresis protein concentration, well in excess of the less than threefold developmental increase seen after 4 weeks at 22 degrees C. Exposure of large larvae (100-120 mg) to cold caused 12-fold and sixfold increases in thermal hysteresis protein message and protein levels, respectively, approximately double the maximum levels they would have attained in the final larval instar at 22 degrees C. Thus, thermal hysteresis increased to similar levels (> 4 degrees C) in the cold, irrespective of the size of the larvae (the overwintering stage). At pupation, thermal hysteresis protein message levels decreased > 20-fold and remained low thereafter, but thermal hysteresis activity decreased much more slowly. Exposure to cold did not reverse this decline. Desiccation or starvation of larvae had comparable effects to cold exposure, but surprisingly, short daylength photoperiod or total darkness had no effect on either thermal hysteresis or message levels. As all environmental conditions that caused increased thermal hysteresis also inhibited growth, we postulate that developmental arrest is a primary factor in the regulation of T. molitor thermal hysteresis proteins.

  2. A unique capsular polysaccharide structure from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H that mimics antifreeze (glyco)proteins.

    PubMed

    Carillo, Sara; Casillo, Angela; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Sannino, Filomena; Bayer-Giraldi, Maddalena; Cosconati, Sandro; Novellino, Ettore; Ewert, Marcela; Deming, Jody W; Lanzetta, Rosa; Marino, Gennaro; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Randazzo, Antonio; Tutino, Maria L; Corsaro, M Michela

    2015-01-14

    The low temperatures of polar regions and high-altitude environments, especially icy habitats, present challenges for many microorganisms. Their ability to live under subfreezing conditions implies the production of compounds conferring cryotolerance. Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a γ-proteobacterium isolated from subzero Arctic marine sediments, provides a model for the study of life in cold environments. We report here the identification and detailed molecular primary and secondary structures of capsular polysaccharide from C. psychrerythraea 34H cells. The polymer was isolated in the water layer when cells were extracted by phenol/water and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy together with chemical analysis. Molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations were also performed. The polysaccharide consists of a tetrasaccharidic repeating unit containing two amino sugars and two uronic acids bearing threonine as substituent. The structural features of this unique polysaccharide resemble those present in antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins. These results suggest a possible correlation between the capsule structure and the ability of C. psychrerythraea to colonize subfreezing marine environments.

  3. The Thr- and Ala-rich hyperactive antifreeze protein from inchworm folds as a flat silk-like β-helix.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Hsu; Davies, Peter L; Graham, Laurie A

    2011-05-31

    Inchworm larvae of the pale beauty geometer moth, Campaea perlata, exhibit strong (6.4 °C) freezing point depression activity, indicating the presence of hyperactive antifreeze proteins (AFPs). We have purified two novel Thr- and Ala-rich AFPs from the larvae as small (∼3.5 kDa) and large (∼8.3 kDa) variants and have cloned the cDNA sequences encoding both. They have no homology to known sequences in current BLAST databases. However, these proteins and the newly characterized AFP from the Rhagium inquisitor beetle both contain stretches rich in alternating Thr and Ala residues. On the basis of these repeats, as well as the discontinuities between them, a detailed structural model is proposed for the 8.3 kDa variant. This 88-residue protein is organized into an extended parallel-stranded β-helix with seven strands connected by classic β-turns. The alternating β-strands form two β-sheets with a thin core composed of interdigitating Ala and Ser residues, similar to the thin hydrophobic core proposed for some silks. The putative ice-binding face of the protein has a 4 × 5 regular array of Thr residues and is remarkably flat. In this regard, it resembles the nonhomologous Thr-rich AFPs from other moths and some beetles, which contain two longer rows of Thr in contrast to the five shorter rows in the inchworm protein. Like that of some other hyperactive AFPs, the spacing between these ice-binding Thr residues is a close match to the spacing of oxygen atoms on several planes of ice. PMID:21486083

  4. Solution Structures, Dynamics, and Ice Growth Inhibitory Activity of Peptide Fragments Derived from an Antarctic Yeast Protein

    PubMed Central

    Asmawi, Azren A.; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin A.; Murad, Abdul Munir A.; Mahadi, Nor M.; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha A.; Salleh, Abu B.; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Tejo, Bimo A.; Bhunia, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Exotic functions of antifreeze proteins (AFP) and antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP) have recently been attracted with much interest to develop them as commercial products. AFPs and AFGPs inhibit ice crystal growth by lowering the water freezing point without changing the water melting point. Our group isolated the Antarctic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica that expresses antifreeze protein to assist it in its survival mechanism at sub-zero temperatures. The protein is unique and novel, indicated by its low sequence homology compared to those of other AFPs. We explore the structure-function relationship of G. antarctica AFP using various approaches ranging from protein structure prediction, peptide design and antifreeze activity assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies and molecular dynamics simulation. The predicted secondary structure of G. antarctica AFP shows several α-helices, assumed to be responsible for its antifreeze activity. We designed several peptide fragments derived from the amino acid sequences of α-helical regions of the parent AFP and they also showed substantial antifreeze activities, below that of the original AFP. The relationship between peptide structure and activity was explored by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. NMR results show that the antifreeze activity of the peptides correlates with their helicity and geometrical straightforwardness. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation also suggests that the activity of the designed peptides can be explained in terms of the structural rigidity/flexibility, i.e., the most active peptide demonstrates higher structural stability, lower flexibility than that of the other peptides with lower activities, and of lower rigidity. This report represents the first detailed report of downsizing a yeast AFP into its peptide fragments with measurable antifreeze activities. PMID:23209600

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of Thermal Hysteresis: Mechanistic Insights into Biological Antifreezes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wen, Xin

    2012-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) bind to ice crystal surfaces and thus inhibit the ice growth. The mechanism for how AFPs suppress freezing is commonly modeled as an adsorption-inhibition process by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. Here we develop an improved adsorption-inhibition model for AFP action based on the thermodynamics of impurity adsorption on the crystal surfaces. We demonstrate the derivation of a realistic relationship between surface protein coverage and the protein concentration. We show that the improved model provides a quantitatively better fit to the experimental antifreeze activities of AFPs from distinct structural classes, including fish and insect AFPs, in a wide range of concentrations. Our theoretical results yielded the adsorption coefficients of the AFPs on ice, suggesting that, despite the distinct difference in their antifreeze activities and structures, the affinities of the AFPs to ice are very close and the mechanism of AFP action is a kinetically controlled, reversible process. The applications of the model to more complex systems along with its potential limitations are also discussed.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Thermal Hysteresis: Mechanistic Insights into Biological Antifreezes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) bind to ice crystal surfaces and thus inhibit the ice growth. The mechanism for how AFPs suppress freezing is commonly modeled as an adsorption-inhibition process by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. Here we develop an improved adsorption-inhibition model for AFP action based on the thermodynamics of impurity adsorption on the crystal surfaces. We demonstrate the derivation of a realistic relationship between surface protein coverage and the protein concentration. We show that the improved model provides a quantitatively better fit to the experimental antifreeze activities of AFPs from distinct structural classes, including fish and insect AFPs, in a wide range of concentrations. Our theoretical results yielded the adsorption coefficients of the AFPs on ice, suggesting that, despite the distinct difference in their antifreeze activities and structures, the affinities of the AFPs to ice are very close and the mechanism of AFP action is a kinetically controlled, reversible process. The applications of the model to more complex systems along with its potential limitations are also discussed. PMID:22822266

  7. Epithelial dominant expression of antifreeze proteins in cunner suggests recent entry into a high freeze-risk ecozone.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Rod S; Fletcher, Garth L

    2013-01-01

    Most marine teleost fishes residing in a high freeze-risk ecozone, such as the coastal waters of Newfoundland during winter, avoid freezing by secreting high concentrations of antifreeze proteins (AFP) into their blood plasma where they can bind to and prevent the growth of ice that enter the fish. Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), which overwinter in such shallow waters are the only known exception. Although this species does produce type I AFP, the plasma levels are too low to be of value as a freeze protectant. Southern and Northern blot analyses carried out in this study establish that the cunner AFP genes belong to a multigene family that is predominantly expressed in external epithelia (skin and gill filaments). These results support the hypothesis that the survival of cunner in icy waters is attributable in part to epithelial AFP that help block ice propagation into their interior milieu. In contrast to the cunner, heterospecifics occupying the same habitat have greater freeze protection because they produce AFP in the liver for export to the plasma as well as in external epithelia. Since the external epithelia would be the first tissue to come into contact with ice it is possible that one of the earliest steps involved in the evolution of freeze resistant fish could have been the expression of AFP in tissues such as the skin. We suggest that this epithelial-dominant AFP expression represents a primitive stage in AFP evolution and propose that cunner began to inhabit "freeze-risk ecozones" more recently than heterospecifics. PMID:23085291

  8. Saccharide antifreeze compositions

    DOEpatents

    Walters, Kent; Duman, John G; Serianni, Anthony S

    2013-12-10

    The invention provides an antifreeze glycolipid compounds and composition comprising a polysaccharide moiety of Formula I; ##STR00001## wherein D-Manp represents a D-mannopyranose moiety, D-Xylp represents a D-xylopyranose moiety, and n is about 5 to about 70; and one or more lipid moieties covalently linked to the polysaccharide moiety of Formula I or electrostatically associated with the polysaccaride moiety for Formula I. The antifreeze glycolipid compounds and compositions can be used for a variety of industrial, agricultural, medical, and cosmetic applications where recrystallization-inhibition, cyroprotection, or cryopreservation is desired. The antifreeze glycolipid compounds or compositions can be used as, for example, as cryoprotectants for tissue preservation and transplantation, improving the texture of processed frozen food and frozen meats, frostbit protection, crop protection, and green alternatives for land vehicle antifreeze and aircraft de-icing.

  9. Rational, yet simple, design and synthesis of an antifreeze-protein inspired polymer for cellular cryopreservation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04647e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel E.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins AF(G)Ps are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors, which is a desirable property to enhance cryopreservation of donor tissue/cells. Here we present the rational synthesis of a new, biomimetic, ice-recrystallization inhibiting polymer derived from a cheap commodity polymer, based on an ampholyte structure. The polymer is used to enhance the cryopreservation of red blood cells, demonstrating a macromolecular solution to tissue storage. PMID:26176027

  10. Inhibition of ice recrystallization and cryoprotective activity of wheat proteins in liver and pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Chow-Shi-Yée, Mélanie; Briard, Jennie G; Grondin, Mélanie; Averill-Bates, Diana A; Ben, Robert N; Ouellet, François

    2016-05-01

    Efficient cryopreservation of cells at ultralow temperatures requires the use of substances that help maintain viability and metabolic functions post-thaw. We are developing new technology where plant proteins are used to substitute the commonly-used, but relatively toxic chemical dimethyl sulfoxide. Recombinant forms of four structurally diverse wheat proteins, TaIRI-2 (ice recrystallization inhibition), TaBAS1 (2-Cys peroxiredoxin), WCS120 (dehydrin), and TaENO (enolase) can efficiently cryopreserve hepatocytes and insulin-secreting INS832/13 cells. This study shows that TaIRI-2 and TaENO are internalized during the freeze-thaw process, while TaBAS1 and WCS120 remain at the extracellular level. Possible antifreeze activity of the four proteins was assessed. The "splat cooling" method for quantifying ice recrystallization inhibition activity (a property that characterizes antifreeze proteins) revealed that TaIRI-2 and TaENO are more potent than TaBAS1 and WCS120. Because of their ability to inhibit ice recrystallization, the wheat recombinant proteins TaIRI-2 and TaENO are promising candidates and could prove useful to improve cryopreservation protocols for hepatocytes and insulin-secreting cells, and possibly other cell types. TaENO does not have typical ice-binding domains, and the TargetFreeze tool did not predict an antifreeze capacity, suggesting the existence of nontypical antifreeze domains. The fact that TaBAS1 is an efficient cryoprotectant but does not show antifreeze activity indicates a different mechanism of action. The cryoprotective properties conferred by WCS120 depend on biochemical properties that remain to be determined. Overall, our results show that the proteins' efficiencies vary between cell types, and confirm that a combination of different protection mechanisms is needed to successfully cryopreserve mammalian cells.

  11. Validation of antifreeze properties of glutathione based on its thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Yao, Huiyuan

    2007-06-13

    The antifreeze ability of glutathione was evaluated on the basis of its thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast during cryopreservation at -30 degrees C. The thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast of glutathione were similar to those of known antifreeze proteins, such as carrot antifreeze protein and holly antifreeze protein. These properties included lowering the freezing point at about 0.20 degrees C non-colligatively, decreasing freezable water content, controlling the movement of free water for its strong hydrophilicity, and improving baker's yeast survival during the simulated processing of frozen dough. Therefore, glutathione was viewed to be an antifreeze protein like substance on the basis of its unique thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast. The method combining thermodynamic characteristic analysis and protection evaluation is a new and simple way to screen new antifreeze proteins. PMID:17508758

  12. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  13. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  14. Conformational and dynamic properties of a 14 residue antifreeze glycopeptide from Antarctic cod.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, A. N.; Hays, L. M.; Feeney, R. E.; Crowe, L. M.; Crowe, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of a 14-residue antifreeze glycopeptide from Antarctic cod (Tetramatomnus borchgrevinki) containing two proline residues have been assigned. 13C NMR relaxation experiments indicate motional anisotropy of the peptide, with a tumbling time in water at 5 degrees C of 3-4 ns. The relaxation data and lack of long-range NOEs are consistent with a linear peptide undergoing significant segmental motion. However, extreme values of some coupling constants and strong sequential NOEs indicate regions of local order, which are most evident at the two ATPA subsequences. Similar spectroscopic properties were observed in the 16-residue analogue containing an Arg-Ala dipeptide added to the C-terminus. Molecular modeling also showed no evidence of long-range order, but the two ATPA subsequences were relatively well determined by the experimental data. These motifs were quite distinct from helical structures or beta turns commonly found in proteins, but rather resemble sections of an extended polyproline helix. Thus, the NMR data provide a description of the local order, which is of relevance to the mechanism of action of the antifreeze activity of the antifreeze glycopeptides as well as their ability to protect cells during hypothermic storage. PMID:9684888

  15. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  16. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  17. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs.

  18. NOVEL ICE-BINDING PROTEINS FROM A PSYCHROPHILIC ANTARCTIC ALGA (CHLAMYDOMONADACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A; Janech, Michael G; Fritsen, Christian H

    2009-02-01

    Many cold-adapted unicellular plants express ice-active proteins, but at present, only one type of such proteins has been described, and it shows no resemblance to higher plant antifreezes. Here, we describe four isoforms of a second and very active type of extracellular ice-binding protein (IBP) from a unicellular chlamydomonad alga collected from an Antarctic intertidal location. The alga is a euryhaline psychrophile that, based on sequences of the alpha tubulin gene and an IBP gene, appears to be the same as a snow alga collected on Petrel Island, Antarctica. The IBPs, which do not resemble any known antifreezes, have strong recrystallization inhibition activity and have an ability to slow the drainage of brine from sea ice. These properties, by maintaining liquid environments, may increase survival of the cells in freezing environments. The IBPs have a repeating TXT motif, which has previously been implicated in ice binding in insect antifreezes and a ryegrass antifreeze. PMID:27033652

  19. Nontoxic Antifreeze for Insect Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Propylene glycol in water is a safe and effective alternative to ethylene glycol as a capture liquid in insect traps (pitfalls, flight intercepts, pan traps). Propylene glycol formulations are readily available because it is the primary (95%) ingredient in certain automotive antifreeze formulations...

  20. Ice-active proteins from New Zealand snow tussocks, Chionochloa macra AND C. rigida.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D A; Selvanesan, L; Marshall, C J

    2010-01-01

    The ice active protein profile of New Zealand snow tussocks Chionochloa macra and C. rigida consisted of ice nucleation activity but no antifreeze or recrystallization inhibition activity. The ice nucleation activity was similar in the two species, despite them being collected at different altitudes and at different times. The activity is intrinsic to the plant and is associated with the surface of the leaves. Snow tussocks collect water from fog. Nucleation sites on the surface of their leaves may aid the efficiency of this process. PMID:20919453

  1. Structure and collective dynamics of hydrated anti-freeze protein type III from 180 K to 298 K by X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Koji; Baron, Alfred Q. R.; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    We investigated hydrated antifreeze protein type III (AFP III) powder with a hydration level h (=mass of water/mass of protein) of 0.4 in the temperature range between 180 K and 298 K using X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). The X-ray diffraction data showed smooth, largely monotonic changes between 180 K and 298 K without freezing water. Meanwhile, the collective dynamics observed by IXS showed a strong change in the sound velocity at 180 K, after being largely temperature independent at higher temperatures (298-220 K). We interpret this change in terms of the dynamic transition previously discussed using other probes including THz IR absorption spectroscopy and incoherent elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. This finding suggests that the dynamic transition of hydrated proteins is observable on the subpicosecond time scale as well as nano- and pico-second scales, both in collective dynamics from IXS and single particle dynamics from neutron scattering. Moreover, it is most likely that the dynamic transition of hydrated AFP III is not directly correlated with its hydration structure.

  2. Structure and collective dynamics of hydrated anti-freeze protein type III from 180 K to 298 K by X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Baron, Alfred Q R; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    We investigated hydrated antifreeze protein type III (AFP III) powder with a hydration level h (=mass of water/mass of protein) of 0.4 in the temperature range between 180 K and 298 K using X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). The X-ray diffraction data showed smooth, largely monotonic changes between 180 K and 298 K without freezing water. Meanwhile, the collective dynamics observed by IXS showed a strong change in the sound velocity at 180 K, after being largely temperature independent at higher temperatures (298-220 K). We interpret this change in terms of the dynamic transition previously discussed using other probes including THz IR absorption spectroscopy and incoherent elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. This finding suggests that the dynamic transition of hydrated proteins is observable on the subpicosecond time scale as well as nano- and pico-second scales, both in collective dynamics from IXS and single particle dynamics from neutron scattering. Moreover, it is most likely that the dynamic transition of hydrated AFP III is not directly correlated with its hydration structure. PMID:27059578

  3. Effect of Antifreeze Peptide Pretreatment on Ice Crystal Size, Drip Loss, Texture, and Volatile Compounds of Frozen Carrots.

    PubMed

    Kong, Charles H Z; Hamid, Nazimah; Liu, Tingting; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2016-06-01

    Ice crystal formation is of primary concern to the frozen food industry. In this study, the effects of antifreeze peptides (AFPs) on ice crystal formation were assessed in carrot during freezing and thawing. Three synthetic analogues based on naturally occurring antifreeze peptides were used in this study. The AFPs exhibited modification of ice crystal morphology, confirming their antifreeze activity in vitro. The ability of the synthetic AFPs to minimize drip loss and preserve color, structure, texture, and volatiles of frozen carrot was evaluated using the techniques of SEM, GC-MS, and texture analysis. The results prove the potential of these AFPs to preserve the above characteristics in frozen carrot samples. PMID:27138051

  4. Effect of Antifreeze Peptide Pretreatment on Ice Crystal Size, Drip Loss, Texture, and Volatile Compounds of Frozen Carrots.

    PubMed

    Kong, Charles H Z; Hamid, Nazimah; Liu, Tingting; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2016-06-01

    Ice crystal formation is of primary concern to the frozen food industry. In this study, the effects of antifreeze peptides (AFPs) on ice crystal formation were assessed in carrot during freezing and thawing. Three synthetic analogues based on naturally occurring antifreeze peptides were used in this study. The AFPs exhibited modification of ice crystal morphology, confirming their antifreeze activity in vitro. The ability of the synthetic AFPs to minimize drip loss and preserve color, structure, texture, and volatiles of frozen carrot was evaluated using the techniques of SEM, GC-MS, and texture analysis. The results prove the potential of these AFPs to preserve the above characteristics in frozen carrot samples.

  5. Ice-active proteins and cryoprotectants from the New Zealand alpine cockroach, Celatoblatta quinquemaculata.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D A; Pow, B; Kristensen, M; Ramløv, H; Marshall, C J

    2009-01-01

    Celatoblatta quinquemaculata is moderately freezing tolerant. We have investigated low and high molecular weight compounds that may be associated with its survival. Glycerol and trehalose were identified as potential cryoprotectants, with trehalose at the higher concentration. Trehalose was at its highest concentration in late autumn, during the periods sampled. Water contents declined with time and were significantly lower in late autumn than in late summer. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected in haemolymph or in extracts of the head, muscles and the fat body. Extracts of the Malpighian tubules showed an hexagonal crystal growth form, as did those of the gut tissue and gut contents. The gut tissue had high levels of thermal hysteresis (approximately 2 degrees C) and the gut contents somewhat lower levels (approximately 0.6 degrees C). Recrystallization inhibition activity mirrored that of thermal hysteresis, with activity absent in the haemolymph or fat body cells but present in the gut tissues and contents. Activity was reduced by heating and was associated with a molecule >14kDa in size. These findings suggest an antifreeze protein is involved. In fed animals, ice nucleation is likely to start in the gut. Gut cells have a much greater resistance to freezing than do fat body or Malpighian tubule cells. The antifreeze protein may enable this tissue to survive freezing stress by inhibiting recrystallization. PMID:18955061

  6. Antifreeze Glycoproteins Alter the Molecular Scale Surface Morphology of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Orme, Christine A.; Qiu, Roger; Yeh, Yin

    2003-03-01

    Trematomas borchgrevinki live in the harsh super-cooled waters of the Antarctic. Critical to their survival are antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) that further suppress the freezing temperature of their blood serum in addition to the colligative action of salts found in the ocean. These proteins also modify ice crystal growth habits as well as inhibit recrystallization in polycrystalline ice. To date many other types of antifreeze proteins have been identified in cold weather insects, plants, and other fish, but the exact mechanism is not entirely understood. The mechanism is non-colligative since only a few mg/ml are required for ice crystal growth inhibition and a non-equilibrium melting/freezing point hysteresis is observed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can yield a wealth of surface information that can reveal molecular scale information of biomineralization processes. We use AFM to directly probe the surface of ice crystals grown from the vapor in the pure phase and in the presence of growth inhibitors/modifiers, AFGPs. Results show that the AFGPs heavily pin the surface of ice.

  7. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  8. Antifreeze glycoproteins inhibit leakage from liposomes during thermotropic phase transitions.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, L M; Feeney, R E; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H; Oliver, A E

    1996-01-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), found in the blood of polar fish at concentrations as high as 35 g/liter, are known to prevent ice crystal growth and depress the freezing temperature of the blood. Previously, Rubinsky et al. [Rubinsky, B., Mattioli, M., Arav, A., Barboni, B. & Fletcher, G. L. (1992) Am. J. Physiol. 262, R542-R545] provided evidence that AFGPs block ion fluxes across membranes during cooling, an effect that they ascribed to interactions with ion channels. We investigated the effects of AFGPs on the leakage of a trapped marker from liposomes during chilling. As these liposomes are cooled through the transition temperature, they leak approximately 50% of their contents. Addition of less than 1 mg/ml of AFGP prevents up to 100% of this leakage, both during chilling and warming through the phase transition. This is a general effect that we show here applies to liposomes composed of phospholipids with transition temperatures ranging from 12 degrees C to 41 degrees C. Because these results were obtained with liposomes composed of phospholipids alone, we conclude that the stabilizing effects of AFGPs on intact cells during chilling reported by Rubinsky et al. may be due to a nonspecific effect on the lipid components of native membranes. There are other proteins that prevent leakage, but only under specialized conditions. For instance, antifreeze proteins, bovine serum albumin, and ovomucoid all either have no effect or actually induce leakage. Following precipitation with acetone, all three proteins inhibited leakage, although not to the extent seen with AFGPs. Alternatively, there are proteins such as ovotransferrin that have no effect on leakage, either before or after acetone precipitation. PMID:8692905

  9. Solution conformation of C-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogues and modulation of ice recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Tam, Roger Y; Rowley, Christopher N; Petrov, Ivan; Zhang, Tianyi; Afagh, Nicholas A; Woo, Tom K; Ben, Robert N

    2009-11-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are a unique class of proteins that are found in many organisms inhabiting subzero environments and ensure their survival by preventing ice growth in vivo. During the last several years, our laboratory has synthesized functional C-linked AFGP analogues (3 and 5) that possess custom-tailored antifreeze activity suitable for medical, commercial, and industrial applications. These compounds are potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization and do not exhibit thermal hysteresis. The current study explores how changes in the length of the amide-containing side chain between the carbohydrate moiety and the polypeptide backbone in 5 influences ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. Analogue 5 (n = 3, where n is the number of carbons in the side chain) was a potent inhibitor of ice recrystallization, while 4, 6, and 7 (n = 4, 2, and 1, respectively) exhibited no IRI activity. The solution conformation of the polypeptide backbone in C-linked AFGP analogues 4-7 was examined using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The results suggested that all of the analogues exhibit a random coil conformation in solution and that the dramatic increase in IRI activity observed with 5 is not due to a change in long-range solution conformation. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR studies on truncated analogues 26-28 failed to elucidate the presence of persistent intramolecular bonds between the amide in the side chain and the peptide backbone. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on these analogues also failed to show persistent intramolecular hydrogen bonds. However, the simulations did indicate that the side chain of IRI-active analogue 26 (n = 3) adopts a unique short-range solution conformation in which it is folded back onto the peptide backbone, orienting the more hydrophilic face of the carbohydrate moiety away from the bulk solvent. In contrast, the solution conformation of IRI-inactive analogues 25, 27, and 28 had fully extended side chains

  10. Characterization of a family of ice-active proteins from the Ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Kumble, Krishnanand D; Demmer, Jerome; Fish, Steven; Hall, Claire; Corrales, Sofia; DeAth, Angela; Elton, Clare; Prestidge, Ross; Luxmanan, Selvanesan; Marshall, Craig J; Wharton, David A

    2008-12-01

    Five genes coding for ice-active proteins were identified from an expressed sequence tag database of Lolium perenne cDNA libraries. Each of the five genes were characterized by the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide, a region enriched in hydrophilic amino acids and a leucine-rich region in four of the five genes that is homologous with the receptor domain of receptor-like protein kinases of plants. The C-terminal region of all five genes contains sequence homologous with Lolium and Triticum ice-active proteins. Of the four ice-active proteins (IAP1, IAP2, IAP3 and IAP5) cloned, three could be expressed in Escherichia coli and recovered in a functional form in order to study their ice activity. All three ice-active proteins had recrystallization inhibition activity but showed no detectable antifreeze or ice nucleation activity at the concentration tested. IAP2 and IAP5 formed distinct hexagonal-shaped crystals in the nanolitre osmometer as compared to the weakly hexagonal crystals produced by IAP3. PMID:18835384

  11. Expression of Ixodes scapularis Antifreeze Glycoprotein Enhances Cold Tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Neelakanta, Girish; Hudson, Andrew M.; Sultana, Hameeda; Cooley, Lynn; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster experience cold shock injury and die when exposed to low non-freezing temperatures. In this study, we generated transgenic D. melanogaster that express putative Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein (IAFGP) and show that the presence of IAFGP increases the ability of flies to survive in the cold. Male and female adult iafgp-expressing D. melanogaster exhibited higher survival rates compared with controls when placed at non-freezing temperatures. Increased hatching rates were evident in embryos expressing IAFGP when exposed to the cold. The TUNEL assay showed that flight muscles from iafgp-expressing female adult flies exhibited less apoptotic damage upon exposure to non-freezing temperatures in comparison to control flies. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of iafgp increases cold tolerance in flies by preventing apoptosis. This study defines a molecular basis for the role of an antifreeze protein in cryoprotection of flies. PMID:22428051

  12. Nonhepatic origin of notothenioid antifreeze reveals pancreatic synthesis as common mechanism in polar fish freezing avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Hing C.; Cziko, Paul A.; Evans, Clive W.

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse polar and subpolar marine teleost fishes have evolved antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) to avoid inoculative freezing by internalized ice. For over three decades since the first fish antifreeze (AF) protein was discovered, many studies of teleost freezing avoidance showed hepatic AF synthesis and distribution within the circulation as pivotal in preventing the blood, and therefore the fish, from freezing. We have uncovered an important twist to this long-held paradigm: the complete absence of liver synthesis of AFGPs in any life stage of the Antarctic notothenioids, indicating that the liver plays no role in the freezing avoidance in these fishes. Instead, we found the exocrine pancreas to be the major site of AFGP synthesis and secretion in all life stages, and that pancreatic AFGPs enter the intestinal lumen via the pancreatic duct to prevent ingested ice from nucleating the hyposmotic intestinal fluids. AFGPs appear to remain undegraded in the intestinal milieu, and the composition and relative abundance of intestinal AFGP isoforms are nearly identical to serum AFGPs. Thus, the reabsorption of intact pancreas-derived intestinal AFGPs, and not the liver, is the likely source of circulatory AFGPs in notothenioid fishes. We examined diverse northern fish taxa and Antarctic eelpouts with hepatic synthesis of bloodborne AF and found that they also express secreted pancreatic AF of their respective types. The evolutionary convergence of this functional physiology underscores the hitherto largely unrecognized importance of intestinal freezing prevention in polar teleost freezing avoidance, especially in the chronically icy Antarctic waters. PMID:16798878

  13. Mimicking the properties of antifreeze glycoproteins: synthesis and characterization of a model system for ice nucleation and antifreeze studies.

    PubMed

    Hederos, Markus; Konradsson, Peter; Borgh, Annika; Liedberg, Bo

    2005-08-25

    Synthesis of beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-GalNAc coupled to HOC2H4NHCOC15H30SH is described. This compound was coadsorbed at various proportions with C2H5OC2H4NHCOC15H30SH to form statistically mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold in an attempt to mimic the properties of the active domain in antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs). The monolayers were characterized by null ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The disaccharide compound adsorbed preferentially, and SAMs prepared at a solution molar ratio >0.3 displayed total wetting. The mixed SAMs showed well-organized alkyl chains up to a disaccharide surface fraction of 0.8. The amount of gauche conformers in the alkyls increased rapidly above this point, and the monolayers became disordered and less densely packed. Furthermore, the generated mixed SAMs were subjected to water vapor at constant relative humidity and the subsequent ice crystallization on a cooled substrate was monitored via an optical microscope. Interestingly, rapid crystallization occurred within a narrow range of temperatures on mixed SAMs with a high disaccharide content, surface fraction >0.3. The reported crystallization temperatures and the ice layer topography were compared with results obtained for a much simpler reference system composed of -OH/-CH3 terminated n-alkanethiols in order to account for changes in topography of the water/ice layer with surface energy. Although preliminary, the obtained results can be useful in the search for the molecular mechanism behind the antifreeze activity of AFGPs. PMID:16853014

  14. Antifreeze effect of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine on the growth kinetics of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Dmitry A; Sazaki, Gen; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-28

    Some biological substances control the nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. Antifreeze proteins, which prohibit ice crystal growth in living organisms, promise are also important as biological antifreezes for medical applications and in the frozen food industries. In this work, we investigated the crystallization of ice in the presence of a new cryoprotector, carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (COOH-PLL). In order to reveal the characteristics and the mechanism of its antifreeze effect, free-growth experiments of ice crystals were carried out in solutions with various COOH-PLL concentrations and degrees of supercooling, and the depression of the freezing point and growth rates of the tips of ice dendrites were obtained using optical microscopy. Hysteresis of growth rates and depression of the freezing point was revealed in the presence of COOH-PLL. The growth-inhibition effect of COOH-PLL molecules could be explained on the basis of the Gibbs-Thomson law and the use of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Theoretical kinetic curves for hysteresis calculated on the basis of Punin-Artamonova's model were in good agreement with experimental data. We conclude that adsorption of large biological molecules in the case of ice crystallization has a non-steady-state character and occurs more slowly than the process of embedding of crystal growth units. PMID:25113284

  15. Antifreeze effect of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine on the growth kinetics of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Dmitry A; Sazaki, Gen; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-28

    Some biological substances control the nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. Antifreeze proteins, which prohibit ice crystal growth in living organisms, promise are also important as biological antifreezes for medical applications and in the frozen food industries. In this work, we investigated the crystallization of ice in the presence of a new cryoprotector, carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (COOH-PLL). In order to reveal the characteristics and the mechanism of its antifreeze effect, free-growth experiments of ice crystals were carried out in solutions with various COOH-PLL concentrations and degrees of supercooling, and the depression of the freezing point and growth rates of the tips of ice dendrites were obtained using optical microscopy. Hysteresis of growth rates and depression of the freezing point was revealed in the presence of COOH-PLL. The growth-inhibition effect of COOH-PLL molecules could be explained on the basis of the Gibbs-Thomson law and the use of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Theoretical kinetic curves for hysteresis calculated on the basis of Punin-Artamonova's model were in good agreement with experimental data. We conclude that adsorption of large biological molecules in the case of ice crystallization has a non-steady-state character and occurs more slowly than the process of embedding of crystal growth units.

  16. A new quantitative method to measure activity of ice structuring proteins using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Hassa-Roudsari, Majid; Goff, H Douglas

    2012-01-01

    There are very few quantitative assays to measure the activity of antifreeze proteins (AFPs, or Ice Structuring Proteins, ISPs) and these can be prone to various inaccuracies and inconsistencies. Some methods rely only on unassisted visual assessment. When microscopy is used to measure ice crystal size, it is critical that standardized procedures be adopted, especially when image analysis software is used to quantify sizes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal hysteresis activity (TH) of AFPs. In this study, DSC was used isothermally to measure enthalpic changes associated with structural rearrangements as a function of time. Differences in slopes of isothermal heat flow vs. time between winter wheat ISP or AFP type I containing samples, and those without ISP or AFP type I were demonstrated. ISP or AFP type I containing samples had significantly higher slopes compared to those without ISP or AFP type I. Samples with higher concentration of ISP or AFP type I showed higher slope values during the first hour and took up to 3 hr to attain equilibrium. Differences were attributed to activity of the proteins at the ice interface. Proteinaceous activity of ISPs or AFP type I was confirmed by loss of activity after treatment with protease.

  17. Dynamics of antifreeze glycoproteins in the presence of ice.

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, Nelly M; Phillips, Brian L; Krishnan, Viswanathan V; Feeney, Robert E; Fink, William H; Crowe, John H; Risbud, Subhash H; Tablin, Fern; Yeh, Yin

    2002-01-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins from the Greenland cod Boreogadus saida were dimethylated at the N-terminus (m*AFGP) and their dynamics and conformational properties were studied in the presence of ice using (13)C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. (13)C-NMR experiments of m*AFGP in D(2)O, in H(2)O, and of freeze-dried m*AFGP were performed as a function of temperature. Dynamic parameters ((1)H T(1 rho) and T(CH)) obtained by varying the contact time revealed notable differences in the motional properties of AFGP between the different states. AFGP/ice dynamics was dominated by fast-scale motions (nanosecond to picosecond time scale), suggesting that the relaxation is markedly affected by the protein hydration. The data suggest that AFGP adopts a similar type of three-dimensional fold both in the presence of ice and in the freeze-dried state. FTIR studies of the amide I band did not show a single prevailing secondary structure in the frozen state. The high number of conformers suggests a high flexibility, and possibly reflects the necessity to expose more ice-binding groups. The data suggest that the effect of hydration on the local mobility of AFGP and the lack of significant change in the backbone conformation in the frozen state may play a role in inhibiting the ice crystal growth. PMID:11751333

  18. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon. PMID:24898563

  19. Ice Growth Inhibition in Antifreeze Polypeptide Solution by Short-Time Solution Preheating

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Naoto; Miyamoto, Takuya; Waku, Tomonori; Tanaka, Naoki; Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the inhibition of ice growth in the aqueous solution of a polypeptide, which is inspired by winter flounder antifreeze protein. We carried out measurements on unidirectional freezing of the polypeptide solution. The thickness of the solution was 0.02 mm, and the concentration of polypeptide was varied from 0 to 2 mg/mL. We captured successive microscopic images of ice/solution interfaces, and measured the interface velocity from the locations of tips of the pectinate interface in the images. We also simultaneously measured the temperature by using a small thermocouple. The ice/solution interface temperature was defined by the temperature at the tips. It was found that the interface temperature was decreased with an increasing concentration of polypeptide. To try varying the activity of the polypeptide, we preheated the polypeptide solution and cooled it before carrying out the measurements. Preheating for 1–5 hours was found to cause a further decrease in the interface temperature. Furthermore, wider regions of solution and ice with inclined interfaces in the pectinate interface structure were observed, compared with the case where the solution was not preheated. Thus, the ice growth inhibition was enhanced by this preheating. To investigate the reason for this enhancement, we measured the conformation and aggregates of polypeptide in the solution. We also measured the local concentration of polypeptide. It was found that the polypeptide aggregates became larger as a result of preheating, although the polypeptide conformation was unchanged. These large aggregates caused both adsorption to the interface and the wide regions of supercooled solution in the pectinate interface structure. PMID:27152720

  20. Ice Growth Inhibition in Antifreeze Polypeptide Solution by Short-Time Solution Preheating.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Naoto; Miyamoto, Takuya; Waku, Tomonori; Tanaka, Naoki; Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the inhibition of ice growth in the aqueous solution of a polypeptide, which is inspired by winter flounder antifreeze protein. We carried out measurements on unidirectional freezing of the polypeptide solution. The thickness of the solution was 0.02 mm, and the concentration of polypeptide was varied from 0 to 2 mg/mL. We captured successive microscopic images of ice/solution interfaces, and measured the interface velocity from the locations of tips of the pectinate interface in the images. We also simultaneously measured the temperature by using a small thermocouple. The ice/solution interface temperature was defined by the temperature at the tips. It was found that the interface temperature was decreased with an increasing concentration of polypeptide. To try varying the activity of the polypeptide, we preheated the polypeptide solution and cooled it before carrying out the measurements. Preheating for 1-5 hours was found to cause a further decrease in the interface temperature. Furthermore, wider regions of solution and ice with inclined interfaces in the pectinate interface structure were observed, compared with the case where the solution was not preheated. Thus, the ice growth inhibition was enhanced by this preheating. To investigate the reason for this enhancement, we measured the conformation and aggregates of polypeptide in the solution. We also measured the local concentration of polypeptide. It was found that the polypeptide aggregates became larger as a result of preheating, although the polypeptide conformation was unchanged. These large aggregates caused both adsorption to the interface and the wide regions of supercooled solution in the pectinate interface structure. PMID:27152720

  1. Observation of ice-like water layers at an aqueous protein surface.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Strazdaite, Simona; DeVries, Arthur L; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L C; Voets, Ilja K; Bakker, Huib J

    2014-12-16

    We study the properties of water at the surface of an antifreeze protein with femtosecond surface sum frequency generation spectroscopy. We find clear evidence for the presence of ice-like water layers at the ice-binding site of the protein in aqueous solution at temperatures above the freezing point. Decreasing the temperature to the biological working temperature of the protein (0 °C to -2 °C) increases the amount of ice-like water, while a single point mutation in the ice-binding site is observed to completely disrupt the ice-like character and to eliminate antifreeze activity. Our observations indicate that not the protein itself but ordered ice-like water layers are responsible for the recognition and binding to ice.

  2. Observation of ice-like water layers at an aqueous protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Konrad; Strazdaite, Simona; DeVries, Arthur L.; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Voets, Ilja K.; Bakker, Huib J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of water at the surface of an antifreeze protein with femtosecond surface sum frequency generation spectroscopy. We find clear evidence for the presence of ice-like water layers at the ice-binding site of the protein in aqueous solution at temperatures above the freezing point. Decreasing the temperature to the biological working temperature of the protein (0 °C to −2 °C) increases the amount of ice-like water, while a single point mutation in the ice-binding site is observed to completely disrupt the ice-like character and to eliminate antifreeze activity. Our observations indicate that not the protein itself but ordered ice-like water layers are responsible for the recognition and binding to ice. PMID:25468976

  3. Bioinspired Antifreeze Secreting Frost-Responsive Pagophobic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoda; Damle, Viraj; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of ice and frost accumulation is of interest to transportation, power generation, and agriculture industries. Superhydrophobic and lubricant impregnated pagophobic coatings have been proposed, however, they both fail in frosting conditions. Inspired by functional liquid secretion in natural systems, such as toxin secretion by poison dart frost in response to predator presence, we developed frost-responsive antifreeze secreting pagophobic coatings. These are bi-layered coatings with an inner superhydrophilic ``dermis'' infused with antifreeze and an outer permeable superhydrophobic ``epidermis.'' The superhydrophobic epidermis separates the antifreeze from the environment and prevents ice accumulation by repelling impinging water droplets. In frosting conditions, the antifreeze is secreted from the dermis through pores in the epidermis either due to contact with condensed droplets or temporary switch of the epidermis wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic caused by surface icing. Here we demonstrate superior performance of this multifunctional coating in simulated frosting, freezing mist/fog, and freezing spray/rain conditions. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  4. Why are hyperactive ice-binding-proteins so active?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braslavsky, Ido; Celik, Yeliz; Pertaya, Natalya; Eun Choi, Young; Bar, Maya; Davies, Peter L.

    2008-03-01

    Ice binding proteins (IBPs), also called `antifreeze proteins' or `ice structuring proteins', are a class of proteins that protect organisms from freezing injury. These proteins have many applications in medicine and agriculture, and as a platform for future biotechnology applications. One of the interesting questions in this field focuses on the hyperactivity of some IBPs. Ice binding proteins can be classified in two groups: moderate ones that can depress the freezing point up to ˜1.0 ^oC and hyperactive ones that can depress the freezing point several-fold further even at lower concentrations. It has been suggested that the hyperactivity of IBPs stem from the fact that they block growth out of specific ice surfaces, more specifically the basal planes of ice. Here we show experimental results based on fluorescence microscopy, highlighting the differences between moderate IBPs and hyperactive IBPs. These include direct evidence for basal plane affinity of hyperactive IBPs, the effects of IBPs on growth-melt behavior of ice and the dynamics of their interaction with ice.

  5. Ice growth in supercooled solutions of antifreeze glycoproteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, K.; Hallett, J.; Burcham, T. S.; Feeney, R. E.; Kerr, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of different degrees of supercooling on the habit and rates of growth of ice crystals from solutions of antifreeze glycoproteins are reported. To isolate the influence of different solutions and supercooling alone, a system was devised that nucleated crystals in the middle of a uniformly supercooled sample. Alternatively, single crystals of selected orientation were inserted into free liquid surface. A crystallization rate up to five times greater than that in pure water was found. A mechanism explaining these results is suggested.

  6. Freezing resistance of antifreeze-deficient larval Antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Cziko, Paul A; Evans, Clive W; Cheng, Chi-Hing C; DeVries, Arthur L

    2006-02-01

    Antarctic notothenioids, along with many other polar marine fishes, have evolved biological antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to survive in their icy environments. The larvae of Antarctic notothenioid fish hatch into the same frigid environment inhabited by the adults, suggesting that they must also be protected by sufficient AFPs, but this has never been verified. We have determined the contribution of AFPs to the freezing resistance of the larvae of three species: Gymnodraco acuticeps, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Pleuragramma antarcticum. Of the three, only P. borchgrevinki larvae are protected by high, adult levels of AFPs. Hatchling G. acuticeps and P. antarcticum have drastically inadequate AFP concentrations to avoid freezing at the ambient seawater temperature (-1.91 degrees C). We raised G. acuticeps larvae and measured the AFP levels in their blood for approximately 5 months post hatching. Larval serum freezing point was -1.34+/-0.04 degrees C at the time of hatch; it began to decrease only after 30 days post hatch (d.p.h.), and finally reached the adult value (-2.61+/-0.03 degrees C) by 147 d.p.h. Additionally, AFP concentrations in their intestinal fluids were very low at hatching, and did not increase with age throughout a sampling period of 84 d.p.h. Surviving in a freezing environment without adequate AFP protection suggests that other mechanisms of larval freezing resistance exist. Accordingly, we found that G. acuticeps hatchlings survived to -3.6+/-0.1 degrees C while in contact with external ice, but only survived to -1.5+/-0.0 degrees C when ice was artificially introduced into their tissues. P. antarcticum larvae were similarly resistant to organismal freezing. The gills of all three species were found to be underdeveloped at the time of hatch, minimizing the risk of ice introduction through these delicate structures. Thus, an intact integument, underdeveloped gill structures and other physical barriers to ice propagation may contribute significantly

  7. Allostery in BAX protein activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenyan; Zhang, Hansi; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2016-11-01

    BAX is a member of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family of proteins, which is involved in the regulation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In the process of apoptosis, BH3-only molecules activate cytosolic BAX. Activated BAX molecules insert into the mitochondrial outer membrane with their [Formula: see text]-helix and form oligomers that lead to membrane poration, resulting in the release of apoptogenic factors including cytochrome c. Recently, a novel interaction site for the binding of the BIM SAHB ligand to BAX was reported. BIM SAHB binding was shown to invoke the exposure of the 6A7 epitope (amino acids 13-19) and of the BH3 domain of BAX, followed by mobilization of the BAX [Formula: see text]-helix. However, the intramolecular pathway for signal transmission in BAX, from BIM SAHB binding to mobilization of the [Formula: see text]-helix largely remained elusive. For a molecular understanding of the activation of BAX, and thus the first steps in apoptosis, we performed microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics simulations both of the BAX protein and of the BAX:BIM SAHB complex in aqueous solution. In agreement with experiment, the 6A7 and BH3 domains adopt a more solvent-exposed conformation within the BAX:BIM SAHB complex. BIM SAHB binding was found to stabilize the secondary structure of the [Formula: see text]9-helix. A force distribution analysis revealed a force network of residue-residue interactions responsible for signal transmission from the BIM SAHB binding site predominantly via the [Formula: see text]4- and [Formula: see text]6-helices to the [Formula: see text]9-helix on the opposite site of the protein.

  8. New Approach for X-ray Microimaging of Live Cells in the Carbon Window at Subzero Temperatures with the Use of Antifreeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemotoa, K.; Narumi, I.; Satoh, K.; Ohigashi, T.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2011-09-01

    Toward the realization of imaging live cells by soft x-ray microscopy, we have proposed a new method for observing cells in the carbon window region of the spectrum (4.4 nm<λ<5 nm) at subzero temperatures with the use of antifreeze. In the carbon window, a method to enhance the image contrast of biospecimens is necessary to visualize them. X-ray contrast and radiation dose for minimal exposure imaging of 50-nm protein structures with tellurium label in 10-μm-thick ethylene glycol were estimated at 20% and 106 Gy, respectively. As a result, using the new method for observing Deinococcus radiodurans grown in a medium containing tellurate in the carbon window at subzero temperatures with the use of antifreeze, we estimate it may be possible to conduct x-ray microimaging of initially living cells.

  9. Directly probing the antifreeze glycoprotein kinetics at the ice/solution interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Yokoyama, Etsuro; Furukawa, Yoshinor

    2009-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFP) and glycoproteins (AFGP) help fish, plants, insects and bacteria survive sub-freezing environments. It is well known that these proteins function via some surface interaction, but the exact mechanism has eluded scientists. Aside from mutagenesis experiments directed towards examining the functional importance of specific residues, conclusions about the mechanism have been drawn from indirect studies or more precisely from studies that describe the proteins effects on the ice interface. Our work is aimed at directly studying the protein kinetics at the ice/solution interface. Fluorescent microscopy is used to determine interaction planes, surface concentrations as well as adsorption characteristics and the segregation constants, while fourier transform infra-red attenuated total reßectance (FTIR-ATR) is used to determine the protein structure vs. temperature in the liquid and solid states as well as the ice interface characteristics. All data show that AFGP do not function by the characteristic Gibbs-Thomson mechanism. While the surface coverage is similar for the AFPIII, segregation (amount in ice/amount in solution) is non-zero.

  10. Endogenous protein phosphorylation and protein kinase activity in winged bean.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K; Singh, M

    1997-10-01

    In winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) protein kinases (E.C. 2.7.1.37) were found in all tissues studied. There was a significant increase in kinase activity during seed development, with a concomitant enhancement in the phosphorylation of a number of polypeptides; this was reversed in germinating seed cotyledons. Protein phosphorylation was apparently correlated with the increase in the protein content of the developing seed and the growing axis. At least three distinct autophosphorylating proteins could be distinguished in the developing seeds after SDS-PAGE, indicating the presence of different types of protein kinases in winged bean.

  11. Identification of intracellular receptor proteins for activated protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Khaner, H; Lopez, J

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the cytosol to the particulate fraction on activation. This activation-induced translocation of PKC is thought to reflect PKC binding to the membrane lipids. However, immunological and biochemical data suggest that PKC may bind to proteins in the cytoskeletal elements in the particulate fraction and in the nuclei. Here we describe evidence for the presence of intracellular receptor proteins that bind activated PKC. Several proteins from the detergent-insoluble material of the particulate fraction bound PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine and calcium; binding was further increased with the addition of diacylglycerol. Binding of PKC to two of these proteins was concentration-dependent, saturable, and specific, suggesting that these binding proteins are receptors for activated C-kinase, termed here "RACKs." PKC binds to RACKs via a site on PKC distinct from the substrate binding site. We suggest that binding to RACKs may play a role in activation-induced translocation of PKC. Images PMID:1850844

  12. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  13. Ice-binding proteins that accumulate on different ice crystal planes produce distinct thermal hysteresis dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Drori, Ran; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Ice-binding proteins that aid the survival of freeze-avoiding, cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of endogenous ice crystals are called antifreeze proteins (AFPs). The binding of AFPs to ice causes a separation between the melting point and the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). TH produced by hyperactive AFPs is an order of magnitude higher than that produced by a typical fish AFP. The basis for this difference in activity remains unclear. Here, we have compared the time dependence of TH activity for both hyperactive and moderately active AFPs using a custom-made nanolitre osmometer and a novel microfluidics system. We found that the TH activities of hyperactive AFPs were time-dependent, and that the TH activity of a moderate AFP was almost insensitive to time. Fluorescence microscopy measurement revealed that despite their higher TH activity, hyperactive AFPs from two insects (moth and beetle) took far longer to accumulate on the ice surface than did a moderately active fish AFP. An ice-binding protein from a bacterium that functions as an ice adhesin rather than as an antifreeze had intermediate TH properties. Nevertheless, the accumulation of this ice adhesion protein and the two hyperactive AFPs on the basal plane of ice is distinct and extensive, but not detectable for moderately active AFPs. Basal ice plane binding is the distinguishing feature of antifreeze hyperactivity, which is not strictly needed in fish that require only approximately 1°C of TH. Here, we found a correlation between the accumulation kinetics of the hyperactive AFP at the basal plane and the time sensitivity of the measured TH. PMID:25008081

  14. Ice-binding proteins that accumulate on different ice crystal planes produce distinct thermal hysteresis dynamics.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ran; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2014-09-01

    Ice-binding proteins that aid the survival of freeze-avoiding, cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of endogenous ice crystals are called antifreeze proteins (AFPs). The binding of AFPs to ice causes a separation between the melting point and the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). TH produced by hyperactive AFPs is an order of magnitude higher than that produced by a typical fish AFP. The basis for this difference in activity remains unclear. Here, we have compared the time dependence of TH activity for both hyperactive and moderately active AFPs using a custom-made nanolitre osmometer and a novel microfluidics system. We found that the TH activities of hyperactive AFPs were time-dependent, and that the TH activity of a moderate AFP was almost insensitive to time. Fluorescence microscopy measurement revealed that despite their higher TH activity, hyperactive AFPs from two insects (moth and beetle) took far longer to accumulate on the ice surface than did a moderately active fish AFP. An ice-binding protein from a bacterium that functions as an ice adhesin rather than as an antifreeze had intermediate TH properties. Nevertheless, the accumulation of this ice adhesion protein and the two hyperactive AFPs on the basal plane of ice is distinct and extensive, but not detectable for moderately active AFPs. Basal ice plane binding is the distinguishing feature of antifreeze hyperactivity, which is not strictly needed in fish that require only approximately 1°C of TH. Here, we found a correlation between the accumulation kinetics of the hyperactive AFP at the basal plane and the time sensitivity of the measured TH.

  15. Antifreeze Peptides and Glycopeptides, and Their Derivatives: Potential Uses in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Murugan, Ravichandran N.; Lee, Sung Gu; Do, Hackwon; Koh, Hye Yeon; Shim, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Kim, Hak Jun

    2013-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and glycoproteins (AFGPs), collectively called AF(G)Ps, constitute a diverse class of proteins found in various Arctic and Antarctic fish, as well as in amphibians, plants, and insects. These compounds possess the ability to inhibit the formation of ice and are therefore essential to the survival of many marine teleost fishes that routinely encounter sub-zero temperatures. Owing to this property, AF(G)Ps have potential applications in many areas such as storage of cells or tissues at low temperature, ice slurries for refrigeration systems, and food storage. In contrast to AFGPs, which are composed of repeated tripeptide units (Ala-Ala-Thr)n with minor sequence variations, AFPs possess very different primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. The isolation and purification of AFGPs is laborious, costly, and often results in mixtures, making characterization difficult. Recent structural investigations into the mechanism by which linear and cyclic AFGPs inhibit ice crystallization have led to significant progress toward the synthesis and assessment of several synthetic mimics of AFGPs. This review article will summarize synthetic AFGP mimics as well as current challenges in designing compounds capable of mimicking AFGPs. It will also cover our recent efforts in exploring whether peptoid mimics can serve as structural and functional mimics of native AFGPs. PMID:23752356

  16. Antifreeze Polysaccharide Coating Study for De-icing Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Katsuaki; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Ando, Azuma; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Kawahara, Hidehisa

    2015-11-01

    Anti-icing or deicing of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Mechanical processes, such as heating and deicer boot, are widely used. Deicing fluids, such as propyrene glycol and ethylene glycol, are used to coat the aircraft. However, these should be coated every time before the take-off, since the fluids come off from the aircraft while cruising. We study an antifreeze polysaccharide (AFPS) coating as a deicer for an aircraft. It is designed to coat on the aircraft without removal. Since an AFPS coating removes ice by reducing the interfacial energy, it would be an alternative way to prevent ice on the aircraft. We provide a temperature-controlled room, which can control its temperature under icing conditions (-8 and -4 °C). Ice adhesion tests are performed for AFPS coating and compared with a fundamental specimen without the coating.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide activates activator protein-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases in pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Satoh, Masahiro; Suzuki, Noriaki; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2006-10-01

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis, where oxidative stress is thought to play a key role. Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) may act as a second messenger to mediate the actions of growth factors and cytokines. But the role of reactive oxygen species in the activation and regulation of cell functions in PSCs remains largely unknown. We here examined the effects of H(2)O(2) on the activation of signal transduction pathways and cell functions in PSCs. PSCs were isolated from the pancreas of male Wistar rats, and used in their culture-activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype unless otherwise stated. Activation of transcription factors was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase assay. Activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases was assessed by Western blotting using anti-phosphospecific antibodies. The effects of H(2)O(2) on proliferation, alpha(1)(I)procollagen gene expression, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production were evaluated. The effect of H(2)O(2) on the transformation of freshly isolated PSCs in culture was also assessed. H(2)O(2) at non-cytotoxic concentrations (up to 100 microM) induced oxidative stress in PSCs. H(2)O(2) activated activator protein-1, but not nuclear factor kappaB. In addition, H(2)O(2) activated three classes of MAP kinases: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAP kinase. H(2)O(2) induced alpha(1)(I)procollagen gene expression but did not induce proliferation or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. H(2)O(2) did not initiate the transformation of freshly isolated PSCs to myofibroblast-like phenotype. Specific activation of these signal transduction pathways and collagen gene expression by H(2)O(2) may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis.

  18. Inhibition of Condensation Frosting by Arrays of Hygroscopic Antifreeze Drops.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoda; Damle, Viraj G; Uppal, Aastha; Linder, Rubin; Chandrashekar, Sriram; Mohan, Ajay R; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-12-29

    The formation of frost and ice can have negative impacts on travel and a variety of industrial processes and is typically addressed by dispensing antifreeze substances such as salts and glycols. Despite the popularity of this anti-icing approach, some of the intricate underlying physical mechanisms are just being unraveled. For example, recent studies have shown that in addition to suppressing ice formation within its own volume, an individual salt saturated water microdroplet forms a region of inhibited condensation and condensation frosting (RIC) in its surrounding area. This occurs because salt saturated water, like most antifreeze substances, is hygroscopic and has water vapor pressure at its surface lower than water saturation pressure at the substrate. Here, we demonstrate that for macroscopic drops of propylene glycol and salt saturated water, the absolute RIC size can remain essentially unchanged for several hours. Utilizing this observation, we demonstrate that frost formation can be completely inhibited in-between microscopic and macroscopic arrays of propylene glycol and salt saturated water drops with spacing (S) smaller than twice the radius of the RIC (δ). Furthermore, by characterizing condensation frosting dynamics around various hygroscopic drop arrays, we demonstrate that they can delay complete frosting over of the samples 1.6 to 10 times longer than films of the liquids with equivalent volume. The significant delay in onset of ice nucleation achieved by dispensing propylene glycol in drops rather than in films is likely due to uniform dilution of the drops driven by thermocapillary flow. This transport mode is absent in the films, leading to faster dilution, and with that facilitated homogeneous nucleation, near the liquid-air interface. PMID:26651017

  19. Computational Introduction of Catalytic Activity into Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bertolani, Steve J; Carlin, Dylan Alexander; Siegel, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there have been several successful cases of introducing catalytic activity into proteins. One method that has been used successfully to achieve this is the theozyme placement and enzyme design algorithms implemented in Rosetta Molecular Modeling Suite. Here, we illustrate how to use this software to recapitulate the placement of catalytic residues and ligand into a protein using a theozyme, protein scaffold, and catalytic constraints as input. PMID:27094294

  20. FT-IR Spectra of Antifreeze Glycoproteins in Heavy Water and D2O Ice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, N. M.; Crowe, J. H.; Feeney, R. H.; Fink, W. H.; Yeh, Yin

    2000-03-01

    This work presents FT-IR studies on the antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP)/heavy water (D2O) mixtures during freezing and melting. AFGP in the blood serum of polar fish are known to prevent ice crystal growth by a non-colligative mechanism. There are 8 known fractions of AFGP (1 8) that range in molecular mass from 33.7 to 2.6 kD respectively, each composed of alanine-alanine-threonine repeats, with a disaccharide attached to the threonine residue. The smallest peptide (AFGP-8) is structurally different from fractions 1-5 in that it contains proline substituting for alanine in certain positions. Substantial linewidth change of the D20 bending mode (ca. 1210 cm-1) was measured with solutions containing fractions 2-5 during both freezing and thawing cycles, suggesting significant coupling between protein and water molecules. At the same time, the Amide I band between 1620 and 1675 cm-1 shows that 310 helix and random coils are the main conformations of fractions 2-5 and fraction 8 in the presence of ice. In liquid state, b-sheet dominates the secondary structure of AFGP 8, whereas b-sheet and random coil are the main conformations of AFGP 2-5. These results are discussed in terms of the ability of AFGP 2-5 to affect the surface states of ice.

  1. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  2. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes.

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Kuhn, Kristen L; Eastman, Joseph T; Pennington, Jillian N; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Fernández, Daniel A; Jones, Christopher D

    2012-02-28

    The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, but has experienced episodic climate change during the past 40 million years. It remains unclear how ancient periods of climate change have shaped Antarctic biodiversity. The origin of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes has become a classic example of how the evolution of a key innovation in response to climate change can drive adaptive radiation. By using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of notothenioids and reconstructed paleoclimate, we demonstrate that the origin of AFGP occurred between 42 and 22 Ma, which includes a period of global cooling approximately 35 Ma. However, the most species-rich lineages diversified and evolved significant ecological differences at least 10 million years after the origin of AFGPs, during a second cooling event in the Late Miocene (11.6-5.3 Ma). This pattern indicates that AFGP was not the sole trigger of the notothenioid adaptive radiation. Instead, the bulk of the species richness and ecological diversity originated during the Late Miocene and into the Early Pliocene, a time coincident with the origin of polar conditions and increased ice activity in the Southern Ocean. Our results challenge the current understanding of the evolution of Antarctic notothenioids suggesting that the ecological opportunity that underlies this adaptive radiation is not linked to a single trait, but rather to a combination of freeze avoidance offered by AFGPs and subsequent exploitation of new habitats and open niches created by increased glacial and ice sheet activity.

  3. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes.

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Kuhn, Kristen L; Eastman, Joseph T; Pennington, Jillian N; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Fernández, Daniel A; Jones, Christopher D

    2012-02-28

    The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, but has experienced episodic climate change during the past 40 million years. It remains unclear how ancient periods of climate change have shaped Antarctic biodiversity. The origin of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes has become a classic example of how the evolution of a key innovation in response to climate change can drive adaptive radiation. By using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of notothenioids and reconstructed paleoclimate, we demonstrate that the origin of AFGP occurred between 42 and 22 Ma, which includes a period of global cooling approximately 35 Ma. However, the most species-rich lineages diversified and evolved significant ecological differences at least 10 million years after the origin of AFGPs, during a second cooling event in the Late Miocene (11.6-5.3 Ma). This pattern indicates that AFGP was not the sole trigger of the notothenioid adaptive radiation. Instead, the bulk of the species richness and ecological diversity originated during the Late Miocene and into the Early Pliocene, a time coincident with the origin of polar conditions and increased ice activity in the Southern Ocean. Our results challenge the current understanding of the evolution of Antarctic notothenioids suggesting that the ecological opportunity that underlies this adaptive radiation is not linked to a single trait, but rather to a combination of freeze avoidance offered by AFGPs and subsequent exploitation of new habitats and open niches created by increased glacial and ice sheet activity. PMID:22331888

  4. Active Nuclear Import of Membrane Proteins Revisited.

    PubMed

    Laba, Justyna K; Steen, Anton; Popken, Petra; Chernova, Alina; Poolman, Bert; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M

    2015-01-01

    It is poorly understood how membrane proteins destined for the inner nuclear membrane pass the crowded environment of the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC). For the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Src1/Heh1 and Heh2, a transport mechanism was proposed where the transmembrane domains diffuse through the membrane while the extralumenal domains encoding a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and intrinsically disordered linker (L) are accompanied by transport factors and travel through the NPC. Here, we validate the proposed mechanism and explore and discuss alternative interpretations of the data. First, to disprove an interpretation where the membrane proteins become membrane embedded only after nuclear import, we present biochemical and localization data to support that the previously used, as well as newly designed reporter proteins are membrane-embedded irrespective of the presence of the sorting signals, the specific transmembrane domain (multipass or tail anchored), independent of GET, and also under conditions that the proteins are trapped in the NPC. Second, using the recently established size limit for passive diffusion of membrane proteins in yeast, and using an improved assay, we confirm active import of polytopic membrane protein with extralumenal soluble domains larger than those that can pass by diffusion on similar timescales. This reinforces that NLS-L dependent active transport is distinct from passive diffusion. Thirdly, we revisit the proposed route through the center of the NPC and conclude that the previously used trapping assay is, unfortunately, poorly suited to address the route through the NPC, and the route thus remains unresolved. Apart from the uncertainty about the route through the NPC, the data confirm active, transport factor dependent, nuclear transport of membrane-embedded mono- and polytopic membrane proteins in baker's yeast. PMID:26473931

  5. Active Nuclear Import of Membrane Proteins Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Laba, Justyna K.; Steen, Anton; Popken, Petra; Chernova, Alina; Poolman, Bert; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    It is poorly understood how membrane proteins destined for the inner nuclear membrane pass the crowded environment of the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC). For the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Src1/Heh1 and Heh2, a transport mechanism was proposed where the transmembrane domains diffuse through the membrane while the extralumenal domains encoding a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and intrinsically disordered linker (L) are accompanied by transport factors and travel through the NPC. Here, we validate the proposed mechanism and explore and discuss alternative interpretations of the data. First, to disprove an interpretation where the membrane proteins become membrane embedded only after nuclear import, we present biochemical and localization data to support that the previously used, as well as newly designed reporter proteins are membrane-embedded irrespective of the presence of the sorting signals, the specific transmembrane domain (multipass or tail anchored), independent of GET, and also under conditions that the proteins are trapped in the NPC. Second, using the recently established size limit for passive diffusion of membrane proteins in yeast, and using an improved assay, we confirm active import of polytopic membrane protein with extralumenal soluble domains larger than those that can pass by diffusion on similar timescales. This reinforces that NLS-L dependent active transport is distinct from passive diffusion. Thirdly, we revisit the proposed route through the center of the NPC and conclude that the previously used trapping assay is, unfortunately, poorly suited to address the route through the NPC, and the route thus remains unresolved. Apart from the uncertainty about the route through the NPC, the data confirm active, transport factor dependent, nuclear transport of membrane-embedded mono- and polytopic membrane proteins in baker’s yeast. PMID:26473931

  6. Nonequilibrium antifreeze peptides and the recrystallization of ice.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; Wen, D; Laursen, R A

    1995-02-01

    Evidence is presented that the nonequilibrium antifreeze peptide (AFP) from winter flounder has a special ability to inhibit recrystallization in ice only when an appreciable amount of liquid is present, as is the case when the system contains salts and the temperature is not too low. In this circumstance the AFP binds to the ice surface at the ice-solution interfaces in grain boundaries, preventing migration of the solution and effectively immobilizing the boundaries. In the absence of liquid, recrystallization inhibition appears to be a common property of many peptides. This is consistent with the view that the special effects of AFPs require a structural fit onto ice, and therefore require the AFP molecules to have the mobility to achieve that fit. Since the concentration of salt required to induce the special recrystallization inhibition effects of AFPs is lower (< 10 mM) than that found normally in physiological fluids, AFPs could play a role in the survival of organisms by preventing damage due to recrystallization. The proposition that mobility is needed for AFP molecules to produce their special influence upon ice growth argues against any special effects of AFPs in devitrification.

  7. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  8. Heterologous expression of type I antifreeze peptide GS-5 in baker's yeast increases freeze tolerance and provides enhanced gas production in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Joaquin; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2005-12-28

    The demand for frozen-dough products has increased notably in the baking industry. Nowadays, no appropriate industrial baker's yeast with optimal gassing capacity in frozen dough is, however, available, and it is unlikely that classical breeding programs could provide significant improvements of this trait. Antifreeze proteins, found in diverse organisms, display the ability to inhibit the growth of ice, allowing them to survive at temperatures below 0 degrees C. In this study a recombinant antifreeze peptide GS-5 was expressed from the polar fish grubby sculpin (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) in laboratory and industrial baker's yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Production of the recombinant protein increased freezing tolerance in both strains tested. Furthermore, expression of the GS-5 encoding gene enhanced notably the gassing rate and total gas production in frozen and frozen sweet doughs. These effects are unlikely to be due to reduced osmotic damage during freezing/thawing, because recombinant cells showed growth behavior similar to that of the parent under hypermosmotic stress conditions. PMID:16366681

  9. Active Wnt proteins are secreted on exosomes.

    PubMed

    Gross, Julia Christina; Chaudhary, Varun; Bartscherer, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Wnt signalling has important roles during development and in many diseases. As morphogens, hydrophobic Wnt proteins exert their function over a distance to induce patterning and cell differentiation decisions. Recent studies have identified several factors that are required for the secretion of Wnt proteins; however, how Wnts travel in the extracellular space remains a largely unresolved question. Here we show that Wnts are secreted on exosomes both during Drosophila development and in human cells. We demonstrate that exosomes carry Wnts on their surface to induce Wnt signalling activity in target cells. Together with the cargo receptor Evi/WIs, Wnts are transported through endosomal compartments onto exosomes, a process that requires the R-SNARE Ykt6. Our study demonstrates an evolutionarily conserved functional role of extracellular vesicular transport of Wnt proteins.

  10. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  11. Electrochemical Activation of Engineered Protein Switches

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jay H.; Zayats, Maya; Searson, Peter C.; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Engineered protein switches have a large dynamic range, high specificity for the activating ligand, and a modular architecture, and have been explored for a wide range of applications including biosensors and therapeutics. The ability to externally control switch function is important in extending applications for protein switches. We recently demonstrated that the on/off state could be controlled by the redox state of disulfide bonds introduced into the switches at select locations. Here, we demonstrate that an electrochemical signal can be used as an exogenous input to control switch function via reduction of the engineered disulfide bonds. This study suggests that disulfide-containing protein switch is a potentially useful platform for bioelectronic sensors with remote control of the sensing ability. PMID:26241391

  12. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Elion, Elaine A; Sahoo, Rupam

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play central roles in transmitting extracellular and intracellular information in a wide variety of situations in eukaryotic cells. Their activities are perturbed in a large number of diseases, and their activating kinases are currently therapeutic targets in cancer. MAPKs are highly conserved among all eukaryotes. MAPKs were first cloned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast has five MAPKs and one MAPK-like kinase. The mating MAPK Fus3 is the best characterized yeast MAPK. Members of all subfamilies of human MAPKs can functionally substitute S. cerevisiae MAPKs, providing systems to use genetic approaches to study the functions of either yeast or human MAPKs and to identify functionally relevant amino acid residues that enhance or reduce the effects of therapeutically relevant inhibitors and regulatory proteins. Here, we describe an assay to measure Fus3 activity in immune complexes prepared from S. cerevisiae extracts. The assay conditions are applicable to other MAPKs, as well. PMID:20811996

  13. De Novo Construction of Redox Active Proteins.

    PubMed

    Moser, C C; Sheehan, M M; Ennist, N M; Kodali, G; Bialas, C; Englander, M T; Discher, B M; Dutton, P L

    2016-01-01

    Relatively simple principles can be used to plan and construct de novo proteins that bind redox cofactors and participate in a range of electron-transfer reactions analogous to those seen in natural oxidoreductase proteins. These designed redox proteins are called maquettes. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic binary patterning of heptad repeats of amino acids linked together in a single-chain self-assemble into 4-alpha-helix bundles. These bundles form a robust and adaptable frame for uncovering the default properties of protein embedded cofactors independent of the complexities introduced by generations of natural selection and allow us to better understand what factors can be exploited by man or nature to manipulate the physical chemical properties of these cofactors. Anchoring of redox cofactors such as hemes, light active tetrapyrroles, FeS clusters, and flavins by His and Cys residues allow cofactors to be placed at positions in which electron-tunneling rates between cofactors within or between proteins can be predicted in advance. The modularity of heptad repeat designs facilitates the construction of electron-transfer chains and novel combinations of redox cofactors and new redox cofactor assisted functions. Developing de novo designs that can support cofactor incorporation upon expression in a cell is needed to support a synthetic biology advance that integrates with natural bioenergetic pathways. PMID:27586341

  14. Smelt was the likely beneficiary of an antifreeze gene laterally transferred between fishes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type II antifreeze protein (AFP) from the rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, is a calcium-dependent C-type lectin homolog, similar to the AFPs from herring and sea raven. While C-type lectins are ubiquitous, type II AFPs are only found in a few species in three widely separated branches of teleost fishes. Furthermore, several other non-homologous AFPs are found in intervening species. We have previously postulated that this sporadic distribution has resulted from lateral gene transfer. The alternative hypothesis, that the AFP evolved from a lectin present in a shared ancestor and that this gene was lost in most species, is not favored because both the exon and intron sequences are highly conserved. Results Here we have sequenced and annotated a 160 kb smelt BAC clone containing a centrally-located AFP gene along with 14 other genes. Quantitative PCR indicates that there is but a single copy of this gene within the smelt genome, which is atypical for fish AFP genes. The corresponding syntenic region has been identified and searched in a number of other species and found to be devoid of lectin or AFP sequences. Unlike the introns of the AFP gene, the intronic sequences of the flanking genes are not conserved between species. As well, the rate and pattern of mutation in the AFP gene are radically different from those seen in other smelt and herring genes. Conclusions These results provide stand-alone support for an example of lateral gene transfer between vertebrate species. They should further inform the debate about genetically modified organisms by showing that gene transfer between ‘higher’ eukaryotes can occur naturally. Analysis of the syntenic regions from several fishes strongly suggests that the smelt acquired the AFP gene from the herring. PMID:23009612

  15. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Robert J; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  16. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  17. Adsorption of alpha-helical antifreeze peptides on specific ice crystal surface planes.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, C A; Cheng, C C; DeVries, A L

    1991-01-01

    The noncolligative peptide and glycopeptide antifreezes found in some cold-water fish act by binding to the ice surface and preventing crystal growth, not by altering the equilibrium freezing point of the water. A simple crystal growth and etching technique allows determination of the crystallographic planes where the binding occurs. In the case of elongated molecules, such as the alpha-helical peptides in this report, it also allows a deduction of the molecular alignment on the ice surface. The structurally similar antifreeze peptides from winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and Alaskan plaice (Pleuronectes quadritaberulatus) adsorb onto the (2021) pyramidal planes of ice, whereas the sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) peptide adsorbs on (2110), the secondary prism planes. All three are probably aligned along (0112). These antifreeze peptides have 11-amino acid sequence repeats ending with a polar residue, and each repeat constitutes a distance of 16.5 A along the helix, which nearly matches the 16.7 A repeat spacing along (0112) in ice. This structural match is undoubtedly important, but the mechanism of binding is not yet clear. The suggested mechanism of growth inhibition operates through the influence of local surface curvature upon melting point and results in complete inhibition of the crystal growth even though individual antifreeze molecules bind at only one interface orientation. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:2009357

  18. Development of Novel Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Activators

    PubMed Central

    Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chang, Wei-Ling; Yang, Jian; Lee, Su-Lin; Wei, Shuo; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2010-01-01

    In light of the unique ability of thiazolidinediones to mediate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 production, we conducted a screening of an in-house, thiazolidinedione-based focused compound library to identify novel agents with these dual pharmacological activities. Cell-based assays pertinent to the activation status of AMPK and mammalian homolog of target of rapamycin (i.e., phosphorylation of AMPK and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, respectively), and IL-6/IL-6 receptor signaling (i.e., IL-6 production and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, respectively) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 human macrophages were used to screen this compound library, which led to the identification of compound 53 (N-{4-[3-(1-Methylcyclohexylmethyl)-2,4-dioxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene-methyl]-phenyl}-4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamide) as the lead agent. Evidence indicates that this drug-induced suppression of LPS-stimulated IL-6 production was attributable to AMPK activation. Furthermore, compound 53-mediated AMPK activation was demonstrated in C-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells, indicating that it is not a cell line-specific event. PMID:20170185

  19. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes

    PubMed Central

    Near, Thomas J.; Dornburg, Alex; Kuhn, Kristen L.; Eastman, Joseph T.; Pennington, Jillian N.; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Fernández, Daniel A.; Jones, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, but has experienced episodic climate change during the past 40 million years. It remains unclear how ancient periods of climate change have shaped Antarctic biodiversity. The origin of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes has become a classic example of how the evolution of a key innovation in response to climate change can drive adaptive radiation. By using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of notothenioids and reconstructed paleoclimate, we demonstrate that the origin of AFGP occurred between 42 and 22 Ma, which includes a period of global cooling approximately 35 Ma. However, the most species-rich lineages diversified and evolved significant ecological differences at least 10 million years after the origin of AFGPs, during a second cooling event in the Late Miocene (11.6–5.3 Ma). This pattern indicates that AFGP was not the sole trigger of the notothenioid adaptive radiation. Instead, the bulk of the species richness and ecological diversity originated during the Late Miocene and into the Early Pliocene, a time coincident with the origin of polar conditions and increased ice activity in the Southern Ocean. Our results challenge the current understanding of the evolution of Antarctic notothenioids suggesting that the ecological opportunity that underlies this adaptive radiation is not linked to a single trait, but rather to a combination of freeze avoidance offered by AFGPs and subsequent exploitation of new habitats and open niches created by increased glacial and ice sheet activity. PMID:22331888

  20. Comparison of Metalloproteinase Protein and Activity Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Giricz, Orsi; Lauer, Janelle L.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been shown to take part in processes crucial in disease progression. The present study used the ExcelArray Human MMP/TIMP Array to quantify MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) production in the lysates and media of 14 cancer and one normal cell line. The overall patterns were very similar in terms of which MMPs and TIMPs were secreted in the media versus associated with the cells in the individual samples. However, more MMP was found in the media, both in amount and in variety. TIMP-1 was produced in all cell lines. MMP activity assays with three different FRET substrates were then utilized to determine if protein production correlated with function for the WM-266-4 and BJ cell lines. Metalloproteinase activity was observed for both cell lines with a general MMP substrate (Knight SSP), consistent with protein production data. However, although both cell lines promoted the hydrolysis of a more selective MMP substrate (NFF-3), metalloproteinase activity was only confirmed in the BJ cell line. The use of inhibitors to confirm metalloproteinase activities pointed to the strengths and weaknesses of in situ FRET substrate assays. PMID:20920458

  1. Crowding Activates Heat Shock Protein 90.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Jackson C; Huang, Bin; Sun, Ming; Street, Timothy O

    2016-03-18

    Hsp90 is a dimeric ATP-dependent chaperone involved in the folding, maturation, and activation of diverse target proteins. Extensive in vitro structural analysis has led to a working model of Hsp90's ATP-driven conformational cycle. An implicit assumption is that dilute experimental conditions do not significantly perturb Hsp90 structure and function. However, Hsp90 undergoes a dramatic open/closed conformational change, which raises the possibility that this assumption may not be valid for this chaperone. Indeed, here we show that the ATPase activity of Hsp90 is highly sensitive to molecular crowding, whereas the ATPase activities of Hsp60 and Hsp70 chaperones are insensitive to crowding conditions. Polymer crowders activate Hsp90 in a non-saturable manner, with increasing efficacy at increasing concentration. Crowders exhibit a non-linear relationship between their radius of gyration and the extent to which they activate Hsp90. This experimental relationship can be qualitatively recapitulated with simple structure-based volume calculations comparing open/closed configurations of Hsp90. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that crowding activation of Hsp90 is entropically driven, which is consistent with a model in which excluded volume provides a driving force that favors the closed active state of Hsp90. Multiple Hsp90 homologs are activated by crowders, with the endoplasmic reticulum-specific Hsp90, Grp94, exhibiting the highest sensitivity. Finally, we find that crowding activation works by a different mechanism than co-chaperone activation and that these mechanisms are independent. We hypothesize that Hsp90 has a higher intrinsic activity in the cell than in vitro. PMID:26797120

  2. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Gunawan, Gunawati; Brown, Steve L; Sumner, Paul E; Ruberson, John R; Buntin, G David; Holbrook, C Corley; Lee, R Dewey; Streett, Douglas A; Throne, James E; Campbell, James F

    2008-04-01

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests, including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)] inhabit a temporary, but stable ecosystem with constant environmental conditions. The objective of the present experiment was to assess the efficacy of using ethylene glycol antifreeze in combination with nutrient solutions to monitor storage insect pest and natural enemy populations in three bins of corn, Zea mays L. The treatments were deionized water, a diluted (1:5 antifreeze:water) antifreeze solution, 10% honey, 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% beer in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% sucrose in the diluted antifreeze solution, and a commercial pheromone trap suspended in a 3.8-liter container filled with 300-ml of diluted antifreeze solution. The seven treatments captured storage insect pests and their natural enemies in the bins at 33-36 degrees C and 51-55% RH. The pheromone trap in the container with the diluted antifreeze captured significantly more P. interpunctella than the other treatments, but a lower percentage (7.6%) of these captures were females compared with the rest of the treatments (> 40% females). All trapping solutions also captured Sitophilus spp. and other beetle species, but the captures of the coleopteran pests were not significantly different among the seven treatments (P > 0.05). Two parasitoid wasps also were captured in the study. The number of A. calandrae was different among the seven treatments (P < 0.05), whereas the number of C. tarsalis was not different among the treatments (P > 0.05). Most A. calandrae adults were captured by the 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze, whereas the fewest were captured in the deionized water

  3. [Protein kinase C activation induces platelet apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Li; Chen, Meng-Xing; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Dai, Ke-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Platelet apoptosis elucidated by either physical or chemical compound or platelet storage occurs wildly, which might play important roles in controlling the numbers and functions of circulated platelets, or in the development of some platelet-related diseases. However, up to now, a little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of platelet apoptosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is highly expressed in platelets and plays central roles in regulating platelet functions. Although there is evidence indicating that PKC is involved in the regulation of apoptosis of nucleated cells, it is still unclear whether PKC plays a role in platelet apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PKC in platelet apoptosis. The effects of PKC on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and caspase-3 activation of platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The results showed that the ΔΨm depolarization in platelets was induced by PKC activator in time-dependent manner, and the caspase-3 activation in platelets was induced by PKC in concentration-dependent manner. However, the platelets incubated with PKC inhibitor did not results in ΔΨm depolarization and PS exposure. It is concluded that the PKC activation induces platelet apoptosis through influencing the mitochondrial functions and activating caspase 3. The finds suggest a novel mechanism for PKC in regulating platelet numbers and functions, which has important pathophysiological implications for thrombosis and hemostasis.

  4. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  5. Phospholipases as GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sona

    2016-05-01

    GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) are key regulators of the G-protein signaling cycle. By facilitating effective hydrolysis of the GTP bound on Gα proteins, GAPs control the timing and amplitude of the signaling cycle and ascertain the availability of the inactive heterotrimer for the next round of activation. Until very recently, the studies of GAPs in plants were focused exclusively on the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein. We now show that phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1) is also a bona fide GAP in plants and together with the RGS protein controls the level of activeprotein. PMID:27124090

  6. Development of Potent Adenosine Monophosphate Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activators.

    PubMed

    Dokla, Eman M E; Fang, Chun-Sheng; Lai, Po-Ting; Kulp, Samuel K; Serya, Rabah A T; Ismail, Nasser S M; Abouzid, Khaled A M; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported the identification of a thiazolidinedione-based adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, compound 1 (N-[4-({3-[(1-methylcyclohexyl)methyl]-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene}methyl)phenyl]-4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide), which provided a proof of concept to delineate the intricate role of AMPK in regulating oncogenic signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. In this study, we used 1 as a scaffold to conduct lead optimization, which generated a series of derivatives. Analysis of the antiproliferative and AMPK-activating activities of individual derivatives revealed a distinct structure-activity relationship and identified 59 (N-(3-nitrophenyl)-N'-{4-[(3-{[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl}-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene)methyl]phenyl}urea) as the optimal agent. Relative to 1, compound 59 exhibits multifold higher potency in upregulating AMPK phosphorylation in various cell lines irrespective of their liver kinase B1 (LKB1) functional status, accompanied by parallel changes in the phosphorylation/expression levels of p70S6K, Akt, Foxo3a, and EMT-associated markers. Consistent with its predicted activity against tumors with activated Akt status, orally administered 59 was efficacious in suppressing the growth of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-null PC-3 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Together, these findings suggest that 59 has clinical value in therapeutic strategies for PTEN-negative cancer and warrants continued investigation in this regard.

  7. Receptor activity-modifying proteins; multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Gingell, Joseph J; Ladds, Graham; Reynolds, Christopher A; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are single pass membrane proteins initially identified by their ability to determine the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It is now known that RAMPs can interact with a much wider range of GPCRs. This review considers recent developments on the structure of the complexes formed between the extracellular domains (ECDs) of CLR and RAMP1 or RAMP2 as these provide insights as to how the RAMPs direct ligand binding. The range of RAMP interactions is also considered; RAMPs can interact with numerous family B GPCRs as well as examples of family A and family C GPCRs. They influence receptor expression at the cell surface, trafficking, ligand binding and G protein coupling. The GPCR-RAMP interface offers opportunities for drug targeting, illustrated by examples of drugs developed for migraine. PMID:27068971

  8. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  9. Isolation and characterisation of sericin antifreeze peptides and molecular dynamics modelling of their ice-binding interaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhong; Rong, Yuzhi; Wang, Zhengwu; Zhou, Yanfu; Wang, Shaoyun; Zhao, Bo

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterise a novel sericin antifreeze peptide and investigate its ice-binding molecular mechanism. The thermal hysteresis activity of ice-binding sericin peptides (I-SP) was measured and their activity reached as high as 0.94 °C. A P4 fraction, with high hypothermia protective activity and inhibition activity of ice recrystallisation, was obtained from I-SP, and a purified sericin peptide, named SM-AFP, with the sequence of TTSPTNVSTT and a molecular weight of 1009.50 Da was then isolated from the P4 fraction. Treatment of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subsp. bulgaricus LB340 LYO with 100 μg/ml synthetic SM-AFP led to 1.4-fold increased survival (p < 0.05). Finally, an SM-AFP/ice binding model was constructed and results of molecular dynamics simulation suggested that the binding of SM-AFP with ice and prevention of ice crystal growth could be attributed to hydrogen bond formation, hydrophobic interaction and non-bond interactions. Sericin peptides could be developed into beneficial cryoprotectants and used in frozen food processing.

  10. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Knoch, Eva; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/) involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development. PMID:24966860

  11. Observation of microtubule-based motor protein activity.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Roger D

    2015-02-01

    It is possible to detect the presence of motor proteins that have the ability to translocate particles along microtubules. The two procedures described here were developed to detect microtubule-dependent motor protein activity in cell lysates or of purified proteins. In the first procedure, latex beads bound to the putative motor protein are assayed for their ability to translocate along microtubules in an ATP-dependent fashion. If motor protein activity is present, it will bind to the beads and translocate them unidirectionally along the microtubules. In the second procedure, motor proteins induce microtubule gliding over a glass coverslip surface that is coated with active motor protein. Because the mass of a microtubule is negligible compared to that of a coverslip or slide, the microtubule glides over the glass surface when the surface is coated with active motor protein. Also included here are descriptions of assays designed to determine the directionality of movement of microtubule-based motor proteins. PMID:25646501

  12. Evaluation of anti-freeze viscosity modifier for potential external tank applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O. L.

    1981-01-01

    Viscosity modifiers and gelling agents were evaluated in combination with ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide water eutectics. Pectin and agarose are found to gel these eutectics effectively in low concentration, but the anti-freeze protection afforded by these compositions is found to be marginal in simulations of the intended applications. Oxygen vent shutters and vertical metallic surfaces were simulated, with water supplied as a spray, dropwise, and by condensation from the air.

  13. Activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) slows renal cystogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takiar, Vinita; Nishio, Saori; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; King, J Darwin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Li; Karihaloo, Anil; Hallows, Kenneth R; Somlo, Stefan; Caplan, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Renal cyst development and expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) involves both fluid secretion and abnormal proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells. The chloride channel of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) participates in secretion of cyst fluid, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may drive proliferation of cyst epithelial cells. CFTR and mTOR are both negatively regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Metformin, a drug in wide clinical use, is a pharmacological activator of AMPK. We find that metformin stimulates AMPK, resulting in inhibition of both CFTR and the mTOR pathways. Metformin induces significant arrest of cystic growth in both in vitro and ex vivo models of renal cystogenesis. In addition, metformin administration produces a significant decrease in the cystic index in two mouse models of ADPKD. Our results suggest a possible role for AMPK activation in slowing renal cystogenesis as well as the potential for therapeutic application of metformin in the context of ADPKD. PMID:21262823

  14. Biologically active LIL proteins built with minimal chemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Erin N.; Marston, Jez L.; Federman, Ross S.; Edwards, Anne P. B.; Karabadzhak, Alexander G.; Petti, Lisa M.; Engelman, Donald M.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed 26-amino acid transmembrane proteins that specifically transform cells but consist of only two different amino acids. Most proteins are long polymers of amino acids with 20 or more chemically distinct side-chains. The artificial transmembrane proteins reported here are the simplest known proteins with specific biological activity, consisting solely of an initiating methionine followed by specific sequences of leucines and isoleucines, two hydrophobic amino acids that differ only by the position of a methyl group. We designate these proteins containing leucine (L) and isoleucine (I) as LIL proteins. These proteins functionally interact with the transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor and specifically activate the receptor to transform cells. Complete mutagenesis of these proteins identified individual amino acids required for activity, and a protein consisting solely of leucines, except for a single isoleucine at a particular position, transformed cells. These surprisingly simple proteins define the minimal chemical diversity sufficient to construct proteins with specific biological activity and change our view of what can constitute an active protein in a cellular context. PMID:26261320

  15. G protein activation by G protein coupled receptors: ternary complex formation or catalyzed reaction?

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Waelbroeck, Magali

    2004-09-01

    G protein coupled receptors catalyze the GDP/GTP exchange on G proteins, thereby activating them. The ternary complex model, designed to describe agonist binding in the absence of GTP, is often extended to G protein activation. This is logically unsatisfactory as the ternary complex does not accumulate when G proteins are activated by GTP. Extended models taking into account nucleotide binding exist, but fail to explain catalytic G protein activation. This review puts forward an enzymatic model of G protein activation and compares its predictions with the ternary complex model and with observed receptor phenomenon. This alternative model does not merely provide a new set of formulae but leads to a new philosophical outlook and more readily accommodates experimental observations. The ternary complex model implies that, HRG being responsible for efficient G protein activation, it should be as stable as possible. In contrast, the enzyme model suggests that although a limited stabilization of HRG facilitates GDP release, HRG should not be "too stable" as this might trap the G protein in an inactive state and actually hinder G protein activation. The two models also differ completely in the definition of the receptor "active state": the ternary complex model implies that the active state corresponds to a single active receptor conformation (HRG); in contrast, the catalytic model predicts that the active receptor state is mobile, switching smoothly through various conformations with high and low affinities for agonists (HR, HRG, HRGGDP, HRGGTP, etc.).

  16. Receptor activity modifying protein-3 mediates the protumorigenic activity of lysyl oxidase-like protein-2.

    PubMed

    Brekhman, Vera; Lugassie, Jennie; Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Sabo, Edmond; Kessler, Ofra; Smith, Victoria; Golding, Hana; Neufeld, Gera

    2011-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like protein-2 (LOXL2) induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promotes invasiveness. To understand the mechanisms involved, we examined the effect of LOXL2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells on gene expression. We found that LOXL2 up-regulated the expression of receptor activity modifying protein-3 (RAMP3). Expression of RAMP3 in MDA-MB-231 cells in which LOXL2 expression was inhibited restored vimentin expression, invasiveness, and tumor development. Inhibition of RAMP3 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells mimicked the effects produced by inhibition of LOXL2 expression and was accompanied by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation. LOXL2 overexpression in these cells did not restore invasiveness, suggesting that RAMP3 functions downstream to LOXL2. LOXL2 and RAMP3 are strongly coexpressed in human colon, breast, and gastric carcinomas but not in normal colon or gastric epithelial cells. RAMP3 associates with several G-protein-coupled receptors forming receptors for peptides, such as adrenomedullin and amylin. We hypothesized that RAMP3 could function as a transducer of autocrine signals induced by such peptides. However, the proinvasive effects of RAMP3 could not be abrogated following inhibition of the expression or activity of these peptides. Our experiments suggest that the protumorigenic effects of LOXL2 are partially mediated by RAMP3 and that RAMP3 inhibitors may function as antitumorigenic agents. -

  17. Modeling Protein Folding and Applying It to a Relevant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Allan; Goetze, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The different levels of protein structure that can be easily understood by creating a model that simulates protein folding, which can then be evaluated by applying it to a relevant activity, is presented. The materials required and the procedure for constructing a protein folding model are mentioned.

  18. Dissecting the active site of a photoreceptor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter; Hara, Miwa; Ren, Jie; Moghadam, Farzaneh; Xie, Aihua; Kumauchi, Masato

    While enzymes are quite large molecules, functionally important chemical events are often limited to a small region of the protein: the active site. The physical and chemical properties of residues at such active sites are often strongly altered compared to the same groups dissolved in water. Understanding such effects is important for unraveling the mechanisms underlying protein function and for protein engineering, but has proven challenging. Here we report on our ongoing efforts on using photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial photoreceptor, as a model system for such effects. We will report on the following questions: How many residues affect active site properties? Are these residues in direct physical contact with the active site? Can functionally important residues be recognized in the crystal structure of a protein? What structural resolution is needed to understand active sites? What spectroscopic techniques are most informative? Which weak interactions dominate active site properties?

  19. Determination of Protein Carbonylation and Proteasome Activity in Seeds.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiong; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe; Meimoun, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be toxic but also function as signaling molecules in a process called redox signaling. In seeds, ROS are produced at different developmental stages including dormancy release and germination. Main targets of oxidation events by ROS in cell are lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Protein oxidation has various effects on their function, stability, location, and degradation. Carbonylation represents an irreversible and unrepairable modification that can lead to protein degradation through the action of the 20S proteasome. Here, we present techniques which allow the quantification of protein carbonyls in complex protein samples after derivatization by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and the determination proteasome activity by an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) using the probe MV151. These techniques, routinely easy to handle, allow the rapid assessment of protein carbonyls and proteasome activity in seeds in various physiological conditions where ROS may act as signaling or toxic elements. PMID:27424756

  20. Activated protein C anticoagulant system dysfunction and thrombophilia in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kuma, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia that is common among Caucasians is caused by genetic polymorphisms of coagulation factor V Leiden (R506Q) and prothrombin G20210A. Unlike that in Caucasians, thrombophilia that is common in the Japanese and Chinese involve dysfunction of the activated protein C (APC) anticoagulant system caused by abnormal protein S and protein C molecules. Approximately 50% of Japanese and Chinese individuals who develop venous thrombosis have reduced activities of protein S. The abnormal sites causing the protein S molecule abnormalities are distributed throughout the protein S gene, PROS1. One of the most common abnormalities is protein S Tokushima (K155E), which accounts for about 30% of the protein S molecule abnormalities in the Japanese. Whether APC dysfunction occurs in other Asian countries is an important aspect of mapping thrombophilia among Asians. International surveys using an accurate assay system are needed to determine this.

  1. Global Analysis of Protein Activities Using Proteome Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Heng; Bilgin, Metin; Bangham, Rhonda; Hall, David; Casamayor, Antonio; Bertone, Paul; Lan, Ning; Jansen, Ronald; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Houfek, Thomas; Mitchell, Tom; Miller, Perry; Dean, Ralph A.; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael

    2001-09-01

    To facilitate studies of the yeast proteome, we cloned 5800 open reading frames and overexpressed and purified their corresponding proteins. The proteins were printed onto slides at high spatial density to form a yeast proteome microarray and screened for their ability to interact with proteins and phospholipids. We identified many new calmodulin- and phospholipid-interacting proteins; a common potential binding motif was identified for many of the calmodulin-binding proteins. Thus, microarrays of an entire eukaryotic proteome can be prepared and screened for diverse biochemical activities. The microarrays can also be used to screen protein-drug interactions and to detect posttranslational modifications.

  2. STUDY ON PROPERTIES OF SKID RESISTANCE ON FREEZING PAVEMENTS AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION METHOD OF ANTIFREEZING EFFECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Kiyoshi; Masuyama, Yukiei; Takahashi, Naoto

    Snow and ice control in winter roads trends to be controlled by the skid friction coefficients in North America and North European countries at present, but the measurements are not necessarily easy. We studied on a simplified measurement method based on the relationship between skid friction coefficients and the bare pavement ratio (BPR) in the laboratory tests and field tests. The factors of BPR, surface textures and antifreezing materials which affect the skid friction coefficient are reviewed by a multiple linear regression analysis and a spectrum analysis, considering different freezing surfaces. These studies indicate that conclusions induced by laboratory tests could be applied to roads in service.

  3. Protein C activity in dogs envenomed by Vipera palaestinae.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Gil; Kelmer, Efrat; Segev, Gilad; Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar

    2014-09-01

    Vipera palaestinae is responsible for most envenomations in humans and domestic animal in Israel. Its venom has pro- and anticoagulant properties. Protein C is a major natural anticoagulant, preventing excess clotting and thrombosis. This study investigated protein C activity and its prognostic value, as well as several other hemostatic analytes in dogs (Canis familiaris) accidently envenomed by V. palaestinae. Protein C activity was compared between envenomed dogs and 33 healthy control dogs. Mean protein C was lower in dogs envenomed by V. palaestinae compared to controls (12.9% vs. 22.9%, respectively; P < 0.01). It was positively correlated with antithrombin activity (r = 0.3, P = 0.04), but not with other hemostatic analytes. The overall mortality rate was 13%, and at presentation no significant protein C activity difference was noted between survivors and non-survivors. A receiver operator characteristics analysis of protein C activity as a predictor of mortality had an area under the curve of 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.87). A protein C cutoff point of 8% corresponded to sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 57%, respectively. Dogs diagnosed with consumptive coagulopathy (14%) tended to have lower protein C activity compared to others; however, their mortality did differ from that of other dogs. This is the first study assessing protein C activity in V. palaestinae victims. Decreased protein C activity in such dogs may play a role in formation of thrombosis and hemostatic derangement as well as inflammation in V. palaestinae envenomations.

  4. Anthocyanidins inhibit activator protein 1 activity and cell transformation: structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hou, De-Xing; Kai, Keiko; Li, Jian-Jian; Lin, Shigang; Terahara, Norihiko; Wakamatsu, Mika; Fujii, Makoto; Young, Mattew R; Colburn, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the chemical components that give the intense color to many fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, red cabbages and purple sweet potatoes. Extensive studies have indicated that anthocyanins have strong antioxidant activities. To investigate the mechanism of anthocyanidins as an anticancer food source, six kinds of anthocyanidins representing the aglycons of most anthocyanins, were used to examine their effects on tumor promotion in mouse JB6 cells, a validated model for screening cancer chemopreventive agents and elucidating the molecular mechanisms. Of the six anthocyanins tested, only those with an ortho-dihydroxyphenyl structure on the B-ring suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell transformation and activator protein-1 transactivation, suggesting that the ortho-dihydroxyphenyl may contribute to the inhibitory action. Delphinidin, but not peonidin, blocked the phosphorylation of protein kinases in the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway at early times and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway at later times. p38 kinase was not inhibited by delphinidin. Furthermore, two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) specific inhibitors (SP600125 for JNK and UO126 for ERK) could specifically block the activation of JNK and ERK and cell transformation. Those results demonstrate that anthocyanidins contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis by blocking activation of the MAPK pathway. These findings provide the first molecular basis for the anticarcinogenic action of anthocyanidins. PMID:14514663

  5. Anthocyanidins inhibit activator protein 1 activity and cell transformation: structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hou, De-Xing; Kai, Keiko; Li, Jian-Jian; Lin, Shigang; Terahara, Norihiko; Wakamatsu, Mika; Fujii, Makoto; Young, Mattew R; Colburn, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the chemical components that give the intense color to many fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, red cabbages and purple sweet potatoes. Extensive studies have indicated that anthocyanins have strong antioxidant activities. To investigate the mechanism of anthocyanidins as an anticancer food source, six kinds of anthocyanidins representing the aglycons of most anthocyanins, were used to examine their effects on tumor promotion in mouse JB6 cells, a validated model for screening cancer chemopreventive agents and elucidating the molecular mechanisms. Of the six anthocyanins tested, only those with an ortho-dihydroxyphenyl structure on the B-ring suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell transformation and activator protein-1 transactivation, suggesting that the ortho-dihydroxyphenyl may contribute to the inhibitory action. Delphinidin, but not peonidin, blocked the phosphorylation of protein kinases in the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway at early times and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway at later times. p38 kinase was not inhibited by delphinidin. Furthermore, two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) specific inhibitors (SP600125 for JNK and UO126 for ERK) could specifically block the activation of JNK and ERK and cell transformation. Those results demonstrate that anthocyanidins contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis by blocking activation of the MAPK pathway. These findings provide the first molecular basis for the anticarcinogenic action of anthocyanidins.

  6. Breadboard activities for advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The proposed work entails the design, assembly, testing, and delivery of a turn-key system for the semi-automated determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature. The system will utilize optical scintillation as a means of detecting and monitoring nucleation and crystallite growth during temperature lowering (or raising, with retrograde solubility systems). The deliverables of this contract are: (1) turn-key scintillation system for the semi-automatic determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature, (2) instructions and software package for the operation of the scintillation system, and (3) one semi-annual and one final report including the test results obtained for ovostatin with the above scintillation system.

  7. Visualizing active membrane protein complexes by electron cryotomography

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Vicki A.M.; Ieva, Raffaele; Walter, Andreas; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Unravelling the structural organization of membrane protein machines in their active state and native lipid environment is a major challenge in modern cell biology research. Here we develop the STAMP (Specifically TArgeted Membrane nanoParticle) technique as a strategy to localize protein complexes in situ by electron cryotomography (cryo-ET). STAMP selects active membrane protein complexes and marks them with quantum dots. Taking advantage of new electron detector technology that is currently revolutionizing cryotomography in terms of achievable resolution, this approach enables us to visualize the three-dimensional distribution and organization of protein import sites in mitochondria. We show that import sites cluster together in the vicinity of crista membranes, and we reveal unique details of the mitochondrial protein import machinery in action. STAMP can be used as a tool for site-specific labelling of a multitude of membrane proteins by cryo-ET in the future. PMID:24942077

  8. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives. PMID:27630047

  9. Controlled Activation of Protein Rotational Dynamics Using Smart Hydrogel Tethering

    SciTech Connect

    Beech, Brenda M.; Xiong, Yijia; Boschek, Curt B.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Squier, Thomas C.

    2014-09-05

    Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications to take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with [13C] and [15N], permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Upon initial formation of hydrogels protein dynamics are suppressed, with concomitant increases in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in the activation of protein dynamics and restoration of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain motions necessary for substrate binding.

  10. Hox proteins: sculpting body parts by activating localized cell death.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Claudio R

    2002-11-19

    Hox proteins shape animal structures by eliciting different developmental programs along the anteroposterior body axis. A recent study reveals that the Drosophila Hox protein Deformed directly activates the cell-death-promoting gene reaper to maintain the boundaries between distinct head segments.

  11. Modeling the SHG activities of diverse protein crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haupert, Levi M.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2012-11-01

    The origins of the diversity in the SHG signal from protein crystals are investigated and potential protein-crystal coverage by SHG microscopy is assessed. A symmetry-additive ab initio model for second-harmonic generation (SHG) activity of protein crystals was applied to assess the likely protein-crystal coverage of SHG microscopy. Calculations were performed for 250 proteins in nine point-group symmetries: a total of 2250 crystals. The model suggests that the crystal symmetry and the limit of detection of the instrument are expected to be the strongest predictors of coverage of the factors considered, which also included secondary-structural content and protein size. Much of the diversity in SHG activity is expected to arise primarily from the variability in the intrinsic protein response as well as the orientation within the crystal lattice. Two or more orders-of-magnitude variation in intensity are expected even within protein crystals of the same symmetry. SHG measurements of tetragonal lysozyme crystals confirmed detection, from which a protein coverage of ∼84% was estimated based on the proportion of proteins calculated to produce SHG responses greater than that of tetragonal lysozyme. Good agreement was observed between the measured and calculated ratios of the SHG intensity from lysozyme in tetragonal and monoclinic lattices.

  12. Hemagglutinating activity of proteins from Parkia speciosa seeds.

    PubMed

    Chankhamjon, Kanokwan; Petsom, Amorn; Sawasdipuksa, Narumon; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2010-01-01

    Proteins from Parkia speciosa Hassk. (Fabaceae) seeds were extracted and stepwise precipitated using ammonium sulfate. Proteins precipitated with 25% ammonium sulfate were separated by affinity chromatography on Affi-Gel Blue gel followed by protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 200. The protein Gj, which was identified as a protein similar to putative aristolochene synthase, 3'-partial from Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae), had hemagglutinating activity of 0.39 mug/muL. Moreover, fraction C2 from the proteins precipitated with 60% ammonium sulfate, separated by lectin-specific adsorption chromatography using Con A Sepharose, had hemagglutinating activity of 1.17 mug/muL. Using gel electrophoresis, two proteins C2a and C2b were separated, having molecular weights of 45 kDa and 23 kDa, respectively. From protein identification, C2a was found to be similar to the hypothetical protein B1342F01.11 from Oryza sativa, and C2b was similar to the hypothetical protein At1g51560 from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Brassicaceae). PMID:20645760

  13. Differential regulation of protein subdomain activity with caged bivalent ligands.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Günter; Müller, Jens; Mack, Timo; Freitag, Daniel F; Höver, Thomas; Pötzsch, Bernd; Heckel, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    Subtle change: Spatiotemporal modulation of individual protein subdomains with light as the trigger signal becomes possible by using bivalent aptamers and introducing photolabile "caging groups" to switch individual aptamer modules ON or OFF differentially. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that it is possible to modulate individual domain activity in aptamers, and thus also domain activity in proteins, with light.

  14. Cloning of three novel neuronal Cdk5 activator binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, Y P; Qi, Z; Wang, J H

    2000-01-25

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and neuro-cytoskeleton dynamics. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and a 25 kDa activator protein (p25nck5a) derived from a 35 kDa neuronal-specific protein (p35nck5a). As an extension of our previous study (Qi, Z., Tang, D., Zhu, X., Fujita, D.J., Wang, J.H., 1998. Association of neurofilament proteins with neuronal Cdk5 activator. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2329-2335), which showed that neurofilament is one of the p35nck5a-associated proteins, we now report the isolation of three other novel p35nck5a-associated proteins using the yeast two-hybrid screen. The full-length forms of these three novel proteins, designated C42, C48 and C53, have a molecular mass of 66, 24, and 57 kDa, respectively. Northern analysis indicates that these novel proteins are widely expressed in human tissues, including the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. The bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion forms of these three proteins were able to co-precipitate p35nck5a complexed with Cdk5 from insect cell lysate. Among these three proteins, only C48 and C53 can be phosphorylated by Nclk, suggesting that they may be the substrates of Nclk. Sequence homology searches have suggested that the C48 protein is marginally related to restin protein, whereas the C42 protein has homologues of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:10721722

  15. Activation of an Endoribonuclease by Non-intein Protein Splicing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stephen J; Stern, David B

    2016-07-29

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast-localized poly(A)-binding protein RB47 is predicted to contain a non-conserved linker (NCL) sequence flanked by highly conserved N- and C-terminal sequences, based on the corresponding cDNA. RB47 was purified from chloroplasts in association with an endoribonuclease activity; however, protein sequencing failed to detect the NCL. Furthermore, while recombinant RB47 including the NCL did not display endoribonuclease activity in vitro, versions lacking the NCL displayed strong activity. Both full-length and shorter forms of RB47 could be detected in chloroplasts, with conversion to the shorter form occurring in chloroplasts isolated from cells grown in the light. This conversion could be replicated in vitro in chloroplast extracts in a light-dependent manner, where epitope tags and protein sequencing showed that the NCL was excised from a full-length recombinant substrate, together with splicing of the flanking sequences. The requirement for endogenous factors and light differentiates this protein splicing from autocatalytic inteins, and may allow the chloroplast to regulate the activation of RB47 endoribonuclease activity. We speculate that this protein splicing activity arose to post-translationally repair proteins that had been inactivated by deleterious insertions or extensions. PMID:27311716

  16. 4-Anilino-6-phenyl-quinoline inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2).

    PubMed

    Olsson, Henric; Sjö, Peter; Ersoy, Oguz; Kristoffersson, Anna; Larsson, Joakim; Nordén, Bo

    2010-08-15

    A class of inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated kinase 2 (MK2) was discovered via high-throughput screening. This compound class demonstrates activity against the enzyme with sub-microM IC(50) values, and suppresses LPS-induced TNFalpha levels in THP-1 cells. MK2 inhibition kinetic measurements indicated mixed binding approaching non-ATP competitive inhibition.

  17. Phosphorylation of platelet actin-binding protein during platelet activation

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.C.; Gerrard, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    In this study we have followed the 32P-labeling of actin-binding protein as a function of platelet activation. Utilizing polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to resolve total platelet protein samples, we found 2 to 3-fold labeling increases in actin-binding protein 30 to 60 sec after thrombin stimulation. Somewhat larger increases were observed for 40,000 and 20,000 apparent molecular weight peptides. The actin-binding protein was identified on the gels by coelectrophoresis with purified actin-binding protein, its presence in cytoskeletal cores prepared by detergent extraction of activated 32P-labeled platelets, and by direct immunoprecipitation with antibodies against guinea pig vas deferens filamin (actin-binding protein). In addition, these cytoskeletal cores indicated that the 32P-labeled actin-binding protein was closely associated with the activated platelet's cytoskeleton. Following the 32P-labeling of actin-binding protein over an 8-min time course revealed that in aggregating platelet samples rapid dephosphorylation to almost initial levels occurred between 3 and 5 min. A similar curve was obtained for the 20,000 apparent molecular weight peptide. However, rapid dephosphorylation was not observed if platelet aggregation was prevented by chelating external calcium or by using thrombasthenic platelets lacking the aggregation response. Thus, cell-cell contact would seem to be crucial in initiating the rapid dephosphorylation response.

  18. Detecting protein complexes from active protein interaction networks constructed with dynamic gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein interaction networks (PINs) are known to be useful to detect protein complexes. However, most available PINs are static, which cannot reflect the dynamic changes in real networks. At present, some researchers have tried to construct dynamic networks by incorporating time-course (dynamic) gene expression data with PINs. However, the inevitable background noise exists in the gene expression array, which could degrade the quality of dynamic networkds. Therefore, it is needed to filter out contaminated gene expression data before further data integration and analysis. Results Firstly, we adopt a dynamic model-based method to filter noisy data from dynamic expression profiles. Then a new method is proposed for identifying active proteins from dynamic gene expression profiles. An active protein at a time point is defined as the protein the expression level of whose corresponding gene at that time point is higher than a threshold determined by a standard variance involved threshold function. Furthermore, a noise-filtered active protein interaction network (NF-APIN) is constructed. To demonstrate the efficiency of our method, we detect protein complexes from the NF-APIN, compared with those from other dynamic PINs. Conclusion A dynamic model based method can effectively filter out noises in dynamic gene expression data. Our method to compute a threshold for determining the active time points of noise-filtered genes can make the dynamic construction more accuracy and provide a high quality framework for network analysis, such as protein complex prediction. PMID:24565281

  19. Structural mechanism of G protein activation by G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Duc, Nguyen Minh; Kim, Hee Ryung; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-09-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of membrane receptors that regulate physiology and pathology of various organs. Consequently, about 40% of drugs in the market targets GPCRs. Heterotrimeric G proteins are composed of α, β, and γ subunits, and act as the key downstream signaling molecules of GPCRs. The structural mechanism of G protein activation by GPCRs has been of a great interest, and a number of biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed since the late 80's. These studies investigated the interface between GPCR and G proteins and the structural mechanism of GPCR-induced G protein activation. Recently, arrestins are also reported to be important molecular switches in GPCR-mediated signal transduction, and the physiological output of arrestin-mediated signal transduction is different from that of G protein-mediated signal transduction. Understanding the structural mechanism of the activation of G proteins and arrestins would provide fundamental information for the downstream signaling-selective GPCR-targeting drug development. This review will discuss the structural mechanism of GPCR-induced G protein activation by comparing previous biochemical and biophysical studies.

  20. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Span, Elise A.; Kalous, Kelsey S.; Kutty, Raman G.; Jensen, Davin R.; Pokkuluri, Phani Raj; Sem, Daniel S.; Rathore, Rajendra; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function. We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.

  1. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Span, Elise A.; Kalous, Kelsey S.; Kutty, Raman G.; Jensen, Davin R.; Pokkuluri, Phani Raj; Sem, Daniel S.; et al

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function.more » We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.« less

  2. Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Satoshi; Langton, Paul F; Zebisch, Matthias; Howell, Steven A; Chang, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Bineva, Ganka; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Jones, E Yvonne; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-12

    Signalling by Wnt proteins is finely balanced to ensure normal development and tissue homeostasis while avoiding diseases such as cancer. This is achieved in part by Notum, a highly conserved secreted feedback antagonist. Notum has been thought to act as a phospholipase, shedding glypicans and associated Wnt proteins from the cell surface. However, this view fails to explain specificity, as glypicans bind many extracellular ligands. Here we provide genetic evidence in Drosophila that Notum requires glypicans to suppress Wnt signalling, but does not cleave their glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. Structural analyses reveal glycosaminoglycan binding sites on Notum, which probably help Notum to co-localize with Wnt proteins. They also identify, at the active site of human and Drosophila Notum, a large hydrophobic pocket that accommodates palmitoleate. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses of human proteins show that Notum is a carboxylesterase that removes an essential palmitoleate moiety from Wnt proteins and thus constitutes the first known extracellular protein deacylase. PMID:25731175

  3. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  4. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Carlos M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  5. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L.; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease. PMID:26835446

  6. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Scheel, Dierk

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554) in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins) as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression—including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding, and degradation) steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:26579181

  7. Numerical prediction of micro-channel LD heat sink operated with antifreeze based on CFD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Gang; Tang, Xiaojun

    2014-12-01

    To theoretically study the feasibility of antifreeze coolants applied as cooling fluids for high power LD heat sink, detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of liquid cooled micro-channels heat sinks is presented. The performance operated with antifreeze coolant (ethylene glycol aqueous solution) compared with pure water are numerical calculated for the heat sinks with the same micro-channels structures. The maximum thermal resistance, total pressure loss (flow resistance), thermal resistance vs. flow-rate, and pressure loss vs. flow-rate etc. characteristics are numerical calculated. The results indicate that the type and temperature of coolants plays an important role on the performance of heat sinks. The whole thermal resistance and pressure loss of heat sinks increase significantly with antifreeze coolants compared with pure water mainly due to its relatively lower thermal conductivity and higher fluid viscosity. The thermal resistance and pressure loss are functions of the flow rate and operation temperature. Increasing of the coolant flow rate can reduce the thermal resistance of heat sinks; meanwhile increase the pressure loss significantly. The thermal resistance tends to a limit with increasing flow rate, while the pressure loss tends to increase exponentially with increasing flow rate. Low operation temperature chiefly increases the pressure loss rather than thermal resistance due to the remarkable increasing of fluid viscosity. The actual working point of the cooling circulation system can be determined on the basis of the pressure drop vs. flow rate curve for the micro-channel heat sink and that for the circulation system. In the same system, if the type or/and temperature of the coolant is changed, the working point is accordingly influenced, that is, working flow rate and pressure is changed simultaneously, due to which the heat sink performance is influenced. According to the numerical simulation results, if ethylene glycol aqueous

  8. Oxidative Stress Impairs the Stimulatory Effect of S100 Proteins on Protein Phosphatase 5 Activity.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Tsuchiya, Mitsumasa; Shimamoto, Seiko; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance between the production of harmful reactive oxygen species and the cellular antioxidant system for neutralization, and it activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in oxidative stress responses. Previously, we reported that S100 proteins activate PP5 in a calcium-dependent manner. S100 proteins belong to a family of small EF-hand calcium-binding proteins involved in many processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress on S100 proteins, their interaction with PP5, and PP5 enzyme activity. Recombinant S100A2 was easily air-oxidized or Cu-oxidized, and oxidized S100A2 formed cross-linked dimers and higher molecular-mass complexes. The binding of oxidized S100A2 to PP5 was reduced, resulting in decreased PP5 activation in vitro. Oxidation also impaired S100A1, S100A6, S100B, and S100P to activate PP5, although the low dose of oxidized S100 proteins still activated PP5. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced S100A2 oxidation in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7) cells. Furthermore, H2O2 reduced the binding of S100A2 to PP5 and decreased PP5 activation in HaCaT and Huh-7 cells. Importantly, even the low dose of S100A2 achieved by knocking down increased dephosphorylation of ASK1 and reduced caspase 3/7 activity in Huh-7 cells treated with H2O2. These results indicate that oxidative stress impairs the ability of S100 proteins to bind and activate PP5, which in turn modulates the ASK1-mediated signaling cascades involved in apoptosis. PMID:27600583

  9. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  10. Organization, structure and activity of proteins in monolayers.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Julie; Trudel, Eric; Méthot, Mario; Desmeules, Philippe; Salesse, Christian

    2007-08-01

    Many different processes take place at the cell membrane interface. Indeed, for instance, ligands bind membrane proteins which in turn activate peripheral membrane proteins, some of which are enzymes whose action is also located at the membrane interface. Native cell membranes are difficult to use to gain information on the activity of individual proteins at the membrane interface because of the large number of different proteins involved in membranous processes. Model membrane systems, such as monolayers at the air-water interface, have thus been extensively used during the last 50 years to reconstitute proteins and to gain information on their organization, structure and activity in membranes. In the present paper, we review the recent work we have performed with membrane and peripheral proteins as well as enzymes in monolayers at the air-water interface. We show that the structure and orientation of gramicidin has been determined by combining different methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the secondary structure of rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin is indistinguishable from that in native membranes when appropriate conditions are used. We also show that the kinetics and extent of monolayer binding of myristoylated recoverin is much faster than that of the nonmyristoylated form and that this binding is highly favored by the presence polyunsaturated phospholipids. Moreover, we show that the use of fragments of RPE65 allow determine which region of this protein is most likely involved in membrane binding. Monomolecular films were also used to further understand the hydrolysis of organized phospholipids by phospholipases A2 and C.

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alexandra Martins dos Santos; de Araújo, Sandra Alves; Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Costa Junior, Livio Martins

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract), SE (shell extract) and CE (cotyledon extract). Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL-1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL-1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50) was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL-1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts. PMID:26689178

  12. Organization, Structure and Activity of Proteins in Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher,J.; Trudel, E.; Methot, M.; Desmeules, P.; Salesse, C.

    2007-01-01

    Many different processes take place at the cell membrane interface. Indeed, for instance, ligands bind membrane proteins which in turn activate peripheral membrane proteins, some of which are enzymes whose action is also located at the membrane interface. Native cell membranes are difficult to use to gain information on the activity of individual proteins at the membrane interface because of the large number of different proteins involved in membranous processes. Model membrane systems, such as monolayers at the air-water interface, have thus been extensively used during the last 50 years to reconstitute proteins and to gain information on their organization, structure and activity in membranes. In the present paper, we review the recent work we have performed with membrane and peripheral proteins as well as enzymes in monolayers at the air-water interface. We show that the structure and orientation of gramicidin has been determined by combining different methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the secondary structure of rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin is indistinguishable from that in native membranes when appropriate conditions are used. We also show that the kinetics and extent of monolayer binding of myristoylated recoverin is much faster than that of the nonmyristoylated form and that this binding is highly favored by the presence polyunsaturated phospholipids. Moreover, we show that the use of fragments of RPE65 allow determine which region of this protein is most likely involved in membrane binding. Monomolecular films were also used to further understand the hydrolysis of organized phospholipids by phospholipases A2 and C.

  13. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  14. DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, J; Cameron, R S; Takeda, Y; Hardin, J A

    1997-10-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a nuclear enzyme and functions as a serine/threonine kinase that has been well characterized in both the human and the mouse. The regulatory subunit of DNA-PK is the Ku autoantigen. To demonstrate that a Ku-like protein is present in Xenopus oocytes, we used immunoprecipitation analysis with a monoclonal antibody raised against human Ku antigen and autoimmune serum containing anti-Ku antibodies. Metabolic labeling studies indicate that the Ku-like protein is synthesized mainly in late vitellogenic oocytes. By using a specific peptide substrate for DNA-PK, we demonstrate the activity of a DNA-dependent protein kinase in oocyte extracts. The kinase activity requires the Ku-like protein, since extracts depleted of Ku protein by immunoadsorption with human anti-Ku antibodies fail to demonstrate the DNA-dependent phosphorylation activity. The increased enzyme activity in vitellogenic oocytes may be correlated to the increased levels of Ku protein observed in these oocytes compared to the pre- and early vitellogenic oocytes.

  15. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    PubMed

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  16. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  17. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research. PMID:16302727

  18. Fluorogen-Activating-Proteins as Universal Affinity Biosensors for Immunodetection

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Eugenio; Vasilev, Kalin V.; Jarvik, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorogen-activating-proteins (FAPs) are a novel platform of fluorescence biosensors utilized for protein discovery. The technology currently demands molecular manipulation methods that limit its application and adaptability. Here, we highlight an alternative approach based on universal affinity reagents for protein detection. The affinity reagents were engineered as bi-partite fusion proteins, where the specificity moiety is derived from IgG-binding proteinsProtein-A or Protein-G – and the signaling element is a FAP. In this manner, primary antibodies provide the antigenic selectivity against a desired protein in biological samples, while FAP affinity reagents target the constant region (Fc) of antibodies and provide the biosensor component of detection. Fluorescence results using various techniques indicate minimal background and high target specificity for exogenous and endogenous proteins in mammalian cells. Additionally, FAP-based affinity reagents provide enhanced properties of detection previously absent using conventional affinity systems. Distinct features explored in this report include: (1) unfixed signal wavelengths (excitation and emission) determined by the particular fluorogen chosen, (2) real-time user controlled fluorescence on-set and off-set, (3) signal wavelength substitution while performing live analysis, and (4) enhanced resistance to photobleaching. PMID:24122476

  19. Counteracting Protein Kinase Activity in the Heart: The Multiple Roles of Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Silvio; Meyer-Roxlau, Stefanie; Wagner, Michael; Dobrev, Dobromir; El-Armouche, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Decades of cardiovascular research have shown that variable and flexible levels of protein phosphorylation are necessary to maintain cardiac function. A delicate balance between phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states of proteins is guaranteed by a complex interplay of protein kinases (PKs) and phosphatases. Serine/threonine phosphatases, in particular members of the protein phosphatase (PP) family govern dephosphorylation of the majority of these cardiac proteins. Recent findings have however shown that PPs do not only dephosphorylate previously phosphorylated proteins as a passive control mechanism but are capable to actively control PK activity via different direct and indirect signaling pathways. These control mechanisms can take place on (epi-)genetic, (post-)transcriptional, and (post-)translational levels. In addition PPs themselves are targets of a plethora of proteinaceous interaction partner regulating their endogenous activity, thus adding another level of complexity and feedback control toward this system. Finally, novel approaches are underway to achieve spatiotemporal pharmacologic control of PPs which in turn can be used to fine-tune misleaded PK activity in heart disease. Taken together, this review comprehensively summarizes the major aspects of PP-mediated PK regulation and discusses the subsequent consequences of deregulated PP activity for cardiovascular diseases in depth. PMID:26617522

  20. Peptides and proteins with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Lôbo, Katiuscia Menezes; Bezerra, Denise Aline Casimiro; Lôbo, Inalzuir

    2008-01-01

    The increase of microbial resistance to antibiotics has led to a continuing search for newer and more effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are generally found in animals, plants, and microorganisms and are of great interest to medicine, pharmacology, and the food industry. These peptides are capable of inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms. They can attack parasites, while causing little or no harm to the host cells. The defensins are peptides found in granules in the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and are responsible for the defense of the organism. Several animal defensins, like dermaseptin, antileukoprotease, protegrin, and others, have had their activities and efficacy tested and been shown to be effective against bacteria, fungi, and protists; there are also specific defensins from invertebrates, e.g., drosomycin and heliomicin; from plants, e.g., the types A and B; and the bacteriocins, e.g., acrocin, marcescin, etc. The aim of the present work was to compile a comprehensive bibliographic review of the diverse potentially antimicrobial peptides in an effort to systematize the current knowledge on these substances as a contribution for further researches. The currently available bibliography does not give a holistic approach on this subject. The present work intends to show that the mechanism of defense represented by defensins is promising from the perspective of its application in the treatment of infectious diseases in human, animals and plants.

  1. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  2. Staphylokinase as a Plasminogen Activator Component in Recombinant Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Szarka, S. J.; Sihota, E. G.; Habibi, H. R.; Wong, S.-L.

    1999-01-01

    The plasminogen activator staphylokinase (SAK) is a promising thrombolytic agent for treatment of myocardial infarction. It can specifically stimulate the thrombolysis of both erythrocyte-rich and platelet-rich clots. However, SAK lacks fibrin-binding and thrombin inhibitor activities, two functions which would supplement and potentially improve its thrombolytic potency. Creating a recombinant fusion protein is one approach for combining protein domains with complementary functions. To evaluate SAK for use in a translational fusion protein, both N- and C-terminal fusions to SAK were constructed by using hirudin as a fusion partner. Recombinant fusion proteins were secreted from Bacillus subtilis and purified from culture supernatants. The rate of plasminogen activation by SAK was not altered by the presence of an additional N- or C-terminal protein sequence. However, cleavage at N-terminal lysines within SAK rendered the N-terminal fusion unstable in the presence of plasmin. The results of site-directed mutagenesis of lysine 10 and lysine 11 in SAK suggested that a plasmin-resistant variant cannot be created without interfering with the plasmin processing necessary for activation of SAK. Although putative plasmin cleavage sites are located at the C-terminal end of SAK at lysine 135 and lysine 136, these sites were resistant to plasmin cleavage in vitro. Therefore, C-terminal fusions represent stable configurations for developing improved thrombolytic agents based on SAK as the plasminogen activator component. PMID:9925575

  3. Ca2+ activates human homologous recombination protein Rad51 by modulating its ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Bugreev, Dmitry V.; Mazin, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    Human Rad51 (hRad51) protein plays a key role in homologous recombination and DNA repair. hRad51 protein forms a helical filament on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which performs the basic steps of homologous recombination: a search for homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and DNA strand exchange. hRad51 protein possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity; however, the role of this activity has not been understood. Our current results show that Ca2+ greatly stimulates DNA strand exchange activity of hRad51 protein. We found that Ca2+ exerts its stimulatory effect by modulating the ATPase activity of hRad51 protein. Our data demonstrate that, in the presence of Mg2+, the hRad51-ATP-ssDNA filament is quickly converted to an inactive hRad51-ADP-ssDNA form, due to relatively rapid ATP hydrolysis and slow dissociation of ADP. Ca2+ maintains the active hRad51-ATP-ssDNA filament by reducing the ATP hydrolysis rate. These findings demonstrate a crucial role of the ATPase activity in regulation of DNA strand exchange activity of hRad51 protein. This mechanism of Rad51 protein regulation by modulating its ATPase activity is evolutionarily recent; we found no such mechanism for yeast Rad51 (yRad51) protein. PMID:15226506

  4. Phytochrome activation of two nuclear genes requires cytoplasmic protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, E; Green, P J; Wong, M; Chua, N H

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on light-induced expression of two plant nuclear genes, Cab and rbcS, in wheat, pea and transgenic tobacco. Light activation of these two genes is very sensitive to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis but not to chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of organellar protein synthesis. Studies with chimeric gene constructs in transgenic tobacco seedlings show that cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional level. As a control, we show that the expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter is enhanced by cycloheximide treatment, irrespective of the coding sequence used. Escape-time analyses with green wheat seedlings show that the cycloheximide block for Cab gene expression is after the primary signal transduction step linked to phytochrome photoconversion. Our results suggest that phytochrome activation of Cab and rbcS is mediated by a labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Images PMID:2583082

  5. Raman spectroscopy of antifreeze glycoproteins and their interaction with various substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Turner, G.; Alexander, V.; Smith, I.; Sease, A.; Guo, M.; Burger, A.; Morgan, S.; Yeh, Yin

    2004-11-01

    Micro-Raman spectra of a mixture of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) 6, 7 and 8 have been measured in the range of 100 - 4500 cm-1 with He-Ne laser excitation. The spectra were obtained for both bulk AFGP and films of AFGP deposited on various substrates. New vibrational peaks have been observed for films which are not present in the spectra of the bulk samples. The results will be presented and mechanisms of interaction between the AFGP molecule and substrates will be proposed. The assignment of new peaks and the effects of the water presence will also be discussed. Research supported by the NSF Center for Biophotonics, managed by U.C. Davis, CA No. PHY 0120999, NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates DMR-0139180 and by the MBRS program through NIH/NIGMS grant 1S06-GM62813-01.

  6. Nanomaterials for efficiently lowering the freezing point of anti-freeze coolants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haiping; Zheng, Yingsong; Roy, Walter

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we report, for the first time, the effect of the lowered freezing point in a 50% water/50% anti-freeze coolant (PAC) or 50% water/50% ethylene glycol (EG) solution by the addition of carbon nanotubes and other particles. The experimental results indicated that the nano materials are much more efficient (hundreds fold) in lowering the freezing point than the regular ionic materials (e.g., NaCl). The possible explanation for this interesting phenomenon is the colligative property of fluid and relative small size of nano material. It is quite certain that the carbon nanotubes and metal oxide nano particles could be a wonderful candidate for the nano coolant application because they could not only increase the thermal conductivity, but also efficiently lower the freezing point of traditional coolants. PMID:18019146

  7. Endocytosis of Seven-Transmembrane RGS Protein Activates G- protein Coupled Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Daisuke; Phan, Nguyen; Jones, Janice C.; Yang, Jing; Huang, Jirong; Grigston, Jeffrey; Taylor, J. Philip; Jones, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction typically begins by ligand-dependent activation of a concomitant partner which is otherwise in its resting state. However, in cases where signal activation is constitutive by default, the mechanism of regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric Gα protein self-activates without accessory proteins, and is kept in its resting state by the negative regulator, AtRGS1 (Regulator of G protein Signaling 1), which is the prototype of a seven transmembrane receptor fused with an RGS domain. Endocytosis of AtRGS1 by ligand-dependent endocytosis physically uncouples the GTPase accelerating activity of AtRGS1 from the Gα protein, permitting sustained activation. Phosphorylation of AtRGS1 by AtWNK8 kinase causes AtRGS1 endocytosis, required both for G protein-mediated sugar signaling and cell proliferation. In animals, receptor endocytosis results in signal desensitization, whereas in plants, endocytosis results in signal activation. These findings reveal how different organisms rearrange a regulatory system to result in opposite outcomes using similar phosphorylation-dependent endocytosis. PMID:22940907

  8. Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals.

    PubMed

    Lemon, P W

    2000-10-01

    There has been debate among athletes and nutritionists regarding dietary protein needs for centuries. Although contrary to traditional belief, recent scientific information collected on physically active individuals tends to indicate that regular exercise increases daily protein requirements; however, the precise details remain to be worked out. Based on laboratory measures, daily protein requirements are increased by perhaps as much as 100% vs. recommendations for sedentary individuals (1.6-1.8 vs. 0.8 g/kg). Yet even these intakes are much less than those reported by most athletes. This may mean that actual requirements are below what is needed to optimize athletic performance, and so the debate continues. Numerous interacting factors including energy intake, carbohydrate availability, exercise intensity, duration and type, dietary protein quality, training history, gender, age, timing of nutrient intake and the like make this topic extremely complex. Many questions remain to be resolved. At the present time, substantial data indicate that the current recommended protein intake should be adjusted upward for those who are physically active, especially in populations whose needs are elevated for other reasons, e.g., growing individuals, dieters, vegetarians, individuals with muscle disease-induced weakness and the elderly. For these latter groups, specific supplementation may be appropriate, but for most North Americans who consume a varied diet, including complete protein foods (meat, eggs, fish and dairy products), and sufficient energy the increased protein needs induced by a regular exercise program can be met in one's diet.

  9. A theoretical approach to spot active regions in antimicrobial proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Much effort goes into identifying new antimicrobial compounds able to evade the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. One strategy relies on antimicrobial peptides, either derived from fragments released by proteolytic cleavage of proteins or designed from known antimicrobial protein regions. Results To identify these antimicrobial determinants, we developed a theoretical approach that predicts antimicrobial proteins from their amino acid sequence in addition to determining their antimicrobial regions. A bactericidal propensity index has been calculated for each amino acid, using the experimental data reported from a high-throughput screening assay as reference. Scanning profiles were performed for protein sequences and potentially active stretches were identified by the best selected threshold parameters. The method was corroborated against positive and negative datasets. This successful approach means that we can spot active sequences previously reported in the literature from experimental data for most of the antimicrobial proteins examined. Conclusion The method presented can correctly identify antimicrobial proteins with an accuracy of 85% and a sensitivity of 90%. The method can also predict their key active regions, making this a tool for the design of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:19906288

  10. Angiogenic activity of an Onchocerca volvulus Ancylostoma secreted protein homologue.

    PubMed

    Higazi, Tarig B; Pearlman, Eric; Whikehart, David R; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2003-06-01

    Angiogenesis is an important step in the development of ocular onchocercaisis. In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that Onchocerca volvulus homologues of the Ancylostoma secreted protein family have pronounced angiogenic activity. The overall goal of the current study was to determine if this angiogenic effect is exerted through a direct or indirect mechanism. These studies focused on one member of this family, OvASP-2, as this protein is expressed in microfilaria, the stage of the parasite that causes ocular onchocercaisis. Clones encoding truncated and full length open reading frames were expressed as fusion proteins with Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP), and angiogenic activity was compared in vitro and in vivo with MBP alone. Truncated constructs expressing only the first 105 amino acids of OvASP-2 were as active as the full length protein in inducing new blood vessel formation. The full length fusion protein did not stimulate proliferation or production of vascular endothelial growth factor in vascular endothelial cells in vitro, indicating that OvASP-2 does not directly stimulate angiogenesis. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the gene encoding OvASP-2 contained five introns. Sequence comparisons of the genomic loci from West African blinding and non-blinding strains of O. volvulus revealed that some polymorphism existed among the various isolates tested. However, none of these polymorphisms could be used to differentiate the parasite strains, suggesting that qualitative variation in OvASP-2 could not explain the difference in ocular pathogenic potential of the two parasite strains.

  11. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  12. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them. PMID:27627343

  13. MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases (MKs): Novel Insights and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Downstream of MAPKs, such as classical/atypical ERKs and p38 MAPKs, but not of JNKs, signaling is often mediated by protein kinases which are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKs and, therefore, designated MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Recently, novel insights into the specificity of the assembly of MAPK/MAPKAPK hetero-dimeric protein kinase signaling complexes have been gained. In addition, new functional aspects of MKs have been described and established functions have been challenged. This short review will summarize recent developments including the linear motif (LM) in MKs, the ERK-independent activation of RSK, the RSK-independent effects of some RSK-inhibitors and the challenged role of MK5/PRAK in tumor suppression. PMID:26779481

  14. Sterol carrier protein2-like activity in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, A; Wadsworth, J A; Chanderbhan, R; Wiesenfeld, P; Noland, B; Scallen, T; Vahouny, G V; Gallo, L L

    1988-03-01

    A sterol carrier protein2 (SCP2)-like activity has been demonstrated in rat intestinal mucosal homogenates and in isolated intestinal cells from both crypt and villus zones. The results indicate the presence of a protein with similar molecular weight and antigenicity to that of authentic SCP2 purified from rat liver cytosol. Like liver SCP2, mucosal cytosol stimulates pregnenolone production in rat adrenal mitochondria and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity of liver and mucosal microsomes. The distribution of SCP2-like activity as determined by radioimmunoassay indicates high levels in mitochondria and cytosol and relatively lower levels in microsomes and in brush-border membranes. The widespread distribution of SCP2-like protein in the intestine is consistent with potential transfer functions in all phases of cholesterol processing. PMID:3379341

  15. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  16. Signal peptides are allosteric activators of the protein translocase

    PubMed Central

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Gelis, Ioannis; Kalodimos, Charalampos G.; Economou, Anastassios

    2010-01-01

    Extra-cytoplasmic polypeptides are usually synthesized as “preproteins” carrying aminoterminal, cleavable signal peptides1 and secreted across membranes by translocases. The main bacterial translocase comprises the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the peripheral ATPase motor SecA2,3. Most proteins destined for the periplasm and beyond are exported post-translationally by SecA2,3. Preprotein targeting to SecA is thought to involve signal peptides4 and chaperones like SecB5,6. Here we reveal that signal peptides have a novel role beyond targeting: they are essential allosteric activators of the translocase. Upon docking on their binding groove on SecA, signal peptides act in trans to drive three successive states: first, “triggering” that drives the translocase to a lower activation energy state; then “trapping” that engages non-native preprotein mature domains docked with high affinity on the secretion apparatus and, finally, “secretion” during which trapped mature domains undergo multiple turnovers of translocation in segments7. A significant contribution by mature domains renders signal peptides less critical in bacterial secretory protein targeting than currently assumed. Rather, it is their function as allosteric activators of the translocase that renders signal peptides essential for protein secretion. A role for signal peptides and targeting sequences as allosteric activators may be universal in protein translocases. PMID:19924216

  17. Complement activation and protein adsorption by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Sim, Edith; Sloan, Jeremy; Green, Malcolm L H; Sim, Robert B

    2006-02-01

    As a first step to validate the use of carbon nanotubes as novel vaccine or drug delivery devices, their interaction with a part of the human immune system, complement, has been explored. Haemolytic assays were conducted to investigate the activation of the human serum complement system via the classical and alternative pathways. Western blot and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) techniques were used to elucidate the mechanism of activation of complement via the classical pathway, and to analyse the interaction of complement and other plasma proteins with carbon nanotubes. We report for the first time that carbon nanotubes activate human complement via both classical and alternative pathways. We conclude that complement activation by nanotubes is consistent with reported adjuvant effects, and might also in various circumstances promote damaging effects of excessive complement activation, such as inflammation and granuloma formation. C1q binds directly to carbon nanotubes. Protein binding to carbon nanotubes is highly selective, since out of the many different proteins in plasma, very few bind to the carbon nanotubes. Fibrinogen and apolipoproteins (AI, AIV and CIII) were the proteins that bound to carbon nanotubes in greatest quantity.

  18. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.

  19. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  20. Actions of Rho family small G proteins and p21-activated protein kinases on mitogen-activated protein kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Xu, S; Hutchison, M R; Marcus, S; Cobb, M H

    1996-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by distinct extracellular stimuli. The currently known members include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), and p38 MAP kinases. We find that overexpression of the Ste20-related enzymes p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK2 in 293 cells is sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK and to a lesser extent p38 MAP kinase but not ERK2. Rat MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 can stimulate the activity of each of these MAP kinases. Although neither activated Rac nor the PAKs stimulate ERK2 activity, overexpression of either dominant negative Rac2 or the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1 inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK2, suggesting a permissive role for Rac in the control of the ERK pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rac2, Cdc42hs, and RhoA synergize with an activated form of Raf to increase ERK2 activity. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection between Rho family small G proteins and the ERK pathway. PMID:8668187

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is a major regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis that coordinates metabolic pathways in order to balance nutrient supply with energy demand. It is now recognized that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents. Indeed, AMPK activation mimics the beneficial effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets. In addition it is now demonstrated that AMPK is one of the probable (albeit indirect) targets of major antidiabetic drugs including, the biguanides (metformin) and thiazolidinediones, as well as of insulin sensitizing adipokines (e.g., adiponectin). Taken together, such findings highlight the logic underlying the concept of targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21484577

  2. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  3. Controlling Protein Activity and Degradation Using Blue Light.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Anne P; Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein stability is a fundamental process in eukaryotic cells and pivotal to, e.g., cell cycle progression, faithful chromosome segregation, or protein quality control. Synthetic regulation of protein stability requires conditional degradation sequences (degrons) that induce a stability switch upon a specific signal. Fusion to a selected target protein permits to influence virtually every process in a cell. Light as signal is advantageous due to its precise applicability in time, space, quality, and quantity. Light control of protein stability was achieved by fusing the LOV2 photoreceptor domain of Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin1 with a synthetic degron (cODC1) derived from the carboxy-terminal degron of ornithine decarboxylase to obtain the photosensitive degron (psd) module. The psd module can be attached to the carboxy terminus of target proteins that are localized to the cytosol or nucleus to obtain light control over their stability. Blue light induces structural changes in the LOV2 domain, which in turn lead to activation of the degron and thus proteasomal degradation of the whole fusion protein. Variants of the psd module with diverse characteristics are useful to fine-tune the stability of a selected target at permissive (darkness) and restrictive conditions (blue light). PMID:26965116

  4. Altered Activation of Protein Kinase PKR and Enhanced Apoptosis in Dystonia Cells Carrying a Mutation in PKR Activator Protein PACT*

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Lauren S; Bragg, D. Cristopher; Sharma, Nutan; Camargos, Sarah; Cardoso, Francisco; Patel, Rekha C

    2015-01-01

    PACT is a stress-modulated activator of the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). Stress-induced phosphorylation of PACT is essential for PACT's association with PKR leading to PKR activation. PKR activation leads to phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α inhibition of protein synthesis and apoptosis. A recessively inherited form of early-onset dystonia DYT16 has been recently identified to arise due to a homozygous missense mutation P222L in PACT. To examine if the mutant P222L protein alters the stress-response pathway, we examined the ability of mutant P222L to interact with and activate PKR. Our results indicate that the substitution mutant P222L activates PKR more robustly and for longer duration albeit with slower kinetics in response to the endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, the affinity of PACT-PACT and PACT-PKR interactions is enhanced in dystonia patient lymphoblasts, thereby leading to intensified PKR activation and enhanced cellular death. P222L mutation also changes the affinity of PACT-TRBP interaction after cellular stress, thereby offering a mechanism for the delayed PKR activation in response to stress. Our results demonstrate the impact of a dystonia-causing substitution mutation on stress-induced cellular apoptosis. PMID:26231208

  5. Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Su, Tingwei; Jiang, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Cao, Yanan; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    The association of pathological features of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) with somatic driver mutations and their molecular classification remain unclear. In this study, we explored the association between steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and the driver mutations activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling to identify the pathological markers of ACAs. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR and mutations in the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA), protein kinase cAMP-dependent type I regulatory subunit alpha (PRKAR1A) and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS) genes were examined in 97 ACAs. The association of StAR expression with the clinical and mutational features of the ACAs was analyzed. ACAs with mutations in PRKACA, GNAS, and PRKAR1A showed strong immunopositive staining for StAR. The concordance between high StAR expression and mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling in the ACAs was 99.0%. ACAs with high expression of StAR had significantly smaller tumor volume (P < 0.001) and higher urinary cortisol per tumor volume (P = 0.032) than those with low expression of StAR. Our findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining for StAR is a reliable pathological approach for the diagnosis and classification of ACAs with cAMP/PKA signaling-activating mutations. PMID:27606678

  6. Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiwei; Wu, Luming; Xie, Jing; Su, Tingwei; Jiang, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Cao, Yanan; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    The association of pathological features of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) with somatic driver mutations and their molecular classification remain unclear. In this study, we explored the association between steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and the driver mutations activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling to identify the pathological markers of ACAs. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR and mutations in the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA), protein kinase cAMP-dependent type I regulatory subunit alpha (PRKAR1A) and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS) genes were examined in 97 ACAs. The association of StAR expression with the clinical and mutational features of the ACAs was analyzed. ACAs with mutations in PRKACA, GNAS, and PRKAR1A showed strong immunopositive staining for StAR. The concordance between high StAR expression and mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling in the ACAs was 99.0%. ACAs with high expression of StAR had significantly smaller tumor volume (P < 0.001) and higher urinary cortisol per tumor volume (P = 0.032) than those with low expression of StAR. Our findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining for StAR is a reliable pathological approach for the diagnosis and classification of ACAs with cAMP/PKA signaling-activating mutations.

  7. Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiwei; Wu, Luming; Xie, Jing; Su, Tingwei; Jiang, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Cao, Yanan; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    The association of pathological features of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) with somatic driver mutations and their molecular classification remain unclear. In this study, we explored the association between steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and the driver mutations activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling to identify the pathological markers of ACAs. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR and mutations in the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA), protein kinase cAMP-dependent type I regulatory subunit alpha (PRKAR1A) and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS) genes were examined in 97 ACAs. The association of StAR expression with the clinical and mutational features of the ACAs was analyzed. ACAs with mutations in PRKACA, GNAS, and PRKAR1A showed strong immunopositive staining for StAR. The concordance between high StAR expression and mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling in the ACAs was 99.0%. ACAs with high expression of StAR had significantly smaller tumor volume (P < 0.001) and higher urinary cortisol per tumor volume (P = 0.032) than those with low expression of StAR. Our findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining for StAR is a reliable pathological approach for the diagnosis and classification of ACAs with cAMP/PKA signaling-activating mutations. PMID:27606678

  8. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Antony J.; Thomson, Andrew R.; Dawson, William M.; Brady, R. Leo; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine-histidine-glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis.

  9. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Antony J.; Thomson, Andrew R.; Dawson, William M.; Brady, R. Leo; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine–histidine–glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis.

  10. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework.

    PubMed

    Burton, Antony J; Thomson, Andrew R; Dawson, William M; Brady, R Leo; Woolfson, Derek N

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine-histidine-glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis. PMID:27554410

  11. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing machine Chest x-ray CT scan (advanced brain imaging) EKG (electrocardiogram or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to reverse the effects of the poison Tube placed ... Sometimes the person will need it for the rest of their life.

  12. Protein kinase A activity and Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Tomoya

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a well-known kinase that plays fundamental roles in a variety of biological processes. In Hedgehog-responsive cells, PKA plays key roles in proliferation and fate specification by modulating the transduction of Hedgehog signaling. In the absence of Hedgehog, a basal level of PKA activity represses the transcription of Hedgehog target genes. The main substrates of PKA in this process are the Ci/Gli family of bipotential transcription factors, which activate and repress Hedgehog target gene expression. PKA phosphorylates Ci/Gli, promoting the production of the repressor forms of Ci/Gli and thus repressing Hedgehog target gene expression. In contrast, the activation of Hedgehog signaling in response to Hedgehog increases the active forms of Ci/Gli, resulting in Hedgehog target gene expression. Because both decreased and increased levels of PKA activity cause abnormal cell proliferation and alter cell fate specification, the basal level of PKA activity in Hedgehog-responsive cells should be precisely regulated. However, the mechanism by which PKA activity is regulated remains obscure and appears to vary between cell types, tissues, and organisms. To date, two mechanisms have been proposed. One is a classical mechanism in which PKA activity is regulated by a small second messenger, cAMP; the other is a novel mechanism in which PKA activity is regulated by a protein, Misty somites. PMID:22391308

  13. Monitoring Brain Activity with Protein Voltage and Calcium Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storace, Douglas A.; Braubach, Oliver R.; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo. PMID:25970202

  14. Monitoring brain activity with protein voltage and calcium sensors.

    PubMed

    Storace, Douglas A; Braubach, Oliver R; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B; Sung, Uhna

    2015-05-13

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo.

  15. Protein synthesis inhibitors reveal differential regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and stress-activated protein kinase pathways that converge on Elk-1.

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, R; Cahill, M A; Kracht, M; Sachsenmaier, C; Hipskind, R A; Nordheim, A

    1995-01-01

    Inhibitors of protein synthesis, such as anisomycin and cycloheximide, lead to superinduction of immediate-early genes. We demonstrate that these two drugs activate intracellular signaling pathways involving both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascades. The activation of either pathway correlates with phosphorylation of the c-fos regulatory transcription factor Elk-1. In HeLa cells, anisomycin stabilizes c-fos mRNA when protein synthesis is inhibited to only 50%. Under these conditions, anisomycin, in contrast to cycloheximide, rapidly induces kinase activation and efficient Elk-1 phosphorylation. However, full inhibition of translation by either drug leads to prolonged activation of SAPK activity, while MAPK induction is transient. This correlates with prolonged Elk-1 phosphorylation and c-fos transcription. Elk-1 induction and c-fos activation are also observed in KB cells, in which anisomycin strongly induces SAPKs but not MAPKs. Purified p54 SAPK alpha efficiently phosphorylates the Elk-1 C-terminal domain in vitro and comigrates with anisomycin-activated kinases in in-gel kinase assays. Thus, Elk-1 provides a potential convergence point for the MAPK and SAPK signaling pathways. The activation of signal cascades and control of transcription factor function therefore represent prominent processes in immediate-early gene superinduction. PMID:7651411

  16. Immersion freezing of ice nucleating active protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Niedermeier, D.; Wex, H.; Stratmann, F.

    2012-08-01

    Biological particles, e.g. bacteria and their Ice Nucleating Active (INA) protein complexes, might play an important role for the ice formation in atmospheric mixed-phase clouds. Therefore, the immersion freezing behavior of INA protein complexes generated from a SnomaxTM solution/suspension was investigated as function of temperature in a range of -5 °C to -38 °C at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). The immersion freezing of droplets containing small numbers of INA protein complexes occurs in a temperature range of -7 °C and -10 °C. The experiments performed in the lower temperature range, where all droplets freeze which contain at least one INA protein complex, are used to determine the average number of INA protein complexes present, assuming that the INA protein complexes are Poisson distributed over the droplet ensemble. Knowing the average number of INA protein complexes, the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate and rate coefficient of a single INA protein complex is determined by using the newly-developed CHESS model (stoCHastic model of idEntical poiSSon distributed ice nuclei). Therefore, we assume the ice nucleation process to be of stochastic nature, and a parameterization of the INA protein complex's nucleation rate. Analyzing the results of immersion freezing experiments from literature (SnomaxTM and Pseudomonas syringae bacteria), to results gained in this study, demonstrates that first, a similar temperature dependence of the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate for a single INA protein complex was found in all experiments, second, the shift of the ice fraction curves to higher temperatures can be explained consistently by a higher average number of INA protein complexes being present in the droplet ensemble, and finally the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate of one single INA protein complex might be also applicable for intact Pseudomonas syringae bacteria cells. The results obtained in this study allow a new perspective on the

  17. Activation of immobilized, biotinylated choleragen AI protein by a 19-kilodalton guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Bobak, D A; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1989-09-19

    Cholera toxin catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation that results in activation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein of the adenylyl cyclase system, known as Gs. The toxin also ADP-ribosylates other proteins and simple guanidino compounds and auto-ADP-ribosylates its AI protein (CTA1). All of the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of CTAI are enhanced by 19-21-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors, or ARFs. CTAI contains a single cysteine located near the carboxy terminus. CTAI was immobilized through this cysteine by reaction with iodoacetyl-N-biotinyl-hexylenediamine and binding of the resulting biotinylated protein to avidin-agarose. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed the ARF-stimulated ADP-ribosylation of agmatine. The reaction was enhanced by detergents and phospholipid, but the fold stimulation by purified sARF-II from bovine brain was considerably less than that observed with free CTA. ADP-ribosylation of Gsa by immobilized CTAI, which was somewhat enhanced by sARF-II, was much less than predicted on the basis of the NAD:agmatine ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed its own auto-ADP-ribosylation as well as the ADP-ribosylation of the immobilized avidin and CTA2, with relatively little stimulation by sARF-II. ADP-ribosylation of CTA2 by free CTAI is minimal. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the cysteine near the carboxy terminus of the toxin is not critical for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity or for its regulation by sARF-II. Biotinylation and immobilization of the toxin through this cysteine may, however, limit accessibility to Gsa or SARF-II, or perhaps otherwise reduce interaction with these proteins whether as substrates or activator.

  18. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  19. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  20. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  1. Rat C-reactive protein activates the autologous complement system.

    PubMed

    Diaz Padilla, Niubel; Bleeker, Wim K; Lubbers, Yvonne; Rigter, Gemma M M; Van Mierlo, Gerard J; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2003-08-01

    Activation of complement is a biological function of human C-reactive protein (hCRP), whereas rat CRP (rCRP) has been claimed to be unable to activate complement. As important biological functions of proteins are probably conserved among species, we re-evaluated, using various ligands, the capability of rCRP to activate complement. The activation of complement by hCRP and rCRP was investigated in solid- and fluid-phase systems. In the solid-phase system, purified CRP was fixed to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates and incubated with human or rat recalcified plasma. Dose-dependent binding of human and rat C3 and C4 was observed to human and rat CRP, respectively. In the fluid-phase system, recalcified rat plasma, which contains about 500 mg/l of CRP, or human plasma supplemented with hCRP, were incubated with lyso-phosphatidylcholine. A dose-dependent activation of complement was observed upon incubation with this ligand, as reflected by the generation of activated C4 as well as of CRP-complement complexes. This activation was, in both cases, inhibited by preincubation of plasma with p-aminophosphorylcholine, a specific inhibitor of the interaction of CRP with its ligands, or by chelation of calcium ions. We conclude that rat CRP, similarly to human CRP, can activate autologous complement. These results support the notion that opsonization of ligands with complement is an important biological function of CRP.

  2. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID.

    PubMed

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês C R; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  3. Pivotal Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Inflammatory Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Deng, Jing; Wang, Gang; Ye, Richard D.; Christman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase (MK2) is exclusively regulated by p38 MAPK in vivo. Upon activation of p38 MAPK, MK2 binds with p38 MAPK, leading to phosphorylation of TTP, Hsp27, Akt and Cdc25 that are involved in regulation of various essential cellular functions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of MK2 in regulation of TNF-α production, NADPH oxidase activation, neutrophil migration, and DNA-damage-induced cell cycle arrest which are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Collectively current and emerging new information indicate that developing MK2 inhibitors and blocking MK2-mediated signal pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:26119506

  4. RNF4-Dependent Oncogene Activation by Protein Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jane J; Abed, Mona; Heuberger, Julian; Novak, Rostislav; Zohar, Yaniv; Beltran Lopez, Angela P; Trausch-Azar, Julie S; Ilagan, Ma Xenia G; Benhamou, David; Dittmar, Gunnar; Kopan, Raphael; Birchmeier, Walter; Schwartz, Alan L; Orian, Amir

    2016-09-20

    Ubiquitylation regulates signaling pathways critical for cancer development and, in many cases, targets proteins for degradation. Here, we report that ubiquitylation by RNF4 stabilizes otherwise short-lived oncogenic transcription factors, including β-catenin, Myc, c-Jun, and the Notch intracellular-domain (N-ICD) protein. RNF4 enhances the transcriptional activity of these factors, as well as Wnt- and Notch-dependent gene expression. While RNF4 is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, protein stabilization requires the substrate's phosphorylation, rather than SUMOylation, and binding to RNF4's arginine-rich motif domain. Stabilization also involves generation of unusual polyubiquitin chains and docking of RNF4 to chromatin. Biologically, RNF4 enhances the tumor phenotype and is essential for cancer cell survival. High levels of RNF4 mRNA correlate with poor survival of a subgroup of breast cancer patients, and RNF4 protein levels are elevated in 30% of human colon adenocarcinomas. Thus, RNF4-dependent ubiquitylation translates transient phosphorylation signal(s) into long-term protein stabilization, resulting in enhanced oncoprotein activation. PMID:27653698

  5. A Novel Method for Assessing the Chaperone Activity of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hristozova, Nevena; Tompa, Peter; Kovacs, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Protein chaperones are molecular machines which function both during homeostasis and stress conditions in all living organisms. Depending on their specific function, molecular chaperones are involved in a plethora of cellular processes by playing key roles in nascent protein chain folding, transport and quality control. Among stress protein families–molecules expressed during adverse conditions, infection, and diseases–chaperones are highly abundant. Their molecular functions range from stabilizing stress-susceptible molecules and membranes to assisting the refolding of stress-damaged proteins, thereby acting as protective barriers against cellular damage. Here we propose a novel technique to test and measure the capability for protective activity of known and putative chaperones in a semi-high throughput manner on a plate reader. The current state of the art does not allow the in vitro measurements of chaperone activity in a highly parallel manner with high accuracy or high reproducibility, thus we believe that the method we report will be of significant benefit in this direction. The use of this method may lead to a considerable increase in the number of experimentally verified proteins with such functions, and may also allow the dissection of their molecular mechanism for a better understanding of their function. PMID:27564234

  6. Redox Control of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Yalemi; Nitzel, Damon V.; Price, Owen M.; Gui, Shanying; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Hevel, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) correlate with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. ADMA is generated by the catabolism of proteins methylated on arginine residues by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Reports have shown that dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity is down-regulated and PRMT1 protein expression is up-regulated under oxidative stress conditions, leading many to conclude that ADMA accumulation occurs via increased synthesis by PRMTs and decreased degradation. However, we now report that the methyltransferase activity of PRMT1, the major PRMT isoform in humans, is impaired under oxidative conditions. Oxidized PRMT1 displays decreased activity, which can be rescued by reduction. This oxidation event involves one or more cysteine residues that become oxidized to sulfenic acid (-SOH). We demonstrate a hydrogen peroxide concentration-dependent inhibition of PRMT1 activity that is readily reversed under physiological H2O2 concentrations. Our results challenge the unilateral view that increased PRMT1 expression necessarily results in increased ADMA synthesis and demonstrate that enzymatic activity can be regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. PMID:25911106

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S; Testerink, C; Wang, M

    2000-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C), calcium, potassium, pH and a transient activation of MAP kinase. The ABA signal transduction cascades have been shown to be tissue-specific, the transient activation of MAP kinase has until now only been found in barley aleurone cells. However, type 2C phosphatases are involved in the induction of most ABA responses, as shown by the PP2C-deficient abi-mutants. These phosphatases show high homology with phosphatases that regulate MAP kinase activity in yeast. In addition, the role of farnesyl transferase as a negative regulator of ABA responses also indicates towards involvement of MAP kinase in ABA signal transduction. Farnesyl transferase is known to regulate Ras proteins, Ras proteins in turn are known to regulate MAP kinase activation. Interestingly, Ras-like proteins were detected in barley aleurone cells. Further establishment of the involvement of MAP kinase in ABA signal transduction and its role therein, still awaits more study.

  8. Protein kinase C controls activation of the DNA integrity checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Carot, María; Quilis, Inma; Bañó, M. Carmen; Igual, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily plays key regulatory roles in numerous cellular processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a single PKC, Pkc1, whose main function is cell wall integrity maintenance. In this work, we connect the Pkc1 protein to the maintenance of genome integrity in response to genotoxic stresses. Pkc1 and its kinase activity are necessary for the phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase Rad53, histone H2A and Xrs2 protein after deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, indicating that Pkc1 is required for activation of checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Tel1. Furthermore, Pkc1 electrophoretic mobility is delayed after inducing DNA damage, which reflects that Pkc1 is post-translationally modified. This modification is a phosphorylation event mediated by Tel1. The expression of different mammalian PKC isoforms at the endogenous level in yeast pkc1 mutant cells revealed that PKCδ is able to activate the DNA integrity checkpoint. Finally, downregulation of PKCδ activity in HeLa cells caused a defective activation of checkpoint kinase Chk2 when DNA damage was induced. Our results indicate that the control of the DNA integrity checkpoint by PKC is a mechanism conserved from yeast to humans. PMID:24792164

  9. Activation of autophagy by unfolded proteins during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochen; Srivastava, Renu; Howell, Stephen H; Bassham, Diane C

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is defined as the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and is caused by conditions such as heat or agents that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, including tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Autophagy, a major pathway for degradation of macromolecules in the vacuole, is activated by these stress agents in a manner dependent on inositol-requiring enzyme 1b (IRE1b), and delivers endoplasmic reticulum fragments to the vacuole for degradation. In this study, we examined the mechanism for activation of autophagy during endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. The chemical chaperones sodium 4-phenylbutyrate and tauroursodeoxycholic acid were found to reduce tunicamycin- or dithiothreitol-induced autophagy, but not autophagy caused by unrelated stresses. Similarly, over-expression of BINDING IMMUNOGLOBULIN PROTEIN (BIP), encoding a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) molecular chaperone, reduced autophagy. Autophagy activated by heat stress was also found to be partially dependent on IRE1b and to be inhibited by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, suggesting that heat-induced autophagy is due to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression in Arabidopsis of the misfolded protein mimics zeolin or a mutated form of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) also induced autophagy in an IRE1b-dependent manner. Moreover, zeolin and CPY* partially co-localized with the autophagic body marker GFP-ATG8e, indicating delivery to the vacuole by autophagy. We conclude that accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum is a trigger for autophagy under conditions that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26616142

  10. Current activities of the Yersinia effector protein YopM.

    PubMed

    Höfling, Sabrina; Grabowski, Benjamin; Norkowski, Stefanie; Schmidt, M Alexander; Rüter, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Yersinia outer protein M (YopM) belongs to the group of Yop effector proteins, which are highly conserved among pathogenic Yersinia species. During infection, the effectors are delivered into the host cell cytoplasm via the type 3 secretion system to subvert the host immune response and support the survival of Yersinia. In contrast to the other Yop effectors, YopM does not possess a known enzymatic activity and its molecular mechanism(s) of action remain(s) poorly understood. However, YopM was shown to promote colonization and dissemination of Yersinia, thus being crucial for the pathogen's virulence in vivo. Moreover, YopM interacts with several host cell proteins and might utilize them to execute its anti-inflammatory activities. The results obtained so far indicate that YopM is a multifunctional protein that counteracts the host immune defense by multiple activities, which are at least partially independent of each other. Finally, its functions seem to be also influenced by differences between the specific YopM isoforms expressed by Yersinia subspecies. In this review, we focus on the global as well as more specific contribution of YopM to virulence of Yersinia during infection and point out the various extra- and intracellular molecular functions of YopM. In addition, the novel cell-penetrating ability of recombinant YopM and its potential applications as a self-delivering immunomodulatory therapeutic will be discussed.

  11. Pharmacological activities in thermal proteins: relationships in molecular evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Hefti, F.; Hartikka, J.; Junard, E.; Przybylski, A. T.; Vaughan, G.

    1987-01-01

    The model of protobiological events that has been presented in these pages has increasing relevance to pharmacological research. The thermal proteins that function as key substances in the proteinoid theory have recently been found to prolong the survival of rat forebrain neurons in culture and to stimulate the growth of neurites. A search for such activity in thermal proteins added to cultures of modern neurons was suggested by the fact that some of the microspheres assembled from proteinoids rich in hydrophobic amino acids themselves generate fibrous outgrowths.

  12. Pharmacological activities in thermal proteins: relationships in molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Fox, S W; Hefti, F; Hartikka, J; Junard, E; Przybylski, A T; Vaughan, G

    1987-01-01

    The model of protobiological events that has been presented in these pages has increasing relevance to pharmacological research. The thermal proteins that function as key substances in the proteinoid theory have recently been found to prolong the survival of rat forebrain neurons in culture and to stimulate the growth of neurites. A search for such activity in thermal proteins added to cultures of modern neurons was suggested by the fact that some of the microspheres assembled from proteinoids rich in hydrophobic amino acids themselves generate fibrous outgrowths.

  13. Protein Kinase Cδ Mediates Neurogenic but Not Mitogenic Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Corbit, Kevin C.; Foster, David A.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    1999-01-01

    In several neuronal cell systems, fibroblast-derived growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) act as neurogenic agents, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts as a mitogen. The mechanisms responsible for these different cellular fates are unclear. We report here that although FGF, NGF, and EGF all activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) in rat hippocampal (H19-7) and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, the activation of ERK by the neurogenic agents FGF and NGF is dependent upon protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), whereas ERK activation in response to the mitogenic EGF is independent of PKCδ. Antisense PKCδ oligonucleotides or the PKCδ-specific inhibitor rottlerin inhibited FGF- and NGF-induced, but not EGF-induced, ERK activation. In contrast, EGF-induced ERK activation was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which had no effect upon FGF-induced ERK activation. Rottlerin also inhibited the activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) in response to activated Raf, but had no effect upon c-Raf activity or ERK activation by activated MEK. These results indicate that PKCδ functions either downstream from or in parallel with c-Raf, but upstream of MEK. Inhibition of PKCδ also blocked neurite outgrowth induced by FGF and NGF in PC12 cells and by activated Raf in H19-7 cells, indicating a role for PKCδ in the neurogenic effects of FGF, NGF, and Raf. Interestingly, the PKCδ requirement is apparently cell type specific, since FGF-induced ERK activation was independent of PKCδ in NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts, in which FGF is a mitogen. These data demonstrate that PKCδ contributes to growth factor specificity and response in neuronal cells and may also promote cell-type-specific differences in growth factor signaling. PMID:10330161

  14. Novel condensation products having high activity to insolubilize proteins and protein-insolubilized products

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnobajew, V.; Boeniger, R.

    1980-01-01

    According to the invention a substantially more active product with respect to the fixing or insolubilization pf proteins, including enzymes, is obtained when 1,3 phenylenediamine is condensed with glutardialdehyde. One application of the process is the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose in milk products by lactase.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of activated protein C in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H. Jr.; Kirstein, C.G.; Orthner, C.L. )

    1991-05-15

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen of the serine protease, activated protein C (APC), an important regulatory enzyme in hemostasis. In view of the potential of human APC as an anticoagulant and profibrinolytic agent, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of APC were studied in guinea pigs. The plasma elimination of a trace dose of {sup 125}I-APC was biphasic following an initial rapid elimination of approximately 15% of the injected dose within 1 to 2 minutes. This rapid removal of {sup 125}I-APC from the circulation was found to be a result of an association with the liver regardless of the route of injection. Essentially identical results were obtained with active site-blocked forms of APC generated with either diisopropylfluorophosphate or D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone, which indicates that the active site was not essential for the liver association. Accumulation of all three forms of APC in the liver peaked at 30 minutes and then declined as increasing amounts of degraded radiolabeled material appeared in the gastrointestinal tract and urine. Removal of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) domain of diisopropylphosphoryl-APC resulted in a 50% reduction in the association with liver and an accumulation in the kidneys. Protein C and protein S were cleared from the circulation at rates approximately one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of APC. Both in vitro and in vivo, APC was found to form complexes with protease inhibitors present in guinea pig plasma. Complex formation resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the enzymatic activity of APC than elimination of the protein moiety. These findings indicate two distinct mechanisms for the elimination of APC. One mechanism involves reaction with plasma protease inhibitors and subsequent elimination by specific hepatic receptors. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Functions of AMP-activated protein kinase in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Daval, Marie; Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Its functions have been extensively studied in muscles and liver. AMPK stimulates pathways which increase energy production (glucose transport, fatty acid oxidation) and switches off pathways which consume energy (lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis). This has led to the concept that AMPK has an interesting pharmaceutical potential in situations of insulin resistance and it is indeed the target of existing drugs and hormones which improve insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is a key player in energy metabolism through the release of substrates and hormones involved in metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Activation of AMPK in adipose tissue can be achieved through situations such as fasting and exercise. Leptin and adiponectin as well as hypoglycaemic drugs are activators of adipose tissue AMPK. This activation probably involves changes in the AMP/ATP ratio and the upstream kinase LKB1. When activated, AMPK limits fatty acid efflux from adipocytes and favours local fatty acid oxidation. Since fatty acids have a key role in insulin resistance, especially in muscles, activating AMPK in adipose tissue might be found to be beneficial in insulin-resistant states, particularly as AMPK activation also reduces cytokine secretion in adipocytes. PMID:16709632

  17. Activation of G Proteins by Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Relies on GTPase Activity.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Rob J; Thomas, Geraint M H

    2016-01-01

    G proteins are an important family of signalling molecules controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity in what is commonly called an 'activation/inactivation cycle'. The molecular mechanism by which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyse the activation of monomeric G proteins is well-established, however the complete reversibility of this mechanism is often overlooked. Here, we use a theoretical approach to prove that GEFs are unable to positively control G protein systems at steady-state in the absence of GTPase activity. Instead, positive regulation of G proteins must be seen as a product of the competition between guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity--emphasising a central role for GTPase activity beyond merely signal termination. We conclude that a more accurate description of the regulation of G proteins via these processes is as a 'balance/imbalance' mechanism. This result has implications for the understanding of intracellular signalling processes, and for experimental strategies that rely on modulating G protein systems. PMID:26986850

  18. Regulation of taurine transporter activity in LLC-PK1 cells: role of protein synthesis and protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P; Miller, L A; Dowling, C; Chesney, R W

    1991-11-01

    Taurine transporter activity increases after exposure of cultured renal epithelial cells to taurine-free medium for 24 h and decreases after incubation in high (500 microM) taurine. This adaptive response mimics that observed in rat kidney after manipulation of dietary taurine. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in the regulation of beta-amino acid transporter activity, the role of RNA transcription, protein synthesis, and protein import (trafficking), as well as protein kinase C activation, on the control of taurine transport was examined in the continuous proximally derived LLC-PK1 renal cell line. Inhibition of RNA transcription with actinomycin D did not alter the up-regulatory and down-regulatory adaptive responses. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented the increased taurine transport in response to taurine-free medium as well as the decrease in taurine transport after exposure to high taurine. Colchicine prevented the response to taurine-free medium but had no effect on the response to high-taurine medium. Exposure of confluent cell monolayers to the active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, resulted in a reduction in taurine uptake. The effect was seen within minutes of exposure but was not observed in the presence of the inactive phorbol 4-alpha. This inhibitory action was blocked by staurosporin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Treatment of cells with the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022, which results in increased intracellular diacylglycerol, a natural stimulant of PKC, also inhibited taurine uptake, providing further evidence for a specific effect of PKC activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation. PMID:25837301

  20. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  1. Antibacterial activity of a lectin-like Burkholderia cenocepacia protein.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Canck, Evelien; Wattiau, Pierre; Van Winge, Iris; Loris, Remy; Coenye, Tom; De Mot, René

    2013-08-01

    Bacteriocins of the LlpA family have previously been characterized in the γ-proteobacteria Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. These proteins are composed of two MMBL (monocot mannose-binding lectin) domains, a module predominantly and abundantly found in lectins from monocot plants. Genes encoding four different types of LlpA-like proteins were identified in genomes from strains belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei group. A selected recombinant LlpA-like protein from the human isolate Burkholderia cenocepacia AU1054 displayed narrow-spectrum genus-specific antibacterial activity, thus representing the first functionally characterized bacteriocin within this β-proteobacterial genus. Strain-specific killing was confined to other members of the Bcc, with mostly Burkholderia ambifaria strains being susceptible. In addition to killing planktonic cells, this bacteriocin also acted as an antibiofilm agent.

  2. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  3. Antibacterial activity of a lectin-like Burkholderia cenocepacia protein.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Canck, Evelien; Wattiau, Pierre; Van Winge, Iris; Loris, Remy; Coenye, Tom; De Mot, René

    2013-08-01

    Bacteriocins of the LlpA family have previously been characterized in the γ-proteobacteria Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. These proteins are composed of two MMBL (monocot mannose-binding lectin) domains, a module predominantly and abundantly found in lectins from monocot plants. Genes encoding four different types of LlpA-like proteins were identified in genomes from strains belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei group. A selected recombinant LlpA-like protein from the human isolate Burkholderia cenocepacia AU1054 displayed narrow-spectrum genus-specific antibacterial activity, thus representing the first functionally characterized bacteriocin within this β-proteobacterial genus. Strain-specific killing was confined to other members of the Bcc, with mostly Burkholderia ambifaria strains being susceptible. In addition to killing planktonic cells, this bacteriocin also acted as an antibiofilm agent. PMID:23737242

  4. Novel mechanisms for activated protein C cytoprotective activities involving noncanonical activation of protease-activated receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Laurent; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2013-08-01

    The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC's cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC's cytoprotective versus thrombin's proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects. PMID:23788139

  5. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity of CD45 is activated by sequential phosphorylation by two kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Stover, D R; Walsh, K A

    1994-01-01

    We describe a potential regulatory mechanism for the transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Phosphorylation on both tyrosine and serine residues in vitro results in an activation of CD45 specifically toward one artificial substrate but not another. The activation of these kinases appears to be order dependent, as it is enhanced when phosphorylation of tyrosine precedes that of serine but phosphorylation in the reverse order yields no activation. Any of four protein-tyrosine kinases tested, in combination with the protein-serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase II, was capable of mediating this activation in vitro. The time course of phosphorylation of CD45 in response to T-cell activation is consistent with the possibility that this regulatory mechanism is utilized in vivo. Images PMID:7518565

  6. Interleukin 2 activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) stimulated activation of the 42-kD extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2) in murine IL-3-dependent cells, expressing either high or intermediate affinity IL-2 receptors. Activation was both rapid, occurring within 5 min of IL-2 addition, and prolonged, remaining elevated for 30 min. Activation of Erk2 appeared to be necessary for IL-2 stimulation of proliferation, as deletion of a region of the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-2 receptor beta chain, essential for IL-2 stimulation of proliferation, abolished Erk2 activation by IL-2. Furthermore, cells that had been deprived of cytokine for 24 h were then refractory to IL-2 stimulation of both Erk2 activity and proliferation. However, elevation of Erk2 activity was not sufficient to stimulate proliferation, as protein kinase C activation stimulated Erk2 activity but not DNA synthesis. Also, cells exposed to IL-2 in the presence of rapamycin showed full Erk2 activation but not DNA synthesis. These data suggest that IL-2 must stimulate both Erk2 activity and a further pathway(s) to trigger cell proliferation. PMID:8376945

  7. Novel Biosensor of Membrane Protein Proximity Based on Fluorogen Activated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Kalin V; Gallo, Eugenio; Shank, Nathaniel; Jarvik, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel biosensor system for reporting proximity between cell surface proteins in live cultured cells. The biosensor takes advantage of recently developed fluorogen-activating proteins (FAPs) that display fluorescence only when bound to otherwise-nonfluorescent fluorogen molecules. To demonstrate feasibility for the approach, two recombinant rapamycin-binding proteins were expressed as single-pass plasma membrane proteins in HeLa cells; one of the proteins (scAvd- FRB) carried an extracellular avidin tag; the other (HL1-TO1-FKBP) carried an extracellular FAP. Cells were incubated with a membrane-impermeable bivalent ligand (biotin-PEG2000-DIR) consisting of biotin joined to a dimethyl-indole red (DIR) fluorogen by a polyethylene glycol linker, thus tethering the fluorogen to the scAvd-FRB fusion protein. Addition of rapamycin, which promotes FKBP-FRB dimerization and thereby brings the FAP in close proximity to the tethered fluorogen, led to a significant increase in DIR fluorescence. We call the new proximity assay TEFLA, for tethered fluorogen assay. PMID:27055753

  8. Strategies for the recovery of active proteins through refolding of bacterial inclusion body proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Luis Felipe; Rinas, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in generating active proteins through refolding of bacterial inclusion body proteins are summarized in conjunction with a short overview on inclusion body isolation and solubilization procedures. In particular, the pros and cons of well-established robust refolding techniques such as direct dilution as well as less common ones such as diafiltration or chromatographic processes including size exclusion chromatography, matrix- or affinity-based techniques and hydrophobic interaction chromatography are discussed. Moreover, the effect of physical variables (temperature and pressure) as well as the presence of buffer additives on the refolding process is elucidated. In particular, the impact of protein stabilizing or destabilizing low- and high-molecular weight additives as well as micellar and liposomal systems on protein refolding is illustrated. Also, techniques mimicking the principles encountered during in vivo folding such as processes based on natural and artificial chaperones and propeptide-assisted protein refolding are presented. Moreover, the special requirements for the generation of disulfide bonded proteins and the specific problems and solutions, which arise during process integration are discussed. Finally, the different strategies are examined regarding their applicability for large-scale production processes or high-throughput screening procedures. PMID:15345063

  9. Genipin Suppresses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Through Uncoupling Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Galam, Lakshmi; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Enciso, Juan; Tadikonda, Pratima; Lane, Troy N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sayantani; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cho, Young; Cho, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Lockey, Richard F.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2015-01-01

    Incomplete clearance of apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release are known to trigger inflammasome activation causing severe inflammation in acute lung injury and various metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, it has been reported that apoptotic cell clearance and ROS-mediated apoptosis critically depend on mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). However, the relationship between UCP2 and inflammasome activation has not been studied. This report investigates the role of UCP2 in the expression and activation of NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. We found that UCP2 overexpression significantly enhanced the expression levels of NLRP3. The NLRP3 expression levels were significantly suppressed in THP1 cells treated with genipin, a UCP2 inhibitor, compared to controls. In addition, genipin altered adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secretion and significantly suppressed caspase-1 activity in inflammasome-activated human macrophages. Taken together, our results suggest that genipin modulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ATP- or H2O2-mediated IL-1β release. PMID:26123077

  10. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids. PMID:26175473

  11. Localization microscopy using noncovalent fluorogen activation by genetically encoded fluorogen activating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Suvrajit; Huang, Fang; Szent-Gyorgyi, Chris; Lidke, Diane S.; Lidke, Keith A.; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2014-01-01

    The noncovalent equilibrium activation of a fluorogenic malachite green dye and its cognate fluorogen activating protein has been exploited to produce a sparse labeling distribution of densely tagged genetically encoded proteins, enabling single molecule detection and superresolution imaging in fixed and living cells. These sparse labeling conditions are achieved by control of the dye concentration in the milieu, and do not require any photoswitching or photoactivation. The labeling is achieved using physiological buffers and cellular media, and does not require additives or switching buffer to obtain superresolution images. We evaluate superresolution properties and images obtained from a selected fluorogen activating protein clone fused to actin, and show that the photon counts per object fall between those typically reported for fluorescent proteins and switching dye-pairs, resulting in 10-30 nm localization precision per object. This labeling strategy complements existing approaches, and may simplify multicolor labeling of cellular structures. PMID:24194371

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  13. Interaction of receptor-activity-modifying protein1 with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Thomas H; Mueller-Steiner, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Kerstin; Kleinert, Peter; Troxler, Heinz; Kelm, Jens M; Ittner, Lars M; Fischer, Jan A; Born, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Receptor-activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 is an accessory protein of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The CLR/RAMP1 heterodimer defines a receptor for the potent vasodilatory calcitonin gene-related peptide. A wider tissue distribution of RAMP1, as compared to that of the CLR, is consistent with additional biological functions. Here, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments identified beta-tubulin as a novel RAMP1-interacting protein. GST pull-down experiments indicated interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the interaction between the N-terminal region of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Interestingly, alpha-tubulin was co-extracted with beta-tubulin in pull-down experiments and immunoprecipitation of RAMP1 coprecipitated alpha- and beta-tubulin. Confocal microscopy indicated colocalization of RAMP1 and tubulin predominantly in axon-like processes of neuronal differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, the findings point to biological roles of RAMP1 beyond its established interaction with G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:17493758

  14. Antibacterial activity of a lectin-like Burkholderia cenocepacia protein

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Canck, Evelien; Wattiau, Pierre; Winge, Iris; Loris, Remy; Coenye, Tom; Mot, René

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Bacteriocins of the LlpA family have previously been characterized in the γ-proteobacteria Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. These proteins are composed of two MMBL (monocot mannose-binding lectin) domains, a module predominantly and abundantly found in lectins from monocot plants. Genes encoding four different types of LlpA-like proteins were identified in genomes from strains belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei group. A selected recombinant LlpA-like protein from the human isolate Burkholderia cenocepacia AU1054 displayed narrow-spectrum genus-specific antibacterial activity, thus representing the first functionally characterized bacteriocin within this β-proteobacterial genus. Strain-specific killing was confined to other members of the Bcc, with mostly Burkholderia ambifaria strains being susceptible. In addition to killing planktonic cells, this bacteriocin also acted as an antibiofilm agent. Bacteriocins mediate highly selective antagonism among closely related bacteria but such antimicrobial proteins have not yet been reported in Burkholderia. We identified a lectin-like protein of the LlpA family in a Burkholderia cenocepacia human isolate that strain-specifically and selectively kills planktonic and biofilm cells of other Burkholderia cepacia complex members. PMID:23737242

  15. Detection of expansin proteins and activity during tomato fruit ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Rose, J K; Cosgrove, D J; Albersheim, P; Darvill, A G; Bennett, A B

    2000-08-01

    Expansins are plant proteins that have the capacity to induce extension in isolated cell walls and are thought to mediate pH-dependent cell expansion. J.K.C. Rose, H.H. Lee, and A.B. Bennett ([1997] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 5955-5960) reported the identification of an expansin gene (LeExp1) that is specifically expressed in ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit where cell wall disassembly, but not cell expansion, is prominent. Expansin expression during fruit ontogeny was examined using antibodies raised to recombinant LeExp1 or a cell elongation-related expansin from cucumber (CsExp1). The LeExp1 antiserum detected expansins in extracts from ripe, but not preripe tomato fruit, in agreement with the pattern of LeExp1 mRNA accumulation. In contrast, antibodies to CsExp1 cross-reacted with expansins in early fruit development and the onset of ripening, but not at a later ripening stage. These data suggest that ripening-related and expansion-related expansin proteins have distinct antigenic epitopes despite overall high sequence identity. Expansin proteins were detected in a range of fruit species and showed considerable variation in abundance; however, appreciable levels of expansin were not present in fruit of the rin or Nr tomato mutants that exhibit delayed and reduced softening. LeExp1 protein accumulation was ethylene-regulated and matched the previously described expression of mRNA, suggesting that expression is not regulated at the level of translation. We report the first detection of expansin activity in several stages of fruit development and while characteristic creep activity was detected in young and developing tomato fruit and in ripe pear, avocado, and pepper, creep activity in ripe tomato showed qualitative differences, suggesting both hydrolytic and expansin activities.

  16. Responses of protein phosphatases and cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a freeze-avoiding insect, Epiblema scudderiana.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Thomas D; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-05-01

    Larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, use the freeze avoidance strategy of winter cold hardiness and show multiple metabolic adaptations for subzero survival including accumulation of large amounts of glycerol as a colligative antifreeze. Induction and regulation of cold hardiness adaptations requires the intermediary action of signal transduction enzymes. Changes in the activities of several signaling enzymes including cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), protein phosphatases 1 (PP1), 2A, 2C, and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) were monitored over the winter and during experimental exposures of larvae to subzero temperatures (-4 degrees C, a temperature that triggers rapid glycerol synthesis, or -20 degrees C, a common midwinter ambient temperature) or anoxia. A strong increase in the amount of active PP1 in the latter part of the winter may be responsible for shutting off glycogenolysis once glycerol levels are maximized. There appears to be a limited role for PKA in overwintering but PP2A and PP2C activities rose when larvae were exposed to -20 degrees C and PTP activities rose significantly over the winter months and also in response to laboratory subzero (-20 degrees C) and anoxia exposures. The strong responses by PTPs suggest that these may be involved in cell cycle and growth arrest during winter diapause.

  17. C-reactive protein activates complement in infarcted human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Nijmeijer, Remco; Lagrand, Wim K; Lubbers, Yvonne T P; Visser, Cees A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Niessen, Hans W M; Hack, C Erik

    2003-07-01

    Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) constitute a cardiovascular risk marker. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed co-localization of CRP and activated complement in human infarcted myocardium suggesting CRP to enhance inflammation in ischemic myocardium by inducing local complement activation. The aim was to establish whether CRP activates complement in infarcted human myocardium and to assess the relationship between this activation and the duration of infarction. Myocardial tissue samples from 56 patients that had died from acute myocardial infarction were evaluated. Specimens were taken from infarcted as well as noninfarcted sites of the heart. CRP-mediated complement activation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and by measuring levels of complement, CRP, and CRP-complement complexes, specific markers for CRP-mediated activation, in homogenates of the heart. Infarctions of 12 hours to 5 days had significantly more extensive depositions of complement and CRP and contained significantly more CRP, activated complement, and CRP-complement complexes than infarctions that were less than 12 hours old. Levels of CRP complexes correlated significantly with CRP and complement concentrations in the infarctions, as well as with the extent of complement and CRP depositions as measured via immunohistochemistry. Specific activation products of CRP-mediated activation of complement are increased in infarcts of more than 12 hours in duration and correlate with the extent of complement depositions. Hence, CRP seems to enhance local inflammatory reactions ensuing in human myocardial infarcts of more than 12 hours duration.

  18. Negative regulation of lymphocyte activation by the adaptor protein LAX.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Granillo, Olivia; Wen, Renren; Yang, Kaiyong; Dai, Xuezhi; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Weiguo

    2005-05-01

    The membrane-associated adaptor protein LAX is a linker for activation of T cells (LAT)-like molecule that is expressed in lymphoid tissues. Upon stimulation of T or B cells, it is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2 and the p85 subunit of PI3K. LAX, however, is not capable of replacing LAT in the TCR signaling pathway. In this study we report that upon T or B cell activation, the LAX protein was up-regulated dramatically. Although disruption of the LAX gene by homologous recombination had no major impact on lymphocyte development, it caused a significant reduction in CD23 expression on mature B cells. Interestingly, naive LAX(-/-) mice had spontaneous germinal center formation. Compared with normal T and B cells, LAX(-/-) T and B cells were hyperresponsive and had enhanced calcium flux, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, MAPK and Akt activation, and cell survival upon engagement of the T or B AgRs. Our data demonstrate that LAX functions as a negative regulator in lymphocyte signaling.

  19. T cell-activating protein on murine lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E T; Reiser, H; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-12-01

    A functional T cell surface molecule, T cell-activating protein (TAP), has been identified on murine lymphocytes. TAP is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 10-12 kilodaltons (kDa) nonreduced, 16-17 kDa reduced. Cross-linking of TAP can result in profound activation of T lymphocytes to produce lymphokines and to enter the cell cycle. Furthermore, antibody binding to TAP can modulate antigen-driven T cell stimulation. Current data suggest that TAP is physically distinct from the T cell receptor complex. On unstimulated lymphocytes, TAP is expressed on T cells and defines heterogeneity within the major T cell subsets. Its profile of expression is rapidly altered on cell activation. Ontologically, it is first detected in the thymus, where it is found on both the most immature and the most mature cell subsets, and it is functional on both. Together, these TAP+ cells constitute a small fraction of thymocytes. TAP expression, however, defines the immunocompetent compartment of the thymus, and thus could be involved in functional maturation. Finally, the gene controlling TAP expression has been mapped, and is tightly linked to a locus of hematopoietic antigens (Ly-6). TAP is molecularly distinct from these antigens. Furthermore, all of these proteins show a markedly distinct developmental regulation in their cell surface expression.

  20. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  1. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Is Activated as a Consequence of Lipolysis in the Adipocyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in adipocytes during exercise and other states in which lipolysis is stimulated. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its physiological relevance are unclear. To examine these questions, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with agents...

  2. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein: Activity, Inhibition and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Domashevskiy, Artem V.; Goss, Dixie J.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses employ an array of elaborate strategies to overcome plant defense mechanisms and must adapt to the requirements of the host translational systems. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) and is an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is thought to play an important role in the plant’s defense mechanism against foreign pathogens. This review focuses on the structure, function, and the relationship of PAP to other RIPs, discusses molecular aspects of PAP antiviral activity, the novel inhibition of this plant toxin by a virus counteraction—a peptide linked to the viral genome (VPg), and possible applications of RIP-conjugated immunotoxins in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25635465

  3. Pokeweed antiviral protein, a ribosome inactivating protein: activity, inhibition and prospects.

    PubMed

    Domashevskiy, Artem V; Goss, Dixie J

    2015-01-28

    Viruses employ an array of elaborate strategies to overcome plant defense mechanisms and must adapt to the requirements of the host translational systems. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) and is an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is thought to play an important role in the plant's defense mechanism against foreign pathogens. This review focuses on the structure, function, and the relationship of PAP to other RIPs, discusses molecular aspects of PAP antiviral activity, the novel inhibition of this plant toxin by a virus counteraction-a peptide linked to the viral genome (VPg), and possible applications of RIP-conjugated immunotoxins in cancer therapeutics.

  4. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  5. [Virucidal activity of disinfectants. Influence of the serum protein upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-01

    Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal activity on three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the aldehyde and halogen groups had a virucidal activity on human herpes virus, bovine rhabdo virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human adeno virus, porcine parvo virus, and polio virus. Disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups, and biganide group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups. PMID:11019515

  6. Rapamycin induces mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression through activation of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Jiang, Zhongliang; Ahmad, Nisar; Rosati, Rita; Liu, Yusen; Beuret, Laurent; Monks, Robert; Charron, Jean; Birnbaum, Morris J; Samavati, Lobelia

    2013-11-22

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP-1), plays a crucial role in the deactivation of MAPKs. Several drugs with immune-suppressive properties modulate MKP-1 expression as part of their mechanism of action. We investigated the effect of mTOR inhibition through rapamycin and a dual mTOR inhibitor (AZD2014) on MKP-1 expression. Low dose rapamycin led to a rapid activation of both AKT and ERK pathways with a subsequent increase in MKP-1 expression. Rapamycin treatment led to phosphorylation of CREB, transcription factor 1 (ATF1), and ATF2, three transcription factors that bind to the cyclic AMP-responsive elements on the Mkp-1 promoter. Inhibition of either the MEK/ERK or the AKT pathway attenuated rapamycin-mediated MKP-1 induction. AZD2014 did not activate AKT but activated the ERK pathway, leading to a moderate MKP-1 induction. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) derived from wild-type (WT) mice or mice deficient in AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms or BMDM from targeted deficiency in MEK1 and MEK2, we show that rapamycin treatment led to an increased MKP1 expression in BMDM from WT but failed to do so in BMDMs lacking the AKT1 isoform or MEK1 and MEK2. Importantly, rapamycin pretreatment inhibited LPS-mediated p38 activation and decreased nitric oxide and IL-6 production. Our work provides a conceptual framework for the observed immune modulatory effect of mTOR inhibition.

  7. Fast calcium sensor proteins for monitoring neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Badura, Aleksandra; Sun, Xiaonan Richard; Giovannucci, Andrea; Lynch, Laura A.; Wang, Samuel S.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A major goal of the BRAIN Initiative is the development of technologies to monitor neuronal network activity during active information processing. Toward this goal, genetically encoded calcium indicator proteins have become widely used for reporting activity in preparations ranging from invertebrates to awake mammals. However, slow response times, the narrow sensitivity range of Ca2+ and in some cases, poor signal-to-noise ratio still limit their usefulness. Here, we review recent improvements in the field of neural activity-sensitive probe design with a focus on the GCaMP family of calcium indicator proteins. In this context, we present our newly developed Fast-GCaMPs, which have up to 4-fold accelerated off-responses compared with the next-fastest GCaMP, GCaMP6f. Fast-GCaMPs were designed by destabilizing the association of the hydrophobic pocket of calcium-bound calmodulin with the RS20 binding domain, an intramolecular interaction that protects the green fluorescent protein chromophore. Fast-GCaMP6f-RS06 and Fast-GCaMP6f-RS09 have rapid off-responses in stopped-flow fluorimetry, in neocortical brain slices, and in the intact cerebellum in vivo. Fast-GCaMP6f variants should be useful for tracking action potentials closely spaced in time, and for following neural activity in fast-changing compartments, such as axons and dendrites. Finally, we discuss strategies that may allow tracking of a wider range of neuronal firing rates and improve spike detection. PMID:25558464

  8. Positive feedback of protein kinase C proteolytic activation during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leverrier, Sabrina; Vallentin, Alice; Joubert, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In contrast with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKCepsilon, which are better known for promoting cell survival, PKCdelta is known for its pro-apoptotic function, which is exerted mainly through a caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation pathway. In the present study, we used the rat GH3B6 pituitary adenoma cell line to show that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are activated and relocalized together with PKCdelta when apoptosis is induced by a genotoxic stress. Proteolytic activation is a crucial step used by the three isoforms since: (1) the catalytic domains of the PKCalpha, PKCepsilon or PKCdelta isoforms (CDalpha, CDepsilon and CDdelta respectively) accumulated, and this accumulation was dependent on the activity of both calpain and caspase; and (2) transient expression of CDalpha, CDepsilon or CDdelta sufficed to induce apoptosis. However, following this initial step of proteolytic activation, the pathways diverge; cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation are induced by CDepsilon and CDdelta, but not by CDalpha. Another interesting finding of the present study is the proteolysis of PKCdelta induced by CDepsilon expression that revealed the existence of a cross-talk between PKC isoforms during apoptosis. Hence the PKC family may participate in the apoptotic process of pituitary adenoma cells at two levels: downstream of caspase and calpain, and via retro-activation of caspase-3, resulting in the amplification of its own proteolytic activation. PMID:12238950

  9. Circulating FGF21 proteolytic processing mediated by fibroblast activation protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Eugene Y.; Jin, Zhaoyan; Ackermann, Bradley L.; Thomas, Melissa K.; Gutierrez, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone implicated in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and body weight, is considered to be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Despite observations that FGF21 is rapidly proteolysed in circulation rending it potentially inactive, little is known regarding mechanisms by which FGF21 protein levels are regulated. We systematically investigated human FGF21 protein processing using mass spectrometry. In agreement with previous reports, circulating human FGF21 was found to be cleaved primarily after three proline residues at positions 2, 4 and 171. The extent of FGF21 processing was quantified in a small cohort of healthy human volunteers. Relative abundance of FGF21 proteins cleaved after Pro-2, Pro-4 and Pro-171 ranged from 16 to 30%, 10 to 25% and 10 to 34%, respectively. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) was found to be the primary protease responsible for N-terminal cleavages after residues Pro-2 and Pro-4. Importantly, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) was implicated as the protease responsible for C-terminal cleavage after Pro-171, rendering the protein inactive. The requirement of FAP for FGF21 proteolysis at the C-terminus was independently demonstrated by in vitro digestion, immunodepletion of FAP in human plasma, administration of an FAP-specific inhibitor and by human FGF21 protein processing patterns in FAP knockout mouse plasma. The discovery that FAP is responsible for FGF21 inactivation extends the FGF21 signalling pathway and may enable novel approaches to augment FGF21 actions for therapeutic applications. PMID:26635356

  10. Activation of G protein by opioid receptors: role of receptor number and G-protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Remmers, A E; Clark, M J; Alt, A; Medzihradsky, F; Woods, J H; Traynor, J R

    2000-05-19

    The collision-coupling model for receptor-G-protein interaction predicts that the rate of G-protein activation is dependent on receptor density, but not G-protein levels. C6 cells expressing mu- or delta-opioid receptors, or SH-SY5Y cells, were treated with beta-funaltrexamine (mu) or naltrindole-5'-isothiocyanate (delta) to decrease receptor number. The time course of full or partial agonist-stimulated ¿35SGTPgammaS binding did not vary in C6 cell membranes containing <1-25 pmol/mg mu-opioid receptor, or 1. 4-4.3 pmol/mg delta-opioid receptor, or in SHSY5Y cells containing 0. 16-0.39 pmol/mg receptor. The association of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding was faster in membranes from C6mu cells than from C6delta cells. A 10-fold reduction in functional G-protein, following pertussis toxin treatment, lowered the maximal level of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding but not the association rate. These data indicate a compartmentalization of opioid receptors and G protein at the cell membrane. PMID:10822058

  11. Stabilization of supercooled fluids by thermal hysteresis proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, P W; Leader, J P

    1995-01-01

    It has been reported that thermal hysteresis proteins found in many cold-hardy, freeze-avoiding arthropods stabilize their supercooled body fluids. We give evidence that fish antifreeze proteins, which also produce thermal hysteresis, bind to and reduce the efficiency of heterogenous nucleation sites, rather than binding to embryonic ice nuclei. We discuss both possible mechanisms for stabilization of supercooled body fluids and also describe a new method for measuring and defining the supercooling point of small volumes of liquid. PMID:7612853

  12. Protein kinase C directly phosphorylates the insulin receptor in vitro and reduces its protein-tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bollag, G E; Roth, R A; Beaudoin, J; Mochly-Rosen, D; Koshland, D E

    1986-01-01

    The beta subunit of purified insulin receptor is phosphorylated on a serine residue by purified preparations of protein kinase C (ATP: protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). This phosphorylation is inhibited by antibodies to protein kinase C and stimulated by phospholipids, diacylglycerol, and Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C does not affect its insulin-binding activity but does inhibit by 65% the receptor's intrinsic tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity (ATP: protein-tyrosine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.112). These results indicate that activators of protein kinase C, such as phorbol esters, desensitize cells to insulin by direct protein kinase C action on the insulin receptor. Images PMID:3526339

  13. Activated G Protein Gαs Samples Multiple Endomembrane Compartments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brent R; Lambert, Nevin A

    2016-09-23

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are localized to the plasma membrane where they transduce extracellular signals to intracellular effectors. G proteins also act at intracellular locations, and can translocate between cellular compartments. For example, Gαs can leave the plasma membrane and move to the cell interior after activation. However, the mechanism of Gαs translocation and its intracellular destination are not known. Here we use bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to show that after activation, Gαs rapidly associates with the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and endosomes, consistent with indiscriminate sampling of intracellular membranes from the cytosol rather than transport via a specific vesicular pathway. The primary source of Gαs for endosomal compartments is constitutive endocytosis rather than activity-dependent internalization. Recycling of Gαs to the plasma membrane is complete 25 min after stimulation is discontinued. We also show that an acylation-deacylation cycle is important for the steady-state localization of Gαs at the plasma membrane, but our results do not support a role for deacylation in activity-dependent Gαs internalization. PMID:27528603

  14. Activity of lactoperoxidase when adsorbed on protein layers.

    PubMed

    Haberska, Karolina; Svensson, Olof; Shleev, Sergey; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2008-09-15

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an enzyme, which is used as an antimicrobial agent in a number of applications, e.g., food technology. In the majority of applications LPO is added to a homogeneous product phase or immobilised on product surface. In the latter case, however, the measurements of LPO activity are seldom reported. In this paper we have assessed LPO enzymatic activity on bare and protein modified gold surfaces by means of electrochemistry. It was found that LPO rapidly adsorbs to bare gold surfaces resulting in an amount of LPO adsorbed of 2.9mg/m(2). A lower amount of adsorbed LPO is obtained if the gold surface is exposed to bovine serum albumin, bovine or human mucin prior to LPO adsorption. The enzymatic activity of the adsorbed enzyme is in general preserved at the experimental conditions and varies only moderately when comparing bare gold and gold surface pretreated with the selected proteins. The measurement of LPO specific activity, however, indicate that it is about 1.5 times higher if LPO is adsorbed on gold surfaces containing a small amount of preadsorbed mucin in comparison to the LPO directly adsorbed on bare gold.

  15. Superoxide dismutase activity of Cu-bound prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2009-03-01

    Misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, has been linked to a group of neurodegenerative diseases, including the mad cow disease in cattle and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of PrP is still unknown, but it was found that the PrP can efficiently bind Cu(II) ions. Early experiments suggested that Cu-PrP complex possesses significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but later experiments failed to confirm it and at present this issue remains unresolved. Using a recently developed hybrid DFT/DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT for the solute and its first solvation shells with orbital-free DFT for the remainder of the solvent, we have investigated SOD activity of PrP. The PrP is capable of incorporating Cu(II) ions in several binding modes and our calculations find that each mode has a different SOD activity. The highest activity found is comparable to those of well-known SOD proteins, suggesting that the conflicting experimental results may be due to different bindings of Cu(II) in those experiments.

  16. [National evaluation of the diagnosis of activated protein C resistance].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Manzano, Guadalupe; de la Peña-Díaz, Aurora; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Corona-de la Peña, Norma; Cruz-Cruz, Donají; Gaminio, Elizabeth; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Mayagoitia, Teresa; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Poblete, Teresita; Quintana-Martínez, Sandra; Ramírez, Raúl; Razo, Daniel; Ruiz de Chávez-Ochoa, Adriana; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia Adriana; Salazar, Rosario; Vicencio-Santiago, Guadalupe Virginia; Villa, Rosario; Reyes-Núñez, Aurelia Virginia

    2003-01-01

    Thrombophilia or prothrombotic state appears when activation of blood hemostatic mechanisms overcomes the physiological anticoagulant capacity allowing a thrombotic event. Thrombosis is the leading worldwide mortality cause and due to its high associated morbidity and mortality, it should be insisted in the opportune identification of a thrombophilic state. The study of thrombophilia identifies individuals at high risk for thrombosis. This meeting was conceived first to analyze the current status of the diagnosis of thrombophilia in Mexico and second to create the base for a national consensus for thrombophilia screening and for the establishment of a national center for laboratory reference and quality control for thrombophilia. Since searching of activated protein C resistance (APCR) and FV Leiden seem to have priority either in the clinical setting and in public health services, it was decided to start with these two abnormalities as a model to analyze the current status of thrombophilia diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. At this time, several thrombophilic abnormalities have been described however, APCR remains the most important cause of thrombophilia, accounting for as much as 20% to 60% of all venous thrombosis. APCR is a consequence of the resistance of activated FV to be inactivated by activated protein C. Procoagulant activity of activated FV increases the risk of thrombosis. Hereditary APCR is almost always due to a point mutation at the nucleotide 1691 of the FV gen inducing an Arg506Glu substitution in FV molecule. This mutation is better known as FV Leiden. Heterocygous carriers of FV Leiden have a thrombotic risk 5 to 10 times higher than general population while the risk for the homocygote state is increased 50 to 100-fold. When activated PC is added to plasma from patients with FV Leiden, this last resists the anticoagulant effect of activated PC. Therefore, thrombin production is not inhibited. This phenomenon is called APCR. The functional

  17. Schistosoma mansoni secretes a chemokine binding protein with antiinflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip; Fallon, Rosie E; Mangan, Niamh E; Walsh, Caitriona M; Saraiva, Margarida; Sayers, Jon R; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Alcami, Antonio; Fallon, Padraic G

    2005-11-21

    The coevolution of humans and infectious agents has exerted selective pressure on the immune system to control potentially lethal infections. Correspondingly, pathogens have evolved with various strategies to modulate and circumvent the host's innate and adaptive immune response. Schistosoma species are helminth parasites with genes that have been selected to modulate the host to tolerate chronic worm infections, often for decades, without overt morbidity. The modulation of immunity by schistosomes has been shown to prevent a range of immune-mediated diseases, including allergies and autoimmunity. Individual immune-modulating schistosome molecules have, therefore, therapeutic potential as selective manipulators of the immune system to prevent unrelated diseases. Here we show that S. mansoni eggs secrete a protein into host tissues that binds certain chemokines and inhibits their interaction with host chemokine receptors and their biological activity. The purified recombinant S. mansoni chemokine binding protein (smCKBP) suppressed inflammation in several disease models. smCKBP is unrelated to host proteins and is the first described chemokine binding protein encoded by a pathogenic human parasite and may have potential as an antiinflammatory agent.

  18. Analysis of protein phosphorylation in nerve terminal reveals extensive changes in active zone proteins upon exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kohansal-Nodehi, Mahdokht; Chua, John JE; Urlaub, Henning; Jahn, Reinhard; Czernik, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release is mediated by the fast, calcium-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane, followed by endocytosis and recycling of the membrane of synaptic vesicles. While many of the proteins governing these processes are known, their regulation is only beginning to be understood. Here we have applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify changes in phosphorylation status of presynaptic proteins in resting and stimulated nerve terminals isolated from the brains of Wistar rats. Using rigorous quantification, we identified 252 phosphosites that are either up- or downregulated upon triggering calcium-dependent exocytosis. Particularly pronounced were regulated changes of phosphosites within protein constituents of the presynaptic active zone, including bassoon, piccolo, and RIM1. Additionally, we have mapped kinases and phosphatases that are activated upon stimulation. Overall, our study provides a snapshot of phosphorylation changes associated with presynaptic activity and provides a foundation for further functional analysis of key phosphosites involved in presynaptic plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14530.001 PMID:27115346

  19. Hepatitis B virus x protein induces autophagy via activating death-associated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H-T; Chen, G G; Hu, B-G; Zhang, Z-Y; Yun, J-P; He, M-L; Lai, P B S

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus x protein (HBX), a product of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a multifunctional protein that regulates viral replication and various cellular functions. Recently, HBX has been shown to induce autophagy; however, the responsible mechanism is not fully known. In this study, we established stable HBX-expressing epithelial Chang cells as the platform to study how HBX induced autophagy. The results showed that the overexpression of HBX resulted in starvation-induced autophagy. HBX-induced autophagy was related to its ability to dephosphorylate/activate death-associated protein kinase (DAPK). The block of DAPK by its siRNA significantly counteracted HBX-mediated autophagy, confirming the positive role of DAPK in this process. HBX also induced Beclin 1, which functions at the downstream of the DAPK-mediated autophagy pathway. Although HBX could activate JNK, a kinase known to participate in autophagy in certain conditions, the change in JNK failed to influence HBX-induced autophagy. In conclusion, HBX induces autophagy via activating DAPK in a pathway related to Beclin 1, but not JNK. This new finding should help us to understand the role of autophagy in HBX-mediated pathogenesis and thus may provide targets for intervening HBX-related disorders.

  20. TALE factors poise promoters for activation by Hox proteins.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seong-Kyu; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles G

    2014-01-27

    Hox proteins form complexes with TALE cofactors from the Pbx and Prep/Meis families to control transcription, but it remains unclear how Hox:TALE complexes function. Examining a Hoxb1b:TALE complex that regulates zebrafish hoxb1a transcription, we find maternally deposited TALE proteins at the hoxb1a promoter already during blastula stages. These TALE factors recruit histone-modifying enzymes to promote an active chromatin profile at the hoxb1a promoter and also recruit RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and P-TEFb. However, in the presence of TALE factors, RNAPII remains phosphorylated on serine 5 and hoxb1a transcription is inefficient. By gastrula stages, Hoxb1b binds together with TALE factors to the hoxb1a promoter. This triggers P-TEFb-mediated transitioning of RNAPII to the serine 2-phosphorylated form and efficient hoxb1a transcription. We conclude that TALE factors access promoters during early embryogenesis to poise them for activation but that Hox proteins are required to trigger efficient transcription.

  1. Abscisic Acid Induces Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Knetsch, MLW.; Wang, M.; Snaar-Jagalska, B. E.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    1996-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) induces a rapid and transient mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. MAP kinase activity, measured as myelin basic protein phosphorylation by MAP kinase immunoprecipitates, increased after 1 min, peaked after 3 min, and decreased to basal levels after ~5 min of ABA treatment in vivo. Antibodies recognizing phosphorylated tyrosine residues precipitate with myelin basic protein kinase activity that has identical ABA activation characteristics and demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase occurs during activation. The half-maximal concentration of ABA required for MAP kinase activation, 3 x 10-7 M, is very similar to that required for ABA-induced rab16 gene expression. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide can completely block ABA-induced MAP kinase activation and rab16 gene expression. These results lead us to conclude that ABA activates MAP kinase via a tyrosine phosphatase and that these steps are a prerequisite for ABA induction of rab16 gene expression.

  2. Abscisic Acid Induces Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Knetsch, MLW.; Wang, M.; Snaar-Jagalska, B. E.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    1996-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) induces a rapid and transient mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. MAP kinase activity, measured as myelin basic protein phosphorylation by MAP kinase immunoprecipitates, increased after 1 min, peaked after 3 min, and decreased to basal levels after ~5 min of ABA treatment in vivo. Antibodies recognizing phosphorylated tyrosine residues precipitate with myelin basic protein kinase activity that has identical ABA activation characteristics and demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase occurs during activation. The half-maximal concentration of ABA required for MAP kinase activation, 3 x 10-7 M, is very similar to that required for ABA-induced rab16 gene expression. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide can completely block ABA-induced MAP kinase activation and rab16 gene expression. These results lead us to conclude that ABA activates MAP kinase via a tyrosine phosphatase and that these steps are a prerequisite for ABA induction of rab16 gene expression. PMID:12239411

  3. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  4. Activated protein C mediates a healing phenotype in cultured tenocytes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meilang; Smith, Margaret M; Little, Christopher B; Sambrook, Philip; March, Lyn; Jackson, Christopher J

    2009-04-01

    Tendon injuries cause considerable morbidity in the general adult population. The tenocytes within the tendon have the full capacity to heal the tendon intrinsically. Activated protein C (APC) plays an important role in coagulation and inflammation and more recently has been shown to promote cutaneous wound healing. In this study we examined whether APC can induce a wound healing phenotype in tenocytes. Sheep tenocytes were treated with APC, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) blocking antibody (RCR252) and/or EPCR small interfering (si)RNA. Cell proliferation and migration were measured by crystal violet assay and a scratch wounding assay, respectively. The expression of EPCR, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, type I collagen and MAP kinase activity were detected by real time PCR, zymography, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. APC stimulated proliferation, MMP-2 activity and type I collagen deposition in a dose-dependent manner and promoted migration of cultured tenocytes. APC dose-dependently stimulated phosphorylated (P)-ERK2 and inhibited P-p38. Interestingly, tenocytes expressed EPCR protein, which was up-regulated by APC. When tenocytes were pre-treated with RCR252 or EPCR siRNA the effect of APC on proliferation, MMP-2 and type 1 collagen synthesis and MAP kinases was blocked. APC promotes the growth, MMP-2 activity, type I collagen deposition and migration of tenocytes. Furthermore, EPCR is expressed by tenocytes and mediates the actions of APC, at least partly by signalling through selective MAP kinases. These data implicate APC as a potential healing agent for injured tendons.

  5. Role of Deleted in Breast Cancer 1 (DBC1) Protein in SIRT1 Deacetylase Activation Induced by Protein Kinase A and AMP-activated Protein Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Veronica; Escande, Carlos; Chini, Claudia C.; Giri, Shailendra; Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Matalonga, Jonathan; Lou, Zhenkun; Chini, Eduardo N.

    2012-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a key regulator of several aspects of metabolism and aging. SIRT1 activation is beneficial for several human diseases, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, liver steatosis, and Alzheimer disease. We have recently shown that the protein deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) is a key regulator of SIRT1 activity in vivo. Furthermore, SIRT1 and DBC1 form a dynamic complex that is regulated by the energetic state of the organism. Understanding how the interaction between SIRT1 and DBC1 is regulated is therefore essential to design strategies aimed to activate SIRT1. Here, we investigated which pathways can lead to the dissociation of SIRT1 and DBC1 and consequently to SIRT1 activation. We observed that PKA activation leads to a fast and transient activation of SIRT1 that is DBC1-dependent. In fact, an increase in cAMP/PKA activity resulted in the dissociation of SIRT1 and DBC1 in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. Pharmacological AMPK activation led to SIRT1 activation by a DBC1-dependent mechanism. Indeed, we found that AMPK activators promote SIRT1-DBC1 dissociation in cells, resulting in an increase in SIRT1 activity. In addition, we observed that the SIRT1 activation promoted by PKA and AMPK occurs without changes in the intracellular levels of NAD+. We propose that PKA and AMPK can acutely activate SIRT1 by inducing dissociation of SIRT1 from its endogenous inhibitor DBC1. Our experiments provide new insight on the in vivo mechanism of SIRT1 regulation and a new avenue for the development of pharmacological SIRT1 activators targeted at the dissociation of the SIRT1-DBC1 complex. PMID:22553202

  6. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  7. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Enslen, H; Tokumitsu, H; Stork, P J; Davis, R J; Soderling, T R

    1996-01-01

    Membrane depolarization of NG108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-KIV), as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). To investigate whether the Ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38) might be mediated by the CaM kinase cascade, we have transfected PC12 cells, which lack CaM-KIV, with constitutively active mutants of CaM kinase kinase and/or CaM-KIV (CaM-KKc and CaM-KIVc, respectively). In the absence of depolarization, CaM-KKc transfection had no effect on Elk-dependent transcription of a luciferase reporter gene, whereas CaM-KIVc alone or in combination with CaM-KKc gave 7- to 10-fold and 60- to 80-fold stimulations, respectively, which were blocked by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase cotransfection. When epitope-tagged constructs of MAP kinases were co-transfected with CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc, the immunoprecipitated MAP kinases were activated 2-fold (ERK-2) and 7- to 10-fold (JNK-1 and p38). The JNK and p38 pathways were further investigated using specific c-Jun or ATF2-dependent transcriptional assays. We found that c-Jun/ATF2-dependent transcriptions were enhanced 7- to 10-fold by CaM-KIVc and 20- to 30-fold by CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc. In the case of the Jun-dependent transcription, this effect was not due to direct phosphorylation of c-Jun by activated CaM-KIV, since transcription was blocked by a dominant-negative JNK and by two MAP kinase phosphatases. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (Thr196) in CaM-KIV, which mediates its activation by CaM-KIV kinase, prevented activation of Elk-1, c-Jun, and ATF2 by the CaM kinase cascade. These results establish a new Ca2+-dependent mechanism for regulating MAP kinase pathways and resultant transcription. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855261

  8. Mycobacteriophage putative GTPase-activating protein can potentiate antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuangquan; Xu, Mengmeng; Duan, Xiangke; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Li, Qiming; Xie, Longxiang; Fan, Xiangyu; Xie, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The soaring incidences of infection by antimicrobial resistant (AR) pathogens and shortage of effective antibiotics with new mechanisms of action have renewed interest in phage therapy. This scenario is exemplified by resistant tuberculosis (TB), caused by resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteriophage SWU1 A321_gp67 encodes a putative GTPase-activating protein. Mycobacterium smegmatis with gp67 overexpression showed changed colony formation and biofilm morphology and supports the efficacy of streptomycin and capreomycin against Mycobacterium. gp67 down-regulated the transcription of genes involved in cell wall and biofilm development. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that phage protein in addition to lysin or recombination components can synergize with existing antibiotics. Phage components might represent a promising new clue for better antibiotic potentiators. PMID:27345061

  9. Metals in the active site of native protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Heroes, Ewald; Rip, Jens; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; De Gendt, Stefan; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a major protein Ser/Thr phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. Its activity depends on two metal ions in the catalytic site, which were identified as manganese in the bacterially expressed phosphatase. However, the identity of the metal ions in native PP1 is unknown. In this study, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to detect iron and zinc in PP1 that was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle. Metal exchange experiments confirmed that the distinct substrate specificity of recombinant and native PP1 is determined by the nature of their associated metals. We also found that the iron level associated with native PP1 is decreased by incubation with inhibitor-2, consistent with a function of inhibitor-2 as a PP1 chaperone. PMID:25890482

  10. Cytoprotective-selective activated protein C therapy for ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, Laurent O.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Griffin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite years of research and efforts to translate stroke research to clinical therapy, ischemic stroke remains a major cause of death, disability, and diminished quality of life. Primary and secondary preventive measures combined with improved quality of care have made significant progress. However, no novel drug for ischemic stroke therapy has been approved in the past decade. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of activated protein C (APC) in rodent stroke models. In addition to its natural anticoagulant functions, APC conveys multiple direct cytoprotective effects on many different cell types that involve multiple receptors including protease activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR3, and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). Application of molecular engineered APC variants with altered selectivity profiles to rodent stroke models demonstrated that the beneficial effects of APC primarily require its cytoprotective activities but not its anticoagulant activities. Extensive basic, preclinical, and clinical research provided a compelling rationale based on strong evidence for translation of APC therapy that has led to the clinical development of the cytoprotective-selective APC variant, 3K3A-APC, for ischemic stroke. Recent identification of non-canonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC that give rise to novel tethered-ligands capable of inducing biased cytoprotective signaling as opposed to the canonical signaling provides a mechanistic explanation for how APC-mediated PAR activation can selectively induce cytoprotective signaling pathways. Collectively, these paradigm-shifting discoveries provide detailed insights into the receptor targets and the molecular mechanisms for neuroprotection by cytoprotective-selective 3K3A-APC, which is currently a biologic drug in clinical trials for ischemic stroke. PMID:25230930

  11. Purification, characterization, and structural analysis of a plant low-temperature-induced protein.

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, J G; Sönnichsen, F D; de Beus, M D; Johnson-Flanagan, A M

    1997-01-01

    We have purified to near homogeneity a recombinant form of the protein BN28 (rBN28), expressed in response to low temperature in Brassica napus plants, and we have determined its solution structure. Antibodies raised against rBN28 were used to characterize the recombinant and native proteins. Similar to many other low-temperature-induced proteins, BN28 is extremely hydrophilic, such that it remains soluble following boiling. Immunoblot analysis of subcellular fractions indicated that BN28 was not strongly associated with cellular membranes and was localized exclusively within the soluble fraction of the cell. Contrary to predicted secondary structure that suggested significant helical content, circular dichroism analysis revealed that rBN28 existed in aqueous solution largely as a random coil. However, the helical propensity of the protein could be demonstrated in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis further showed that rBN28 was in fact completely unstructured (100% coil) in aqueous solution. Although it had earlier been speculated that BN28-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana might possess antifreeze protein activity (S. Kurkela and M. Franck [1990] Plant Mol Biol 15: 137-144), no such activity could be detected in ice recrystallization assays with rBN28. PMID:9046590

  12. Evidence for protein kinase C-dependent and -independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in T cells: potential role of additional diacylglycerol binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Puente, L G; Stone, J C; Ostergaard, H L

    2000-12-15

    Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is a critical signal transduction event for CTL activation, but the signaling mechanisms responsible are not fully characterized. Protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to contribute to MAPK activation following TCR stimulation. We have found that dependence on PKC varies with the method used to stimulate the T cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in CTL stimulated with soluble cross-linked anti-CD3 is completely inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM). In contrast, only the later time points in the course of ERK activation are sensitive to BIM when CTL are stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3, a condition that stimulates CTL degranulation. Surprisingly, MAPK activation in response to immobilized anti-CD3 is strongly inhibited at all time points by the diacylglycerol (DAG)-binding domain inhibitor calphostin C implicating the contribution of a DAG-dependent but PKC-independent pathway in the activation of ERK in CTL clones. Chronic exposure to phorbol ester down-regulates the expression of DAG-responsive PKC isoforms; however, this treatment of CTL clones does not inhibit anti-CD3-induced activation of MAPK. Phorbol ester-treated cells have reduced expression of several isoforms of PKC but still express the recently described DAG-binding Ras guanylnucleotide-releasing protein. These results indicate that the late phase of MAPK activation in CTL clones in response to immobilized anti-CD3 stimulation requires PKC while the early phase requires a DAG-dependent, BIM-resistant component.

  13. Protein kinase D activity controls endothelial nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Sánchez-Ruiloba, Lucía; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Zaragoza, Carlos; Iglesias, Teresa; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates key functions of the endothelium, such as angiogenesis or vessel repair in processes involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. One of the effector kinases that become activated in endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment is protein kinase D (PKD). Here, we show that PKD phosphorylates eNOS, leading to its activation and a concomitant increase in NO synthesis. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the purified active kinase specifically phosphorylates recombinant eNOS on Ser1179. Treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) activates PKD and increases eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PKD and gene silencing of both PKD1 and PKD2 abrogate VEGF signaling, resulting in a clear diminished migration of endothelial cells in a wound healing assay. Finally, inhibition of PKD in mice results in an almost complete disappearance of the VEGF-induced vasodilatation, as monitored through determination of the diameter of the carotid artery. Hence, our data indicate that PKD is a new regulatory kinase of eNOS in endothelial cells whose activity orchestrates mammalian vascular tone. PMID:24928905

  14. Amygdala kindling alters protein kinase C activity in dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Desai, M A; Klann, E; Winder, D G; Sweatt, J D; Conn, P J

    1992-11-01

    Kindling is a use-dependent form of synaptic plasticity and a widely used model of epilepsy. Although kindling has been widely studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying induction of this phenomenon are not well understood. We determined the effect of amygdala kindling on protein kinase C (PKC) activity in various regions of rat brain. Kindling stimulation markedly elevated basal (Ca(2+)-independent) and Ca(2+)-stimulated phosphorylation of an endogenous PKC substrate (which we have termed P17) in homogenates of dentate gyrus, assayed 2 h after kindling stimulation. The increase in P17 phosphorylation appeared to be due at least in part to persistent PKC activation, as basal PKC activity assayed in vitro using an exogenous peptide substrate was increased in kindled dentate gyrus 2 h after the last kindling stimulation. A similar increase in basal PKC activity was observed in dentate gyrus 2 h after the first kindling stimulation. These results document a kindling-associated persistent PKC activation and suggest that the increased activity of PKC could play a role in the induction of the kindling effect.

  15. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  16. Egg Activation at Fertilization by a Soluble Sperm Protein.

    PubMed

    Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most fundamental unresolved issue of fertilization is to define how the sperm activates the egg to begin embryo development. Egg activation at fertilization in all species thus far examined is caused by some form of transient increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration. What has not been clear, however, is precisely how the sperm triggers the large changes in Ca(2+) observed within the egg cytoplasm. Here, we review the studies indicating that the fertilizing sperm stimulates a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase in the egg specifically by delivering a soluble factor that diffuses into the cytosolic space of the egg upon gamete membrane fusion. Evidence is primarily considered in species of eggs where the sperm has been shown to elicit a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase by initiating Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We suggest that our best understanding of these signaling events is in mammals, where the sperm triggers a prolonged series of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The strongest empirical studies to date suggest that mammalian sperm-triggered Ca(2+) oscillations are caused by the introduction of a sperm-specific protein, called phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that generates inositol trisphosphate within the egg. We will discuss the role and mechanism of action of PLCζ in detail at a molecular and cellular level. We will also consider some of the evidence that a soluble sperm protein might be involved in egg activation in nonmammalian species.

  17. A protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein from baculovirus has RNA 5'-triphosphatase and diphosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Takagi, T; Taylor, G S; Kusakabe, T; Charbonneau, H; Buratowski, S

    1998-08-18

    The superfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes at least one enzyme with an RNA substrate. We recently showed that the RNA triphosphatase domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans mRNA capping enzyme is related to the PTP enzyme family by sequence similarity and mechanism. The PTP most similar in sequence to the capping enzyme triphosphatase is BVP, a dual-specificity PTP encoded by the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Although BVP previously has been shown to have modest tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphatase activity, we find that it is much more potent as an RNA 5'-phosphatase. BVP sequentially removes gamma and beta phosphates from the 5' end of triphosphate-terminated RNA, leaving a 5'-monophosphate end. The activity was specific for polynucleotides; nucleotide triphosphates were not hydrolyzed. A mutant protein in which the active site cysteine was replaced with serine was inactive. Three other dual-specificity PTPs (VH1, VHR, and Cdc14) did not exhibit detectable RNA phosphatase activity. Therefore, capping enzyme and BVP are members of a distinct PTP-like subfamily that can remove phosphates from RNA. PMID:9707557

  18. Budding Yeast Silencing Complexes and Regulation of Sir2 Activity by Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Gerber, Scott A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2004-01-01

    Gene silencing in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the enzymatic activity of the Sir2 protein, a highly conserved NAD-dependent deacetylase. In order to study the activity of native Sir2, we purified and characterized two budding yeast Sir2 complexes: the Sir2/Sir4 complex, which mediates silencing at mating-type loci and at telomeres, and the RENT complex, which mediates silencing at the ribosomal DNA repeats. Analyses of the protein compositions of these complexes confirmed previously described interactions. We show that the assembly of Sir2 into native silencing complexes does not alter its selectivity for acetylated substrates, nor does it allow the deacetylation of nucleosomal histones. The inability of Sir2 complexes to deacetylate nucleosomes suggests that additional factors influence Sir2 activity in vivo. In contrast, Sir2 complexes show significant enhancement in their affinities for acetylated substrates and their sensitivities to the physiological inhibitor nicotinamide relative to recombinant Sir2. Reconstitution experiments showed that, for the Sir2/Sir4 complex, these differences stem from the physical interaction of Sir2 with Sir4. Finally, we provide evidence that the different nicotinamide sensitivities of Sir2/Sir4 and RENT in vitro could contribute to locus-specific differences in how Sir2 activity is regulated in vivo. PMID:15282295

  19. Immersion freezing of ice nucleation active protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Wex, H.; Šantl-Temkiv, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Niedermeier, D.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-06-01

    Utilising the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS), the immersion freezing behaviour of droplet ensembles containing monodisperse particles, generated from a Snomax™ solution/suspension, was investigated. Thereto ice fractions were measured in the temperature range between -5 °C to -38 °C. Snomax™ is an industrial product applied for artificial snow production and contains Pseudomonas syringae} bacteria which have long been used as model organism for atmospheric relevant ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria. The ice nucleation activity of such bacteria is controlled by INA protein complexes in their outer membrane. In our experiments, ice fractions increased steeply in the temperature range from about -6 °C to about -10 °C and then levelled off at ice fractions smaller than one. The plateau implies that not all examined droplets contained an INA protein complex. Assuming the INA protein complexes to be Poisson distributed over the investigated droplet populations, we developed the CHESS model (stoCHastic modEl of similar and poiSSon distributed ice nuclei) which allows for the calculation of ice fractions as function of temperature and time for a given nucleation rate. Matching calculated and measured ice fractions, we determined and parameterised the nucleation rate of INA protein complexes exhibiting class III ice nucleation behaviour. Utilising the CHESS model, together with the determined nucleation rate, we compared predictions from the model to experimental data from the literature and found good agreement. We found that (a) the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate expression quantifying the ice nucleation behaviour of the INA protein complex is capable of describing the ice nucleation behaviour observed in various experiments for both, Snomax™ and P. syringae bacteria, (b) the ice nucleation rate, and its temperature dependence, seem to be very similar regardless of whether the INA protein complexes inducing ice nucleation are attached

  20. Keap1-Independent Regulation of Nrf2 Activity by Protein Acetylation and a BET Bromodomain Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Tian, Min; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Bohmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian BET proteins comprise a family of bromodomain-containing epigenetic regulators with complex functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. We identified the sole member of the BET protein family in Drosophila, Fs(1)h, as an inhibitor of the stress responsive transcription factor CncC, the fly ortholog of Nrf2. Fs(1)h physically interacts with CncC in a manner that requires the function of its bromodomains and the acetylation of CncC. Treatment of cultured Drosophila cells or adult flies with fs(1)h RNAi or with the BET protein inhibitor JQ1 de-represses CncC transcriptional activity and engages protective gene expression programs. The mechanism by which Fs(1)h inhibits CncC function is distinct from the canonical mechanism that stimulates Nrf2 function by abrogating Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation. Consistent with the independent modes of CncC regulation by Keap1 and Fs(1)h, combinations of drugs that can specifically target these pathways cause a strong synergistic and specific activation of protective CncC- dependent gene expression and boosts oxidative stress resistance. This synergism might be exploitable for the design of combinatorial therapies to target diseases associated with oxidative stress or inflammation. PMID:27233051

  1. Keap1-Independent Regulation of Nrf2 Activity by Protein Acetylation and a BET Bromodomain Protein.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Tian, Min; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Bohmann, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian BET proteins comprise a family of bromodomain-containing epigenetic regulators with complex functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. We identified the sole member of the BET protein family in Drosophila, Fs(1)h, as an inhibitor of the stress responsive transcription factor CncC, the fly ortholog of Nrf2. Fs(1)h physically interacts with CncC in a manner that requires the function of its bromodomains and the acetylation of CncC. Treatment of cultured Drosophila cells or adult flies with fs(1)h RNAi or with the BET protein inhibitor JQ1 de-represses CncC transcriptional activity and engages protective gene expression programs. The mechanism by which Fs(1)h inhibits CncC function is distinct from the canonical mechanism that stimulates Nrf2 function by abrogating Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation. Consistent with the independent modes of CncC regulation by Keap1 and Fs(1)h, combinations of drugs that can specifically target these pathways cause a strong synergistic and specific activation of protective CncC- dependent gene expression and boosts oxidative stress resistance. This synergism might be exploitable for the design of combinatorial therapies to target diseases associated with oxidative stress or inflammation. PMID:27233051

  2. Interaction of the protein C activation peptide with platelets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Canseco, María Del S Pina; Lopez-Martínez, Jael; Cruz, Pedro A Hernández; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Cruz, Margarito Martínez; Alva, Félix Córdoba; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Zenteno, Edgar; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The peptide NH(2)-DTEDQEDQVDPR-COOH is released during activation of protein C zymogen. We measured the effect of a synthetic peptide with an amino acid sequence similar to that of the natural peptide on platelets from healthy individuals using platelet aggregometry. We found that this synthetic peptide inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin; furthermore, it diminishes mobilization of intraplatelet calcium. Molecular docking showed weak interaction between the synthetic peptide and thrombin. Our findings suggest that this synthetic peptide may interact with a receptor located on the platelet cell membrane.

  3. Activity-related redistribution of presynaptic proteins at the active zone.

    PubMed

    Tao-Cheng, J-H

    2006-09-01

    Immunogold labeling distributions of seven presynaptic proteins were quantitatively analyzed under control conditions and after high K+ depolarization in excitatory synapses from dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Three parallel zones in presynaptic terminals were sampled: zones I and II, each about one synaptic vesicle wide extending from the active zone; and zone III, containing a distal pool of vesicles up to 200 nm from the presynaptic membrane. The distributions of SV2 and synaptophysin, two synaptic vesicle integral membrane proteins, generally followed the distribution of synaptic vesicles, which were typically evenly distributed under control conditions and had a notable depletion in zone III after stimulation. Labels of synapsin I and synuclein, two synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, were similar to each other; both were particularly sparse in zone I under control conditions but showed a prominent enrichment toward the active zone, after stimulation. Labels of Bassoon, Piccolo and RIM 1, three active zone proteins, had very different distribution profiles from one another under control conditions. Bassoon was enriched in zone II, Piccolo and RIM 1 in zone I. After stimulation, Bassoon and Piccolo remained relatively unchanged, but RIM 1 redistributed with a significant decrease in zone I, and increases in zones II and III. These results demonstrate that Bassoon and Piccolo are stable components of the active zone while RIM 1, synapsin I and synuclein undergo dynamic redistribution with synaptic activity.

  4. Interaction of Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) with septin family proteins in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Mayu; Shinoda, Yo; Hirano, Touko; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Furuichi, Teiichi; Sadakata, Tetsushi

    2016-03-23

    The Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) protein plays a regulatory role in the dense-core vesicle exocytosis pathway. To clarify the functions of this protein in the brain, we searched for novel interaction partners of CAPS1 by mass spectrometry. We identified a specific interaction of CAPS1 with septin family proteins. We also demonstrated that the C-terminal region of the CAPS1 protein binds to part of the deduced GTP-binding domain of septin proteins. It is possible that a tertiary complex of septin, CAPS, and syntaxin contributes to dense-core vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in neurons.

  5. SIRT1 Suppresses Activator Protein-1 Transcriptional Activity and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, Jin-Jing; Jia, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Yang, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    SIRT1 (Sirtuin type 1), a mammalian orthologue of yeast SIR2 (silent information regulator 2), has been shown to mediate a variety of calorie restriction (CR)-induced physiological events, such as cell fate regulation via deacetylation of the substrate proteins. However, whether SIRT1 deacetylates activator protein-1 (AP-1) to influence its transcriptional activity and target gene expression is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 directly interacts with the basic leucine zipper domains of c-Fos and c-Jun, the major components of AP-1, by which SIRT1 suppressed the transcriptional activity of AP-1. This process requires the deacetylase activity of SIRT1. Notably, SIRT1 reduced the expression of COX-2, a typical AP-1 target gene, and decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs). pMΦs with SIRT1 overexpression displayed improved phagocytosis and tumoricidal functions, which are associated with depressed PGE2. Furthermore, SIRT1 protein level was up-regulated in CR mouse pMΦs, whereas elevated SIRT1 decreased COX-2 expression and improved PGE2-related macrophage functions that were reversed following inhibition of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. Thus, our results indicate that SIRT1 may be a mediator of CR-induced macrophage regulation, and its deacetylase activity contributes to the inhibition of AP-1 transcriptional activity and COX-2 expression leading to amelioration of macrophage function. PMID:20042607

  6. Early events of human T lymphocyte activation are associated with type I protein kinase A activity.

    PubMed Central

    Laxminarayana, D; Berrada, A; Kammer, G M

    1993-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes possess both the type I and II isozymes of protein kinase A (PKA). The type I (PKA-I) isozyme is predominantly associated with the plasma membrane, whereas the type II (PKA-II) isozyme is primarily localized to the cytosol. Because the functions of both PKA-I and PKA-II isozymes in the biochemical events of T lymphocyte activation have not been clearly elucidated, we tested the hypothesis that very early events of normal human T lymphocyte activation are mediated by the PKA-I and/or PKA-II isozyme(s). Fresh normal human T cells and a normal human CD4+ T cell line (GK606) activated with anti-CD3-epsilon and recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) exhibited a peak six- to sevenfold increase of PKA phosphotransferase activity at 5 min that returned to baseline by 60 min. Similarly, both fresh T cells and the T cell line activated by phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin demonstrated a peak eightfold increase of PKA activity by 15 min that returned toward baseline by 60 min. Chromatographic separation of the PKA isozymes and quantification of phosphotransferase activities after T cell activation by either agonist pair showed preferential activation of the PKA-I isozyme, resulting in a significant reduction in the ratio of PKA-I to PKA-II isozyme activity from 3.1:1-6.2:1 to 1.1:1-3.2:1. PKA-I isozyme activation resulted in the release of free catalytic (C) subunit, an increase in C subunit phosphotransferase activity, and the phosphorylation of T cell plasma membrane-associated proteins, p14, p17, p20, p21, p38, and p48. However, activation of the PKA-I isozyme did not appear to be required for the transcription of IL-2 mRNA, an event necessary for mitosis. These data indicate that ligand-induced T cell activation is associated with rapid activation of the PKA-I, but not PKA-II, isozyme that results in phosphorylation of plasma membrane-associated proteins. The involvement of the PKA-I isozyme during the very early events of T cell

  7. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P.; Walsh, Kathleen A.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Tessmer, Stuart H.; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  8. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P; Walsh, Kathleen A; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Steidl, Rebecca J; Tessmer, Stuart H; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  9. Perivascular fat, AMP-activated protein kinase and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Almabrouk, T A M; Ewart, M A; Salt, I P; Kennedy, S

    2014-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that modulates vascular function, with implications for the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT produce mediators (adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species and gaseous compounds) with a range of paracrine effects modulating vascular smooth muscle cell contraction, proliferation and migration. However, the modulatory effect of PVAT on the vascular system in diseases, such as obesity, hypertension and atherosclerosis, remains poorly characterized. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates adipocyte metabolism, adipose biology and vascular function, and hence may be a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the vascular complications associated with obesity and T2DM. The role of AMPK in PVAT or the actions of PVAT have yet to be established, however. Activation of AMPK by pharmacological agents, such as metformin and thiazolidinediones, may modulate the activity of PVAT surrounding blood vessels and thereby contribute to their beneficial effect in cardiometabolic diseases. This review will provide a current perspective on how PVAT may influence vascular function via AMPK. We will also attempt to demonstrate how modulating AMPK activity using pharmacological agents could be exploited therapeutically to treat cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:24490856

  10. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  11. Physical activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Eric P; Grandjean, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries around the world despite the documented success of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. This illustrates the multifactorial nature of atherosclerosis and the use of novel inflammatory markers as an adjunct to risk factor reduction strategies. As evidence continues to accumulate that inflammation is involved in all stages of the development and progression of atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) may provide additional information regarding the biological status of the atherosclerotic lesion. Recent investigations suggest that physical activity reduces CRP levels. Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are consistently associated with 6-35% lower CRP levels. Longitudinal training studies that have demonstrated reductions in CRP concentrations range from 16% to 41%, an effect that may be independent of baseline levels of CRP, body composition or weight loss. The average change in CRP associated with physical activity appears to be at least as good, if not better, than currently prescribed pharmacological interventions in similar populations. The primary purpose of this review will be to present evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations that physical activity lowers CRP levels in a dose-response manner. Finally, this review will examine factors such as body composition, sex, blood sample timing, diet and smoking, which may influence the CRP response to physical activity. PMID:16646631

  12. Structure and Activity of Tryptophan-rich TSPO Translocator Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Youzhong; Kalathur, Ravi C.; Liu, Qun; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Ginter, Christopher; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    TSPO translocator proteins bind steroids and porphyrins, and they are implicated in many human diseases, for which they serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. TSPOs have tryptophan-rich sequences that are fhighly conserved from bacteria to mammals. We report crystal structures for Bacillus cereus TSPO (BcTSPO) down to 1.7Å resolution, including a complex with the benzodiazepine-like inhibitor PK11195. We also describe BcTSPO-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) reactions, including catalytic degradation to a previously undescribed heme derivative. We used structure-inspired mutations to investigate reaction mechanisms, and we showed that TSPOs from Xenopus and man have similar PpIX-directed activities. Although TSPOs have been regarded as transporters, the catalytic activity in PpIX degradation suggests physiological importance for TSPOs in protection against oxidative stress. PMID:25635100

  13. TALE proteins bind to both active and inactive chromatin.

    PubMed

    Scott, James N F; Kupinski, Adam P; Kirkham, Christopher M; Tuma, Roman; Boyes, Joan

    2014-02-15

    TALE (transcription activator-like effector) proteins can be tailored to bind to any DNA sequence of choice and thus are of immense utility for genome editing and the specific delivery of transcription activators. However, to perform these functions, they need to occupy their sites in chromatin. In the present study, we have systematically assessed TALE binding to chromatin substrates and find that in vitro TALEs bind to their target site on nucleosomes at the more accessible entry/exit sites, but not at the nucleosome dyad. We show further that in vivo TALEs bind to transcriptionally repressed chromatin and that transcription increases binding by only 2-fold. These data therefore imply that TALEs are likely to bind to their target in vivo even at inactive loci.

  14. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  15. Scientists Discover Antifreeze in Space, Warming Theories on How and Where Life Begins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    Ethylene glycol, the chemical commonly used as automobile antifreeze, was discovered recently in a massive interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Scientists used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) 12 Meter Radio Telescope to detect this organic molecule. Ethylene Glycol Molecule: Click on image for larger view Ethylene Glycol Molecule "Though we most commonly think of ethylene glycol as antifreeze, it actually is associated with the formation of more complex sugar molecules that are necessary for life," said Jan M. Hollis of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "Finding this molecule supports the view that prebiotic chemistry may first get started in interstellar space." Hollis collaborated with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois, Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Laurent H. Coudert of the University of Paris at Campus d'Orsay to identify the ethylene glycol molecule. Their results were accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The scientific team detected ethylene glycol in the molecular cloud called Sagittarius B, located 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. Though rarefied by Earth standards, interstellar clouds like this one can enable complex chemical reactions over time scales of hundreds-of-thousands or even millions of years. About 130 different molecules are known to exist in interstellar clouds. Ethylene glycol (a 10-atom molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) is one of the five largest molecules ever discovered in space. It also is a chemically reduced form of 8-atom glycolaldehyde, the simplest member of the sugar family. This means that ethylene glycol can be produced from glycolaldehyde by the addition of two hydrogen atoms. Both molecules have now been detected in space by this team. "These detections suggest that the production of more complex sugars, like ribose, may be occurring in

  16. Enhancing the Activity of a Protein by Stereospecific Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Qing-xin; Xu, Bin; Huang, Kun; Hu, Shi-Quan; Nakagawa, Satoe; Jia, Wenhua; Wang, Shuhua; Whittaker, Jonathan; Katsoyannis, Panayotis G.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A central tenet of molecular biology holds that the function of a protein is mediated by its structure. An inactive ground-state conformation may nonetheless be enjoined by the interplay of competing biological constraints. A model is provided by insulin, well characterized at atomic resolution by x-ray crystallography. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of the hormone is enhanced by stereospecific unfolding of a conserved structural element. A bifunctional β-strand mediates both self-assembly (within β-cell storage vesicles) and receptor binding (in the bloodstream). This strand is anchored by an invariant side chain (PheB24); its substitution by Ala leads to an unstable but native-like analog of low activity. Substitution by d-Ala is equally destabilizing, and yet the protein diastereomer exhibits enhanced activity with segmental unfolding of the β-strand. Corresponding photoactivable derivatives (containing l- or d-para-azido-Phe) cross-link to the insulin receptor with higher d-specific efficiency. Aberrant exposure of hydrophobic surfaces in the analogs is associated with accelerated fibrillation, a form of aggregation-coupled misfolding associated with cellular toxicity. Conservation of PheB24, enforced by its dual role in native self-assembly and induced fit, thus highlights the implicit role of misfolding as an evolutionary constraint. Whereas classical crystal structures of insulin depict its storage form, signaling requires engagement of a detachable arm at an extended receptor interface. Because this active conformation resembles an amyloidogenic intermediate, we envisage that induced fit and self-assembly represent complementary molecular adaptations to potential proteotoxicity. The cryptic threat of misfolding poses a universal constraint in the evolution of polypeptide sequences. PMID:19321436

  17. Inhibition of Type III Interferon Activity by Orthopoxvirus Immunomodulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) family elicits an antiviral response that is nearly identical to that evoked by IFN-α/β. However, these cytokines (known as IFN-λ1, 2, and 3) signal through a distinct receptor, and thus may be resistant to the evasion strategies used by some viruses to avoid the IFN-α/β response. Orthopoxviruses are highly resistant to IFN-α/β because they encode well-characterized immunomodulatory proteins that inhibit IFN activity. These include a secreted receptor (B18R) that neutralizes IFN-α/β, and a cytoplasmic protein (E3L) that blocks IFN-α/β effector functions in infected cells. We therefore determined the ability of these immunomodulators to abrogate the IFN-λ–induced antiviral response. We found that (i) vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is resistant to IFN-λ antiviral activity; (ii) neither VACV B18R nor the variola virus homolog B20R neutralizes IFN-λ; (iii) VACV E3L inhibits the IFN-λ–mediated antiviral response through a PKR-dependent pathway; (iv) VACV infection inhibits IFN-λR–mediated signal transduction and gene expression. These results demonstrate differential sensitivity of IFN-λ to multiple distinct evasion mechanisms employed by a single virus. PMID:20038204

  18. Proteins with RNA Chaperone Activity: A World of Diverse Proteins with a Common Task—Impediment of RNA Misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Semrad, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Proteins with RNA chaperone activity are ubiquitous proteins that play important roles in cellular mechanisms. They prevent RNA from misfolding by loosening misfolded structures without ATP consumption. RNA chaperone activity is studied in vitro and in vivo using oligonucleotide- or ribozyme-based assays. Due to their functional as well as structural diversity, a common chaperoning mechanism or universal motif has not yet been identified. A growing database of proteins with RNA chaperone activity has been established based on evaluation of chaperone activity via the described assays. Although the exact mechanism is not yet understood, it is more and more believed that disordered regions within proteins play an important role. This possible mechanism and which proteins were found to possess RNA chaperone activity are discussed here. PMID:21234377

  19. Biodegradable nanoparticles for protein delivery: analysis of preparation conditions on particle morphology and protein loading, activity and sustained release properties.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jason; Lowman, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    PLGA particles have been extensively used as a sustained drug-delivery system, but there are multiple drawbacks when delivering proteins. The focus of this work is to address the most significant disadvantages to the W/O/W double emulsion procedure and demonstrate that simple changes to this procedure can have significant changes to particle size and dispersity and considerable improvements to protein loading, activity and sustained active protein release. A systematic approach was taken to analyze the effects of the following variables: solvent miscibility (dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone), homogenization speed (10 000-25 000 rpm), PLGA concentration (10-30 mg/ml) and additives in both the organic (sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)) and aqueous (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) phases. Increasing solvent miscibility decreased particle size, dispersity and protein denaturation, while maintaining adequate protein loading. Increasing solvent miscibility also lowered the impact of homogenization on particle size and dispersity and protein activity. Changes to PLGA concentration demonstrated a minimum impact on particle size and dispersity, but showed an inverse relationship between protein encapsulation efficiency and particle protein weight percent. Most particles tested provided sustained release of active protein over 60 days. Increasing solvent miscibility resulted in increases in the percent of active protein released. When subjected to synthesis conditions with DCM as the solvent, BSA as a stabilizer resulted in the maximum stabilization of protein at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. At this concentration, BSA allowed for increases in the total amount of active protein delivered for all three solvents. The benefit of SAIB was primarily increased protein loading.

  20. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  1. PPAR-β/δ activation promotes phospholipid transfer protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chehaibi, Khouloud; Cedó, Lídia; Metso, Jari; Palomer, Xavier; Santos, David; Quesada, Helena; Naceur Slimane, Mohamed; Wahli, Walter; Julve, Josep; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2015-03-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-β/δ has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating dyslipidemia, including beneficial effects on HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). In the current study, we determined the effects of the PPAR-β/δ agonist GW0742 on HDL composition and the expression of liver HDL-related genes in mice and cultured human cells. The experiments were carried out in C57BL/6 wild-type, LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice and PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice treated with GW0742 (10mg/kg/day) or a vehicle solution for 14 days. GW0742 upregulated liver phospholipid transfer protein (Pltp) gene expression and increased serum PLTP activity in mice. When given to wild-type mice, GW0742 significantly increased serum HDL-C and HDL phospholipids; GW0742 also raised serum potential to generate preβ-HDL formation. The GW0742-mediated effects on liver Pltp expression and serum enzyme activity were completely abolished in PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice. GW0742 also stimulated PLTP mRNA expression in mouse J774 macrophages, differentiated human THP-1 macrophages and human hepatoma Huh7. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a common transcriptional upregulation by GW0742-activated PPAR-β/δ of Pltp expression in cultured cells and in mouse liver resulting in enhanced serum PLTP activity. Our results also indicate that PPAR-β/δ activation may modulate PLTP-mediated preβ-HDL formation and macrophage cholesterol efflux.

  2. A Variable Light Domain Fluorogen Activating Protein Homodimerizes To Activate Dimethylindole Red

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Nina; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Bhattacharyya, Shantanu; Rule, Gordon S.; Wilson, Ian A.; Armitage, Bruce A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Berget, Peter B.

    2012-07-11

    Novel fluorescent tools such as green fluorescent protein analogues and fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs) are useful in biological imaging for tracking protein dynamics in real time with a low fluorescence background. FAPs are single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) selected from a yeast surface display library that produce fluorescence upon binding a specific dye or fluorogen that is normally not fluorescent when present in solution. FAPs generally consist of human immunoglobulin variable heavy (V{sub H}) and variable light (V{sub L}) domains covalently attached via a glycine- and serine-rich linker. Previously, we determined that the yeast surface clone, V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8, could bind and activate the fluorogen dimethylindole red (DIR) but that the fluorogen activation properties were localized to the M8V{sub L} domain. We report here that both nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction methods indicate the M8V{sub L} forms noncovalent, antiparallel homodimers that are the fluorogen activating species. The M8V{sub L} homodimers activate DIR by restriction of internal rotation of the bound dye. These structural results, together with directed evolution experiments with both V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8 and M8V{sub L}, led us to rationally design tandem, covalent homodimers of M8V{sub L} domains joined by a flexible linker that have a high affinity for DIR and good quantum yields.

  3. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3, and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses) is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phospho)proteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g., WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the “PEN” pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens). Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org). PMID:25368622

  4. Targeted Mutagenesis and Combinatorial Library Screening Enables Control of Protein Orientation on Surfaces and Increased Activity of Adsorbed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Teran, Carlos A; Carlin, Kevin B; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan; Rao, Balaji M

    2016-08-30

    While nonspecific adsorption is widely used for immobilizing proteins on solid surfaces, the random nature of protein adsorption may reduce the activity of immobilized proteins due to occlusion of the active site. We hypothesized that the orientation a protein assumes on a given surface can be controlled by systematically introducing mutations into a region distant from its active site, thereby retaining activity of the immobilized protein. To test this hypothesis, we generated a combinatorial protein library by randomizing six targeted residues in a binding protein derived from highly stable, nonimmunoglobulin Sso7d scaffold; mutations were targeted in a region that is distant from the binding site. This library was screened to isolate binders that retain binding to its cognate target (chicken immunoglobulin Y, cIgY) as well as exhibit adsorption on unmodified silica at pH 7.4 and high ionic strength conditions. A single mutant, Sso7d-2B5, was selected for further characterization. Sso7d-2B5 retained binding to cIgY with an apparent dissociation constant similar to that of the parent protein; both mutant and parent proteins saturated the surface of silica with similar densities. Strikingly, however, silica beads coated with Sso7d-2B5 could achieve up to 7-fold higher capture of cIgY than beads coated with the parent protein. These results strongly suggest that mutations introduced in Sso7d-2B5 alter its orientation relative to the parent protein, when adsorbed on silica surfaces. Our approach also provides a generalizable strategy for introducing mutations in proteins so as to improve their activity upon immobilization, and has direct relevance to development of protein-based biosensors and biocatalysts. PMID:27490089

  5. Stimulation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells by Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sangeetha; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Eapen, Asha; George, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can ultimately result in tooth loss. Many natural and synthetic materials have been tried to achieve periodontal regeneration, but the results remain variable and unpredictable. We hypothesized that exogenous treatment with dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) activates specific genes and results in phenotypic and functional changes in human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Methods hPDLSCs were isolated from extracted teeth and cultured in the presence or absence of DMP1. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to analyze the expression of several genes involved in periodontal regeneration. hPDLSCs were also processed for immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and ERK antibodies. Alkaline phosphatase and von Kossa staining were performed to characterize the differentiation of hPDLSCs into osteoblasts. Field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis of the treated and control cell cultures were also performed. Results Treatment with DMP1 resulted in the upregulation of genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2, alkaline phosphatase, and transforming growth factor β1. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and translocation of pERK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed. Overall, DMP1-treated cells showed increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, increased matrix, and mineralized nodule formation when compared with untreated controls. Conclusion DMP1 can orchestrate a coordinated expression of genes and phenotypic changes in hPDLSCs by activation of the ERK signaling pathway, which may provide a valuable strategy for tissue engineering approaches in periodontal regeneration. PMID:22612367

  6. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  7. Ice growth in supercooled solutions of a biological "antifreeze", AFGP 1-5: an explanation in terms of adsorption rate for the concentration dependence of the freezing point.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; DeVries, A L

    2009-07-21

    It is widely accepted, and we agree, that the lowering of the temperature at which ice can grow in a water solution of one of the biological antifreezes is a result of adsorption of the antifreeze molecules at the ice surface. However, how this can produce a well-defined "freezing point" that varies with the solution concentration has remained problematical. The results of a series of measurements of ice growing in supercooled solutions of an effective antifreeze are reported and interpreted in terms of this fundamental problem. It seemed that the solution of the problem would have to rely upon adsorption rate, because that appeared to be the only way for the concentration in solution to be so important. The crystal growth results are most unusual, and appear to confirm this. The growth rates over a wide range of antifreeze concentration in solution (about 0.05 to 9 mg ml(-1)) are zero from the thermodynamic freezing point down to the "non-equilibrium" freezing point, where there is a very sudden increase to a plateau value that then remains about constant as the supercooling is increased by about 2 degrees C. The plateau values of growth rate are faster than those from pure water at the lower-supercooling ends of the plateaus, but slower at higher supercooling, until the growth rate starts rising toward that from pure water. These plateau values of growth rate increase markedly with increasing concentration of the antifreeze in solution. Along with these changes there are complex changes in the growth orientations, from c-axis spicules in the plateaus to those more characteristic of growth from pure water at greater supercooling. We conclude that the non-equilibrium freezing point is determined by the adsorption rate. It is the warmest temperature at which the ice growth rate on the basal plane (where the antifreeze does not adsorb) is fast enough to prevent the area of basal face on a growing ice crystal from becoming too small to grow, which is determined in

  8. Combination of MS protein identification and bioassay of chromatographic fractions to identify biologically active substances from complex protein sources.

    PubMed

    Kuromitsu, Sadao; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Hiramoto, Masashi; Yuri, Masatoshi; Naitou, Masanori; Nakamura, Naoto; Kawabata, Shigeki; Kobori, Masato; Katoh, Masao; Furuchi, Kiyoshi; Mita, Haruhisa; Yamada, Tetsuo

    2009-06-01

    Purification of biologically active proteins from complex biological sources is a difficult task, usually requiring large amounts of sample and many separation steps. We found an active substance in a serum response element-dependent luciferase reporter gene bioassay in interstitial cystitis urine that we attempted to purify with column chromatography and the bioassay. With anion-exchange Mono Q and C4 reversed-phase columns, apparently sharp active peaks were obtained. However, more than 20 kinds of proteins were identified from the active fractions with MS, indicating that the purification was not complete. As further purification was difficult, we chose a candidate molecule by means of studying the correlation between MS protein identification scores and bioassay responses of chromatographic fractions near the active peaks. As a result, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was nominated as a candidate molecule among the identified proteins because the elution profile of EGF was consistent with that of the bioassay, and the correlation coefficient of EGF between MS protein identification scores and bioassay responses was the highest among all the identified proteins. With recombinant EGF and anti-EGF and anti-EGF receptor antibodies, EGF was confirmed to be the desired substance in interstitial cystitis urine. This approach required only 20 ml of urine sample and two column chromatographic steps. The combination of MS protein identification and bioassay of chromatographic fractions may be useful for identifying biologically active substances from complex protein sources.

  9. Extracellular protein analysis of activated sludge and their functions in wastewater treatment plant by shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Li, Chun; Wang, Han; Chen, You-Peng; Yan, Peng; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, proteins in extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic sludges of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed to probe their origins and functions. Extracellular proteins in WWTP sludges were identified using shotgun proteomics, and 130, 108 and 114 proteins in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic samples were classified, respectively. Most proteins originated from cell and cell part, and their most major molecular functions were catalytic activity and binding activity. The results exhibited that the main roles of extracellular proteins in activated sludges were multivalence cations and organic molecules binding, as well as in catalysis and degradation. The catalytic activity proteins were more widespread in anaerobic sludge compared with those in anoxic and aerobic sludges. The structure difference between anaerobic and aerobic sludges could be associated with their catalytic activities proteins. The results also put forward a relation between the macro characteristics of activated sludges and micro functions of extracellular proteins in biological wastewater treatment process. PMID:26160685

  10. Integrins activate trimeric G proteins via the nonreceptor protein GIV/Girdin

    PubMed Central

    Leyme, Anthony; Marivin, Arthur; Perez-Gutierrez, Lorena; Nguyen, Lien T.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction via integrins and G protein–coupled receptors is critical to control cell behavior. These two receptor classes have been traditionally believed to trigger distinct and independent signaling cascades in response to extracellular cues. Here, we report a novel mechanism of integrin signaling that requires activation of the trimeric G protein Gαi by the nonreceptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GIV (also known as Girdin), a metastasis-associated protein. We demonstrate that GIV enhances integrin-dependent cell responses upon extracellular matrix stimulation and makes tumor cells more invasive. These responses include remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and PI3K-dependent signaling, resulting in enhanced haptotaxis and invasion. We show that both GIV and its substrate Gαi3 are recruited to active integrin complexes and that tumor cells engineered to express GEF-deficient GIV fail to transduce integrin signals into proinvasive responses via a Gβγ-PI3K axis. Our discoveries delineate a novel mechanism by which integrin signaling is rewired during metastasis to result in increased tumor invasiveness. PMID:26391662

  11. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.

  12. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant. PMID:16841690

  13. Annexin proteins PP4 and PP4-X. Comparative characterization of biological activities of placental and recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Römisch, J; Grote, M; Weithmann, K U; Heimburger, N; Amann, E

    1990-01-01

    The human placental proteins PP4 and PP4-X, belonging to the annexin protein family, were expressed in Escherichia coli at high yield. The proteins were purified to homogeneity. The physicochemical parameters of the recombinant proteins were determined and compared with those of their natural placental counterparts. Except for a minor change in the pI, the proteins appeared to be indistinguishable by several criteria. Both recombinant PP4 and recombinant PP4-X were biologically active in a thromboplastin inhibition test and in a phospholipase A2 inhibition test. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2148260

  14. Functional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kovtun, Yelena; Chiu, Wan-Ling; Tena, Guillaume; Sheen, Jen

    2000-01-01

    Despite the recognition of H2O2 as a central signaling molecule in stress and wounding responses, pathogen defense, and regulation of cell cycle and cell death, little is known about how the H2O2 signal is perceived and transduced in plant cells. We report here that H2O2 is a potent activator of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Arabidopsis leaf cells. Using epitope tagging and a protoplast transient expression assay, we show that H2O2 can activate a specific Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, ANP1, which initiates a phosphorylation cascade involving two stress MAPKs, AtMPK3 and AtMPK6. Constitutively active ANP1 mimics the H2O2 effect and initiates the MAPK cascade that induces specific stress-responsive genes, but it blocks the action of auxin, a plant mitogen and growth hormone. The latter observation provides a molecular link between oxidative stress and auxin signal transduction. Finally, we show that transgenic tobacco plants that express a constitutively active tobacco ANP1 orthologue, NPK1, display enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stress conditions without activating previously described drought, cold, and abscisic acid signaling pathways. Thus, manipulation of key regulators of an oxidative stress signaling pathway, such as ANP1/NPK1, provides a strategy for engineering multiple stress tolerance that may greatly benefit agriculture. PMID:10717008

  15. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by tributyltin induces neuronal cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro Hino, Atsuko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the metabolite-sensing protein kinase family, is activated by energy deficiency and is abundantly expressed in neurons. The environmental pollutant, tributyltin chloride (TBT), is a neurotoxin, and has been reported to decrease cellular ATP in some types of cells. Therefore, we investigated whether TBT activates AMPK, and whether its activation contributes to neuronal cell death, using primary cultures of cortical neurons. Cellular ATP levels were decreased 0.5 h after exposure to 500 nM TBT, and the reduction was time-dependent. It was confirmed that most neurons in our culture system express AMPK, and that TBT induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced the neurotoxicity of TBT, suggesting that AMPK is involved in TBT-induced cell death. Next, the downstream target of AMPK activation was investigated. Nitric oxide synthase, p38 phosphorylation and Akt dephosphorylation were not downstream of TBT-induced AMPK activation because these factors were not affected by compound C, but glutamate release was suggested to be controlled by AMPK. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by TBT causes neuronal death through mediating glutamate release.