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Sample records for antigen hla matched

  1. Defining the immunogenicity and antigenicity of HLA epitopes is crucial for optimal epitope matching in clinical renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kramer, C S M; Roelen, D L; Heidt, S; Claas, F H J

    2017-04-05

    Transplantation of an human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatched graft can lead to the development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA), which can result in antibody mediated rejection and graft loss as well as complicate repeat transplantation. These DSA are induced by foreign epitopes present on the mismatched HLA antigens of the donor. However, not all epitopes appear to be equally effective in their ability to induce DSA. Understanding the characteristics of HLA epitopes is crucial for optimal epitope matching in clinical transplantation. In this review, the latest insights on HLA epitopes are described with a special focus on the definition of immunogenicity and antigenicity of HLA epitopes. Furthermore, the use of this knowledge to prevent HLA antibody formation and to select the optimal donor for sensitised transplant candidates will be discussed.

  2. Limited HLA sequence variation outside of antigen recognition domain exons of 360 10 of 10 matched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant donor-recipient pairs.

    PubMed

    Hou, L; Vierra-Green, C; Lazaro, A; Brady, C; Haagenson, M; Spellman, S; Hurley, C K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional DNA-based typing focuses primarily on interrogating the exons of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes that form the antigen recognition domain (ARD). The relevance of mismatching donor and recipient for HLA variation outside the ARD on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of variation outside the ARD in 10 of 10 (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1) matched unrelated donor transplant pairs (n = 360). Next-generation DNA sequencing was used to characterize both HLA exons and introns for HLA-A, -B, -C alleles; exons 2, 3 and the intervening intron for HLA-DRB1 and exons only for HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1. Over 97% of alleles at each locus were matched for their nucleotide sequence outside of the ARD exons. Of the 4320 allele comparisons overall, only 17 allele pairs were mismatched for non-ARD exons, 41 for noncoding regions and 9 for ARD exons. The observed variation between donor and recipient usually involved a single nucleotide difference (88% of mismatches); 88% of the non-ARD exon variants impacted the amino acid sequence. The impact of amino acid sequence variation caused by substitutions in exons outside ARD regions in D-R pairs will be difficult to assess in HSCT outcome studies because these mismatches do not occur very frequently.

  3. HLA antigens and Berger's disease.

    PubMed

    Bignon, J D; Houssin, A; Soulillou, J P; Denis, J; Guimbretiere, J; Guenel, J

    1980-07-01

    We have studied the frequencies of HLA-A, -B antigens in 73 Berger's disease patients, plus HLA-DR antigens in 35 of them, and compared the percentages of antigens frequencies with those of a local and national panel. This study does not confirm the positive associations with HLA-Bw35 or HLA-B12 which have been previously reported. The HLA-DR typing only showed increased frequency of blanks in the patients (P smaller than 0.01, but no significant corr.P). Patients with Berger's disease and renal failure have a higher (but still not significant) HLA-Bw35 frequency than those without renal failure. The reasons for the discrepancy between our group and others are analysed.

  4. Monocytic HLA DR antigens in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Krause, Daniela; Wagner, Jenny; Matz, Judith; Weidinger, Elif; Obermeier, Michael; Riedel, Michael; Gruber, Rudolf; Schwarz, Markus; Mueller, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    A genetic association of specific human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DR genes and schizophrenia has recently been shown. These HLA play a fundamental role in the control of immune responses. Furthermore infectious agents have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this study we investigated the rate of HLA DR positive monocytes in schizophrenic patients compared to controls with a special focus on the adaption to in vitro stimulation with toll-like receptor ligands. Patients with schizophrenia and matched controls were included. For each individual, we evaluated the rate of HLA DR positive monocytes (either incubated at 37 °C or after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or Poly I:C). We found a significantly higher percentage of schizophrenic patients with elevated HLA DR positive cells (p=0.045) as compared to controls. The adjustment rate from baseline levels of monocytic HLA DR positive cells to stimulation with Poly I:C was significantly lower in schizophrenic patients (p=0.038). The increased monocytic HLA DR in schizophrenic patients and the maladjustment of their monocytic HLA DR levels to an infectious stimulus might be a sign for a disturbed monocytic immune balance in schizophrenic individuals.

  5. Reflections on HLA Epitope-Based Matching for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Duquesnoy, Rene J.

    2016-01-01

    HLA antibodies are primary causes of transplant rejection; they recognize epitopes that can be structurally defined by eplets. There are many reviews about HLA epitope-based matching in transplantation. This article describes some personal reflections about epitopes including a historical perspective of HLA typing at the antigen and allele levels, the repertoires of antibody-verified HLA epitopes, the use of HLAMatchmaker in determining the specificities of antibodies tested in different assays, and, finally, possible strategies to control HLA antibody responses. PMID:27965660

  6. Potential of CD80-transfected human breast carcinoma cells to induce peptide-specific T lymphocytes in an allogeneic human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA)-A2.1+-matched situation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, G C; Batrla, R; Rudy, W; Meuer, S C; Wallwiener, D; Gückel, B; Moebius, U

    1999-01-01

    Allogeneic human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched tumor cell lines that have been made immunogenic by the transfer of genes encoding for costimulatory molecules such as CD80 are considered to be potential vaccines for the induction of systemic immune reactions in cancer patients. We used a human HLA-A2.1+ CD80-transfected breast carcinoma cell line (KS-CD80) and investigated in vitro the efficiency at which antigen (Ag)-specific responses were induced following the stimulation of allogeneic HLA-A2.1-matched T lymphocytes. The influenza matrix protein M1 was used as a model Ag. It was either endogenously expressed or exogenously loaded as a peptide (matrix protein), and the frequency of the generated specific T cells was determined. The expression of CD80 in KS cells was required for an effective activation and expansion of Ag-specific T cells. This response was augmented following the pretreatment of KS-CD80 cells with interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-7, and IL-12 further increased T-cell expansion. IL-7 was best at supporting the generation of T cells with Ag specificity. This investigation demonstrates that allogeneic CD80+ tumor cells can induce Ag-specific, HLA-restricted T lymphocytes at a high frequency. Our study supports the use of allogeneic cell lines for the induction of specific T-cell responses in tumor patients.

  7. Clinical guidelines for IVF with PGD for HLA matching.

    PubMed

    Tur-Kaspa, Ilan; Jeelani, Roohi

    2015-02-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is an established procedure for conceiving a child who may donate cord blood or haematopoietic stem cells for transplantation to save an ill sibling. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from related matched donors improves overall survival compared with unrelated or non-matched donors. Since HSCT from related matched-donors is unavailable for 70% of patients, IVF for PGD-HLA is a relevant clinical option. Recent success of HSCT after PGD-HLA, and excellent health and family support of the children born, suggests that debate over this kind of 'designer baby' and 'gift of life' should subside. Discussions about IVF for PGD-HLA should be held with families when a related matched-donor is unavailable, when HSCT can wait at least 9-12 months, within weeks of diagnosis irrespective of prognosis, and when the mother is of reproductive age. Related half-matched egg donors may also be considered. National and international collaborations should be established, and couples choosing this modality should be referred to experienced IVF and PGD centres. Clinical guidelines will improve physician and patient awareness of IVF for PGD-HLA and its role in advancing the clinical care of children in need of HSCT.

  8. Common antigen structures of HL-A antigens

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Y.; Tanigaki, N.; Yagi, Y.; Pressman, D.

    1973-01-01

    Antigenic determinants recognizable by rabbits were found to be present on the molecular fragments (48,000 Daltons) which were obtained by papain-solubilization of the membrane fractions of cultured human lymphoid cells and which carried the HL-A determinants. Results were obtained which suggest that these antigenic determinants are present in common on these molecular fragments carrying HL-A determinants regardless of their HL-A specificity and are restricted to the molecular fragments which carry HL-A determinants. The study was made by use of radioimmune methods involving the binding of radioiodine-labelled soluble HL-A antigen preparations by anti-HL-A alloantisera and by rabbit antisera raised against the membrane fractions of cultured human lymphoid cells. PMID:4119543

  9. [HL-A antigens in dust allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Seignalet, J; Levallois, C; Lapinski, H; Jean, R

    1976-12-01

    The distribution of 29 HLA antigens has been compared in 60 unrelated children presenting a dust allergy and in 300 healthy controls. We observed an increased frequency for HLA-Aw19 and HLA-B5 in patients. Yet, the differences are not very significant and there is probably no association between one HLA gene and the dust allergy.

  10. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R

    1989-01-01

    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  11. The Association Between Broad Antigen HLA Mismatches, Eplet HLA Mismatches and Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Do Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Wong, Germaine; Chapman, Jeremy R.; McDonald, Stephen P.; Coates, Patrick T.; Watson, Narelle; Russ, Graeme R.; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Lim, Wai Hon

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitope matching, which evaluates mismatched amino acids within antigen-antibody interaction sites (eplets), may better predict acute rejection than broad antigen matching alone. We aimed to determine the association between eplet mismatches and acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Methods The association between eplet mismatches, broad antigen mismatches and acute rejection was assessed using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression. Model discrimination for acute rejection was evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Of the 3,499 kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2011, the average (SD) number of broad antigen and eplet mismatches were 3.4 (1.7) and 22.8 (12.2), respectively. Compared with 0 to 2 eplet mismatches, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for acute rejection among those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.52; P = 0.001). The adjusted area under the curve for broad antigen mismatches was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.56-0.61), similar to that for eplet mismatches (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.61; P = 0.365). In recipients who were considered as low immunological risk (0-2 broad antigen HLA-ABDR mismatch), those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches experienced an increased risk of rejection compared to those with less than 20 mismatches (adjusted HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.08; P = 0.019). Conclusions Increasing number of eplet mismatches is associated with acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Consideration of eplet HLA mismatches may improve risk stratification for acute rejection in a selected group of kidney transplant candidates. PMID:27990485

  12. Shared HLA antigens and reproductive performance among Hutterites.

    PubMed Central

    Ober, C L; Martin, A O; Simpson, J L; Hauck, W W; Amos, D B; Kostyu, D D; Fotino, M; Allen, F H

    1983-01-01

    Shared histocompatibility antigens between spouses may affect reproductive outcome adversely as a result of prenatal selection against compatible fetuses. Evidence from both animal and human studies suggest that histocompatible fetuses may not initiate a maternal immunologic response that prevents rejection of the embryo. Therefore, parents sharing HLA antigens may produce compatible fetuses and consequently experience a greater frequency of early fetal losses and show poorer reproductive outcome than couples not sharing antigens. In the Hutterites, an inbred human isolate that proscribes contraception, we tested the hypothesis that couples sharing HLA antigens have poorer reproductive outcomes than couples who do not. The Hutterites are characterized by high fertility and large family sizes. Couples that share zero (no. = 21), one (no. = 15), and more than one (no. = 10) HLA-A or HLA-B antigens were compared for reproductive performance. Median intervals between births were larger among couples that share more than one antigen in eight of 11 intervals examined. In addition, the median intervals from marriage to first, fifth, and tenth birth were consistently larger among couples that share more than one antigen. Differences among the groups appear to become larger with increasing parity, suggesting that the effect of histocompatibility on reproductive performance becomes more evident in later pregnancies. These differences in reproductive performance between couples that share zero, one, or more than one HLA-A or HLA-B antigens may have significant evolutionary consequences. However, our results demonstrate that sharing HLA antigens does not preclude normal pregnancy and caution should be exercised before concluding that shared HLA antigens are solely responsible for repeated fetal losses. PMID:6577788

  13. HLA class I antigen and HLA-A, -B, and -C haplotype frequencies in Uruguayans.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ines; Bengochea, Milka; Toledo, Roberto; Carretto, Elena; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2006-08-01

    HLA class I antigens were determined for 959 unrelated Uruguayans. The predominant HLA alleles were A2, Cw4, and B35, and the most frequently observed two-loci haplotypes were A2-B44 and B35-Cw4. The most frequent three-loci HLA haplotype was A2-Cw5-B44. We compared the Uruguayan sample with similar data from other populations.

  14. Human lymphocyte antigens (HLA) and Graves' disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Y; Azezli, A; Carin, M; Aral, F; Sencer, E; Molvalilar, S

    1993-09-01

    To evaluate the association of HLA types with Turkish patients with Graves' disease, HLA typing, clinical findings, and thyroid antibodies were correlated. The HLA types, clinical findings (ophthalmopathy and age at onset), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TRAb) and antithyroid microsomal antibodies (MAb) were analyzed. Seventy Turkish patients with Graves' disease and 306 control subjects were assessed. Serological HLA typing was performed in HLA A, B, C, DR, and DQ loci. There was a significantly increased prevalence of HLA B8, B49, DR3, DR4, and DR10 in Graves' disease. The association of Graves' disease with HLA DR3 was found to be less strong than previously described. The HLA DR4 antigen may contribute to the predisposition of Graves' disease in Turkey. The results suggest that HLA B7, B13, DR7, DQw2, and DQw3 may confer a protective effect for Graves' disease in Turkey. Patients carrying HLA B12, B18, and B44 haplotypes had a tendency to develop the disease at a later age. The difference from the other studies may be the result of the selection of the controls; in part, of the variability in serological typing reagents; and, also, of the rather weak HLA associations with the disease.

  15. Abnormal distribution of the histocompatibility antigens (HLA) in lousy patients.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Alalfy, M S; Sabry, A H; Fikry, A A; El Sharkawy, I M

    1996-04-01

    The histocompatibility antigens have important functions in the development of the immune response, in the development of immunologic tolerance and in the resistance and susceptibility to diseases. In the present study, the frequency of the human leucocytic antigens (HLA) were studied in 31 lousy children with Pediculus h. capitis (head lice) and 14 adults with Phthirus pubis (pubic lice) to evaluate the immune response in their pathogenesis. The patients (children and adults) were parasite-free as indicated by urine, stool and blood analysis and clinical examination. A significant increase was found between HLA-A11 and, -B5 and lousy children with P. h. capitis and between HLA,-A11, -B5 and -B27 and lousy adults with P. pubis. The association between HLA antigens and parasitic infection was discussed.

  16. Noninherited maternal antigens identify acceptable HLA mismatches: benefit to patients and cost-effectiveness for cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Van der Zanden, Henk G M; Van Rood, Jon J; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Bakker, Jack N A; Melis, Angelo; Brand, Anneke; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Rubinstein, Pablo

    2014-11-01

    Cord blood unit (CBU) transplantations to patients mismatched for only 1 HLA antigen, which is identical to the CBU noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA), are designated as having a 6/6 "virtual" NIMA-matched phenotype and have a prognosis similar to 6/6 inherited HLA-matched CBUs. Such virtual HLA phenotypes of CBUs can be created by replacing the inherited alleles with 1 or more NIMAs. Phenotypes of Dutch patients (n = 2020) were matched against the inherited and virtual HLA phenotypes of the National Cord Blood Program CBU file (with known NIMA, n = 6827). Inherited 6/6 matches were found for 11% of the patients. Including virtual phenotypes resulted in, overall, 19-fold more different phenotypes than were inherited, conferring 6/6 virtual matches for an additional 20% of the patients, whereas another 17% might benefit from CBUs with a 4/6 HLA match and 1 NIMA match (4/6 + 1NIMA or 5/6 virtual match). The elucidation of donors' maternal HLA phenotypes can provide significant numbers of 6/6 and 5/6 virtually matched CBUs to patients and is potentially cost effective.

  17. HLA class II antigen presentation by prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Younger, A R; Amria, S; Jeffrey, W A; Mahdy, A E M; Goldstein, O G; Norris, J S; Haque, A

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the predominant immune escape mechanism of malignant prostate tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA class II pathway of immune recognition. Here, we show for the first time that prostate cancer cells express HLA class II proteins that are recognized by CD4+ T cells. Prostate tumor cells transduced with class II molecules efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens/peptides to CD4+ T cells. This data suggests that malignant prostate tumors can be targeted via the HLA class II pathway, and that class II-positive tumors could be employed for direct antigen presentation, and CD4+ T-cell mediated tumor immunotherapy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2008) 11, 334-341; doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4501021; published online 16 October 2007.

  18. Cytomegalovirus infection and donor/recipient HLA antigens: interdependent co-factors in pathogenesis of vanishing bile-duct syndrome after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, J G; Alexander, G J; Sutherland, S; Donaldson, P T; Harvey, F; Portmann, B; Calne, R Y; Williams, R

    1988-08-06

    The contribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and its interrelation with HLA antigens in the development of chronic rejection (vanishing bile-duct syndrome--VBDS) was investigated in 101 patients surviving for at least 3 months after liver transplantation. A 1-2 antigen match for HLA DR antigens (30.9% vs 4.5% for zero DR match; p less than 0.002), a zero match for HLA A/B antigens (27.5% vs 10.9% for 1 or more A/B match; p less than 0.05), and active CMV infection (26.3% vs 4.4% for no CMV infection; p less than 0.005) were independently associated with an increased risk of VBDS. The coexistence of a 1-2 HLA DR match and CMV infection carried the highest relative risk (10.1) of VBDS; these two variables were probably interdependent since either alone was associated with a low relative risk (0.45 and 0.5). The association between VBDS and active CMV infection was not a consequence of alterations in immunosuppressive therapy. The findings would be consistent with precipitation of chronic rejection by CMV-induced HLA antigen expression in patients rendered susceptible by the donor/recipient HLA antigen match.

  19. Computational Approaches to Facilitate Epitope-Based HLA Matching in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Jeroen; Koppenaal, Dirk; Niemann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Epitope-based HLA matching has been emerged over the last few years as an improved method for HLA matching in solid organ transplantation. The epitope-based matching concept has been incorporated in both the PIRCHE-II and the HLAMatchmaker algorithm to find the most suitable donor for a recipient. For these algorithms, high-resolution HLA genotype data of both donor and recipient is required. Since high-resolution HLA genotype data is often not available, we developed a computational method which allows epitope-based HLA matching from serological split level HLA typing relying on HLA haplotype frequencies. To validate this method, we simulated a donor-recipient population for which PIRCHE-II and eplet values were calculated when using both high-resolution HLA genotype data and serological split level HLA typing. The majority of the serological split level HLA-determined ln(PIRCHE-II)/ln(eplet) values did not or only slightly deviate from the reference group of high-resolution HLA-determined ln(PIRCHE-II)/ln(eplet) values. This deviation was slightly increased when HLA-C or HLA-DQ was omitted from the input and was substantially decreased when using two-field resolution HLA genotype data of the recipient and serological split level HLA typing of the donor. Thus, our data suggest that our computational approach is a powerful tool to estimate PIRCHE-II/eplet values when high-resolution HLA genotype data is not available.

  20. Negative regulation by HLA-DO of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Sant'Angelo, D B; Hammond, C; Surman, M J; Cresswell, P

    1997-10-03

    HLA-DM is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-like molecule that facilitates antigen processing by catalyzing the exchange of invariant chain-derived peptides (CLIP) from class II molecules for antigenic peptides. HLA-DO is a second class II-like molecule that physically associates with HLA-DM in B cells. HLA-DO was shown to block HLA-DM function. Purified HLA-DM-DO complexes could not promote peptide exchange in vitro. Expression of HLA-DO in a class II+ and DM+, DO- human T cell line caused the accumulation of class II-CLIP complexes, indicating that HLA-DO blocked DM function in vivo and suggesting that HLA-DO is an important modulator of class II-restricted antigen processing.

  1. A Modified Protocol with Improved Detection Rate for Mis-Matched Donor HLA from Low Quantities of DNA in Urine Samples from Kidney Graft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Janette; Choi, Leo C. W.; Ho, Jenny C. Y.; Chan, Gavin S. W.; Mok, Maggie M. Y.; Lam, Man-Fei; Chak, Wai-Leung; Cheuk, Au; Chau, Ka-Foon; Tong, Matthew; Chan, Kwok-Wah; Chan, Tak-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Background Urine from kidney transplant recipient has proven to be a viable source for donor DNA. However, an optimized protocol would be required to determine mis-matched donor HLA specificities in view of the scarcity of DNA obtained in some cases. Methods In this study, fresh early morning urine specimens were obtained from 155 kidney transplant recipients with known donor HLA phenotype. DNA was extracted and typing of HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci by polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers was performed using tailor-made condition according to the concentration of extracted DNA. Results HLA typing of DNA extracted from urine revealed both recipient and donor HLA phenotypes, allowing the deduction of the unknown donor HLA and hence the degree of HLA mis-match. By adopting the modified procedures, mis-matched donor HLA phenotypes were successfully deduced in all of 35 tested urine samples at DNA quantities spanning the range of 620–24,000 ng. Conclusions This urine-based method offers a promising and reliable non-invasive means for the identification of mis-matched donor HLA antigens in kidney transplant recipients with unknown donor HLA phenotype or otherwise inadequate donor information. PMID:27861530

  2. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  3. HLA-DR antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with specificity of autoantibody responses to nuclear antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, J S; Klippel, J H; Penner, E; Reichlin, M; Steinberg, A D; Chused, T M; Scherak, O; Graninger, W; Hartter, E; Zielinski, C C

    1987-01-01

    HLA-DR antigens and autoantibodies to the nuclear or cytoplasmic antigens Ro/SSA, La/SSB, Sm, and RNP were determined in North American and Austrian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Analysis of the association of antibodies to these ribonucleic acid (RNA)-protein antigens with HLA-DR antigens showed that HLA-DR3 was related to the presence of anti-Ro/SSA or anti-La/SSB, or both. In contrast, anti-Sm or anti-RNP, or both were associated with HLA-DR4. HLA-DR5 was associated with absence of these autoantibodies. The data extend evidence for the complexity and heterogeneity of SLE. Moreover, they indicate that, in SLE, genes linked to those coding for HLA-DR antigens, are related to the specificity of autoantibody responses rather than to the primary immunological abnormalities of this disorder. PMID:3498447

  4. HLA antigens in Tlingit Indians with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J L; Boyer, G; Templin, D; Lanier, A; Barrington, R; Nisperos, B; Smith, A; Mickelson, E; Hansen, J A

    1992-08-01

    HLA-DR4 has been described in association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in multiple populations. We have studied HLA antigens in Alaskan Tlingit Indians. HLA-DR4 was decreased in the RA group (n = 32) compared with controls (n = 62) (6% vs 21% p = 0.07). The predominant DR4 allele observed was DRB1*0403 (Dw13.1). The most striking observation in these studies was a marked predominance of the DRB1*1402 allele encoding Dw16 (DRw14). This allele was present in 91% of RA cases, but was also highly prevalent in controls (80%, OR = 2.4 p = 0.20). DRB1*1402 only was observed in 47% of cases and 31% of controls. The DRB3*0101 (DRw52), and the DQA*0501 and DQB*0301 alleles encoding a subset of DQw3 were associated with DRB1*1402 in cases and in controls. HLA-Bw62 was increased in RA cases (28%) compared with controls (8%) (OR = 4.5, p = 0.01, corrected p = ns).

  5. Identification of Non-HLA antigens targeted by alloreactive antibodies in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bilalic, Senada; Veitinger, Michael; Ahrer, Karl-Heinz; Gruber, Viktoria; Zellner, Maria; Brostjan, Christine; Bartel, Gregor; Cejka, Daniel; Reichel, Christian; Jordan, Veronika; Burghuber, Christopher; Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Böhmig, Georg A; Oehler, Rudolf

    2010-02-05

    The only treatment of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing chronic dialysis is kidney transplantation. However, about half of graft recipients encounter organ loss within ten years after renal transplantation. There is emerging evidence that the presence of alloreactive antibodies against non-HLA antigens in the serum of the recipient prior transplantation is associated with higher incidence of chronic rejection. However, the molecular identity of these antigens is largely unknown. To determine the most common non-HLA antigens, we tested lymphocytic extracts from 20 healthy volunteers with sera of 28 patients on the transplantation waiting list by Western blotting. There was a group of five proteins that was recognized by most sera. Using patient's own lymphocytes revealed that autoimmunity plays a minor role in this recognition. Two-dimensional Western blotting experiments followed by mass spectrometry identified the antigens as tubulin beta chain, vimentin, lamin-B1, and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2. A detailed analysis of vimentin expression revealed that the antigenic 60 kDa isoform is underrepresented in patient's lymphocytes in comparison to those of healthy volunteers. The study revealed that preformed alloreactive antibodies are directed against a small number of specific protein isoforms. Our findings could provide a basis for future improvement of donor-recipient matching.

  6. The role of HLA-DRB1 matching in corneal grafting.

    PubMed

    Mravicić, I; Gabrić, N; Dekaris, I; Karaman, Z; Kerhin-Brkljacić, V; Grubić, Z; Spoljarić, N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of HLA-DRB1 (Human Leukocyte Antigens) matching in corneal transplantation. Fifty-two patients were observed. Low-risk group consisted of 28 patients and high-risk group consisted of 24 patients. All the patients and donors were tissue typed with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the HLA-DRB1 gen. The primary corneal disease preceding keratoplasty was keratopathia (15), leucoma (10), keratoconus (7), Re-KPP (6), impending perforation (4), combustio corneae (3), degenerative disorders (2), keratoglobus (1), keratouveitis (1), corneal maculae (1), and corneal melting syndrome (1). The graft rejection frequency was higher in the group of high-risk patients (29%) than in the group of low risk patients (7.1%). The rejection rate of compatible grafts was 37% for high risk and 2% for low risk group, while the rejection rate of incompatible was 44% in high risk and 5% in low risk group. We can conclude that HLA-DRB1 matching does not improve corneal graft survival.

  7. HLA-antigens and some autoimmune features of juvenile diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Karmazsin, L; Ambró, I; Stenszky, V; Kozma, L; Balázs, C; Svetlana, K

    1979-01-01

    A group of 67 juvenile insulin dependent diabetic patients and their 167 healthy first degree blood relatives were HLA-typed. In the patients the frequency of HLA-A9 and B8 antigens was significantly increased as compared to healthy controls, while in the family members only the presence of HLA-B8 was significantly increased. All diabetics carrying HLA-B8 antigen had frequently higher 125I-insulin-antibody complex levels than those lacking the antigen. Prevalence of some autoantibodies to human thyroglobulin, microsomal thyroid and antigastric mucosa antigen were investigated and compared to healthy controls. Increased antibody titres were more frequent in diabetics and their blood relatives than in the healthy controls, and more frequent in those carrying the HLA-B8 antigen than in those lacking it.

  8. HLA Class II Antigen Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma Tumors as a Favorable Prognostic Marker12

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Arriga, Roberto; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Lauro, Davide; Lugli, Alessandro; Han, Junyi; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ferrone, Cristina; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Rossi, Piero; Attanasio, Antonio; Ferrone, Soldano; Terracciano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of HLA class II antigen expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors, its association with the clinical course of the disease, and the underlying mechanism(s). Two tissue microarrays constructed with 220 and 778 CRC tumors were stained with HLA-DR, DQ, and DP antigen-specific monoclonal antibody LGII-612.14, using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The functional role of HLA class II antigens expressed on CRC cells was analyzed by investigating their in vitro interactions with immune cells. HLA class II antigens were expressed in about 25% of the 220 and 21% of the 778 tumors analyzed with an overall frequency of 23%. HLA class II antigens were detected in 19% of colorectal adenomas. Importantly, the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity were significantly lower than those detected in CRC tumors. However, HLA class II antigen staining was weakly detected only in 5.4% of 37 normal mucosa tissues. HLA class II antigen expression was associated with a favorable clinical course of the disease. In vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ) induced HLA class II antigen expression on two of the four CRC cell lines tested. HLA class II antigen expression on CRC cells triggered interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by resting monocytes. HLA class II antigen expression in CRC tumors is a favorable prognostic marker. This association may reflect stimulation of IL-1β production by monocytes. PMID:24563618

  9. Mutations that impair a posttranscriptional step in expression of HLA-A and -B antigens.

    PubMed Central

    DeMars, R; Rudersdorf, R; Chang, C; Petersen, J; Strandtmann, J; Korn, N; Sidwell, B; Orr, H T

    1985-01-01

    Mutations can interfere with posttranscriptional expression of the HLA-A and -B genes. B-lymphoblastoid cells that contain one copy of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were subjected to mutagenesis and immunoselection for MHC antigen-loss mutants. Some mutations partially reduced surface expression of HLA-A and eliminated HLA-B expression concurrently, although the HLA-A and -B genes were present and transcribed. Antigen expression was fully restored in hybrids of these mutants with other B-lymphoblastoid cells. Therefore, normal cell surface expression of the HLA-A and -B antigens on B lymphoblasts requires (i) execution of at least one trans-active step in the production of the antigens after transcription of the HLA-A and -B genes or (ii) association of the class I antigens with other molecules. DNA analysis of one mutant suggests the possibility that a locus required for the normal expression of the HLA-A and -B antigens is located between the MHC complement genes and the HLA-DP alpha II locus. Images PMID:3906658

  10. Improved Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying HLA Class I Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Man; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Jie; Wei, Xundong; Phiwpan, Krung; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Xuyu

    2016-01-01

    HLA class I (HLA-I) transgenic mice have proven to be useful models for studying human MHC-related immune responses over the last two decades. However, differences in the processing and presentation machinery between humans and mice may have profound effects on HLA-I restricted antigen presentation. In this study, we generated a novel human TAP-LMP (hTAP-LMP) gene cluster transgenic mouse model carrying an intact human TAP complex and two human immunoproteasome LMP subunits, PSMB8/PSMB9. By crossing the hTAP-LMP strain with different HLA-I transgenic mice, we found that the expression levels of human HLA-I molecules, especially the A3 supertype members (e.g., A11 and A33), were remarkably enhanced in corresponding HLA-I/hTAP-LMP transgenic mice. Moreover, we found that humanized processing and presentation machinery increased antigen presentation of HLA-A11-restricted epitopes and promoted the rapid reduction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in HLA-A11/hTAP-LMP mice. Together, our study highlights that HLA-I/hTAP-LMP mice are an improved model for studying antigen presentation of HLA-I molecules and their related CTL responses. PMID:27634283

  11. Comparable composite endpoints after HLA-matched and HLA-haploidentical transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Shannon R.; Kasamon, Yvette L.; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Showel, Margaret M.; Kanakry, Jennifer A.; Symons, Heather J.; Gojo, Ivana; Smith, B. Douglas; Bettinotti, Maria P.; Matsui, William H.; Dezern, Amy E.; Huff, Carol Ann; Borrello, Ivan; Pratz, Keith W.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Brodsky, Robert A.; Levis, Mark J.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Rosner, Gary L.; Jones, Richard J.; Luznik, Leo

    2017-01-01

    Composite endpoints that not only encompass mortality and relapse, but other critical post-transplant events such as graft-versus-host disease, are being increasingly utilized to quantify survival without significant morbidity after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide reduces severe graft-versus-host disease with allogeneic marrow transplantation, making composite endpoints after this management particularly interesting. We retrospectively analyzed 684 adults with hematologic malignancies who received T-cell-replete bone marrow grafts and cyclophosphamide after myeloablative HLA-matched related (n=192) or unrelated (n=120), or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical (n=372) donor transplantation. The median follow up was 4 (range, 0.02–11.4) years. Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without grade III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment, relapse, or death. Chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, or death. One-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival and chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival estimates were, respectively, 47% (95% CI: 41–55%) and 53% (95% CI: 46–61%) after myeloablative HLA-matched related, 42% (95% CI: 34–52%) and 52% (95% CI: 44–62%) after myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated, and 45% (95% CI: 40–50%) and 50% (95% CI: 45–55%) after non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation. In multivariable models, there were no differences in graft-versus-host disease-free, or chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after either myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical, compared with myeloablative HLA-matched related

  12. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  13. Platelet transfusion refractoriness attributable to HLA antibodies produced by donor-derived cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from one HLA-antigen-mismatched mother.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Naoki; Hori, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masaki; Inazawa, Natsuko; Iesato, Kotoe; Miyazaki, Toru; Ikeda, Hisami; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2011-12-01

    PTR is a serious problem in patients being treated for hematologic disorders. Two patients with acute leukemia developed PTR after allogeneic BMT from one HLA-antigen-mismatched mother attributable to HLA antibodies, which could not be detected in their serum before BMT. HLA antibodies, whose specificity resembled that of each patient, were detected in each donor's serum. Each donor had probably been immunized during pregnancy by their partner's HLA antigens expressed by the fetus, consequently, transplanted donor-derived cells provoked HLA antibodies in each recipient early after BMT, and those HLA antibodies induced PTR. If the mothers are selected as donors for their children, they should be tested for the presence of HLA antibodies.

  14. A genomic study on distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and HLA-B alleles in Lak population of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahsavar, Farhad; Varzi, Ali-Mohammad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Amir Yasin

    2017-03-01

    Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population. Commercial HLA-Type kits from BAG (Lich, Germany) company were used for determination of the HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in genomic DNA, based on polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) assay. The differences between the populations in distribution of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles were estimated by chi-squared test with Yate's correction. The most frequent HLA-A alleles were *24 (20%), *02 (18%), *03 (12%) and *11 (10%), and the most frequent HLA-B alleles were *35 (24%), *51 (16%), *18 (6%) and *38 (6%) in Lak population. HLA-A*66 (1%), *74(1%) and HLA-B*48 (1%), *55(1%) were the least observed frequencies in Lak population. Our results based on HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies showed that Lak population possesses the previously reported general features of Iranians but still with unique.

  15. Serum antibodies to human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-E, HLA-F and HLA-G in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during disease flares: Clinical relevance of HLA-F autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Jucaud, V; Ravindranath, M H; Terasaki, P I; Morales-Buenrostro, L E; Hiepe, F; Rose, T; Biesen, R

    2016-03-01

    T lymphocyte hyperactivity and progressive inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients results in over-expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-Ib on the surface of lymphocytes. These are shed into the circulation upon inflammation, and may augment production of antibodies promoting pathogenicity of the disease. The objective was to evaluate the association of HLA-Ib (HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G) antibodies to the disease activity of SLE. The immunoglobulin (Ig)G/IgM reactivity to HLA-Ib and β2m in the sera of 69 German, 29 Mexican female SLE patients and 17 German female controls was measured by multiplex Luminex(®)-based flow cytometry. The values were expressed as mean flourescence intensity (MFI). Only the German SLE cohort was analysed in relation to the clinical disease activity. In the controls, anti-HLA-G IgG predominated over other HLA-Ib antibodies, whereas SLE patients had a preponderance of anti-HLA-F IgG over the other HLA-Ib antibodies. The disease activity index, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2000, was reflected only in the levels of anti-HLA-F IgG. Anti-HLA-F IgG with MFI level of 500-1999 was associated with active SLE, whereas inactive SLE revealed higher MFI (>2000). When anti-HLA-F IgG were cross-reactive with other HLA-Ib alleles, their reactivity was reflected in the levels of anti-HLA-E and -G IgG. The prevalence of HLA-F-monospecific antibodies in SLE patients was also associated with the clinical disease activity. Anti-HLA-F IgG is possibly involved in the clearance of HLA-F shed from lymphocytes and inflamed tissues to lessen the disease's severity, and thus emerges as a beneficial immune biomarker. Therefore, anti-HLA-Ib IgG should be considered as a biomarker in standard SLE diagnostics.

  16. A soluble recombinant form of human leucocyte antigen-G 6 (srHLA-G6).

    PubMed

    Pelá, Flávia Porto; Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen; Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi; Mendonça Galiote Silva, Jacqueline Nakau; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Rosa, José Cesar; Nonato, Maria Cristina; Favier, Benoit; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Baruffi, Marcelo Dias

    2017-03-29

    Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that through RNA splicing can encode seven isoforms which are membrane bound (-G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4) and soluble (-G5, -G6 and -G7). HLA-G is described as important immune suppressor endogenous molecule to favor maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant survival and tumor immune scape. HLA-G shows low protein variability and a unique structural complexity that is related with the expression of different isoforms followed by biochemical processes, such as, photolytic cleavage, molecular interactions, and protein ubiquitination. Studies with HLA-G have shown difficult to assess the role of the individual isoforms. Thus, the aim of this work was to obtain a HLA-G6 recombinant form. The results indicated the production of high homogeneous preparations of soluble recombinant HLA-G6 (srHLA-G6) with molecular mass 23,603.76 Da, determined by MALD-TOF/TOF. In addition, native and denatured srHLA-G6 were detected by ELISA, using commercial monoclonal antibodies. Finally, we developed a suitable methodology to express srHLA-G6 that could contribute in structural and functional studies involving specific isoforms.

  17. The impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) micropolymorphism on ligand specificity within the HLA-B*41 allotypic family

    SciTech Connect

    Bade-Döding, Christina; Theodossis, Alex; Gras, Stephanie; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Seltsam, Axel; Huyton, Trevor; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2011-09-28

    Polymorphic differences between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules affect the specificity and conformation of their bound peptides and lead to differential selection of the T-cell repertoire. Mismatching during allogeneic transplantation can, therefore, lead to immunological reactions. We investigated the structure-function relationships of six members of the HLA-B*41 allelic group that differ by six polymorphic amino acids, including positions 80, 95, 97 and 114 within the antigen-binding cleft. Peptide-binding motifs for B*41:01, *41:02, *41:03, *41:04, *41:05 and *41:06 were determined by sequencing self-peptides from recombinant B*41 molecules by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of HLA-B*41:03 bound to a natural 16-mer self-ligand (AEMYGSVTEHPSPSPL) and HLA-B*41:04 bound to a natural 11-mer self-ligand (HEEAVSVDRVL) were solved. Peptide analysis revealed that all B*41 alleles have an identical anchor motif at peptide position 2 (glutamic acid), but differ in their choice of C-terminal p{Omega} anchor (proline, valine, leucine). Additionally, B*41:04 displayed a greater preference for long peptides (>10 residues) when compared to the other B*41 allomorphs, while the longest peptide to be eluted from the allelic group (a 16mer) was obtained from B*41:03. The crystal structures of HLA-B*41:03 and HLA-B*41:04 revealed that both alleles interact in a highly conserved manner with the terminal regions of their respective ligands, while micropolymorphism-induced changes in the steric and electrostatic properties of the antigen-binding cleft account for differences in peptide repertoire and auxiliary anchoring. Differences in peptide repertoire, and peptide length specificity reflect the significant functional evolution of these closely related allotypes and signal their importance in allogeneic transplantation, especially B*41:03 and B*41:04, which accommodate longer peptides, creating structurally distinct peptide-HLA

  18. Association of HLA antigens and BCR-ABL transcripts in leukemia patients with the Philadelphia chromosome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Daiana Landenberger; Barbosa, Cristian Dias; de Carvalho, André Luiz; Beck, Sandra Trevisan

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the association between human leukocyte antigens and the bcr-abl fusion protein resulting from t(9;22)(q34;q11) in chronic leukemia myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Methods Forty-seven bcr-abl positive individuals were evaluated. Typing was performed bymicrolymphocytotoxicity and molecular biological methods (human leukocyte antigens Class I and Class II). A control group was obtained from the data of potential bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (REDOME). Results Positive associations with HLA-A25 and HLA-B18 were found for the b2a2 transcript, as well as a tendency towards a positive association with HLA-B40 and a negative association with HLA-A68. The b3a2 transcript showed positive associations with HLA-B40 and HLA-DRB1*3. Conclusion The negative association between human leukocyte antigens and the BCR-ABL transcript suggests that binding and presentation of peptides derived from the chimeric protein are effective to increase a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response appropriate for the destruction of leukemic cells. PMID:23049441

  19. Tumor escape mechanisms: Potential role of soluble HLA antigens and NK cells activating ligands

    PubMed Central

    Campoli, Michael; Ferrone, Soldano

    2009-01-01

    The crucial role played by HLA antigens and natural killer (NK) cell activating ligands in the interactions of malignant cells with components of the host's immune system has stimulated interest in the characterization of their expression by malignant cells. Convincing evidence generated by the immunohistochemical staining of surgically removed malignant lesions with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing HLA antigens and NK cell activating ligands indicates that the surface expression of these molecules is frequently altered on malignant cells. These changes appear to have clinical significance, since in some types of malignant disease they are associated with the histopathological characteristics of the lesions as well as with disease free interval and survival. These associations have been suggested to reflect the effect of HLA antigen and NK cell activating ligand abnormalities on the interactions of tumor cells with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and with NK cells. Nevertheless, there are examples in which disease progresses in the face of appropriate HLA antigen and/or NK cell activating ligand as well as tumor antigen expression by malignant cells and of functional antigen-specific CTL in the investigated patient. In such scenarios, it is likely that the tumor microenvironment is unfavorable for CTL and NK cell activity and contributes to tumor immune escape. Many distinct escape mechanisms have been shown to protect malignant cells from immune recognition and destruction in the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, following the description of the structural and functional characteristics of soluble HLA antigens and NK cell activating ligands, we will review changes in their serum level in malignant disease and discuss their potential role in the escape mechanisms utilized by tumor cells to avoid recognition and destruction. PMID:18700879

  20. Antibodies against denatured HLA class II molecules detected in luminex-single antigen assay.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; de Marco, Renato; Silva, Rosemeire Z R; Campos, Erika F; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2013-10-01

    False-positive anti-HLA reactions may occur in Luminex-single antigen (SA) beads assays, and it is important to recognize them to correctly interpret the test. The purpose of this report is to describe a peculiar pattern of reactivity, characterized by positivity with beads coated with HLA-DRB1*09:01, DRB3*01:01, DRB3*02:02, DRB3*03:01, DPB1*02:01, DPB1*20:01 and DPB1*28:01, that was observed in 141 of 8121 serum samples tested in our laboratory with three different lots of the same kit (LABScreen(®) SA, One Lambda). These 141 serum samples came from 56 different patients on the kidney transplant waiting list, corresponding to 1% of the patients. Of these, 10 males had never been transfused or transplanted. About 66% of the patients had positive reactions against self-antigen HLA-DRB3 alleles. No reactions against native HLA-DRB1*09:01 were observed in flow cytometry crossmatch and in absorption/elution experiments, leading to the conclusion that the reactivity was due to antibodies against epitopes present in denatured forms of HLA-class II antigens. The occurrence of this reactivity pattern was associated with female gender and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

  1. HLA class I is most tightly linked to levels of tapasin compared with other antigen-processing proteins in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Thuring, Camilla; Follin, Elna; Geironson, Linda; Freyhult, Eva; Junghans, Victoria; Harndahl, Mikkel; Buus, Søren; Paulsson, Kajsa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumour cells can evade the immune system by dysregulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA-I). Low quantity and/or altered quality of HLA-I cell surface expression is the result of either HLA-I alterations or dysregulations of proteins of the antigen-processing machinery (APM). Tapasin is an APM protein dedicated to the maturation of HLA-I and dysregulation of tapasin has been linked to higher malignancy in several different tumours. Methods: We studied the expression of APM components and HLA-I, as well as HLA-I tapasin-dependency profiles in glioblastoma tissues and corresponding cell lines. Results: Tapasin displayed the strongest correlation to HLA-I heavy chain but also clustered with β2-microglobulin, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and LMP. Moreover, tapasin also correlated to survival of glioblastoma patients. Some APM components, for example, TAP1/TAP2 and LMP2/LMP7, showed variable but coordinated expression, whereas ERAP1/ERAP2 displayed an imbalanced expression pattern. Furthermore, analysis of HLA-I profiles revealed variable tapasin dependence of HLA-I allomorphs in glioblastoma patients. Conclusions: Expression of APM proteins is highly variable between glioblastomas. Tapasin stands out as the APM component strongest correlated to HLA-I expression and we proved that HLA-I profiles in glioblastoma patients include tapasin-dependent allomorphs. The level of tapasin was also correlated with patient survival time. Our results support the need for individualisation of immunotherapy protocols. PMID:26313662

  2. Persistence of Recipient Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) Antibodies and Production of Donor HLA antibodies Following Reduced Intensity Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Ross M.; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Adams, Sharon; Jerussi, Theresa Donohue; Sugimoto, Kyoko; Tian, Xin; Flegel, Willy A.; Childs, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) on human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-alloimmunization and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) are unknown. We studied HLA-alloantibodies in a cohort of 16 patients (8 HLA-alloimmunized with pre-transplant histories of PTR and 8 non-alloimmunized controls) undergoing Allo-HSCT using fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based RIC. Pre- and post-transplant serum samples were analysed for HLA-antibodies and compared to myeloid, T-cell and bone marrow plasma cell chimaerism. Among alloimmunized patients, the duration that HLA-antibodies persisted post-transplant correlated strongly with pre-transplant HLA-antibody mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and PRA levels (Spearman’s rank correlation = 0.954 (p=0.0048) and 0.865 (p=0.0083) respectively). Pre-transplant MFI >10,000 was associated with post-transplant HLA antibody persistence >100 days (p=0.029). HLA-antibodies persisted ≥100 days in 3/8 patients despite recipient chimaerism being undetectable in all lympho-haematopoietic lineages including plasma cells. Post-transplant de-novo HLA-antibodies developed in 3 control patients with 2 developing PTR; the donors for 2 of these patients demonstrated pre-existing HLA-antibodies of equivalent specificity to those in the patient, confirming donor origin. These data show HLA-antibodies may persist for prolonged periods following RIC. Further study is needed to determine the incidence of post-transplant PTR as a consequence of donor–derived HLA alloimmunization before recommendations on donor HLA-antibody screening can be made. PMID:24750103

  3. Islet cell hyperexpression of HLA class I antigens: a defining feature in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Calvo, Teresa; Gerling, Ivan C.; Mathews, Clayton E.; Kaddis, John S.; Russell, Mark A.; Zeissler, Marie; Leete, Pia; Krogvold, Lars; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; von Herrath, Matthias; Pugliese, Alberto; Atkinson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Human pancreatic beta cells may be complicit in their own demise in type 1 diabetes, but how this occurs remains unclear. One potentially contributing factor is hyperexpression of HLA class I antigens. This was first described approximately 30 years ago, but has never been fully characterised and was recently challenged as artefactual. Therefore, we investigated HLA class I expression at the protein and RNA levels in pancreases from three cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes. The principal aims were to consider whether HLA class I hyperexpression is artefactual and, if not, to determine the factors driving it. Methods Pancreas samples from type 1 diabetes patients with residual insulin-containing islets (n = 26) from the Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD), Diabetes Virus Detection study (DiViD) and UK recent-onset type 1 diabetes collections were immunostained for HLA class I isoforms, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), NLR family CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5) and islet hormones. RNA was extracted from islets isolated by laser-capture microdissection from nPOD and DiViD samples and analysed using gene-expression arrays. Results Hyperexpression of HLA class I was observed in the insulin-containing islets of type 1 diabetes patients from all three tissue collections, and was confirmed at both the RNA and protein levels. The expression of β2-microglobulin (a second component required for the generation of functional HLA class I complexes) was also elevated. Both ‘classical’ HLA class I isoforms (i.e. HLA-ABC) as well as a ‘non-classical’ HLA molecule, HLA-F, were hyperexpressed in insulin-containing islets. This hyperexpression did not correlate with detectable upregulation of the transcriptional regulator NLRC5. However, it was strongly associated with increased STAT1 expression in all three cohorts. Islet hyperexpression of HLA class I molecules occurred in the insulin-containing islets

  4. Preparation and identification of HLA-A*1101 tetramer loading with human cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyao; Xu, Lihui; Zha, Qingbing; Chi, Xiaoyun; Jia, Qiantao; He, Xianhui

    2007-04-01

    MHC/peptide tetramer technology has been widely used to study antigen-specific T cells, especially for identifying virus-specific CD8+ T cells in humans. The tetramer molecule is composed of HLA heavy chain, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), an antigenic peptide, and fluorescent-labeled streptavidin. To further investigate the HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), we established an approach to prepare HLA-A*1101 tetramer complexed with a peptide from HCMV. The cDNA encoding HLA-A*1101 heavy chain was cloned and the prokaryotic expression vector for the ectodomain of HLA-A*1101 fused with a BirA substrate peptide (HLA-A*1101-BSP) at its carboxyl terminus was constructed. The fusion protein was highly expressed as inclusion bodies under optimized conditions in Escherichia coli. Moreover, HLA-A*1101-BSP protein was refolded in the presence of beta2m and an HCMV peptide pp65(16-24) (GPISGHVLK, GPI). Soluble HLA-A*1101-GPI monomer was biotinylated and purified to a purity of 95%, which was subsequently combined with streptavidin to form tetramers at a yield of > 80%. The HLA-A*1101-GPI tetramers could bind to virus-specific CD8+ T cells, suggesting soluble HLA-A*1101-GPI tetramers were biologically functional. This study provides the basis for further evaluation of HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV infection.

  5. Use of HLA peptidomics and whole exome sequencing to identify human immunogenic neo-antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kalaora, Shelly; Qutob, Nouar; Teer, Jamie K.; Shimony, Nilly; Schachter, Jacob; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Samuels, Yardena

    2016-01-01

    The antigenicity of cells is demarcated by the peptides bound by their Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules. Through this antigen presentation, T cell specificity response is controlled. As a fraction of the expressed mutated peptides is presented on the HLA, these neo-epitopes could be immunogenic. Such neoantigens have recently been identified through screening for predicted mutated peptides, using synthetic peptides or ones expressed from minigenes, combined with screening of patient tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Here we present a time and cost-effective method that combines whole-exome sequencing analysis with HLA peptidome mass spectrometry, to identify neo-antigens in a melanoma patient. Of the 1,019 amino acid changes identified through exome sequencing, two were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be presented by the cells. We then synthesized peptides and evaluated the two mutated neo-antigens for reactivity with autologous bulk TILs, and found that one yielded mutant-specific T-cell response. Our results demonstrate that this method can be used for immune response prediction and promise to provide an alternative approach for identifying immunogenic neo-epitopes in cancer. PMID:26819371

  6. Assessment of the cellular immune response to HL-A antigens in human renal allograft recipients

    PubMed Central

    Falk, R. E.; Guttmann, R. D.; Falk, J. A.; Beaudoin, J. G.; Deveber, G.; Morehouse, D. D.; Wilson, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The cellular response to HL-A antigens has been studied in thirty-one patients who had received a renal allograft from either a cadaveric or living donor, utilizing the leucocyte migration technique. The results indicate that inhibition of migration develops prior to or during the onset of a clinical rejection episode. This inhibition of migration reverts to non-inhibition in autologous serum when the rejection crisis is reversed. Inhibition of migration is still noted in allogeneic serum following this clinical reversal, but after varying time intervals the inhibition reaction also decreases in this serum. The abrogation of inhibition in autologous serum is specific to the HL-A antigens of the donor. These observations suggest that survival of human renal allografts depends on a blocking substance in the serum initially; subsequently, the loss of inhibition of migration with HL-A antigens in both autologous and allogeneic serum suggests an inactivation of specific antigen sensitive cells to the histocompatibility antigens of the donor. PMID:4577287

  7. HLA Matching at the Eplet Level Protects Against Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Walton, D C; Hiho, S J; Cantwell, L S; Diviney, M B; Wright, S T; Snell, G I; Paraskeva, M A; Westall, G P

    2016-09-01

    Donor selection in lung transplantation (LTx) is historically based upon clinical urgency, ABO compatibility, and donor size. HLA matching is not routinely considered; however, the presence or later development of anti-HLA antibodies is associated with poorer outcomes, particularly chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Using eplet mismatches, we aimed to determine whether donor/recipient HLA incompatibility was a significant predictor of CLAD. One hundred seventy-five LTx undertaken at the Alfred Hospital between 2008 and 2012 met criteria. Post-LTx monitoring was continued for at least 12 months, or until patient death. HLA typing was performed by sequence-based typing and Luminex sequence-specific oligonucleotide. Using HLAMatchmaker, eplet mismatches between each donor/recipient pairing were analyzed and correlated against incidences of CLAD. HLA-DRB1/3/4/5+DQA/B eplet mismatch was a significant predictor of CLAD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71-8.29 p < 0.001). When bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) were analyzed independently, HLA-DRB1/3/4/5 + DQA/B eplet mismatch was shown to significantly predict RAS (HR 8.3, 95% CI: 2.46-27.97 p < 0.001) but not BOS (HR 1.92, 95% CI: 0.64-5.72, p = 0.237). HLA-A/B eplet mismatch was shown not to be a significant predictor when analyzed independently but did provide additional stratification of results. This study illustrates the importance of epitope immunogenicity in defining donor-recipient immune compatibility in LTx.

  8. Detection of Antileukocytic Antibodies in Blood Serum using Lymphocytes and Latex Microspheres Carrying HLA-Antigens upon Alloimmunization of Women with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, E O; Nikolaeva, M A; Golubeva, E L; Vtorushina, V V; Van'ko, L V; Khodzhaeva, Z S; Krechetova, L V

    2016-03-01

    Anti-HLA-antibodies were detected using cross-reaction of blood serum with allogenic T and B cells and latex microspheres coated with HLA-I and HLA-II antigens. HLA+ and HLA-sera obtained from women before and after allogeneic immunization were tested. The results obtained by these methods significantly differed. The test with latex microspheres detected antibodies to HLA-I and HLA-II antigens with high sensitivity and specificity and can be used for assessment of clinical significance of alloantibody detection when using alloimmunization in the therapy of gestation disorders.

  9. Translocation of gliadin into HLA-DR antigen containing lysosomes in coeliac disease enterocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, K P; Poremba, C; Weber, P; Ciclitira, P J; Harms, E

    1995-01-01

    Coeliac disease is triggered by ingestion of wheat gliadin and is probably immune mediated. There is evidence by light microscopy that expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is increased in the small intestinal epithelium of patients with untreated coeliac disease and that gliadin can be taken up by small intestinal enterocytes. The pathway by which gliadin is transported to class II MHC proteins has not been demonstrated. Using an immunogold technique and thin frozen sections of jejunal biopsy specimens, gliadin, HLA-DR antigens, and IgA were localised at an ultrastructural level in the jejunal epithelium of patients with both untreated and treated coeliac disease and controls. Cathepsin D was used as a marker for late endosomes or lysosomes. The results show that gliadin is translocated into vacuoles positive for HLA-DR antigens as well as cathepsin D in jejunal enterocytes of patients with untreated coeliac disease. Secretory IgA may have a role in this translocation of gliadin, which is a specific event that occurred only in jejunal enterocytes from patients with untreated coeliac disease but not in a patient maintained on a gluten free diet or in controls. These results support a central role for epithelial cells of the human intestinal mucosa in the transport of gliadin to an HLA-DR positive compartment which precedes antigen presentation of gliadin to antigen sensitive T lymphocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7797120

  10. Association of HLA class I antigen abnormalities with disease progression and early recurrence in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Seliger, Barbara; Stoehr, Robert; Handke, Diana; Mueller, Anja; Ferrone, Soldano; Wullich, Bernd; Tannapfel, Andrea; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Hartmann, Arndt

    2010-04-01

    Defects in HLA class I antigen processing machinery (APM) component expression often have a negative impact on the clinical course of tumors and on the response to T cell-based immunotherapy. Since only scant information is available about the frequency and clinical significance of HLA class I APM component abnormalities in prostate cancer, the APM component expression pattern was analyzed in 59 primary prostate carcinoma, adjacent normal tissues, as well as in prostate carcinoma cell lines. The IFN-gamma inducible proteasome subunits LMP2 and LMP7, TAP1, TAP2, calnexin, calreticulin, ERp57, and tapasin are strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of normal prostate cells, whereas HLA class I heavy chain (HC) and beta(2)-microglobulin are expressed on the cell surface. Most of the APM components were downregulated in a substantial number of prostate cancers. With the exception of HLA class I HC, TAP2 and ERp57 not detectable in about 0.5% of tumor lesions, all other APM components were not detected in at least 21% of lesions analyzed. These APM component defects were associated with a higher Gleason grade of tumors and an early disease recurrence. Prostate carcinoma cell lines also exhibit a heterogeneous, but reduced constitutive APM component expression pattern associated with lack or reduced HLA class I surface antigens, which could be upregulated by IFN-gamma. Our results suggest that HLA class I APM component abnormalities are mainly due to regulatory mechanisms, play a role in the clinical course of prostate cancer and on the outcome of T cell-based immunotherapies.

  11. Complex preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia, sideroblastic anaemia, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, Georgia; Vrettou, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Destouni, Aspasia; Poulou, Myrto; Moutafi, Maria; Kokkali, Georgia; Pantos, Konstantinos; Davies, Stephen; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select histocompatible siblings to facilitate curative haematopoeitic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is now an acceptable option in the absence of an available human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatible donor. We describe a case where the couple who requested HLA-PGD, were both carriers of two serious haematological diseases, beta-thalassaemia and sideroblastic anaemia. Their daughter, affected with sideroblastic anaemia, was programmed to have HSCT. A multiplex-fluorescent-touchdown-PCR protocol was optimized for the simultaneous amplification of: the two HBB-gene mutated regions (c.118C> T, c.25-26delAA), four short tandem repeats (STRs) in chr11p15.5 linked to the HBB gene, the SLC25A38 gene mutation (c.726C > T), two STRs in chr3p22.1 linked to the SLC25A38 gene, plus eleven informative STRs for HLA-haplotyping (chr6p22.1-21.3). This was followed by real-time nested PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for the detection of HBB and SLC25A38 gene mutations, as well as the analysis of all STRs on an automatic genetic analyzer (sequencer). The couple completed four clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF)/PGD cycles. At least one matched unaffected embryo was identified and transferred in each cycle. A twin pregnancy was established in the fourth PGD cycle and genotyping results at all loci were confirmed by prenatal diagnosis. Two healthy baby girls were delivered at week 38 of pregnancy. The need to exclude two familial disorders for HLA-PGD is rarely encountered. The methodological approach described here is fast, accurate, clinically-validated, and of relatively low cost.

  12. Antigenic characteristics and cDNA sequences of HLA-B73.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H J; Kristensen, T J; Jensen, T G; Graugaard, B; Lamm, L U

    1995-06-01

    The cDNA sequence and serological data for HLA-B73 are reported. Anti-B73 sera are found relatively frequently, considering the rarity of the antigen. It was noted early that in some cases the antibodies in sera of multiparous women did not react with the eliciting cells (fathers) and thus all behaved as a naturally occurring antibody. We report on 18 B73 antisera found during the screening of 55,000 Danish sera. Only one of the 17 stimulators typed also had the B73 tissue type. Ten of the stimulators had antigens from the B7 CREG (B7, B22, B27, B42, B67, B73), whereas none of the responders had such tissue types. In seven cases the serum was not able to react with the stimulator's lymphocytes in a cytotoxicity assay and in four cases the stimulator lymphocytes could not deplete the anti-B73 activity from the serum in absorption experiments. The cDNA of B73 was expressed correctly in COS cells and was recognized on the cell surface by a monospecific serum. The alpha 1 alpha 2 domains of B73 are most similar to those of the HLA-B22 family. Interestingly, the alpha 3 and transmembrane domains of HLA-B73 are not standard human domains, but are most similar to the corresponding domains of some gorilla and chimpanzee HLA-B genes.

  13. HLA Matching Trumps Donor Age: Donor-Recipient Pairing Characteristics That Impact Long-Term Success in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Paired Kidney Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Milner, John; Melcher, Marc L.; Lee, Brian; Veale, Jeff; Ronin, Matthew; D'Alessandro, Tom; Hil, Garet; Fry, Phillip C.; Shannon, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. Results Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States. To allow sufficient time to assess long-term results, outcomes of LDKTs between 1987 and 2001 were analyzed. After excluding cases where a patient died with a functioning graft (8301) or those missing HLA data (9), 40 371 cases were analyzed. Of 18 independent variables, the focus became the 4 variables that were the most statistically and clinically significant in that they are potentially modifiable in donor selection (P <0.0001; ie, HLA match points, donor sex, donor biological sibling and donor age). HLA match points had the strongest relationship with KLYs, was associated with the greatest tendency toward graft longevity on Cox regression, and had the largest increase in KLYs (2.0 year increase per 50 antigen Match Points) based on multiple regression. Conclusions In cases when a patient has multiple potential donors, such as through paired exchange, graft life might be extended when a donor with favorable matching characteristics is selected. PMID:27830179

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding a functional human class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA-CW3).

    PubMed Central

    Sodoyer, R; Damotte, M; Delovitch, T L; Trucy, J; Jordan, B R; Strachan, T

    1984-01-01

    The HLA-CW3 gene contained in a cosmid clone identified by transfection expression experiments has been completely sequenced. This provides, for the first time, data on the structure of HLA-C locus products and constitutes, together with that of the gene coding for HLA-A3, the first complete nucleotide sequences of genes coding for serologically defined class I HLA molecules. In contrast to the organisation of the two class I HLA pseudogenes whose sequences have previously been determined, the sequence of the HLA-CW3 gene reveals an additional cytoplasmic encoding domain, making the organisation of this gene very similar to that of known H-2 class I genes and also the HLA-A3 gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of HLA-CW3 and HLA-A3 now allow a systematic comparison of such sequences of HLA class I molecules from the three classical transplantation antigen loci A, B, C. The compared sequences include the previously determined partial amino acid sequences of HLA-B7, HLA-B40, HLA-A2 and HLA-A28. The comparisons confirm the extreme polymorphism of HLA classical class I molecules, and permit a study of the level of diversity and the location of sequence differences. The distribution of differences is not uniform, most of them being located in the first and second extracellular domains, the third extracellular domain is extremely conserved, and the cytoplasmic domain is also a variable region. Although it is difficult to determine locus-specific regions, we have identified several candidate positions which may be C locus-specific. PMID:6609813

  15. Uptake of HLA Alloantigens via CD89 and CD206 Does Not Enhance Antigen Presentation by Indirect Allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Breman, Eytan; Ruben, Jurjen M.; Franken, Kees L.; Heemskerk, Mirjam H. M.; Roelen, Dave L.; Claas, Frans H.

    2016-01-01

    In organ transplantation, alloantigens are taken up by antigen presenting cells and presented via the indirect pathway to T-cells which in turn can induce allograft rejection. Monitoring of these T-cells is of major importance; however no reliable assay is available to routinely monitor indirect allorecognition. Recently we showed that HLA monomers can be successfully used to monitor indirect allorecognition. Targeting antigens to endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells may further enhance the presentation of antigens via HLA class II and improve the efficiency of this assay. In the current study we explored targeting of HLA monomers to either CD89 expressing monocytes or mannose receptor expressing dendritic cells. Monomer-antibody complexes were generated using biotin-labeled monomers and avidin labeling of the antibodies. We demonstrate that targeting the complexes to these receptors resulted in a dose-dependent HLA class II mediated presentation to a T-cell clone. The immune-complexes were efficiently taken up and presented to T-cells. However, the level of T-cell reactivity was similar to that when only exogenous antigen was added. We conclude that HLA-A2 monomers targeted for presentation through CD89 on monocytes or mannose receptor on dendritic cells lead to proper antigen presentation but do not enhance indirect allorecognition via HLA-DR. PMID:27413760

  16. Immunological and clinical significance of HLA class I antigen processing machinery component defects in malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Concha-Benavente, Fernando; Srivastava, Raghvendra; Ferrone, Soldano; Ferris, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental as well as clinical studies demonstrate that the immune system plays a major role in controlling generation and progression of tumors. The cancer immunoediting theory supports the notion that tumor cell immunogenicity is dynamically shaped by the immune system, as it eliminates immunogenic tumor cells in the early stage of the disease and then edits their antigenicity. The end result is the generation of a tumor cell population able to escape from immune recognition and elimination by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Two major mechanisms, which affect the target cells and the effector phase of the immune response, play a crucial role in the editing process. One is represented by the downregulation of tumor antigen (TA) processing and presentation because of abnormalities in the HLA class I antigen processing machinery (APM). The other one is represented by the anergy of effector immune infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment caused by aberrant inhibitory signals triggered by immune checkpoint receptor (ICR) ligands, such as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1). In this review, we will focus on tumor immune escape mechanisms caused by defects in HLA class I APM component expression and/or function in different types of cancer, with emphasis on head and neck cancer (HNC). We will also discuss the immunological implications and clinical relevance of these HLA class I APM abnormalities. Finally, we will describe strategies to counteract defective TA presentation with the expectation that they will enhance tumor recognition and elimination by tumor infiltrating effector T cells. PMID:27264839

  17. Human epidermal Langerhans cells cointernalize by receptor-mediated endocytosis "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (T6 antigens) and class II molecules (HLA-DR antigens).

    PubMed Central

    Hanau, D; Fabre, M; Schmitt, D A; Garaud, J C; Pauly, G; Tongio, M M; Mayer, S; Cazenave, J P

    1987-01-01

    HLA-DR and T6 surface antigens are expressed only by Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells in normal human epidermis. We have previously demonstrated that T6 antigens are internalized in Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process is induced by the binding of BL6, a monoclonal antibody directed against T6 antigens. In the present study, using a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA-DR antigens, on human epidermal cells in suspension, we show that the surface HLA-DR antigens are also internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis in Langerhans and indeterminate cells. Moreover, using immunogold double labeling, we demonstrate that T6 and HLA-DR antigens are internalized through common coated regions of the membrane of Langerhans or indeterminate cells. The receptor-mediated endocytosis that is induced involves coated pits and vesicles, receptosomes, lysosomes, and also, in Langerhans cells, the Birbeck granules. Thus, T6 antigens, which are considered to be "unusual" or "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, HLA-DR, are internalized in Langerhans and indeterminate cells through common receptor-mediated endocytosis organelles. Images PMID:3106979

  18. Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to present three different virus-derived epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) despite expressing the correct restricting HLA-B27 molecules on the cell surface. B cell lines were established from other members of the donor's family, including individuals suffering from ankylosing spondylitis and related diseases, and were tested for their ability to function as target cells in the same assay. None of the eight B cell lines that expressed HLA-B27 presented a known peptide epitope to CTL. However, cells from a family member that expressed HLA-B8 could present an epitope peptide restricted by that molecule. The B27 molecule in this family proved to be the B2702 subtype on isoelectric focusing gels, appearing in exactly the same position as B2702 from other cell lines that did present the peptide. To exclude mutations resulting in noncharged amino acid substitutions, cDNA coding for B2702 was cloned from the proband's cell line and sequenced. No coding changes were found. The cloned cDNA was transfected into HLA-A- and B-negative HMy/C1R cells, and the B2702 molecules generated in this environment rendered these cells, after incubation with peptide, susceptible to lysis by peptide-specific CTL. These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by otherwise normal B2702 molecules in this family. PMID:1370680

  19. CD94-NKG2A Recognition of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E Bound to an HLA Class I Leader Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie,E.; Clements, C.; Lin, J.; Sullivan, L.; Johnson, D.; Huyton, T.; Heroux, A.; Hoare, H.; Beddoe, T.; et al

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E by the heterodimeric CD94-NKG2 natural killer (NK) receptor family is a central innate mechanism by which NK cells monitor the expression of other HLA molecules, yet the structural basis of this highly specific interaction is unclear. Here, we describe the crystal structure of CD94-NKG2A in complex with HLA-E bound to a peptide derived from the leader sequence of HLA-G. The CD94 subunit dominated the interaction with HLA-E, whereas the NKG2A subunit was more peripheral to the interface. Moreover, the invariant CD94 subunit dominated the peptide-mediated contacts, albeit with poor surface and chemical complementarity. This unusual binding mode was consistent with mutagenesis data at the CD94-NKG2A-HLA-E interface. There were few conformational changes in either CD94-NKG2A or HLA-E upon ligation, and such a 'lock and key' interaction is typical of innate receptor-ligand interactions. Nevertheless, the structure also provided insight into how this interaction can be modulated by subtle changes in the peptide ligand or by the pairing of CD94 with other members of the NKG2 family. Differences in the docking strategies used by the NKG2D and CD94-NKG2A receptors provided a basis for understanding the promiscuous nature of ligand recognition by NKG2D compared with the fidelity of the CD94-NKG2 receptors.

  20. Ectopic expression of HLA-DO in mouse dendritic cells diminishes MHC class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Fallas, Jennifer L; Tobin, Helen M; Lou, Olivia; Guo, Donglin; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Denzin, Lisa K

    2004-08-01

    The MHC class II-like molecule HLA-DM (DM) (H-2M in mice) catalyzes the exchange of CLIP for antigenic peptides in the endosomes of APCs. HLA-DO (DO) (H-2O in mice) is another class II-like molecule that is expressed in B cells, but not in other APCs. Studies have shown that DO impairs or modifies the peptide exchange activity of DM. To further evaluate the role of DO in Ag processing and presentation, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human HLA-DOA and HLA-DOB genes under the control of a dendritic cell (DC)-specific promoter. Our analyses of DCs from these mice showed that as DO levels increased, cell surface levels of A(b)-CLIP also increased while class II-peptide levels decreased. The presentation of some, but not all, exogenous Ags to T cells or T hybridomas was significantly inhibited by DO. Surprisingly, H-2M accumulated in DO-expressing DCs and B cells, suggesting that H-2O/DO prolongs the half-life of H-2M. Overall, our studies showed that DO expression impaired H-2M function, resulting in Ag-specific down-modulation of class II Ag processing and presentation.

  1. Reduced Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Protection in Gulf War Illness (GWI)

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.; James, Lisa M.; Mahan, Margaret Y.; Joseph, Jasmine; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Engdahl, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a disease of unknown etiology with symptoms suggesting the involvement of an immune process. Here we tested the hypothesis that Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) composition might differ between veterans with and without GWI. Methods We identified 144 unique alleles of Class I and II HLA genes in 82 veterans (66 with and 16 without GWI). We tested the hypothesis that a subset of HLA alleles may classify veterans in their respective group using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis. In addition, each participant rated symptom severity in 6 domains according to established GWI criteria, and an overall symptom severity was calculated. Findings We found 6 Class II alleles that classified participants 84.1% correctly (13/16 control and 56/66 GWI). The number of copies of the 6 alleles was significantly higher in the control group, suggesting a protective role. This was supported by a significant negative dependence of overall symptom severity on the number of allele copies, such that symptom severity was lower in participants with larger numbers of allele copies. Interpretation These results indicate a reduced HLA protection (i.e. genetic susceptibility) in veterans with GWI. Funding University of Minnesota and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:26870819

  2. HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

    1987-09-01

    HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection?

  3. HLA-DO as the Optimizer of Epitope Selection for MHC Class II Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Poluektov, Yuri O.; Kim, AeRyon; Hartman, Isamu Z.; Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade

    2013-01-01

    Processing of antigens for presentation to helper T cells by MHC class II involves HLA-DM (DM) and HLA-DO (DO) accessory molecules. A mechanistic understanding of DO in this process has been missing. The leading model on its function proposes that DO inhibits the effects of DM. To directly study DO functions, we designed a recombinant soluble DO and expressed it in insect cells. The kinetics of binding and dissociation of several peptides to HLA-DR1 (DR1) molecules in the presence of DM and DO were measured. We found that DO reduced binding of DR1 to some peptides, and enhanced the binding of some other peptides to DR1. Interestingly, these enhancing and reducing effects were observed in the presence, or absence, of DM. We found that peptides that were negatively affected by DO were DM-sensitive, whereas peptides that were enhanced by DO were DM-resistant. The positive and negative effects of DO could only be measured on binding kinetics as peptide dissociation kinetics were not affected by DO. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we demonstrate direct binding of DO to a peptide-receptive, but not a closed conformation of DR1. We propose that DO imposes another layer of control on epitope selection during antigen processing. PMID:23951115

  4. Role of Metalloproteases in Vaccinia Virus Epitope Processing for Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)-independent Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B7 Class I Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Elena; García, Ruth; Mir, Carmen; Barriga, Alejandro; Lemonnier, François A.; Ramos, Manuel; López, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates the viral proteolytic peptides generated by the proteasome and other proteases in the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. There, they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, which are subsequently recognized by the CD8+ lymphocyte cellular response. However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or tumor or infected cells with blocked TAP molecules are able to present HLA class I ligands generated by TAP-independent processing pathways. Herein, using a TAP-independent polyclonal vaccinia virus-polyspecific CD8+ T cell line, two conserved vaccinia-derived TAP-independent HLA-B*0702 epitopes were identified. The presentation of these epitopes in normal cells occurs via complex antigen-processing pathways involving the proteasome and/or different subsets of metalloproteinases (amino-, carboxy-, and endoproteases), which were blocked in infected cells with specific chemical inhibitors. These data support the hypothesis that the abundant cellular proteolytic systems contribute to the supply of peptides recognized by the antiviral cellular immune response, thereby facilitating immunosurveillance. These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections. PMID:22298786

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis and its association with HLA-DR antigens. I. Cell mediated immune response against connective tissue antigens.

    PubMed

    Vullo, C M; Pesoa, S A; Onetti, C M; Riera, C M

    1987-04-01

    HLA-DR antigens and cellular sensitivity to native bovine type I and type II collagen and proteoglycans were examined in patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and normal individuals. Fifty eight percent of patients with RA (n = 88) and 28% of normals (n = 52) were DR4+ (pc less than 0.01). DR4 phenotype was significantly increased in patients with severe disease stages (III-IV), as defined by the ARA criteria, in contrast to those showing mild disease stages (I-II) (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 55 patients and 30 controls were evaluated for the in vitro production of leukocyte inhibitory factor in response to native type I and type II collagen and proteoglycans. By using this assay, cells from the arthritic group exhibited a statistically significant response when stimulated with native type I collagen and proteoglycans. The cellular immune response was not associated with any particular HLA-DR antigens, or to the disease stage or severity.

  6. Different functions and associations of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ(DC) antigens shown by serological, cellular and DNA assays.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, C; Jaraquemada, D; Hui, K; Awad, J; Okoye, R; Festenstein, H

    1985-03-01

    Two consanguineous Caucasoid HTCs, DHI and FPA, were investigated, the latter having an unusual HLA-DR/DQ(DC) association. Both these HTCs typed clearly as HLA-DRw11. However, while DHI typed as DRw11/DQw3(DC4) as expected, FPA typed as DRw11/DQw1(DC1) instead. Although extremely rare in Caucasoids, DRw11/DQw1 is a common pattern of association in Nigerian Negroids. Southern blots of DNA extracted from EBV cell line derived from FPA, hybridized with HLA-DC alpha and HLA-DC beta probes, confirmed this unusual DRw11/DQw1(DC1) association. In addition the DC alpha probe showed a unique additional restriction fragment length polymorphism (8 kb) attributable to the DX gene in the FPA DNA. When DHI and FPA were used as stimulators in MLC, the patterns to typing responses obtained were not completely concordant although they overlap to some extent. For this reason FPA has been locally designated Dw'F5', distinct from Dw5. Furthermore, the HLA-DQ antigens of the responder cells were not necessarily the same as those of the HTCS to which they gave typing responses (FPA and DHI). Functional studies using these two HTCs showed that the DQ(DC) antigens probably have no direct lymphocyte activating properties but rather have a regulatory role in controlling responses to allodeterminants in MLC.

  7. HLA class I gene expression on human primary tumours and autologous metastases: demonstration of selective losses of HLA antigens on colorectal, gastric and laryngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    López-Nevot, M. A.; Esteban, F.; Ferrón, A.; Gutiérrez, J.; Oliva, M. R.; Romero, C.; Huelin, C.; Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F.

    1989-01-01

    The expression of HLA class I antigens was studied in 99 primary tumour (colorectal, gastric and laryngeal carcinomas) and 57 autologous metastases using immunohistological techniques and monoclonal antibodies against class I monomorphic determinants, HLA-B isotypic determinants and HLA polymorphic determinants. Fourteen per cent of colorectal, 9.6% of gastric and 20% of laryngeal carcinomas completely lacked class I molecules. Selective losses of HLA-B antigens were also detected in 8.8, 3.4 and 5.8% of these tumours respectively. Taking into account complete and selective loss of HLA-B the average alteration in the class I molecules expression totalled 21%. The comparison of class I expression between primary tumours and autologous metastases showed differences in 24% of the patients. These differences consisted mainly in a decrease of class I expression by metastases. Nevertheless, four types of divergence were detected in laryngeal carcinomas, namely: +/-, +/+, -/+, -/-. In addition, a clear correlation between degree of differentiation and class I expression was observed in laryngeal tumours. Finally, when class I gene RFLPs were compared with DNA from 15 tumours and autologous normal mucosa or peripheral lymphocytes, no differences were detected between these samples. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2649129

  8. Linkage analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers in familial psoriasis: strong disequilibrium effects provide evidence for a major determinant in the HLA-B/-C region.

    PubMed Central

    Jenisch, S; Henseler, T; Nair, R P; Guo, S W; Westphal, E; Stuart, P; Krönke, M; Voorhees, J J; Christophers, E; Elder, J T

    1998-01-01

    Although psoriasis is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), evidence for linkage to HLA markers has been limited. The objectives of this study were (1) to provide more definitive evidence for linkage of psoriasis to HLA markers in multiplex families; (2) to compare the major HLA risk alleles in these families with those determined by previous case-control studies; and (3) to localize the gene more precisely. By applying the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and parametric linkage analysis, we found evidence for linkage of psoriasis to HLA-C, -B, -DR, and -DQ, with HLA-B and -C yielding the most-significant results. Linkage was detectable by parametric methods only when marker-trait disequilibrium was considered. Case-control association tests and the TDT identified alleles belonging to the EH57.1 ancestral haplotype as the major risk alleles in our sample. Among individuals carrying recombinant ancestral haplotypes involving EH57. 1, the class I markers were retained selectively among affecteds four times more often than among unaffecteds; among the few affected individuals carrying only the class II alleles from the ancestral haplotype, all but one also carried Cw6. These data show that familial and "sporadic" psoriasis share the same risk alleles. They also illustrate that substantial parametric linkage information can be extracted by accounting for linkage disequilibrium. Finally, they strongly suggest that a major susceptibility gene resides near HLA-C. PMID:9634500

  9. Germinal center B cells regulate their capability to present antigen by modulation of HLA-DO.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Kim S; Hake, Sandra B; Tobin, Helen M; Chadburn, Amy; Schattner, Elaine J; Denzin, Lisa K

    2002-04-15

    Peptide acquisition by MHC class II molecules is catalyzed by HLA-DM (DM). In B cells, HLA-DO (DO) inhibits or modifies the peptide exchange activity of DM. We show here that DO protein levels are modulated during B cell differentiation. Remarkably, germinal center (GC) B cells, which have low levels of DO relative to naive and memory B cells, are shown to have enhanced antigen presentation capabilities. DM protein levels also were somewhat reduced in GC B cells; however, the ratio of DM to DO in GC B cells was substantially increased, resulting in more free DM in GC B cells. We conclude that modulation of DM and DO in distinct stages of B cell differentiation represents a mechanism by which B cells regulate their capacity to function as antigen-presenting cells. Efficient antigen presentation in GC B cells would promote GC B cell-T cell interactions that are essential for B cells to survive positive selection in the GC.

  10. Assignment of C1q-binding HLA antibodies as unacceptable HLA antigens avoids positive CDC-crossmatches prior to transplantation of deceased donor organs.

    PubMed

    Juhl, David; Marget, Matthias; Hallensleben, Michael; Görg, Siegfried; Ziemann, Malte

    2017-01-12

    Soon, a virtual crossmatch shall replace the complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) allocation crossmatch in the Eurotransplant region. To prevent positive CDC-crossmatches in the recipient centre, careful definition of unacceptable antigens is necessary. For highly sensitized patients, this is difficult by CDC alone. Assignment of all antibodies detected by sensitive assays, however, could prevent organ allocation. To assess the usefulness of the Luminex C1q-assay to prevent positive CDC-crossmatches, all CDC-crossmatches performed prior to deceased kidney transplantation in a 16-month-period were reviewed. Sera causing positive crossmatches were investigated by the C1q-assay. 31 out of 1432 crossmatches (2.2%) were positive. Sera involved in 26 positive crossmatches were available. C1q-binding donor-specific antibodies were detected in 19 sera (73.1%). The other sera were from recipients without any HLA antibodies detectable by CDC or common solid phase assays. Three patients had known Non-HLA antibodies causing positive CDC-results. Four crossmatches were only weak positive. Therefore, avoidance of donors with HLA antigens against whom C1q-binding antibodies were detected would have prevented all positive crossmatches due to HLA antibodies. Provided that all HLA specificities against which antibodies are detected by the Luminex C1q-assay are considered as unacceptable antigens, CDC-crossmatches prior to transplantation might safely be omitted in many patients. They should be maintained in highly immunized patients, however, for whom assignment of all C1q-positive antibodies as unacceptable antigens could lead to a significant delay or even prevention of transplantation.

  11. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philippa C; Carlson, Jonathan M; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8(+) T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies.

  12. Impact of ethnicity, donor status and HLA matching on renal allograft survival: a single center study.

    PubMed

    Chelluri, Lakshmi Kiran; Vasantha, Adavi; Ratnakar, Kamaraju S

    2009-11-01

    The role of histocompatibility testing in renal transplantation is passing through an immense debate on its utility in predicting long-term graft survival. The current study, which includes fifty-one patients with end-stage renal disease, aims at evaluating the impact of the HLA matching in live related donor (LRD) (parents, siblings and near relatives) and live unrelated donor (LURD) transplants on one year graft survival rates, in a single center. Patients were followed-up for one-year after renal transplantation and observed for renal complications inclu-ding infections and rejection. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was found to be lower in LRD transplantation complying with many reports published so far. HLA matching was found to be beneficial in obtaining better graft function and one-year graft survival rate. The current study found that patients from Far East of India have lower graft survival rates as against patients from other regions of the country. India, with its vast racial distribution, has a need to look into the ethnic variation and its impact on allograft survival.

  13. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from human sera mirrors intravenous Ig human leucocyte antigen (HLA) reactivity and recognizes one's own HLA types, but may be masked by Fab complementarity-determining region peptide in the native sera.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, M H; Terasaki, P I; Maehara, C Y; Jucaud, V; Kawakita, S; Pham, T; Yamashita, W

    2015-02-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) reacted with a wide array of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in contrast to normal sera, due possibly to the purification of IgG from the pooled plasma. The reactivity of IgG purified from normal sera was compared with that of native sera to determine whether any serum factors mask the HLA reactivity of anti-HLA IgG and whether IgG purified from sera can recognize the HLA types of the corresponding donors. The purified IgG, unlike native sera, mirrored IVIg reactivity to a wide array of HLA-I/-II alleles, indicating that anti-HLA IgG may be masked in normal sera - either by peptides derived from soluble HLA or by those from antibodies. A < 3 kDa peptide from the complementarity-determining region (CDR) of the Fab region of IgG (but not the HLA peptides) masked HLA recognition by the purified IgG. Most importantly, some of the anti-HLA IgG purified from normal sera - and serum IgG from a few donors - indeed recognized the HLA types of the corresponding donors, confirming the presence of auto-HLA antibodies. Comparison of HLA types with the profile of HLA antibodies showed auto-HLA IgG to the donors' HLA antigens in this order of frequency: DPA (80%), DQA (71%), DRB345 (67%), DQB (57%), Cw (50%), DBP (43%), DRB1 (21%), A (14%) and B (7%). The auto-HLA antibodies, when unmasked in vivo, may perform immunoregulatory functions similar to those of therapeutic preparations of IVIg.

  14. Human major histocompatibility complex class I antigens: residues 61-83 of the HLA-B7 heavy chain specify an alloreactive site.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L E; Ketler, T A; Houghten, R A; Schulz, G; Chersi, A; Reisfeld, R A

    1985-01-01

    A chemically synthesized peptide (sequence in text) homologous to residues 61-83 of the HLA-B7 heavy chain, induced antibodies that specifically recognized the HLA heavy chain-beta 2-microglobulin complex and the free heavy chain of the HLA-B7 antigen. These antibodies specifically immunoprecipitated the HLA-B7 beta 2-microglobulin complex solubilized from human lymphoblastoid cells by nonionic detergents and reacted with free HLA-B7 heavy chains in blots on nitrocellulose. These observations suggest that the antigenic conformation of this region of the HLA-B7 molecule is independent of the presence of beta 2-microglobulin and that amino acid residues 61-83 mimic an alloreactive site expressed by the HLA-B7 antigen. Images PMID:3881768

  15. Expression of HLA-DR (Ia like) antigen on epidermal keratinocytes in human dermatoses.

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, I A

    1984-01-01

    Ia antigen (HLA-DR in man) has been demonstrated in keratinocytes in graft versus host disease. This study investigates the occurrence of HLA-DR in keratinocytes in the following dermatoses: eczematous dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, with immunoglobulin and non-exposed skin from cases of systemic lupus erythematosus with immunoglobulin deposits, lichen planus, lichen simplex, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, 'toxic erthema', tuberculid and chillblain. Keratinocyte staining was found in a variety of conditions. The unifying features of the instances of its occurrence was lymphoid infiltration and usually some focal evidence of keratinocyte damage. Thus in eczema the staining was mid-epidermal, while in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planus it was basal. HLA-DR staining was absent in bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris, which is consistent with the hypothesis that in these conditions the damage is mediated by autoantibodies and complement in the absence of cellular immune attack. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6204802

  16. Arginine (Di)methylated Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptides Are Favorably Presented by HLA-B*07.

    PubMed

    Marino, Fabio; Mommen, Geert P M; Jeko, Anita; Meiring, Hugo D; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Scheltema, Richard A; van Els, Cécile A C M; Heck, Albert J R

    2017-01-06

    Alterations in protein post-translational modification (PTM) are recognized hallmarks of diseases. These modifications potentially provide a unique source of disease-related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-presented peptides that can elicit specific immune responses. While phosphorylated HLA peptides have already received attention, arginine methylated HLA class I peptide presentation has not been characterized in detail. In a human B-cell line we detected 149 HLA class I peptides harboring mono- and/or dimethylated arginine residues by mass spectrometry. A striking preference was observed in the presentation of arginine (di)methylated peptides for HLA-B*07 molecules, likely because the binding motifs of this allele resemble consensus sequences recognized by arginine methyl-transferases. Moreover, HLA-B*07-bound peptides preferentially harbored dimethylated groups at the P3 position, thus consecutively to the proline anchor residue. Such a proline-arginine sequence has been associated with the arginine methyl-transferases CARM1 and PRMT5. Making use of the specific neutral losses in fragmentation spectra, we found most of the peptides to be asymmetrically dimethylated, most likely by CARM1. These data expand our knowledge of the processing and presentation of arginine (di)methylated HLA class I peptides and demonstrate that these types of modified peptides can be presented for recognition by T-cells. HLA class I peptides with mono- and dimethylated arginine residues may therefore offer a novel target for immunotherapy.

  17. [The HLA system and habitual abortion].

    PubMed

    Hajek-Rosenmayr, A

    1990-01-01

    HLA-antigens are extremely polymorphic. A calculation of the polymorphism shows a number of 398.476.343 possible HLA-phenotypes, if HLA-A, -B, -C and -DR antigens are taken into account. The compatibility of HLA-antigens of recipient and donor plays a crucial role in transplantation: HLA-antigens are the traits, which are recognized by the immune system of the recipient in the frame of a rejection of the transplant or by the donor in the frame of a graft-versus-host reaction. Large international statistics show that HLA-incompatibility between recipient and donor leads to short transplant function periods, while compatibility brings about good transplant function. Therefore, matching of HLA-antigens plays an important role in transplantation of solid organs, mainly kidneys (3, 4, 5), and is completely necessary in bone marrow transplantation. Also in pregnancy, HLA-antigens are important: If HLA compatibility between mother and child is high, the risk for habitual abortion is higher than in normal pregnancies (6, 7).

  18. The production and crystallization of the human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 complexed with deamidated gliadin peptides implicated in coeliac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Kate N.; Reid, Hugh H.; Borg, Natalie A.; Broughton, Sophie E.; Huyton, Trevor; Anderson, Robert P.; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2007-12-01

    The production and crystallization of human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with deamidated gliadin peptides is reported. Crystals of HLA-DQ2{sup PQPELPYPQ} diffracted to 3.9 Å, while the HLA-DQ8{sup EGSFQPSQE} crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å, allowing structure determination by molecular replacement. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are key risk factors in coeliac disease, as they bind deamidated gluten peptides that are subsequently recognized by CD4{sup +} T cells. Here, the production and crystallization of both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with the deamidated gliadin peptides DQ2 α-I (PQPELPYPQ) and DQ8 α-I (EGSFQPSQE), respectively, are reported.

  19. Association of Polymorphisms in HLA Antigen Presentation-Related Genes with the Outcomes of HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaomei; Xu, Yin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Rongbin; Su, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Antigen-presentation genes play a vital role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. However, the relationship of variants of these genes with spontaneous outcomes of HCV infection has not been fully investigated. To explore novel loci in the Chinese population, 34 tagging-SNPs in 9 candidate genes were genotyped for their associations with the outcomes of HCV infection. The distributions of different genotypes and haplotypes were compared among 773 HCV-negative controls, 246 subjects with HCV natural clearance, and 218 HCV persistent carriers recruited from hemodialysis patients and intravenous drug users. Our study implicated that TAP2, HLA-DOA, HLA-DOB, and tapasin loci were novel candidate regions for susceptibility to HCV infection and viral clearance in the Chinese population. Logistic regression analyses showed that TAP2 rs1800454 A (OR = 1.48, P = 0.002) and HLA-DOB rs2071469 G (OR = 1.23, P = 0.048) were significantly associated with increased susceptibility to establishment of HCV infection. However, high-risk behavior exposure and age were stronger predictors of HCV infection. Mutation of tapasin rs9277972 T (OR = 1.57, P =0.043) increased the risk of HCV chronicity, and HLA-DOA rs3128935 C (OR = 0.62, P = 0.019) increased the chance of viral resolution. With regards to the effect of rs3128925, interactions were found with high-risk behavior (P = 0.013) and age (P = 0.035). The risk effect of rs3128925 T for persistent HCV infection was higher in injecting drug users (vs. dialysis patients) and in subjects ≥ 40 years old (vs. < 40 years old). PMID:25874709

  20. Donor-specific anti-HLA Abs and graft failure in matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Stefan O; Thall, Peter F; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Sa A; Hu, Ying; Cano, Pedro; Aung, Fleur; Rondon, Gabriela; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Korbling, Martin; Shpall, Elizabeth J; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard E; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo

    2011-11-24

    Anti-HLA donor-specific Abs (DSAs) have been reported to be associated with graft failure in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, their role in the development of graft failure in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation remains unclear. We hypothesize that DSAs against a mismatched HLA-DPB1 locus is associated with graft failure in this setting. The presence of anti-HLA Abs before transplantation was determined prospectively in 592 MUD transplantation recipients using mixed-screen beads in a solid-phase fluorescent assay. DSA identification was performed using single-Ag beads containing the corresponding donor's HLA-mismatched Ags. Anti-HLA Abs were detected in 116 patients (19.6%), including 20 patients (3.4%) with anti-DPB1 Abs. Overall, graft failure occurred in 19 of 592 patients (3.2%), including 16 of 584 (2.7%) patients without anti-HLA Abs compared with 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with DSA (P = .0014). In multivariate analysis, DSAs were the only factor highly associated with graft failure (P = .0001; odds ratio = 21.3). Anti-HLA allosensitization was higher overall in women than in men (30.8% vs 12.1%; P < .0001) and higher in women with 1 (P = .008) and 2 or more pregnancies (P = .0003) than in men. We conclude that the presence of anti-DPB1 DSAs is associated with graft failure in MUD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  1. Identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope from proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Li, Hui-Zhong; Liu, Jun-Jie; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Bao-Fu; Chen, Fei-Fei; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2011-02-01

    Peptide-based immunotherapy strategies appear promising as an approach to successfully induce an antitumor immune response and prolong survival in patients with various cancers. Protein antigens and their specific epitopes are formulation targets for anti-tumor vaccines. Bioinformatical approaches to predict major histocompatibility complex binding peptides can facilitate the resource-consuming effort of T cell epitope identification. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen including Ki-67 and PCNA, associated with the proliferation process of the cell, seems to be an attractive new target for tumor-specific immunotherapy. In this study, we predicted seven HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL candidate epitope of Ki-67 and eight epitope of PCNA by computer algorithm SYFPEITHI, BIMAS, and IEDB_ANN. Subsequently, biological functions of these peptides were tested by experiments in vitro. We found Ki-67((280-288)) (LQGETQLLV) had the strongest binding-affinity with HLA-A*0201. Further study revealed that Ki-67((280-288)) increased the frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells compared to a negative peptide. Because Ki-67 was broadly expressed in most advanced malignant tumors, indicating a potential anti-tumor application in the future.

  2. HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in 6384 umbilical cord blood units and transplantation matching and engraftment statistics in the Zhejiang cord blood bank of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; He, J; Chen, S; Qin, F; Dai, B; Zhang, W; Zhu, F M; Lv, H J

    2014-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a widely accepted source of progenitor cells, and now, many cord blood banks were established. Here, we analysed the HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies, HLA matching possibilities for searching potential donors and outcome of UCB transplantations in Zhejiang cord blood bank of China. A total of 6384 UCB units were characterized for 17 HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles at the first field resolution level. Additionally, B*14, B*15 and B*40 were typed to the second field level. A total of 1372 distinct A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were identified. The frequencies of 7 haplotypes were more than 1%, and 439 haplotypes were <0.01%. A*02-B*46-DRB1*09, A*33-B*58-DRB1*03 and A*30-B*13-DRB1*07 were the most common haplotypes, with frequencies of 4.4%, 3.3%, and 2.9%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium(LD) analysis showed that there were 83 A-B, 106 B-DRB1, 54 A-DRB1 haplotypes with positive LD, in which 51 A-B, 60 B-DRB1, 32 A-DRB1 haplotypes exhibited a significant LD (P < 0.05). In 682 search requests, 12.9%, 40.0% and 42.7% of patients were found to have 6 of 6, 5 of 6 and 4 of 6 HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 matching donors, respectively. A total of 30 UCB units were transplanted to 24 patients (3 patients not evaluated due to early death); 14 of 21 patients (66.7%) engrafted. This study reveals the HLA distribution and its transplantation application in the cord blood bank of Zhejiang province. These data can help to select potential UCB donors for transplantation and used to assess the scale of new cord blood banking endeavours.

  3. Ultrasonographic Assessment of Enthesitis in HLA-B27 Positive Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, a Matched Case-Only Study

    PubMed Central

    Mera-Varela, Antonio; Ferreiro-Iglesias, Aida; Perez-Pampin, Eva; Porto-Silva, Marisol; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B27 has a modifier effect on the phenotype of multiple diseases, both associated and non-associated with it. Among these effects, an increased frequency of clinical enthesitis in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) has been reported but never explored again. We aimed to replicate this study with a sensitive and quantitative assessment of enthesitis by using standardized ultrasonography (US). Methods The Madrid Sonography Enthesitis Index (MASEI) was applied to the US assessment of 41 HLA-B27 positive and 41 matched HLA-B27 negative patients with longstanding RA. Clinical characteristics including explorations aimed to evaluate spondyloarthrtitis and laboratory tests were also done. Results A significant degree of abnormalities in the entheses of the patients with RA were found, but the MASEI values, and each of its components including the Doppler signal, were similar in HLA-B27 positive and negative patients. An increase of the MASEI scores with age was identified. Differences in two clinical features were found: a lower prevalence of rheumatoid factor and a more common story of low back pain in the HLA-B27 positive patients than in the negative. The latter was accompanied by radiographic sacroiliitis in two HLA-B27 positive patients. No other differences were detected. Conclusion We have found that HLA-B27 positive patients with RA do not have more enthesitis as assessed with US than the patients lacking this HLA allele. However, HLA-B27 could be shaping the RA phenotype towards RF seronegativity and axial involvement. PMID:23505543

  4. Human leukocyte antigen supertype matching after myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with 7/8 matched unrelated donor allografts: a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

    PubMed Central

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R.; Wang, Hai-Lin; Pidala, Joseph; Nishihori, Taiga; Askar, Medhat; Olsson, Richard; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Yong, Agnes; Gandhi, Manish; Dandoy, Christopher; Savani, Bipin; Hale, Gregory; Page, Kristin; Bitan, Menachem; Reshef, Ran; Drobyski, William; Marsh, Steven GE; Schultz, Kirk; Müller, Carlheinz R.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Verneris, Michael R.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Arora, Mukta; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles can be simplified by consolidating them into fewer supertypes based on functional or predicted structural similarities in epitope-binding grooves of HLA molecules. We studied the impact of matched and mismatched HLA-A (265 versus 429), -B (230 versus 92), -C (365 versus 349), and -DRB1 (153 versus 51) supertypes on clinical outcomes of 1934 patients with acute leukemias or myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorders. All patients were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research following single-allele mismatched unrelated donor myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation. Single mismatched alleles were categorized into six HLA-A (A01, A01A03, A01A24, A02, A03, A24), six HLA-B (B07, B08, B27, B44, B58, B62), two HLA-C (C1, C2), and five HLA-DRB1 (DR1, DR3, DR4, DR5, DR9) supertypes. Supertype B mismatch was associated with increased risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio =1.78, P=0.0025) compared to supertype B match. Supertype B07-B44 mismatch was associated with a higher incidence of both grade II–IV (hazard ratio=3.11, P=0.002) and III–IV (hazard ratio=3.15, P=0.01) acute graft-versus-host disease. No significant associations were detected between supertype-matched versus -mismatched groups at other HLA loci. These data suggest that avoiding HLA-B supertype mismatches can mitigate the risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease in 7/8-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation when multiple HLA-B supertype-matched donors are available. Future studies are needed to define the mechanisms by which supertype mismatching affects outcomes after alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:27247320

  5. Sampling From the Proteome to the Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR (HLA-DR) Ligandome Proceeds Via High Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Mommen, Geert P. M.; Marino, Fabio; Meiring, Hugo D.; Poelen, Martien C. M.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the complex nature of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II ligandome is of utmost importance to understand the basis for CD4+ T cell mediated immunity and tolerance. Here, we implemented important improvements in the analysis of the repertoire of HLA-DR-presented peptides, using hybrid mass spectrometry-based peptide fragmentation techniques on a ligandome sample isolated from matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). The reported data set constitutes nearly 14 thousand unique high-confident peptides, i.e. the largest single inventory of human DC derived HLA-DR ligands to date. From a technical viewpoint the most prominent finding is that no single peptide fragmentation technique could elucidate the majority of HLA-DR ligands, because of the wide range of physical chemical properties displayed by the HLA-DR ligandome. Our in-depth profiling allowed us to reveal a strikingly poor correlation between the source proteins identified in the HLA class II ligandome and the DC cellular proteome. Important selective sieving from the sampled proteome to the ligandome was evidenced by specificity in the sequences of the core regions both at their N- and C- termini, hence not only reflecting binding motifs but also dominant protease activity associated to the endolysosomal compartments. Moreover, we demonstrate that the HLA-DR ligandome reflects a surface representation of cell-compartments specific for biological events linked to the maturation of monocytes into antigen presenting cells. Our results present new perspectives into the complex nature of the HLA class II system and will aid future immunological studies in characterizing the full breadth of potential CD4+ T cell epitopes relevant in health and disease. PMID:26764012

  6. Sampling From the Proteome to the Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR (HLA-DR) Ligandome Proceeds Via High Specificity.

    PubMed

    Mommen, Geert P M; Marino, Fabio; Meiring, Hugo D; Poelen, Martien C M; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the complex nature of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II ligandome is of utmost importance to understand the basis for CD4(+)T cell mediated immunity and tolerance. Here, we implemented important improvements in the analysis of the repertoire of HLA-DR-presented peptides, using hybrid mass spectrometry-based peptide fragmentation techniques on a ligandome sample isolated from matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). The reported data set constitutes nearly 14 thousand unique high-confident peptides,i.e.the largest single inventory of human DC derived HLA-DR ligands to date. From a technical viewpoint the most prominent finding is that no single peptide fragmentation technique could elucidate the majority of HLA-DR ligands, because of the wide range of physical chemical properties displayed by the HLA-DR ligandome. Our in-depth profiling allowed us to reveal a strikingly poor correlation between the source proteins identified in the HLA class II ligandome and the DC cellular proteome. Important selective sieving from the sampled proteome to the ligandome was evidenced by specificity in the sequences of the core regions both at their N- and C- termini, hence not only reflecting binding motifs but also dominant protease activity associated to the endolysosomal compartments. Moreover, we demonstrate that the HLA-DR ligandome reflects a surface representation of cell-compartments specific for biological events linked to the maturation of monocytes into antigen presenting cells. Our results present new perspectives into the complex nature of the HLA class II system and will aid future immunological studies in characterizing the full breadth of potential CD4(+)T cell epitopes relevant in health and disease.

  7. Impact on outcomes of human leukocyte antigen matching by allele-level typing in adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jaime; Jaramillo, Francisco J; Planelles, Dolores; Montesinos, Pau; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Martin, Guillermo; López, Francisca; Martínez, Jesús; Jarque, Isidro; de la Rubia, Javier; Larrea, Luis; Sanz, Miguel A; Sanz, Guillermo F

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high-resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), graft-versus-host (GVH) disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched ≥ 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P = .04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (Risk ratio [RR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.1; P = .0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8; P = .01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival. In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing single-unit UCBT, an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved disease-free survival by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM.

  8. Patient HSP70-hom TG haplotype is associated with decreased transplant-related mortality and improved survival after sibling HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inho; Kim, Jin Hee; Rhee, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Won; Cho, Hyeon Jin; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Sung Sup; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Myoung Hee; Park, Seonyang; Kim, Byoung Kook

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70-hom (HSP70-hom) plays an important role in protein folding and immune responses. Therefore, HSP70-hom gene polymorphisms may act as important factors in predicting the prognosis of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the role of HSP70-hom gene polymorphisms in the prognosis of patients receiving sibling human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic HSCT, the HSP70-hom polymorphisms, T2437C and G2763A, were genotyped in 147 patients receiving sibling HLA-matched allogeneic HSCT. Individual diplotypes were estimated from genotype data of the two HSP70-hom polymorphisms using the expectation maximization algorithm. Patients with the 2763GG or GA genotype showed longer overall survival compared with those with the 2763AA genotype, and patients with a TG haplotype (TG/TA, TG/TG or TG/CG) also showed longer overall survival compared with those with a non-TG haplotype (TA/TA or TA/CG) (both G2763A genotype and diplotype, p<0.01). Moreover, the 2437TT genotype was found to be protective for treatment-related death compared with the 2437TC genotype, and a TG haplotype was found to be very protective for treatment-related death compared with a non-TG haplotype (T2437C genotype, p=0.04; and diplotype, p=0.02). Therefore, our results suggest that HSP70-hom polymorphisms play an important role in the prognosis of patients receiving sibling HLA-matched allogeneic HSCT.

  9. Processing and cross-presentation of individual HLA-A, -B, or -C epitopes from NY-ESO-1 or an HLA-A epitope for Melan-A differ according to the mode of antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Robson, Neil C; McAlpine, Tristan; Knights, Ashley J; Schnurr, Max; Shin, Amanda; Chen, Weisan; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan

    2010-07-15

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present protein tumor antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) underpins the success of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We studied cross-presentation of the cancer/testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, and the melanoma differentiation antigen, Melan-A by human DC subsets. Monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) efficiently cross-presented human leukocyte associated (HLA)-A2-restricted epitopes from either a formulated NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX vaccine or when either antigen was mixed with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. HLA-A2 epitope generation required endosomal acidification and was proteasome-independent for NY-ESO-1 and proteasome-dependent for Melan-A. Both MoDCs and CD1c(+) blood DCs cross-presented NY-ESO-1-specific HLA-A2(157-165)-, HLA-B7(60-72)-, and HLA-Cw3(92-100)-restricted epitopes when formulated as an NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX vaccine, but this was limited when NY-ESO-1 and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant were added separately to the DC cultures. Finally, cross-presentation of NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A2, NY-ESO-1(60-72)/HLA-B7, and NY-ESO-1(92-100)/HLA-Cw3 epitopes was proteasome-dependent when formulated as immune complexes (ICs) but only proteasome-dependent for NY-ESO-1(60-72)/HLA-B7-restricted cross-presentation facilitated by ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. We demonstrate, for the first time, proteasome-dependent and independent cross-presentation of HLA-A-, B-, and C-restricted epitopes within the same full-length tumor antigen by human DCs. Our findings identify important differences in the capacities of human DC subsets to cross-present clinically relevant, full-length tumor antigens and how vaccine formulation impacts CTL responses in vivo.

  10. Association between Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA-A, -B, and -DR) and end-stage renal disease in Kuwaiti patients awaiting transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Youssef M; Mansour, Merveet; Al-Muzairai, Ibrahim; Al-Otabi, Turky; Abdul-Moneam, Mohamed; Al-Attiyah, Rajaa; Shahin, Manal

    2014-09-01

    The number of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing considerably worldwide. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs) are relevant for the expression of many immunological diseases and contribute to the development of different nephropathies. Therefore, we aimed from the present work to investigate the possible association between the frequency of HLA-A, -B, and -DR antigens and ESRD in Kuwaiti patients awaiting renal transplant. HLA-A, -B, and -DR typing was performed by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) method for 334 patients with ESRD awaiting renal transplantation and 191 healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-B8 antigen was significantly higher in ESRD patients (OR = 2.62, p = 0.001, pc = 0.038), and the frequency of HLA-A28, HLA-DR11 antigens was significantly higher in healthy controls (OR 0.42, p = 0.0001; pc = 0.0021, and OR = 0.44, p = 0.0007, pc = 0.01 respectively). While the HLA-B8 antigen may be a susceptibility risk factor for development of ESRD, the HLA-A28, and HLA-DR11 antigens may be protective against development of ESRD in Kuwaiti population.

  11. Vaccines targeting the cancer-testis antigen SSX-2 elicit HLA-A2 epitope-specific cytolytic T cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heath A; McNeel, Douglas G

    2011-10-01

    The cancer-testis antigen synovial sarcoma X breakpoint-2 (SSX-2) is a potentially attractive target for tumor immunotherapy based upon its tissue-restricted expression to germline cells and its frequent expression in malignancies. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic vaccine encoding SSX-2 to prioritize human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-specific epitopes and determine if a DNA vaccine can elicit SSX-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) capable of lysing prostate cancer cells. HLA-A2-restricted epitopes were identified based on their in vitro binding affinity for HLA-A2 and by the ability of a genetic vaccine to elicit peptide-specific CTL in A2/DR1 (HLA-A2.1+/HLA-DR1+/H-2 class I-/class II-knockout) transgenic mice. We found that SSX-2 peptides p41-49 (KASEKIFYV) and p103-111 (RLQGISPKI) had high affinity for HLA-A2 and were immunogenic in vivo; however, peptide p103-111 was immunodominant with robust peptide-specific immune responses elicited in mice vaccinated with a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding SSX-2. Furthermore, p103-111-specific CTLs were able to lyse an HLA-A2+ prostate cancer cell line. The immunodominance of this epitope was found not to be due to a putative HLA-DR1 epitope (p98-112) flanking p103-111. Finally, we demonstrated that SSX-2 epitope-specific CTLs could be detected and cultured from the peripheral blood of HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients, notably patients with advanced prostate cancer. Overall, we conclude that SSX-2 peptide p103-111 is an immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope, and epitope-specific CD8 T cells can be detected in patients with prostate cancer, suggesting that tolerance to SSX-2 can be circumvented in vivo. Together, these findings suggest that SSX-2 may be a relevant target antigen for prostate cancer vaccine approaches.

  12. The Immunogenicity of HLA Class II Mismatches: The Predicted Presentation of Nonself Allo-HLA-Derived Peptide by the HLA-DR Phenotype of the Recipient Is Associated with the Formation of DSA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The identification of permissible HLA class II mismatches can prevent DSA in mismatched transplantation. The HLA-DR phenotype of recipients contributes to DSA formation by presenting allo-HLA-derived peptides to T-helper cells, which induces the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Comparing the binding affinity of self and nonself allo-HLA-derived peptides for recipients' HLA class II antigens may distinguish immunogenic HLA mismatches from nonimmunogenic ones. The binding affinities of allo-HLA-derived peptides to recipients' HLA-DR and HLA-DQ antigens were predicted using the NetMHCIIpan 3.1 server. HLA class II mismatches were classified based on whether they induced DSA and whether self or nonself peptide was predicted to bind with highest affinity to recipients' HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Other mismatch characteristics (eplet, hydrophobic, electrostatic, and amino acid mismatch scores and PIRCHE-II) were evaluated. A significant association occurred between DSA formation and the predicted HLA-DR presentation of nonself peptides (P = 0.0169; accuracy = 80%; sensitivity = 88%; specificity = 63%). In contrast, mismatch characteristics did not differ significantly between mismatches that induced DSA and the ones that did not, except for PIRCHE-II (P = 0.0094). This methodology predicts DSA formation based on HLA mismatches and recipients' HLA-DR phenotype and may identify permissible HLA mismatches to help optimize HLA matching and guide donor selection. PMID:28331856

  13. HLA Class II Antigen Presentation in Prostate Cancer Cells: A Novel Approach to Prostate Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doonan, Bently Patrick; Haque, Azizul

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a deadly disease that is in drastic need of new treatment strategies for late stage and metastatic prostate cancer. Immunotherapy has emerged as a viable option to fill this void. Clinical trials have been conducted that induce tumor clearance through cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, these studies have had mixed outcomes with the overlying problem being the lack of a complete immune response with sustained killing and the formation of tumor specific memory cells. To overcome this, we have outlined the need for activating the HLA class II pathway in inducing a sustained CD8+ T cell response and the development of effective memory. We have also discussed the ability of prostate cancer cells to express stable HLA class II molecules that can be manipulated for tumor antigen (Ag) processing and presentation. This review also sets to outline new directions that exist for the use of class II-restricted Ags/peptides in devising cancer vaccines as well as combined chemoimmunotherapy. A better understanding of these concepts will improve future cancer vaccine studies and further the field of cancer immunobiology.

  14. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and cervical cancer immunoediting: a candidate molecule for therapeutic intervention and prognostic biomarker?

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Souza, Raquel Pantarotto; Pereira, Monalisa Wolski; da Silva, Vânia Ramos Sela; Bôer, Cinthia Gandolfi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-12-01

    While persistent infection with oncogenic types of human Papillomavirus (HPV) is required for cervical epithelial cell transformation and cervical carcinogenesis, HPV infection alone is not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. Only a minor fraction of HPV infections produce high-grade lesions and cervical cancer, suggesting complex host-virus interactions. Based on its pronounced immunoinhibitory properties, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G has been proposed as a possible prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target relevant in a wide variety of cancers and viral infections, but to date remains underexplored in cervical cancer. Given the possible influence of HLA-G on the clinical course of HPV infection, cervical lesions and cancer progression, a better understanding of HLA-G involvement in cervical carcinogenesis might contribute to two aspects of fundamental importance: 1. Characterization of a novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarker to identify cervical cancer and to monitor disease stage, critical for patient screening; 2. Identification of HLA-G-driven immune mechanisms involved in lesion development and cancer progression, leading to the development of strategies for modulating HLA-G expression for treatment purposes. Thus, this systematic review explores the potential involvement of HLA-G protein expression and polymorphisms in cervical carcinogenesis.

  15. The impact of HLA class I and EBV latency-II antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells on the pathogenesis of EBV(+) Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Wockner, L; Brennan, R M; Keane, C; Chattopadhyay, P K; Roederer, M; Price, D A; Cole, D K; Hassan, B; Beck, K; Gottlieb, D; Ritchie, D S; Seymour, J F; Vari, F; Crooks, P; Burrows, S R; Gandhi, M K

    2016-02-01

    In 40% of cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency-II antigens [EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)/latent membrane protein (LMP)1/LMP2A] are present (EBV(+) cHL) in the malignant cells and antigen presentation is intact. Previous studies have shown consistently that HLA-A*02 is protective in EBV(+) cHL, yet its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. To explore the basis for this observation, gene expression was assessed in 33 cHL nodes. Interestingly, CD8 and LMP2A expression were correlated strongly and, for a given LMP2A level, CD8 was elevated markedly in HLA-A*02(-) versus HLA-A*02(+) EBV(+) cHL patients, suggesting that LMP2A-specific CD8(+) T cell anti-tumoral immunity may be relatively ineffective in HLA-A*02(-) EBV(+) cHL. To ascertain the impact of HLA class I on EBV latency antigen-specific immunodominance, we used a stepwise functional T cell approach. In newly diagnosed EBV(+) cHL, the magnitude of ex-vivo LMP1/2A-specific CD8(+) T cell responses was elevated in HLA-A*02(+) patients. Furthermore, in a controlled in-vitro assay, LMP2A-specific CD8(+) T cells from healthy HLA-A*02 heterozygotes expanded to a greater extent with HLA-A*02-restricted compared to non-HLA-A*02-restricted cell lines. In an extensive analysis of HLA class I-restricted immunity, immunodominant EBNA3A/3B/3C-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were stimulated by numerous HLA class I molecules, whereas the subdominant LMP1/2A-specific responses were confined largely to HLA-A*02. Our results demonstrate that HLA-A*02 mediates a modest, but none the less stronger, EBV-specific CD8(+) T cell response than non-HLA-A*02 alleles, an effect confined to EBV latency-II antigens. Thus, the protective effect of HLA-A*02 against EBV(+) cHL is not a surrogate association, but reflects the impact of HLA class I on EBV latency-II antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell hierarchies.

  16. Differences in HLA antigens between patients with mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Ruuska, P; Hämeenkorpi, R; Forsberg, S; Julkunen, H; Mäkitalo, R; Ilonen, J; Tiilikainen, A

    1992-01-01

    Patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, n = 32) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 60) were typed for HLA-A, B, C, Dw, and DR antigens. All patients with SLE fulfilled at least four criteria of SLE and the patients with MCTD met the criteria proposed by Alarcon-Segovia (1989). The presence of antibodies to Sm was not considered as an exclusion for MCTD. In the patients with SLE, Dw3, DR3, and the associated B8 and A1 antigens were increased, whereas in the patients with MCTD an increased frequency of Dw4 was found (45 v 18% in controls v 14% in SLE). Of the subtypes of DR4, Dw4 was present in all but one of the DR4 positive patients. The frequency of DR4 in patients with MCTD (52%) differed significantly from that of controls (28%). The strong association of MCTD to one DR4 subtype was further seen in the significantly increased frequency of the B15, DR4 combination. Thus the genetic background seems to be different in patients with MCTD from that in patients with SLE. This could partly explain the clinical differences between these diseases. PMID:1540038

  17. Reduced-intensity transplantation for lymphomas using haploidentical related donors vs HLA-matched unrelated donors

    PubMed Central

    Kanate, Abraham S.; Mussetti, Alberto; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Ahn, Kwang W.; DiGilio, Alyssa; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Chhabra, Saurabh; Fenske, Timothy S.; Freytes, Cesar; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Klyuchnikov, Evgeny; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Olsson, Richard; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Rezvani, Andrew; Riches, Marcie; Saad, Ayman; Slavin, Shimon; Smith, Sonali M.; Sureda, Anna; Yared, Jean; Ciurea, Stefan; Armand, Philippe; Salit, Rachel; Bolaños-Meade, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 917 adult lymphoma patients who received haploidentical (n = 185) or HLA-matched unrelated donor (URD) transplantation either with (n = 241) or without antithymocyte globulin (ATG; n = 491) following reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Haploidentical recipients received posttransplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, whereas URD recipients received calcineurin inhibitor-based prophylaxis. Median follow-up of survivors was 3 years. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD on univariate analysis was 8%, 12%, and 17% in the haploidentical, URD without ATG, and URD with ATG groups, respectively (P = .44). Corresponding 1-year rates of chronic GVHD on univariate analysis were 13%, 51%, and 33%, respectively (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, grade III-IV acute GVHD was higher in URD without ATG (P = .001), as well as URD with ATG (P = .01), relative to haploidentical transplants. Similarly, relative to haploidentical transplants, risk of chronic GVHD was higher in URD without ATG and URD with ATG (P < .0001). Cumulative incidence of relapse/progression at 3 years was 36%, 28%, and 36% in the haploidentical, URD without ATG, and URD with ATG groups, respectively (P = .07). Corresponding 3-year overall survival (OS) was 60%, 62%, and 50% in the 3 groups, respectively, with multivariate analysis showing no survival difference between URD without ATG (P = .21) or URD with ATG (P = .16), relative to haploidentical transplants. Multivariate analysis showed no difference between the 3 groups in terms of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, and progression-free survival (PFS). These data suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide does not compromise early survival outcomes compared with matched URD transplantation, and is associated with significantly reduced risk of chronic GVHD. PMID:26670632

  18. Serological studies of HL-A on continuous lymphoblastoid cell lines (CLC) and the definition of an antigen on CLC determined by a heat-labile antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Dumble, Lynette; Jack, I.; Morris, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous lymphoblastoid cell lines (CLC) are more reactive with HL-A antisera in a complement-dependent cytotoxic test than are peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). This additional reactivity leads to assignment to a given CLC of more than four HL-A antigens, the maximum allowable under the two locus concept of the genetic control of HL-A. However, absorption of antisera by CLC shows that no more than four HL-A antigens exist on any of the CLC used in this laboratory. The additional reactivity of these cells lines can be explained in three ways. Firstly, it may be due to the presence of sublytic amounts of HL-A antibody in operationally monospecific antisera. Secondly, it may be due to cross-reactivity between HL-A antigens. Both these findings can be explained on the basis of the increased quantity of HL-A antigens on CLC compared to PBL. Thirdly, it may be due to the presence of a heat-labile (56° for 30 min) complement-dependent cytotoxic antibody which is present in 90% of normal human sera, and detects an antigen group tentatively labelled `D'. PMID:4466611

  19. Defining the HLA class I‐associated viral antigen repertoire from HIV‐1‐infected human cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongbing; Partridge, Thomas; Llano, Anuska; Cedeño, Samandhy; Fischer, Roman; Charles, Philip D.; Dudek, Nadine L.; Mothe, Beatriz; Crespo, Manuel; Fischer, William M.; Korber, Bette T. M.; Nielsen, Morten; Borrow, Persephone; Purcell, Anthony W.; Brander, Christian; Dorrell, Lucy; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Hanke, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and eradication of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. High‐throughput definition of HLA class I‐associated immunopeptidomes by mass spectrometry is an increasingly important analytical tool to advance our understanding of the induction of T‐cell responses against pathogens such as HIV‐1. We utilized a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflow including de novo‐assisted database searching to define the HLA class I‐associated immunopeptidome of HIV‐1‐infected human cells. We here report for the first time the identification of 75 HIV‐1‐derived peptides bound to HLA class I complexes that were purified directly from HIV‐1‐infected human primary CD4+ T cells and the C8166 human T‐cell line. Importantly, one‐third of eluted HIV‐1 peptides had not been previously known to be presented by HLA class I. Over 82% of the identified sequences originated from viral protein regions for which T‐cell responses have previously been reported but for which the precise HLA class I‐binding sequences have not yet been defined. These results validate and expand the current knowledge of virus‐specific antigenic peptide presentation during HIV‐1 infection and provide novel targets for T‐cell vaccine development. PMID:26467324

  20. Isolation and identification of a cDNA clone corresponding to an HLA-DR antigen beta chain.

    PubMed

    Wiman, K; Larhammar, D; Claesson, L; Gustafsson, K; Schenning, L; Bill, P; Böhme, J; Denaro, M; Dobberstein, B; Hammerling, U; Kvist, S; Servenius, B; Sundelin, J; Peterson, P A; Rask, L

    1982-03-01

    The HLA-D locus in the major histocompatibility complex controls the expression of the genetically polymorphic HLA-DR antigens. mRNA coding for the beta chains of these antigens was partially purified from the human lymphoblastoid cell line Raji. The mRNA was copied into double-stranded cDNA and cloned in Escherichia coli. One clone, pDR-beta-1, obtained by hybrid selection, carries a 1070-base-pair insert comprising all of the coding region except the signal sequence and a substantial portion of the untranslated region. To identify pDR-beta-1, highly purified HLA-DR antigen beta chains derived from Raji cells were subjected to NH2-terminal amino acid sequence determination. This sequence displayed extensive homology with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence at the 5' end of the pDR-beta-1 coding region. Taken together, the amino acid and nucleotide sequences strongly argue in favor of Raji cells containing at least two beta-chain loci.

  1. Assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-DM and correction of the class II antigen-processing defect in T2 cells.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Robbins, N F; Carboy-Newcomb, C; Cresswell, P

    1994-10-01

    MHC class II molecules expressed in T2 cells fail to acquire a normal complement of endocytically generated peptides. The defect is repaired by introducing HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB cDNA expression vectors, determined by the restoration of SDS stability of class II alpha beta dimers, restoration of a normal conformation for HLA-DR3 as detected by a monoclonal antibody, and by a reduction in class II-associated invariant chain peptides. The intracellular distribution of class II and invariant chain molecules is also restored to that of wild-type cells. The HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB products appear to form a heterodimer that, although transported at least to the medial Golgi, is not expressed at the cell surface. These findings are consistent with HLA-DM functioning intracellularly to facilitate class II-restricted antigen processing.

  2. A general strategy to optimize immunogenicity of HLA-B*0702 restricted cryptic peptides from tumor associated antigens: Design of universal neo-antigen like tumor vaccines for HLA-B*0702 positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Gallou, Catherine; Rougeot, Aude; Graff-Dubois, Stéphanie; Kosmatopoulos, Kostas; Menez-Jamet, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) are the privileged targets of almost all the cancer vaccines tested to date. Unfortunately all these vaccines failed to show a clinical efficacy. The main reason for this failure is the immune tolerance to TAAs that are self-proteins expressed by normal and cancer cells. Self-tolerance to TAAs is directed against their dominant rather than against their cryptic epitopes. The best way to overcome self-tolerance to TAAs would therefore be to target their cryptic epitopes. However, because of their low HLA-I affinity, cryptic peptides are non-immunogenic and cannot be used to stimulate an antitumor immune response unless their immunogenicity has been previously enhanced. In this paper we describe a general approach to enhance immunogenicity of almost all the HLA-B*0702 restricted cryptic peptides derived from TAAs. It consists in substituting residues at position 1 or 9 of low HLA-B*0702 affinity cryptic peptides by an Alanine or a Leucine respectively. These substitutions increase affinity of peptides for HLA-B*0702. These optimized cryptic peptides are strongly immunogenic and very importantly CTL they stimulate recognize their native counterparts. TAAs derived optimized cryptic peptides can be considered as universal antitumor vaccine since they escape self-tolerance, are immunogenic and are not patient specific. PMID:27506946

  3. Proceedings: human leukocyte antigen haplo-homozygous induced pluripotent stem cell haplobank modeled after the california population: evaluating matching in a multiethnic and admixed population.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Derek James; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Le Gall, Caroline; Laurent, Julie; Trounson, Alan; DeWitt, Natalie; Talib, Sohel

    2015-05-01

    The development of a California-based induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) bank based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype matching represents a significant challenge and a valuable opportunity for the advancement of regenerative medicine. However, previously published models of iPSC banks have neither addressed the admixed nature of populations like that of California nor evaluated the benefit to the population as a whole. We developed a new model for evaluating an iPSC haplobank based on demographic and immunogenetic characteristics reflecting California. The model evaluates haplolines or cell lines from donors homozygous for a single HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 haplotype. We generated estimates of the percentage of the population matched under various combinations of haplolines derived from six ancestries (black/African American, American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and white/not Hispanic) and data available from the U.S. Census Bureau, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the National Marrow Donor Program. The model included both cis (haplotype-level) and trans (genotype-level) matching between a modeled iPSC haplobank and the recipient population following resampling simulations. We showed that serving a majority (>50%) of a simulated California population through cis matching would require the creation, redundant storage, and maintenance of almost 207 different haplolines representing the top 60 most frequent haplotypes from each ancestry group. Allowances for trans matching reduced the haplobank to fewer than 141 haplolines found among the top 40 most frequent haplotypes. Finally, we showed that a model optimized, custom haplobank was able to serve a majority of the California population with fewer than 80 haplolines.

  4. Antibodies against HLA-DP recognize broadly expressed epitopes.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Daimon P; Kafetzi, Maria L; Wood, Isabelle; Macaskill, Peter C; Milford, Edgar L; Guleria, Indira

    2016-12-01

    HLA matching and avoidance of pre-transplant donor-specific antibodies are important in selection of donors for solid organ transplant. Solid phase testing with single antigen beads allows resolution of antibody reactivity to the level of the allele. Single antigen bead testing results at a large transplant center were reviewed to identify selective reactivity patterns of anti-HLA antibodies. Many HLA-DP antibodies were identified in the context of other HLA antibodies, but some sera had antibodies against only HLA-DP. B cell flow crossmatch testing was positive for 2 out of 9 sera with HLA-DP antibodies. Many patterns of reactivity corresponded to epitopes in hypervariable regions C and F of DPB1, but some matched epitopes in other regions or DPA1. Through analysis of single antigen bead testing from a large number of patients, we report that anti-HLA-DP antibodies predominantly recognize broadly cross-reactive epitopes. The United Network for Organ Sharing has mandated HLA-DP typing on all deceased kidney donors, and HLA-DP epitopes should be considered as the major antigens for avoidance of pre-transplant donor-specific antibodies.

  5. Adjuvant Vaccine Immunotherapy of Resected, Clinically Node-negative Melanoma: Long-Term Outcome and Impact of HLA Class I Antigen Expression on Overall Survival

    PubMed Central

    Carson, William E.; Unger, Joseph M.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Porter, Mark J.; Thompson, John A.; Kempf, Raymond A.; Othus, Megan; Ribas, Antoni; Sondak, Vernon K.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between HLA class I antigen expression and efficacy of a melanoma vaccine (Melacine) were initially described in stage IV melanoma. Similar associations were observed in S9035, a phase III adjuvant trial evaluating Melacine for two years versus observation in patients with stage II melanoma. This report provides long-term results. The effects of treatment on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated, and pre-specified analyses investigated associations between treatment and HLA expression. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for tumor thickness, ulceration and site, method of nodal staging and sex. P=.01 was considered significant in subset analyses to account for multiple comparisons. For the entire study population of 689 patients, there were no significant differences in RFS or OS by arm. HLA serotyping was performed on 553 (80%) patients (vaccine 294, observation 259). Among the subpopulation with HLA-A2 and/or HLA-Cw3 serotype, vaccine arm patients (n=178) had marginally improved RFS (adjusted P=.02) and significantly improved OS compared with observation arm patients (n=145), with 10-year OS of 75% and 63%, respectively (hazard ratio 0.62, 99% CI 0.37-1.02, P=.01). There was no impact of HLA-A2 and/or HLA-Cw3 expression among observation arm patients. Analysis of mature data from S9035 indicates a significant OS benefit from adjuvant vaccine therapy for HLA-A2- and/or HLA-Cw3-expressing melanoma patients. The possibility of interactions between HLA type and outcome should be considered in future immunotherapy trials. Further investigations of melanoma-associated antigens present in Melacine and presented by HLA-A2 and HLA-Cw3 may be warranted. PMID:24994597

  6. Structural basis for the specific recognition of the major antigenic peptide from the Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 1 by HLA-DP5.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Seisuke; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Satta, Yoko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Ikeda, Mariko; Terada, Takaho; Yamamoto, Ken; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-08-26

    The major allergen, Cry j 1, was isolated from Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cry j) pollen and was shown to react with immunoglobulin E antibodies in the sera from pollinosis patients. We previously reported that the frequency of HLA-DP5 was significantly higher in pollinosis patients and the immunodominant peptides from Cry j 1 bound to HLA-DP5 to activate Th2 cells. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the HLA-DP5 heterodimer in complex with a Cry j 1-derived nine-residue peptide, at 2.4Å resolution. The peptide-binding groove recognizes the minimal peptide with 10 hydrogen bonds, including those between the negatively charged P1 pocket and the Lys side chain at the first position in the peptide sequence. We confirmed that HLA-DP5 exhibits the same Cry j 1-binding mode in solution, through pull-down experiments using structure-based mutations of Cry j 1. We also identified the characteristic residues of HLA-DP5 that are responsible for the distinct properties of the groove, by comparing the structure of HLA-DP5 and the previously reported structures of HLA-DP2 in complexes with pDRA of the self-antigen. The comparison revealed that the HLA-DP5·pCry j 1 complex forms several hydrogen bond/salt bridge networks between the receptor and the antigen that were not observed in the HLA-DP2·pDRA complex. Evolutionary considerations have led us to conclude that HLA-DP5 and HLA-DP2 represent two major groups of the HLA-DP family, in which the properties of the P1 and P4 pockets have evolved and acquired the present ranges of epitope peptide-binding specificities.

  7. Prostate-related antigen-derived new peptides having the capacity of inducing prostate cancer-reactive CTLs in HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mamoru; Matsueda, Satoko; Yao, Akihisa; Ogata, Rika; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo

    2004-09-01

    Prostate-related antigens, including prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), can be targets in specific immunotherapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to newly identify epitope peptides from these 2 antigens, which are immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2+ prostate cancer patients. Twenty-nine peptides (PSMA with 15 and PAP with 14) were prepared based on the HLA-A2 binding motif. Based on our previous finding that antigenic peptides recognized by both cellular and humoral immune systems are useful for peptide-based immunotherapy, peptide candidates were screened first by their ability to be recognized by immunoglobulin G (IgG), and then by their ability to induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). As a result, PSMA441-450 and PAP112-120 peptides were found to be frequently recognized by IgG in plasma from prostate cancer patients. These 2 candidates effectively induced HLA-A2-restricted and prostate cancer-reactive CTLs in HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients with several HLA-A2 subtypes. In addition, their cytotoxicity was mainly dependent on peptide-specific and CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that these PSMA441-450 and PAP112-120 peptides could be promising candidates for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A2(+) prostate cancer.

  8. Identification of HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted T-cell epitopes from prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Link, Jason; Oberle, Warren T; Kodak, James; Rich, Cathleen; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Alexander, Richard B

    2005-04-15

    The development of immunotherapy for prostate cancer based on the induction of autoimmunity to prostate tissue is very attractive because prostate is not a vital organ beyond the reproductive years. CD4 T cells play an important role in the development of antitumor immune responses, yet the identification of naturally processed MHC Class II-restricted epitopes derived from prostate differentiation antigens has not been described. To facilitate the search for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-derived MHC class II-restricted peptides, we immunized mice transgenic for HLA-DRB1*1501 with human PSA and showed a robust dose-dependent immune response to the antigen. Screening a library of overlapping 20-mer peptides that span the entire PSA sequence identified two 20-mer peptides, PSA(171-190) and PSA(221-240), which were responsible for this reactivity. Immunization of DR2b transgenic mice with these peptides induced specific responses to the peptide and whole PSA. Identified peptides were used to stimulate CD4 T cells from HLA-DRB1*1501+ patients with a rare condition, granulomatous prostatitis, and who seem to have a preexisting immune response directed against the prostate gland. We previously showed a linkage of granulomatous prostatitis to HLA-DRB1*1501, suggesting that this disease may have an autoimmune etiology. Peptide-specific CD4 T-cell lines were generated from the peripheral blood of these patients as well as one patient with prostate cancer. These lines also recognized whole, processed PSA in the context of HLA-DRB1*1501. This study will be instrumental in understanding the interaction between circulating self-reactive T cells, organ-specific autoimmunity, and antitumor immune response. The use of these peptides for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer is under investigation.

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis and its association with HLA-DR antigens. II. Antibodies to native connective tissue antigens detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Pesoa, S A; Vullo, C M; Onetti, C M; Riera, C M

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of frequencies of HLA-DR alloantigens in HLA-DR4 negative subjects was determined in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and normal individuals. An increased incidence of HLA-DR1 alloantigen in DR4 negative RA patients (45.9%) compared with DR4 negative healthy controls (23.6%) was found. The difference became significant when the incidence of DR1 was compared between patients with severe disease stages (III-IV) (75%) in contrast to 32% of incidence in patients of the milder stages (I-II) (p less than 0.05). Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay we have determined the incidence of serum antibodies to native bovine type I and type II collagens and proteoglycans in patients with RA. Presence of serum antibodies to native type I collagen was detected in 59% of patients with RA, 60% of sera exhibited reactivity to type II collagen and 12% had antibodies to proteoglycans. There was no correlation between the presence of antibodies to type I and II collagens and disease stages, however, the incidence of serum antibodies to proteoglycans was increased in severe disease stages. On the other hand, the presence of high levels of antibodies to type I collagen was associated to HLA-DR1 antigen, (p less than 0.05).

  10. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression.

    PubMed

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-31

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37-0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology.

  11. Isolation and identification of a cDNA clone coding for an HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, K; Bill, P; Larhammar, D; Wiman, K; Claesson, L; Schenning, L; Servenius, B; Sundelin, J; Rask, L; Peterson, P A

    1982-10-01

    Membrane-bound mRNA was isolated from Raji cells and enriched for message coding for the HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Double-stranded cDNA was constructed from this mRNA fraction, ligated to plasmid pBR322, and cloned into Escherichia coli. By hybrid selection, a plasmid, pDR-alpha-1, able to hybridize with mRNA coding for the HLA-DR alpha-chain was identified. From the nucleotide sequence of one end of the insert an amino acid sequence was predicted which is identical to part of the amino-terminal sequence of an HLA-DR alpha-chain preparation isolated from Raji cells. This clearly shows that pDR-alpha-1 carries almost the complete message for an HLD-DR alpha-chain. From the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid it will be possible to predict the primary structure of an HLA-DR alpha-chain.

  12. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression

    PubMed Central

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35–0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology. PMID:28139690

  13. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  14. Ethnic differences in HLA antigens in Chilean donors and recipients: data from the National Renal Transplantation Program.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Beltran, R; Ardiles, R; Raddatz, N; Labraña, C; Arenas, A; Flores, J; Alruiz, P; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-11-01

    To describe HLA antigen distribution, looking for possible markers of renal disease in Mapuche and non-Mapuche people in the renal transplantation program, we reviewed data from 1297 histocompatibility studies of the Chilean national renal transplantation program (421 donors and 876 recipients), performed between 2000 and 2005. Mapuche people were classified according to their family surnames. The most frequent antigens found among the total Chilean population were A2 (48%), A19 (33%), B16 (33%), B35 (26%), DR4 (38%), and DR6 (28%), without significant differences between donors and recipients. Among the 114 individuals (9%) classified as Mapuche, the most frequent antigens were A28 (49%), A2 (44%), B16 (63%), B35 (24%), DR4 (48%), and DR8 (30%), with A28/B16/DR4 as the most common haplotype. In contrast, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8 were significantly more frequent in Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche people. B8 was significantly more frequent in Mapuche recipients than in non-Mapuche recipients and Mapuche donors. The higher frequency of some HLA antigens in Mapuche people was confirmed, possibly corresponding to ethnic markers. The special concentration of B8 among Mapuche recipients might represent a genetic factor predisposing to chronic renal disease in this human group.

  15. Induction and increase of HLA-DR antigen expression by immune interferon on ML-3 cell line enhances the anti-HLA-DR immunotoxin activity.

    PubMed Central

    Chiron, M; Jaffrezou, J P; Carayon, P; Bordier, C; Roubinet, F; Xavier, C; Brandely, M; Laurent, G

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of induction and increase target antigen expression on immunotoxin potency, we measured the potentiating effect of recombinant immune interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) on the cytotoxicity of an anti HLA-DR ricin A-chain immunotoxin (2G5 RTA-IT) on the myeloid cell line ML-3. After 48 h of incubation with rIFN-gamma (500 U/ml) the percentage of 2G5-positive cells increased from 40% to 79%, and the 2G5 mean density was enhanced by 10-fold (11,000 versus 110,000 molecules/cell). Concurrently, rIFN-gamma pretreatment induced a dramatic improvement of 2G5 RTA-IT dose-effect cytotoxicity, as well as immunotoxin cytotoxicity kinetics. When 2G5 RTA-IT was used at the optimal dose of 10(-8)M (the maximum dose which avoided non-specific ricin A-chain cytotoxicity), the immunotoxin-induced cell kill increased with the percentage of DR-positive ML-3 cells according to a similar linear-logarithmic function of rIFN-gamma concentration. Moreover, in the same range of rIFN-gamma concentrations, the killing values and the percentage of DR-positive ML-3 cells were similar if not identical. These findings imply that the enhancement of 2G5 RTA-IT cytotoxicity by rIFN-gamma is mainly related to the rIFN-gamma 2G5 antigen induction on HLA-DR negative cells when immunotoxin was used at 10(-8) M. Furthermore, 2G5 RTA-IT dose-effect cytotoxicity on DR-expressing ML-3 cells, when used at lower concentrations, was also increased by rIFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. This result suggests that for immunotoxin concentrations close to the limiting membrane saturation dose (10(-10)M), rIFN-gamma may not solely act by inducing HLA-DR expression on DR-negative ML-3 subpopulation but also by increasing individual cellular DR density on DR expressing ML-3 cells. Finally, our study showed that immunotoxin potency on malignant cell populations which display an heterogeneous antigen expression, could be greatly improved by the use of rIFN-gamma. PMID:2122930

  16. Differential expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) messenger RNAs and proteins in normal human prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Langat, Daudi K; Sue Platt, J; Tawfik, Ossama; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Hunt, Joan S

    2006-08-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a major histocompatibility complex class Ib gene expressed in normal organs and in some tumors. The glycoproteins encoded by this gene are best known for their immunosuppressive properties. Because isoform-specific expression of HLA-G in male reproductive organs has not been reported, we investigated HLA-G1, -G2, -G5, -G6 mRNAs and proteins in four-to-five samples of normal prostate glands, prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinomas using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. All tissues contained HLA-G1, -G2, -G5 and -G6 specific mRNAs, but only HLA-G5 protein was detectable. In normal prostate glands, HLA-G5 protein was prominent in the cytoplasm of tubuloglandular epithelia and in glandular secretions. Staining was reduced in samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia but remained localized to the cytoplasm of glandular epithelia and secretions. In prostatic adenocarcinomas, HLA-G5 protein was detectable mainly in the secretions. Thus, HLA-G5 but not HLA-G1, -G2 or -G6 is produced in the normal prostate and is present in prostatic secretions. In addition, normal cellular localization is disturbed in benign and malignant prostatic adenocarcinomas. The results are consistent with this molecule may influencing female immune receptivity to sperm and suggest that such immunosuppression could be disturbed in men with prostatic adenocarcinomas.

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize an HLA-A2-restricted epitope within the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid antigen

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The absence of readily manipulable experimental systems to study the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens has thus far precluded a definitive demonstration of the role played by this response in the pathogenesis of liver cell injury and viral clearance during HBV infection. To circumvent the problem that HBV infection of human cells in vitro for production of stimulator/target systems for CTL analysis is not feasible, a panel of 22 overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire amino acid sequence of the HBV core (HBcAg) and e (HBeAg) antigens were used to induce and to analyze the HBV nucleocapsid-specific CTL response in nine patients with acute hepatitis B, six patients with chronic active hepatitis B, and eight normal controls. By using this approach, we have identified an HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope, located within the NH2- terminal region of the HBV core molecule, which is shared with the e antigen and is readily recognized by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with self-limited acute hepatitis B but less efficiently in chronic HBV infection. Our study provides the first direct evidence of HLA class I-restricted T cell cytotoxicity against HBV in humans. Furthermore, the different response in HBV-infected subjects who successfully clear the virus (acute patients) in comparison with patients who do not succeed (chronic patients) suggests a pathogenetic role for this CTL activity in the clearance of HBV infection. PMID:1720813

  18. Association of genetic polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 antigens with the susceptibility to lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    ESCAMILLA-TILCH, MONICA; TORRES-CARRILLO, NORA MAGDALENA; PAYAN, ROSALIO RAMOS; AGUILAR-MEDINA, MARIBEL; SALAZAR, MA ISABEL; FAFUTIS-MORRIS, MARY; ARENAS-GUZMAN, ROBERTO; ESTRADA-PARRA, SERGIO; ESTRADA-GARCIA, IRIS; GRANADOS, JULIO

    2013-01-01

    Despite the introduction of multidrug therapy and the overall reduction of leprosy prevalence in Mexico, the disease remains endemic in certain regions of the country. A genetic basis for the immune susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae has already been established in different populations worldwide. In this study, we investigated the possible association of the HLA-DRB1 alleles with leprosy in a Mexican Mestizo population. The results demonstrated that the HLA-DRB1*01 allele is associated with lepromatous and dimorphic leprosy [P<0.001, odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.8–11.4; and P=0.03, OR=6.2, 95% CI: 1.1–31.6, respectively] and the frequency of the HLA-DRB1*08 allele was found to be significantly lower among leprosy patients compared to controls (P=0.046, OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1–5.8). In conclusion, although the association of the HLA-DR locus with leprosy has been established in different populations and several studies have demonstrated significant differences in the DR alleles, this study demonstrated an association of the HLA-DRB1*01 allele with susceptibility to lepromatous and dimorphic leprosy, as well as an association of the HLA-DRB1*08 allele with protection against leprosy in a Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:24649058

  19. Cell Surface Expression Level Variation between Two Common Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles, HLA-A2 and HLA-B8, Is Dependent on the Structure of the C Terminal Part of the Alpha 2 and the Alpha 3 Domains

    PubMed Central

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Nehlin, Jan O.; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive cell surface expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I antigens vary extremely from tissue to tissue and individual antigens may differ widely in expression levels. Down-regulation of class I expression is a known immune evasive mechanism used by cancer cells and viruses. Moreover, recent observations suggest that even minor differences in expression levels may influence the course of viral infections and the frequency of complications to stem cell transplantation. We have shown that some human multipotent stem cells have high expression of HLA-A while HLA-B is only weakly expressed, and demonstrate here that this is also the case for the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T. Using quantitative flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction we found expression levels of endogenous HLA-A3 (median 71,204 molecules per cell) 9.2-fold higher than the expression of-B7 (P = 0.002). Transfection experiments with full-length HLA-A2 and -B8 encoding plasmids confirmed this (54,031 molecules per cell vs. 2,466, respectively, P = 0.001) independently of transcript levels suggesting a post-transcriptional regulation. Using chimeric constructs we found that the cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane region had no impact on the differential cell surface expression. In contrast, ~65% of the difference could be mapped to the six C-terminal amino acids of the alpha 2 domain and the alpha 3 domain (amino acids 176–284), i.e. amino acids not previously shown to be of importance for differential expression levels of HLA class I molecules. We suggest that the differential cell surface expression of two common HLA-A and–B alleles is regulated by a post-translational mechanism that may involve hitherto unrecognized molecules. PMID:26258424

  20. In Silico and In Vitro Analysis of Interaction between Ximelagatran and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DRB1*07:01.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Makoto; Hagihara, Katsunobu; Abe, Koji; Ando, Osamu; Hirayama, Noriaki

    2017-03-24

    Idiosyncratic ximelagatran-induced hepatotoxicity has been reported to be associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*07:01 and ximelagatran has been reported to inhibit the binding of the ligand peptide to HLA-DRB1*07:01 in vitro. In order to predict the possible interaction modes of ximelagatran with HLA-DR molecules, in silico docking simulations were performed. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also performed to predict the effect of ximelagatran on the binding mode of the ligand peptide to HLA-DRB1*07:01. A series of in silico simulations supported the inhibitory effect of ximelagatran on the binding of the ligand peptide to HLA-DRB1*07:01 in vitro. Furthermore, direct interactions of ximelagatran with HLA-DR molecules were evaluated in vitro, which supported the simulated interaction mode of ximelagatran with HLA-DRB1*07:01. These results indicated that ximelagatran directly interacts with the peptide binding groove of HLA-DRB1*07:01 and competes with the ligand peptide for the binding site, which could alter the immune response and lead to the idiosyncratic ximelagatran-induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Management of bleeding in a multi-transfused patient with positive HLA class I alloantibodies and thrombocytopenia associated with platelet dysfunction refractory to transfusion of cross-matched platelets.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lars; Blumenberg, Detlef

    2005-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common condition in the critical care setting. Repetitive platelet transfusion might lead to formation of alloantibodies. HLA class I and human platelet antigen antibodies can lead to transfusion-refractory thrombocytopenia. Transfusion of cross-matched platelets often is effective in these patients. We report on the successful use of recombinant activated factor VII in an acute bleeding situation in a multi-transfused patient presenting with positive HLA class I alloantibody status and thrombocytopenia associated with platelet dysfunction refractory to even transfusion of cross-matched platelets. The 41-year-old female patient developed HLA class I antibodies during former episodes of massive transfusion. Her former medical history was empty concerning hemorrhagic events. During this specific bleeding episode the patient suffered from intractable profuse bleeding from the nasopharynx and oral cavity. Global coagulation tests were within the normal range. Platelet dysfunction was confirmed by PFA100. Initially the patient responded well to Desmopressin infusion, but after 36 h she became thrombocytopenic and refractory to even transfusion of cross-matched platelets. Recombinant activated factor VII was chosen as the last resort. Two identical boli of 160 microg/kg NovoSeven each were injected via a central line within an interval of 3 h. After the first injection bleeding was significantly reduced and vasopressor support discontinued. After the second bolus bleeding completely ceased and did not reoccur. We did not observe any side effects. The pluripotent hemostatic agent recombinant activated factor VII might be a new option in the treatment of hemorrhagic episodes in patients presenting with this rare disorder, especially when the patient is refractory to cross-matched platelets or matched platelets are not available.

  2. Decreased HLA-DR antigen-associated invariant chain (CD74) mRNA expression predicts mortality after septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Septic syndromes remain the leading cause of mortality in intensive care units (ICU). Septic patients rapidly develop immune dysfunctions, the intensity and duration of which have been linked with deleterious outcomes. Decreased mRNA expressions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-related genes have been reported after sepsis. We investigated whether their mRNA levels in whole blood could predict mortality in septic shock patients. Methods A total of 93 septic shock patients were included. On the third day after shock, the mRNA expressions of five MHC class II-related genes (CD74, HLA-DRA, HLA-DMB, HLA-DMA, CIITA) were measured by qRT-PCR and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) by flow cytometry. Results A significant correlation was found among MHC class II related gene expressions. Among mRNA markers, the best prognostic value was obtained for CD74 (HLA-DR antigen-associated invariant chain). For this parameter, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated (AUC = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55 to 0.79; P = 0.01) as well as the optimal cut-off value. After stratification based on this threshold, survival curves showed that a decreased CD74 mRNA level was associated with increased mortality after septic shock (Log rank test, P = 0.0043, Hazard Ratio = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4 to 6.5). Importantly, this association remained significant after multivariate logistic regression analysis including usual clinical confounders (that is, severity scores, P = 0.026, Odds Ratio = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2 to 9.8). Conclusion Decreased CD74 mRNA expression significantly predicts 28-day mortality after septic shock. After validation in a larger multicentric study, this biomarker could become a robust predictor of death in septic patients. PMID:24321376

  3. Inhibition of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction by monoclonal antibodies specific for the beta chain of HLA-DR antigens.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, M; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Ishikawa, N; Okuyama, T; Fukasawa, Y; Kojima, H; Kunikane, H; Hawkin, S; Ohhashi, T

    1984-09-01

    Recent studies using rabbit antisera to the separated HLA-DR alpha and beta subunits have suggested that alpha chain-specific, but not beta chain-specific, antisera inhibit T cell proliferative responses in primary and secondary human autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). In the present study, with the aid of sequential co-precipitation assays and Western blotting methods, a monoclonal rat alloantibody 1E4, specific for the beta chain of rat class II molecules carrying an Ia determinant Ba-2.7, was characterized to recognize a monomorphic determinant located on the beta chain of DR antigens. This antibody and a murine monoclonal antibody HU-4, also specific for the beta chain of DR antigens, strongly inhibited both primary and secondary AMLR through a mechanism distinct from an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity reaction. These results indicate that the inhibition of AMLR is not a unique feature of DR alpha-specific antibodies.

  4. Mismatch for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-2 and GVHD occurrence in HLA-A*0201-positive Tunisian recipients of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed Hichem; Torjemane, Lamia; Espadas de Arias, Alejandro; Kaabi, Houda; Ladeb, Saloua; Ben Othman, Tarek; Poli, Francesca; Hmida, Slama

    2010-01-01

    Graft-versus-Host disease (GVHD) has been widely linked to immunogenetic causes such as disparity between the recipient and its HLA geno-identical donor for some Non-HLA antigens called minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAgs). HA-2 is one of potential human MiHAgs but its effect on the GVHD occurrence remains not clear. In order to examine such association in the Tunisian cohort of HSCs recipients, we performed a retrospective study on patients who received an HLA-identical HSCT between 2000 and 2009. The study was performed on 60 HLA-A2-positive patients who had received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant from an HLA-identical sibling. All patients received cyclosporine A and/or methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis. HA-2 genotyping assay was performed with SSP-PCR method and HLA-A*0201 positive samples were identified mainly with Luminex HLA-Typing method. Luminex HLA-Typing assay showed that only 53 cases were positives for the HLA-A*0201 allele. Among these cases, only 3 pairs were mismatched for the MiHAg HA-2. Acute GVHD occurred in 01 HA-2-mismatched pair while chronic GVHD was detected in 02 disparate couples. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MiHAg HA-2 disparity does not have any significant effect on the occurrence of either acute or chronic GVHD. This last one appeared to be correlated only with the age of patient (adulthood) (p: 0.011, OR: 22.092). Our findings support the previously reported data denying the influence of the HA-2 disparity on the GVHD occurrence after HSCT.

  5. Meta-analysis of the human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism as a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, N; Jarjanazi, H; Sun, C; Iversen, A C

    2015-09-01

    The non-classical major histocompatibility complex, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, plays an important role in pregnancy. HLA-G mediates proper interaction between maternal immune cells and fetal trophoblasts invading the uterine wall, to ensure successful placental development and function. Several HLA-G gene variants have been shown to be associated with development of preeclampsia (PE), but the reported associations of the HLA-G 14 base pair (bp) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism (rs66554220) with PE are inconsistent. In this meta-analysis of HLA-G 14 bp I/D in each member of the family triad, we estimated risk (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval) of associations with PE based on nine published offspring, nine mother and three father case-control studies. No significant increased risk associations between PE and HLA-G 14 bp I/D were detected in any of the family triad members (offspring: OR = 1.08-1.21, P = 0.57-0.74; mothers: OR = 1.11-1.28, P = 0.07-0.44; fathers: OR = 1.09-1.65, P = 0.07-0.70). Of the 20 comparisons performed, 14 (70%) were non-heterogeneous and seven of these had zero heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). Sensitivity treatment confirmed robustness for the overall lack of association for HLA-G 14 bp I/D. In subgroup analysis, significant association between HLA-G 14 bp I/D and PE was shown in offspring from primipara (OR = 1.66-1.95, P = 0.04) and European Caucasian pregnancies (OR = 1.37-2.03, P = 0.02-0.03). However, heterogeneity and sensitivity tests suggest that further investigation is needed to determine if HLA-G 14 bp I/D is involved in trophoblast HLA-G expression and PE development in these subgroups.

  6. Study of HLA Class I gene in Indian schizophrenic patients of Siliguri, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bisu; Bera, Nirmal Kumar; De, Santanu; Nayak, Chittaranjan; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2011-09-30

    The authors studied the prevalence of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I gene in 136 (85 male, 51 female) India-born schizophrenia patients residing in and around the Siliguri subdivision of West Bengal by the PCR-SSP method. The control group consisted of 150 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals from the same ethnic group as the patients. Increased frequency of HLA A*03 as well as decreased frequencies of HLA A*31 and HLA B*51, was noted. The study suggests the possible existence of a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia within the HLA region.

  7. The Association of HLA Class 1 and Class 2 Antigens with Multiple Myeloma in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Sayad, Arezou; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Mehdizadeh, Mahshid; Roshandel, Elham; Abedinpour, Soheila; Hajifathali, Abbas

    2014-12-05

    Amaç: Multiple myeloma (MM), malign plazma hürelerinin klonal çoğalması ile karakterize bir B hücre neoplazisidir. Çeşitli çalışmaların sonuçlarına göre, bazı sınıf 1 ve 2 HLA genlerinin hastalığa yatkınlık sağladığına dair görüşler ortaya atılmıştır. Farklı popülasyonlarda yapılan çalışmalarda, farklı HLA sınıf 1 ve 2 allellerinin MM üzerine etkisi olduğu bildirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, İranlı MM hastalarında HLA sınıf 1 ve sınıf 2 antijenlerinin birlikteliğini değerlendirdik. Gereç ve Yöntemler: HLA-Ready Gene ABDR kitleriyle tekli spesifik primer polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu yönteminin kullanıldığı bu olgu-kontrol genetiplendirme çalışmasında, hasta grubuna Taleghani Hastanesi kemik iliği nakli bölümünden seçilen 105 İranlı MM hastası ve 150 de kontrol olgusu dahil edilmiştir.Bulgular: Çalışma sonucunda, HLA-A*03 hasta grubunda %21 ve kontrol grubunda %12 bulunurken, HLA-B*18 ise hasta grubunda %11 ve kontrol grubunda %3 olarak saptanmıştır. MM hastalarının HLA-A*03 ve HLA-B*18 allele sahip olma oranı kontrol olgularıyla karşılaştırıldığında istatistiki olarak anlamlı olacak şekilde yüksek bulunmuştur (p=0,039, OR=2,057 ve p=0,013, OR=3,567, sırasıyla). Sonuç: Bizim bulgularımız, İran toplumunda HLA-A*03 ve HLA-B*18 allel varlığının istatistiki olarak anlamlı olacak şekilde MM’ye yatkınlık yarattığını ortaya koymaktadır. Bununla birlikte, diğer toplumlara bakıldığında adı geçen allellerin aynı sonucu doğurmadıkları görülmektedir. Farklı etnik gruplar arasındaki bu birlikteliği değerlendiren fazla sayıda çalışma olmadığı için, gelecek dönemlerde MM’li hastalarda HLA genlerinin birlikteliğinin sonuçlarını izah edebilecek daha ayrıntılı çalışmalara gereksinim vardır.

  8. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch increases mortality after myeloablative unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stephanie J.; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Spellman, Stephen; Wang, Hai-Lin; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Askar, Medhat; Dehn, Jason; Fernandez Viña, Marcelo; Gratwohl, Alois; Gupta, Vikas; Hanna, Rabi; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kassim, Adetola A.; Nishihori, Taiga; Mueller, Carlheinz; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Prasad, Vinod; Robinson, James; Saber, Wael; Schultz, Kirk R.; Shaw, Bronwen; Storek, Jan; Wood, William A.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Anasetti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated. PMID:25161269

  9. Promoter methylation and mRNA expression of HLA-G in relation to HLA-G protein expression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Swets, Marloes; Seneby, Lina; Boot, Arnoud; van Wezel, Tom; Gelderblom, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; van den Elsen, Peter J; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2016-09-01

    Expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a suggested mechanism used by tumor cells to escape from host immune recognition and destruction. Advances in the field have made it evident that HLA-G is expressed in different types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). We analyzed HLA-G expression in 21 low passage CRC cell lines. The level of DNA methylation of the HLA-G gene and the presence of mRNA encoding HLA-G was measured. Moreover, HLA-G protein expression was determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was performed with three different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (4H84, MEM-G/1 and MEM-G/2). In addition, HLA-G protein expression was measured in matching primary tumor tissues. RNA analysis using RT-PCR followed by sequencing in 6 samples indicated strong homology of the PCR product with HLA-G3 in 5 samples. In accordance, in none of the cell lines, HLA-G1 expression was detected by flow-cytometry. Furthermore, no association between HLA-G DNA methylation patterns and HLA-G mRNA expression was observed. In addition, different immunohistochemical staining profiles among various anti-HLA-G mAbs were observed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the HLA-G3 isoform was expressed in some of the CRC cell lines irrespective of the level of DNA methylation of HLA-G.

  10. In Silico Analysis of Six Known Leishmania major Antigens and In Vitro Evaluation of Specific Epitopes Eliciting HLA-A2 Restricted CD8 T Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Seyed, Negar; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Safaiyan, Shima; Gholami, Elham; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Mirzaei, Maryam; Saeedi Eslami, Nasir; Khadem Sadegh, Akbar; Eslami far, Ali; Sharifi, Iraj; Rafati, Sima

    2011-01-01

    Background As a potent CD8+ T cell activator, peptide vaccine has found its way in vaccine development against intracellular infections and cancer, but not against leishmaniasis. The first step toward a peptide vaccine is epitope mapping of different proteins according to the most frequent HLA types in a population. Methods and Findings Six Leishmania (L.) major-related candidate antigens (CPB,CPC,LmsTI-1,TSA,LeIF and LPG-3) were screened for potential CD8+ T cell activating 9-mer epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 (the most frequent HLA-A allele). Online software including SYFPEITHI, BIMAS, EpiJen, Rankpep, nHLApred, NetCTL and Multipred were used. Peptides were selected only if predicted by almost all programs, according to their predictive scores. Pan-A2 presentation of selected peptides was confirmed by NetMHCPan1.1. Selected peptides were pooled in four peptide groups and the immunogenicity was evaluated by in vitro stimulation and intracellular cytokine assay of PBMCs from HLA-A2+ individuals recovered from L. major. HLA-A2− individuals recovered from L. major and HLA-A2+ healthy donors were included as control groups. Individual response of HLA-A2+ recovered volunteers as percent of CD8+/IFN-γ+ T cells after in vitro stimulation against peptide pools II and IV was notably higher than that of HLA-A2− recovered individuals. Based on cutoff scores calculated from the response of HLA-A2− recovered individuals, 31.6% and 13.3% of HLA-A2+ recovered persons responded above cutoff in pools II and IV, respectively. ELISpot and ELISA results confirmed flow cytometry analysis. The response of HLA-A2− recovered individuals against peptide pools I and III was detected similar and even higher than HLA-A2+ recovered individuals. Conclusion Using in silico prediction we demonstrated specific response to LmsTI-1 (pool II) and LPG-3- (pool IV) related peptides specifically presented in HLA-A*0201 context. This is among the very few reports mapping L. major epitopes for

  11. Antigen Targeting to Human HLA Class II Molecules Increases Efficacy of DNA Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Løset, Geir Åge; Vikse, Elisabeth; Fugger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to translate promising results from DNA vaccination in mice to larger animals and humans. Previously, DNA vaccines encoding proteins that target Ag to MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on APCs have been shown to induce rapid, enhanced, and long-lasting Ag-specific Ab titers in mice. In this study, we describe two novel DNA vaccines that as proteins target HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules. These vaccine proteins cross-react with MHC-II molecules in several species of larger mammals. When tested in ferrets and pigs, a single DNA delivery with low doses of the HLA-II–targeted vaccines resulted in rapid and increased Ab responses. Importantly, painless intradermal jet delivery of DNA was as effective as delivery by needle injection followed by electroporation. As an indication that the vaccines could also be useful for human application, HLA-II–targeted vaccine proteins were found to increase human CD4+ T cell responses by a factor of ×103 in vitro. Thus, targeting of Ag to MHC-II molecules may represent an attractive strategy for increasing efficacy of DNA vaccines in larger animals and humans. PMID:27671110

  12. [Prevalence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57:01 in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Deveci, Aydın; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Durupınar, Belma

    2016-10-01

    Deaths related with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have been decreased by the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART) into the clinical practice. Combined ART usually consists of two nucleoside/nucleotide analogs reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) that is called backbone and a third drug that belongs to either non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), protease inhibitors (PI), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) or entry inhibitors. During abacavir therapy which is a member of NRTI, hypersensitivity reactions can occur approximately 4-9% of the patients that lead difficulties for the management of HIV infections. It is known that, the development of hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B*57:01 allel, therefore, HLA-B*57:01 screening should be performed prior to abacavir use. Since there is no data on HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in HIV-1-infected cases in Turkey, this is the first study that screened HLA-B*57:01 allels among HIV-1 infected adults in Turkey. A total of 100 HIV-1-infected patients (81 male, 19 female; mean age: 42.31±11.97 years) who have admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology of Ondokuz Mayıs University School of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey, were included in the study. Genomic DNAs were isolated from the blood samples of patients by using a commercial spin column procedure (QIAamp® DNA Blood Mini Kit; QIAGEN GmbH, Germany). HLA-B*57:01 genotyping was performed by the method of sequence-specific primer (SSP)-based amplification using a commercial OlerupSSP® HLA-B*57:01 high-resolution test kit (Olerup SSP AB, Sweden) according to the manufacturer's protocol. The products of polymerase chain reaction were electrophoresed on a 2% agarose gel stained with Olerup SSP GelRed dye (Olerup SSP AB, Sweden), and the bands were evaluated under UV light. In our study, three (2 male, 1 female) out of 100 patients

  13. Extended HLA-D region haplotype associated with celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M.D.; Smith, J.R.; Austin, R.K.; Kelleher, D.; Nepom, G.T.; Volk, B.; Kagnoff, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease has one of the strongest associations with HLA (human leukocyte antigen) class II markers of the known HLA-linked diseases. This association is primarily with the class II serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2. The authors previously described a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) characterized by the presence of a 4.0-kilobase Rsa I fragment derived from an HLA class II ..beta..-chain gene, which distinguishes the class II HLA haplotype of celiac disease patients from those of many serologically matched controls. They now report the isolation of this ..beta..-chain gene from a bacteriophage genomic library constructed from the DNA of a celiac disease patient. Based on restriction mapping and differential hybridization with class II cDNA and oligonucleotide probes, this gene was identified as one encoding an HLA-DP ..beta..-chain. This celiac disease-associated HLA-DP ..beta..-chain gene was flanked by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..-chain genes and, therefore, was probably in its normal chromosomal location. The HLA-DP..cap alpha..-chain genes of celiac disease patients also were studied by RFLP analysis. Celiac disease is associated with a subset of HLA-DR3, -DQw2 haplotypes characterized by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-chain gene RFLPs. Within the celiac-disease patient population, the joint segregation of these HLA-DP genes with those encoding the serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2 indicates: (i) that the class II HLA haplotype associated with celiac disease is extended throughout the entire HLA-D region, and (ii) that celiac-disease susceptibility genes may reside as far centromeric on this haplotype as the HLA-DP subregion.

  14. Bone marrow transplantation with unrelated donors: what is the probability of identifying an HLA-A/B/Cw/DRB1/B3/B5/DQB1-matched donor?

    PubMed

    Tiercy, J M; Bujan-Lose, M; Chapuis, B; Gratwohl, A; Gmür, J; Seger, R; Kern, M; Morell, A; Roosnek, E

    2000-08-01

    Patients transplanted with marrow from an HLA-ABDR serologically matched unrelated donor suffer from more post-transplant complications than those who are transplanted with marrow from an HLA-identical sibling. This is most likely due to either HLA-ABDR incompatibilities not resolved by standard techniques and/or HLA polymorphisms not tested for by routine tissue typing (HLA-Cw,-DQ). By resolving these incompatibilities by molecular techniques combined with the in vitro cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency (CTLpf) test, we have shown that a high degree of HLA compatibility is associated with increased patient survival. However, higher requirements for HLA matching decrease the number of available donors. We have estimated the probability of finding an HLA-A/B/Cw/DRB1/DRB3/DRB5/DQB1 compatible donor based on 104 consecutive unrelated bone marrow donor searches initiated between January 1995 and December 1997, with December 1998 as the endpoint. For 96 patients (92.3%), one or more ABDR-identical donors were listed in the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide Registry (BMDW). After contacting the registries, we obtained at least one (mean, 5.36; range, 1-20; total, 461) blood sample for 86 patients. A highly compatible donor was identified for 33/86 patients (38.4%), after testing an average number of 4.5 donors/patients (range, 1-13). However, by accepting an HLA-DRB3 or -DQB1 or -Cw incompatibility, this number would be as high as 68.6%. Approximately half of the patients (n = 40) for whom a search had been initiated have been transplanted: 22 patients with a perfectly matched donor, 15 patients with an HLA-DRB3 or -DQB1 or -Cw mismatch and three with other mismatches. The average time needed to identify the most compatible donor was 4 months. Extremely long searches seemed to be less useful, because after testing the first seven, a more compatible donor was seldom found. These results show that even when requirements for compatibility are high, the chances of finding

  15. The Privilege of Induction Avoidance and Calcineurin Inhibitors Withdrawal in 2 Haplotype HLA Matched White Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Brifkani, Zaid; Brennan, Daniel C.; Lentine, Krista L.; Horwedel, Timothy A.; Malone, Andrew F.; Delos Santos, Rowena; Maw, Thin Thin; Alhamad, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Background White recipients of 2-haplotype HLA-matched living kidney transplants are perceived to be of low immunologic risk. Little is known about the safety of induction avoidance and calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in these patients. Methods We reviewed our experience at a single center and compared it to Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) registry data and only included 2-haplotype HLA-matched white living kidney transplants recipients between 2000 and 2013. Results There were 56 recipients in a single center (where no induction was given) and 2976 recipients in the OPTN. Among the OPTN recipients, 1285 received no induction, 903 basiliximab, 608 thymoglobulin, and 180 alemtuzumab. First-year acute rejection rates were similar after induction-free transplantation among the center and induced groups nationally. Compared with induction-free transplantation in the national data, there was no decrease in graft failure risk over 13 years with use of basiliximab (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.86; confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.08), Thymoglobulin (aHR, 0.92; CI, 0.7-1.21) or alemtuzumab (aHR, 1.18; CI, 0.72-1.93). Among induction-free recipients at the center, calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal at 1 year (n = 27) did not significantly impact graft failure risk (HR,1.62; CI, 0.38-6.89). Conclusions This study may serve as a foundation for further studies to provide personalized, tailored, immunosuppression for this very low-risk population of kidney transplant patients. PMID:28361117

  16. HLA and non-HLA genes in Behçet’s disease: a multicentric study in the Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction According to genome wide association (GWA) studies as well as candidate gene approaches, Behçet’s disease (BD) is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and HLA-B gene regions. The HLA-B51 has been consistently associated with the disease, but the role of other HLA class I molecules remains controversial. Recently, variants in non-HLA genes have also been associated with BD. The aims of this study were to further investigate the influence of the HLA region in BD and to explore the relationship with non-HLA genes recently described to be associated in other populations. Methods This study included 304 BD patients and 313 ethnically matched controls. HLA-A and HLA-B low resolution typing was carried out by PCR-SSOP Luminex. Eleven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located outside of the HLA-region, previously described associated with the disease in GWA studies and having a minor allele frequency in Caucasians greater than 0.15 were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Phenotypic and genotypic frequencies were estimated by direct counting and distributions were compared using the χ2 test. Results In addition to HLA-B*51, HLA-B*57 was found as a risk factor in BD, whereas, B*35 was found to be protective. Other HLA-A and B specificities were suggestive of association with the disease as risk (A*02 and A*24) or protective factors (A*03 and B*58). Regarding the non-HLA genes, the three SNPs located in IL23R and one of the SNPs in IL10 were found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to BD in our population. Conclusion Different HLA specificities are associated with Behçet’s disease in addition to B*51. Other non-HLA genes, such as IL23R and IL-10, play a role in the susceptibility to the disease. PMID:24286189

  17. An immunodominant HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T-cell response targeting hepatitis B surface antigen in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Shufeng; Meng, Gang; Zhang, Mengjun; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang; Wang, Li

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. HBV-specific CD8(+) CTLs are vital for viral clearance. Identification of immunodominant CTL epitopes from HBV-associated antigens is necessary for therapeutic vaccine development. We showed that the HLA-A*1101 allele is one of the most common alleles in both healthy individuals and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in the Chongqing area, China. However, less than 10% of epitopes of HBV-associated antigens have been identified in an HLA-A*1101 context. Here, we describe an immunodominant CD8(+) T-cell response targeting a hepatitis B surface antigen determinant (HBs(295-304)) restricted by HLA-A*1101 in both healthy individuals and CHB patients. Moreover, HBs(295-304) is more immunogenic for CTL induction than a known naturally HLA-A*1101-processed epitope from hepatitis B core antigen (HBc(88-96)). Therefore, the newly identified epitope, HBs(295-304), will benefit the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for HBV infection.

  18. A meta-analysis of HLA peptidome composition in different hematological entities: Entity-specific dividing lines and "pan-leukemia" antigens.

    PubMed

    Backert, Linus; Kowalewski, Daniel Johannes; Walz, Simon; Schuster, Heiko; Berlin, Claudia; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Schemionek, Mirle; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Vucinic, Vladan; Niederwieser, Dietger; Kanz, Lothar; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Weisel, Katja; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; StevanoviÄ, Stefan; Walz, Juliane Sarah

    2017-01-31

    Hematological malignancies (HM) are highly amenable targets for immunotherapeutic intervention and may be effectively treated by antigen-specific T-cell based treatment. Recent studies demonstrate that physiologically occurring anti-cancer T-cell responses in certain HM entities target broadly presented non-mutated epitopes. HLA ligands are thus implied as prime targets for broadly applicable and antigen-specific off-the-shelf compounds. With the aim of assessing the presence of common targets shared among different HM which may enable addressing a larger patient collective we conducted a meta-analysis of 83 mass spectrometry-based HLA peptidome datasets (comprising 40,361 unique peptide identifications) across four major HM (19 AML, 16 CML, 35 CLL, and 13 MM/MCL samples) and investigated similarities and differences within the HLA presented antigenic landscape. We found the cancer HLA peptidome datasets to cluster specifically along entity and lineage lines, suggesting that the immunopeptidome directly reflects the differences in the underlying (tumor-)biology. In line with these findings, we only detected a small set of entity-spanning antigens, which were predominantly characterized by low presentation frequencies within the different patient cohorts. These findings suggest that design of T-cell immunotherapies for the treatment of HM should ideally be conducted in an entity-specific fashion.

  19. Results of kidney transplantation in relation to HLA-A, B, DR matching and quality of donor organ.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, V; Dreikorn, K; Röhl, L

    1980-01-01

    The influence of HLA compatibility as well as immediate postoperative function on survival rates was investigated in 203 cadaver kidney transplants. HLA compatibility, especially DR compatibility, improved transplant survival significantly. A direct correlation was found between primary transplant function and long-term results. HLA compatibility and quality of the donor organ had a cumulative effect on kidney transplant survival. Our results are a further indication that besides HLA compatibility, optimal quality of donor organs has crucial significance for the results of transplantation.

  20. Impact On Outcomes Of Hla Matching By Allele-Level Typing In Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jaime; Jaramillo, Francisco J; Planelles, Dolores; Montesinos, Pau; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Martin, Guillermo; López, Francisca; Martínez, Jesús; Jarque, Isidro; Javier de; la Rubia; Larrea, Luis; Sanz, Miguel A; Sanz, Guillermo F

    2013-10-25

    This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient HLA disparity, using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high-resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on non-relapse mortality (NRM), GVH disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched ≥ 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P = 0.04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (RR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5-5.1; P = 0.0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.8; P = 0.01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival (DFS). In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing sUCBT an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved DFS by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM.

  1. Synergistic effect of KIR ligands missing and cytomegalovirus reactivation in improving outcomes of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched sibling donor for treatment of myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Daniela Maira; Marangon, Amanda Vansan; da Silva, Rodrigo Fernandes; Aranha, Francisco José Penteado; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves; Costa, Sandra Cecília Botelho; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; de Souza, Carmino Antonio; Guimarães, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of KIR-HLA genotypes on the outcome of patients undergoing treatment for haematological malignancies by non-T-depleted lymphocyte haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-matched sibling donors. The prospective study was conducted at the Center of Hematology, University of Campinas, and 50 patients and their donors were followed up from 2008 to 2014. KIR and HLA class I genes were genotyped and patients grouped based on the presence of KIR ligands combined with KIR genotype of their respective donors. Patients with all KIR ligands present (n=13) had a significantly higher (p=0.04) incidence of acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) than patients with one or more KIR ligands missing (n=37). The overall survival following transplantation of patients with myeloid malignancies (n=27) was significantly higher (p=0.035) in the group with one or more KIR ligands missing (n=18) than in the group with all ligands present (n=9). Presence of KIR2DS2 was associated with a worsening of HSCT outcome while reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection improved the outcome of patients with one or more KIR ligands missing. Our results indicate that KIR-HLA interactions affect the outcome of the HLA-matched transplantation, particularly in patients with myeloid malignancies.

  2. Analysis of physical interactions between peptides and HLA molecules and application to the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 antigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The physical association of 40 antigenic peptides and purified HLA class I and class II molecules was monitored using a direct peptide binding assay (PBA) in solid phase and an inhibition peptide binding assay (IPBA) in which the competing peptide was present in a soluble phase. We also examined the ability of different peptides to inhibit the lytic activity of human antiviral cytolytic T cells towards cells incubated with the corresponding target peptide. Our results showed that: (a) Binding of a given human T cell-recognized peptide to several HLA class I and class II molecules occurred frequently. Nevertheless, preferential binding of peptides to their respective restriction molecules was also observed. (b) Binding of HLA molecules to peptides recognized by murine T cells occurred less frequently. (c) 11 of 24 (46%) randomly selected HIV-1 peptides contained agretopic residues allowing their binding to HLA molecules. (d) The kinetics of HLA/peptide association depended on the peptide tested and were faster than or similar to those reported for Ia molecules. Dissociation of these complexes was very low. (e) Peptide/HLA molecule binding was dependent on length, number of positive charges, and presence of hydrophobic residue in the peptide. (f) A correlation was demonstrated between a peptide inhibitory effect in the IPBA and its blocking effect in the cytolytic test. Our data indicated that the restriction phenomenon observed in T cell responses was not strictly related to either an elective HLA/peptide association, or a high binding capacity of a peptide to HLA molecules. These data also showed that the PBA and IPBA are appropriate for the detection of agretopic residues within HIV- 1 proteins. PMID:2388036

  3. Disruption of HLA class II antigen presentation in Burkitt lymphoma: implication of a 47,000 MW acid labile protein in CD4+ T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    God, Jason M; Zhao, Dan; Cameron, Christine A; Amria, Shereen; Bethard, Jennifer R; Haque, Azizul

    2014-07-01

    While Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has a well-known defect in HLA class I-mediated antigen presentation, the exact role of BL-associated HLA class II in generating a poor CD4(+) T-cell response remains unresolved. Here, we found that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4(+) T cells via the HLA class II pathway. This defect in CD4(+) T-cell recognition was not associated with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules on BL cells, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to elicit CD4(+) T-cell activation by BL. Further, the defect was not caused by faulty antigen/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Interestingly, functional class II-peptide complexes were formed at acidic pH 5·5, which restored immune recognition. Acidic buffer (pH 5·5) eluate from BL cells contained molecules that impaired class II-mediated antigen presentation and CD4(+) T-cell recognition. Biochemical analysis showed that these molecules were greater than 30,000 molecular weight in size, and proteinaceous in nature. In addition, BL was found to have decreased expression of a 47,000 molecular weight enolase-like molecule that enhances class II-mediated antigen presentation in B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, but not in BL cells. These findings demonstrate that BL likely has multiple defects in HLA class II-mediated antigen presentation and immune recognition, which may be exploited for future immunotherapies.

  4. HLA-DPB1 and HLA Class I Confer Risk of and Protection from Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ollila, Hanna M.; Ravel, Jean-Marie; Han, Fang; Faraco, Juliette; Lin, Ling; Zheng, Xiuwen; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Dauvilliers, Yves; Pizza, Fabio; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Dong, Xiao Song; Yan, Han; Hong, Heeseung; Coquillard, Cristin; Mahlios, Joshua; Jolanki, Otto; Einen, Mali; Lavault, Sophie; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Crowe, Catherine; Partinen, Markku; Huang, Yu Shu; Bourgin, Patrice; Vaarala, Outi; Désautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Mack, Steven J.; Mindrinos, Michael; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy, a disorder caused by a lack of hypocretin (orexin), is so strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II HLA-DQA1∗01:02-DQB1∗06:02 (DQ0602) that very few non-DQ0602 cases have been reported. A known triggering factor for narcolepsy is pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1, suggesting autoimmunity triggered by upper-airway infections. Additional effects of other HLA-DQ alleles have been reported consistently across multiple ethnic groups. Using over 3,000 case and 10,000 control individuals of European and Chinese background, we examined the effects of other HLA loci. After careful matching of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in case and control individuals, we found strong protective effects of HLA-DPA1∗01:03-DPB1∗04:02 (DP0402; odds ratio [OR] = 0.51 [0.38–0.67], p = 1.01 × 10−6) and HLA-DPA1∗01:03-DPB1∗04:01 (DP0401; OR = 0.61 [0.47–0.80], p = 2.07 × 10−4) and predisposing effects of HLA-DPB1∗05:01 in Asians (OR = 1.76 [1.34–2.31], p = 4.71 × 10−05). Similar effects were found by conditional analysis controlling for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ with DP0402 (OR = 0.45 [0.38–0.55] p = 8.99 × 10−17) and DP0501 (OR = 1.38 [1.18–1.61], p = 7.11 × 10−5). HLA-class-II-independent associations with HLA-A∗11:01 (OR = 1.32 [1.13–1.54], p = 4.92 × 10−4), HLA-B∗35:03 (OR = 1.96 [1.41–2.70], p = 5.14 × 10−5), and HLA-B∗51:01 (OR = 1.49 [1.25–1.78], p = 1.09 × 10−5) were also seen across ethnic groups in the HLA class I region. These effects might reflect modulation of autoimmunity or indirect effects of HLA class I and HLA-DP alleles on response to viral infections such as that of influenza. PMID:25574827

  5. Inhibition of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction by monoclonal antibodies specific for the β chain of HLA-DR antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, M.; Ikeda, H.; Ogasawara, K.; Ishikawa, N.; Okuyama, T.; Fukasawa, Y.; Kojima, H.; Kunikane, H.; Hawkin, S.; Ohhashi, T.; Natori, T.; Wakisaka, A.; Kikuchi, Y.; Aizawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies using rabbit antisera to the separated HLA-DR α and β subunits have suggested that α chain-specific, but not β chain-specific, antisera inhibit T cell proliferative responses in primary and secondary human autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). In the present study, with the aid of sequential co-precipitation assays and Western blotting methods, a monoclonal rat alloantibody 1E4, specific for the β chain of rat class II molecules carrying an Ia determinant Ba-2.7, was characterized to recognize a monomorphic determinant located on the β chain of DR antigens. This antibody and a murine monoclonal antibody HU-4, also specific for the β chain of DR antigens, strongly inhibited both primary and secondary AMLR through a mechanism distinct from an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity reaction. These results indicate that the inhibition of AMLR is not a unique feature of DR α-specific antibodies. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:6205985

  6. Differential expression of HLA class II antigens on human fetal and adult lymphocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J A; Jones, D B; Evans, P R; Smith, J L

    1985-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to monomorphic determinants of the MHC class II subregion locus products: DP, DR and DQ, was used to investigate the expression of these antigens on early lymphocytes and macrophages from human fetal liver (13-20 weeks), placenta (16 weeks and term) and cord blood, in relation to the class II phenotype of cells from adult tonsil and peripheral blood. Fetal liver sections and cell suspensions showed differential expression of class II antigens. DP was expressed at a higher frequency (11.0% of nucleated cells) than DR on lymphoid cells and macrophages from fetal liver, and DQ was either absent or expressed on less than 0.3% of nucleated cells. Consistent with this finding, DP but not DR or DQ antigens were observed on vascular elements and macrophages in the villi of 16-week placenta. At term, all three subregion locus products were expressed. Adult tonsil and peripheral blood B lymphocytes expressed DP, DR and DQ antigens with similar frequency; however, DQ was expressed at a lower frequency than DP and DR on cord blood B lymphocytes. In contrast, 30-50% macrophages from cord blood and adult peripheral blood expressed DP and DR, but fewer (5% and 18%, respectively) expressed DQ. These data suggest that class II antigens are expressed in the sequence DP, DR, DQ on developing lymphocytes. A similar sequence is suggested for macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3894221

  7. Identification and enhancement of HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitopes in a new human cancer antigen-POTE.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Terabe, Masaki; Pendleton, C David; Stewart Khursigara, Deborah; Bera, Tapan K; Pastan, Ira; Berzofsky, Jay A

    2013-01-01

    Identification of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that can induce T cells to kill tumor cells is a fundamental step for development of a peptide cancer vaccine. POTE protein is a newly identified cancer antigen that was found to be expressed in a wide variety of human cancers, including prostate, colon, lung, breast, ovary and pancreas. Here, we determined HLA-A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes in the POTE protein, and also designed enhanced epitopes by amino acid (AA) substitutions. Five 9-mer peptides were first selected and their binding affinity to HLA-A2 molecules was measured by the T2 binding assay. POTE 272-280 and POTE 323-331 showed the strongest HLA-A2 binding affinity. AA substituted peptides POTE 252-9V (with valine at position 9), POTE 553-1Y (with tyrosine at position 1) and POTE 323-3F (with phenylalanine at position 3) conferred higher affinity for HLA-A2, and induced CTL responses cross-reactive with wild type antigens. While POTE 252-9V was the strongest in this respect, POTE 323-3F had the greatest increase in immunogenicity compared to wild type. Importantly, two modified epitopes (POTE-553-1Y and POTE-323-3F) induced CTLs that killed NCI-H522, a POTE-expressing HLA-A2(+) human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, indicating natural endogenous processing of these epitopes. In conclusion, the immunogenicity of POTE epitopes can be enhanced by peptide modification to induce T cells that kill human cancer cells. A combination of POTE 553-1Y and POTE 323-3F epitopes might be an attractive vaccine strategy for HLA-A2 cancer patients to overcome tolerance induced by tumors and prevent escape.

  8. Reassessing the role of HLA-DRB3 T-cell responses: evidence for significant expression and complementary antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Faner, Rosa; James, Eddie; Huston, Laurie; Pujol-Borrel, Ricardo; Kwok, William W; Juan, Manel

    2010-01-01

    In humans, several HLA-DRB loci (DRB1/3/4/5) encode diverse beta-chains that pair with alpha-chains to form DR molecules on the surface of APC. While DRB1 and DRB5 have been extensively studied, the role of DRB3/4 products of DR52/DR53 haplotypes has been largely neglected. To clarify the relative expression of DRB3, we quantified DRB3 mRNA levels in comparison with DRB1 mRNA from the same haplotype in both B cells and monocytes, observing quantitatively significant DRB3 synthesis. In CD19+ cells, DRB1*03/11/13 was 3.5-fold more abundant than DRB3, but in CD14+ this difference was only two-fold. Monocytes also had lower overall levels of DR mRNA compared with B cells, which was confirmed by cell surface staining of DRB1 and DRB3. To evaluate the functional role of DRB3, tetramer-guided epitope mapping was used to detect T cells against tetanus toxin and several influenza antigens presented by DRB3*0101/0202 or DRB1*03/11/13. None of the epitopes discovered were shared among any of the DR molecules. Quantitative assessment of DRB3-tetanus toxin specific T cells revealed that they are present at similar frequencies as those observed for DRB1. These results suggest that DRB3 plays a significant role in antigen presentation with different epitopic preferences to DRB1. Therefore, DRB3, like DRB5, serves to extend and complement the peptide repertoire of DRB1 in antigen presentation.

  9. Redundancy in Antigen-Presenting Function of the HLA-DR and -DQ Molecules in the Multiple Sclerosis-Associated HLA-DR2 Haplotype1

    PubMed Central

    Sospedra, Mireia; Muraro, Paolo A.; Stefanová, Irena; Zhao, Yingdong; Chung, Katherine; Li, Yili; Giulianotti, Marc; Simon, Richard; Mariuzza, Roy; Pinilla, Clemencia; Martin, Roland

    2009-01-01

    The three HLA class II alleles of the DR2 haplotype, DRB1*1501, DRB5*0101, and DQB1*0602, are in strong linkage disequilibrium and confer most of the genetic risk to multiple sclerosis. Functional redundancy in Ag presentation by these class II molecules would allow recognition by a single TCR of identical peptides with the different restriction elements, facilitating T cell activation and providing one explanation how a disease-associated HLA haplotype could be linked to a CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Using combinatorial peptide libraries and B cell lines expressing single HLA-DR/DQ molecules, we show that two of five in vivo-expanded and likely disease-relevant, cross-reactive cerebrospinal fluid-infiltrating T cell clones use multiple disease-associated HLA class II molecules as restriction elements. One of these T cell clones recognizes >30 identical foreign and human peptides using all DR and DQ molecules of the multiple sclerosis-associated DR2 haplotype. A T cell signaling machinery tuned for efficient responses to weak ligands together with structural features of the TCR-HLA/peptide complex result in this promiscuous HLA class II restriction. PMID:16424227

  10. Targeting Ewing sarcoma with activated and GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered human NK cells induces upregulation of immune-inhibitory HLA-G.

    PubMed

    Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Altvater, Bianca; Spurny, Christian; Jamitzky, Silke; Schelhaas, Sonja; Jacobs, Andreas H; Wiek, Constanze; Roellecke, Katharina; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Wiendl, Heinz; Pankratz, Susann; Meltzer, Jutta; Farwick, Nicole; Greune, Lea; Fluegge, Maike; Rossig, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Activated and in vitro expanded natural killer (NK) cells have substantial cytotoxicity against many tumor cells, but their in vivo efficacy to eliminate solid cancers is limited. Here, we used chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance the activity of NK cells against Ewing sarcomas (EwS) in a tumor antigen-specific manner. Expression of CARs directed against the ganglioside antigen GD2 in activated NK cells increased their responses to GD2+ allogeneic EwS cells in vitro and overcame resistance of individual cell lines to NK cell lysis. Second-generation CARs with 4-1BB and 2B4 co-stimulatory signaling and third-generation CARs combining both co-stimulatory domains were all equally effective. By contrast, adoptive transfer of GD2-specific CAR gene-modified NK cells both by intratumoral and intraperitoneal delivery failed to eliminate GD2-expressing EwS xenografts. Histopathology review revealed upregulation of the immunosuppressive ligand HLA-G in tumor autopsies from mice treated with NK cells compared to untreated control mice. Supporting the relevance of this finding, in vitro co-incubation of NK cells with allogeneic EwS cells induced upregulation of the HLA-G receptor CD85j, and HLA-G1 expressed by EwS cells suppressed the activity of NK cells from three of five allogeneic donors against the tumor cells in vitro. We conclude that HLA-G is a candidate immune checkpoint in EwS where it can contribute to resistance to NK cell therapy. HLA-G deserves evaluation as a potential target for more effective immunotherapeutic combination regimens in this and other cancers.

  11. Identification of a prostate-specific membrane antigen-derived peptide capable of eliciting both cellular and humoral immune responses in HLA-A24+ prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo; Harada, Mamoru

    2003-07-01

    We tried to identify prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-derived peptides capable of eliciting both cellular and humoral immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of HLA-A24(+) prostate cancer patients, respectively. For cellular response, peptide-specific and prostate cancer-reactive responses of in vitro-stimulated PBMCs were examined with regard to interferon (IFN)-gamma production and cytotoxicity against both a parental HLA-A24(-) prostate cancer cell line (PC-93) and an HLA-A24-expressing transfectant cell line (PC93-A24). For humoral response, patients' plasma was tested for reactivity to the peptides by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among 13 PSMA peptides, PSMA 624-632 peptide induced peptide-specific and tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) most effectively. The PSMA 624-632 peptide-stimulated PBMCs from either healthy donors or prostate cancer patients produced a significant level of IFN-gamma in response to prostate cancer cells in an HLA-A24-restricted manner, and also showed a higher level of cytotoxicity against PC93-A24 than against PC93. Antibodies to the PSMA 624-632 peptide, but not to any others, were detected in prostate cancer patients. These results demonstrate that the PSMA 624-632 peptide could be an appropriate molecule for use in specific immunotherapy of HLA-A24(+) patients with prostate cancer.

  12. [Uveitis in spondyloarthritis patients and its association with HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen: prospective study].

    PubMed

    Razumova, I Yu; Godzenko, A A; Vorob'eva, O K; Guseva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Цель — проспективное исследование клиники и течения увеитов при заболеваниях группы спондилоартритов (СпА) и их ассоциации с антигеном гистосовместимости HLA-B27. Материал и методы. Под нашим наблюдением находились 219 пациентов с увеитами. Все больные были обследованы на наличие антигена HLA-B27, на предмет поражения опорно-двигательного аппарата, а также на наличие вирусных, бактериальных и паразитарных инфекций. Результаты. По данным обследования 219 пациентов с увеитами, HLA-B27-антиген выявлен у 142 (64,8%) человек, из них у 87 диагностированы заболевания из группы СпА. Из 77 (35,2%) пациентов с HLA-B27– заболевания из группы СпА установлены у 13 человек. У 10 (4,6%) больных наблюдали по 2 и более заболеваний из группы СпА (клинический перекрест). При сравнении двух групп пациентов с увеитами при СпА, положительных и отрицательных по HLA-B27-антигену, не было получено статистически значимой разницы по возрасту возникновения заболевания, локализации процесса, частоте атак, одно- и двустороннему поражению (р>0,05). При сравнении двух групп пациентов, положительных и отрицательных по HLA-B27-антигену, без учета

  13. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystals from the human major histocompatibility antigen HLA-B*2706 in complex with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide.

    PubMed

    Zawacka, Anna; Loll, Bernhard; Biesiadka, Jacek; Saenger, Wolfram; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles HLA-B*2704 and HLA-B*2706 show an ethnically restricted distribution and are differentially associated with ankylosing spondylitis, with HLA-B*2706 lacking association with this autoimmune disease. However, the products of the two alleles differ by only two amino acids, at heavy-chain residues 114 (His in HLA-B*2704; Asp in HLA-B*2706) and 116 (Asp in HLA-B*2704; Tyr in HLA-B*2706). Both residues could be involved in contacting amino acids of a bound peptide, suggesting that peptides presented by these subtypes play a role in disease pathogenesis. Two HLA-B*2706-peptide complexes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG as precipitant. Data sets were collected to resolutions of 2.70 A (viral peptide pLMP2, RRRWRRLTV; space group P2(1)2(1)2(1)) and 1.83 A (self-peptide pVIPR, RRKWRRWHL; space group P2(1)). Using HLA-B*2705 complexed with the pGR peptide (RRRWHRWRL) as a search model, unambiguous molecular-replacement solutions were found for both HLA-B*2706 complexes.

  14. World Marrow Donor Association framework for the implementation of HLA matching programs in hematopoietic stem cell donor registries and cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, W; Maiers, M; Bakker, J N A; Oudshoorn, M; Marsh, S G E; Baier, D; Hurley, C K; Müller, C R

    2011-03-01

    A major goal of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) is to foster international transplants of hematopoietic stem cells through the establishment of guidelines and recommendations in this field. In this tradition, this study defines a comprehensive framework for HLA matching programs, which use intricate algorithms to rapidly select potential donors for a patient from a database and to present these donors in a prioritized list. Starting with the comparison of single HLA markers of the donor and the patient possibly obtained using different testing methodologies at different resolutions, the more complex matching of loci and phenotypes is inductively built up. The consensus of this international collaborative group describes the state of the art in the field and points out many important design options compatible with the best practice. This should help existing registries to review and validate the most critical part of their IT systems and newly created donor registries around the world to tackle one of their real challenges.

  15. Determination of an unrelated donor pool size for human leukocyte antigen-matched platelets in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bub, Carolina Bonet; Torres, Margareth Afonso; Moraes, Maria Elisa; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, José Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group), partial compatible (one cross-reactive group) or less compatible (two cross-reactive group) donors, respectively. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services. PMID:26969768

  16. The role of HLA-matched unrelated transplantation in adult patients with Ph chromosome-negative ALL in first remission. A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Kako, S; Morita, S; Sakamaki, H; Iida, H; Kurokawa, M; Miyamura, K; Kanamori, H; Hara, M; Kobayashi, N; Morishima, Y; Kawa, K; Kyo, T; Sakura, T; Jinnai, I; Takeuchi, J; Miyazaki, Y; Miyawaki, S; Ohnishi, K; Naoe, T; Kanda, Y

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of unrelated transplantation for patients with ALL who lack an HLA-matched sibling remains unclear. We performed a decision analysis to determine the efficacy of myeloablative transplantation from a genetically HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 allele-matched unrelated donor for patients with Ph chromosome-negative ALL aged 21-54 years. The transition probabilities were estimated from the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group studies (ALL93; n=80, ALL97; n=82), and the Japan Marrow Donor Program database (transplantation in first CR (CR1): n=177). The primary outcome measure was the 10-year survival probability with or without quality of life (QOL) adjustment. Subgroup analyses were performed according to risk stratification based on the WBC count and cytogenetics, and according to age stratification. In all patients, unrelated transplantation in CR1 was shown to be superior in analyses both with and without QOL adjustment (40.8 vs 28.4% and 43.9 vs 29.0%, respectively). A similar tendency was observed in all subgroups. The decision model was sensitive to the probability of leukemia-free survival following chemotherapy and the probability of survival after transplantation in standard-risk and higher-aged patients. Unrelated transplantation in CR1 improves the long-term survival probability in patients who lack an HLA-matched sibling. However, recent improvements in treatment strategies may change this result.

  17. Results and long-term outcome in 39 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome transplanted from HLA-matched and -mismatched donors.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Wilhelm; Schütz, Catharina; Schulz, Ansgar; Benninghoff, Ulrike; Hönig, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we present an analysis in 39 WAS patients treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our center since 1983. Fifteen patients received transplants from HLA-identical unrelated donors, 15 from nonidentical parental donors, and 9 from matched siblings. The overall survival rate is 90% in patients with matched donors and 50% in patients after nonidentical transplantation, with a mean follow-up time of 11 years. Treatment failures in the latter group were mainly related to graft rejections and to GvHD and infections following repeat transplants. Long-term survivors in both patient groups remain with few exceptions free of late complications and with stable graft function and complete donor cell chimerism. Based on our findings, we recommend early and prompt treatment of each diagnosed WAS patient if an HLA-matched, related or unrelated, donor can be identified. If this is not the case, HLA-nonidentical donor transplantation represents an alternative to be considered early in patients with severe disease.

  18. Combined Linkage and Association Studies Show that HLA Class II Variants Control Levels of Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Cobat, Aurélie; Guergnon, Julien; Brice, Pauline; Fermé, Christophe; Carde, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Pendeven, Catherine Le-; Amiel, Corinne; Taoufik, Yassine; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Theodorou, Ioannis; Besson, Caroline; Abel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) or anti-Epstein Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG levels in a unique cohort of 424 individuals of European origin from 119 French families recruited through a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patient. No major locus controlling anti-VCA antibody levels was identified. However, we found that the HLA region influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers. Refined association studies in this region identified a cluster of HLA class II variants associated with anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers (e.g. p = 5×10–5 for rs9268403). The major allele of rs9268403 conferring a predisposition to high anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels was also associated with an increased risk of HL (p = 0.02). In summary, this study shows that HLA class II variants influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers in a European population. It further shows the role of the same variants in the risk of HL. PMID:25025336

  19. Frequency distribution of HLA-antigens, genes and haplotypes in the migrant population of Magadan as a function of length of residence in the region.

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, V V; Solovenchuk, L L

    1996-09-01

    Peculiarities of the frequency distribution of antigens, genes, and haplotypes at subloci A, B, and Cw of the HLA system in 1429 Slavic inhabitants of Magadan are presented in dependence on length of residence in extreme conditions. No significant differences were revealed with respect to frequency of genes and antigens in inhabitants with different lengths of residence in northeastern Russian conditions. Analysis of gamete associations shows that the revealed positive or negative associativity in some cases is characteristic for Caucasoids on the whole, but an associativity specific to inhabitants of Magadan was also established. Its character depends on the length of residence in extreme conditions.

  20. The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B27 Peptidome in Vivo, in Spondyloarthritis-susceptible HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats and the Effect of Erap1 Deletion.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Eilon; Melamed Kadosh, Dganit; Haimovich, Yael; Satumtira, Nimman; Dorris, Martha L; Nguyen, Mylinh T; Hammer, Robert E; Tran, Tri M; Colbert, Robert A; Taurog, Joel D; Admon, Arie

    2017-04-01

    HLA-B27 is a class I major histocompatibility (MHC-I) allele that confers susceptibility to the rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by an unknown mechanism. ERAP1 is an aminopeptidase that trims peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum for binding to MHC-I molecules. ERAP1 shows genetic epistasis with HLA-B27 in conferring susceptibility to AS. Male HLA-B27 transgenic rats develop arthritis and serve as an animal model of AS, whereas female B27 transgenic rats remain healthy. We used large scale quantitative mass spectrometry to identify over 15,000 unique HLA-B27 peptide ligands, isolated after immunoaffinity purification of the B27 molecules from the spleens of HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Heterozygous deletion of Erap1, which reduced the Erap1 level to less than half, had no qualitative or quantitative effects on the B27 peptidome. Homozygous deletion of Erap1 affected approximately one-third of the B27 peptidome but left most of the B27 peptidome unchanged, suggesting the possibility that some of the HLA-B27 immunopeptidome is not processed in the presence of Erap1. Deletion of Erap1 was permissive for the AS-like phenotype, increased mean peptide length and increased the frequency of C-terminal hydrophobic residues and of N-terminal Ala, Ser, or Lys. The presence of Erap1 increased the frequency of C-terminal Lys and Arg, of Glu and Asp at intermediate residues, and of N-terminal Gly. Several peptides of potential interest in AS pathogenesis, previously identified in human cell lines, were isolated. However, rats susceptible to arthritis had B27 peptidomes similar to those of non-susceptible rats, and no peptides were found to be uniquely associated with arthritis. Whether specific B27-bound peptides are required for AS pathogenesis remains to be determined. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005502.

  1. Genetic editing of HLA expression in hematopoietic stem cells to broaden their human application.

    PubMed

    Torikai, Hiroki; Mi, Tiejuan; Gragert, Loren; Maiers, Martin; Najjar, Amer; Ang, Sonny; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Switzer, Kirsten C; Huls, Helen; Dulay, Gladys P; Reik, Andreas; Rebar, Edward J; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Champlin, Richard E; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-02-23

    Mismatch of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) adversely impacts the outcome of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT). This translates into the clinical requirement to timely identify suitable HLA-matched donors which in turn curtails the chances of recipients, especially those from a racial minority, to successfully undergo alloHSCT. We thus sought to broaden the existing pool of registered unrelated donors based on analysis that eliminating the expression of the HLA-A increases the chance for finding a donor matched at HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 regardless of a patient's race. Elimination of HLA-A expression in HSC was achieved using artificial zinc finger nucleases designed to target HLA-A alleles. Significantly, these engineered HSCs maintain their ability to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis in immunocompromised mice. This introduced loss of HLA-A expression decreases the need to recruit large number of donors to match with potential recipients and has particular importance for patients whose HLA repertoire is under-represented in the current donor pool. Furthermore, the genetic engineering of stem cells provides a translational approach to HLA-match a limited number of third-party donors with a wide number of recipients.

  2. Genetic editing of HLA expression in hematopoietic stem cells to broaden their human application

    PubMed Central

    Torikai, Hiroki; Mi, Tiejuan; Gragert, Loren; Maiers, Martin; Najjar, Amer; Ang, Sonny; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Switzer, Kirsten C.; Huls, Helen; Dulay, Gladys P.; Reik, Andreas; Rebar, Edward J.; Holmes, Michael C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Champlin, Richard E.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2016-01-01

    Mismatch of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) adversely impacts the outcome of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT). This translates into the clinical requirement to timely identify suitable HLA-matched donors which in turn curtails the chances of recipients, especially those from a racial minority, to successfully undergo alloHSCT. We thus sought to broaden the existing pool of registered unrelated donors based on analysis that eliminating the expression of the HLA-A increases the chance for finding a donor matched at HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 regardless of a patient’s race. Elimination of HLA-A expression in HSC was achieved using artificial zinc finger nucleases designed to target HLA-A alleles. Significantly, these engineered HSCs maintain their ability to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis in immunocompromised mice. This introduced loss of HLA-A expression decreases the need to recruit large number of donors to match with potential recipients and has particular importance for patients whose HLA repertoire is under-represented in the current donor pool. Furthermore, the genetic engineering of stem cells provides a translational approach to HLA-match a limited number of third-party donors with a wide number of recipients. PMID:26902653

  3. IL-6 down-regulates HLA class II expression and IL-12 production of human dendritic cells to impair activation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yosuke; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Takahashi, Norihiko; Ohtake, Junya; Kaneumi, Shun; Sumida, Kentaro; Homma, Shigenori; Kawamura, Hideki; Minagawa, Nozomi; Shibasaki, Susumu; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments critically affects the success of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we focused on the role of interleukin (IL)-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling cascade in immune regulation by human dendritic cells (DCs). IL-6-conditioned monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) impaired the presenting ability of cancer-related antigens. Interferon (IFN)-γ production attenuated by CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with IL-6-conditioned MoDCs corresponded with decreased DC IL-12p70 production. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD86 expression was significantly reduced in CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors by IL-6 treatment and was STAT3 dependent. Arginase-1 (ARG1), lysosomal protease, cathepsin L (CTSL), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) were involved in the reduction of surface HLA-DR expression. Gene expressions of ARG1, CTSL, COX2, and IL6 were higher in tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells compared with PBMCs isolated from colorectal cancer patients. Expression of surface HLA-DR and CD86 on CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells was down-regulated, and T cell-stimulating ability was attenuated compared with PBMCs, suggesting that an immunosuppressive phenotype might be induced by IL-6, ARG1, CTSL, and COX2 in tumor sites of colorectal cancer patients. There was a relationship between HLA-DR expression levels in tumor tissues and the size of CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell compartments. Our findings indicate that IL-6 causes a dysfunction in human DCs that activates cancer antigen-specific Th cells, suggesting that blocking the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway might be a promising strategy to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  4. A Structurally Based Approach to Determine HLA Compatibility at the Humoral Immune Level

    PubMed Central

    Duquesnoy, Rene J.

    2007-01-01

    HLAMatchmaker is a structurally based matching program. Each HLA antigen is viewed as a string of epitopes represented by short sequences (triplets) involving polymorphic amino acid residues in antibody-accessible positions. HLAMatchmaker determines which triplets are different between donor and recipient and this algorithm is clinically useful in determining HLA mismatch acceptability. Triplets provide however an incomplete description of the HLA epitope repertoire and expanded criteria must be used including longer sequences and polymorphic residues in discontinuous positions. Such criteria should consider the structural basis of antibody-antigen interactions including contact areas and binding energy, the essence of antigenicity. This report describes the development of a structurally defined HLA epitope repertoire based on stereochemical modeling of crystallized complexes of antibodies and different protein antigens. This analysis considered also data in the literature about contributions of amino acid residues to antigen-antibody binding energy. The results have led to the concept that HLA antigens like other antigenic proteins have structural epitopes consisting of 15–22 residues that constitute the binding face with alloantibody. Each structural epitope has a functional epitope of about 2–5 residues that dominate the strength and specificity of binding with antibody. The remaining residues of a structural epitope provide supplementary interactions that increase the stability of the antigen-antibody complex. Each functional epitope has one or more non-self residues and the term “eplet” is used to describe polymorphic HLA residues within 3.0–3.5 Ångstroms of a given sequence position on the molecular surface. Many eplets represent short linear sequences identical to those referred to as triplets but others have residues in discontinuous sequence positions that cluster together on the molecular surface. Serologically defined HLA determinants

  5. Race/ethnicity affects the probability of finding an HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 allele-matched unrelated donor and likelihood of subsequent transplant utilization

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, J; Kim, J; Schell, M; Lee, SJ; Hillgruber, R; Nye, V; Ayala, E; Alsina, M; Betts, B; Bookout, R; Fernandez, HF; Field, T; Locke, FL; Nishihori, T; Ochoa, JL; Perez, L; Perkins, J; Shapiro, J; Tate, C; Tomblyn, M; Anasetti, C

    2015-01-01

    Factors relevant to finding a suitable unrelated donor and barriers to effective transplant utilization are incompletely understood. Among a consecutive series of unrelated searches (n = 531), an 8/8 HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1-matched unrelated donor was available for 289 (54%) patients, 7/8 for 159 (30%) and no donor for 83 (16%). Patients of Caucasian race (P < 0.0001) were more likely to find a donor. Younger age (P = 0.01), Caucasian race (P = 0.03), lower CIBMTR (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research) risk (P = 0.005), and 8/8 HLA matching (P = 0.005) were associated with higher odds of reaching hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In a univariate analysis of OS, finding a donor was associated with hazard ratio (HR) of 0.85 (95% CI 0.63–1.2), P = 0.31. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) accounted for interaction between having a donor and survival. Patients with KPS 90–100 and a donor had significantly reduced hazard for death (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38–0.90, P = 0.02). These data provide estimates of the probability to find an unrelated donor in the era of high-resolution HLA typing, and identify potentially modifiable barriers to reaching HCT. Further efforts are needed to enhance effective donor identification and transplant utilization, particularly in non-Caucasian ethnic groups. PMID:22863723

  6. Tumor-infiltrating HLA-matched CD4(+) T cells retargeted against Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed

    Rengstl, Benjamin; Schmid, Frederike; Weiser, Christian; Döring, Claudia; Heinrich, Tim; Warner, Kathrin; Becker, Petra S A; Wistinghausen, Robin; Kameh-Var, Sima; Werling, Eva; Billmeier, Arne; Seidl, Christian; Hartmann, Sylvia; Abken, Hinrich; Küppers, Ralf; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Newrzela, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) presents with a unique histologic pattern. Pathognomonic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells usually account for less than 1% of the tumor and are embedded in a reactive infiltrate mainly comprised of CD4(+) T cells. HRS cells induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment and thereby escape antitumor immunity. To investigate the impact of interactions between HRS cells and T cells, we performed long-term co-culture studies that were further translated into a xenograft model. Surprisingly, we revealed a strong antitumor potential of allogeneic CD4(+) T cells against HL cell lines. HRS and CD4(+) T cells interact by adhesion complexes similar to immunological synapses. Tumor-cell killing was likely based on the recognition of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) receptor, while CD4(+) T cells from MHC-II compatible donors did not develop any antitumor potential in case of HL cell line L428. However, gene expression profiling (GEP) of co-cultured HRS cells as well as tumor infiltration of matched CD4(+) T cells indicated cellular interactions. Moreover, matched CD4(+) T cells could be activated to kill CD30(+) HRS cells when redirected with a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor. Our work gives novel insights into the crosstalk between HRS and CD4(+) T cells, suggesting the latter as potent effector cells in the adoptive cell therapy of HL.

  7. Tumor-infiltrating HLA-matched CD4+ T cells retargeted against Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg cells

    PubMed Central

    Rengstl, Benjamin; Schmid, Frederike; Weiser, Christian; Döring, Claudia; Heinrich, Tim; Warner, Kathrin; Becker, Petra S. A.; Wistinghausen, Robin; Kameh-Var, Sima; Werling, Eva; Billmeier, Arne; Seidl, Christian; Hartmann, Sylvia; Abken, Hinrich; Küppers, Ralf; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Newrzela, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) presents with a unique histologic pattern. Pathognomonic Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg (HRS) cells usually account for less than 1% of the tumor and are embedded in a reactive infiltrate mainly comprised of CD4+ T cells. HRS cells induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment and thereby escape antitumor immunity. To investigate the impact of interactions between HRS cells and T cells, we performed long-term co-culture studies that were further translated into a xenograft model. Surprisingly, we revealed a strong antitumor potential of allogeneic CD4+ T cells against HL cell lines. HRS and CD4+ T cells interact by adhesion complexes similar to immunological synapses. Tumor-cell killing was likely based on the recognition of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) receptor, while CD4+ T cells from MHC-II compatible donors did not develop any antitumor potential in case of HL cell line L428. However, gene expression profiling (GEP) of co-cultured HRS cells as well as tumor infiltration of matched CD4+ T cells indicated cellular interactions. Moreover, matched CD4+ T cells could be activated to kill CD30+ HRS cells when redirected with a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor. Our work gives novel insights into the crosstalk between HRS and CD4+ T cells, suggesting the latter as potent effector cells in the adoptive cell therapy of HL. PMID:27471632

  8. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) A*1101-Restricted Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific T-cell Receptor Gene Transfer to Target Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong; Parsonage, Greg; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Machado, Lee R; James, Christine H; Salman, Asmaa; Searle, Peter F; Hui, Edwin P; Chan, Anthony T C; Lee, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Infusing virus-specific T cells is effective treatment for rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphomas, and more limited success has been reported using this approach to treat a far more common EBV-associated malignancy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, current approaches using EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines to reactivate EBV-specific T cells for infusion take 2 to 3 months of in vitro culture and favor outgrowth of T cells targeting viral antigens expressed within EBV(+) lymphomas, but not in NPC. Here, we explore T-cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer to rapidly and reliably generate T cells specific for the NPC-associated viral protein LMP2. We cloned a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A*1101-restricted TCR, which would be widely applicable because 40% of NPC patients carry this HLA allele. Studying both the wild-type and modified forms, we have optimized expression of the TCR and demonstrated high-avidity antigen-specific function (proliferation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine release) in both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The engineered T cells also inhibited LMP2(+) epithelial tumor growth in a mouse model. Furthermore, transduced T cells from patients with advanced NPC lysed LMP2-expressing NPC cell lines. Using this approach, within a few days large numbers of high-avidity LMP2-specific T cells can be generated reliably to treat NPC, thus providing an ideal clinical setting to test TCR gene transfer without the risk of autoimmunity through targeting self-antigens.

  9. Functional polymorphism of each of the two HLA-DR beta chain loci demonstrated with antigen-specific DR3- and DRw52-restricted T cell clones

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    HLA-DR3- and HLA-DRw52-associated functional polymorphism was investigated with selected tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific T cell clones. We have shown earlier that HLA-DR antigens are encoded by two distinct loci, DR beta I and DR beta III. The alloantigenic determinant(s) defined by the serological HLA-DR3 specificity map to the former, while the supratypic HLA-DRw52 determinants map to DR beta III. Furthermore, we have recently recognized by DNA sequencing three alleles of HLA- DRw52 at locus DR beta III, referred to as 52 a, b, and c. Our objective was to correlate the pattern of T cell restriction with the gene products of individual DR beta chain loci and with the three newly described alleles of locus DR beta III. Among the selected T cell clones, 5 reacted exclusively when TT was presented by HLA-DR3+ APCs (TT-DR3-APC). In contrast, two T cell clones were stimulated by TT- DRw52-APC. More specifically, these two T cell clones (Clones 10 and 16) were stimulated by different subsets of TT-DRw52-APC. Clone 16 responded to some DR3 and TT-DRw6-APC, while clone 10 was stimulated by other TT-DR3 and TT-DRw6, and all TT-DR5-APC. This same pattern of DRw52 restriction was found in panel, as well as in family studies. Because this suggested a correlation with the pattern of DRw52 polymorphism observed earlier by DNA sequencing and oligonucleotide hybridization, the APC used in these experiments were typed for the 52 a, b, and c alleles of locus DR beta III by allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This distribution overlapped exactly with the stimulation pattern defined by the T cell clones. Clone 16 responded to TT-52a-APC, clone 10 to TT-52b-APC, and both clones to a TT-52c-APC. The response of the T cell clones was inhibited differentially by mAbs to DR. Raising TT concentration, or increasing HLA-class II expression with INF-gamma both affected the magnitude of response of the TT- specific clones but did not modify their specificities. These results demonstrate that

  10. The T210M Substitution in the HLA-a*02:01 gp100 Epitope Strongly Affects Overall Proteasomal Cleavage Site Usage and Antigen Processing*

    PubMed Central

    Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Liepe, Juliane; Henklein, Petra; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Kloetzel, Peter M.; Mishto, Michele

    2015-01-01

    MHC class I-restricted epitopes, which carry a tumor-specific mutation resulting in improved MHC binding affinity, are preferred T cell receptor targets in innovative adoptive T cell therapies. However, T cell therapy requires efficient generation of the selected epitope. How such mutations may affect proteasome-mediated antigen processing has so far not been studied. Therefore, we analyzed by in vitro experiments the effect on antigen processing and recognition of a T210M exchange, which previously had been introduced into the melanoma gp100209–217tumor epitope to improve the HLA-A*02:01 binding and its immunogenicity. A quantitative analysis of the main steps of antigen processing shows that the T210M exchange affects proteasomal cleavage site usage within the mutgp100201–230 polypeptide, leading to the generation of an unique set of cleavage products. The T210M substitution qualitatively affects the proteasome-catalyzed generation of spliced and non-spliced peptides predicted to bind HLA-A or -B complexes. The T210M substitution also induces an enhanced production of the mutgp100209–217 epitope and its N-terminally extended peptides. The T210M exchange revealed no effect on ERAP1-mediated N-terminal trimming of the precursor peptides. However, mutant N-terminally extended peptides exhibited significantly increased HLA-A*02:01 binding affinity and elicited CD8+ T cell stimulation in vitro similar to the wtgp100209–217 epitope. Thus, our experiments demonstrate that amino acid exchanges within an epitope can result in the generation of an altered peptide pool with new antigenic peptides and in a wider CD8+ T cell response also towards N-terminally extended versions of the minimal epitope. PMID:26507656

  11. Concordant down-regulation of proto-oncogene PML and major histocompatibility antigen HLA class I expression in high-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiming; Melamed, Jonathan; Wei, Ping; Cox, Karen; Frankel, Wendy; Bahnson, Robert R; Robinson, Nikki; Pyka, Ron; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Pan

    2003-02-14

    Recognition of tumor cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes depends on cell surface MHC class I expression. As a mechanism to evade T cell recognition, many malignant cancer cells, including those of prostate cancer, down-regulate MHC class I. For the majority of human cancers, the molecular mechanism of MHC class I down regulation is unclear, although it is well established that MHC class I down-regulation is often associated with the down-regulation of multiple genes devoted to antigen presentation. Since the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) proto-oncogene controls multiple antigen-presentation genes in some murine cancer cells, we analyzed the expression of proto-oncogene PML and MHC class I in high-grade prostate cancer. We found that 30 of 37 (81%) prostate adenocarcinoma cases with a Gleason grade of 7-8 had more than 50% down-regulation of HLA class I expression. Among these, 22 cases (73.3%) had no detectable PML protein, while 4 cases (13.3%) showed partial PML down-regulation. In contrast, all 7 cases of prostate cancer with high expression of cell surface HLA class I had high levels of PML expression. Concordant down-regulation of HLA and PML was observed in different histological patterns of prostate adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that in high-grade prostate cancer, malfunction of proto-oncogene PML is a major factor in the down-regulation of cell surface HLA class I molecules, the target molecules essential for the direct recognition of cancer cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

  12. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human major histocompatibility antigen HLA-B*1402 in complex with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pravin; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Volz, Armin; Ziegler, Andreas; Saenger, Wolfram

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of HLA-B*1402 in complex with two peptides is reported. The product of the human major histocompatibility (HLA) class I allele HLA-B*1402 only differs from that of allele HLA-B*1403 at amino-acid position 156 of the heavy chain (Leu in HLA-B*1402 and Arg in HLA-B*1403). However, both subtypes are known to be differentially associated with the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in black populations in Cameroon and Togo. HLA-B*1402 is not associated with AS, in contrast to HLA-B*1403, which is associated with this disease in the Togolese population. The products of these alleles can present peptides with Arg at position 2, a feature shared by a small group of other HLA-B antigens, including HLA-B*2705, the prototypical AS-associated subtype. Complexes of HLA-B*1402 with a viral peptide (RRRWRRLTV, termed pLMP2) and a self-peptide (IRAAPPPLF, termed pCatA) were prepared and were crystallized using polyethylene glycol as precipitant. The complexes crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1} (pLMP2) and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (pCatA) and diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.55 and 1.86 Å resolution, respectively. Unambiguous solutions for both data sets were obtained by molecular replacement using a peptide-complexed HLA-B*2705 molecule (PDB code) as a search model.

  13. Translation and assembly of HLA-DR antigens in Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA from a human B-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Long, E O; Gross, N; Wake, C T; Mach, J P; Carrel, S; Accolla, R; Mach, B

    1982-01-01

    HLA-DR antigens are polymorphic cell surface glycoproteins, expressed primarily in B lymphocytes and macrophages, which are thought to play an important role in the immune response. Two polypeptide chains, alpha and beta, are associated at the cell surface, and a third chain associates with alpha and beta intracellularly. RNA isolated from the human B-cell line Raji was injected in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Immunoprecipitates of translation products with several monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of HLA-DR antigens similar to those synthesized in Raji cells. One monoclonal antibody was able to bind the beta chain after dissociation of the three polypeptide chains with detergent. The presence of all three chains was confirmed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The glycosylation pattern of the three chains was identical to that observed in vivo, as evidenced in studies using tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. The presence of alpha chains assembled with beta chains in equimolar ratio was further demonstrated by amino-terminal sequencing. An RNA fraction enriched for the three mRNAs, encoding alpha, beta, and intracellular chains, was isolated. This translation-assembly system and the availability of monoclonal antibodies make it possible to assay for mRNA encoding specific molecules among the multiple human Ia-like antigens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6821356

  14. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) A*1101-restricted Epstein-Barr Virus-specific T-cell Receptor Gene Transfer to Target Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yong; Parsonage, Greg; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Machado, Lee R; James, Christine H.; Salman, Asmaa; Searle, Peter F.; Hui, Edwin P.; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Lee, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Infusing virus-specific T cells is effective treatment for rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphomas and more limited success has been reported using this approach to treat a far more common EBV-associated malignancy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, current approaches using EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines to reactivate EBV-specific T cells for infusion take 2 to 3 months of in vitro culture and favour outgrowth of T cells targeting viral antigens expressed within EBV+ lymphomas but not in NPC. Here we explore T-cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer to rapidly and reliably generate T cells specific for the NPC-associated viral protein LMP2. We cloned a HLA A*1101-restricted TCR, which would be widely applicable since 40% of NPC patients carry this HLA allele. Studying both the wild-type and modified forms we have optimised expression of the TCR and demonstrated high avidity antigen-specific function (proliferation, cytotoxicity, cytokine release) in both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The engineered T cells also inhibited LMP2+ epithelial tumour growth in a mouse model. Furthermore, transduced T cells from patients with advanced NPC lysed LMP2-expressing NPC cell lines. Using this approach, within a few days large numbers of high avidity LMP2-specific T cells can be generated reliably to treat NPC, thus providing an ideal clinical setting to test TCR gene transfer without the risk of autoimmunity through targeting self-antigens. PMID:25711537

  15. T cells engineered with a T cell receptor against the prostate antigen TARP specifically kill HLA-A2+ prostate and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, Victoria; Nilsson, Berith; Carlsson, Björn; Eriksson, Fredrik; Essand, Magnus

    2012-09-25

    To produce genetically engineered T cells directed against prostate and breast cancer cells, we have cloned the T-cell receptor recognizing the HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor γ-chain alternate reading-frame protein (TARP)(4-13) epitope. TARP is a protein exclusively expressed in normal prostate epithelium and in adenocarcinomas of the prostate and breast. Peripheral blood T cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the TARP-TCR proliferated well when exposed to peptide-specific stimuli. These cells exerted peptide-specific IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity. Importantly, HLA-A2(+) prostate and breast cancer cells expressing TARP were also killed, demonstrating that the TARP(4-13) epitope is a physiologically relevant target for T-cell therapy of prostate and breast cancer. In conclusion, we present the cloning of a T cell receptor (TCR) directed against a physiologically relevant HLA-A2 epitope of TARP. To our knowledge this report on engineering of T cells with a TCR directed against an antigen specifically expressed by prostate cells is unique.

  16. Antithymocyte globulin improves the survival of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing HLA-matched unrelated donor and haplo-identical donor transplants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Tong-Tong; Jin, Song; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Su-Ning; Li, Wei-Yang; Xu, Yang; Miao, Miao; Wu, De-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Significant advances have been achieved in the outcomes of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) after both HLA-matched sibling donor transplants (MSDT) and non-MSDT, the latter including HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUDT) and haplo-identical donor transplants (HIDT). In this retrospective study, we analyzed the data of 85 consecutive patients with MDS who received allogeneic HSCT between Dec 2007 and Apr 2014 in our center. These patients comprised 38 (44.7%) who received MSDT, 29 (34.1%) MUDT, and 18 (21.2%) HIDT. The median overall survival (OS) was 60.2 months, the probabilities of OS being 63%, 57%, and 48%, at the first, second, and fifth year, respectively. Median OS post-transplant (OSPT) was 57.2 months, the probabilities of OSPT being 58%, 55%, and 48% at the first, second, and fifth year, respectively. The survival of patients receiving non-MSDT was superior to that of MSDT, median OSPT being 84.0 months and 23.6 months, respectively (P = 0.042); the findings for OS were similar (P = 0.028). We also found that using ATG in conditioning regimens significantly improved survival after non-MSDT, with better OS and OSPT (P = 0.016 and P = 0.025). These data suggest that using ATG in conditioning regimens may improve the survival of MDS patients after non-MSDT. PMID:28262717

  17. Graft-versus-Host Disease after HLA-Matched Sibling Bone Marrow or Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese Populations.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Miyamura, Koichi; Murata, Makoto; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Seo, Sachiko; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Yoshimi, Ayami; Milone, Giuseppe; Wood, William A; Ustun, Celalettin; Hashimi, Shahrukh; Pasquini, Marcelo; Bonfim, Carmem; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2016-04-01

    The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BMT or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BMT was performed in 13% of the Caucasian patients and in 53% of the Japanese patients. On multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grade III or IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the Japanese patients compared with the Caucasian patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.96), which resulted in lower risk of nonrelapse mortality in the Japanese patients (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. The lower risks of nonrelapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among the Japanese patients. In conclusion, our data indicate that irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, resulting in a lower risk of nonrelapse mortality.

  18. Development of a T cell receptor targeting an HLA-A*0201 restricted epitope from the cancer-testis antigen SSX2 for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Speiser, Daniel E; Chinnasamy, Nachimuthu; Zheng, Zhili; Xu, Hui; Feldman, Steven A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The clinical success of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer relies on the selection of target antigens that are highly expressed in tumor cells but absent in essential normal tissues. A group of genes that encode the cancer/testis or cancer germline antigens have been proposed as ideal targets for immunotherapy due to their high expression in multiple cancer types and their restricted expression in immunoprivileged normal tissues. In the present work we report the isolation and characterization of human T cell receptors (TCRs) with specificity for synovial sarcoma X breakpoint 2 (SSX2), a cancer/testis antigen expressed in melanoma, prostate cancer, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancer, among other tumors. We isolated seven HLA-A2 restricted T cell receptors from natural T cell clones derived from tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes of two SSX2-seropositive melanoma patients, and selected four TCRs for cloning into retroviral vectors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) transduced with three of four SSX2 TCRs showed SSX241-49 (KASEKIFYV) peptide specific reactivity, tumor cell recognition and tetramer binding. One of these, TCR-5, exhibited tetramer binding in both CD4 and CD8 cells and was selected for further studies. Antigen-specific and HLA-A*0201-restricted interferon-γ release, cell lysis and lymphocyte proliferation was observed following culture of TCR engineered human PBL with relevant tumor cell lines. Codon optimization was found to increase TCR-5 expression in transduced T cells, and this construct has been selected for development of clinical grade viral vector producing cells. The tumor-specific pattern of expression of SSX2, along with the potent and selective activity of TCR-5, makes this TCR an attractive candidate for potential TCR gene therapy to treat multiple cancer histologies.

  19. Efficiency of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT from HLA fully-matched non-sibling relatives: a new prospect of exploiting extended family search.

    PubMed

    Hamidieh, A A; Dehaghi, M Ostadali; Paragomi, P; Navaei, S; Jalali, A; Eslami, G Ghazizadeh; Behfar, M; Ghavamzadeh, A

    2015-04-01

    The best donors for hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) are fully-matched siblings. In patients without fully-matched siblings, HLA registries or cord blood banks are alternative strategies with some restrictions. Owing to the high rate of consanguineous marriage in our country, between 2006 and 2013, extended family searches were undertaken in Hematology-Oncology Research Center and Stem Cell Transplantation (HORCSCT), Tehran, Iran, in 523 HSCT candidates with parental consanguinity and no available HLA identical sibling. Fully-matched other-relative donors were found for 109 cases. We retrospectively studied the HSCT outcome in these patients. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 13 days (range: 9-31days). In 83 patients, full chimerism and in 17 patients, mixed chimerism was achieved. Acute GvHD (aGvHD) grade II-IV appeared in 36 patients (33%). The frequency of aGvHD development in various familial subgroups was NS. Five patients expired before day+100. In the surviving 104 cases, chronic GvHD developed in 20 patients (19.2%). The distantly related subgroup had significantly a higher rate of cGvHD (P=0.04). The 2-year OS and disease-free survival (DFS) were 76.7±4.5% and 71.7±4.7%, respectively. No significant difference in OS (P=0.30) and DFS (P=0.80) was unraveled between various familial relationships. Our considerable rate of fully-matched non-sibling family members and the favorable outcome support the rationale for extended family search in regions where consanguineous marriage is widely practiced.

  20. Promiscuous CTL recognition of viral epitopes on multiple human leukocyte antigens: biological validation of the proposed HLA A24 supertype.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Scott R; Elkington, Rebecca A; Miles, John J; Green, Katherine J; Walker, Susan; Haryana, Sofia M; Moss, Denis J; Dunckley, Heather; Burrows, Jacqueline M; Khanna, Rajiv

    2003-08-01

    Multiple HLA class I alleles can bind peptides with common sequence motifs due to structural similarities in the peptide binding cleft, and these groups of alleles have been classified into supertypes. Nine major HLA supertypes have been proposed, including an A24 supertype that includes A*2301, A*2402, and A*3001. Evidence for this A24 supertype is limited to HLA sequence homology and/or similarity in peptide binding motifs for the alleles. To investigate the immunological relevance of this proposed supertype, we have examined two viral epitopes (from EBV and CMV) initially defined as HLA-A*2301-binding peptides. The data clearly demonstrate that each peptide could be recognized by CTL clones in the context of A*2301 or A*2402; thus validating the inclusion of these three alleles within an A24 supertype. Furthermore, CTL responses to the EBV epitope were detectable in both A*2301(+) and A*2402(+) individuals who had been previously exposed to this virus. These data substantiate the biological relevance of the A24 supertype, and the identification of viral epitopes with the capacity to bind promiscuously across this supertype could aid efforts to develop CTL-based vaccines or immunotherapy. The degeneracy in HLA restriction displayed by some T cells in this study also suggests that the dogma of self-MHC restriction needs some refinement to accommodate foreign peptide recognition in the context of multiple supertype alleles.

  1. Human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and its murine functional homolog Qa2 in the Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fabrício C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Silva, Maria C; Tristão, Fabrine S M; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Moreau, Philippe; Soares, Edson G; Menezes, Jean G; Schmidt, André; Dantas, Roberto O; Marin-Neto, José A; Silva, João S; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility factors, parasite strain, and an adequate modulation of the immune system seem to be crucial for disease progression after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. HLA-G and its murine functional homolog Qa2 have well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. We evaluated the HLA-G 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) polymorphic sites (associated with mRNA stability and target for microRNA binding) and HLA-G tissue expression (heart, colon, and esophagus) in patients presenting Chagas disease, stratified according to the major clinical variants. Further, we investigated the transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in affected mouse tissues during T. cruzi experimental acute and early chronic infection induced by the CL strain. Chagas disease patients exhibited differential HLA-G 3'UTR susceptibility allele/genotype/haplotype patterns, according to the major clinical variant (digestive/cardiac/mixed/indeterminate). HLA-G constitutive expression on cardiac muscle and colonic cells was decreased in Chagasic tissues; however, no difference was observed for Chagasic and non-Chagasic esophagus tissues. The transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other anti and proinflammatory (CTLA-4, PDCD1, IL-10, INF-γ, and NOS-2) genes were induced only during the acute T. cruzi infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We present several lines of evidence indicating the role of immunomodulatory genes and molecules in human and experimental T. cruzi infection.

  2. Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) and Its Murine Functional Homolog Qa2 in the Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fabrício C.; Mendes-Junior, Celso T.; Silva, Maria C.; Tristão, Fabrine S. M.; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Soares, Edson G.; Menezes, Jean G.; Schmidt, André; Dantas, Roberto O.; Marin-Neto, José A.; Silva, João S.; Donadi, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility factors, parasite strain, and an adequate modulation of the immune system seem to be crucial for disease progression after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. HLA-G and its murine functional homolog Qa2 have well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. We evaluated the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) polymorphic sites (associated with mRNA stability and target for microRNA binding) and HLA-G tissue expression (heart, colon, and esophagus) in patients presenting Chagas disease, stratified according to the major clinical variants. Further, we investigated the transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in affected mouse tissues during T. cruzi experimental acute and early chronic infection induced by the CL strain. Chagas disease patients exhibited differential HLA-G 3′UTR susceptibility allele/genotype/haplotype patterns, according to the major clinical variant (digestive/cardiac/mixed/indeterminate). HLA-G constitutive expression on cardiac muscle and colonic cells was decreased in Chagasic tissues; however, no difference was observed for Chagasic and non-Chagasic esophagus tissues. The transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other anti and proinflammatory (CTLA-4, PDCD1, IL-10, INF-γ, and NOS-2) genes were induced only during the acute T. cruzi infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We present several lines of evidence indicating the role of immunomodulatory genes and molecules in human and experimental T. cruzi infection. PMID:25688175

  3. HLA class I genotyping including HLA-B*51 allele typing in the Iranian patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuki, N; Ota, M; Katsuyama, Y; Yabuki, K; Ando, H; Yoshida, M; Onari, K; Nikbin, B; Davatchi, F; Chams, H; Ghaderi, A A; Ohno, S; Inoko, H

    2001-05-01

    It is well known that Behçet's disease (BD) is strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B51 in many ethnic groups. However, there has been no published report as yet with respect to this association among the Iranian people. Furthermore, since it is now known that the B51 antigen can be encoded by 21 alleles, B*5101-B*5121, we performed HLA-B*51 allele typing as well as HLA class I genotyping of 48 Iranian patients with this disease. As a result, the frequency of the B*51 allele was significantly higher (62.1%) in the patient group as compared with the ethnically matched control group (31.8%) (Pc=0.067, R.R.=3.51). In the genotyping of B*51 alleles, 33 out of the 36 B*51-positive patients possessed B*5101 and the remaining 3 carried B*5108. This study revealed that Iranian patients with BD also had a strong association with HLA-B51. In addition, this significantly high incidence of HLA-B*51 was found to be caused by an increase in both the HLA-B*5101 and HLA-B*5108 alleles. However, there was no significant difference in the HLA-B*51 allelic distribution between the patient and control groups.

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigens and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Protective Role for the HLA-DR6 Alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Aya; Oka, Shomi; Ito, Ikue; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Komiya, Akiko; Fukui, Naoshi; Kondo, Yuya; Ito, Satoshi; Hayashi, Taichi; Matsumoto, Isao; Kusaoi, Makio; Amano, Hirofumi; Nagai, Tatsuo; Hirohata, Shunsei; Setoguchi, Keigo; Kono, Hajime; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Katayama, Masao; Migita, Kiyoshi; Suda, Akiko; Ohno, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Sumida, Takayuki; Nagaoka, Shouhei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been performed. However, few protective associations with HLA-DRB1 alleles have been reported. Here, we sought protective, as well as predispositional, alleles of HLA-DRB1 in Japanese SLE patients. An association study was conducted for HLA-DRB1 in Japanese SLE patients. Relative predispositional effects were analyzed by sequential elimination of carriers of each allele with the strongest association. We also explored the association of DRB1 alleles with SLE phenotypes including the presence of autoantibody and clinical manifestations. Significantly different carrier frequencies of certain DRB1 alleles were found to be associated with SLE as follows: increased DRB1*15:01 (P = 5.48×10−10, corrected P (Pc) = 1.59×10−8, odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69–2.79), decreased DRB1*13:02 (P = 7.17×10−5, Pc = 0.0020, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.63) and decreased DRB1*14:03 (P = 0.0010, Pc = 0.0272, OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18–0.63). Additionally, the “*15:01/*13:02 or *14:03” genotype tended to be negatively associated with SLE (P = 0.4209, OR 0.66), despite there being significant positive associations with *15:01 when present together with alleles other than *13:02 or *14:03 (P = 1.79×10−11, OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.84–3.10). This protective effect of *13:02 and *14:03 was also confirmed in SLE patients with different clinical phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a protective association between the carrier frequencies of HLA-DRB1*13:02 and *14:03 and SLE in the Japanese population. PMID:24498373

  5. Human Leukocyte Antigen-C Genotype and Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor-Ligand Matching in Korean Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Ki Hyun; Park, Hye Sun; Ryu, Ji Hyeong; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Yonggoo; Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Dong Goo

    2017-01-01

    Background The interaction between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and HLA class I regulates natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and function. The impact of NK cell alloreactivity through KIR in liver transplantation remains unelucidated. Since the frequency of HLA-C and KIR genotypes show ethnic differences, we assessed the impact of HLA-C, KIR genotype, or KIR-ligand mismatch on the allograft outcome of Korean liver allografts. Methods One hundred eighty-two living donor liver transplant patients were studied. Thirty-five patients (19.2%) had biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (AR), and eighteen (9.9%) had graft failure. The HLA-C compatibility, KIR genotypes, ligand-ligand, and KIR-ligand matching was retrospectively investigated for association with allograft outcomes. Results Homozygous C1 ligands were predominant in both patients and donors, and frequency of the HLA-C2 allele in Koreans was lower than that in other ethnic groups. Despite the significantly lower frequency of the HLA-C2 genotype in Koreans, donors with at least one HLA-C2 allele showed higher rates of AR than donors with no HLA-C2 alleles (29.2% vs 15.7%, P=0.0423). Although KIR genotypes also showed ethnic differences, KIR genotypes and the number of activating KIR/inhibitory KIR were not associated with the allograft outcome. KIR-ligand mismatch was expected in 31.6% of Korean liver transplants and had no impact on AR or graft survival. Conclusions This study could not confirm the clinical impact of KIR genotypes and KIR-ligand mismatch. However, we demonstrated that the presence of HLA-C2 allele in the donor influenced AR of Korean liver allografts. PMID:27834065

  6. HLA genes in Uros from Titikaka Lake, Peru: origin and relationship with other Amerindians and worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Gonzalez-Alcos, V; Serrano-Vela, J I; Reguera, R; Barbolla, L; Parga-Lozano, C; Gómez-Prieto, P; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, S; Moscoso, J

    2009-06-01

    Uros population from the Titikaka Lake live in about 42 floating reed ('totora') islands in front of Puno City (Peru) at a 4000 m high altiplano. They present both an mtDNA and a human leucocyte antigen (HLA) profile different from the surrounding populations: mtDNA A2 haplogroup is common to Uros and Amazon forest lowland Amerindians. HLA genetic distances between populations have been calculated and neighbour-joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses were carried out. Approximately 15 006 HLA chromosomes from worldwide populations have been used for comparisons. Only eight HLA-A alleles have been found, three of them accounting for most of the frequencies. The same phenomenon is seen for HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles: a few alleles (3, 4 and 3, respectively) are present in most individuals. The presence of HLA-B*4801 and HLA-DRB1*0901 alleles in a relatively high frequency (although not the most frequent alleles found) is a characteristic shared with Asians and some populations from the Andean altiplano. Three specific Uros haplotypes have been found among the most frequent ones: HLA-A*680102-B*3505-DRB1*0403-DQB1*0302; HLA-A*2402-B*1504-DRB1*1402-DQB1*0301; and HLA-A*2402-B*4801-DRB1*0403-DQB1*0302. The present study suggests that Uros may have been one of the first populations from the shores of the Titikaka Lake coming from the Amazonian forest, which might have given rise to other later differentiated ethnic group (i.e. Aymaras). Uros HLA profile is also useful to study genetic epidemiology of diseases linked to HLA and to construct a future transplant waiting list by adding up regional lists in order to get a bigger pool for transplanting with better HLA matching.

  7. Separation of uncompromised whole blood mixtures for single source STR profiling using fluorescently-labeled human leukocyte antigen (HLA) probes and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

    PubMed

    Dean, Lee; Kwon, Ye Jin; Philpott, M Katherine; Stanciu, Cristina E; Seashols-Williams, Sarah J; Dawson Cruz, Tracey; Sturgill, Jamie; Ehrhardt, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of biological mixtures is a significant problem for forensic laboratories, particularly when the mixture contains only one cell type. Contributions from multiple individuals to biologic evidence can complicate DNA profile interpretation and often lead to a reduction in the probative value of DNA evidence or worse, its total loss. To address this, we have utilized an analytical technique that exploits the intrinsic immunological variation among individuals to physically separate cells from different sources in a mixture prior to DNA profiling. Specifically, we applied a fluorescently labeled antibody probe to selectively bind to one contributor in a mixture through allele-specific interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins that are expressed on the surfaces of most nucleated cells. Once the contributor's cells were bound to the probe, they were isolated from the mixture using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)-a high throughput technique for separating cell populations based on their optical properties-and then subjected to STR analysis. We tested this approach on two-person and four-person whole blood mixtures where one contributor possessed an HLA allele (A*02) that was not shared by other contributors to the mixture. Results showed that hybridization of the mixture with a fluorescently-labeled antibody probe complimentary to the A*02 allele's protein product created a cell population with a distinct optical profile that could be easily differentiated from other cells in the mixture. After sorting the cells with FACS, genetic analysis showed that the STR profile of this cell population was consistent with that of the contributor who possessed the A*02 allele. Minor peaks from the A*02 negative contributor(s) were observed but could be easily distinguished from the profile generated from A*02 positive cells. Overall, this indicates that HLA antibody probes coupled to FACS may be an effective approach for generating STR profiles of

  8. Identification of an HLA-A*02 restricted immunogenic peptide derived from the cancer testis antigen HOM-MEL-40/SSX2.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Claudia; Neumann, Frank; Kubuschok, Boris; Regitz, Evi; Mischo, Axel; Stevanovic, Stefan; Friedrich, Michael; Schmidt, Werner; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2003-12-17

    HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 is a SEREX-defined cancer testis antigen with frequent expression in various human neoplasms. To search for HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides that induce HOM-MEL-40/SSX2-specific CD8+ responses in breast cancer patients, we used the SYFPEITHI algorithm to identify three HOM-MEL-40/SSX2-derived nonamers with high binding affinity for HLA-A*0201, which has a prevalence of 40% in the Caucasian population. Of the three peptides, p41-49 and p103-111 but not p167-175 had been shown to be processed by the proteasome. Only stimulation with p103-111 induced HOM-MEL-40-specific CTLs in 5/7 patients with HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 positive breast cancers and in 6/11 healthy controls. HLA-A*0201 restriction of p103-111 was demonstrated by blocking with specific antibodies. The natural processing and presentation of p103-111 was demonstrated by the recognition of the HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 positive cell line SK-MEL-37 and of COS7/A2 cells transfected with HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 by p103-111 specific CD8+ cells. No correlation was found between CD8+ T-cell responses against p103-111 and anti-HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 antibody titers in the serum of patients, suggesting that CD8+ and B-cell responses against HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 are regulated independently. p103-111 holds promise as a broadly applicable peptide vaccine for patients with HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 positive neoplasms.

  9. Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide and Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate Mofetil Combination Prevents Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from HLA-Matched Donors.

    PubMed

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Caravelli, Daniela; Gallo, Susanna; Coha, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Vassallo, Elena; Fizzotti, Marco; Nesi, Francesca; Gioeni, Luisa; Berger, Massimo; Polo, Alessandra; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Becco, Paolo; Giraudo, Lidia; Mangioni, Monica; Sangiolo, Dario; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Sottile, Antonino; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) remains the only curative therapy for many hematologic malignancies but it is limited by high nonrelapse mortality (NRM), primarily from unpredictable control of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently, post-transplant cyclophosphamide demonstrated improved GVHD control in allogeneic bone marrow HCT. Here we explore cyclophosphamide in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). Patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies received alloPBSCT from HLA-matched unrelated/related donors. GVHD prophylaxis included combination post-HCT cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg (days +3 and +4) and tacrolimus/mofetil mycophenolate (T/MMF) (day +5 forward). The primary objective was the cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Between March 2011 and May 2015, 35 consecutive patients received the proposed regimen. MMF was stopped in all patients at day +28; the median discontinuation of tacrolimus was day +113. Acute and chronic GVHD cumulative incidences were 17% and 7%, respectively, with no grade IV GVHD events, only 2 patients requiring chronic GVHD immunosuppression control, and no deaths from GVHD. Two-year NRM, overall survival, event-free survival, and chronic GVHD event-free survival rates were 3%, 77%, 54%, and 49%, respectively. The graft-versus-tumor effect was maintained as 5 of 15 patients (33%) who received HCT with evidence of disease experienced further disease response. A post-transplant cyclophosphamide + T/MMF combination strategy effectively prevented acute and chronic GVHD after alloPBSCT from HLA-matched donors and achieved an unprecedented low NRM without losing efficacy in disease control or impaired development of the graft-versus-tumor effect. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02300571.

  10. Genetic control of autoantibody expression in autoimmune myasthenia gravis: role of the self-antigen and of HLA-linked loci.

    PubMed

    Giraud, M; Beaurain, G; Eymard, B; Tranchant, C; Gajdos, P; Garchon, H-J

    2004-08-01

    Autoantibodies against the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) play an essential role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG). Their serum titers, however, vary considerably among patients. Our aim was to investigate whether their variation might be explained by genetic factors. Using different methods, we have obtained strong evidence for a three-locus association influencing autoantibody titers in MG patients with thymus hyperplasia or with a normal thymus. Two of the loci, one encoding the AChR alpha-subunit, the other encoding the alpha-chain of the class II antigen-presentation molecule, HLA-DQ, demonstrated interaction to determine high autoantibody titers. The third locus was associated with the 8.1 ancestral HLA haplotype. It exerted an additive effect and it is postulated to have a nonantigen specific immunoregulatory function. Our study demonstrates for the first time that polymorphism of an autoantigen gene may quantitatively modify the immune response against it. Altogether, the data lend support to a three-gene model to explain autoantibody expression in a subset of MG patients.

  11. Long-term mycophenolate monotherapy in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical living-donor kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Methods We analyzed all PRA-negative patients who received a first kidney transplant from an HLA-identical living donor. The patients received no antibody induction. An intraoperative bolus of 500 mg of methylprednisolone was administered. Then, steroid therapy was withdrawn within one week. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate treatment were started 3 days before transplantation with tacrolimus target levels of 4 to 8 ng/mL. In the absence of rejection, tacrolimus was withdrawn between 3 and 12 months post-transplant to reach mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy of 2 g/day or equivalent. Results Six patients were treated with the above protocol. At last follow-up, graft and patient survival were 100%. MDRD glomerular filtration rates were 54, 60, and 62 mL/min at 3 months, 12 months and last follow-up, respectively. None of the patients developed PRA post-transplant. One episode of acute rejection Banff IA occurred 9 years after transplantation due to non-adherence with good outcome after treatment. The mean number of concomitant drugs given with mycophenolate was 2.6. Four patients needed antihypertensive drugs. Conclusion Steroid-free de novo treatment and calcineurin-inhibitor weaning with mycophenolate monotherapy is feasible in first HLA-identical kidney transplantation from a living sibling. Although recipients of a first HLA-identical living-donor kidney transplant seem to need less immunosuppression, there are no guideline recommendations for these patients, and few prospective trials are available. PMID:24491040

  12. Defective antigen presentation by monocytes in ESRD patients not responding to hepatitis B vaccination: impaired HBsAg internalization and expression of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR/Ia molecules

    PubMed Central

    Barth, C.; Pollok, M.; Michałkiewicz, J.; Madaliński, K.; Maciejewski, J.; Baldamis, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the monocyte function of uraemic non-responders to hepatitis B vaccination. Therefore, some parameters concerning antigen processing by monocytes (Mo) as antigen presenting cells (APC) were analysed. It was found that in uraemic non-responders, (1) the internalization of HBsAg by monocytes was significantly decreasjed—HBsAg complexed with specific IgG or as immune complex isolated from patients is better internalized compared with free HBsAg; (2) during antigen presentation the expression of adhesion (ICAM-1) and accessory (HLA-DR/Ia) molecules was significantly decreased in uraemic patients, especially in non-responders; and (3) impaired internalization of HBsAg as well as a decrease in ICAM-1 and HLA-DR/Ia expression, correlated well with the blunted proliferation of CD4+ T cells stimulated by autologous monocytes induced by HBsAg. PMID:18475616

  13. A recombinant single-chain human class II MHC molecule (HLA-DR1) as a covalently linked heterotrimer of alpha chain, beta chain, and antigenic peptide, with immunogenicity in vitro and reduced affinity for bacterial superantigens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Bavari, S; Ulrich, R; Sadegh-Nasseri, S; Ferrone, S; McHugh, L; Mage, M

    1997-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules bind to numerous peptides and display these on the cell surface for T cell recognition. In a given immune response, receptors on T cells recognize antigenic peptides that are a minor population of MHC class II-bound peptides. To control which peptides are presented to T cells, it may be desirable to use recombinant MHC molecules with covalently bound antigenic peptides. To study T cell responses to such homogeneous peptide-MHC complexes, we engineered an HLA-DR1 cDNA coding for influenza hemagglutinin, influenza matrix, or HIV p24 gag peptides covalently attached via a peptide spacer to the N terminus of the DR1 beta chain. Co-transfection with DR alpha cDNA into mouse L cells resulted in surface expression of HLA-DR1 molecules that reacted with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for correctly folded HLA-DR epitopes. This suggested that the spacer and peptide did not alter expression or folding of the molecule. We then engineered an additional peptide spacer between the C terminus of a truncated beta chain (without transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains) and the N terminus of full-length DR alpha chain. Transfection of this cDNA into mouse L cells resulted in surface expression of the entire covalently linked heterotrimer of peptide, beta chain, and alpha chain with the expected molecular mass of approximately 66 kDa. These single-chain HLA-DR1 molecules reacted with mAb specific for correctly folded HLA-DR epitopes, and identified one mAb with [MHC + peptide] specificity. Affinity-purified soluble secreted single-chain molecules with truncated alpha chain moved in electrophoresis as compact class II MHC dimers. Cell surface two-chain or single-chain HLA-DR1 molecules with a covalent HA peptide stimulated HLA-DR1-restricted HA-specific T cells. They were immunogenic in vitro for peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The two-chain and single-chain HLA-DR1 molecules with covalent HA peptide had reduced binding

  14. Naturally processed peptides spanning the HPA-1a polymorphism are efficiently generated and displayed from platelet glycoprotein by HLA-DRB3*0101-positive antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Anani Sarab, Gholamreza; Moss, Michael; Barker, Robert N; Urbaniak, Stanislaw J

    2009-08-27

    In neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, almost all human platelet antigen (HPA)-1b1b mothers who produce anti-HPA-1a antibody through carrying an HPA-1a fetus are human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB3*0101 positive. It is predicted that the HPA-1a Leu(33) polymorphism forms part of an HLA-DRB3*0101-restricted T-helper epitope, and acts as an anchor residue for binding this class II molecule. However, it is not known whether any corresponding peptides are naturally processed and presented from platelet glycoprotein. In this study, peptides displayed by a homozygous HLA-DRB3*0101 antigen-presenting cell line were identified after pulsing with recombinant HPA-1a (Leu(33) plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain). The peptides were eluted from HLA-DR molecules, fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography, and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. A "nested set" of naturally presented HPA-1a-derived peptides, each containing the Trp(25)-Leu(33) core epitope, was identified, with the most abundant member being the 16-mer Met(22)-Arg(37). These peptides may provide the basis for novel treatments to tolerize the corresponding T-helper response in women at risk of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

  15. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype, tissue HCV antigens, hepatocellular expression of HLA-A,B,C, and intercellular adhesion-1 molecules. Clues to pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage and response to interferon treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed Central

    Ballardini, G; Groff, P; Pontisso, P; Giostra, F; Francesconi, R; Lenzi, M; Zauli, D; Alberti, A; Bianchi, F B

    1995-01-01

    To obtain information on the mechanisms of hepatocellular damage and the determinants of response to interferon, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype, tissue HCV antigens, hepatocellular expression of HLA-A,B,C and intercellular adhesion-1 molecules, and the number of lobular T lymphocytes were studied in 38 anti-HCV-positive patients. 14 patients did not show a primary response to interferon treatment. HCV genotype 1b was detected in 11 of them. They displayed higher scores of HCV-positive hepatocytes, HLA-A,B,C, and ICAM-1 molecules expression than with the responders. HCV-infected hepatocytes maintained the capacity to express HLA-A,B,C and ICAM-1 molecules. CD8-positive T cells in contact with infected hepatocytes and Councilman-like bodies were observed. A significant correlation was found between the number of lobular CD8-positive T cells and alanine amino transferase levels. No differences were observed in clinical, biochemical, and histological features between patients with high and low number of hepatocytes containing HCV antigens. These data suggest a prominent role of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the genesis of hepatocellular damage. The high expression of interferon-inducible antigens like HLA-A,B,C molecules suggests the presence of strong activation of the interferon system possibly related to high HCV replication in nonresponder patients infected with genotype 1b. Images PMID:7738174

  16. Human CD4(+) T Cell Responses to an Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Parallel Those Induced by Natural Infection in Magnitude, HLA Restriction, and Antigen Specificity.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Michael A; Grifoni, Alba; O'Rourke, Patrick H; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Diehl, Sean A; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P; Sette, Alessandro; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for growing numbers of infections worldwide and has proven to be a significant challenge for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by a dengue live attenuated virus (DLAV) vaccine resemble those observed after natural infection. In this study, we screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors vaccinated with a tetravalent DLAV vaccine (TV005) with pools of dengue virus-derived predicted major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II binding peptides. The definition of CD4(+) T cell responses after live vaccination is important because CD4(+) T cells are known contributors to host immunity, including cytokine production, help for CD8(+) T and B cells, and direct cytotoxicity against infected cells. While responses to all antigens were observed, DENV-specific CD4(+) T cells were focused predominantly on the capsid and nonstructural NS3 and NS5 antigens. Importantly, CD4(+) T cell responses in vaccinees were similar in magnitude and breadth to those after natural infection, recognized the same antigen hierarchy, and had similar profiles of HLA restriction. We conclude that TV005 vaccination has the capacity to elicit CD4(+) cell responses closely mirroring those observed in a population associated with natural immunity.IMPORTANCE The development of effective vaccination strategies against dengue virus infection is of high global public health interest. Here we study the CD4 T cell responses elicited by a tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine and show that they resemble responses seen in humans naturally exposed to dengue virus. This is an important issue, since it is likely that optimal immunity induced by a vaccine requires induction of CD4(+) responses against the same antigens as those recognized as dominant in natural infection. Detailed knowledge of the T cell response may further contribute to the identification of robust correlates of protection against

  17. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189

  18. Directed sibling donor cord blood banking for children with beta-thalassemia major in Greece: usage rate and outcome of transplantation for HLA-matched units.

    PubMed

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Petrakou, Eftichia; Theodosaki, Maria; Kitra, Vasiliki; Peristeri, Ioulia; Vessalas, George; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Papassavas, Andreas C; Stavropoulos-Giokas, Catherine; Graphakos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Several cord blood banks store cord blood units from healthy siblings of patients, who are candidates for stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the quality characteristics of 50 cord blood units collected from families with beta-thalassemia major and the outcome of subsequent stem cell transplantations during a 15-year period. All cord blood units were found suitable for banking based on a minimum net volume of 40 ml. The mean volume of the units was 98.9 ml; the mean total nucleated cell count (NC) was 7.8 x 10(8) and the mean CD34+ cell count was 2.8 x 10(6). Eight out of twelve HLA matched collections were released for transplantation. All but one recipient belonged to Pesaro II-III risk classes. Three patients received a cord blood graft with >5 x 10(7) NC/kg . One of them with Pesaro class I disease engrafted, whereas the other two who failed to engraft, were re-transplanted with bone marrow from the same donor later. Cord blood grafts containing NCs <4 x 10(7)/kg combined with reduced volume bone marrow from the same donor were used in all 5 remaining cases and stable engraftment was achieved. All patients survived, 7/8 thalassemia-free. Cord blood banking from healthy siblings of children with beta-thalassemia major can result in a successful transplantation in cases in which there is HLA compatibility. However, in high-risk patients, the use of combined cord blood and bone marrow grafts seems necessary in order to ensure stable engraftment, especially when cord blood unit cell counts are low.

  19. Association of human leukocyte antigen class I antigens in Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Toofan, Hesam; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Hosseini, Seyed Hamed; Rezaei, Nima

    2013-04-01

    There are a limited number of reports indicating the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles in pemphigus vulgaris. This study was designed to highlight the association of HLA class I alleles with pemphigus vulgaris in Iran. Fifty patients with pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed based on clinical, histological and direct immunofluorescence findings were enrolled into this study. The control group consisted of 50 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals. HLA typing of class I (A, B and C alleles) was carried out using polymerase chain reaction based on the sequence-specific primer method. This study showed the higher frequency of HLA-B*44:02 (P = 0.007), -C*04:01 (P < 0.001), -C*15:02 (P < 0.001) and -C*16:01 (P = 0.027) in the patient group, compared to the controls, while the frequency of HLA-C*06:02 (P < 0.001) and -C*18:01 (P = 0.008) in the patients with pemphigus vulgaris was significantly lower than the controls. Regarding the linkage disequilibrium between HLA class I alleles, the HLA-A*03:01, -B*51:01, -C*16:02 haplotype (4% vs 0%, P = 0.04) is suggested to be a predisposing factor, whereas HLA-A*26:01, -B*38, -C*12:03 haplotype (0% vs 6%, P = 0.01) is suggested to be a protective factor. In conclusion, it is suggested that HLA-B*44:02, -C*04:01, -C*15:02 alleles and HLA-A*03:01, -B*51:01, -C*16:02 haplotype are susceptibility factors for development of pemphigus vulgaris in the Iranian population, while HLA-C*06:02, -C*18:01 alleles and HLA-A*26:01, -B*38, -C*12:03 haplotype may be considered as protective alleles.

  20. Combined influences of Gm and HLA phenotypes upon multiple sclerosis susceptibility and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Salier, J P; Sesboüé, R; Martin-Mondière, C; Daveau, M; Cesaro, P; Cavelier, B; Coquerel, A; Legrand, L; Goust, J M; Degos, J D

    1986-01-01

    In some Caucasian populations, multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility has been independently related to given alleles of HLA or Gm systems that respectively code for major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens or immunoglobulin G heavy chains. Whether given combinations of alleles at both series of loci simultaneously influence MS susceptibility and/or severity was investigated by comparing 147 French MS patients and 226 geographically-matched healthy controls. The G2m(-23)/HLA-B35 phenotype and G1m(-1)/HLA-B7(-)/HLA-DR2 phenotype were respectively associated with significant protection against (relative risk = 0.05) and susceptibility to (relative risk = 4.3) MS. When considering MS severity, the presence of HLA-B7 antigen correlated with a more severe disease in Gm1/Gm3 heterozygous patients, but not in Gm3/Gm3 homozygous patients. Conversely, an HLA-B12-associated milder disease was restricted to Gm3/Gm3 homozygotes. These results demonstrate the combined influence on MS of genetic loci that are unlinked but immune response-associated. Combined Gm and HLA typing is very likely able to serve as a prognostic indicator in this disease. PMID:3461005

  1. Combined influences of Gm and HLA phenotypes upon multiple sclerosis susceptibility and severity.

    PubMed

    Salier, J P; Sesboüé, R; Martin-Mondière, C; Daveau, M; Cesaro, P; Cavelier, B; Coquerel, A; Legrand, L; Goust, J M; Degos, J D

    1986-08-01

    In some Caucasian populations, multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility has been independently related to given alleles of HLA or Gm systems that respectively code for major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens or immunoglobulin G heavy chains. Whether given combinations of alleles at both series of loci simultaneously influence MS susceptibility and/or severity was investigated by comparing 147 French MS patients and 226 geographically-matched healthy controls. The G2m(-23)/HLA-B35 phenotype and G1m(-1)/HLA-B7(-)/HLA-DR2 phenotype were respectively associated with significant protection against (relative risk = 0.05) and susceptibility to (relative risk = 4.3) MS. When considering MS severity, the presence of HLA-B7 antigen correlated with a more severe disease in Gm1/Gm3 heterozygous patients, but not in Gm3/Gm3 homozygous patients. Conversely, an HLA-B12-associated milder disease was restricted to Gm3/Gm3 homozygotes. These results demonstrate the combined influence on MS of genetic loci that are unlinked but immune response-associated. Combined Gm and HLA typing is very likely able to serve as a prognostic indicator in this disease.

  2. HLA Immune Function Genes in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Anthony R.; Westover, Jonna B.; Rosenspire, Allen J.

    2012-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes on chromosome 6 are instrumental in many innate and adaptive immune responses. The HLA genes/haplotypes can also be involved in immune dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. It is now becoming apparent that many of the non-antigen-presenting HLA genes make significant contributions to autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, it has been reported that autism subjects often have associations with HLA genes/haplotypes, suggesting an underlying dysregulation of the immune system mediated by HLA genes. Genetic studies have only succeeded in identifying autism-causing genes in a small number of subjects suggesting that the genome has not been adequately interrogated. Close examination of the HLA region in autism has been relatively ignored, largely due to extraordinary genetic complexity. It is our proposition that genetic polymorphisms in the HLA region, especially in the non-antigen-presenting regions, may be important in the etiology of autism in certain subjects. PMID:22928105

  3. The Humoral Theory of Transplantation: Epitope Analysis and the Pathogenicity of HLA Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Farber, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Central to the humoral theory of transplantation is production of antibodies by the recipient against mismatched HLA antigens in the donor organ. Not all mismatches result in antibody production, however, and not all antibodies are pathogenic. Serologic HLA matching has been the standard for solid organ allocation algorithms in current use. Antibodies do not recognize whole HLA molecules but rather polymorphic residues on the surface, called epitopes, which may be shared by multiple serologic HLA antigens. Data are accumulating that epitope analysis may be a better way to determine organ compatibility as well as the potential immunogenicity of given HLA mismatches. Determination of the pathogenicity of alloantibodies is evolving. Potential features include antibody strength (as assessed by antibody titer or, more commonly and inappropriately, mean fluorescence intensity) and ability to fix complement (in vitro by C1q or C3d assay or by IgG subclass analysis). Technical issues with the use of solid phase assays are also of prime importance, such as denaturation of HLA antigens and manufacturing and laboratory variability. Questions and controversies remain, and here we review new relevant data. PMID:28070526

  4. Induction of an antitumor response using dendritic cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding the HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitopes of tumor-associated antigens in culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Sergey Vital'evich; Shevchenko, Julia Alexandrovna; Kurilin, Vasilii Vasil'evich; Khantakova, Julia Nikolaevna; Lopatnikova, Julia Anatol'evna; Gavrilova, Elena Vasil'evna; Maksyutov, Rinat Amirovich; Bakulina, Anastasiya Yur'evna; Sidorov, Sergey Vasil'evich; Khristin, Alexander Alexandrovich; Maksyutov, Amir Zakievich

    2016-02-01

    Advances in oncoimmunology related to the definition of the basic mechanisms of the formation of antitumor immune response, as well as the opening of tumor-associated antigens recognized by immune cells, allowed to start developing ways to influence the effector cells of the immune system to generate effective antitumor cytotoxic response. We investigated the possibility to stimulate an antitumor response in a culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients by dendritic cells transfected with HLA-A*02:01-restricted DNA constructs. We isolated dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes and delivered our constructs to these cells by magnetic transfection. Additionally, a series of experiments with loading of dendritic cells with autologous tumor cell lysate antigens was conducted. We have shown that dendritic cells transfected with the HLA-A*02:01-restricted DNA constructs are effective in inducing an antitumor response in a culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients. Dendritic cells transfected with DNA constructor dendritic cells loaded with lysate antigens revealed a comparable stimulated cytotoxic response of mononuclear cells to these two ways of antigen delivery. We conclude that using DNA constructs in conjunction with patient stratification by HLA type allows the application of transfected DCs as an effective method to stimulate antitumor immunity in vitro.

  5. Susceptibility to aplastic anemia is associated with HLA-DRB1*1501 in an aboriginal population in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, J S; Wong, Lily; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Yin, Lee Yin; Murad, Shahnaz

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of aplastic anemia is reported to be higher in Asia than elsewhere. We studied the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1 alleles in aplastic anemia patients from 2 genetically similar aboriginal groups, the Kadazan and the Dusun, and compared them with genetically matched community and hospital controls. HLA-DRB1*15 was significantly higher in the patients compared with controls (p = 0.005), confirming similar findings in Japanese and Caucasian studies. Further testing indicated a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*1501 in patients compared with controls (p = 0.0004) but no significant difference in the frequency of HLA-DRB1*1502. The high frequency of HLA-DRB1*15 in the Kadazan and Dusun population combined with the wide variety of environmental factors associated with aplastic anemia could be the reason for the elevated incidence of aplastic anemia in the Kadazan and Dusun in Sabah.

  6. Dendritic cell count in the graft predicts relapse in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an HLA-matched related allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Reena; Lakshmi, Kavitha M; George, Biju; Viswabandya, Auro; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Abraham, Aby; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok; Mathews, Vikram

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the impact of the number of infused and reconstituted immunocompetent cells including dendritic cells (DCs) on clinical outcome of patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Sixty-nine consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies were included in the analysis. The median age of the cohort was 32 years (range: 2-62 years) and there were 39 (57%) males. Twenty-one (30%) patients relapsed with a cumulative incidence of 44 % +/- 14% at a median follow up of 28 months. On a multivariate analysis, a high plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PC) content in the graft was associated with higher risk of relapse. The patients were further categorized based on the median PC counts in the graft as high (> or =2.3 x 10(6)/kg) and low (<2.3 x 10(6)/kg) groups. The baseline characteristics of these 2 groups were comparable. The group that had a high PC content in the graft had significantly higher risk of relapse and lower overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Our data suggests that PC content in the graft predicts clinical outcomes such as relapse and survival in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an allogeneic HLA matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. There is potential for pretransplant manipulation of this cellular subset in the graft.

  7. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  8. Structures of MART-126/27-35Peptide/HLA-A2 Complexes Reveal a Remarkable Disconnect between Antigen Structural Homology and T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Insaidoo, Francis K; Baxter, Tiffany K; Powell, Jr., Daniel J.; Johnson, Laura A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Baker, Brian M

    2008-09-17

    Small structural changes in peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules often result in large changes in immunogenicity, supporting the notion that T cell receptors are exquisitely sensitive to antigen structure. Yet there are striking examples of TCR recognition of structurally dissimilar ligands. The resulting unpredictability of how T cells will respond to different or modified antigens impacts both our understanding of the physical bases for TCR specificity as well as efforts to engineer peptides for immunomodulation. In cancer immunotherapy, epitopes and variants derived from the MART-1/Melan-A protein are widely used as clinical vaccines. Two overlapping epitopes spanning amino acid residues 26 through 35 are of particular interest: numerous clinical studies have been performed using variants of the MART-1 26-35 decamer, although only the 27-35 nonamer has been found on the surface of targeted melanoma cells. Here, we show that the 26-35 and 27-35 peptides adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to HLA-A2. Nevertheless, clonally distinct MART-1{sub 26/27-35}-reactive T cells show broad cross-reactivity towards these ligands. Simultaneously, however, many of the cross-reactive T cells remain unable to recognize anchor-modified variants with very subtle structural differences. These dichotomous observations challenge our thinking about how structural information on unligated peptide/MHC complexes should be best used when addressing questions of TCR specificity. Our findings also indicate that caution is warranted in the design of immunotherapeutics based on the MART-1 26/27-35 epitopes, as neither cross-reactivity nor selectivity is predictable based on the analysis of the structures alone.

  9. Antithymocyte globulins and chronic graft-vs-host disease after myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors: a report from the Sociéte Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire.

    PubMed

    Mohty, M; Labopin, M; Balère, M L; Socié, G; Milpied, N; Tabrizi, R; Ifrah, N; Hicheri, Y; Dhedin, N; Michallet, M; Buzyn, A; Cahn, J-Y; Bourhis, J-H; Blaise, D; Raffoux, C; Espérou, H; Yakoub-Agha, I

    2010-11-01

    This retrospective report assessed the impact of rabbit antithymocyte globulins (ATG), incorporated within a standard myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) using human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donors (HLA-MUD), on the incidence of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). In this series of leukemia patients, 120 patients (70%) did not receive ATG ('no-ATG' group), whereas 51 patients received ATG ('ATG' group). With a median follow-up of 30.3 months, the cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD was 36% in the no-ATG group and 20% in the ATG group (P = 0.11). The cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was significantly lower in the ATG group as compared to the no-ATG group (4 vs 32%, respectively; P = 0.0017). In multivariate analysis, the absence of use of ATG was the strongest parameter associated with an increased risk of extensive chronic GVHD (relative risk) = 7.14, 95% CI: 1.7-33.3, P = 0.008). At 2 years, the probability of nonrelapse mortality, relapse, overall and leukemia-free survivals was not significantly different between the no-ATG and ATG groups. We conclude that the addition of ATG to GVHD prophylaxis resulted in decreased incidence of extensive chronic GVHD without an increase in relapse or nonrelapse mortality, and without compromising survival after myeloablative allo-SCT from HLA-MUD.

  10. Membranous nephropathy as a manifestation of graft-versus-host disease: association with HLA antigen typing, phospholipase A2 receptor, and C4d.

    PubMed

    Byrne-Dugan, Cathryn J; Collins, A Bernard; Lam, Albert Q; Batal, Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Glomerulopathy is an uncommon but increasingly recognized complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. It typically manifests as membranous nephropathy, less commonly as minimal change disease, and rarely as proliferative glomerulonephritis. There is evidence to suggest that these glomerulopathies might represent manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In this report, we focus on membranous nephropathy as the most common form of glomerulopathy after hematopoietic cell transplantation. We present a case of membranous nephropathy that developed 483 days post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with a history of acute graft-versus-host disease. We also share our experience with 4 other cases of membranous nephropathy occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinicopathologic correlates, including the association with graft-versus-host-disease, HLA antigen typing, glomerular deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, subepithelial colocalization of IgG deposits with phospholipase A2 receptor staining, C4d deposition along the peritubular capillaries, and treatment, are discussed with references to the literature.

  11. HLAMatchmaker-based strategy to identify acceptable HLA class I mismatches for highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Rene J; Witvliet, Marian; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; de Fijter, Hans; Claas, Frans H J

    2004-01-01

    HLAMatchmaker determines HLA compatibility at the level of polymorphic amino acid triplets in antibody-accessible sequence positions. Recent studies have shown that among HLA-DR-matched kidney transplants, the HLA-A,B antigen mismatches which are compatible at the triplet level have almost identical graft survival rates as the zero-HLA-A,B antigen mismatches. This finding provides the basis of a new strategy to identify HLA-mismatched organs that have similar success rates as the zero-HLA-antigen mismatches. This report describes how in conjunction with the Acceptable Mismatch program in Eurotransplant, HLAMatchmaker can expand the pool of potential donors for highly sensitized patients, for whom it is very difficult to find a compatible transplant. Sera from 35 highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates with an average PRA of 96% were screened by lymphocytotoxicity with HLA-typed panels that included cells that were selectively mismatched for one or two HLA antigens for each patient. Acceptable and unacceptable HLA-A,B antigen mismatches were determined from the serum reactivity with the cell panel. HLAMatchmaker analysis was applied to identify additional HLA class I antigens that were matched at the triplet level. For each patient, we calculated the probability of finding a donor (PFD) in the different match categories from HLA gene frequencies in the kidney donor population. The median PFD for a zero-antigen mismatch was 0.025%. Matching at the triplet level increased the median PFD to 0.037% ( P = 0.008). The median PFD was 0.058% for a 0-1-triplet mismatch and 0.226% for a 0-2-triplet mismatch. Serum screening identified acceptable antigen mismatches for 28 of 35 highly sensitized patients, and the median PFD increased to 0.307% for a zero/acceptable antigen mismatch. The application of HLAMatchmaker permitted for 33 patients (or 92%) the identification of additional antigens that were acceptable at the triplet level, and the median PFD for a zero

  12. The ever-expanding list of HLA alleles: changing HLA nomenclature and its relevance to clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tait, Brian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of the HLA system 51 years ago, both the techniques for the detection of HLA antigens and the method of nomenclature for cataloguing them have changed dramatically. Initially serology was the sole technological tool available to describe the polymorphism of the class 1 and later the class 2 loci. Numbers were assigned to antigens as they were described and as serologic techniques that improved "subtypes" of the original antigens were described. With sequencing of HLA alleles, further polymorphisms were described, and it became evident that the degree of polymorphism was much greater than had hitherto been realized. Sequence differences were detected between alleles, which did not appear to provoke antibody responses but were clearly recognized by responding T cells. A new method of nomenclature was devised, which assigned 2 sets of numbers to each allele. The first 2 numbers indicated the serologic group to which the allele belonged, whereas the second set of 2 numbers was assigned in a numerical progression as each new allele was described. In addition, letters were introduced at the end of each allele where they were known to be nonexpressed or have low levels of cell expression. The limitation of this system is that it only caters for 99 alleles in each serologic group, and this has now been exceeded in some cases. The World Health Organization Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA system introduced a modification of the current nomenclature in April 2010 which uses colons to separate the numbers that has the effect of delimiting the number of alleles, which can be assigned to each serologic group. Due to the extensive polymorphism of the HLA genes, sequencing frequently results in ambiguous combinations of alleles and also "strings" of possible alleles due to polymorphisms in nonsequenced gene locations. The reporting in such instances has been simplified to some extent by the introduction of a lettering system to indicate a

  13. Fludarabine/2 Gy TBI is Superior to 2 Gy TBI as Conditioning for HLA-Matched Related HCT: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kornblit, Brian; Maloney, David G.; Storb, Rainer; Storek, Jan; Hari, Parameswaran; Vucinic, Vladan; Maziarz, Richard T.; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Bruno, Benedetto; Petersen, Finn B.; Bethge, Wolfgang A.; Hübel, Kai; Bouvier, Michelle E.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    The risk/benefit of adding fludarabine to a 2 Gy total body irradiation nonmyeloablative regimen is unknown. For this reason we conducted a prospective randomized trial comparing 2 Gy TBI alone or in combination with 90mg/m2 fludarabine (FLU/TBI) before transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-matched related donors. Eighty-five patients with hematological malignancies were randomized to be conditioned with TBI alone (n=44) or FLU/TBI (n=41). All patients had initial engraftment. Two graft rejections were observed, both in the TBI group. Infection rates, nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD were similar between groups. Three-year overall survival was lower in the TBI group (54% vs. 65%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.57; p=0.09), with higher incidences of relapse/progression (55% vs. 40%; HR 0.55; p=0.06) and relapse-related mortality (37% vs. 28%; HR 0.53; p=0.09), and a lower progression-free survival (36% vs. 53%; HR 0.56; p=0.05). Median donor T-cell chimerism levels were significantly lower in the TBI group at days 28 (61% vs. 90%; p<0.0001) and 84 (68% vs. 92%; p<0.0001), as was NK-cell chimerism on day 28 (75% vs. 96%, p=0.0005). In conclusion, this randomized trial demonstrates the importance of fludarabine in augmenting the graft-versus-tumor effect by ensuring prompt and durable high level donor engraftment early post-transplant. PMID:23769990

  14. Patterns of Immunodominance in HIV-1–specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses in Two Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)-identical Siblings with HLA-A*0201 Are Influenced by Epitope Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Goulder, P.J.R.; Sewell, A.K.; Lalloo, D.G.; Price, D.A.; Whelan, J.A.; Evans, J.; Taylor, G.P.; Luzzi, G.; Giangrande, P.; Phillips, R.E.; McMichael, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is controlled principally by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to a steady-state level of virus load, which strongly influences the ultimate rate of progression to disease. Epitope selection by CTL may be an important determinant of the degree of immune control over the virus. This report describes the CTL responses of two HLA-identical hemophiliac brothers who were exposed to identical batches of Factor VIII and became seropositive within 10 wk of one another. Both have HLA-A*0201. The CTL responses of the two siblings were very dissimilar, one donor making strong responses to two epitopes within p17 Gag (HLA-A*0201–restricted SLYNTVATL and HLA-A3–restricted RLRPGGKKK). The sibling responded to neither epitope, but made strong responses to two epitopes presented by HLA-B7. This was not the result of differences in presentation of the epitopes. However, mutations in both immunodominant epitopes of the p17 Gag responder were seen in proviral sequences of the nonresponder. We then documented the CTL responses to two HLA-A*0201–restricted epitopes, in Gag (SLYNTVATL) and Pol (ILKEPVHGV) in 22 other HIV-infected donors with HLA-A*0201. The majority (71%) generated responses to the Gag epitope. In the 29% of donors failing to respond to the Gag epitope in standard assays, there was evidence of low frequency memory CTL responses using peptide stimulation of PBMC, and most of these donors also showed mutations in or around the Gag epitope. We concluded that HLA class I genotype determines epitope selection initially but that mutation in immunodominant epitopes can profoundly alter the pattern of CTL response. PMID:9126923

  15. Analysis of the role of human leukocyte antigen class-I genes to understand the etiopathology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bisu; Banerjee, Sikta; Bera, Nirmal K.; Nayak, Chitta R.; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is the paradigmatic illness of psychiatry. The involvement of immunological and immunopathological mechanisms in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia has been a matter of research, with recently increasing effort. Aims: In this study, we investigated the incidence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I antigens to understand the role of HLA genes in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: India born schizophrenic patients in and around Siliguri who attended outpatient department (OPD) of Department of Psychiatry, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital were considered for the present study. After the longitudinal follow up, 50 patients were enrolled for the study. The same number of age, sex and ethnically matched healthy subjects were considered as control. Low resolution polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method was applied for typing the HLA antigens. Statistics: The phenotype frequencies were calculated by direct count. χ2 test was done to compare the frequency of each antigen among the patients and control group and it was followed by Fisher's exact test. Relative risk was estimated by using Haldane's method. Results: The result showed that some of the HLA antigens are associated with the schizophrenia and significant increase were observed for HLA A*03 antigen along with the significant decrease for HLA A*25, A*31 and HLA B*51. Conclusions: The study provides the evidence for the possible existence of susceptibility locus for schizophrenia within the HLA region. This preliminary observation may help to understand the etiological basis of this disorder and the study may further strengthen the HLA antigens as the marker for schizophrenia. PMID:19742184

  16. Comparison of HLA allelic imputation programs.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jason H; Shaffer, Christian M; Bastarache, Lisa; Gaudieri, Silvana; Glazer, Andrew M; Steiner, Heidi E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Mallal, Simon; Denny, Joshua C; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Roden, Dan M

    2017-01-01

    Imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles from SNP-level data is attractive due to importance of HLA alleles in human disease, widespread availability of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, and expertise required for HLA sequencing. However, comprehensive evaluations of HLA imputations programs are limited. We compared HLA imputation results of HIBAG, SNP2HLA, and HLA*IMP:02 to sequenced HLA alleles in 3,265 samples from BioVU, a de-identified electronic health record database coupled to a DNA biorepository. We performed four-digit HLA sequencing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1 using long-read 454 FLX sequencing. All samples were genotyped using both the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip platform and a GWAS platform. Call rates and concordance rates were compared by platform, frequency of allele, and race/ethnicity. Overall concordance rates were similar between programs in European Americans (EA) (0.975 [SNP2HLA]; 0.939 [HLA*IMP:02]; 0.976 [HIBAG]). SNP2HLA provided a significant advantage in terms of call rate and the number of alleles imputed. Concordance rates were lower overall for African Americans (AAs). These observations were consistent when accuracy was compared across HLA loci. All imputation programs performed similarly for low frequency HLA alleles. Higher concordance rates were observed when HLA alleles were imputed from GWAS platforms versus the HumanExome BeadChip, suggesting that high genomic coverage is preferred as input for HLA allelic imputation. These findings provide guidance on the best use of HLA imputation methods and elucidate their limitations.

  17. Comparison of HLA allelic imputation programs

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Christian M.; Bastarache, Lisa; Gaudieri, Silvana; Glazer, Andrew M.; Steiner, Heidi E.; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Mallal, Simon; Denny, Joshua C.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Roden, Dan M.

    2017-01-01

    Imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles from SNP-level data is attractive due to importance of HLA alleles in human disease, widespread availability of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, and expertise required for HLA sequencing. However, comprehensive evaluations of HLA imputations programs are limited. We compared HLA imputation results of HIBAG, SNP2HLA, and HLA*IMP:02 to sequenced HLA alleles in 3,265 samples from BioVU, a de-identified electronic health record database coupled to a DNA biorepository. We performed four-digit HLA sequencing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1 using long-read 454 FLX sequencing. All samples were genotyped using both the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip platform and a GWAS platform. Call rates and concordance rates were compared by platform, frequency of allele, and race/ethnicity. Overall concordance rates were similar between programs in European Americans (EA) (0.975 [SNP2HLA]; 0.939 [HLA*IMP:02]; 0.976 [HIBAG]). SNP2HLA provided a significant advantage in terms of call rate and the number of alleles imputed. Concordance rates were lower overall for African Americans (AAs). These observations were consistent when accuracy was compared across HLA loci. All imputation programs performed similarly for low frequency HLA alleles. Higher concordance rates were observed when HLA alleles were imputed from GWAS platforms versus the HumanExome BeadChip, suggesting that high genomic coverage is preferred as input for HLA allelic imputation. These findings provide guidance on the best use of HLA imputation methods and elucidate their limitations. PMID:28207879

  18. HLA class II alleles and risk for peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Marzban, Ahmad; Kiani, Javad; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Rezaei, Hamzeh; Kahramfar, Zohreh; Solgi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype variations on development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is not well determined. This study aimed to identify the association of HLA class II alleles with DPN in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Totally 106 T2D patients, 49 with DPN and 57 without DPN, and 100 ethnic-matched healthy controls were analyzed. Both groups of the patients were matched based on sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and duration of T2D. Polyneuropathy was diagnosed using electrodiagnostic methods. HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 genotyping was performed in all subjects by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method. T2D patients with DPN showed higher frequencies of HLA-DRB1*10 and DRB1*12 alleles compared to control group (P = 0.04). HLA-DQB1*02 allele and HLA-DRB1*07-DQB1*02 haplotype were associated with a decreased risk for developing DPN in T2D patients (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05 respectively). Also, patients with severe neuropathy showed higher frequencies of DRB1*07 (P = 0.003) and DQB1*02 (P = 0.02) alleles than those with mild-to-moderate form of neuropathy. The distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and haplotypes were not statistically different between all patients and healthy controls. Our findings implicate a possible protective role of HLA-DQB1*02 allele and HLA-DRB1*07-DQB1*02 haplotype against development of peripheral neuropathy in T2D patients. Therefore, variations in HLA genotypes might be used as genetic markers for prediction and potentially management of neuropathy in T2D patients. PMID:28123430

  19. HLA-B alleles and complotypes in Mexican patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Alarcón, G; Garcia, A; Bahena, S; Melin-Aldana, H; Andrade, F; Ibañez-de-Kasep, G; Alcocer-Varela, J; Alarcón-Segovia, D; Granados, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To analyse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes in Mexican mestizo patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSpA) and normal controls, to discover if there are other antigens, besides B27, in the HLA region that might show association with the disease. METHODS--The study included 100 Mexican mestizo patients with SSpA and 200 of their first degree relatives. These groups were compared with 85 ethnically matched controls. The class I and class III MHC antigens were obtained by standard methods. The significance of differences between patients and controls was tested by chi 2 analysis; linkage disequilibrium among the different alleles in each haplotype was estimated by computing delta values. RESULTS--We found a significantly increased frequency of the HLA-B27 antigen (pcorr. = 1 x 10(-5), odds ratio (OR) = 33.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.3-142.0). In the group of 45 SSpA patients negative for the B27 antigen, independent increased frequencies of HLA-B49 antigen (pcorr. = 0.03, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.5-32.8)) and the FC31 complotype (pcorr. = 0.04, OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.2-11.1) were found. Significant delta values were obtained for the [B27;SC30] haplotype (p = 0.0005) but not for haplotypes marked by the FC31 complotype. HLA-B antigens on the homologous chromosome in B27 positive patients were mainly HLA-B51 (18%) and HLA-B60 (16%); however, the observed genotypes B27/B51 and B27/B60 were not significantly different than expected from the allele frequencies alone. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that in Mexicans additional genes within the MHC region besides the HLA-B27 antigen, might be related to the genetic susceptibility for developing SSpA. Relevant antigens included the HLA-B49 and the FC31 complotype. PMID:7826137

  20. HLA-B*51 allele analysis by the PCR-SBT method and a strong association of HLA-B*5101 with Japanese patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuki, N; Ota, M; Katsuyama, Y; Yabuki, K; Ando, H; Shiina, T; Nomura, E; Onari, K; Ohno, S; Inoko, H

    2001-09-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is known to be associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B51 in many different ethnic groups. An increased incidence of HLA-B51 in the patient group has also been reported in a Japanese population. Recently, the B51 antigen has been identified to comprise 21 alleles, B*5101-B*5121. Further, not only HLA-B*5101 but also HLA-B*5108 were found to be relatively increased in the patient groups among Italian and Saudi Arabian populations. Therefore, we performed HLA-B*51 allele genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) method in order to investigate whether there is any correlation of one particular B51-associated allele with Japanese BD. Ninety-six Japanese patients with BD and 132 healthy Japanese volunteers were enrolled in this study. As a result, the phenotype frequency of the B51 antigen was confirmed to be remarkably increased in the patient group as compared to the ethnically matched control group (59.4% in patients vs. 13.6% in controls; Pc=0.0000000000098, R.R.=9.3). In the B*51 allele genotyping, 56 out of 57 B51-positive patients were defined as B*5101 and the remaining one was B*5102. In contrast, all of 18 B51-positive normal controls were B*5101. None of the Japanese patients and healthy controls carried the HLA-B*5108 allele. This study revealed that B*51 allelic distribution in Japanese was different from those in Italian and Saudi Arabian populations, and that the significantly high incidence of the HLA-B51 antigen in the Japanese BD patient group was mostly caused by the significant increase of the HLA-B*5101 allele.

  1. Influence of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor/HLA ligand matching on achievement of T-cell complete donor chimerism in related donor nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sobecks, R M; Ball, E J; Askar, M; Theil, K S; Rybicki, L A; Thomas, D; Brown, S; Kalaycio, M; Andresen, S; Pohlman, B; Dean, R; Sweetenham, J; Macklis, R; Bernhard, L; Cherni, K; Copelan, E; Maciejewski, J P; Bolwell, B J

    2008-04-01

    Achievement of complete donor chimerism (CDC) after allogeneic nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NMHSCT) is important for preventing graft rejection and for generating a graft-vs-malignancy effect. The alloreactivity of NK cells and some T-cell subsets is mediated through the interaction of their killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) with target cell HLA/KIR ligands. The influence of KIR matching on the achievement of T-cell CDC after NMHSCT has not been previously described. We analyzed 31 patients undergoing T-cell replete related donor NMHSCT following fludarabine and 200 cGy TBI. Recipient inhibitory KIR genotype and donor HLA/KIR ligand matches were used to generate an inhibitory KIR score from 1 to 4 based upon the potential number of recipient inhibitory KIRs that could be engaged with donor HLA/KIR ligands. Patients with a score of 1 were less likely to achieve T-cell CDC (P=0.016) and more likely to develop graft rejection (P=0.011) than those with scores greater than 1. Thus, patients with lower inhibitory KIR scores may have more active anti-donor immune effector cells that may reduce donor chimerism. Conversely, patients with greater inhibitory KIR scores may have less active NK cell and T-cell populations, which may make them more likely to achieve CDC.

  2. Detection of aberrant transcription of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia identifies HLA-DOA mRNA as a prognostic factor for survival.

    PubMed

    Souwer, Yuri; Chamuleau, Martine E D; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Tolosa, Eva; Jorritsma, Tineke; Muris, Jettie J F; Dinnissen-van Poppel, Marion J; Snel, Sander N; van de Corput, Lisette; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Neefjes, Jacques J; Marieke van Ham, S

    2009-05-01

    In human B cells, effective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-antigen presentation depends not only on MHC class II, but also on the invariant chain (CD74 or Ii), HLA-DM (DM) and HLA-DO (DO), the chaperones regulating the antigen loading process of MHC class II molecules. We analysed immediate ex vivo expression of HLA-DR (DR), CD74, DM and DO in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a highly significant upregulation of DRA, CD74, DMB, DOA and DOB mRNA in purified malignant cells compared to B cells from healthy donors. The increased mRNA levels were not translated into enhanced protein levels but could reflect aberrant transcriptional regulation. Indeed, upregulation of DRA, DMB, DOA and DOB mRNA correlated with enhanced expression of class II transactivator (CIITA). In-depth analysis of the various CIITA transcripts demonstrated a significant increased activity of the interferon-gamma-inducible promoter CIITA-PIV in B-CLL. Comparison of the aberrant mRNA levels with clinical outcome identified DOA mRNA as a prognostic indicator for survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the prognostic value of DOA mRNA was independent of the mutational status of the IGHV genes. Thus, aberrant transcription of DOA forms a novel and additional prognostic indicator for survival in B-CLL.

  3. Derivation of HLA types from shotgun sequence datasets.

    PubMed

    Warren, René L; Choe, Gina; Freeman, Douglas J; Castellarin, Mauro; Munro, Sarah; Moore, Richard; Holt, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is key to many aspects of human physiology and medicine. All current sequence-based HLA typing methodologies are targeted approaches requiring the amplification of specific HLA gene segments. Whole genome, exome and transcriptome shotgun sequencing can generate prodigious data but due to the complexity of HLA loci these data have not been immediately informative regarding HLA genotype. We describe HLAminer, a computational method for identifying HLA alleles directly from shotgun sequence datasets (http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/hlaminer). This approach circumvents the additional time and cost of generating HLA-specific data and capitalizes on the increasing accessibility and affordability of massively parallel sequencing.

  4. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  5. Molecular matching for Rh and K reduces red blood cell alloimmunisation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guelsin, Gláucia A.S.; Rodrigues, Camila; Visentainer, Jeane E.L.; de Melo Campos, Paula; Traina, Fabíola; Gilli, Simone C.O.; Saad, Sara T.O.; Castilho, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Background Matching for Rh and K antigens has been used in an attempt to reduce antibody formation in patients receiving chronic transfusions but an extended phenotype matching including Fya and Jka antigens has also been recommended. The aim of this study was to identify an efficient transfusion protocol of genotype matching for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We also examined a possible association of HLA class II alleles with red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation. Materials and methods We evaluated 43 patients with MDS undergoing transfusion therapy with and without antibody formation. We investigated antigen-matched RBC units for ABO, D, C, c, E, e, K, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, S, s, Doa, Dob and Dia on the patients’ samples and on the donor units serologically matched for them based on their ABO, Rh and K phenotypes and presence of antibodies. We also determined the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 alleles in the alloimmunised and non-alloimmunised patients. Results Seventeen of the 43 patients had discrepancies or mismatches for multiple antigens between their genotype-predicted profile and the antigen profile of the units of blood serologically matched for them. We verified that 36.8% of patients had more than one RBC alloantibody and 10.5% of patients had autoantibodies. Although we were able to find a better match for the patients in our extended genotyped/phenotyped units, we verified that matching for Rh and K would be sufficient for most of the patients. We also observed an over-representation of the HLA-DRB1*13 allele in the non-alloimmunised group of patients with MDS. Discussion In our population molecular matching for C, c, E, e, K was able to reduce RBC alloimmunisation in MDS patients. An association of HLA-DRB1*13 and protection from RBC alloimmunisation should be confirmed. PMID:24960644

  6. Proteomic analysis uncovers common effects of IFN-γ and IL-27 on the HLA class I antigen presentation machinery in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Inglese, Elvira; Lavarello, Chiara; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Rigo, Valentina; Croce, Michela; Longo, Luca; Martini, Stefania; Vacca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    IL-27, a member of the IL-12-family of cytokines, has shown anti-tumor activity in several pre-clinical models due to anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and immune-enhancing effects. On the other hand, IL-27 demonstrated immune regulatory activities and inhibition of auto-immunity in mouse models. Also, we reported that IL-27, similar to IFN-γ, induces the expression of IL-18BP, IDO and PD-L1 immune regulatory molecules in human cancer cells. Here, a proteomic analysis reveals that IL-27 and IFN-γ display a broad overlap of functions on human ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, among 990 proteins modulated by either cytokine treatment in SKOV3 cells, 814 showed a concordant modulation by both cytokines, while a smaller number (176) were differentially modulated. The most up-regulated proteins were common to both IFN-γ and IL-27. In addition, functional analysis of IL-27-regulated protein networks highlighted pathways of interferon signaling and regulation, antigen presentation, protection from natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, regulation of protein polyubiquitination and proteasome, aminoacid catabolism and regulation of viral protein levels. Importantly, we found that IL-27 induced HLA class I molecule expression in human cancer cells of different histotypes, including tumor cells showing very low expression. IL-27 failed only in a cancer cell line bearing a homozygous deletion in the B2M gene. Altogether, these data point out to a broad set of activities shared by IL-27 and IFN-γ, which are dependent on the common activation of the STAT1 pathway. These data add further explanation to the anti-tumor activity of IL-27 and also to its dual role in immune regulation. PMID:27683036

  7. HLA-A2–Matched Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Type 1 Diabetic Patients, but Not Nondiabetic Donors, Transfer Insulitis to NOD-scid/γcnull/HLA-A2 Transgenic Mice Concurrent With the Expansion of Islet-Specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield-Larry, Fatima; Young, Ellen F.; Talmage, Garrick; Fudge, Elizabeth; Azam, Anita; Patel, Shipra; Largay, Joseph; Byrd, Warren; Buse, John; Calikoglu, Ali S.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. NOD mice provide a useful tool for understanding disease pathogenesis and progression. Although much has been learned from studies with NOD mice, increased understanding of human type 1 diabetes can be gained by evaluating the pathogenic potential of human diabetogenic effector cells in vivo. Therefore, our objective in this study was to develop a small-animal model using human effector cells to study type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We adoptively transferred HLA-A2–matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from type 1 diabetic patients and nondiabetic control subjects into transgenic NOD-scid/γcnull/HLA-A*0201 (NOD-scid/γcnull/A2) mice. At various times after adoptive transfer, we determined the ability of these mice to support the survival and proliferation of the human lymphoid cells. Human lymphocytes were isolated and assessed from the blood, spleen, pancreatic lymph node and islets of NOD-scid/γcnull/A2 mice after transfer. RESULTS Human T and B cells proliferate and survive for at least 6 weeks and were recovered from the blood, spleen, draining pancreatic lymph node, and most importantly, islets of NOD-scid/γcnull/A2 mice. Lymphocytes from type 1 diabetic patients preferentially infiltrate the islets of NOD-scid/γcnull/A2 mice. In contrast, PBMCs from nondiabetic HLA-A2–matched donors showed significantly less islet infiltration. Moreover, in mice that received PBMCs from type 1 diabetic patients, we identified epitope-specific CD8+ T cells among the islet infiltrates. CONCLUSIONS We show that insulitis is transferred to NOD-scid/γcnull/A2 mice that received HLA-A2–matched PBMCs from type 1 diabetic patients. In addition, many of the infiltrating CD8+ T cells are epitope-specific and produce interferon-γ after in vitro peptide stimulation. This indicates that NOD-scid/γcnull/A2 mice transferred with HLA-A2–matched

  8. Lab-on-a-chip enabled HLA diagnostic: combined sample preparation and real time PCR for HLA-B57 diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Frank, Rainer; Willems, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The diverse human HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system is responsible for antigen presentation and recognition. It is essential for the immune system to maintain a stable defense line, but also is also involved in autoimmunity as well as metabolic disease. HLA-haplotype (HLA-B27), for instance, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as Bechterew's disease. The administration of the HIV drug Abacavir in combination with another HLA-haplotype (HLAB57) is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Accordingly, the HLA status has to be monitored for diagnosis or prior to start of therapy. Along this line, a miniaturized microfluidic platform has been developed allowing performing the complete analytical process from "sample-in" to "answer-out" in a point-of-care environment. The main steps of the analytical cascade inside the integrated system are blood cell lysis and DNA isolation, DNA purification, real-time PCR and quantitative monitoring of the rise of a fluorescent signal appearing during the PCR based sequence amplification. All bio-analytical steps were intended to be performed inside one chip and will be actuated, controlled and monitored by a matching device. This report will show that all required processes are established and tested and all device components work well and interact with the functional modules on the chips in a harmonized fashion.

  9. Identification of a permissible HLA mismatch in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Wang, Tao; Lee, Stephanie J.; Haagenson, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Askar, Medhat; Battiwalla, Minoo; Baxter-Lowe, Lee-Ann; Gajewski, James; Jakubowski, Ann A.; Marino, Susana; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Schultz, Kirk; Turner, E. Victoria; Waller, Edmund K.; Woolfrey, Ann; Umejiego, John; Spellman, Stephen R.; Setterholm, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In subjects mismatched in the HLA alleles C*03:03/C*03:04 no allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses are detected in vitro. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with unrelated donors (UDs) showed no association between the HLA-C allele mismatches (CAMMs) and adverse outcomes; antigen mismatches at this and mismatches other HLA loci are deleterious. The absence of effect of the CAMM may have resulted from the predominance of the mismatch C*03:03/C*03:04. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving UD HSCT matched in 8/8 and 7/8 HLA alleles were examined. Transplants mismatched in HLA-C antigens or mismatched in HLA-A, -B, or -DRB1 presented significant differences (P < .0001) in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37, 1.30), disease-free survival (HR = 1.33, 1.27), treatment-related mortality (HR = 1.54, 1.54), and grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (HR = 1.49, 1.77) compared with the 8/8 group; transplants mismatched in other CAMMs had similar outcomes with HR ranging from 1.34 to 172 for these endpoints. The C*03:03/C*03:04 mismatched and the 8/8 matched groups had identical outcomes (HR ranging from 0.96-1.05). The previous finding that CAMMs do not associate with adverse outcomes is explained by the predominance (69%) of the mismatch C*03:03/03:04 in this group that is better tolerated than other HLA mismatches. PMID:24408320

  10. HLA Class I Supertype Associations With Clinical Outcome of Secondary Dengue Virus Infections in Ethnic Thais

    PubMed Central

    Vejbaesya, Sasijit; Thongpradit, Rungrot; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Luangtrakool, Komon; Luangtrakool, Panpimon; Gibbons, Robert V.; Srinak, Duangporn; Ngammthaworn, Somporn; Apisawes, Kusuma; Yoon, In-Kyu; Thomas, Stephen J.; Jarman, Richard G.; Srikiakthachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Chandanayingyong, Dasnayanee; Park, Sangshin; Friedman, Jennifer; Rothman, Alan L.; Stephens, Henry A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes are groups of functionally related alleles that present structurally similar antigens to the immune system. Objectives. To analyze HLA class I supertype associations with clinical outcome in hospitalized Thai children with acute dengue illness. Methods. Seven hundred sixty-two patients and population-matched controls recruited predominantly in Bangkok were HLA-A and -B typed. HLA supertype frequencies were compared and tested for significant dengue disease associations using logistic regression analyses. Multivariable models were built by conducting forward stepwise selection procedures. Results. In the final logistic regression model, the HLA-B44 supertype was protective against dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in secondary infections (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI], .30–.72), while the HLA-A02 supertype (OR = 1.92, 95% CI, 1.30–2.83) and the HLA-A01/03 supertype (OR = 3.01, 95% CI, 1.01–8.92) were associated with susceptibility to secondary dengue fever. The B07 supertype was associated with susceptibility to secondary DHF in the univariate analysis (OR = 1.60, 95% CI, 1.05–2.46), whereas that was not retained in the final model. Conclusions. As the HLA-B44 supertype is predicted to target conserved epitopes in dengue, our results suggest that B44 supertype-restricted immune responses to highly conserved regions of the dengue proteome may protect against secondary DHF. PMID:25740956

  11. Novel HLA-A and HLA-B alleles.

    PubMed

    Hurley, C K; Steiner, N; Kosman, C; Mitton, W; Koester, R; Bei, M; Bush, J; McCormack, J; Hahn, A; Henson, V; Hoyer, R; Wade, J A; Hartzman, R J; Ng, J

    1998-07-01

    Nine novel HLA-A and HLA-B alleles are described: A*2609, A*6803, A*6806, B*1539, B*1540, B*2712, B*4103, B*5109, and B*5603. Most appear to have arisen by gene conversion events. B*5603 appears to have arisen by a reciprocal recombination event joining exon 2 of a B*55/ *56 allele with exon 3 of a B*15 allele. Serologically, the antigen encoded by this allele types with broad B22- and Bw6-specific alloantisera. Also unique, the antigen encoded by B*2712 does not react with B27-specific alloantisera but does react with Bw6-specific alloantisera.

  12. Detection of HLA-D/DR-related DNA polymorphism in HLA-D homozygous typing cells.

    PubMed Central

    Owerbach, D; Lernmark, A; Rask, L; Peterson, P A; Platz, P; Svejgaard, A

    1983-01-01

    Sequences of different sizes are generated when DNA from homozygous HLA-Dw/DR typing cells are digested with restriction endonuclease and analyzed by hybridization with a HLA-D region class II antigen beta-chain cDNA probe. The patterns of hybridization were highly polymorphic but one endonuclease, BamHI, defined sequences unique to all HLA-Dw/DR specificities 1-8 except HLA-Dw/DR 2 and 6; however, these two specificities were resolved with the enzyme EcoRI. Digestion with other endonucleases such as Pst I results in patterns of restriction fragments that differ between homozygous typing cells of the same HLA-Dw/DR specificity. HLA-D region beta-chain probes permit HLA-D region genotyping at the DNA level and may allow detection of genes controlling the association of HLA specificities with a wide variety of diseases. Images PMID:6304735

  13. HLA-DM interactions with intermediates in HLA-DR maturation and a role for HLA-DM in stabilizing empty HLA-DR molecules.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Hammond, C; Cresswell, P

    1996-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-positive cell lines which lack HLA-DM expression accumulate class II molecules associated with residual invariant (I) chain fragments (class II-associated invariant chain peptides [CLIP]). In vitro, HLA-DM catalyzes CLIP dissociation from class II-CLIP complexes, promoting binding of antigenic peptides. Here the physical interaction of HLA-DM with HLA-DR molecules was investigated. HLA-DM complexes with class II molecules were detectable transiently in cells, peaking at the time when the class II molecules entered the MHC class II compartment. HLA-DR alpha beta dimers newly released from I chain, and those associated with I chain fragments, were found to associate with HLA-DM in vivo. Mature, peptide-loaded DR molecules also associated at a low level. These same species, but not DR-I chain complexes, were also shown to bind to purified HLA-DM molecules in vitro. HLA-DM interaction was quantitatively superior with DR molecules isolated in association with CLIP. DM-DR complexes generated by incubating HLA-DM with purified DR alpha beta CLIP contained virtually no associated CLIP, suggesting that this superior interaction reflects a prolonged HLA-DM association with empty class II dimers after CLIP dissociation. Incubation of peptide-free alpha beta dimers in the presence of HLA-DM was found to prolong their ability to bind subsequently added antigenic peptides. Stabilization of empty class II molecules may be an important property of HLA-DM in facilitating antigen processing.

  14. HLA-B*57 Allele Is Associated with Concomitant Anti-tuberculosis and Antiretroviral Drugs Induced Liver Toxicity in Ethiopians

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Zelalem; Kishikawa, Junko; Makonnen, Eyasu; Yimer, Getnet; Habtewold, Abiy; Aklillu, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a known adverse effect of both anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Recent studies highlight the implications of genetic predispositions to DILI. We performed a case-control study to identify Human Leukocyte Antigen-B (HLA-B) variant alleles associated with anti-TB and ARV co-treatment induced liver toxicity in Ethiopian TB and HIV co-infected patients. A total of 495 newly diagnosed TB and HIV co-infected patients were enrolled and received rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based ARV therapy. Change in liver enzyme level from baseline was monitored 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 24th weeks after treatment initiation to identify patients who developed DILI (cases) and those who did not (treatment tolerants). Genomic DNA from 46 cases and 46 sex and age matched treatment tolerants were genotyped for HLA-B variant alleles using Olerup SSP®HLA-B DNA Typing Kits. The proportion of HLA-B*57 allele carriers in DILI cases (37.0%), particularly in those who developed cholestatic type of DILI (44.8%) was significantly higher compared with those who tolerated the treatment (2.2%). The HLA-B*57 allele frequency was significantly higher in cases (25%) than treatment tolerants (1.1%). In a multivariate logistic analysis, the proportion of patients carrying HLA-B*57 (P = 0.002) and HLA-B*14 (P = 0.014) alleles were significantly higher in DILI cases compared with treatment tolerants. HLA-B*57 was significantly associated with cholestatic (P = 0.001) and mixed (P = 0.017) types of liver toxicity, and mild-to-moderate severity (P = 0.001). Of all HLA-B*57 alleles detected, HLA-B*57:03 accounted 58.3% and HLA-B*57:02 accounted 41.7%. HLA-B*57:01 was not detected. The variant allele frequencies of HLA-B*57:03 (15.2 vs. 0%) and HLA-B*57:02 (9.8 vs. 1.1%) were significantly higher in the DILI cases than treatment tolerants (P < 0.03). We conclude that HLA-B*57 alleles (B*57:03 and B*57:02) confer susceptibility to the

  15. Novel interaction between proliferating cell nuclear antigen and HLA I on the surface of tumor cells inhibits NK cell function through NKp44.

    PubMed

    Horton, Nathan C; Mathew, Stephen O; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2013-01-01

    NK cell function is closely regulated by numerous inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells, providing vital first line defenses against infections and cancer. NKp44, originally discovered as an activating NK cell receptor, was recently found to elicit inhibitory effects on NK cell effector function through recognition of cell surface PCNA. Other reports have pointed to potential associations between NKp44 and HLA I molecules, as well as HLA I and Damage Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) on the surface of tumor cells. In this report, we have identified novel interaction between HLA I and PCNA on the surface of human tumor cells by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation. In addition to previous reports, we show PCNA on the cell surface where novel association with HLA I does not require the presence of NKp44 expressing NK cells and occurs with endogenous PCNA. The association of HLA I and PCNA forms the inhibitory ligand for NKp44, resulting in inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity. We further postulate NCR ligands are composed of DAMP molecules localized to the cell surface, colocalizing with HLA I, and potentially heparin sulfate proteoglycans.

  16. Small molecule inhibitor of antigen binding and presentation by HLA-DR2b as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Niannian; Somanaboeina, Animesh; Dixit, Aakanksha; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Hayward, Neil J; Self, Christopher; Olson, Gary L; Forsthuber, Thomas G

    2013-11-15

    The strong association of HLA-DR2b (DRB1*1501) with multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests this molecule as prime target for specific immunotherapy. Inhibition of HLA-DR2b-restricted myelin-specific T cells has the potential to selectively prevent CNS pathology mediated by these MHC molecules without undesired global immunosuppression. In this study, we report development of a highly selective small molecule inhibitor of peptide binding and presentation by HLA-DR2b. PV-267, the candidate molecule used in these studies, inhibited cytokine production and proliferation of myelin-specific HLA-DR2b-restricted T cells. PV-267 had no significant effect on T cell responses mediated by other MHC class II molecules, including HLA-DR1, -DR4, or -DR9. Importantly, PV-267 did not induce nonspecific immune activation of human PBMC. Lastly, PV-267 showed treatment efficacy both in preventing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and in treating established disease. The results suggest that blocking the MS-associated HLA-DR2b allele with small molecule inhibitors may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MS.

  17. HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR-restricted epitopes in GRA5 of toxoplasma gondii strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; Prasetyo, A. A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dense granular (GRA) proteins of Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) have been demonstrated as potential sources of T. gondii vaccine antigens. However, data of the GRA5 protein are limited. This study analyzed twenty-one complete GRA5 sequences of T. gondii GT1, RH, ME49, VEG, MAS, RUB, FOU, p89, VAND, and GAB2-2007-GAL-DOM2 strains to identify potential epitopes restricted by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC- II) molecules (human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR) in the protein. In all T. gondii strains, peptides positioned at amino acid (aa) 15-29, 16-30, 17-31, 18-32, 19-33, 83-97, 84-98, 86-100, 87-101, 89-103, and 90-104 were predicted to pose high affinity and binding with HLA-DRB1*0101, HLA-DRB1*0301 (DR17), HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4), HLA-DRB1*0701, HLA-DRB1*1101, HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2b), and/or HLA-DRB5*0101. Considering the epitope's affinity, ligation strength, and hydrophilicity, LRLLRRRRRRAIQEE sequence (aa 90-104) restricted by HLA-DRB1*0101, HlA- DRB1*0301 (DR17), and HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4) was considered as the most potential MHC-II epitope in GRA5 of T. gondii. These results would be useful for studies concerning in developing T. gondii vaccine and diagnostic method.

  18. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for nonmalignant hematologic disorders using chemotherapy-only cytoreductive regimens and T-cell-depleted grafts from human leukocyte antigen-matched or -mismatched donors.

    PubMed

    Mussetti, Alberto; Kernan, Nancy A; Prockop, Susan E; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Lehrman, Rachel; Ruggiero, Julianne M; Curran, Kevin; Kobos, Rachel; O'Reilly, Richard; Boulad, Farid

    2016-09-01

    Nonmalignant hematologic disorders (NMHD) of childhood comprise a variety of disorders, including acquired severe aplastic anemia and inherited marrow failure syndromes. Patients with high-risk NMHD without matched related donors fare poorly with allogeneic hematopoietic alternative donor stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and are at high risk for developing graft-versus-host disease following unmodified grafts. The authors retrospectively analyzed data on 18 patients affected by NMHD, lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor, who underwent an alternative donor allo-HSCT at their institution between April 2005 and May 2013. Fifty percent of the patients had received prior immunosuppressive therapy, 72% had a history of infections, and 56% were transfusion dependent at the time of transplant. Cytoreduction included a combination of 3 of 5 agents: fludarabine, melphalan, thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide. Grafts were T-cell depleted. All evaluable patients engrafted. Five died of transplant complications. The cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease was 6%. No patient had recurrence of disease. Five-year overall survival was 77%. Age at transplant <6 years was strongly associated with better survival. Based on these results, transplant with chemotherapy-only cytoreductive regimens and T-cell-depleted stem cell transplants could be recommended for patients with high-risk NMHD, especially at a younger age.

  19. Outcomes after HLA-matched sibling transplantation or chemotherapy in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission: a collaborative study of the Children's Oncology Group and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Mary; Raetz, Elizabeth; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Muehlenbein, Catherine; Devidas, Meenakshi; Abshire, Thomas; Billett, Amy; Homans, Alan; Camitta, Bruce; Carroll, William L.; Davies, Stella M.

    2006-01-01

    The best treatment approach for children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second clinical remission (CR) after a marrow relapse is controversial. To address this question, we compared outcomes in 188 patients enrolled in chemotherapy trials and 186 HLA-matched sibling transplants, treated between 1991 and 1997. Groups were similar except that chemotherapy recipients were younger (median age, 5 versus 8 years) and less likely to have combined marrow and extramedullary relapse (19% versus 30%). To adjust for time-to-transplant bias, treatment outcomes were compared using left-truncated Cox regression models. The relative efficacy of chemotherapy and transplantation depended on time from diagnosis to first relapse and the transplant conditioning regimen used. For children with early first relapse (< 36 months), risk of a second relapse was significantly lower after total body irradiation (TBI)–containing transplant regimens (relative risk [RR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.71, P < .001) than chemotherapy regimens. In contrast, for children with a late first relapse (≥ 36 months), risks of second relapse were similar after TBI-containing regimens and chemotherapy (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.49-1.70, P = .78). These data support HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation using a TBI-containing regimen in second CR for children with ALL and early relapse. PMID:16493003

  20. Analysis of HLA-DR glycoproteins by DNA-mediated gene transfer. Definition of DR2 beta gene products and antigen presentation to T cell clones from leprosy patients

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have used DNA-mediated gene transfer to express HLA class II molecules in mouse L cells for serological, biochemical, and functional analysis. cDNA clones encoding the DR2 beta a and DR2 beta b products of the DR2Dw2 haplotype were subcloned into a mouse Moloney leukemia virus-based expression vector (pJ4) and transfected separately into mouse L cells together with a HLA-DR alpha/pJ4 construct. These transfectants have allowed differential analysis of the two DR2 beta products in a manner normally prohibited by the concomitant expression seen in B cells. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE analysis of the transfectants defines the more acidic beta chain as the product of the DR2 beta a sequence, and the more basic chain as the product of the DR2 beta b sequence. The LDR2a transfectants present antigen efficiently to M.leprae-specific T cell clones and are capable of presenting synthetic peptide, 65-kD recombinant mycobacterial antigen and M.leprae. Of the DR2Dw2-restricted T cell clones we have tested, all use the DR2 beta a chain as their restriction element. Inhibition studies with mAbs demonstrate the dependence of presentation by the transfectant on class II and CD4, while mAbs against LFA-1, which substantially inhibit presentation by B-lymphoblastoid cell lines, do not inhibit transfectant presentation. PMID:3128633

  1. HLA-B27 antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... a diagnosis of a form of arthritis called spondyloarthritis. This kind of arthritis includes the following disorders: ... D, Landewé R, et al. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society classification criteria for peripheral spondyloarthritis and ...

  2. First report on the antibody verification of HLA-ABC epitopes recorded in the website-based HLA Epitope Registry.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, R J; Marrari, M; Mulder, A; Sousa, L C D da Mata; da Silva, A S; do Monte, S J H

    2014-06-01

    The International Registry of Antibody-Defined HLA Epitopes ( http://www.epregistry.com.br) has been recently established as a tool to understand humoral responses to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches. These epitopes are defined structurally by three-dimensional molecular modeling and amino acid sequence differences between HLA antigens. So-called eplets represent essential components of HLA epitopes and they are defined by polymorphic residues. A major goal is to identify HLA epitopes that have been verified experimentally with informative antibodies. Our analysis has also included data in many publications. As of 1 November 2013, 95 HLA-ABC antibody-verified epitopes have been recorded, 62 correspond to eplets and 33 are defined by eplets paired with other residue configurations. The Registry is still a work-in-progress and will become a useful resource for HLA professionals interested in histocompatibility testing at the epitope level and investigating antibody responses to HLA mismatches in transplant patients.

  3. HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Y.-P.; Lin, J.-Y.; Jan, J.-T.; Leng, C.-H.; Chu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chen, S.-L. . E-mail: showlic@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2006-05-26

    The immunogenicity of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nuclear capsid (N) and spike (S) proteins was determined by testing the proteins' ability to elicit a specific cellular immune response after immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice and in vitro vaccination of HLA-A2.1 positive human peripheral blood mononuclearcytes (PBMCs). First, we screened SARS N and S amino acid sequences for allele-specific motif matching those in human HLA-A2.1 MHC-I molecules. From HLA peptide binding predictions (http://thr.cit.nih.gov/molbio/hla{sub b}ind/), ten each potential N- and S-specific HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were synthesized. The high affinity HLA-A2.1 peptides were validated by T2-cell stabilization assays, with immunogenicity assays revealing peptides N223-231, N227-235, and N317-325 to be First identified HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of SARS-CoV N protein. In addition, previous reports identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of S protein (S978-986, S1203-1211, and S1167-1175), here we found two novel peptides S787-795 and S1042-1050 as S-specific CTL epitopes. Moreover, our identified N317-325 and S1042-1050 CTL epitopes could induce recall responses when IFN-{gamma} stimulation of blood CD8{sup +} T-cells revealed significant difference between normal healthy donors and SARS-recovered patients after those PBMCs were in vitro vaccinated with their cognate antigen. Our results would provide a new insight into the development of therapeutic vaccine in SARS.

  4. HLA and Delayed Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Correia, Cláudia; Gomes, Lídia; Gil-Mata, Sara; Araújo, Luís; Correia, Osvaldo; Delgado, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Delayed drug allergy reactions (DDAR) are potentially fatal. Certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been associated with delayed allergy reactions following the administration of particular drugs. Examples are HLA-B*57:01 (abacavir), HLA-B*15:02/HLA-A*31:01 (carbamazepine), and HLA-B*58:01 (allopurinol). Based on the identification of these associations, it may now be possible to prevent certain allergy reactions that were, until recently, considered unpredictable. In this review, we will focus on the pharmacogenetics of the best-studied associations between specific HLA alleles and delayed allergy reactions and describe the pathogenesis models proposed so far. Finally, we will evaluate the genetic screening strategies available and discuss the clinical relevance of a better understanding of the immunogenetics and mechanisms involved in DDAR.

  5. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposures are Associated with Cytokine and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Polymorphisms (SNP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polymorphisms in cytokine and HLA genes are associated with allergies, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration (ND). Samples from 131 African-American children (71 males; 60 females) in the Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study were used to determine SNPs of IL-4, IL...

  6. Crystal structure of HLA-DP2 and implications for chronic beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Shaodong; Murphy, Guinevere A.; Crawford, Frances; Mack, Douglas G.; Falta, Michael T.; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

    2010-06-15

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a fibrotic lung disorder caused by beryllium (Be) exposure and is characterized by granulomatous inflammation and the accumulation of Be-responsive CD4{sup +} T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to CBD has been associated with certain alleles of the MHCII molecule HLA-DP, especially HLA-DPB1*0201 and other alleles that contain a glutamic acid residue at position 69 of the {beta}-chain ({beta}Glu69). The HLA-DP alleles that can present Be to T cells match those implicated in the genetic susceptibility, suggesting that the HLA contribution to disease is based on the ability of those molecules to bind and present Be to T cells. The structure of HLA-DP2 and its interaction with Be are unknown. Here, we present the HLA-DP2 structure with its antigen-binding groove occupied by a self-peptide derived from the HLA-DR {alpha}-chain. The most striking feature of the structure is an unusual solvent exposed acidic pocket formed between the peptide backbone and the HLA-DP2 {beta}-chain {alpha}-helix and containing three glutamic acids from the {beta}-chain, including {beta}Glu69. In the crystal packing, this pocket has been filled with the guanidinium group of an arginine from a neighboring molecule. This positively charged moiety forms an extensive H-bond/salt bridge network with the three glutamic acids, offering a plausible model for how Be-containing complexes might occupy this site. This idea is strengthened by the demonstration that mutation of any of the three glutamic acids in this pocket results in loss of the ability of DP2 to present Be to T cells.

  7. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 methylation changes promote the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian Ming; Li, Ling; Chen, Yun Zhao; Liu, Chunxia; Cui, Xiaobin; Yin, Liang; Yang, Lan; Zou, Hong; Pang, Lijuan; Zhao, Jin; Qi, Yan; Cao, Yuwen; Jiang, Jinfang; Liang, Weihua; Li, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen II (HLA-II) plays an important role in host immune responses to cancer cells. Changes in gene methylation may result in aberrant expression of HLA-II, serving a key role in the pathogenesis of Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed the expression level of HLA-II (HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR) by immunohistochemistry, as well as the methylation status of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 by MassARRAY spectrometry in Xinjiang Kazakh ESCC. Expression of HLA-II in ESCC was significantly higher than that in cancer adjacent normal (ACN) samples (P < 0.05). Decreased HLA-II expression was closely associated with later clinical stages of ESCC (P < 0.05). Hypomethylation of HLA-DRB1 and hypermethylation of HLA-DQB1 was significantly correlated with occurrence of Kazakh ESCC (P < 0.01), and mainly manifested as hypomethylation of CpG9, CpG10-11, and CpG16 in HLA-DRB1 and hypermethylation of CpG6-7 and CpG16-17 in HLA-DQB1 (P < 0.01). Moreover, hypomethylation of HLA-DQB1 CpG6-7 correlated with poor differentiation in ESCCs, whereas hypermethylation of HLA-DRB1 CpG16 and hypomethylation of HLA-DQB1 CpG16-17 were significantly associated with later stages of ESCC (P < 0.05). A significant inverse association between HLA-DRB1 CpG9 methylation and HLA-II expression was found in ESCC (P < 0.05). These findings suggest aberrant HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 methylation contributes to the aberrant expression of HLA-II. These molecular changes may influence the immune response to specific tumor epitopes, promoting the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC.

  8. Human leukocyte antigen haplotype phasing by allele-specific enrichment with peptide nucleic acid probes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Nicholas M; Pouton, Colin W; Irving, Helen R

    2014-01-01

    Targeted capture of large fragments of genomic DNA that enrich for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system haplotypes has utility in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current methods of HLA matching are based on inference or familial studies of inheritance; and each approach has its own inherent limitations. We have designed and tested a probe–target-extraction method for capturing specific HLA haplotypes by hybridization of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes to alleles of the HLA-DRB1 gene. Short target fragments contained in plasmids were initially used to optimize the method followed by testing samples of genomic DNA from human subjects with preselected HLA haplotypes and obtained approximately 10% enrichment for the specific haplotype. When performed with high-molecular-weight genomic DNA, 99.0% versus 84.0% alignment match was obtained for the specific haplotype probed. The allele-specific target enrichment that we obtained can facilitate the elucidation of haplotypes between the 65 kb separating the HLA-DRB1 and the HLA-DQA1 genes, potentially spanning a total distance of at least 130 kb. Allele-specific target enrichment with PNA probes is a straightforward technique that has the capability to improve the resolution of DNA and whole genome sequencing technologies by allowing haplotyping of enriched DNA and crucially, retaining the DNA methylation profile. PMID:24936514

  9. HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 allele distribution in a large Armenian population sample.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Madelian, V; Avagyan, S; Nazaretyan, M; Hyussian, A; Vardapetyan, E; Arutunyan, R; Jordan, F

    2011-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 gene frequencies were investigated in 4279 unrelated Armenian bone marrow donors. HLA alleles were defined by using PCR amplification with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) high- and low-resolution kits. The aim of this study was to examine the HLA diversity at the high-resolution level in a large Armenian population sample, and to compare HLA allele group distribution in Armenian subpopulations. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA class I were HLA-A*0201, A*0101, A*2402, A*0301, HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*3501, and B*4901. Among DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of DRB1*1104 and DRB1*1501 were observed, followed by DRB1*1101 and DRB1*1401. The most common three-locus haplotype found in the Armenian population was A*33-B*14-DRB1*01, followed by A*03-B*35-DRB1*01. Our results show a similar distribution of alleles in Armenian subpopulations from different countries, and from different regions of the Republics of Armenia and Karabagh. The low level of genetic distances between subpopulations indicates a high level of population homogeneity, and the genetic distances between Armenians and other populations show Armenians as a distinct ethnic group relative to others, reflecting the fact that Armenians have been an 'isolated population' throughout centuries. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of HLA-allele group distribution in a subset of Armenian populations, and the first to provide HLA-allele and haplotype frequencies at a high-resolution level. It is a valuable reference for organ transplantation and for future studies of HLA-associated diseases in Armenian populations.

  10. HLA-DR3 restricted T cell epitope mimicry in induction of autoimmune response to lupus-associated antigen SmD

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Umesh S; Sim, Davis L; Dai, Chao; Kannapell, Carol J; Gaskin, Felicia; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan; David, Chella S; Fu, Shu Man

    2012-01-01

    Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multigenic autoimmune disorder, HLA-D is the most dominant genetic susceptibility locus. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that microbial peptides bind HLA-DR3 and activate T cells reactive with lupus autoantigens. Using HLA-DR3 transgenic mice and lupus-associated autoantigen SmD protein, SmD79–93 was identified to contain a dominant HLA-DR3 restricted T cell epitope. This T cell epitope was characterized by using a T-T hybridoma, C1P2, generated from SmD immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse. By pattern search analysis, 20 putative mimicry peptides (P2–P21) of SmD79–93, from microbial and human origin were identified. C1P2 cells responded to SmD, SmD79–93 and a peptide (P20) from Vibro cholerae. Immunization of HLA-DR3 mice with P20 induced T cell responses and IgG antibodies to SmD that were not cross-reactive with the immunogen. A T-T hybridoma, P20P1, generated from P20 immunized mice, not only responded to P20 and SmD79–93, but also to peptides from Streptococccus agalactiae (P17) and human-La related protein (P11). These three T cell mimics (P20, P11 and P17) induced diverse and different autoantibody response profiles. Our data demonstrates for the first time molecular mimicry at T cell epitope level between lupus-associated autoantigen SmD and microbial peptides. Considering distinct autoreactive T cell clones, activated by different microbial peptides, molecular mimicry at T cell epitope level can be an important pathway for the activation of autoreactive T cells resulting in the production of autoantibodies. In addition, the novel findings reported herein may have significant implications in the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:21868195

  11. Polymorphisms of HLA genes in Western Javanese (Indonesia): close affinities to Southeast Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Yuliwulandari, R; Kashiwase, K; Nakajima, H; Uddin, J; Susmiarsih, T P; Sofro, A S M; Tokunaga, K

    2009-01-01

    Identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens that are known as the highest polymorphic genes has become a valuable tool for tissue transplantation, platelet transfusion, disease susceptibility or resistance, and forensic and anthropological studies. In the present study, the allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 were studied in 237 unrelated healthy Western Javanese (Indonesia) by the high-resolution polymerase chain reaction-Luminex method. A total of 18 A, 40 B, and 20 DRB1 alleles were identified. The most frequent HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles were HLA-A*2407 (21.6%), HLA-B*1502 (11.6%) and HLA-B*1513 (11.2%), and DRB1*1202 (37.8%), respectively. The most frequent two-locus haplotypes were HLA-A*2407-B*3505 (7%) and HLA-B*1513-DRB1*1202 (9.2%), and three-locus haplotypes were HLA-A*3401-B*1521-DRB1*150201 (4.6%), HLA-A*2407-B*3505-DRB1*1202 (4.3%), and HLA-A*330301-B*440302-DRB1*070101 (4.2%). HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in addition to phylogenetic tree and principal component analyses based on the four-digit sequence-level allele frequencies for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 showed that Western Javanese (Indonesia) was closest to Southeast Asian populations.

  12. Long-range effects in protein--ligand interactions mediate peptide specificity in the human major histocompatibilty antigen HLA-B27 (B*2701).

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, S.; Rognan, D.; López de Castro, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    B*2701 differs from all other HLA-B27 subtypes of known peptide specificity in that, among its natural peptide ligands, arginine is not the only allowed residue at peptide position 2. Indeed, B*2701 is unique in binding many peptides with Gln2 in vivo. However, the mutation (Asp74Tyr) responsible for altered selectivity is far away from the B pocket of the peptide binding site to which Gln/Arg2 binds. Here, we present a model that explains this effect. It is proposed that a new rotameric state of the conserved Lys70 is responsible for the unique B*2701 binding motif. This side chain should be either kept away from pocket B through its interaction with Asp74 in most HLA-B27 subtypes, or switched to this pocket if residue 74 is Tyr as in B*2701. Involvement of Lys70 in pocket B would thus allow binding of peptides with Gln2. Binding of Arg2-containing peptides to B*2701 is also possible because Lys70 could adopt another conformation, H-bonded to Asn97, which preserves the same binding mode of Arg2 as in B*2705. This model was experimentally validated by mutating Lys70 into Ala in B*2701. Edman sequencing of the B*2701(K70A) peptide pool showed only Arg2, characteristic of HLA-B27-bound peptides, and no evidence for Gln2. This supports the computational model and demonstrates that allowance of B*2701 for peptides with Gln2 is due to the long-range effect of the polymorphic residue 74 of HLA-B27, by inducing a conformational switch of the conserved Lys70. PMID:10422827

  13. Comparison of outcomes after transplantation of G-CSF-stimulated bone marrow grafts versus bone marrow or peripheral blood grafts from HLA-matched sibling donors for patients with severe aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Roland; Brazauskas, Ruta; Kan, Fangyu; Bashey, Asad; Bredeson, Christopher; Camitta, Bruce; Chiang, Kuang-Yueh; Frangoul, Haydar; Gale, Robert Peter; Gee, Adrian; George, Biju; Goldman, Frederick D; Gross, Thomas G; Gupta, Vikas; Hale, Gregory A; Isola, Luis; Ispizua, Alvaro Urbano; Lazarus, Hillard; Marsh, Judith; Russell, James; Sabloff, Mitchell; Waller, Edmund K; Eapen, Mary

    2011-07-01

    We compared outcomes of patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated bone marrow (G-BM) (n = 78), unstimulated bone marrow (BM) (n = 547), or peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) (n = 134) from an HLA-matched sibling. Transplantations occurred in 1997 to 2003. Rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery were not different among the 3 treatment groups. Grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (relative risk [RR] = 0.82, P = .539), grade 3-4 aGVHD (RR = 0.74, P = .535), and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (RR = 1.56, P = .229) were similar after G-BM and BM transplants. Grade 2-4 aGVHD (RR = 2.37, P = .012) but not grade 3-4 aGVHD (RR = 1.66, P = .323) and cGVHD (RR = 5.09, P < .001) were higher after PBPC transplants compared to G-BM. Grade 2-4 (RR = 2.90, P < .001), grade 3-4 (RR = 2.24, P = .009) aGVHD and cGVHD (RR = 3.26, P < .001) were higher after PBPC transplants compared to BM. Mortality risks were lower after transplantation of BM compared to G-BM (RR = 0.63, P = .05). These data suggest no advantage to using G-BM and the observed higher rates of aGVHD and cGVHD in PBPC recipients warrants cautious use of this graft source for SAA. Taken together, BM is the preferred graft for HLA-matched sibling transplants for SAA.

  14. A gene feature enumeration approach for describing HLA allele polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mack, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    HLA genotyping via next generation sequencing (NGS) poses challenges for the use of HLA allele names to analyze and discuss sequence polymorphism. NGS will identify many new synonymous and non-coding HLA sequence variants. Allele names identify the types of nucleotide polymorphism that define an allele (non-synonymous, synonymous and non-coding changes), but do not describe how polymorphism is distributed among the individual features (the flanking untranslated regions, exons and introns) of a gene. Further, HLA alleles cannot be named in the absence of antigen-recognition domain (ARD) encoding exons. Here, a system for describing HLA polymorphism in terms of HLA gene features (GFs) is proposed. This system enumerates the unique nucleotide sequences for each GF in an HLA gene, and records these in a GF enumeration notation that allows both more granular dissection of allele-level HLA polymorphism and the discussion and analysis of GFs in the absence of ARD-encoding exon sequences.

  15. Jon Van Rood: pioneer at the crossroad of human leukocyte antigens and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jan

    2007-04-01

    Jon Van Rood (born in 1926) has made major contributions to the fields of transfusion medicine as well as organ and stem cell transplantation. His group was the first to start unraveling the complexity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system through collaborative studies that used panels of sera and leukocyte samples. Furthermore, using HLA typing, he introduced the first HLA-matched platelet transfusions and developed routine leukocyte depletion as a means to prevent HLA alloimmunization. Van Rood has also been active in the fields of kidney transplantation (Eurotransplant) and stem cell transplantation (Europdonor). He combined scientific laboratory research with application to clinical medicine. He retired from his university position in 1991 but remains active in the field.

  16. Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morin-Zorman, Sarah; Loiseau, Pascale; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is a curative treatment for a wide variety of hematological diseases. In 30% of the cases, a geno-identical donor is available. Any other situation displays some level of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility between donor and recipient. Deleterious effects of anti-HLA immunization have long been recognized in solid organ transplant recipients. More recently, anti-HLA immunization was shown to increase the risk of primary graft failure (PGF), a severe complication of AHSCT that occurs in 3–4% of matched unrelated donor transplantation and up to 15% in cord blood transplantation and T-cell depleted haplo-identical stem cell transplantation. Rates of PGF in patients with DSA were reported to be between 24 and 83% with the highest rates in haplo-identical and cord blood transplantation recipients. This led to the recommendation of anti-HLA antibody screening to detect donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in recipients prior to AHSCT. In this review, we highlight the role of anti-HLA antibodies in AHSCT and the mechanisms that may lead to PGF in patients with DSA, and discuss current issues in the field. PMID:27570526

  17. First report on the antibody verification of HLA-DR, HLA-DQ and HLA-DP epitopes recorded in the HLA Epitope Registry.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Rene J; Marrari, Marilyn; Tambur, Anat R; Mulder, Arend; Sousa, Luiz Cláudio Demes da Mata; da Silva, Adalberto Socorro; do Monte, Semiramis J H

    2014-11-01

    The International Registry of Antibody-Defined HLA Epitopes (http://www.epregistry.com.br) has been recently established as a tool to understand humoral responses to HLA mismatches. These epitopes can be structurally defined as eplets by three-dimensional molecular modeling and amino acid sequence differences between HLA antigens. A major goal is to identify HLA eplets that have been verified experimentally with informative antibodies. This report addresses class II epitopes encoded by genes in the HLA-D region. Our analysis included reviews of many publications about epitope specificity of class II reactive human and murine monoclonal antibodies and informative alloantibodies from HLA sensitized patients as well as our own antibody testing results. As of July 1, 2014, 24 HLA-DRB1/3/4/5, 15 DQB, 3 DQA and 8 DPB antibody-verified epitopes have been identified and recorded. The Registry is still a work-in-progress and will become a useful resource for HLA professionals interested in histocompatibility testing at the epitope level and investigating antibody responses to HLA mismatches in transplant patients.

  18. Structural basis of cross-allele presentation by HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 revealed by two HIV-derived peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihong; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Hao; Tan, Shuguang; Qi, Jianxun; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2011-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are initially classified by serotyping but recently can be re-grouped by their peptide-presentation characteristics into supertypes. Both HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 are grouped into A3 supertype. Although a number of cross-presented T cell epitopes of HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of cross-presentation remain elusive. Herein, the structures of HLA-A*0301 with two HIV-derived immunodominant T cell epitopes were solved and their characteristics in comparison with HLA-A*1101 presenting the same peptides were analyzed. The comparable structures of HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 with subtle differences illustrate the common modes of cross-presented peptides and the strict HLA-restriction of T cell receptor (TCR)-recognition.

  19. Varying expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens on human renal endothelium and epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P. R.; Trickett, L. P.; Smith, J. L.; MacIver, A. G.; Tate, D.; Slapak, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pre-anastomosis wedge biopsies from 14 cadaveric donor kidneys were examined for the expression of class I (HLA-ABC) and class II (HLA-DR) antigens in renal tissue. Two monoclonal antibodies to class I antigens and four to class II antigens were used in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Consistent expression of both antigens was demonstrated on the surface of glomerular, peritubular capillary and venous endothelial cells. Renal arteries contained only class I antigens. Proximal tubules contained varying amounts of each antigen in their cytoplasm. Sixteen human lymphocytotoxic allo-antisera showed marked variation in their ability to detect HLA antigens on the kidney. The selection of donors for recipients of renal allografts involves the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test and the failure of some lymphocytotoxic antisera to bind to the kidney indicates that some suitable patients may be incorrectly excluded. The use of a binding assay using an immunoperoxidase technique should be included in cross-match techniques particularly for patients who have high levels of circulating cytotoxic antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3855644

  20. HLA expression and HLA type associations in relation to EBV status in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Luke B.; Veenstra, Rianne N.; Loo, Eric Y.; Hwang, Amie E.; Siddiqi, Imran N.; Visser, Lydia; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van den Berg, Anke; Cozen, Wendy; Diepstra, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    A proportion of classical Hodgkin lymphomas harbor the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). We previously demonstrated that associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to EBV+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma differ between European and Chinese populations. Data on Hispanic populations is missing. Here we examined the association between HLA type, tumor cell HLA expression and other characteristics in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients diagnosed at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center from 2000–2012 were included (n = 65). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was analyzed for EBV by in situ hybridization and for HLA class I and class II expression by immunohistochemistry. HLA typing was performed by HLA-A specific quantitative PCR of genomic DNA from tissue. Thirty patients (46%) had EBV+ tumors. Expression of HLA class I (p = 0.0006) was significantly associated with EBV+ tumor status in Hispanic patients, similar to Europeans and Chinese. A positive association between HLA class II expression and EBV+ tumor status, as present in large studies in Europeans, was not found (p = 0.06). The prevalences of the specific European HLA-A*01 risk and European HLA-A*02 protective types were not significantly associated with EBV+ tumors among these Hispanic patients, however numbers were too low to draw firm conclusions. The HLA-A*02:07 allele, that is associated with EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma in Chinese, was absent. In conclusion, the association between EBV positivity in tumor cells and HLA class I expression appears to be consistent across different populations. Larger studies in Hispanics are needed to evaluate HLA allele susceptibility associations. PMID:28334025

  1. Expression of HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, J C; Darnton, S J; Crocker, J; Matthews, H R; Morris, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To examine the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in normal, inflamed, metaplastic, and neoplastic oesophageal tissue and in freshly disaggregated tumours. METHODS--Sequential sections of frozen tissue and cytospins of freshly disaggregated tumour were stained using the ABC peroxidase system and monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and ICAM-1. RESULTS--Normal oesophageal tissue showed positive staining for HLA-ABC in the basal layers of the oesophageal squamous epithelium and on the epithelial cells of the submucosal oesophageal glands. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were not detected in either of these cell types. In 20 of 37 (54%) carcinomas HLA-ABC was expressed weakly, with heterogeneous expression in nine (24%). Two tumours showed strong expression of HLA-ABC, but 15 of 37 (41%) were negative. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were expressed weakly in six of 37 (16%) carcinomas without correlation with each other or with the expression of HLA-ABC. CONCLUSIONS--HLA-ABC is absent from a high proportion of oesophageal carcinomas (41%) and is otherwise variably and weakly expressed with strong expression in only a small fraction (3%). In other carcinomas there is a higher level of HLA-ABC expression. This discrepancy may partly explain the aggressive nature of oesophageal carcinomas. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 are not normally expressed on those cells from which oesophageal carcinomas are thought to arise. The limited expression found here could suggest a partial or inhibited immune response against oesophageal carcinoma. In vivo repressive factors may be involved. Images PMID:7665697

  2. HLA-G Molecules in Autoimmune Diseases and Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Roberta; Bortolotti, Daria; Bolzani, Silvia; Fainardi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecule, a non-classical HLA-Ib molecule, is less polymorphic when compared to classical HLA class I molecules. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) was first detected on cytotrophoblast cells at the feto-maternal interface but its expression is prevalent during viral infections and several autoimmune diseases. HLA-G gene is characterized by polymorphisms at the 3′ un-translated region and 5′ upstream regulatory region that regulate its expression and are associated with autoimmune diseases and viral infection susceptibility, creating an unbalanced and pathologic environment. This review focuses on the role of HLA-G genetic polymorphisms, mRNA, and protein expression in autoimmune conditions and viral infections. PMID:25477881

  3. High-resolution HLA haplotype frequencies of stem cell donors in Germany with foreign parentage: how can they be used to improve unrelated donor searches?

    PubMed

    Pingel, Julia; Solloch, Ute V; Hofmann, Jan A; Lange, Vinzenz; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2013-03-01

    In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), usually HLA loci A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1, are required to check histocompatibility between a potential donor and the recipient suffering from a malignant or non-malignant blood disease. As databases of potential unrelated donors are very heterogeneous with respect to typing resolution and number of typed loci, donor registries make use of haplotype frequency-based algorithms to provide matching probabilities for each potentially matching recipient/donor pair. However, it is well known that HLA allele and haplotype frequencies differ significantly between populations. We estimated high-resolution HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 haplotype and allele frequencies of donors within DKMS German Bone Marrow Donor Center with parentage from 17 different countries: Turkey, Poland, Italy, Russian Federation, Croatia, Greece, Austria, Kazakhstan, France, The Netherlands, Republic of China, Romania, Portugal, USA, Spain, United Kingdom and Bosnia and Herzegovina. 5-locus haplotypes including HLA-DQB1 are presented for Turkey, Poland, Italy and Russian Federation. We calculated linkage disequilibria for each sample. Genetic distances between included countries could be shown to reflect geography. We further demonstrate how genetic differences between populations are reflected in matching probabilities of recipient/donor pairs and how they influence the search for unrelated donors as well as strategic donor center typings.

  4. Production of human anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.C.; Mercier, F.; Roger, J.; Varin, M.

    1986-03-01

    Only 40% of the several hundred anti-HLA murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that have been made detect HLA-A,B,C or DR specificities previously defined by human alloantisera, the range of recognized specificities is very narrow, and few of the MAbs have proven useful as tissue typing reagents. In hopes of obtaining HLA typing reagents, the authors are developing a protocol for the production of human anti-HLA MAbs from HLA-antigen (Ag) immunized peripheral blood B cells of volunteering renal patients, immunized to one or more HLA Ags through therapeutic blood transfusions. A simple enrichment of the donor B cells has not been sufficient for anti-HLA MAb production, the authors are currently delineating the conditions necessary for increasing the number of HLA-specific donor B cells by in vitro stimulation with cells expressing the HLA Ag to which the B cell donor is immunized. For the production of MAbs, the stimulated B cells are transformed with Epstein-Barr virus and subsequently fused with KR-4 lymphoblastoid cells. Hybridomas are selected by HAT and Ouabain. Supernatants are screened for anti-HLA activity against lymphocyte targets expressing the original immunizing HLA Ag by complement mediated /sup 51/Cr release assay. Antibody specificity is determined by the complement-dependent microcytotoxicity test used for HLA typing.

  5. Clinical and immunological significance of HLA-E in stem cell transplantation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Wieten, L; Mahaweni, N M; Voorter, C E M; Bos, G M J; Tilanus, M G J

    2014-12-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule that canonically binds peptides derived from the leader sequence of classical HLA class I. HLA-E can also bind peptides from stress protein [e.g. heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60)] and pathogens, illustrating the importance of HLA-E for anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. Like classical HLA class I molecules, HLA-E is ubiquitously expressed, however, it is characterized by only a very limited sequence variability and two dominant protein forms have been described (HLA-E*01:01 and HLA-E*01:03). HLA-E influences both the innate and the adaptive arms of the immune system by the engagement of inhibitory (e.g. NKG2A) and activating receptors [e.g. αβ T cell receptor (αβTCR) or NKG2C] on NK cells and CD8 T cells. The effects of HLA-E on the cellular immune response are therefore complex and not completely understood yet. Here, we aim to provide an overview of the immunological and clinical relevance of HLA-E and HLA-E polymorphism in stem cell transplantation and in cancer. We review novel insights in the mechanism via which HLA-E expression levels are controlled and how the cellular immune response in transplantation and cancer is influenced by HLA-E.

  6. Matched unrelated donor transplants-State of the art in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Altaf, Syed Y; Apperley, Jane F; Olavarria, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the therapy of choice in many hematological malignant and non-malignant diseases by using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings as stem cell source but only one third of the patients will have HLA-matched siblings. Hence, physicians rely on the availability of matched unrelated donors (URD). The possibility of finding a matched URD is now more than 70% due to continuous expansion of URD registries around the world. The use of URD in adult patients is steadily increasing and in the last 8 years has superseded the numbers of matched sibling donor transplants and has become the most commonly used stem cell source. There is also an increasing trend to use peripheral blood (PB) stem cells rather than bone marrow (BM) stem cells. Outcomes following URD transplants depend mainly upon the indication and urgency of transplant, age and comorbidities of recipients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) matching/mismatching between donor and the recipient, and degree of HLA matching. In some studies outcome of unrelated stem cell transplants in terms of treatment-related mortality (TRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) is comparable to sibling donors.

  7. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) B27 Allotype-Specific Binding and Candidate Arthritogenic Peptides Revealed through Heuristic Clustering of Data-independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry (DIA-MS) Data.

    PubMed

    Schittenhelm, Ralf B; Sivaneswaran, Saranjah; Lim Kam Sian, Terry C C; Croft, Nathan P; Purcell, Anthony W

    2016-06-01

    Expression of HLA-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other spondyloarthropathies. While this is true for the majority of HLA-B27 allotypes, HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09 are not associated with AS. These two subtypes contain polymorphisms that are ideally positioned to influence the bound peptide repertoire. The existence of disease-inducing peptides (so-called arthritogenic peptides) has therefore been proposed that are exclusively presented by disease-associated HLA-B27 allotypes. However, we have recently demonstrated that this segregation of allotype-bound peptides is not the case and that many peptides that display sequence features predicted to favor binding to disease-associated subtypes are also capable of being presented naturally by protective alleles. To further probe more subtle quantitative changes in peptide presentation, we have used a combination of data-independent acquisition (DIA) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry to quantify the abundance of 1646 HLA-B27 restricted peptides across the eight most frequent HLA-B27 allotypes (HLA-B*27:02-HLA-B*27:09). We utilized K means cluster analysis to group peptides with similar allelic binding preferences across the eight HLA-B27 allotypes, which enabled us to identify the most-stringent binding characteristics for each HLA-B27 allotype and further refined their existing consensus-binding motifs. Moreover, a thorough analysis of this quantitative dataset led to the identification of 26 peptides, which are presented in lower abundance by HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09 compared with disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes. Although these differences were observed to be very subtle, these 26 peptides might encompass the sought-after arthritogenic peptide(s).

  8. Clinically relevant interpretation of solid phase assays for HLA antibody

    PubMed Central

    Bettinotti, Maria P.; Zachary, Andrea A.; Leffell, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Accurate and timely detection and characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are critical for pre-transplant and post-transplant immunological risk assessment. Solid phase immunoassays have provided increased sensitivity and specificity, but test interpretation is not always straightforward. This review will discuss the result interpretation considering technical limitations; assessment of relative antibody strength; and the integration of data for risk stratification from complementary testing and the patient's immunological history. Recent findings Laboratory and clinical studies have provided insight into causes of test failures – false positive reactions because of antibodies to denatured HLA antigens and false negative reactions resulting from test interference and/or loss of native epitopes. Test modifications permit detection of complement-binding antibodies and determination of the IgG subclasses. The high degree of specificity of single antigen solid phase immunoassays has revealed the complexity and clinical relevance of antibodies to HLA-C, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP antigens. Determination of antibody specificity for HLA epitopes enables identification of incompatible antigens not included in test kits. Summary Detection and characterization of HLA antibodies with solid phase immunoassays has led to increased understanding of the role of those antibodies in graft rejection, improved treatment of antibody-mediated rejection, and increased opportunities for transplantation. However, realization of these benefits requires careful and accurate interpretation of test results. PMID:27200498

  9. Distinct T cell interactions with HLA class II tetramers characterize a spectrum of TCR affinities in the human antigen-specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Reichstetter, S; Ettinger, R A; Liu, A W; Gebe, J A; Nepom, G T; Kwok, W W

    2000-12-15

    The polyclonal nature of T cells expanding in an ongoing immune response results in a range of disparate affinities and activation potential. Recently developed human class II tetramers provide a means to analyze this diversity by direct characterization of the trimolecular TCR-peptide-MHC interaction in live cells. Two HSV-2 VP16(369-379)-specific, DQA1*0102/DQB1*0602 (DQ0602)-restricted T cell clones were compared by means of T cell proliferation assay and HLA-DQ0602 tetramer staining. These two clones were obtained from the same subject, but show different TCR gene usage. Clone 48 was 10-fold more sensitive to VP16(369-379) peptide stimulation than clone 5 as assayed by proliferation assays, correlating with differences in MHC tetramer binding. Clone 48 gave positive staining with the DQ0602/VP16(369-379) tetramer at either 23 or 37 degrees C. Weak staining was also observed at 4 degrees C. Clone 5 showed weaker staining compared with clone 48 at 37 degrees C, and no staining was observed at 23 degrees C or on ice. Receptor internalization was not required for positive staining. Competitive binding indicates that the cell surface TCR of clone 48 has higher affinity for the DQ0602/VP16(369-379) complex than clone 5. The higher binding affinity of clone 48 for the peptide-MHC complex also correlates with a slower dissociation rate compared with clone 5.

  10. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  11. Long-term follow-up of HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer vaccinated with the prostate specific antigen peptide homologue (PSA146-154).

    PubMed

    Perambakam, Supriya; Xie, Hui; Edassery, Seby; Peace, David J

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum levels of PSA one year post-vaccination. A decreased risk of biochemical progression was observed in patients who developed augmented tetramer responses at six months compared to pre-vaccination levels (P = .02). Thirteen patients have died while 15 patients remain alive with a mean overall survival of 60 months (95% CI, 51 to 68 months) per Kaplan-Meier analysis. A trend towards greater overall survival was detected in men with high-risk, hormone-sensitive CaP who developed specific T-cell immunity following vaccination with PSA146-154 peptide.

  12. Long-Term Follow-Up of HLA-A2+ Patients with High-Risk, Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Vaccinated with the Prostate Specific Antigen Peptide Homologue (PSA146-154)

    PubMed Central

    Perambakam, Supriya; Xie, Hui; Edassery, Seby; Peace, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum levels of PSA one year post-vaccination. A decreased risk of biochemical progression was observed in patients who developed augmented tetramer responses at six months compared to pre-vaccination levels (P = .02). Thirteen patients have died while 15 patients remain alive with a mean overall survival of 60 months (95% CI, 51 to 68 months) per Kaplan-Meier analysis. A trend towards greater overall survival was detected in men with high-risk, hormone-sensitive CaP who developed specific T-cell immunity following vaccination with PSA146-154 peptide. PMID:21253471

  13. Rapid improvement of disseminated intravascular coagulation by donor leukocyte infusions in a patient with promyelocytic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation from an HLA 2-antigen-mismatched mother.

    PubMed

    Matsue, Kosei; Yamada, Konagi; Takeuchi, Masami; Tabayashi, Takayuki

    2003-05-01

    Donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is recognized as effective therapy for relapse after stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, the clinical efficacy of DLI in the advanced phase of CML or other types of leukemia has not been clearly defined because of its varying degree of success. We describe a 22-year-old male patient with promyelocytic crisis of CML who had a relapse after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, under reduced-intensity conditioning, from his HLA 2-antigen-mismatched mother. Complete hematologic remission was obtained after transplantation. However, a relapse that occurred on day 66 posttransplantion was characterized by an increase in number of leukemic promyelocytes with simultaneous exacerbation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The patient received DLI containing 1 x 10(7)/kg CD3+ cells on day 73. Because rapid improvement of DIC paralleled the decrease in leukemic cells and because it was observed soon after DLI and before the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we hypothesized that leukemia-specific cells other than natural killer cells or cytotoxic T-cells unrelated to GVHD played a role in the graft-versus-leukemia effect observed in our patient. In addition, this may be the first report of effective correction of DIC by DLI after stem cell transplantation.

  14. Common Genetic Variants Found in HLA and KIR Immune Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Torres, Anthony R; Sweeten, Thayne L; Johnson, Randall C; Odell, Dennis; Westover, Jonna B; Bray-Ward, Patricia; Ward, David C; Davies, Christopher J; Thomas, Aaron J; Croen, Lisa A; Benson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The "common variant-common disease" hypothesis was proposed to explain diseases with strong inheritance. This model suggests that a genetic disease is the result of the combination of several common genetic variants. Common genetic variants are described as a 5% frequency differential between diseased vs. matched control populations. This theory was recently supported by an epidemiology paper stating that about 50% of genetic risk for autism resides in common variants. However, rare variants, rather than common variants, have been found in numerous genome wide genetic studies and many have concluded that the "common variant-common disease" hypothesis is incorrect. One interpretation is that rare variants are major contributors to genetic diseases and autism involves the interaction of many rare variants, especially in the brain. It is obvious there is much yet to be learned about autism genetics. Evidence has been mounting over the years indicating immune involvement in autism, particularly the HLA genes on chromosome 6 and KIR genes on chromosome 19. These two large multigene complexes have important immune functions and have been shown to interact to eliminate unwanted virally infected and malignant cells. HLA proteins have important functions in antigen presentation in adaptive immunity and specific epitopes on HLA class I proteins act as cognate ligands for KIR receptors in innate immunity. Data suggests that HLA alleles and KIR activating genes/haplotypes are common variants in different autism populations. For example, class I allele (HLA-A2 and HLA-G 14 bp-indel) frequencies are significantly increased by more than 5% over control populations (Table 2). The HLA-DR4 Class II and shared epitope frequencies are significantly above the control populations (Table 2). Three activating KIR genes: 3DS1, 2DS1, and 2DS2 have increased frequencies of 15, 22, and 14% in autism populations, respectively. There is a 6% increase in total activating KIR genes in autism over

  15. Common Genetic Variants Found in HLA and KIR Immune Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Anthony R.; Sweeten, Thayne L.; Johnson, Randall C.; Odell, Dennis; Westover, Jonna B.; Bray-Ward, Patricia; Ward, David C.; Davies, Christopher J.; Thomas, Aaron J.; Croen, Lisa A.; Benson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The “common variant—common disease” hypothesis was proposed to explain diseases with strong inheritance. This model suggests that a genetic disease is the result of the combination of several common genetic variants. Common genetic variants are described as a 5% frequency differential between diseased vs. matched control populations. This theory was recently supported by an epidemiology paper stating that about 50% of genetic risk for autism resides in common variants. However, rare variants, rather than common variants, have been found in numerous genome wide genetic studies and many have concluded that the “common variant—common disease” hypothesis is incorrect. One interpretation is that rare variants are major contributors to genetic diseases and autism involves the interaction of many rare variants, especially in the brain. It is obvious there is much yet to be learned about autism genetics. Evidence has been mounting over the years indicating immune involvement in autism, particularly the HLA genes on chromosome 6 and KIR genes on chromosome 19. These two large multigene complexes have important immune functions and have been shown to interact to eliminate unwanted virally infected and malignant cells. HLA proteins have important functions in antigen presentation in adaptive immunity and specific epitopes on HLA class I proteins act as cognate ligands for KIR receptors in innate immunity. Data suggests that HLA alleles and KIR activating genes/haplotypes are common variants in different autism populations. For example, class I allele (HLA-A2 and HLA-G 14 bp-indel) frequencies are significantly increased by more than 5% over control populations (Table 2). The HLA-DR4 Class II and shared epitope frequencies are significantly above the control populations (Table 2). Three activating KIR genes: 3DS1, 2DS1, and 2DS2 have increased frequencies of 15, 22, and 14% in autism populations, respectively. There is a 6% increase in total activating KIR genes in

  16. Narcolepsy-Associated HLA Class I Alleles Implicate Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Mehdi; Lammers, Gert J.; Dauvilliers, Yves; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Mayer, Geert; Nowak, Jacek; Pfister, Corinne; Dubois, Valérie; Eliaou, Jean-François; Eberhard, Hans-Peter; Liblau, Roland; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Geisler, Peter; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Mathis, Johannes; Lecendreux, Michel; Khatami, Ramin; Heinzer, Raphaël; Haba-Rubio, José; Feketeova, Eva; Baumann, Christian R.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Tiercy, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Narcolepsy with cataplexy is tightly associated with the HLA class II allele DQB1*06:02. Evidence indicates a complex contribution of HLA class II genes to narcolepsy susceptibility with a recent independent association with HLA-DPB1. The cause of narcolepsy is supposed be an autoimmune attack against hypocretin-producing neurons. Despite the strong association with HLA class II, there is no evidence for CD4+ T-cell-mediated mechanism in narcolepsy. Since neurons express class I and not class II molecules, the final effector immune cells involved might include class I-restricted CD8+ T-cells. Methods: HLA class I (A, B, and C) and II (DQB1) genotypes were analyzed in 944 European narcolepsy with cataplexy patients and in 4,043 control subjects matched by country of origin. All patients and controls were DQB1*06:02 positive and class I associations were conditioned on DQB1 alleles. Results: HLA-A*11:01 (OR = 1.49 [1.18–1.87] P = 7.0*10−4), C*04:01 (OR = 1.34 [1.10–1.63] P = 3.23*10−3), and B*35:01 (OR = 1.46 [1.13–1.89] P = 3.64*10−3) were associated with susceptibility to narcolepsy. Analysis of polymorphic class I amino-acids revealed even stronger associations with key antigen-binding residues HLA-A-Tyr9 (OR = 1.32 [1.15–1.52] P = 6.95*10−5) and HLA-C-Ser11 (OR = 1.34 [1.15–1.57] P = 2.43*10−4). Conclusions: Our findings provide a genetic basis for increased susceptibility to infectious factors or an immune cytotoxic mechanism in narcolepsy, potentially targeting hypocretin neurons. Citation: Tafti M, Lammers GJ, Dauvilliers Y, Overeem S, Mayer G, Nowak J, Pfister C, Dubois V, Eliaou JF, Eberhard HP, Liblau R, Wierzbicka A, Geisler P, Bassetti CL, Mathis J, Lecendreux M, Khatami R, Heinzer R, Haba-Rubio J, Feketeova E, Baumann CR, Kutalik Z, Tiercy JM. Narcolepsy-associated HLA class I alleles implicate cell-mediated cytotoxicity. SLEEP 2016;39(3):581–587. PMID:26518595

  17. Distribution of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles in Lak population of Iran.

    PubMed

    Varzi, Ali Mohammad; Shahsavar, Farhad; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad

    2016-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic loci in the human genome and encode the highly polymorphic molecules critically involved in immune responses. Anthropological studies based on highly polymorphic HLA genes provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with those previously described in four other Iranian populations. Commercial HLA-Type kits were used for determination of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies. Differences between populations in the distribution of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles were estimated by χ2 test with Yate's correction and Fisher's exact test. The most frequent HLA-DRB1 alleles were (*)1103=4 (23%), (*)1502 (9.5%), (*)0701 (9%), (*)0301 (8.5%), (*)1101 (7.5%) and (*)1501 (6%) while HLA-DQB1(*)0301 (40%), (*)0201 (15%), (*)0502 (10.5%), (*)0303 (10%), (*)0602=3 (9.5%), and (*)0501 (7.5%) were the most frequent alleles in Lak population. HLA-DRB1(*)0409, (*)0804, (*)1102, (*)1112, (*)1405, and HLA-DQB1(*)0503, (*)0604 were the least observed frequencies in Lak population. Our results based on HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies showed that the Lak population possesses the previously reported general features of the Lur and Kurd populations but still with unique, decreased or increased frequencies of several alleles. In other words, the Lak population is close to Lurs Khorramabadi and Kurd but far from Lurs Kohkiloyeh/Boyerahmad and Bakhtiari.

  18. A simplified method for screening siblings for HLA identity using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Jennifer J; Hopp, Kathleen A; Pietz, Bradley C; Bick, David P; Lau, Eduardo C; Ellis, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Identifying an HLA-matched sibling donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is time-consuming and expensive, and often limited by reimbursement caps imposed by insurance providers. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening for HLA-matched siblings, we developed an assay for determining HLA identity using a panel of nine informative short tandem repeat (STR) loci located throughout the HLA complex. The STR panel was assessed for accuracy in identifying HLA-matched siblings in 88 family workups comprising a total of 132 related donor and recipient typing comparisons. All sibling pairs with identical STR alleles were also HLA identical. Of the 48 pairs mismatched at one or more STR alleles, all were genotypically HLA non-identical at one or more loci. The sensitivity and specificity of STR analysis for identifying HLA-matched siblings were 91% and 100%, respectively. Three false negatives occurred due to an STR mutation or possible HLA-DPB1/DQB1 recombination. Additionally, STR genotyping provided additional information allowing determination of the extent of HLA identity in families where HLA haplotype inheritance was ambiguous, due to extensive homozygosity or shared parental haplotypes. The HLA STR assay is a reliable and rapid test that can be used to inexpensively screen potential sibling donors for HLA identity.

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) Polymorphism Relevant to Inflammatory Disease Shapes the Peptidome of the Birdshot Chorioretinopathy-Associated HLA-A*29:02 Antigen*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; Martín-Esteban, Adrian; Barnea, Eilon; Admon, Arie; López de Castro, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a rare ocular inflammation whose genetic association with HLA-A*29:02 is the highest between a disease and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. It belongs to a group of MHC-I-associated inflammatory disorders, also including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, and Behçet's disease, for which endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases (ERAP) 1 and/or 2 have been identified as genetic risk factors. Since both enzymes are involved in the processing of MHC-I ligands, it seems reasonable that common peptide-mediated mechanisms may underlie the pathogenesis of these diseases. In this study, comparative immunopeptidomics was used to characterize >5000 A*29:02 ligands and quantify the effects of ERAP1 polymorphism and expression on the A*29:02 peptidome in human cells. The peptides predominant in an active ERAP1 context showed a higher frequency of nonamers and bulkier amino acid side chains at multiple positions, compared with the peptides predominant in a less active ERAP1 background. Thus, ERAP1 polymorphism has a large influence, shaping the A*29:02 peptidome through length-dependent and length-independent effects. These changes resulted in increased affinity and hydrophobicity of A*29:02 ligands in an active ERAP1 context. The results reveal the nature of the functional interaction between A*29:02 and ERAP1 and suggest that this enzyme may affect the susceptibility to birdshot chorioretinopathy by altering the A*29:02 peptidome. The complexity of these alterations is such that not only peptide presentation but also other potentially pathogenic features could be affected. PMID:25892735

  20. Seven novel HLA alleles reflect different mechanisms involved in the evolution of HLA diversity: description of the new alleles and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Adamek, Martina; Klages, Cornelia; Bauer, Manuela; Kudlek, Evelina; Drechsler, Alina; Leuser, Birte; Scherer, Sabine; Opelz, Gerhard; Tran, Thuong Hien

    2015-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci are among the most polymorphic genes in the human genome. The diversity of these genes is thought to be generated by different mechanisms including point mutation, gene conversion and crossing-over. During routine HLA typing, we discovered seven novel HLA alleles which were probably generated by different evolutionary mechanisms. HLA-B*41:21, HLA-DQB1*02:10 and HLA-DQA1*01:12 likely emerged from the common alleles of their groups by point mutations, all of which caused non-synonymous amino acid substitutions. In contrast, a deletion of one nucleotide leading to a frame shift with subsequent generation of a stop codon is responsible for the appearance of a null allele, HLA-A*01:123N. Whereas HLA-B*35:231 and HLA-B*53:31 were probably products of intralocus gene conversion between HLA-B alleles, HLA-C*07:294 presumably evolved by interlocus gene conversion between an HLA-C and an HLA-B allele. Our analysis of these novel alleles illustrates the different mechanisms which may have contributed to the evolution of HLA polymorphism.

  1. HLA class I markers in Japanese patients with carbamazepine-induced cutaneous adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Fujiwara, Tateki; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Saito, Yoshiro; Aihara, Michiko; Kashiwagi, Mariko; Muramatsu, Masaaki

    2010-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is frequently used for treating epilepsy, but this drug causes cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) that may range from mild to severe. It is reported recently that the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502 is associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) induced by CBZ in Han Chinese. We examined HLA class I in 15 Japanese patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for CBZ-induced cADRs (mild in 10 and severe = SJS in 5). HLA-B*1518, HLA-B*5901 and HLA-C*0704 alleles showed higher relative risks (above 10.0) for severe cADRs. The haplotype (HLA-A*2402-B*5901-C*0102) had high relative risk (16.09) for severe cADRs. In patients with severe cADRs, frequencies of HLA-A*1101, HLA-A*3303, HLA-B*1501, HLA-B*4403, HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*5201, HLA-C*0702, and HLA-C*1202 alleles are relatively lower than in the Japanese population. These data may suggest that HLA-B*5901 is one of the candidate markers for CBZ-induced SJS in Japanese.

  2. Recognition of distinct HLA-DQA1 promoter elements by a single nuclear factor containing Jun and Fos or antigenically related proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Neve Ombra, M; Autiero, M; DeLerma Barbaro, A; Barretta, R; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J

    1993-01-01

    The activity of MHC class II promoters depends upon conserved regulatory signals one of which, the extended X-box, contains in its X2 subregion a sequence related to the cAMP response element, CRE and to the TPA response element, TRE. Accordingly, X2 is recognized by the AP-1 factor and by other c-Jun or c-Fos containing heterodimers. We report that the X-box dependent promoter activity of the HLA-DQA1 gene is down-modulated by an array of DNA elements each of which represented twice either in an invertedly or directly repeated orientation. In this frame, we describe a nuclear binding factor, namely DBF, promiscuously interacting with two of these additional signals, delta and sigma, and with a portion of the X-box, namely the X-core, devoid of X2. The presence of a single factor recognizing divergent DNA sequences was indicated by the finding that these activities were co-eluted from a heparin-Sepharose column and from DNA affinity columns carrying different DNA binding sites as ligands. Competition experiments made with oligonucleotides representing wild type and mutant DNA elements showed that each DNA element specifically inhibited the binding of the others, supporting the contention that DBF is involved in recognition of different targets. Furthermore, we found that DBF also exhibits CRE/TRE binding activity and that this activity can be competed out by addition of an excess of sigma, delta and X-core oligonucleotides. Anti-Jun peptide and anti-Fos peptide antibodies blocked not only the binding activity of DBF, but also its X-core and sigma binding; this blockade was removed by the addition of the Jun or Fos peptides against which the antibodies had been raised. In vitro synthesized Jun/Fos was able to bind to all these boxes, albeit with seemingly different affinities. The cooperativity of DBF interactions may explain the modulation of the X-box dependent promoter activity mediated by the accessory DNA elements described here. Images PMID:8493100

  3. HLA-E polymorphism and soluble HLA-E plasma levels in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zidi, I; Laaribi, A B; Bortolotti, D; Belhadj, M; Mehri, A; Yahia, H B; Babay, W; Chaouch, H; Zidi, N; Letaief, A; Yacoub, S; Boukadida, J; Di Luca, D; Hannachi, N; Rizzo, R

    2016-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs in association to a deregulation of immune system. Human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) is an immune-tolerant nonclassical HLA class I molecule that could be involved in HBV progression. To measure soluble (s) HLA-E in patients with chronic HBV hepatitis (CHB). We tested the potential association of HLA-E*01:01/01:03 A > G gene polymorphism to CHB. Our cohort consisted of 93 Tunisian CHB patients (stratified in CHB with high HBV DNA levels and CHB with low HBV DNA levels) and 245 healthy donors. Plasma sHLA-E was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer. No association between HLA-E*01:01/01:03 A > G polymorphism and HBV DNA levels in CHB patients was found. G/G genotype is less frequent in CHB patients without significance. sHLA-E is significantly enhanced in CHB patients compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0017). Stratification according to HBV DNA levels showed that CHB patients with low HBV DNA levels have higher sHLA-E levels compared with CHB patients with high HBV DNA levels. CHB patients with G/G genotype have enhanced sHLA-E levels compared with other genotypes (P = 0.037). This significant difference is maintained only for CHB women concerning G/G genotypes (P = 0.042). Finally, we reported enhanced sHLA-E in CHB patients with advanced stages of fibrosis (P = 0.032). We demonstrate, for the first time, the association of sHLA-E to CHB. Owing to the positive correlation of HLA-E*01:01/01:03 A > G polymorphism and the association of sHLA-E to advanced fibrosis stages, HLA-E could be a powerful predictor for CHB progression. Further investigations will be required to substantiate HLA-E role as a putative clinical biomarker of CHB.

  4. High-level expression of a cloned HLA heavy chain gene introduced into mouse cells on a bovine papillomavirus vector.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, D; Corbin, V; Sibley, E; Maniatis, T

    1984-02-01

    A gene encoding the heavy chain of an HLA human histocompatibility antigen was isolated from a library of human DNA by recombination and selection in vivo. After insertion into a bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA expression vector, the gene was introduced into cultured mouse cells. Cells transformed with the HLA-BPV plasmids did not appear to contain extrachromosomal viral DNA, whereas BPV recombinants usually replicated as plasmids in transformed cell lines. Large amounts of HLA RNA were produced by the transformed cells, and the rate of synthesis of human heavy chain was several-fold higher than in the JY cell line, a well-characterized human lymphoblastoid cell line which expresses high levels of surface HLA antigen. Substantial amounts of human heavy chain accumulated in the transformed cells, and HLA antigen was present at the cell surface. These observations establish the feasibility of using BPV vectors to study the structure and function of HLA antigens and the expression of cloned HLA genes.

  5. Evidence for a human leucocyte antigen-DM-induced structural change in human leucocyte antigen-DObeta.

    PubMed

    Deshaies, Francis; Diallo, Djibril A; Fortin, Jean-Simon; O'Rourke, Helen M; Pezeshki, Abdul Mohammad; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angélique; Raby, Nicola; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunet, Alexandre; Denzin, Lisa K; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2009-07-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DO is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II molecule which modulates the function of HLA-DM and the loading of antigenic peptides on molecules such as HLA-DR. The bulk of HLA-DO associates with HLA-DM and this interaction is critical for HLA-DO egress from the endoplasmic reticulum. HLA-DM assists the early steps of HLA-DO maturation presumably through the stabilization of the interactions between the N-terminal regions of the alpha and beta chains. To evaluate a possible role for HLA-DM in influencing the conformation of HLA-DO, we made use of a monoclonal antibody, Mags.DO5, that was raised against HLA-DO/DM complexes. Using transfected cells expressing mismatched heterodimers between HLA-DR and -DO chains, we found that the epitope for Mags.DO5 is located on the DObeta chain and that Mags.DO5 reactivity was increased upon cotransfection with HLA-DM. Our results suggest that HLA-DM influences the folding of HLA-DO in the endoplasmic reticulum. A mutant HLA-DO showing reduced capacity for endoplasmic reticulum egress was better recognized by Mags.DO5 in the presence of HLA-DM. On the other hand, an HLA-DO mutant capable of endoplasmic reticulum egress on its own was efficiently recognized by Mags.DO5, irrespective of the presence of HLA-DM. Taken together, our results suggest that HLA-DM acts as a private chaperone, directly assisting the folding of HLA-DO to promote egress from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  6. [Histocompatibility HLA system of man. Considerations in the light of current concepts. VII. Nonclassical HLA- E, F, and H loci].

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, A; Turowski, G

    2001-01-01

    Current opinions connected with HLA-E and HLA-F genes determining "nonclassical" (HLA-Ib) class I antigens of the Main Histocompatibility Complex MHC, and formed in the consequence of mutation or partial deletion of HLA-H pseudogene loci were presented. The expression of protein products of HLA-E and -F genes on some cells and tissues, their polymorphism, and also their biological functions in organisms were qualified by the use of molecular technics. The kind and frequency of occurrence of mutations 845 A (C282Y) and 187 G (H63D) in gene HLA-H were analysed, and in this context some genetic aspects of hereditary hemochromatozy (HH) were discussed.

  7. Types of HLA in the bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Erkan; Uğur Özalp, Ali; Cekmen, Arman; Eren, Bülent; Onal, Bülent; Akkuş, Emre; Erdoğan, Ergun

    2013-02-01

    HLA plays a complementary role in the interaction between tumor and body immunology. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of the association between the HLA system and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Using standard micro-lymphocytotoxic method of Terasaki, HLA-A, B, DR and DQ antigen types of 30 patients with TCC of the bladder were compared with the control group (30 healthy people). In the TCC patient group, HLA -DQ6(1) and HLA -DQ7(3) antigens were detected with a significantly higher frequency than in the control group (p=0.018 and p=0.038, respectively), whereas HLA-A10, B4, DR53 and DQ1 antigens were detected with significantly higher frequency in the control group (p less 0.05 in all). It suggests that patients who had the antigens detected were at higher risk of TCC, and the ones who had the antigens displaying protective features as were detected in the control group, were at lesser risk.

  8. Matching for the nonconventional MHC-I MICA gene significantly reduces the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Carapito, Raphael; Jung, Nicolas; Kwemou, Marius; Untrau, Meiggie; Michel, Sandra; Pichot, Angélique; Giacometti, Gaëlle; Macquin, Cécile; Ilias, Wassila; Morlon, Aurore; Kotova, Irina; Apostolova, Petya; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Cesbron, Anne; Gagne, Katia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; van der Holt, Bronno; Labalette, Myriam; Spierings, Eric; Picard, Christophe; Loiseau, Pascale; Tamouza, Ryad; Toubert, Antoine; Parissiadis, Anne; Dubois, Valérie; Lafarge, Xavier; Maumy-Bertrand, Myriam; Bertrand, Frédéric; Vago, Luca; Ciceri, Fabio; Paillard, Catherine; Querol, Sergi; Sierra, Jorge; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Nagler, Arnon; Labopin, Myriam; Inoko, Hidetoshi; von dem Borne, Peter A.; Kuball, Jürgen; Ota, Masao; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Michallet, Mauricette; Lioure, Bruno; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Blaise, Didier; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Claas, Frans; Moreau, Philippe; Milpied, Noël; Charron, Dominique; Mohty, Mohamad; Zeiser, Robert; Socié, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is among the most challenging complications in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The highly polymorphic MHC class I chain–related gene A, MICA, encodes a stress-induced glycoprotein expressed primarily on epithelia. MICA interacts with the invariant activating receptor NKG2D, expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and is located in the MHC, next to HLA-B. Hence, MICA has the requisite attributes of a bona fide transplantation antigen. Using high-resolution sequence-based genotyping of MICA, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical effect of MICA mismatches in a multicenter cohort of 922 unrelated donor HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 10/10 allele-matched HCT pairs. Among the 922 pairs, 113 (12.3%) were mismatched in MICA. MICA mismatches were significantly associated with an increased incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-2.23; P < .001), chronic GVHD (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.45-1.55; P < .001), and nonelapse mortality (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46; P < .001). The increased risk for GVHD was mirrored by a lower risk for relapse (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.59; P < .001), indicating a possible graft-versus-leukemia effect. In conclusion, when possible, selecting a MICA-matched donor significantly influences key clinical outcomes of HCT in which a marked reduction of GVHD is paramount. The tight linkage disequilibrium between MICA and HLA-B renders identifying a MICA-matched donor readily feasible in clinical practice. PMID:27549307

  9. Matching for the nonconventional MHC-I MICA gene significantly reduces the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphael; Jung, Nicolas; Kwemou, Marius; Untrau, Meiggie; Michel, Sandra; Pichot, Angélique; Giacometti, Gaëlle; Macquin, Cécile; Ilias, Wassila; Morlon, Aurore; Kotova, Irina; Apostolova, Petya; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Cesbron, Anne; Gagne, Katia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; van der Holt, Bronno; Labalette, Myriam; Spierings, Eric; Picard, Christophe; Loiseau, Pascale; Tamouza, Ryad; Toubert, Antoine; Parissiadis, Anne; Dubois, Valérie; Lafarge, Xavier; Maumy-Bertrand, Myriam; Bertrand, Frédéric; Vago, Luca; Ciceri, Fabio; Paillard, Catherine; Querol, Sergi; Sierra, Jorge; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Nagler, Arnon; Labopin, Myriam; Inoko, Hidetoshi; von dem Borne, Peter A; Kuball, Jürgen; Ota, Masao; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Michallet, Mauricette; Lioure, Bruno; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Blaise, Didier; Cornelissen, Jan J; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Claas, Frans; Moreau, Philippe; Milpied, Noël; Charron, Dominique; Mohty, Mohamad; Zeiser, Robert; Socié, Gérard; Bahram, Seiamak

    2016-10-13

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is among the most challenging complications in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The highly polymorphic MHC class I chain-related gene A, MICA, encodes a stress-induced glycoprotein expressed primarily on epithelia. MICA interacts with the invariant activating receptor NKG2D, expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and is located in the MHC, next to HLA-B Hence, MICA has the requisite attributes of a bona fide transplantation antigen. Using high-resolution sequence-based genotyping of MICA, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical effect of MICA mismatches in a multicenter cohort of 922 unrelated donor HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 10/10 allele-matched HCT pairs. Among the 922 pairs, 113 (12.3%) were mismatched in MICA MICA mismatches were significantly associated with an increased incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-2.23; P < .001), chronic GVHD (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.45-1.55; P < .001), and nonelapse mortality (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46; P < .001). The increased risk for GVHD was mirrored by a lower risk for relapse (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.59; P < .001), indicating a possible graft-versus-leukemia effect. In conclusion, when possible, selecting a MICA-matched donor significantly influences key clinical outcomes of HCT in which a marked reduction of GVHD is paramount. The tight linkage disequilibrium between MICA and HLA-B renders identifying a MICA-matched donor readily feasible in clinical practice.

  10. The structure of HLA-DR52c: Comparison to other HLA-DRB3 alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Shaodong; Crawford, Frances; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.

    2008-09-05

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) molecules present antigens to CD4{sup +} T cells. In addition to the most commonly studied human MHCII isotype, HLA-DR, whose {beta} chain is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 locus, several other isotypes that use the same {alpha} chain but have {beta} chains encoded by other genes. These other DR molecules also are expressed in antigen-presenting cells and are known to participate in peptide presentation to T cells and to be recognized as alloantigens by other T cells. Like some of the HLA-DRB1 alleles, several of these alternate DR molecules have been associated with specific autoimmune diseases and T cell hypersensitivity. Here we present the structure of an HLA-DR molecule (DR52c) containing one of these alternate {beta} chains (HLA-DRB3*0301) bound to a self-peptide derived from the Tu elongation factor. The molecule shares structurally conserved elements with other MHC class II molecules but has some unique features in the peptide-binding groove. Comparison of the three major HLA-DBR3 alleles (DR52a, b, and c) suggests that they were derived from one another by recombination events that scrambled the four major peptide-binding pockets at peptide positions 1, 4, 6, and 9 but left virtually no polymorphisms elsewhere in the molecules.

  11. Anti-tumor effect of the alphavirus-based virus-like particle vector expressing prostate-specific antigen in a HLA-DR transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Riabov, V; Tretyakova, I; Alexander, R B; Pushko, P; Klyushnenkova, E N

    2015-10-05

    The goal of this study was to determine if an alphavirus-based vaccine encoding human Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) could generate an effective anti-tumor immune response in a stringent mouse model of prostate cancer. DR2bxPSA F1 male mice expressing human PSA and HLA-DRB1(*)1501 transgenes were vaccinated with virus-like particle vector encoding PSA (VLPV-PSA) followed by the challenge with Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate cells engineered to express PSA (TRAMP-PSA). PSA-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were measured before and after tumor challenge. PSA and CD8 reactivity in the tumors was detected by immunohistochemistry. Tumor growth was compared in vaccinated and control groups. We found that VLPV-PSA could infect mouse dendritic cells in vitro and induce a robust PSA-specific immune response in vivo. A substantial proportion of splenic CD8 T cells (19.6 ± 7.4%) produced IFNγ in response to the immunodominant peptide PSA(65-73). In the blood of vaccinated mice, 18.4 ± 4.1% of CD8 T cells were PSA-specific as determined by the staining with H-2D(b)/PSA(65-73) dextramers. VLPV-PSA vaccination also strongly stimulated production of IgG2a/b anti-PSA antibodies. Tumors in vaccinated mice showed low levels of PSA expression and significant CD8+ T cell infiltration. Tumor growth in VLPV-PSA vaccinated mice was significantly delayed at early time points (p=0.002, Gehan-Breslow test). Our data suggest that TC-83-based VLPV-PSA vaccine can efficiently overcome immune tolerance to PSA, mediate rapid clearance of PSA-expressing tumor cells and delay tumor growth. The VLPV-PSA vaccine will undergo further testing for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  12. Standardized genotyping of HLA STR by CE as surrogate for HLA class I and II markers and for identification of HLA identical siblings.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Eva-Maria; Wenda, Sabine; Schwartz-Jungl, Elisabeth-Maria; Glock, Barbara; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2016-03-01

    Linkage disequilibria (LD) between alleles and haplotypes of human leucocyte antigen, locus A (HLA) and STR loci located in the human major histocompatibility complex were analyzed in order to investigate whether or not HLA alleles and haplotypes are predictable by alleles or haplotypes of HLA STRs. Standardized genotyping of eight STR loci (D6S2972, D6S2906, D6S2691, D6S2678, D6S2792, D6S2789, D6S273, and DQIV) was performed by CE on 600 individuals from 150 Austrian Caucasoid families with known HLA-A,-B,-C and -DRB1 typing. From those, 576 full haplotypes of four HLA and eight STR loci were obtained. Haplotypes of two flanking STRs predicted HLA alleles and two-locus HLA haplotypes better than single STR alleles, except HLA-DRB1 alleles (92% were in LD with DQIV alleles only). A percentage of 65-86% of three and four-locus HLA haplotypes were in LD with haplotypes of three, four, and eight of their flanking STR loci including numerous clear-cut predictions (20-61%). All eight and a set of the four most informative STR loci D6S2972, D6S2678, D6S2792, and DQIV could identify all HLA identical and nonidentical siblings in 138 pairs of siblings. The results of this proof of concept study in Austrian Caucasoids show, that HLA STRs can aid the definition of HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 haplotypes and the selection of sibling donors for stem cell transplantation.

  13. Clinical impact of HLA class I expression in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Speetjens, Frank M.; de Bruin, Elza C.; Morreau, Hans; Zeestraten, Eliane C. M.; Putter, Hein; van Krieken, J. Han; van Buren, Maaike M.; van Velzen, Monique; Dekker-Ensink, N. Geeske; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the clinical impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression in irradiated and non-irradiated rectal carcinomas. Experimental design Tumor samples in tissue micro array format were collected from 1,135 patients. HLA class I expression was assessed after immunohistochemical staining with two antibodies (HCA2 and HC10). Results Tumors were split into two groups: (1) tumors with >50% of tumor cells expressing HLA class I (high) and (2) tumors with ≤50% of tumor cells expressing HLA class I (low). No difference in distribution or prognosis of HLA class I expression was found between irradiated and non-irradiated patients. Patients with low expression of HLA class I (15% of all patients) showed an independent significantly worse prognosis with regard to overall survival and disease-free survival. HLA class I expression had no effect on cancer-specific survival or recurrence-free survival. Conclusions Down-regulation of HLA class I in rectal cancer is associated with poor prognosis. In contrast to our results, previous reports on HLA class I expression in colorectal cancer described a large population of patients with HLA class I negative tumors, having a good prognosis. This difference might be explained by the fact that a large proportion of HLA negative colon tumors are microsatellite instable (MSI). MSI tumors are associated with a better prognosis than microsatellite stable (MSS). As rectal tumors are mainly MSS, our results suggest that it is both, oncogenic pathway and HLA class I expression, that dictates patient’s prognosis in colorectal cancer. Therefore, to prevent confounding in future prognostic analysis on the impact of HLA expression in colorectal tumors, separate analysis of MSI and MSS tumors should be performed. PMID:17874100

  14. A web resource for mining HLA associations with adverse drug reactions: HLA-ADR.

    PubMed

    Ghattaoraya, Gurpreet S; Dundar, Yenal; González-Galarza, Faviel F; Maia, Maria Helena Thomaz; Santos, Eduardo José Melo; da Silva, Andréa Luciana Soares; McCabe, Antony; Middleton, Derek; Alfirevic, Ana; Dickson, Rumona; Jones, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are an important family of genes involved in the immune system. Their primary function is to allow the host immune system to be able to distinguish between self and non-self peptides-e.g. derived from invading pathogens. However, these genes have also been implicated in immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs), presenting a problem to patients, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. We have previously developed the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) that captures the allelic and haplotype frequencies for these HLA genes across many healthy populations from around the world. Here, we report the development and release of the HLA-ADR database that captures data from publications where HLA alleles and haplotypes have been associated with ADRs (e.g. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug-induced liver injury). HLA-ADR was created by using data obtained through systematic review of the literature and semi-automated literature mining. The database also draws on data already present in AFND allowing users to compare and analyze allele frequencies in both ADR patients and healthy populations. The HLA-ADR database provides clinicians and researchers with a centralized resource from which to investigate immune-mediated ADRs.Database URL: http://www.allelefrequencies.net/hla-adr/.

  15. Protection against rheumatoid arthritis by HLA: nature and nurture.

    PubMed

    Feitsma, A L; van der Helm-van Mil, A H M; Huizinga, T W J; de Vries, R R P; Toes, R E M

    2008-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex genetic disorder in which the HLA region contributes most to the genetic risk. HLA-DRB1 molecules containing the amino acid sequence QKRAA/QRRAA/RRRAA (ie, HLA-DRB1*0101, *0102, *0401, *0404, *0405, *0408, *0410, *1001 and *1402) at position 70-74 in the third hypervariable region of the DRB1 chain are associated with susceptibility to RA. HLA-DRB1 molecules containing the amino acids "DERAA" (ie, HLA-DRB1*0103, *0402, *1102, *1103, *1301, *1302 and *1304) at the same position are associated with protection from RA. Interestingly, not only inherited but also non-inherited HLA-antigens from the mother can influence RA susceptibility. A protective effect of "DERAA"-containing HLA-DRB1 alleles as non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA) has recently been described. The underlying mechanism of this protective effect is currently unknown, although a possible explanation is covered below. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge on protection against RA is given and the inherited and NIMA effect of "DERAA"-containing HLA-DRB1 alleles are compared.

  16. A new HLA-B*51 variant, B*5158, identified by sequence-based typing in a Korean individual.

    PubMed

    Roh, E Y; Shin, S; Yoon, J H; Ahn, B M; Chang, J Y

    2009-04-01

    A novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*51 allele, officially named HLA-B*5158, was identified in the cord blood from Korean. HLA-B*5158 allele shows single nucleotide difference from B*510101 in exon 2 at nucleotide position 214 (C/T), resulting in an amino acid substitution, Trp48Arg.

  17. Detailed examination of HLA antibody development on renal allograft failure and function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lan; Lee, Po-Chang; Everly, Matthew J; Terasaki, Paul I

    2008-01-01

    This is a long-term retrospective case-control study. Serial sera were collected over 17 years (1991-2008) from two groups comprised of 29 patients with allograft failure (250 sera) and 25 controls with functioning grafts (305 sera), each control matched by transplant date to one failure-group patient, and all patients tested with single antigen beads. The median follow-up for failure-group patients was 7.3 +/- 4.7 years and 11.8 +/- 4.4 years for controls. HLA alloantibodies appeared in 28 of the 29 failure-group patients (97%) and in 12 of the 25 controls (48%) (p < 0.0001). DSA and non-DSA that appeared alone--without any DSA detected-were both associated with graft failure (p = 0.001, p = 0.01). DSA against HLA-DQ antigen was found in 13 of 17 graft-failed patients who had received DQ-incompatible transplants (76%) compared with only one of 11 similarly DQ-mismatched control patients (9%) (p < 0.001). The strength of strong DSA (defined as MFI > 5000) was higher in graft-failed patients than in graft-functioning patients. The time it took for antibodies to develop also differed between groups. HLA antibodies were formed sooner in the failure group compared with the controls (1.7 versus 3.7 years, P < 0.01). Fifteen of the failure group patients developed antibodies within one year while none in the control group did. In conclusion, our study reinforces the observation that circulating de novo HLA alloantibodies predict adverse long-term kidney allograft outcomes. The significant negative impact of all alloantibodies calls for clinicians to monitor patients and implement removal therapy when alloantibody is first detected. This may prove a key step in the ongoing attempt to prevent chronic rejection and prolonging renal allograft survival.

  18. Is there a stronger graft-versus-leukemia effect using HLA-haploidentical donors compared with HLA-identical siblings?

    PubMed

    Ringdén, O; Labopin, M; Ciceri, F; Velardi, A; Bacigalupo, A; Arcese, W; Ghavamzadeh, A; Hamladji, R M; Schmid, C; Nagler, A; Mohty, M

    2016-02-01

    Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) are increasingly used, but it is unknown whether they have a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. We analyzed 10 679 acute leukemia patients who underwent HSCT from an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD, n=9815) or a haploidentical donor (⩾2 HLA-antigen disparity, n=864) between 2007 and 2012, reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. In a Cox regression model, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was added as time-dependent variables. There was no difference in probability of relapse between recipients of haploidentical and MSD grafts. Factors of importance for relapse after T-cell-replete grafts included remission status at HSCT, Karnofsky score ⩽80, acute GVHD of grade II or higher and chronic GVHD (P<10(-5)). Patients with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (n=194) had similar outcome as other T-cell-replete haploidentical transplants (n=369). Non-relapse mortality was significantly higher in the haploidentical group compared with that in MSD patients (P<10(-5)). Leukemia-free survival was superior in the MSD patients receiving T-cell-replete (P<10(-5)) or T-cell-depleted grafts (P=0.0006). The risk of relapse was the same in acute leukemia patients who received haploidentical donor grafts as in those given MSD transplants, suggesting a similar GVL effect.

  19. HLA-sharing, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and the genetic hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, P.W.

    1988-05-01

    A number of studies indicates that there is a high sharing of HLA antigens in couples having recurrent spontaneous abortions. The genetic hypothesis to explain this phenomenon suggests that this fetal loss results from homozygosity of recessive lethal or deleterius alleles in gametic disequilibrium with HLA antigens. Theory predicting the lethality rate is derived when antigens are shared at one, two or three loci, given the disequilibrium is absolute. In addition, the effects of partial disequilibrium, inbreeding, and segregation distortion on the lethal proportion are examined.

  20. Rapid, scalable and highly automated HLA genotyping using next-generation sequencing: a transition from research to diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human leukocyte antigen matching at allelic resolution is proven clinically significant in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, lowering the risk of graft-versus-host disease and mortality. However, due to the ever growing HLA allele database, tissue typing laboratories face substantial challenges. In light of the complexity and the high degree of allelic diversity, it has become increasingly difficult to define the classical transplantation antigens at high-resolution by using well-tried methods. Thus, next-generation sequencing is entering into diagnostic laboratories at the perfect time and serving as a promising tool to overcome intrinsic HLA typing problems. Therefore, we have developed and validated a scalable automated HLA class I and class II typing approach suitable for diagnostic use. Results A validation panel of 173 clinical and proficiency testing samples was analysed, demonstrating 100% concordance to the reference method. From a total of 1,273 loci we were able to generate 1,241 (97.3%) initial successful typings. The mean ambiguity reduction for the analysed loci was 93.5%. Allele assignment including intronic sequences showed an improved resolution (99.2%) of non-expressed HLA alleles. Conclusion We provide a powerful HLA typing protocol offering a short turnaround time of only two days, a fully integrated workflow and most importantly a high degree of typing reliability. The presented automated assay is flexible and can be scaled by specific primer compilations and the use of different 454 sequencing systems. The workflow was successfully validated according to the policies of the European Federation for Immunogenetics. Next-generation sequencing seems to become one of the new methods in the field of Histocompatibility. PMID:23557197

  1. HLA DR/DQ type in a Malay population in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azira, N M S; Zeehaida, M; Nurul Khaiza, Y

    2013-06-01

    The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) has been documented to be involved in various disease susceptibilities or in resistance against certain diseases. An important element in susceptibility and resistance to disease is ethnic genetic constitution. Cognizant of this, the present study aimed at studying the prevalence of particular HLA class II in a normal healthy Malay population which may serve as a guide for further genetic and immunological studies related to the Malay Malaysian population. The study involved 40 normal healthy Malay persons in Kelantan. HLA typing was conducted on venous blood samples through a polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method (low resolution Olerup SSP© HLA Typing Kits). The study found HLA DR12 and HLA DQ8 to be the most frequent HLA class II type. HLA DQ5 was significantly associated with female subjects.

  2. Association of primary sclerosing cholangitis with HLA-B8.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, R W; Varghese, Z; Gaul, R; Patel, G; Kokinon, N; Sherlock, S

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of HLA antigens was studied in 25 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and compared with a control group of 562 kidney donors. Fourteen patients also had ulcerative colitis. A significant increase in the frequency of HLA-B8 (60%) was found in the primary sclerosing cholangitis patients compared with controls (25%) (p less than 0.001). HLA-B8 was found in eight patients with ulcerative colitis. The frequency of HLA-B12 was significantly decreased (8%) compared with controls (30%) (p less than 0.02). Piecemeal necrosis was observed on liver histology in 66% of HLA-B8 positive and 50% of HLA-B8 negative patients. Low titres of serum autoantibodies were frequently found in the primary sclerosing cholangitis group but did not correspond to the presence of HLA-B8. Raised serum concentrations of IgM and IgG were not related to HLA-B8. This study has shown that in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis there exists a disease susceptibility gene closely associated with the B locus of the major histocompatibility complex which may be modified by other factors such as ulcerative colitis. Patients with ulcerative colitis and HLA-B8 may be particularly liable to develop primary sclerosing cholangitis. PMID:6600227

  3. Preformed donor HLA-DP-specific antibodies mediate acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jolly, E C; Key, T; Rasheed, H; Morgan, H; Butler, A; Pritchard, N; Taylor, C J; Clatworthy, M R

    2012-10-01

    Donor-specific HLA alloantibodies may cause acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and significantly compromise allograft survival. The clinical relevance of antibodies directed against some HLA class II antigens, particularly HLA-DP, is less clear with conflicting reports on their pathogenicity. We report two patients with high levels of pretransplant donor-specific HLA-DP antibodies who subsequently developed recurrent acute AMR and graft failure. In both cases, there were no other donor-specific HLA alloantibodies, suggesting that the HLA-DP-specific antibodies may be directly pathogenic.

  4. Association of high HLA-E expression during acute cellular rejection and numbers of HLA class I leader peptide mismatches with reduced renal allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Guberina, Hana; Rebmann, Vera; Wagner, Bettina; da Silva Nardi, Fabiola; Dziallas, Phillip; Dolff, Sebastian; Bienholz, Anja; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Heinemann, Falko M; Witzke, Oliver; Zoet, Yvonne M; Claas, Frans H J; Horn, Peter A; Kribben, Andreas; Doxiadis, Ilias I N

    2017-03-01

    Non-classical Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E preferentially presents leader peptides derived from classical HLA-class I molecules. HLA-E can trigger opposed immune responses by interacting with inhibitory NKG2A or by activating NKG2C receptors on NK and T-cells. We studied the impact of HLA-E on renal allograft survival during acute cellular rejection. HLA-E expression was up-regulated in acute cellular rejection (ACR) biopsies (n=12) compared to biopsies from 13 renal allografts with no rejection-signs. HLA-E up-regulation was correlated with numbers of HLA-class I leader peptide mismatches (p=0.04). CD8+ and CD56+ infiltrating cells correlated with HLA-E expression (p<0.0001 and p=0.0009, respectively). Activating NKG2C receptor dominated on effector cells in biopsies and peripheral blood during ACR potentially allowing HLA-E-mediated immune activation. Moreover, HLA-E expression correlated with deterioration in renal allograft function (p<0.008) and reduced allograft survival (p=0.002). Our findings provide evidence that during renal allograft rejection HLA-E along with high numbers of mismatched HLA-class I leader peptides might represent additional targets for immune-activating responses.

  5. Susceptibility to Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury is Influenced by Multiple HLA Class I and II Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, M. Isabel; Molokhia, Mariam; Shen, Yufeng; Urban, Thomas J.; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Andrade, Raúl J.; Day, Christopher P.; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Donaldson, Peter T.; Stephens, Camilla; Pirmohamed, Munir; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Navarro, Jose Maria; Fontana, Robert J.; Miller, Michael; Groome, Max; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Conforti, Anita; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Carvajal, Alfonso; Ibanez, Luisa; Yue, Qun-Ying; Eichelbaum, Michel; Floratos, Aris; Pe’er, Itsik; Daly, Mark J.; Goldstein, David B.; Dillon, John F.; Nelson, Matthew R.; Watkins, Paul B.; Daly, Ann K.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), especially from antimicrobial agents, is an important cause of serious liver disease. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) is a leading cause of idiosyncratic DILI, but little is understood about genetic susceptibility to this adverse reaction. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study using 822,927 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 201 White European and US cases of AC-DILI and 532 population controls, matched for genetic background. Results AC-DILI was associated with many loci in the major histocompatibility complex. The strongest effect was with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II SNP (rs9274407, P=4.8×10−14), which correlated with rs3135388, a tag SNP of HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 that was previously associated with AC-DILI. Conditioned on rs3135388, rs9274407 is still significant (P=1.1×10−4). An independent association was observed in the class I region (rs2523822, P=1.8×10−10), related to HLA-A*0201. The most significant class I and II SNPs showed statistical interaction (P=0.0015). High-resolution HLA genotyping (177 cases and 219 controls) confirmed associations of HLA-A*0201 (P=2×10−6) and HLA-DQB1*0602 (P=5×10−10), and their interaction (P=0.005). Additional, population-dependent effects were observed in HLA alleles with nominal significance. In an analysis of auto-immunerelated genes, rs2476601 in the gene PTPN22 was associated (P=1.3×10−4). Conclusions Class I and II HLA genotypes affect susceptibility to AC-DILI, indicating the importance of the adaptive immune response in pathogenesis. The HLA genotypes identified will be useful in studies of the pathogenesis of AC-DILI, but have limited utility as predictive or diagnostic biomarkers because of the low positive-predictive values. PMID:21570397

  6. High-Resolution Analyses of Human Leukocyte Antigens Allele and Haplotype Frequencies Based on 169,995 Volunteers from the China Bone Marrow Donor Registry Program

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Li, Jian-Ping; Mao, Wei; Zhang, De-Mei; Liu, Meng-Li; Hei, Ai-Lian; Dai, Da-Peng; Jiang, Ping; Shan, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Zhu, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Jie; Deng, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Lei; Yu, Wei-Jian; Chen, Qiang; Qiao, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Xiang-Ming; Lv, Rong; Li, Guo-Ying; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Heng-Cong; Zhang, Xu; Pei, Bin; Jiao, Li-Xin; Shen, Gang; Liu, Ying; Feng, Zhi-Hui; Su, Yu-Ping; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Di, Wen-Ying; Jiang, Yao-Qin; Fu, Hong-Lei; Liu, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Mei-Zhen; Du, Dan; Liu, Qi; Han, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a widely used and effective therapy for hematopoietic malignant diseases and numerous other disorders. High-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype frequency distributions not only facilitate individual donor searches but also determine the probability with which a particular patient can find HLA-matched donors in a registry. The frequencies of the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes were estimated among 169,995 Chinese volunteers using the sequencing-based typing (SBT) method. Totals of 191 HLA-A, 244 HLA-B, 146 HLA-C, 143 HLA-DRB1 and 47 HLA-DQB1 alleles were observed, which accounted for 6.98%, 7.06%, 6.46%, 9.11% and 7.91%, respectively, of the alleles in each locus in the world (IMGT 3.16 Release, Apr. 2014). Among the 100 most common haplotypes from the 169,995 individuals, nine distinct haplotypes displayed significant regionally specific distributions. Among these, three were predominant in the South China region (i.e., the 20th, 31st, and 81sthaplotypes), another three were predominant in the Southwest China region (i.e., the 68th, 79th, and 95th haplotypes), one was predominant in the South and Southwest China regions (the 18th haplotype), one was relatively common in the Northeast and North China regions (the 94th haplotype), and one was common in the Northeast, North and Northwest China (the 40th haplotype). In conclusion, this is the first to analyze high-resolution HLA diversities across the entire country of China, based on a detailed and complete data set that covered 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities. Specifically, we also evaluated the HLA matching probabilities within and between geographic regions and analyzed the regional differences in the HLA diversities in China. We believe that the data presented in this study might be useful for unrelated HLA-matched donor searches, donor registry planning, population genetic studies, and anthropogenesis

  7. Association of HLA phenotypes of end-stage renal disease patients preparing for first transplantation with anti-HLA antibody status.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Gonca Emel; Kekik, Cigdem; Oguz, Fatma Savran; Onal, Ayse Emel; Bakkaloğlu, Hüseyin; Calişkan, Yaşar Kerem; Yazici, Halil; Turkmen, Aydin; Aydin, Ali Emin; Sever, Mehmet S; Eldegez, Ulug; Carin, Mahmut Nezih

    2010-01-01

    Patients with pre-transplantation high levels of panel reactive antibody (PRA) have an increased risk of graft failure, and renal transplantation in sensitized patients remains a highly significant challenge worldwide. The influence of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies on the development of rejection episodes depends on patient-specific clinical factors and differs from patient to patient. The HLA typing of the recipient might influence the development of anti-HLA antibodies. Some HLA antigens appear to be more immunogenic than others. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the distribution of HLA phenotypes in PRA-positive and PRA-negative end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on the basis of having sensitizing events or not. Our study included 642 (mean age: 41.54; female/male: 310/332) ESRD patients preparing for the first transplantation and who are on the cadaveric kidney transplantation waiting list of Istanbul Medical Faculty in 2008-2009. Class I HLA-A,B typing was performed by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) method, whereas class II HLA-DRB1 typing was performed by low-resolution polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-specific primer (SSP). All serum samples were screened for the presence of IgG type of anti-HLA class I- and II-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PRA-negative group consisted of 558 (86.9%) and PRA-positive group included 84 (13.1%) patients. We have found statistically significant frequency of HLA-A3 (p=0.018), HLA-A66 (p=0.04), and HLA-B18 (p=0.006) antigens in PRA-positive patients and DRB1*07 (p=0.02) having the highest frequency in patients with sensitizing event history but no anti-HLA development suggesting that DRB1*07 might be associated with low risk of anti-HLA antibody formation.

  8. Isolation of human CD4/CD8 double-positive, graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor histocompatibility antigen-specific regulatory T cells and of a novel HLA-DR7-restricted HY-specific CD4 clone.

    PubMed

    Eljaafari, Assia; Yuruker, Ozel; Ferrand, Christophe; Farre, Annie; Addey, Caroline; Tartelin, Marie-Laure; Thomas, Xavier; Tiberghien, Pierre; Simpson, Elizabeth; Rigal, Dominique; Scott, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility (H) Ags are classically described as self-peptides derived from intracellular proteins that are expressed at the cell surface by MHC class I and class II molecules and that induce T cell alloresponses. We have isolated three different T cell populations from a skin biopsy of a patient suffering from acute graft-versus-host disease following sex-mismatched HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation. The first population was: 1) CD4(+)/CD8(+) double-positive; 2) specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomal Ag; 3) expressed a Tr1 profile with high levels of IL-10, but low IL-2 and IFN-γ; and 4) exerted regulatory function in the presence of recipient APCs. The second was CD8 positive, specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomally encoded minor H Ag, but was only weakly cytotoxic. The third was CD4 single positive, specific for an HLA-DR7-restricted HY epitope and exerted both proliferative and cytotoxic functions. Identification of the peptide recognized by these latter cells revealed a new human HY epitope, TGKIINFIKFDTGNL, encoded by RPS4Y and restricted by HLA-DR7. In this paper, we show human CD4/CD8 double-positive, acute graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor H Ag-specific regulatory T cells and identify a novel HLA-DR7/ HY T cell epitope, encoded by RPS4Y, a potential new therapeutic target.

  9. HLA/KIR Restraint of HIV: Surviving the Fittest

    PubMed Central

    Bashirova, Arman A.; Thomas, Rasmi; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, and more recently the killer cell immunoglobulin-like (KIR) locus has been implicated in differential responses to the virus. Genome-wide association studies have convincingly shown that the HLA class I locus is the most significant host genetic contributor to the variation in HIV control, underscoring a central role for CD8 T cells in resistance to the virus. However, both genetic and functional data indicate that part of the HLA effect on HIV is due to interactions between KIR and HLA genes, also implicating natural killer cells in defense against viral infection and viral expansion prior to initiation of an adaptive response. We review the HLA and KIR associations with HIV disease and the progress that has been made in understanding the mechanisms that explain these associations. PMID:21219175

  10. Extensive HLA class I allele promiscuity among viral CTL epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Nicole; Yusim, Karina; Suscovich, Todd J.; Adams, Sharon; Sidney, John; Hraber, Peter; Hewitt, Hannah S.; Linde, Caitlyn H.; Kavanagh, Daniel G.; Woodberry, Tonia; Henry, Leah M.; Faircloth, Kellie; Listgarten, Jennifer; Kadie, Carl; Jojic, Nebojsa; Sango, Kaori; Brown, Nancy V.; Pae, Eunice; Zaman, M. Tauheed; Bihl, Florian; Khatri, Ashok; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Marincola, Francesco M.; Walker, Bruce D.; Sette, Alessandro; Heckerman, David; Korber, Bette T.; Brander, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Summary Promiscuous binding of T helper epitopes to MHC class II molecules has been well established, but few examples of promiscuous class I restricted epitopes exist. To address the extent of promiscuity of HLA class I peptides, responses to 242 well-defined viral epitopes were tested in 100 subjects regardless of the individuals’ HLA type. Surprisingly, half of all detected responses were seen in the absence of the originally reported restricting HLA class I allele, and only 3% of epitopes were recognized exclusively in the presence of their original allele. Functional assays confirmed the frequent recognition of HLA class I-restricted T cell epitopes on several alternative alleles across HLA class I supertypes and encoded on different class I loci. These data have significant implications for the understanding of MHC class I restricted antigen presentation and vaccine development. PMID:17705138

  11. Soluble monomers, dimers and HLA-G-expressing extracellular vesicles: the three dimensions of structural complexity to use HLA-G as a clinical biomarker.

    PubMed

    Nardi, F da Silva; König, L; Wagner, B; Giebel, B; Santos Manvailer, L F; Rebmann, V

    2016-09-01

    The HLA-G molecule belongs to the family of nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. At variance to classical HLA class I, HLA-G displays (i) a low number of nucleotide variations within the coding region, (ii) a high structural diversity, (iii) a restricted peptide repertoire, (iv) a limited tissue distribution and (v) strong immune-suppressive properties. The physiological HLA-G surface expression is restricted to the maternal-fetal interface and to immune-privileged adult tissues. Soluble forms of HLA-G (sHLA-G) are detectable in various body fluids. Cellular activation and pathological processes are associated with an aberrant or a neo-expression of HLA-G/sHLA-G. Functionally, HLA-G and its secreted forms are considered to be key players in the induction of short- and long-term tolerance. Thus, its unique expression profile and tolerance-inducing functions render HLA-G/sHLA-G an attractive biomarker to monitor the systemic health/disease status and disease activity/progression for clinical approaches in disease management and treatments. Here, we place emphasis on (i) the current status of the tolerance-inducing functions by HLA-G/sHLA-G, (ii) the current complexity to implement this molecule as a meaningful clinical biomarker regarding the three dimensions of structural diversity (monomers, dimers and HLA-G-expressing extracellular vesicles) with its functional implications, and (iii) novel and future approaches to detect and quantify sHLA-G structures and functions.

  12. Efficacy of induction therapy with ATG and intravenous immunoglobulins in patients with low-level donor-specific HLA-antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bächler, K; Amico, P; Hönger, G; Bielmann, D; Hopfer, H; Mihatsch, M J; Steiger, J; Schaub, S

    2010-05-01

    Low-level donor-specific HLA-antibodies (HLA-DSA) (i.e. detectable by single-antigen flow beads, but negative by complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch) represent a risk factor for early allograft rejection. The short-term efficacy of an induction regimen consisting of polyclonal anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG) and intravenous immunoglobulins (IvIg) in patients with low-level HLA-DSA is unknown. In this study, we compared 67 patients with low-level HLA-DSA not having received ATG/IvIg induction (historic control) with 37 patients, who received ATG/IvIg induction. The two groups were equal regarding retransplants, HLA-matches, number and class of HLA-DSA. The overall incidence of clinical/subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) was lower in the ATG/IvIg than in the historic control group (38% vs. 55%; p = 0.03). This was driven by a significantly lower rate of clinical AMR (11% vs. 46%; p = 0.0002). Clinical T-cell-mediated rejection (TCR) was significantly lower in the ATG/IvIg than in the historic control group (0% vs. 50%; p < 0.0001). Within the first year, allograft loss due to AMR occurred in 7.5% in the historic control and in 0% in the ATG/IvIg group. We conclude that in patients with low-level HLA-DSA, ATG/IvIg induction significantly reduces TCR and the severity of AMR, but the high rate of subclinical AMR suggests an insufficient control of the humoral immune response.

  13. Detection of 549 new HLA alleles in potential stem cell donors from the United States, Poland and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Frederick, C J; Cereb, N; Giani, A S; Ruppel, J; Maraszek, A; Pingel, J; Sauter, J; Schmidt, A H; Yang, S Y

    2016-01-01

    We characterized 549 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles found in newly registered stem cell donors as a result of high-throughput HLA typing. New alleles include 101 HLA-A, 132 HLA-B, 105 HLA-C, 2 HLA-DRB1, 89 HLA-DQB1 and 120 HLA-DPB1 alleles. Mainly, new alleles comprised single nucleotide variations when compared with homologous sequences. We identified nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in 70.7% of all new alleles, synonymous variations in 26.4% and nonsense substitutions in 2.9% (null alleles). Some new alleles (55, 10.0%) were found multiple times, HLA-DPB1 alleles being the most frequent among these. Furthermore, as several new alleles were identified in individuals from ethnic minority groups, the relevance of recruiting donors belonging to such groups and the importance of ethnicity data collection in donor centers and registries is highlighted.

  14. Natural micropolymorphism in human leukocyte antigens provides a basis for genetic control of antigen recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Archbold, Julia K.; Macdonald, Whitney A.; Gras, Stephanie; Ely, Lauren K.; Miles, John J.; Bell, Melissa J.; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Clements, Craig S.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2009-07-10

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphism plays a critical role in protective immunity, disease susceptibility, autoimmunity, and drug hypersensitivity, yet the basis of how HLA polymorphism influences T cell receptor (TCR) recognition is unclear. We examined how a natural micropolymorphism in HLA-B44, an important and large HLA allelic family, affected antigen recognition. T cell-mediated immunity to an Epstein-Barr virus determinant (EENLLDFVRF) is enhanced when HLA-B*4405 was the presenting allotype compared with HLA-B*4402 or HLA-B*4403, each of which differ by just one amino acid. The micropolymorphism in these HLA-B44 allotypes altered the mode of binding and dynamics of the bound viral epitope. The structure of the TCR-HLA-B*4405EENLLDFVRF complex revealed that peptide flexibility was a critical parameter in enabling preferential engagement with HLA-B*4405 in comparison to HLA-B*4402/03. Accordingly, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism can alter the dynamics of the peptide-MHC landscape, resulting in fine-tuning of T cell responses between closely related allotypes.

  15. Biology of HLA-G in cancer: a candidate molecule for therapeutic intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Laurence; Ferrone, Soldano; Grosse-Wilde, Hans; Seliger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Although the expression of the non-classical HLA class I molecule HLA-G was first reported to be restricted to the fetal–maternal interface on the extravillous cytotrophoblasts, the distribution of HLA-G in normal tissues appears broader than originally described. HLA-G expression was found in embryonic tissues, in adult immune privileged organs, and in cells of the hematopoietic lineage. More interestingly, under pathophysiological conditions HLA-G antigens may be expressed on various types of malignant cells suggesting that HLA-G antigen expression is one strategy used by tumor cells to escape immune surveillance. In this article, we will focus on HLA-G expression in cancers of distinct histology and its association with the clinical course of diseases, on the underlying molecular mechanisms of impaired HLA-G expression, on the immune tolerant function of HLA-G in tumors, and on the use of membrane-bound and soluble HLA-G as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker to identify tumors and to monitor disease stage, as well as on the use of HLA-G as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:21063893

  16. Identification of a novel HLA-A allele, A*3120.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; Pascual, C J; Alonzo, P; Chamizo, A

    2009-03-01

    A novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A allele, HLA-A*3120, was first identified in a National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) donor. The A*3120 allele resulted from a single nucleotide substitution (T to G) at codon 92 of exon 3 of A*310102. The substitution caused an amino acid change (serine to alanine). This novel allele was also seen in two other unrelated NMDP donors.

  17. Association of high CD4-positive T cell infiltration with mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Surmann, Eva-Maria; Voigt, Anita Y; Michel, Sara; Bauer, Kathrin; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Ferrone, Soldano; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Kloor, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Besides being expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, HLA class II antigens are expressed on various tumors of non-lymphoid origin, including a subset of colorectal cancers (CRC). Information about the regulation of HLA class II antigen expression is important for a better understanding of their role in the interactions between tumor and immune cells. Whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in tumors reflects the selective immune destruction of HLA class II antigen-expressing tumor cells is unknown. To address this question, we tested whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in CRC was associated with immune cell infiltration. We selected microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) CRC, because they show pronounced tumor antigen-specific immune responses and, in a subset of tumors, lack of HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations inactivating HLA class II-regulatory genes. We examined HLA class II antigen expression, mutations in regulatory genes, and CD4-positive T cell infiltration in 69 MSI-H CRC lesions. Mutations in RFX5, CIITA, and RFXAP were found in 13 (28.9%), 3 (6.7%), and 1 (2.2%) out of 45 HLA class II antigen-negative tumors. CD4-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in HLA class II antigen-negative tumors harboring mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes (107.4 T cells per 0.25 mm(2)) compared to tumors without mutations (55.5 T cells per 0.25 mm(2), p = 0.008). Our results suggest that the outgrowth of tumor cells lacking HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations of regulatory genes is favored in an environment of dense CD4-positive T cell infiltration.

  18. Anti-human leukocyte antigen DQ antibodies in renal transplantation: Are we underestimating the most frequent donor specific alloantibodies?

    PubMed

    Carta, Paolo; Di Maria, Lorenzo; Caroti, Leonardo; Buti, Elisa; Antognoli, Giulia; Minetti, Enrico Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The role of anti-human leukocyte antigens DQ region (HLA-DQ) in transplantation is historically less studied than HLA-DR and HLA class I regions, but several studies are demonstrating that anti HLA-DQ antibodies are among the most frequent anti HLA antibodies that develop after transplantation and can have great influence on the developing of humoral rejection and graft loss. In this article we review the gene structure and nomenclature of the HLA-DQ region, the role of anti HLA-DQ antibodies after and before transplantation and briefly the associations of particular HLA-DQ alleles and other diseases.

  19. The distribution of KIR-HLA functional blocks is different from north to south of Italy.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M E; Rendine, S; Pasi, A; Bontadini, A; Cosentini, E; Carcassi, C; Capittini, C; Cornacchini, G; Espadas de Arias, A; Garbarino, L; Carella, G; Mariotti, M L; Mele, L; Miotti, V; Moscetti, A; Nesci, S; Ozzella, G; Piancatelli, D; Porfirio, B; Riva, M R; Romeo, G; Tagliaferri, C; Lombardo, C; Testi, M; Amoroso, A; Martinetti, M

    2014-03-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) interaction represents an example of genetic epistasis, where the concomitant presence of specific genes or alleles encoding receptor-ligand units is necessary for the activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Although KIR and HLA genes segregate independently, they co-evolved under environmental pressures to maintain particular KIR-HLA functional blocks for species survival. We investigated, in 270 Italian healthy individuals, the distribution of KIR and HLA polymorphisms in three climatic areas (from cold north to warm south), to verify their possible geographical stratification. We analyzed the presence of 13 KIR genes and genotyped KIR ligands belonging to HLA class I: HLA-C, HLA-B and HLA-A. We did not observe any genetic stratification for KIR genes and HLA-C ligands in Italy. By contrast, in a north-to-south direction, we found a decreasing trend for the HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 ligands (P = 0.012) and an increasing trend for the HLA-B ligands carrying the Bw4 epitope (P = 0.0003) and the Bw4 Ile80 epitope (P = 0.0005). The HLA-A and HLA-B KIR ligands were in negative linkage disequilibrium (correlation coefficient -0.1211), possibly as a consequence of their similar function in inhibiting NK cells. The distribution of the KIR-HLA functional blocks was different along Italy, as we observed a north-to-south ascending trend for KIR3DL1, when coupled with HLA-B Bw4 ligands (P = 0.0067) and with HLA-B Bw4 Ile80 (P = 0.0027), and a descending trend for KIR3DL2 when coupled with HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 ligands (P = 0.0044). Overall, people from South Italy preferentially use the KIR3DL1-HLA-B Bw4 functional unit, while those from the North Italy equally use both the KIR3DL2-HLA-A3/A11 and the KIR3DL1-HLA-B Bw4 functional units to fight infections. Thus, only KIR3DL receptors, which exert the unique role of microbial sensors through the specific D0 domain, and their cognate

  20. 5' and 3' untranslated regions contribute to the differential expression of specific HLA-A alleles.

    PubMed

    René, Céline; Lozano, Claire; Villalba, Martin; Eliaou, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), when no HLA full-matched donor is available, alternative donors could include one HLA-mismatched donor. Recently, the low expressed HLA-C alleles have been identified as permissive mismatches for the best donor choice. Concerning HLA-A, the degree of variability of expression is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated HLA-A expression in healthy individuals carrying HLA-A*02 allele in different genotypes using flow cytometry and allele-specific quantitative RT-PCR. While an interindividual variability of HLA-A*02 cell surface expression, not due to the allele associated, was observed, no difference of the mRNA expression level was shown, suggesting the involvement of the posttranscriptional regulation. The results of qRT-PCR analyses exhibit a differential expression of HLA-A alleles with HLA-A*02 as the strongest expressed allele independently of the second allele. The associated non-HLA-A*02 alleles were differentially expressed, particularly the HLA-A*31 and HLA-A*33 alleles (strong expression) and the HLA-A*29 (low expression). The presence of specific polymorphisms in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the HLA-A*31 and HLA-A*33 alleles could contribute to this high level of expression. As previously described for HLA-C, low-expressed HLA-A alleles, such as HLA-A*29, could be considered as a permissive mismatch, although this needs to be confirmed by clinical studies.

  1. Multiple HLA class I and II associations in classical Hodgkin lymphoma and EBV status defined subgroups.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Kushekhar, Kushi; Nolte, Ilja; Kooistra, Wierd; Visser, Lydia; Bouwman, Ilby; Kouprie, Niels; Veenstra, Rianne; van Imhoff, Gustaaf; Olver, Bianca; Houlston, Richard S; Poppema, Sibrand; Diepstra, Arjan; Hepkema, Bouke; van den Berg, Anke

    2011-11-10

    The pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) involves environmental and genetic factors. To explore the role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, we performed a case-control genotyping study in 338 Dutch cHL patients and more than 5000 controls using a PCR-based sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization approach. HLA-A68 and HLA-DR11 (5) were significantly increased in the cHL patient population compared with the controls. Three class II associations were observed in the EBV(-) cHL population with an increase of HLA-DR15 (2) and a decrease of HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR7. Allele frequencies of HLA-A1, HLA-B37, and HLA-DR10 were significantly increased in the EBV(+) cHL population; these alleles are in strong linkage disequilibrium and form a common haplotype in whites. The allele frequency of HLA-A2 was significantly decreased in the EBV(+) cHL population. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe analysis revealed significant differences between EBV(+) and EBV(-) cHL patients for 19 probes that discriminate between HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02. In conclusion, the HLA-A1 and HLA-A2 antigens and not specific single nucleotide variants shared by multiple alleles are responsible for the association with EBV(+) cHL. Furthermore, several new protective and predisposing HLA class I and II associations for the EBV(+), the EBV(-), and the entire cHL population were identified.

  2. Utility of HLA Antibody Testing in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ana

    2015-01-01

    HLA antigens are polymorphic proteins expressed on donor kidney allograft endothelium and are critical targets for recipient immune recognition. HLA antibodies are risk factors for acute and chronic rejection and allograft loss. Solid-phase immunoassays for HLA antibody detection represent a major advance in sensitivity and specificity over cell-based methods and are widely used in organ allocation and pretransplant risk assessment. Post-transplant, development of de novo donor–specific HLA antibodies and/or increase in donor-specific antibodies from pretransplant levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Although single antigen bead assays have allowed sensitive detection of recipient HLA antibodies and their specificities, a number of interpretive considerations must be appreciated to understand test results in clinical and research contexts. This review, which is especially relevant for clinicians caring for transplant patients, discusses the technical aspects of single antigen bead assays, emphasizes their quantitative limitations, and explores the utility of HLA antibody testing in identifying and managing important pre- and post-transplant clinical outcomes. PMID:25804279

  3. New Developments in HLA-G in Cardiac Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lazarte, Julieta; Tumiati, Laura C; Rao, Vivek; Delgado, Diego H

    2016-09-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class 1b protein, whose gene is located on chromosome 6 (6p21.31). HLA-G inhibits the immune cells' cytotoxic activity by interacting with specific receptors on their membranes. Since it is a naturally occurring immune modulator, HLA-G has been investigated in transplantation. Indeed, a number of investigations reveal that HLA-G expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms and in turn, those polymorphisms are associated with detrimental or beneficial outcomes in various pathological situations. The present review introduces the HLA-G molecule, the gene and its polymorphisms. It focuses on the expression of HLA-G and the role of polymorphisms primarily in heart transplant outcomes, secondarily in other transplant organs, as well as the role of the allograft and effect of medical therapy. We discuss the limitations in HLA-G transplant investigations and future directions. The immune inhibiting activity of HLA-G has a great deal of potential for its utilization in enhancing diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies against rejection in the setting of transplantation.

  4. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors.

    PubMed

    Dafalla, Ameer M; McCloskey, D J; Alemam, Almutaz A; Ibrahim, Amel A; Babikir, Adil M; Gasmelseed, Nagla; El Imam, Mohamed; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Magzoub, Mubarak M

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs) in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28), A30 (0.12), A3 (0.09), A24 (0.09), A1 (0.09), and A68 (0.06) were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092), B41 (0.081), B39 (0.078), B57 (0.060), B35 (0.068), B 50 (0.053) and B 52 (0.051) were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444) and DR15 (0.160) showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs) in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498), while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185) and (0.238), respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna) were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  5. HLA-G Expression on Blasts and Tolerogenic Cells in Patients Affected by Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tomasoni, Daniela; Ciceri, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) contributes to cancer cell immune escape from host antitumor responses. The clinical relevance of HLA-G in several malignancies has been reported. However, the role of HLA-G expression and functions in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is still controversial. Our group identified a subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, DC-10 that express HLA-G and secrete IL-10. DC-10 are present in the peripheral blood and are essential in promoting and maintaining tolerance via the induction of adaptive T regulatory (Treg) cells. We investigated HLA-G expression on blasts and the presence of HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of AML patients at diagnosis. Moreover, we explored the possible influence of the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of HLA-G, which has been associated with HLA-G expression, on AML susceptibility. Results showed that HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells are highly represented in AML patients with HLA-G positive blasts. None of the HLA-G variation sites evaluated was associated with AML susceptibility. This is the first report describing HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in AML patients, suggesting that they may represent a strategy by which leukemic cells escape the host's immune system. Further studies on larger populations are required to verify our findings. PMID:24741612

  6. The impact of next-generation sequencing technologies on HLA research

    PubMed Central

    Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Tajima, Atsushi; Inoue, Ituro

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has paved the way for whole-genome analysis in individuals. Research on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), an extensively studied molecule involved in immunity, has benefitted from NGS technologies. The HLA region, a 3.6-Mb segment of the human genome at 6p21, has been associated with more than 100 different diseases, primarily autoimmune diseases. Recently, the HLA region has received much attention because severe adverse effects of various drugs are associated with particular HLA alleles. Owing to the complex nature of the HLA genes, classical direct sequencing methods cannot comprehensively elucidate the genomic makeup of HLA genes. Thus far, several high-throughput HLA-typing methods using NGS have been developed. In HLA research, NGS facilitates complete HLA sequencing and is expected to improve our understanding of the mechanisms through which HLA genes are modulated, including transcription, regulation of gene expression and epigenetics. Most importantly, NGS may also permit the analysis of HLA-omics. In this review, we summarize the impact of NGS on HLA research, with a focus on the potential for clinical applications. PMID:26311539

  7. Everything the pediatrician ever wanted to know about HLA but was afraid to ask.

    PubMed

    Passarge, E; Valentine-Thon, E

    1980-03-01

    Following a description of the genetic aspects of the human histocompatibility antigens system HLA and its principle typing methods, this paper reviews the relationship between HLA antigens, transplantation immunology and certain diseases. In particular, the role of the lymphocyte-defined antigens of the HLA-D system is emphasized on the basis of a special typing method, the PLT test, used in our laboratory. Aside from its necessity in bone marrow and kidney transplantation, HLA typing can be used as an additional diagnostic or prognostic tool for certain diseases. Among the pediatric age group, this includes rheumatic fever and other rheumatic diseases, insulin-dependent juvenile diabetes mellitus, some forms of Addison's disease, thyrotoxicosis, myasthenia gravis, celiac disease, and some complement deficiency disorders. Close linkage of the HLA system with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency has made it possible to diagnose this form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in utero. This approach is illustrated in a large family at risk for this disorder.

  8. Live attenuated influenza vaccine strains elicit a greater innate immune response than antigenically-matched seasonal influenza viruses during infection of human nasal epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, William A; Chason, Kelly D; Brighton, Missy; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-03-26

    Influenza viruses are global pathogens that infect approximately 10-20% of the world's population each year. Vaccines, including the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), are the best defense against influenza infections. The LAIV is a novel vaccine that actively replicates in the human nasal epithelium and elicits both mucosal and systemic protective immune responses. The differences in replication and innate immune responses following infection of human nasal epithelium with influenza seasonal wild type (WT) and LAIV viruses remain unknown. Using a model of primary differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNECs) cultures, we compared influenza WT and antigenically-matched cold adapted (CA) LAIV virus replication and the subsequent innate immune response including host cellular pattern recognition protein expression, host innate immune gene expression, secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and intracellular viral RNA levels. Growth curves comparing virus replication between WT and LAIV strains revealed significantly less infectious virus production during LAIV compared with WT infection. Despite this disparity in infectious virus production the LAIV strains elicited a more robust innate immune response with increased expression of RIG-I, TLR-3, IFNβ, STAT-1, IRF-7, MxA, and IP-10. There were no differences in cytotoxicity between hNEC cultures infected with WT and LAIV strains as measured by basolateral levels of LDH. Elevated levels of intracellular viral RNA during LAIV as compared with WT virus infection of hNEC cultures at 33°C may explain the augmented innate immune response via the up-regulation of pattern recognition receptors and down-stream type I IFN expression. Taken together our results suggest that the decreased replication of LAIV strains in human nasal epithelial cells is associated with a robust innate immune response that differs from infection with seasonal influenza viruses, limits LAIV shedding and plays a role in the silent

  9. HLA B27 as Predisposition Factor to Suffer Age Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Enrique Villegas; Fernández, Rafael González; Torres, Luis Pérula; Lacomba, Manuel Santos; Galera, José María Gallardo

    2009-01-01

    To research whether specific alleles HLA class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) and class II (HLA-DR) are risk factors for the development of exudative type of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), HLA antigens are expressed both in normal and affected eyes with ARMD. We designed a prospective case-controlled study. We recruited 75 patients with choroidal neovascularization predominantly classic or occult, secondary to ARMD, and treated with photodynamic therapy. Two hundred and fifty patients over 55 years old, without ophthalmologic pathology who went to hospital for an analytical routine check were used as control. The analysis of the data shows a significant difference between two groups. Allele HLA-B27 correlated positively with ARMD (p < 0.0113). However, we didn't find alleles negatively associated. Thus HLA-B27 is an allele predisposed to suffer ARMD. PMID:19728932

  10. HLA B27 as predisposition factor to suffer age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Villegas Becerril, Enrique; González Fernández, Rafael; Pérula Torres, Luis; Lacomba, Manuel Santos; Gallardo Galera, José María

    2009-08-01

    To research whether specific alleles HLA class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) and class II (HLA-DR) are risk factors for the development of exudative type of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), HLA antigens are expressed both in normal and affected eyes with ARMD. We designed a prospective case-controlled study. We recruited 75 patients with choroidal neovascularization predominantly classic or occult, secondary to ARMD, and treated with photodynamic therapy. Two hundred and fifty patients over 55 years old, without ophthalmologic pathology who went to hospital for an analytical routine check were used as control. The analysis of the data shows a significant difference between two groups. Allele HLA-B27 correlated positively with ARMD (p < 0.0113). However, we didn't find alleles negatively associated. Thus HLA-B27 is an allele predisposed to suffer ARMD.

  11. Influence of the HLA characteristics of Italian patients on donor search outcome in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Testi, M; Andreani, M; Locatelli, F; Arcese, W; Troiano, M; Battarra, M; Gaziev, J; Lucarelli, G

    2014-08-01

    The information regarding the probability of finding a matched unrelated donor (MUD) within a relatively short time is crucial for the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly in patients with malignancies. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 315 Italian patients who started a search for a MUD, in order to assess the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes in this population of patients and to evaluate the probability of finding a donor. Comparing two groups of patients based on whether or not a 10/10 HLA-matched donor was available, we found that patients who had a fully-matched MUD possessed at least one frequent haplotype more often than the others (45.6% vs 14.3%; P = 0.000003). In addition, analysis of data pertaining to the HLA class I alleles distribution showed that, in the first group of patients, less common alleles were under-represented (20.2% vs 40.0%; P = 0.006). Therefore, the presence of less frequent alleles represents a negative factor for the search for a potential compatible donor being successful, whereas the presence of one frequent haplotype represents a positive predictive factor. Antigenic differences between patient and donor observed at C and DQB1 loci, were mostly represented by particular B/C or DRB1/DQB1 allelic associations. Thus, having a particular B or DRB1 allele, linked to multiple C or DQB1 alleles, respectively, might be considered to be associated with a lower probability of a successful search. Taken together, these data may help determine in advance the probability of finding a suitable unrelated donor for an Italian patient.

  12. Classical HLA-DRB1 and DPB1 alleles account for HLA associations with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, P; Ransom, M; Raychaudhuri, S; Kosoy, R; Lleo, A; Shigeta, R; Franke, A; Bossa, F; Amos, C I; Gregersen, P K; Siminovitch, K A; Cusi, D; de Bakker, P I W; Podda, M; Gershwin, M E; Seldin, M F

    2012-09-01

    Susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-region polymorphisms. To determine if associations can be explained by classical HLA determinants, we studied Italian, 676 cases and 1440 controls, genotyped with dense single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which classical HLA alleles and amino acids were imputed. Although previous genome-wide association studies and our results show stronger SNP associations near DQB1, we demonstrate that the HLA signals can be attributed to classical DRB1 and DPB1 genes. Strong support for the predominant role of DRB1 is provided by our conditional analyses. We also demonstrate an independent association of DPB1. Specific HLA-DRB1 genes (*08, *11 and *14) account for most of the DRB1 association signal. Consistent with previous studies, DRB1*08 (P=1.59 × 10(-11)) was the strongest predisposing allele, whereas DRB1*11 (P=1.42 × 10(-10)) was protective. Additionally, DRB1*14 and the DPB1 association (DPB1*03:01; P=9.18 × 10(-7)) were predisposing risk alleles. No signal was observed in the HLA class 1 or class 3 regions. These findings better define the association of PBC with HLA and specifically support the role of classical HLA-DRB1 and DPB1 genes and alleles in susceptibility to PBC.

  13. HLA-G coding region and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) in two Chinese Han populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Yi; Tian, Wei; Liu, Xue Xiang; Li, Li Xin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, exons 2-4 and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene were investigated for 201 and 104 healthy unrelated Han samples recruited from Hunan Province, southern China and central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, respectively, using sequence-based typing and cloning methods. Totally 12 HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 9 variable sites in 3'UTR, 8 3'UTR haplotypes and 15 HLA-G extended haplotypes (EHs) incorporating the coding region and 3'UTR were observed. Very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between HLA-A and HLA-G, and between HLA-G coding region and 3'UTR in each population (all global P=0.0000). Seven HLA-A-G haplotypes showed significant LD in both populations. Three HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 4 polymorphic sites in the 3'UTR, 3 3'UTR haplotypes and 4 HLA-G EHs differed significantly in their distributions between the 2 Chinese Han populations (all P≤0.0001). There was evidence for balancing selection acting on HLA-G 3'UTR positions +3010, +3142 and +3187 in the two populations. The NJ dendrograms demonstrated the existence of two basic HLA-G lineages and indicated that, HLA-G*01:01:01, the most common HLA-G allele, formed a separate lineage from other alleles. Our results shed new lights into HLA-G genetics among Chinese Han populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies related to post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G allelic expression and the potential role of HLA-G in disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry.

  14. Genetically engineered blood pharming: generation of HLA-universal platelets derived from CD34+ progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Constança; Blaszczyk, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Blood pharming is a recently designed concept to enable in vitro production of blood cells that are safe, effective and readily available. This approach represents an alternative to blood donation and may contribute to overcome the shortage of blood products. However, the high variability of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci remains a major hurdle to the application of off-the-shelf blood products. Refractoriness to platelet (PLT) transfusion caused by alloimmunization against HLA class I antigens constitutes a relevant clinical problem. Thus, it would be desirable to generate PLT units devoid of HLA antigens. To reduce the immunogenicity of cell-based therapeutics, we have permanently reduced HLA class I expression using an RNA interference strategy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the generation of HLA class I-silenced (HLA-universal) PLTs from CD34+ progenitor cells using an shRNA targeting β2-microglobulin transcripts is feasible. CD34+ progenitor cells derived from G-CSF mobilised donors were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding for the β2-microglobulin-specific shRNA and differentiated into PLTs using a liquid culture system. The functionality of HLA-silenced PLTs and their ability to escape HLA antibody-mediated cytotoxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Platelet activation in response to ADP and thrombin were assessed in vitro. The immune-evasion capability of HLA-universal megakaryocytes (MKs) and PLTs was tested in lymphocytotoxicity assays using anti-HLA antibodies. To assess the functionality of HLA-universal PLTs in vivo, HLA-silenced MKs were infused into NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(-/-) mice with or without anti-HLA antibodies. PLT generation was evaluated by flow cytometry using anti-CD42a and CD61 antibodies. HLA-universal PLTs demonstrated to be functionally similar to blood-derived PLTs. Lymphocytotoxicity assays showed that HLA-silencing efficiently protects MKs against HLA antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. 80

  15. HLA-B*152703, a novel allele, which has arisen by silent mutation in codon 138.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Li, Z; Cheng, L-H; Jin, S-Z; Deng, Z-H

    2008-10-01

    A novel human leukocyte antigen-B (HLA-B) allele, officially named B*152703, was found during routine high-resolution sequence-based typing in a Chinese potential hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donor. Compared with the HLA-B*152701 sequence, the B*152703 has a silent substitution at position 486(G-->C) in exon 3.

  16. Late antibody-mediated rejection by de novo donor HLA-DP-specific antibody after renal transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cippà, Pietro E; Gaspert, Ariana; Etter, Christoph; Guenduez, Zehra; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; Rüsi, Barbara; Fehr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The role of donor HLA-DP-specific antibodies after renal transplantation is controversial, and only preformed HLA-DP-specific antibodies have been shown to mediate rejection. Here we present a case of late humoral rejection mediated by de novo donor HLA-DP-specific antibodies in a non-sensitized recipient. This unique case demonstrates the pathogenic role of de novo anti-DP antibodies and suggests that HLA-DP matching might be relevant for renal transplantation.

  17. Takayasu's arteritis is associated with HLA-B*52, but not with HLA-B*51, in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B*51 and HLA-B*52 are two close human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele groups with minor amino acid differences. However, they are associated with two different vasculitides (HLA-B*51 in Behçet's disease and HLA-B*52 in Takayasu's arteritis (TAK)) and with major clinical and immunological differences. In this study, we aimed to screen a large cohort of TAK patients from Turkey for the presence of HLA-B*51 and HLA-B*52 as susceptibility and severity factors. Methods TAK patients (n = 330) followed at a total of 15 centers were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and 86% were women. DNA samples from the patients and healthy controls (HC; n = 210) were isolated, and the presence of HLA-B*51 or HLA-B*52 was screened for by using PCR with sequence-specific primers. Results We found a significant association of HLA-B*52 with TAK (20.9% vs HC = 6.7%, P = 0.000, OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.02 to 6.77). The distribution of HLA-B*51 did not differ between TAK patients and HCs (22.7% vs 24.8%, OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.34). The presence of HLA-B*52 decreased in late-onset patients (> 40 years of age; 12.0%, P = 0.024, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.91). Patients with angiographic type I disease with limited aortic involvement also had a lower presence of HLA-B*52 compared to those with all other disease subtypes (13.1% vs 26%, P = 0.005, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.78). Conclusions In this study, the previously reported association of TAK with HLA-B*52 in other populations was confirmed in patients from Turkey. The functional relevance of HLA-B*52 in TAK pathogenesis needs to be explored further. PMID:22309845

  18. Analysis of HLA-B15 and HLA-B27 in spondyloarthritis with peripheral and axial clinical patterns

    PubMed Central

    Londono, John; Santos, Ana Maria; Peña, Paola; Calvo, Enrique; Espinosa, Luis R; Reveille, John D; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Avila, Mabel; Romero, Consuelo; Medina, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 and HLA-B15 are associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Recent Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria emphasise a distinction between SpA with axial and peripheral patterns. We analysed whether HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles could associate with these patterns. Methods We studied 100 healthy individuals and 178 patients with SpA according to European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria. Patients were then classified according to ASAS criteria, the axial spondyloarthritis pattern (axSpA) being defined by ascertained sacroiliitis and the peripheral pattern (pSpA) by enthesitis and/or arthritis in extremities. A combined ax/p pattern was also considered. Results Only HLA-B27 and HLA-B15 alleles were associated with SpA. ASAS criteria for axSpA were met in 152 patients (12 with isolated axSpA and 140 with a combined ax/p patterns). When the ASAS peripheral criteria were applied, 161 patients met these criteria (13 with isolated pSpA and 148 with a combined ax/p pattern). HLA-B27 was found in 83% of patients with axSpA and 43% of ax/pSpA patients according to axASAS. HLA-B27 occurred in 7% controls but not in any patient with isolated pSpA. HLA-B15 was encountered in 31% of patients with isolated pSpA and 20% of ax/pSpA patients according to pASAS criteria. Moreover, 2 healthy controls, but none of our patients with isolated axSpA were positive for HLA-B15. Conclusions Our data suggest that the presence of HLA-B15 favours the development of isolated/combined peripheral rather than isolated axSpA, while HLA-B27 promotes an isolated/combined axial disease and excludes a peripheral pattern. HLA-B15 should be considered in addition to HLA-B27 when diagnosing patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria. PMID:26560062

  19. High expression of HLA-E in colorectal carcinoma is associated with a favorable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical class I HLA molecule that can be stabilized by ligands donated by other classical (HLA-A, -B, -C) and non-classical (HLA-G) family members. HLA-E engages a variety of immune receptors expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), Natural killer (NK) cells and NK-CTLs. In view of the opposing outcomes (activation or inhibition) of the different HLA-E receptors, the preferred role (if any) of HLA-E expressed in vivo on tumor cells remains to be established. Methods Taking advantage of MEM-E/02, a recently characterized antibody to denatured HLA-E molecules, HLA-E expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on an archival collection (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) of 149 colorectal primary carcinoma lesions paired with their morphologically normal mucosae. Lymphoid infiltrates were assessed for the expression of the HLA-E-specific, inhibitory, non-rearranging receptor NKG2A. Results High HLA-E expression did not significantly correlate with the expression of classical HLA-B and HLA-C molecules, but it did correlate with high expression of its preferential ligand donor HLA-A. In addition, it correlated with lymphoid cell infiltrates expressing the inhibitory NKG2A receptor, and was an independent predictor of good prognosis, particularly in a subset of patients whose tumors express HLA-A levels resembling those of their paired normal counterparts (HLA-A). Thus, combination phenotypes (HLA-Elo-int/HLA-AE and HLA-Ehi/HLA-AE) of classical and non-classical class I HLA molecules mark two graded levels of good prognosis. Conclusions These results suggest that HLA-E favors activating immune responses to colorectal carcinoma. They also provide evidence in humans that tumor cells entertain extensive negotiation with the immune system until a compromise between recognition and escape is reached. It is implied that this process occurs stepwise, as predicted by the widely accepted 'immunoediting' model. PMID

  20. Racial Differences in Incident De Novo Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibody among Primary Renal Allograft Recipients.

    PubMed

    Everly, Matthew J; Briley, Kimberly P; Haisch, Carl E; Dieplinger, Georg; Bolin, Paul; Kendrick, Scott A; Morgan, Claire; Maldonado, Angela Q; Rebellato, Lorita M

    2017-02-17

    Controversy exists as to whether African American (AA) transplant recipients are at risk for developing de novo donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody (dnDSA). We studied 341 HLA-mismatched, primary renal allograft recipients who were consecutively transplanted between 3/1999 and 12/2010. Sera were collected sequentially pre- and post-transplant and tested for anti-HLA immunoglobulin G (IgG) via single antigen bead assay. Of the 341 transplant patients (225 AA and 116 non-AA), 107 developed dnDSA at a median of 9.2 months post-transplant. AA patients had a 5-year dnDSA incidence of 35%. This was significantly higher than the 5-year dnDSA incidence for non-AA patients (21%). DQ mismatch (risk) and receiving a living-related donor (LRD) transplant (protective) were transplant factors associated with dnDSA. Within the AA patient cohort, HLA-DQ mismatch, not-receiving a LRD transplant, non-adherence, and BK viremia were the most common factors associated with early dnDSA (occurring <24 months post-transplant). Non-adherence and pre-transplant diabetes history were the strong precursors to late dnDSA. Despite the higher rates of dnDSA in the AA cohort, post-dnDSA survival was the same in AA and non-AA patients. This study suggests that DQ matching, increasing LRD transplantation in AA patients, and minimizing under-immunosuppression will be key to preventing dnDSA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Charting improvements in US registry HLA typing ambiguity using a typing resolution score.

    PubMed

    Paunić, Vanja; Gragert, Loren; Schneider, Joel; Müller, Carlheinz; Maiers, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Unrelated stem cell registries have been collecting HLA typing of volunteer bone marrow donors for over 25years. Donor selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is based primarily on matching the alleles of donors and patients at five polymorphic HLA loci. As HLA typing technologies have continually advanced since the beginnings of stem cell transplantation, registries have accrued typings of varied HLA typing ambiguity. We present a new typing resolution score (TRS), based on the likelihood of self-match, that allows the systematic comparison of HLA typings across different methods, data sets and populations. We apply the TRS to chart improvement in HLA typing within the Be The Match Registry of the United States from the initiation of DNA-based HLA typing to the current state of high-resolution typing using next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, we present a publicly available online tool for evaluation of any given HLA typing. This TRS objectively evaluates HLA typing methods and can help define standards for acceptable recruitment HLA typing.

  2. [Molecular basis of HLA class-I deficiency and bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS)].

    PubMed

    Dzik, Michał; Majdan, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Molecules of human leukocyte HLA class I antigens play a crucial role in the presentation of endogenic peptides, allowing effector cells of the immune system to control the immune homeostasis of the host. There are rare immunodeficiencies which result in impaired HLA antigen expression on cell membranes and which are called bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS). These diseases allow us to gain insight into the roles of antigen-processing pathways in HLA class I expression and into the genetic disorders of transcription factors crucial to the expression of HLA class II molecules. Moreover, the clinical pictures of BLS patients provide us with a rare opportunity to study the host's immune responses when one of the most important immune mechanisms is impaired. In this study we present disorders of endogenic antigen-presentation pathways and point out pathways which, at least in part, allow the host to overcome these defects. We also present hypotheses that may explain the clinical findings in BLS patients.

  3. Epitope-specificities of HLA antibodies: the effect of epitope structure on Luminex technique-dependent antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Resse, Marianna; Paolillo, Rossella; Minucci, Biagio Pellegrino; Cavalca, Francesco; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The search of HLA antibodies is currently more accessible by solid-phase techniques (Luminex) in the immunized patients leading to an expansion of the antibody patterns. The aim of this study was to investigate low median fluorescence intensity value in unexpected reactivity patterns. Here, we performed HLAMatchmaker analyses to evaluate the potential functional epitopes that can elicit HLA-specific alloantibody responses in a pregnancy-sensitized woman with an epitope defined by the 82LR. Surprisingly, in according to the registry of HLA epitopes, we found that 82LR epitope covered all allelic specificities of our unexpected antibody patterns, shared between Bw4-positive HLA-B antigen and HLA-A23, -A24, -A25 and -A32. This finding is consistent with the verification of HLA ABC epitope recorded in the website-based HLA Epitope Registry and addresses the importance of determining HLA antibody epitope-specificities on Luminex technique-dependent antibody reactivity.

  4. HIBAG--HLA genotype imputation with attribute bagging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Shen, J; Cox, C; Wakefield, J C; Ehm, M G; Nelson, M R; Weir, B S

    2014-04-01

    Genotyping of classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles is an essential tool in the analysis of diseases and adverse drug reactions with associations mapping to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). However, deriving high-resolution HLA types subsequent to whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing or sequencing is often cost prohibitive for large samples. An alternative approach takes advantage of the extended haplotype structure within the MHC to predict HLA alleles using dense SNP genotypes, such as those available from genome-wide SNP panels. Current methods for HLA imputation are difficult to apply or may require the user to have access to large training data sets with SNP and HLA types. We propose HIBAG, HLA Imputation using attribute BAGging, that makes predictions by averaging HLA-type posterior probabilities over an ensemble of classifiers built on bootstrap samples. We assess the performance of HIBAG using our study data (n=2668 subjects of European ancestry) as a training set and HLA data from the British 1958 birth cohort study (n≈1000 subjects) as independent validation samples. Prediction accuracies for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 range from 92.2% to 98.1% using a set of SNP markers common to the Illumina 1M Duo, OmniQuad, OmniExpress, 660K and 550K platforms. HIBAG performed well compared with the other two leading methods, HLA*IMP and BEAGLE. This method is implemented in a freely available HIBAG R package that includes pre-fit classifiers for European, Asian, Hispanic and African ancestries, providing a readily available imputation approach without the need to have access to large training data sets.

  5. Allorecognition of HLA-C Mismatches by CD8+ T Cells in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Complex Interplay between Mismatched Peptide-Binding Region Residues, HLA-C Expression, and HLA-DPB1 Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bettens, Florence; Buhler, Stéphane; Tiercy, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    HLA-C locus mismatches (MMs) are the most frequent class I disparities in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and have a detrimental impact on clinical outcome. Recently, a few retrospective clinical studies have reported some variability in the immunogenicity of HLA-C incompatibilities. To get better insight into presumably permissive HLA-C MMs, we have developed a one-way in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay allowing to quantify activated CD56−CD137+CD8+ lymphocytes in HLA-C incompatible combinations. T cell-mediated alloresponses were correlated with genetic markers such as HLA-C mRNA expression and the number of amino acid (aa) MMs in the α1/α2 domains (peptide-binding region). Because of the high rate of HLA-DPB1 incompatibilities in HLA-A-, B-, C-, DRB1-, and DQB1-matched unrelated HSCT patient/donor pairs, the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatching, a potential bystander of CD4+ T cell activation, was also considered. Heterogeneous alloresponses were measured in 63 HLA-C-mismatched pairs with a positive assay in 52% of the combinations (2.3–18.6% activated CTLs), representing 24 different HLA-A~B~DRB1~DQB1 haplotypes. There was no correlation between measured alloresponses and mRNA expression of the mismatched HLA-C alleles. The HLA-C*03:03/03:04 MM did not induce any positive alloresponse in five MLRs. We also identified HLA-C*02:02 and HLA-C*06:02 as mismatched alleles with lower immunogenicity, and HLA-C*14:02 as a more immunogenic MM. A difference of at least 10 aa residues known to impact peptide/T cell receptor (TCR) binding and a bystander HLA-DPB1 incompatibility had a significant impact on CTL alloreactivity (p = 0.021). The same HLA-C MM, when recognized by two different responders with the same HLA haplotypes, was recognized differently, emphasizing the role of the T-cell repertoire of responding cells. In conclusion, mismatched HLA-C alleles differing by 10 or more aas in the peptide/TCR-binding region, when

  6. Comparison of exome-based HLA class I genotyping tools: identification of platform-specific genotyping errors

    PubMed Central

    Kiyotani, Kazuma; Mai, Tu H; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Accurate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping is critical in studies involving the immune system. Several algorithms to estimate HLA genotypes from whole-exome data were developed. We compared the accuracy of seven algorithms, including Optitype, Polysolver and PHLAT, as well as investigated patterns and possible causes of miscalls using 12 clinical samples and 961 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. Optitype showed the highest accuracy of 97.2% for HLA class I alleles at the second field resolution, followed by 94.0% in Polysolver and 85.6% in PHLAT. In Optitype, 34 (21.1%) of 161 miscalls were across different serological types, and common miscalls were HLA-A*26:01 to HLA-A*25:01, HLA-B*45:01 to HLA-B*44:15 and HLA-C*08:02 to HLA-C*05:01 with error rates of 4.1%, 10.0% and 4.1%, respectively. In Polysolver, 193 (55.9%) of 345 miscalls occurred across different serological alleles, and a specific pattern of genotyping error from HLA-A*25:01 to HLA-A*26:01 was observed in 93.3% of HLA-A*25:01 carriers, due to dropping of HLA-A*25:01 sequence reads during the extraction process of HLA reads. In PHLAT, 147 (59.8%) of 246 miscalls in HLA-A were due to erroneous assignment of multiple alleles to either HLA-A*01:22 or HLA-A*01:81. These results suggest that careful considerations needed to be taken when using exome-based HLA class I genotyping data and applying these results in clinical settings. PMID:27881843

  7. Influence of HLA genotype on birth weight of patients with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larizza, D; Martinetti, M; Pizzochero, C; Cuccia, M; Severi, F

    1992-02-01

    Growth failure starting before birth is a common characteristic in Turner syndrome, and its pathogenesis is still not completely explained. Experiments performed in mice and rats to test whether a genetic disparity between mothers and offspring and maternal immunological status have any influence on litter size have demonstrated that allogenic litters are significantly larger in size than genetically compatible ones. Studies in humans have given contrasting results, but some authors have found that heterozygosity at enzyme loci and in blood groups is positively correlated with intrauterine growth. HLA class I and II polymorphisms were defined in 53 patients with Turner syndrome and in their parents, and lymphocytotoxic antibody detection was performed in 36 mothers. These data were related to the patients' birth weight. The frequency of the HLA-B16 allele in patients with a birth weight greater than 10th centile was significantly higher in comparison with those less than 10th centile. HLA antigen sharing was present in 43 couples (81.1%). Mean birth weight was 2934 +/- 472 g in patients without HLA antigen parental sharing and 2721 +/- 529 g in those whose parents shared HLA antigens. The mean birth weight of the 10 patients whose parents do not share HLA antigens was significantly higher than that of the patients with parental HLA-B+ DR sharing (P less than 0.05) and not significantly highe than in those patients with parental HLA sharing at other HLA loci. Patients whose parents shared B+DR antigens also had significantly smaller birth weights than those with B and A+B+DR sharing (P less than 0.025 and P less than 0.025). No significant difference in mean birth weight was found in relation to other parameters, such as mother-child histocompatibility, HLA homozygosity and lymphocytotoxic production in the mothers.

  8. Nonmyeloablative HLA-Haploidentical BMT with High-Dose Posttransplantation Cyclophosphamide: Effect of HLA Disparity on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kasamon, Yvette L.; Luznik, Leo; Leffell, Mary S.; Kowalski, Jeanne; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Bolanos-Meade, Javier; Morris, Lawrence E.; Crilley, Pamela A.; O’Donnell, Paul V.; Rossiter, Nancy; Huff, Carol Ann; Brodsky, Robert A.; Matsui, William H.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Borrello, Ivan; Powell, Jonathan D.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Jones, Richard J.; Fuchs, Ephraim J.

    2010-01-01

    Although some reports have found increasing HLA disparity between donor and recipient to be associated with fewer relapses after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT), this potential benefit has been offset by more graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality. However, the type of GVHD prophylaxis could influence the balance between GVHD toxicity and relapse. We analyzed the impact of greater HLA disparity on outcomes of a specific platform for nonmyeloablative, HLA-haploidentical transplantation. A retrospective analysis was performed on 185 patients with hematologic malignancies enrolled on three similar trials of nonmyeloablative, related donor, haploidentical BMT incorporating high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide for GVHD prophylaxis. No significant association was found between the number of HLA mismatches (HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and -DRB1 combined) and risk of acute grade II–IV GVHD (hazard ratio .89, P = .68 for 3–4 versus fewer antigen mismatches). More mismatching also had no detrimental effect on event-free survival (on multivariate analysis, hazard ratio .60, P = .03 for 3–4 versus fewer antigen mismatches; hazard ratio .55, P = .03 for 3–4 versus fewer allele mismatches). Thus, greater HLA disparity does not appear to worsen overall outcomes after nonmyeloablative haploidentical BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide. PMID:19925877

  9. The heterogeneous HLA genetic composition of the Brazilian population and its relevance to the optimization of hematopoietic stem cell donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Fabreti-Oliveira, R A; Nascimento, E; Fonseca, C G; Santos, M A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecular variation across the Brazilian population in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and understanding the population genetic background of this heterogeneous country. HLA data of 551 HSCT donors from five Brazilian regions were characterized by high-resolution DNA alleles at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci and compared with other populations in Brazil and worldwide populations. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated. The analysis was performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among different loci in each recruitment center. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance analyzed by using a new algorithm based on linear algebra, taking into account geographic regions of Brazil. The results indicated a heterogeneous genetic composition of the Brazilian population, such that HLA allele and haplotype frequencies exhibit different distributions among Brazilian regions, which has important implications for donor matching. In addition, a pronounced differentiation was observed by the absence of clustering of the regional populations in the reduced-dimension space. These data may be useful for increasing donor recruitment with more genetic representativeness in the Brazilian Volunteer Bone Marrow Donors Registry (REDOME).

  10. A Novel Method for Anti-HLA Antibody Detection Using Personalized Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan; Souma, Tomokazu; Wei, Andrew Zu-Sern; Xie, Xueying; Luo, Xunrong; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background HLA mismatches are the primary cause of alloantibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in organ transplantation. To delineate antigenic and immunogenic potentials among individual HLA mismatches, information regarding antibody specificity at the epitope level, instead of the allelic level, is needed. Methods This study explores a direct screening method for HLA linear epitopes in kidney transplant patients. We custom synthesized a large panel of 15-residue HLA peptides in an array format and measured alloantibody reactivity to these peptides from the sera of post and/or pretransplant patients. Two design concepts for the arrays were followed: a standard array of a fixed panel of peptides or personalized arrays. The standard array contains 420 peptides derived from a predetermined set of HLA-DQ allelic antigens based on templates also used in the single-antigen beads assay. Results The array detected distinct antiserum patterns among transplant subjects and revealed epitope levels of specificity largely in accordance with the single-antigen results. Two personalized arrays that each included donor-derived peptides of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQ, and -DR sequences were separately designed for 2 transplant subjects. The personalized arrays detected de novo antibodies following transplantation. The new method also showed superior sensitivity to a single-antigen assay in one of the cases whose pathological diagnosis of AMR occurred before single-antigen assay could detect antibodies. Conclusions This pilot study proved the feasibility of using personalized peptide arrays to achieve detection of alloantibodies for linear HLA epitopes associated with distinct donor-recipient mismatches. Single or multiple reactive epitopes may occur on an individual HLA molecule, and donor-specific HLA-DQ-reactivity among 5 kidney transplant subjects revealed patterns of shared epitopes. PMID:27826602

  11. Comparison of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Loci Polymorphism between Kidney Transplants of Uremia Patients and Healthy Individuals in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shilin; Feng, Guiwen; Feng, Yonghua; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is becoming a global public health problem, which will usually cause uremia at the end stage of chronic kidney failure. So far, kidney transplant is the most effective and proper therapy for uremia, however, the short supply of matched donor kidney has been a persistent bottleneck for transplantation. HLA matching of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci is very important for the allocation of kidney transplants. In this study, we investigated genotypes of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci based on 1,464 uremia patients and 10,000 unrelated healthy individuals in Henan province of China, and compared the frequency distribution of these HLA alleles and corresponding haplotypes between patient and healthy groups. We detected 23 HLA-A, 49 HLA-B and 17 HLA-DRB1 alleles in total. The predominant alleles of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci in patients are the same as those in healthy group. The seven most frequent alleles account for about 87%, 50%, and 77% at HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci, respectively. The haplotypes (combinations of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1) with significantly different frequency between patients and controls mostly account for less than 1%. Overall, this suggests that HLA matching is not a potential difficulty for kidney transplant of uremia patients. However, three of the top seven frequent HLA-DRB1 alleles have a significantly different distribution in patients and controls, while only one alleles for HLA-B and zero for HLA-A loci. These HLA-DRB1 alleles may be closely associated with uremia. This study sheds new lights on the composition and difference of HLA genotypes in uremia patients and healthy populations in Central China that can serve as a guide to HLA matching for kidney transplants and a resource for HLA typing-related studies. PMID:27780235

  12. Recent developments in HLA-haploidentical transplantations

    PubMed Central

    Showel, Margaret; Fuchs, Ephraim J.

    2016-01-01

    While allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations have a curative potential, several patients with hematologic malignancies cannot avail themselves of this therapeutic option due to lack of matched donor availability. Although HLA-haploidentical transplantations were previously associated with poor outcomes, recent evidence with use of post transplantation cyclophosphamide indicate improved safety and efficacy. The following paper discusses the most recent developments in this area. PMID:26590771

  13. Protective and susceptible HLA polymorphisms in IgA nephropathy patients with end-stage renal failure.

    PubMed

    Doxiadis, I I; De Lange, P; De Vries, E; Persijn, G G; Claas, F H

    2001-04-01

    Idiopathic immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterised by an extreme variability in clinical course, leading to end-stage renal failure in 15-20% of adults. This subgroup of patients with IgA nephropathy is usually included in the waiting lists of organ exchange organisations. The frequency of HLA-A,B,DR antigens of this subset of IgA nephropathy patients was calculated and compared to controls. The antigens HLA-B35 and DR5 were significantly increased in the patients with relative risk values of 1.385 and 1.487, respectively. The antigens HLA-B7, B8, DR2, and DR3 were found in a significantly lower frequency in the patients as compared to the controls. The relative risk (RR) values ranged between 0.695 and 0.727. Consequently, the haplotypes HLA-A1, B8, DR3, HLA-A3, B7, DR2, HLA-A2, B7, DR2 together with HLA-A1, B15, DR4, HLA-A9, B12, DR7, and HLA-A10, B18, DR2 were found to be protective with RR values ranging from 0.309 to 0.587. The only susceptible haplotype observed was HLA-A2-B5, DR5 (RR=2.990).

  14. Maternal-fetal interactions and the maintenance of HLA polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, P.W.; Thomson, G.

    1988-05-01

    There is some empirical evidence that a fetus with an HLA antigen not present in its mother has a higher survival than a fetus sharing antigens with its mother. We have developed both single locus and two-locus theoretical models to examine this mode of selection. First, this immunologically based model appears to have the potential to maintain many alleles at a single locus and to result in an excess of heterozygotes when selection is strong. Second, substantial gametic disequilibrium is maintained between alleles at two loci for this selection mode when recombination is that observed between HLA loci A, B, and Dr. Overall, it appears that this mode of selection has the potential to strongly affect genetic variation in the HLA region.

  15. Human leucocyte antigens: their association with end-stage renal disease in Saudi patients awaiting transplantation.

    PubMed

    Almogren, A; Shakoor, Z; Hamam, K D

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with chronic renal failure develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that requires renal transplantation. This study investigates the possible associations between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II molecules with ESRD. Genotyping data (HLA) obtained between 2005 and 2009 on 235 unrelated Saudi patients (147 males, 88 females; mean age: 58 +/- 7 years) with ESRD awaiting renal transplantation were assessed retrospectively at the King Khalid University Hospital. Data were compared with the results on 60 normal, healthy, unrelated Saudi individuals (37 males and 23 females; mean age: 51 +/- 5 years). HLA Class I and Class II antigens were detected by lymphocytotoxicity and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using DNA sequence-specific primers. Although present in small numbers, HLA Cw2 was found in significantly fewer patients (n = 11; 4.68%) compared to normal subjects (n = 9; 15%) and was found to confer protection against ESRD (P = 0.005; relative risk [RR]: 3.594, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.415-9.126). Among the HLA Class II antigens, HLA DQB1*03(8) was detected more frequently in the patient group (n = 65; 27.6%) than in the normal controls (n = 9; 15%) and was positively associated with risk of ESRD (P = 0.04; RR: 0.462, 95% CI: 0.215-0.991). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of HLA-A2, HLA-B50(21), HLA-B51(5) and HLA-Cw7 (HLA Class I), and HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*02 (HLA Class II). Occurrence of the most frequent HLA alleles was no different between the ESRD group and the controls. The protective role of HLA-Cw2 and the marginal susceptibility associated with HLA-DQBI*03(8) for ESRD requires further investigation.

  16. Carfilzomib alters the HLA-presented peptidome of myeloma cells and impairs presentation of peptides with aromatic C-termini.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, D J; Walz, S; Backert, L; Schuster, H; Kohlbacher, O; Weisel, K; Rittig, S M; Kanz, L; Salih, H R; Rammensee, H-G; Stevanović, S; Stickel, J S

    2016-04-08

    Recent studies suggest that multiple myeloma is an immunogenic disease, which might be effectively targeted by antigen-specific T-cell immunotherapy. As standard of care in myeloma includes proteasome inhibitor therapy, it is of great importance to characterize the effects of this treatment on HLA-restricted antigen presentation and implement only robustly presented targets for immunotherapeutic intervention. Here, we present a study that longitudinally and semi-quantitatively maps the effects of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib on HLA-restricted antigen presentation. The relative presentation levels of 4780 different HLA ligands were quantified in an in vitro model employing carfilzomib treatment of MM.1S and U266 myeloma cells, which revealed significant modulation of a substantial fraction of the HLA-presented peptidome. Strikingly, we detected selective down-modulation of HLA ligands with aromatic C-terminal anchor amino acids. This particularly manifested as a marked reduction in the presentation of HLA ligands through the HLA allotypes A*23:01 and A*24:02 on MM.1S cells. These findings implicate that carfilzomib mediates a direct, peptide motif-specific inhibitory effect on HLA ligand processing and presentation. As a substantial proportion of HLA allotypes present peptides with aromatic C-termini, our results may have broad implications for the implementation of antigen-specific treatment approaches in patients undergoing carfilzomib treatment.

  17. Evaluation of sequence-specific priming and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting HLA-B*51 alleles confirmed by sequence-based typing.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Kim, Y S; Kim, S I; Kim, H; Kim, H S

    2012-10-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*51 genotype is one of the well-known genetic factors associated with the development of Behcet's disease. We evaluated three sequence-specific priming (SSP) assays and one real-time PCR assay for detecting HLA-B*51 alleles using 93 whole blood samples, which were genotyped by high-resolution sequence-based typing (SBT). All HLA-B*51 alleles determined by SBT were detected by the four evaluated assays, and the results for all HLA-B alleles other than HLA-B*51 were negative on all assays. Thus, all HLA-B51 tests showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting HLA-B*51 alleles. The three SSP assays and the real-time PCR test for HLA-B*51 genotyping are simple, but reliable for detecting HLA-B*51 alleles in clinical laboratories.

  18. Characteristics of HLA-E Restricted T-Cell Responses and Their Role in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Human HLA-E can, in addition to self-antigens, also present pathogen-derived sequences, which elicit specific T-cell responses. T-cells recognize their antigen presented by HLA-E highly specifically and have unique functional and phenotypical properties. Pathogen specific HLA-E restricted CD8+ T-cells are an interesting new player in the field of immunology. Future work should address their exact roles and relative contributions in the immune response against infectious diseases. PMID:27699181

  19. Identification of the core regulators of the HLA I-peptide binding process

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hang; Xing, Zhihao; Liu, Chenglin; Wang, ShaoPeng; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong; Kong, Xiangyin

    2017-01-01

    During the display of peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -I complex for further immune recognition, the cleaved and transported antigenic peptides have to bind to HLA-I protein and the binding affinity between peptide epitopes and HLA proteins directly influences the immune recognition ability in human beings. Key factors affecting the binding affinity during the generation, selection and presentation processes of HLA-I complex have not yet been fully discovered. In this study, a new method describing the HLA class I-peptide interactions was proposed. Three hundred and forty features of HLA I proteins and peptide sequences were utilized for analysis by four candidate algorithms, screening the optimal classifier. Features derived from the optimal classifier were further selected and systematically analyzed, revealing the core regulators. The results validated the hypothesis that features of HLA I proteins and related peptides simultaneously affect the binding process, though with discrepant redundancy. Besides, the high relative ratio (16/20) of the amino acid composition features suggests the unique role of sequence signatures for the binding processes. Integrating biological, evolutionary and chemical features of both HLA I molecules and peptides, this study may provide a new perspective of the underlying mechanisms of HLA I-mediated immune reactions. PMID:28211542

  20. The Perfect Storm: HLA Antibodies, Complement, FcγRs and Endothelium in Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kimberly A.; Valenzuela, Nicole M.; Reed, Elaine F.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in solid organ transplants is multi-faceted and predominantly caused by antibodies directed against polymorphic donor human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Despite the clearly detrimental impact of HLA antibodies (HLA-Ab) on graft function and survival, the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AMR remain a challenge. Histological manifestations of AMR reflect signatures of HLA-Ab-triggered injury, specifically endothelial changes, recipient leukocytic infiltrate, and complement deposition. We review the interconnected mechanisms of HLA-Ab-mediated injury that might synergize in a “perfect storm” of inflammation. Characterization of antibody features that are critical for effector functions may help identify HLA-Ab more likely to cause rejection. We also highlight recent advancements that may pave the way for new, more effective therapeutics. PMID:25801125

  1. First report on the antibody verification of MICA epitopes recorded in the HLA epitope registry.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, R J; Mostecki, J; Marrari, M; da Silva, A S; da Mata Sousa, L C D; do Monte, S J H

    2014-10-01

    The International Registry of HLA Epitopes (http://epregistry.com.br) has been recently established as a tool to understand antibody responses to HLA mismatches. These epitopes are defined structurally by three-dimensional molecular modelling and amino acid sequence differences between HLA antigens. A major goal was to identify HLA epitopes that have been verified experimentally with informative antibodies. This report addresses the identification of MICA epitopes. Our analysis included published information about MICA antibody reactivity in sera from sensitized patients as well as data from our own laboratories. This report describes twenty-one MICA epitopes verified with antibodies which have primarily been tested in Luminex assays with single alleles. The epitopes correspond to distinct eplets that are often defined by single residues. The Registry is still a work-in-progress and will become a useful resource for HLA professionals interested in histocompatibility testing at the epitope level and investigating antibody responses to HLA mismatches in transplant patients.

  2. Analysis of the expression of KIR and HLA-Cw in a Northeast Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Zhao, Ling; Jiang, Zhenyu; Ma, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes in a Jilin Han population and to provide a theoretical basis for further studies of their roles in disease. A total of 154 unpaid Jilin Han blood donors were selected and KIR and HLA-Cw genotyping was performed using PCR-SSP. Recognition of HLA-Cw and the corresponding activatory or inhibitory KIR receptor was distinguished according to the identification of HLA-Cw and KIR. In the present study, the expression frequency of HLA-C2(Lys80)+2DL1 was 27.27%, HLA-C1(Asn80)+2DL2/2DL3 was 68.83%, 2DS2+HLA-C1(Asn80) was 9.74% and 2DS1+HLA-C2(Lys80) was 9.74%. Of the individuals in the study, 72.08% expressed only KIR2DL1 without HLA-Cw, 21.43% expressed only KIR2DS1 without HLA-Cw(Lys)-KIR2DL1 and 2.60% expressed only KIR2DS2 without HLA-Cw(Asn)-KIR2DL2/L3. In conclusion, the expression of inhibitory HLA-Cw-KIR is higher than the expression of activating HLA-Cw-KIR and approximately 20% of the individuals separately expressed the activated HLA-Cw-KIR in the Jilin Han population in the present study.

  3. The Protective Role of HLA-DRB1(∗)13 in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Andreia; Carvalho, Cláudia; Leal, Bárbara; Brás, Sandra; Lopes, Dina; Martins da Silva, Ana; Santos, Ernestina; Torres, Tiago; Almeida, Isabel; Farinha, Fátima; Barbosa, Paulo; Marinho, António; Selores, Manuela; Correia, João; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Costa, Paulo P; da Silva, Berta Martins

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are characterized by a multifactorial aetiology and a complex genetic background, with the MHC region playing a major role. We genotyped for HLA-DRB1 locus 1228 patients with AIDs-213 with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), 166 with Psoriasis or Psoriatic Arthritis (Ps + PsA), 153 with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 67 with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), 536 with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and 93 with Myasthenia Gravis (MG) and 282 unrelated controls. We confirmed previously established associations of HLA-DRB1(∗)15 (OR = 2.17) and HLA-DRB1(∗)03 (OR = 1.81) alleles with MS, HLA-DRB1(∗)03 with SLE (OR = 2.49), HLA-DRB1(∗)01 (OR = 1.79) and HLA-DRB1(∗)04 (OR = 2.81) with RA, HLA-DRB1(∗)07 with Ps + PsA (OR = 1.79), HLA-DRB1(∗)01 (OR = 2.28) and HLA-DRB1(∗)08 (OR = 3.01) with SSc, and HLA-DRB1(∗)03 with MG (OR = 2.98). We further observed a consistent negative association of HLA-DRB1(∗)13 allele with SLE, Ps + PsA, RA, and SSc (18.3%, 19.3%, 16.3%, and 11.9%, resp., versus 29.8% in controls). HLA-DRB1(∗)13 frequency in the AIDs group was 20.0% (OR = 0.58). Although different alleles were associated with particular AIDs, the same allele, HLA-DRB1(∗)13, was underrepresented in all of the six diseases analysed. This observation suggests that this allele may confer protection for AIDs, particularly for systemic and rheumatic disease. The protective effect of HLA-DRB1(∗)13 could be explained by a more proficient antigen presentation by these molecules, favouring efficient clonal deletion during thymic selection.

  4. Refinement of the definition of permissible HLA-DPB1 mismatches with predicted indirectly recognizable HLA-DPB1 epitopes.

    PubMed

    Thus, Kirsten A; Ruizendaal, Mieke T A; de Hoop, Talitha A; Borst, Eric; van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Te Boome, Liane; Kuball, Jürgen; Spierings, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HLA-DPB1-mismatched donors leads to an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Studies have indicated a prognostic value for classifying HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T cell-epitope (TCE) groups. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of indirect recognition of HLA-DP-derived epitopes, as determined with the Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes (PIRCHE) method. We therefore conducted a retrospective single-center analysis on 80 patients transplanted with a 10/10 matched unrelated donor that was HLA-DPB1 mismatched. HLA-DPB1 mismatches that were classified as GVH nonpermissive by the TCE algorithm correlated to higher numbers of HLA class I as well as HLA class II presented PIRCHE (PIRCHE-I and -II) compared with permissive or host-versus-graft nonpermissive mismatches. Patients with acute GVHD grades II to IV presented significantly higher numbers of PIRCHE-I compared with patients without acute GVHD (P < .05). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of PIRCHE. Patients with PIRCHE-I or -II have an increased hazard of acute GVHD when compared with patients without PIRCHE-I or -II (hazard ratio [HR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 9.19; P < .05; and HR, 4.07; 95% CI, .97 to 17.19; P = .06, respectively). Patients classified as having an HLA-DPB1 permissive mismatch by the TCE model had an increased risk of acute GVHD when comparing presence of PIRCHE-I with absence of PIRCHE-I (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, .84 to 10.39; P = .09). We therefore conclude that the data presented in this study describe an attractive and feasible possibility to better select permissible HLA-DPB1 mismatches by including both a direct and an indirect recognition model.

  5. HLA-E coding and 3' untranslated region variability determined by next-generation sequencing in two West-African population samples.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Erick C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Sabbagh, Audrey; Porto, Iane O P; Garcia, André; Ramalho, Jaqueline; Lima, Thálitta H A; Massaro, Juliana D; Dias, Fabrício C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno; Camara, Mamadou; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-12-01

    HLA-E is a non-classical Human Leucocyte Antigen class I gene with immunomodulatory properties. Whereas HLA-E expression usually occurs at low levels, it is widely distributed amongst human tissues, has the ability to bind self and non-self antigens and to interact with NK cells and T lymphocytes, being important for immunosurveillance and also for fighting against infections. HLA-E is usually the most conserved locus among all class I genes. However, most of the previous studies evaluating HLA-E variability sequenced only a few exons or genotyped known polymorphisms. Here we report a strategy to evaluate HLA-E variability by next-generation sequencing (NGS) that might be used to other HLA loci and present the HLA-E haplotype diversity considering the segment encoding the entire HLA-E mRNA (including 5'UTR, introns and the 3'UTR) in two African population samples, Susu from Guinea-Conakry and Lobi from Burkina Faso. Our results indicate that (a) the HLA-E gene is indeed conserved, encoding mainly two different protein molecules; (b) Africans do present several unknown HLA-E alleles presenting synonymous mutations; (c) the HLA-E 3'UTR is quite polymorphic and (d) haplotypes in the HLA-E 3'UTR are in close association with HLA-E coding alleles. NGS has proved to be an important tool on data generation for future studies evaluating variability in non-classical MHC genes.

  6. Homology modelling of frequent HLA class-II alleles: A perspective to improve prediction of HLA binding peptide and understand the HLA associated disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Manju; Farooq, Umar; Jaiswal, Varun

    2016-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) plays significant role via the regulation of immune system and contribute in the progression and protection of many diseases. HLA molecules bind and present peptides to T- cell receptors which generate the immune response. HLA peptide interaction and molecular function of HLA molecule is the key to predict peptide binding and understanding its role in different diseases. The availability of accurate three dimensional (3D) structures is the initial step towards this direction. In the present work, homology modelling of important and frequent HLA-DRB1 alleles (07:01, 11:01 and 09:01) was done and acceptable models were generated. These modelled alleles were further refined and cross validated by using several methods including Ramachandran plot, Z-score, ERRAT analysis and root mean square deviation (RMSD) calculations. It is known that numbers of allelic variants are related to the susceptibility or protection of various infectious diseases. Difference in amino acid sequences and structures of alleles were also studied to understand the association of HLA with disease susceptibility and protection. Susceptible alleles showed more amino acid variations than protective alleles in three selected diseases caused by different pathogens. Amino acid variations at binding site were found to be more than other part of alleles. RMSD values were also higher at variable positions within binding site. Higher RMSD values indicate that mutations occurring at peptide binding site alter protein structure more than rest of the protein. Hence, these findings and modelled structures can be used to design HLA-DRB1 binding peptides to overcome low prediction accuracy of HLA class II binding peptides. Furthermore, it may help to understand the allele specific molecular mechanisms involved in susceptibility/resistance against pathogenic diseases.

  7. HLA-DRB and HLA-DQB Allele and Haplotype Frequencies in Iranian Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Shamsolmoulouk; Mohammadzadeh, Mahsa; Zare Bidoki, Alireza; Meighani, Ghasem; Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Rezaei, Nima

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is known as the most common chronic disease of the oral cavity, which affects a range of 5-25% of the population. RAS appears to be associated with some human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles and haplotypes. This study attempts to survey the distribution of HLA-DRB and -DQB alleles among Iranian RAS patients and healthy controls. In order to evaluate the association of HLA-DR and DQ alleles and haplotypes, 54 patients with RAS and 100 unrelated healthy subjects as control group were investigated. Our data indicated that DRB1*13:17, DRB1*15:01, and DRB5*01 were significantly more frequent in RAS patients in comparison to controls. However, DRB3:01allele frequency was higher in the controls compared to the patients. The significantly frequent allele in the patients compared with the healthy subjects was HLA-DQB1*03:02. However, both HLA-DQB1*02:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01 alleles were most frequent in the healthy individuals rather than the patients. The DRB*04/DQB1*03:01 and DRB*01:01/DQB1*02:01 haplotypes were significantly distributed in healthy subjects compared with patients. However, DRB*07:01/DQB1*03:02 haplotype was found to be significantly frequent in patients than controls. In respect of HLA genes, factors are involved in the incidence of RAS; various HLA-DRB and HLA-DQB1 alleles and the related haplotypes are suggested to be the three main RAS susceptibility factors in our population study.

  8. HLA-E expression and its clinical relevance in human renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seliger, Barbara; Jasinski-Bergner, Simon; Quandt, Dagmar; Stoehr, Christine; Bukur, Juergen; Wach, Sven; Legal, Wolfgang; Taubert, Helge; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) expression is frequently overexpressed in tumor diseases, transplants and virus-infected cells and represents an immunomodulatory molecule by binding to the receptors CD94/NKG2A, -B and –C on NK and T cells. Due to its immune suppressive features HLA-E expression might represent an important mechanism of tumors to escape immune surveillance. While an aberrant expression of the non-classical HLA-G antigen in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been demonstrated to be associated with a worse outcome of patients and reduced sensitivity to immune effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the expression and function of HLA-E has not yet been analyzed in this tumor entity. Higher levels of HLA-E transcripts were detected in all RCC cell lines and tumor lesions, which were tested in comparison to normal kidney epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray (TMA) using the HLA-E-specific monoclonal antibody TFL-033 recognizing the cytoplasmic HLA-E α-chain as monomer revealed a heterogeneous HLA-E expression in RCC lesions with the highest frequency in chromophobe RCC when compared to other RCC subtypes. HLA-E expression did not correlate with the frequency of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and FoxP3+ immune cell infiltrations, but showed an inverse correlation with infiltrating CD56+ cells. In contrast to HLA-G, HLA-E expression in RCCs was not statistically significant associated with a decreased disease specific survival. These data suggest that HLA-E overexpression frequently occurs in RCC and correlates with reduced immunogenicity. PMID:27589686

  9. Rapid evaluation of soluble HLA-G levels in supernatants of in vitro fertilized embryos.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Vera; Switala, Magdalena; Eue, Ines; Schwahn, Eva; Merzenich, Markus; Grosse-Wilde, Hans

    2007-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) molecules are crucial for the maternal tolerance against the fetus during pregnancy. Thus, the presence of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in embryo cultures is thought to be correlated to a successful pregnancy after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Here, we established a rapid detection assay based on Luminex technology, which can be integrated into ART proceedings, allowing sHLA-G quantification in sample volumes of only 10 microl within 1.5 hours. Using this method, sHLA-G levels of 526 single-embryo cultures, 47 two-embryo cultures, and 15 three-embryo cultures were analyzed corresponding to 313 ART cycles. In 117 embryo cultures, sHLA-G was detectable. In single-embryo cultures, the sHLA-G levels were positively correlated to embryo quality (p = 0.048, r = 0.20, n = 100). The presence of sHLA-G in embryo cultures was significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with clinical pregnancy after intracytoplasmatic sperm injections (ICSI), especially in couples with male factor infertility, but not after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or in couples with female infertility. Importantly, in sHLA-G negative embryos, the abortion rate was increased threefold (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results obtained by our novel method support strongly the diagnostic relevance of sHLA-G for predicting pregnancy outcome after ART. The ultimate conditions for this prediction have to be further investigated in a multicenter study.

  10. HLA-G Expression and Role in Advanced-Stage Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Caocci, G.; Greco, M.; Fanni, D.; Senes, G.; Littera, R.; Lai, S.; Risso, P.; Carcassi, C.; Faa, G.; La Nasa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G class I molecules have an important role in tumor immune escape mechanisms. We investigated HLA-G expression in lymphonode biopsies taken from 8 controls and 20 patients with advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), in relationship to clinical outcomes and the HLA-G 14-basepair (14-bp) deletion-insertion (del-ins) polymorphism. Lymphnode tissue sections were stained using a specific murine monoclonal HLA-G antibody. HLA-G protein expression was higher in cHL patients than controls. In the group of PET-2 positive (positron emission tomography carried out after 2 cycles of standard chemotherapy) patients with a 2-year progression-free survival rate (PFS) of 40%, we observed high HLA-G protein expression within the tumor microenvironment with low expression on Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Conversely, PET-2 negative patients with a PFS of 86% had higher HLA-G protein expression levels on HRS cells compared to the microenvironment. Lower expression on HRS cells was significantly associated with the HLA-G 14-bp ins/ins genotype. These preliminary data suggest that the immunohistochemical pattern of HLA-G protein expression may represent a useful tool for a tailored therapy in patients with cHL, based on the modulation of HLA-G expression in relation to achievement of negative PET-2. PMID:27349312

  11. HLA Class Ib Molecules and Immune Cells in Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F.

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the highly prevalent pregnancy complication preeclampsia, “the disease of theories,” has remained an enigma. Indeed, the etiology of preeclampsia is largely unknown. A compiling amount of studies indicates that the pathological basis involves a complex array of genetic predisposition and immunological maladaptation, and that a contribution from the mother, the father, and the fetus is likely to be important. The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is an increasing focus of research in relation to preeclampsia. The HLA-G molecule is primarily expressed by the extravillous trophoblast cells lining the placenta together with the two other HLA class Ib molecules, HLA-E and HLA-F. Soluble isoforms of HLA-G have been detected in the early endometrium, the matured cumulus–oocyte complex, maternal blood of pregnant women, in umbilical cord blood, and lately, in seminal plasma. HLA-G is believed to be involved in modulating immune responses in the context of vascular remodeling during pregnancy as well as in dampening potential harmful immune attacks raised against the semi-allogeneic fetus. In addition, HLA-G genetic variants are associated with both membrane-bound and soluble forms of HLA-G, and, in some studies, with preeclampsia. In this review, a genetic contribution from the mother, the father, and the fetus, together with the presence and function of various immune cells of relevance in pregnancy are reviewed in relation to HLA-G and preeclampsia. PMID:25566263

  12. Establishment of optimized ELISA system specific for HLA-G in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Ouji-Sageshima, N; Geraghty, D E; Ishitani, A; Hatake, K; Ito, T

    2016-12-01

    Recently, human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) has been a focus in the field of reproductive immunology, tumor progression and transplantation, because of its inhibitory function as ligand to the inhibitory receptors leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) B1 and LILRB2. The HLA-G is expressed in distinct mRNA isoforms, one of which encodes a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) protein, detectable by sandwich ELISA. Therefore, sHLA-G ELISAs have been used as a noninvasive diagnosis system. While a number of sHLA-G-specific ELISAs have been described, our prior studies showed that data obtained by the conventional ELISA system detecting sHLA-G in body fluids was not consistent with the data obtained from immunoprecipitation (IP)/immunoblotting (IB). Therefore, we established an optimized ELISA system described in this report, which yields results consistent with IP/IB analysis. Using this system, we determined sHLA-G protein in amniotic fluids, and found that sHLA-G levels at preterm (∼36 weeks) were clearly higher than those at term (37-41 weeks). These data and supporting experiments showed that the ELISA system we established can be an useful tools for the detection of sHLA-G protein in body fluids than the conventional ELISA system.

  13. Ethnic variation of the HLA-G*0105N allele in two Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, A; Li, M; Xu, D-P; Zhang, W-G; Yan, W-H

    2009-03-01

    Unlike high polymorphic classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, the genetic polymorphism of HLA-G is very limited. However, the prevalence of HLA-G alleles among different ethnic populations varied dramatically. The HLA-G null allele (HLA-G*0105N) is defined by a cytosine deletion (Delta C) at position 1597 in exon 3, which disrupts the reading frame and alters the expression of HLA-G proteins. The HLA-G*0105N allelic frequency was investigated in previous studies and possible roles were addressed. In the current study, a total of 310 Chinese Han and 260 Chinese She ethnic minority population had been genotyped for the G*0105N polymorphism. Marked difference was observed that the G*0105N allelic frequency in Chinese Han was 1.61%, while no copy of the null allele was observed in the Chinese She minority population (P(c) = 0.0073). Data also revealed that no homozygote of HLA-G*0105N allele exists in this Chinese Han population. Furthermore, significant difference was found for the frequencies of HLA-G*0105N both in Chinese Han and in Chinese She populations when compared with other ethnic populations. Taken together, our results indicated that ethnic variation of the HLA-G*0105N polymorphism among different ethnic populations is possibly the result of evolution. However, the advantages of the selection of this allele are necessary to be further investigated.

  14. HLA and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.

    1995-11-01

    The recent paper by Jin et al., reporting that class 11 region major histocompatibility complex genes may influence embryonic loss in outbred couples supports previous results of our studies of HLA and fertility in the Hutterites. However, the authors have incorrectly cited our work and have omitted the reference that is most relevant to their results. The paper by Kostyu et al. is incorrectly referred to in the introduction as providing evidence for HLA sharing being associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion. The Kostyu et al. paper does not include any data on fertility or reproduction but reports frequencies of individuals who are homozygous at the HLA-A, -C, -B, -DR, and -DQ loci in the Hutterite population. In fact, recurrent spontaneous abortion has not been observed in any of the couples in our sample of >500 Hutterite couples. References more appropriate to the association between HLA sharing and recurrent miscarriage are those by Komlos et al., Schacter et al., Gerencer and Kastelan, and Beer et al. It might also be worth pointing out that many studies of recurrent miscarriage in outbred couples have not found an association with HLA sharing; examples include the studies of Ergolu et al., Oksenberg et al., and Christiansen et al., among others. 11 refs.

  15. False homozygous HLA genotyping results due to copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity in acquired aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Bert; De Becker, Ann; Verheyden, Sonja; Demanet, Christian

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this case report is to draw attention on possible false human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping in acquired aplastic anaemia prior to allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In acquired aplastic anaemia loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 6p is known to occur in around 12%. We report false HLA genotyping results due to LOH and a coinciding steep rise in neutrophils following filgrastim stimulation in a patient with very severe aplastic anaemia. At diagnosis we obtained heterozygous results on peripheral blood. Failing to reach a partial response at 6 months with immune-suppressive therapy we repeated HLA genotyping, obtaining homozygous results. Repeated testing confirmed loss of HLA genotype heterozygosity. HLA genotyping on cells obtained by a buccal swab confirmed the previous HLA heterozygosity. A second course of filgrastim at the time of homozygous HLA genotyping resulted in a steep rise in neutrophils. Stopping filgrastim resulted in an equally steep drop.

  16. [Frequency and linkage disequilibrium of specific HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Xia; Hu, Zhi-Fei; Zu, Qiang; Lu, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Jun

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution feature of HLA-DR/DQ gene linkage disequilibrium in Chinese Han population and to improve the accuracy of HLA matching results. Genotyping of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ gene locus was performed using PCR-SSP typing in Chinese Han population receiving kidney transplantation. The results showed that there were 29 new linkage combinations in 1799 patients, in which DR13-DQ5, DR11-DQ8 and DR8-DQ8 were discovered for 11, 8 and 7 times respectively while DR9-DQ8, DR12-DQ6 and DR14-DQ4 were both discovered for 6 times. The linkage disequilibrium parameters of these haplotypes were negative, showing that these linkages were uncommon. It is concluded that this study not only enriches the classical HLA-DR/DQ linkage combinations, but also indicates the national relevance of combination distribution, and it has great importance in improving the accuracy of HLA matching experiments and reducing unnecessary repeated work.

  17. The diversity of the HLA-E-restricted peptide repertoire explains the immunological impact of the Arg107Gly mismatch.

    PubMed

    Celik, Alexander A; Kraemer, Thomas; Huyton, Trevor; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Döding, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E molecules are potent inhibitors of NK cell-mediated killing. Low in polymorphisms, two alleles are widely expressed among diverse populations: HLA-E*01:01 and HLA-E*01:03. Both alleles are distinguished by one SNP resulting in the substitution Arg107Gly. Both alleles present a limited set of peptides derived from class I leader sequences physiologically; however, HLA-E*01:01 presents non-canonical peptides in the absence of HLA class I molecules. To further assess the functional differences between both alleles, we analyzed the peptide repertoire of HLA-E*01:03 by applying soluble HLA technology followed by mass-spectrometric peptide sequencing. HLA-E*01:03 restricted peptides showed a length of 9-17 amino acids and differed in their biophysical properties, no overlap in the peptide repertoire of both allelic variants could be observed; however, both alleles shared marginal peptides from the same proteomic content. Artificial APCs expressing empty HLA-E*01:01 or E*01:03 molecules were generated and stabilized using cognate HLA class I-derived peptide ligands to analyze the impact of residue 107 within the HLA-E heavy chain on the NKG2/CD94 receptor engagement. Differences in peptide stabilization could be translated to the density and half-life time of peptide-HLA-E molecules on the cell surface that subsequently impacted NK cell inhibition as verified by cytotoxicity assays. Taken together, these data illustrate functional differences of HLA-E allelic variants induced by a single amino acid. Furthermore, the function of HLA-E in pathophysiologic situations when the HLA processing machinery is interrupted seems to be more emphasized than previously described, implying a crucial role for HLA-E in tumor or viral immune episodes.

  18. HLA-G and susceptibility to develop celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Catamo, Eulalia; Zupin, Luisa; Segat, Ludovica; Celsi, Fulvio; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen-G has immunomodulatory function and its expression has been associated with several diseases. In our study we analyzed HLA-G polymorphisms in order to evaluate their possible association with susceptibility to celiac disease development. A total of 420 celiac patients and 509 controls were genotyped for HLA-G polymorphisms. We sequenced 800bp upstream the ATG codon (5' upstream regulatory region) and the whole 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene, whereas the ΔC deletion at exon 3 was detected by RFLP-PCR. Five polymorphisms (namely -477 C>G, -369 C>A, 14bp del/ins, 3187 A>G, 3196 C>G) and one haplotype (TCGGTACGAAITCCCGAG) were significantly more frequent in celiac patients than controls and associated with increased disease susceptibility. The 14bp I/I, 3187 G/G, 3196 G/G genotypes and TCGGTACGAAITCCCGAG haplotype, were still significantly associated with increased disease susceptibility (and in addition also the 3003 C/C genotype) when the analysis was restricted to patients and controls presenting the DQ2.5 or DQ8 HLA-DQ celiac disease risk haplotypes. Our findings indicate an association between HLA-G gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to celiac disease development, suggesting that HLA-G molecule is possibly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  19. High-accuracy imputation for HLA class I and II genes based on high-resolution SNP data of population-specific references.

    PubMed

    Khor, S-S; Yang, W; Kawashima, M; Kamitsuji, S; Zheng, X; Nishida, N; Sawai, H; Toyoda, H; Miyagawa, T; Honda, M; Kamatani, N; Tokunaga, K

    2015-12-01

    Statistical imputation of classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles is becoming an indispensable tool for fine-mappings of disease association signals from case-control genome-wide association studies. However, most currently available HLA imputation tools are based on European reference populations and are not suitable for direct application to non-European populations. Among the HLA imputation tools, The HIBAG R package is a flexible HLA imputation tool that is equipped with a wide range of population-based classifiers; moreover, HIBAG R enables individual researchers to build custom classifiers. Here, two data sets, each comprising data from healthy Japanese individuals of difference sample sizes, were used to build custom classifiers. HLA imputation accuracy in five HLA classes (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1) increased from the 82.5-98.8% obtained with the original HIBAG references to 95.2-99.5% with our custom classifiers. A call threshold (CT) of 0.4 is recommended for our Japanese classifiers; in contrast, HIBAG references recommend a CT of 0.5. Finally, our classifiers could be used to identify the risk haplotypes for Japanese narcolepsy with cataplexy, HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*06:02, with 100% and 99.7% accuracy, respectively; therefore, these classifiers can be used to supplement the current lack of HLA genotyping data in widely available genome-wide association study data sets.

  20. HLA-B alleles of the Cayapa of Ecuador: new B39 and B15 alleles.

    PubMed

    Garber, T L; Butler, L M; Trachtenberg, E A; Erlich, H A; Rickards, O; De Stefano, G; Watkins, D I

    1995-01-01

    Recent data suggest that HLA-B locus alleles can evolve quickly in native South American populations. To investigate further this phenomenon of new HLA-B variants among Amerindians, we studied samples from another South American tribe, the Cayapa from Ecuador. We selected individuals for HLA-B molecular typing based upon their HLA class II typing results. Three new variants of HLA-B39 and one new variant of HLA-B15 were found in the Cayapa: HLA-B*3905, HLA-B*3906, HLA-B*3907, and HLA-B*1522. A total of thirteen new HLA-B alleles have now been found in the four South American tribes studied. Each of these four tribes studied, including the Cayapa, had novel alleles that were not found in any of the other tribes, suggesting that many of these new HLA-B alleles may have evolved since the Paleo-Indians originally populated South America. Each of these 13 new alleles contained predicted amino acid replacements that were located in the peptide binding site. These amino acid replacements may affect the sequence motif of the bound peptides, suggesting that these new alleles have been maintained by selection. New allelic variants have been found for all common HLA-B locus antigenic groups present in South American tribes with the exception of B48. In spite of its high frequency in South American tribes, no evidence for variants of B48 has been found in all the Amerindians studied, suggesting that B48 may have unique characteristics among the B locus alleles.

  1. HLA-A2-Restricted Protection against Lethal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Botten, Jason; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Barrowman, Polly; Sidney, John; Whitmire, Jason K.; Alexander, Jeff; Ting, Joey P. C.; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Sette, Alessandro; Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of human lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection can be severe, including aseptic meningitis in immunocompetent individuals, hydrocephalus or chorioretinitis in fetal infection, or a highly lethal outcome in immunosuppressed individuals. In murine models of LCMV infection, CD8+ T cells play a primary role in providing protective immunity, and there is evidence that cellular immunity may also be important in related arenavirus infections in humans. For this reason, we sought to identify HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitopes from the LCMV proteome and evaluate them as vaccine determinants in HLA transgenic mice. We identified four HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides—nucleoprotein NP69-77, glycoprotein precursor GPC10-18, GPC447-455, and zinc-binding protein Z49-58—that displayed high-affinity binding (≤275 nM) to HLA-A*0201, induced CD8+ T-cell responses of high functional avidity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, and were naturally processed from native LCMV antigens in HLA-restricted human antigen presenting cells. One of the epitopes (GPC447-455), after peptide immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice, induced CD8+ T cells capable of killing peptide-pulsed HLA-A*0201-restricted target cells in vivo and protected mice against lethal intracranial challenge with LCMV. PMID:17166907

  2. Ancient haplotypes of the HLA Class II region.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher K; Kas, Arnold; Paddock, Marcia; Qiu, Ruolan; Zhou, Yang; Subramanian, Sandhya; Chang, Jean; Palmieri, Anthony; Haugen, Eric; Kaul, Rajinder; Olson, Maynard V

    2005-09-01

    Allelic variation in codons that specify amino acids that line the peptide-binding pockets of HLA's Class II antigen-presenting proteins is superimposed on strikingly few deeply diverged haplotypes. These haplotypes appear to have been evolving almost independently for tens of millions of years. By complete resequencing of 20 haplotypes across the approximately 100-kbp region that spans the HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 genes, we provide a detailed view of the way in which the genome structure at this locus has been shaped by the interplay of selection, gene-gene interaction, and recombination.

  3. Association of HLA-A and Non-Classical HLA Class I Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Carlini, Federico; Ferreira, Virginia; Buhler, Stéphane; Tous, Audrey; Eliaou, Jean-François; René, Céline; Chiaroni, Jacques; Picard, Christophe; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The HLA-A locus is surrounded by HLA class Ib genes: HLA-E, HLA-H, HLA-G and HLA-F. HLA class Ib molecules are involved in immuno-modulation with a central role for HLA-G and HLA-E, an emerging role for HLA-F and a yet unknown function for HLA-H. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to describe the main allelic associations between HLA-A and HLA-H, -G, -F and -E. Therefore, HLA-A, -E, -G, -H and -F coding polymorphisms, as well as HLA-G UnTranslated Region haplotypes (referred to as HLA-G UTRs), were explored in 191 voluntary blood donors. Allelic frequencies, Global Linkage Disequilibrium (GLD), Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) for specific pairs of alleles and two-loci haplotype frequencies were estimated. We showed that HLA-A, HLA-H, HLA-F, HLA-G and HLA-G UTRs were all in highly significant pairwise GLD, in contrast to HLA-E. Moreover, HLA-A displayed restricted associations with HLA-G UTR and HLA-H. We also confirmed several associations that were previously found to have a negative impact on transplantation outcome. In summary, our results suggest complex functional and clinical implications of the HLA-A genetic region. PMID:27701438

  4. C19orf48 Encodes a Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Recognized by CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cells from Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tykodi, Scott S.; Fujii, Nobuharu; Vigneron, Nathalie; Lu, Sharon M.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Miranda, Maureen X.; Chou, Jeffrey; Voong, Lilien N.; Thompson, John A.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Cresswell, Peter; Van den Eynde, Benoît; Riddell, Stanley R.; Warren, Edus H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tumor regression has been observed in some patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Cellular and molecular characterization of antigens recognized by tumor-reactive T cells isolated from responding patients could potentially provide insight into the mechanisms of tumor regression. Experimental Design CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that recognized a novel RCC-associated minor histocompatibility (H) antigen presented by HLA-A*0201 were isolated from two patients with metastatic RCC who experienced tumor regression or stable disease following nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT. These clones were used to screen a cDNA library and isolate the unique cDNA encoding the antigen. Results An alternative open reading frame in the C19orf48 gene located on chromosome 19q13 encodes the HLA-A*0201-restricted minor H antigen recognized by the RCC-reactive T cells. Differential T cell recognition of donor- and recipient-derived target cells is attributable to a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism within the nucleotide interval that encodes the antigenic peptide. Assays for gene expression and CTL recognition demonstrated that the C19orf48-encoded peptide is widely expressed in renal tumors and solid tumors of other histologies. The antigenic peptide can be processed for CTL recognition via both TAP-dependent and TAP-independent pathways. Conclusions Donor T cell responses against the HLA-A*0201-restricted minor H antigen encoded by C19orf48 may contribute to RCC regression after MHC-matched allogeneic HCT. PMID:18698046

  5. The IMGT/HLA and IPD databases.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James; Waller, Matthew J; Fail, Sylvie C; Marsh, Steven G E

    2006-12-01

    The IMGT/HLA database (www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla) has provided a centralized repository for the sequences of the alleles named by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System since 1998. Since its initial release, the database has rapidly grown in size and is recognized as the primary source of information for the study of sequences of the human major histocompatibility complex. The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD; www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR contains the allelic sequences of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors; IPD-MHC is a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex of different species; IPD-HPA contains alloantigens expressed only on platelets (human platelet antigens or HPA); and IPD-ESTDAB provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell-Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines.

  6. [Role of genetic blood markers (ABO-HLA systems) in the formation of increased sensitivity to occupational allergen epichlorohydrin].

    PubMed

    Davydova, N S; Bodienkova, G M

    2002-01-01

    The authors demonstrated that genetic factors play the certain role in hypersensitivity to occupational allergen epichlorohydrin. The sensibilized workers demonstrated higher incidence of individuals with OB (III) blood group and having phenotypic B8 antigen of HLA-system.

  7. HLA-DM induces CLIP dissociation from MHC class II alpha beta dimers and facilitates peptide loading.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Cresswell, P

    1995-07-14

    Human leukocyte antigen DM (HLA-DM) molecules are structurally related to classical MHC class II molecules and reside in the lysosome-like compartment where class II-restricted antigen processing is thought to occur. Mutant cell lines lacking HLA-DM are defective in antigen processing and accumulate class II molecules associated with a nested set of invariant chain-derived peptides (class II-associated invariant chain peptides, CLIP). Here we show that HLA-DM catalyzes the dissociation of CLIP from MHC class II-CLIP complexes in vitro and facilitates the binding of antigenic peptides. The reaction has an acidic pH optimum, consistent with its occurrence in a lysosome-like compartment in vivo. Antibody blocking experiments suggest that a transient interaction between HLA-DM and the MHC class II-CLIP complex is required.

  8. Distribution of HLA-G extended haplotypes and one HLA-E polymorphism in a large-scale study of mother-child dyads with and without severe preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L L; Djurisic, S; Andersen, A-M N; Melbye, M; Bjerre, D; Ferrero-Miliani, L; Hackmon, R; Geraghty, D E; Hviid, T V F

    2016-10-01

    The etiological pathways and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have rendered difficult to disentangle. Accumulating evidence points toward a maladapted maternal immune system, which may involve aberrant placental expression of immunomodulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules during pregnancy. Several studies have shown aberrant or reduced expression of HLA-G in the placenta and in maternal blood in cases of preeclampsia compared with controls. Unlike classical HLA class Ia loci, the nonclassical HLA-G has limited polymorphic variants. Most nucleotide variations are clustered in the 5'-upstream regulatory region (5'URR) and 3'-untranslated regulatory region (3'UTR) of HLA-G and reflect a stringent expressional control. Based on genotyping and full gene sequencing of HLA-G in a large number of cases and controls (n > 900), the present study, which to our knowledge is the largest and most comprehensive performed, investigated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del (rs66554220) and HLA-E polymorphisms in mother and newborn dyads from pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia/eclampsia and from uncomplicated pregnancies. Furthermore, results from extended HLA-G haplotyping in the newborns are presented in order to assess whether a combined contribution of nucleotide variations spanning the 5'URR, coding region, and 3'UTR of HLA-G describes the genetic association with severe preeclampsia more closely. In contrast to earlier findings, the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism was not associated with severe preeclampsia. Furthermore, the polymorphism (rs1264457) defining the two nonsynonymous HLA-E alleles, HLA-E*01:01:xx:xx and HLA-E*01:03:xx:xx, were not associated with severe preeclampsia. Finally, no specific HLA-G haplotypes were significantly associated with increased risk of developing severe preeclampsia/eclampsia.

  9. Genetic Association of HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 with Behcet’s Disease in Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Okaily, Fahda; Al-Rashidi, Seham; Al-Balawi, Maysoon; Mustafa, Md.; Arfin, Misbahul; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND HLA-B*51 has been universally associated with Behcet’s disease (BD) susceptibility, while different alleles of HLA-A have also been identified as independent BD susceptibility loci in various ethnic populations. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of HLA-A and -B alleles with BD in Saudi patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Genotyping for HLA-A and HLA-B was performed using HLA genotyping kit (Lab type(R) SSO) in 120 Saudi subjects, including 60 BD patients and 60 matched healthy controls. RESULTS Our results revealed that frequencies of HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 were significantly higher in BD patients than in controls, suggesting that HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 are associated with BD. The frequency of HLA-B*15 was significantly lower in BD patients than in controls. Stratification of genotyping results into active and nonactive forms of BD revealed that the frequency of HLA-A*31 was significantly higher in the nonactive form than in the active form of BD, while there was no significant difference in the distribution of other alleles between the two forms of BD. CONCLUSION This study suggests that HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 are associated with susceptibility risk to BD, while HLA-B*15 may be protective in Saudi patients. However, larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27547040

  10. The Structure and Stability of the Monomorphic HLA-G Are Influenced by the Nature of the Bound Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Walpole, Nicholas G.; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Kostenko, Lyudmila; McCluskey, James; Brooks, Andrew G.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Clements, Craig S.

    2010-03-26

    The highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class Ia (MHC-Ia) molecules present a broad array of peptides to the clonotypically diverse {alpha}{beta} T-cell receptors. In contrast, MHC-Ib molecules exhibit limited polymorphism and bind a more restricted peptide repertoire, in keeping with their major role in innate immunity. Nevertheless, some MHC-Ib molecules do play a role in adaptive immunity. While human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E), the MHC-Ib molecule, binds a very restricted repertoire of peptides, the peptide binding preferences of HLA-G, the class Ib molecule, are less stringent, although the basis by which HLA-G can bind various peptides is unclear. To investigate how HLA-G can accommodate different peptides, we compared the structure of HLA-G bound to three naturally abundant self-peptides (RIIPRHLQL, KGPPAALTL and KLPQAFYIL) and their thermal stabilities. The conformation of HLA-G{sup KGPPAALTL} was very similar to that of the HLA-G{sup RIIPRHLQL} structure. However, the structure of HLA-G{sup KLPQAFYIL} not only differed in the conformation of the bound peptide but also caused a small shift in the {alpha}2 helix of HLA-G. Furthermore, the relative stability of HLA-G was observed to be dependent on the nature of the bound peptide. These peptide-dependent effects on the substructure of the monomorphic HLA-G are likely to impact on its recognition by receptors of both innate and adaptive immune systems.

  11. Involvement of IL-10 and TGF-β in HLA-E-mediated neuroblastoma migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zijun; Guo, Xiaofang; Liao, Ru; Yang, Kaibin; Ye, Litong; You, Zhiyao

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is highly expressed in a variety of tumors and, in addition to immune escape, may promote tumor growth via other mechanisms. However, the role of HLA-E in neuroblastoma (NB) migration and invasion is unknown. In the present study, HLA-E expression in human NB tumors was measured by immunohistochemistry. The effect of HLA-E on NB cell migration and invasion was studied in vitro and in vivo, as well as the effect of HLA-E on natural killer (NK)-cell cytotoxicity. HLA-E was expressed in 70.2% of the NB tumor tissues examined. HLA-E expression by NB cells inhibited NK-cell cytotoxicity and induced the release of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. HLA-E and the released cytokines enhanced the ability of NB cells migration and invasion. NK cell infusion did not inhibit the growth of NB cells with high HLA-E expression but instead increased the number of metastatic cells in the bone marrow. Taken together, the results indicate that IL-10 and TGF-β are involved in HLA-E-mediated NB migration and invasion. Thus, HLA-E may be a new treatment target in NB. PMID:27322426

  12. HLA-F coding and regulatory segments variability determined by massively parallel sequencing procedures in a Brazilian population sample.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thálitta Hetamaro Ayala; Buttura, Renato Vidal; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana Caricati; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Castelli, Erick C

    2016-10-01

    Human Leucocyte Antigen F (HLA-F) is a non-classical HLA class I gene distinguished from its classical counterparts by low allelic polymorphism and distinctive expression patterns. Its exact function remains unknown. It is believed that HLA-F has tolerogenic and immune modulatory properties. Currently, there is little information regarding the HLA-F allelic variation among human populations and the available studies have evaluated only a fraction of the HLA-F gene segment and/or have searched for known alleles only. Here we present a strategy to evaluate the complete HLA-F variability including its 5' upstream, coding and 3' downstream segments by using massively parallel sequencing procedures. HLA-F variability was surveyed on 196 individuals from the Brazilian Southeast. The results indicate that the HLA-F gene is indeed conserved at the protein level, where thirty coding haplotypes or coding alleles were detected, encoding only four different HLA-F full-length protein molecules. Moreover, a same protein molecule is encoded by 82.45% of all coding alleles detected in this Brazilian population sample. However, the HLA-F nucleotide and haplotype variability is much higher than our current knowledge both in Brazilians and considering the 1000 Genomes Project data. This protein conservation is probably a consequence of the key role of HLA-F in the immune system physiology.

  13. Association of HLA-A*02:06 and HLA-DRB1*04:05 with clinical subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Miyamae, Takako; Naruto, Takuya; Hara, Takuma; Kikuchi, Masako; Hara, Ryoki; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Goto, Hiroaki; Morita, Satoshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Akinori; Yokota, Shumpei

    2011-03-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common forms of pediatric chronic arthritis. JIA is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Therefore, the genetic background of JIA may also be heterogeneous. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and susceptibility to JIA and/or uveitis, which is one of the most devastating complications of JIA. A total of 106 Japanese articular JIA patients (67 with polyarthritis and 39 with oligoarthritis) and 678 healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe methodology. HLA-A(*)02:06 was the risk factor for JIA accompanied by uveitis after adjustment for clinical factors (corrected P-value < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-43.0). On the other hand, HLA-DRB1(*)04:05 was associated with polyarticular JIA (corrected P-value < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.8). We found an association of HLA-A(*)02:06 with susceptibility to JIA accompanied by uveitis, which might be considered a separate clinical JIA entity. We also found an association between HLA-DRB1(*)04:05 and polyarticular JIA. Thus, clinical subtypes of JIA can be classified by the presence of the specific HLA alleles, HLA-A(*)02:06 and DRB1(*)04:05.

  14. Unraveling multiple MHC gene associations with systemic lupus erythematosus: model choice indicates a role for HLA alleles and non-HLA genes in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Morris, David L; Taylor, Kimberly E; Fernando, Michelle M A; Nititham, Joanne; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Barcellos, Lisa F; Behrens, Timothy W; Cotsapas, Chris; Gaffney, Patrick M; Graham, Robert R; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Gregersen, Peter K; Harley, John B; Hauser, Stephen L; Hom, Geoffrey; Langefeld, Carl D; Noble, Janelle A; Rioux, John D; Seldin, Michael F; Criswell, Lindsey A; Vyse, Timothy J

    2012-11-02

    We have performed a meta-analysis of the major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) region in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine the association with both SNPs and classical human-leukocyte-antigen (HLA) alleles. More specifically, we combined results from six studies and well-known out-of-study control data sets, providing us with 3,701 independent SLE cases and 12,110 independent controls of European ancestry. This study used genotypes for 7,199 SNPs within the MHC region and for classical HLA alleles (typed and imputed). Our results from conditional analysis and model choice with the use of the Bayesian information criterion show that the best model for SLE association includes both classical loci (HLA-DRB1(∗)03:01, HLA-DRB1(∗)08:01, and HLA-DQA1(∗)01:02) and two SNPs, rs8192591 (in class III and upstream of NOTCH4) and rs2246618 (MICB in class I). Our approach was to perform a stepwise search from multiple baseline models deduced from a priori evidence on HLA-DRB1 lupus-associated alleles, a stepwise regression on SNPs alone, and a stepwise regression on HLA alleles. With this approach, we were able to identify a model that was an overwhelmingly better fit to the data than one identified by simple stepwise regression either on SNPs alone (Bayes factor [BF] > 50) or on classical HLA alleles alone (BF > 1,000).

  15. HLA typing demands for peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nagorsen, Dirk; Thiel, Eckhard

    2008-12-01

    Immunological treatment of cancer has made some very promising advances during the last years. Anti-cancer vaccination using peptides or peptide-pulsed dendritic cells and adoptive transfer of in vitro generated, epitope-specific T cells depend on a well-fitting interaction of HLA molecule and epitope. Accurate HLA-typing is a key factor for successful anti-cancer vaccination. No comprehensive data and no suggestion exist on the HLA-typing in this setting. We performed a systematic review of PubMed analyzing HLA-typing data in cancer vaccination trials over the last 4 years (2004-2007). Then, using the SYFPEITHI database, we calculated the peptide binding prediction of the eight most often used HLA-A*0201 binding epitopes. Finally, high-resolution typing [by sequence-specific primers (SSP)] data of a HLA-A*02 or HLA-A*24 positive population in Berlin, Germany, were analyzed. Forty-five cancer vaccination trials with 764 patients were included. Eighteen studies were performed in the USA, 13 in Europe, 12 in Asia (mainly Japan), and two in Australia. Most common diseases targeted were melanoma, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, renal cell cancer, and breast cancer. The trials tested protocols using peptide plus adjuvants without DC or protocols using peptide-pulsed DC. In 38 trials (84%) HLA-A2 positive patients were vaccinated, in 11 studies (24%) HLA-A24 positive patients were vaccinated. Nineteen studies with 291 patients (38%) presented the HLA type as four-digit code (high-resolution), 26 studies with 473 patients (62%) presented the HLA-type in a low-resolution code. The method of HLA determination was given in six out of 45 trials (13%). Using the SYFPEITHI database we calculated the peptide binding prediction of the eight most often used HLA-A*0201 binding tumor antigen-derived epitopes for binding to HLA-A*0203. While the epitopes had a binding score of 17-28 for HLA-A*0201, the score for binding to HLA-A*0203 was zero in seven out of eight tested peptides

  16. [Extending preimplantation genetic diagnosis to HLA typing: the Paris experience].

    PubMed

    Steffann, J; Frydman, N; Burlet, P; Gigarel, N; Feyereisen, E; Kerbrat, V; Tachdjian, G; Munnich, A; Frydman, R

    2005-10-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) consists in the genetic analysis of one or two cells. These cells (blastomeres) are sampled from embryos, obtained by in vitro fertilization, at the third day of development. Since 1998, the bioethical laws (1994) and their decrees restricted PGD practices in France, strictly to the avoidance of the birth of a child affected with a genetic defect. In parallel, works on blood cord transplantation, taken at the birth of a compatible HLA sibling, showed very encouraging results, particularly for the treatment of Fanconi anemia. In 2001, Verlinsky et al., have reported the first PGD for Fanconi anaemia combined with HLA typing, allowing the birth of a healthy child, HLA-identical with his affected sister. The "designer baby" concept was born. The French law, which allowed PGD under specific conditions, i.e. when the genetic defect has been characterized in one parent at least, recently extended PGD to HLA typing when embryos are at risk of a genetic disorder. Article L.2131-4-1 (August 2004) allows the practice of HLA typing for PGD embryos when an elder sibling is affected with a genetic disorder and need stem cell transplantation. The HLA-matched offspring resulting from PGD can give cord blood at birth to supply the necessary therapy. This double selection give rise to serious ethical problems, but technical difficulties and legal restrictions will probably limit the development of such a procedure.

  17. HLA-G expression levels influence the tolerogenic activity of human DC-10

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Giada; Comi, Michela; Tomasoni, Daniela; Gianolini, Monica Emma; Rizzo, Roberta; LeMaoult, Joël; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Gregori, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical HLA class I molecule with known immune-modulatory functions. Our group identified a subset of human dendritic cells, named DC-10, that induce adaptive interleukin-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells via the interleukin-10-dependent HLA-G/ILT4 pathway. In this study we aimed at defining the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated Tr1 cell differentiation. We analyzed phenotype, functions, and genetic variations in the 3′ untranslated region of the HLA-G locus of in vitro-differentiated DC-10 from 67 healthy donors. We showed that HLA-G expression on DC-10 is donor-dependent. Functional studies demonstrated that DC-10, independently of HLA-G expression, secrete interleukin-10 and negligible levels of interleukin-12. Interestingly, DC-10 with high HLA-G promote allo-specific anergic T cells that contain a significantly higher frequency of Tr1 cells, defined as interleukin-10-producing (P=0.0121) or CD49b+LAG-3+ (P=0.0031) T cells, compared to DC-10 with low HLA-G. We found that the HLA-G expression on DC-10 is genetically imprinted, being associated with specific variations in the 3′ untranslated region of the gene, and it may be finely tuned by microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. These data highlight the important role of HLA-G in boosting DC-10 tolerogenic activity and confirm that interleukin-10 production by DC-10 is necessary but not sufficient to promote Tr1 cells at high frequency. These new insights into the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated induction of Tr1 cells provide additional information for clinical use in Tr1- or DC-10-based cell therapy approaches. PMID:25661445

  18. Association of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 with pulmonary tuberculosis in western Javanese Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuliwulandari, Rika; Sachrowardi, Qomariyah; Nakajima, Humiaki; Kashiwase, Koichi; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Mabuchi, Akihiko; Sofro, Abdul Salam Mudzakir; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2010-07-01

    Genetic studies of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), including those of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, have been reported in several populations. Some studies also have reported these genes to have a stronger role in severe tuberculosis. We investigated HLA class I and II alleles and haplotypes to ascertain their role in susceptibility and resistance to new and recurrent PTB in 257 PTB patients (216 new and 41 recurrent PTB patients) and 236 healthy controls in Western Javanese (Indonesia). HLA-B*4006 was associated with new PTB (p = 0.044, p(adj) = ns), whereas HLA-B*1802, HLA-B*4001 and HLA-DRB1*1101 were associated with recurrent PTB (p = 0.013, p(adj) = 0.016; p = 0.015, p(adj) = 0.028; and p = 0.008, p(adj) = 0.027 for new PTB vs recurrent PTB, respectively). Except for HLA-B*4006, those associations remained significant after adjustment for age and gender by logistic regression analysis, although they disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Haplotype HLA-B*1802-DRB1*1202 was associated with susceptibility to recurrent PTB (p = 0.014, odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-12.27). In contrast, HLA-DRB1*1202 in the absence of HLA-B*1802 showed a significant association with resistance to recurrent PTB (p = 8.2 x 10(-4), odds ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.16-0.64), suggesting that stronger susceptibility effect of HLA-B*1802 masked the protective effect of HLA-DRB1*1202. Further studies using larger number of patients with recurrent PTB will be needed to confirm our findings.

  19. HLA-G expression levels influence the tolerogenic activity of human DC-10.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Giada; Comi, Michela; Tomasoni, Daniela; Gianolini, Monica Emma; Rizzo, Roberta; LeMaoult, Joël; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Gregori, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical HLA class I molecule with known immune-modulatory functions. Our group identified a subset of human dendritic cells, named DC-10, that induce adaptive interleukin-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells via the interleukin-10-dependent HLA-G/ILT4 pathway. In this study we aimed at defining the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated Tr1 cell differentiation. We analyzed phenotype, functions, and genetic variations in the 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G locus of in vitro-differentiated DC-10 from 67 healthy donors. We showed that HLA-G expression on DC-10 is donor-dependent. Functional studies demonstrated that DC-10, independently of HLA-G expression, secrete interleukin-10 and negligible levels of interleukin-12. Interestingly, DC-10 with high HLA-G promote allo-specific anergic T cells that contain a significantly higher frequency of Tr1 cells, defined as interleukin-10-producing (P=0.0121) or CD49b(+)LAG-3(+) (P=0.0031) T cells, compared to DC-10 with low HLA-G. We found that the HLA-G expression on DC-10 is genetically imprinted, being associated with specific variations in the 3' untranslated region of the gene, and it may be finely tuned by microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. These data highlight the important role of HLA-G in boosting DC-10 tolerogenic activity and confirm that interleukin-10 production by DC-10 is necessary but not sufficient to promote Tr1 cells at high frequency. These new insights into the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated induction of Tr1 cells provide additional information for clinical use in Tr1- or DC-10-based cell therapy approaches.

  20. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    PubMed

    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  1. Extended O-GlcNAc on HLA Class-I-Bound Peptides.

    PubMed

    Marino, Fabio; Bern, Marshall; Mommen, Geert P M; Leney, Aneika C; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Becker, Christopher; van Els, Cécile A C M; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-09-02

    We report unexpected mass spectrometric observations of glycosylated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-bound peptides. Complemented by molecular modeling, in vitro enzymatic assays, and oxonium ion patterns, we propose that the observed O-linked glycans carrying up to five monosaccharides are extended O-GlcNAc's rather than GalNAc-initiated O-glycans. A cytosolic O-GlcNAc modification is normally terminal and does not extend to produce a polysaccharide, but O-GlcNAc on an HLA peptide presents a special case because the loaded HLA class I complex traffics through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus on its way to the cell membrane and is hence exposed to glycosyltransferases. We also report for the first time natural HLA class I presentation of O- and N-linked glycopeptides derived from membrane proteins. HLA class I peptides with centrally located oligosaccharides have been shown to be immunogenic and may thus be important targets for immune surveillance.

  2. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I W; Walker, Bruce D; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J; Pulit, Sara L; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M; Carlson, Jonathan M; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R; Plenge, Robert M; Deeks, Steven G; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M; Allen, Todd M; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Gulick, Roy M; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E; Daar, Eric S; Ribaudo, Heather J; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L; Allen, Brady L; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C; Benson, Anne M; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F; Bernard, Annette M; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J; Bolan, Robert K; Boudreaux, Emilie T; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F; Brndjar, Jon E; Brown, Stephen J; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H; Carmichael, J Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M; Cimoch, Paul J; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T; Cristofano, Michael V; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L; Dahman, Joseph M; Daly, Jennifer S; Davis, Benjamin T; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E; Ellerin, Todd B; Eron, Joseph J; Fangman, John J W; Farel, Claire E; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; French, Neel K; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Fuller, Jon D; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C; Gaultier, Cyril R; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A; Gottlieb, Michael S; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K; Gurley, T Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W David; Harrigan, P Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M; Henry, W Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P; Horton, James M; Hsu, Ricky K; Huhn, Gregory D; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J; Illeman, Mark L; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A; Johnson, Kristin L; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C; Kauffman, Carol A; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K; Kim, Arthur Y; Kim, David D; Kinder, Clifford A; Kirchner, Jeffrey T; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M; Lee, David M; Lee, Jean M L; Lee, Marah J; Lee, Edward T Y; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A; Llibre, Josep M; Liguori, Michael A; Little, Susan J; Liu, Anne Y; Lopez, Alvaro J; Loutfy, Mono R; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K; Marconi, Vincent C; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N; Martin, Harold L; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A; McGovern, Barbara H; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C; Nagami, Ellen H; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G; Nelson, Margret O; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L; O'Connor, David H; Ojikutu, Bisola O; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O; Oldfield, Edward C; Olender, Susan A; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M; Perlmutter, Aaron M; Pierce, Michael N; Pincus, Jonathan M; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J; Rhame, Frank S; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C; Rosenberg, Eric S; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E; Rubin, David S; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R; Sanchez, William C; Sanjana, Veeraf M; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N; Silebi, Vanessa I; Sizemore, James M; Skolnik, Paul R; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F Lisa; Stone, Valerie E; Stone, David R; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A; Trinh, Phuong D; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J; Warner, Daniel A; Weber, Robert D; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A; White, David J; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P; Yang, Otto O; Yurdin, David L; Zabukovic, Brandon W; Zachary, Kimon C; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-12-10

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.

  3. A Previous Miscarriage and a Previous Successful Pregnancy Have a Different Impact on HLA Antibody Formation during a Subsequent Successful Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Hönger, Gideon; van Deutekom, Hanneke Wilhelmina Maria; Hösli, Irene Mathilde; Schaub, Stefan; Spierings, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Inherited paternal HLA antigens from the semi-allogeneic fetus may trigger maternal immune responses during pregnancy, leading to the production of child-specific HLA antibodies. The prevalence of these HLA antibodies increases with the number of successful pregnancies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a single prior miscarriage on HLA antibody formation during a subsequent successful pregnancy. Women with a successful pregnancy with one or more prior miscarriages (n = 229) and women with a successful pregnancy without a prior miscarriage (n = 58), and their children were HLA typed. HLA antibody analyses were performed in these women to identify whether HLA antibodies were formed against mismatched HLA class-I antigens of the last child. The percentage of immunogenic antigens was significantly lower after a single successful pregnancy that was preceded by a single miscarriage (n = 18 women) compared to a successful pregnancy that was preceded by a first successful pregnancy (n = 62 women). Thus, our data suggest that a previous miscarriage has a different impact on child-specific HLA antibody formation during a subsequent successful pregnancy than a previous successful pregnancy. The lower immunogenicity in these women cannot be explained by reduced numbers of immunogenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes. In conclusion, our observations indicate that increasing gravidity is not related to an increased prevalence of HLA antibodies in a single successful pregnancy that was preceded by a single prior miscarriage. PMID:27999574

  4. Mapping the HLA ligandome landscape of acute myeloid leukemia: a targeted approach toward peptide-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berlin, C; Kowalewski, D J; Schuster, H; Mirza, N; Walz, S; Handel, M; Schmid-Horch, B; Salih, H R; Kanz, L; Rammensee, H-G; Stevanović, S; Stickel, J S

    2015-03-01

    Identification of physiologically relevant peptide vaccine targets calls for the direct analysis of the entirety of naturally presented human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands, termed the HLA ligandome. In this study, we implemented this direct approach using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated peptide vaccine targets. Mapping the HLA class I ligandomes of 15 AML patients and 35 healthy controls, more than 25 000 different naturally presented HLA ligands were identified. Target prioritization based on AML exclusivity and high presentation frequency in the AML cohort identified a panel of 132 LiTAAs (ligandome-derived tumor-associated antigens), and 341 corresponding HLA ligands (LiTAPs (ligandome-derived tumor-associated peptides)) represented subset independently in >20% of AML patients. Functional characterization of LiTAPs by interferon-γ ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot) and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed AML-specific CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Of note, our platform identified HLA ligands representing several established AML-associated antigens (e.g. NPM1, MAGED1, PRTN3, MPO, WT1), but found 80% of them to be also represented in healthy control samples. Mapping of HLA class II ligandomes provided additional CD4(+) T-cell epitopes and potentially synergistic embedded HLA ligands, allowing for complementation of a multipeptide vaccine for the immunotherapy of AML.

  5. Tumour necrosis factor microsatellites and HLA-DRB1*, HLA-DQA1*, and HLA-DQB1* alleles in Peruvian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, F; Acevedo, E; Ciusani, E; Angulo, J; Wollheim, F; Sandberg-Wollheim, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and HLA and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) polymorphism in Peruvian mestizo patients in comparison with ethnically similar controls.
METHODS—Seventy nine patients with RA and 65 ethnically matched healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and TNFα and TNFβ alleles using PCR amplification. Clinical severity was assessed as mild, moderate, or severe in 35 of the patients.
RESULTS—TNFα6 showed the strongest association with disease susceptibility. The TNFα6 allele was more common in patients than in controls (p<0.0076) and the proportion of patients with at least one copy of this allele was greater (p<0.015, relative risk 2.35). Among the HLA-DRB1* alleles with the shared epitope sequence, only the DRB1*1402 allele was significantly increased in patients compared with controls (p<0.0311), as was the proportion of patients with at least one copy of this allele (p<0.0232, relative risk 2.74). In contrast, the overall frequency of alleles with the shared epitope was not different in patients and controls. The haplotype HLA-DRB1*1402-DQB1*0301-DQA1*0401 was significantly more common in patients. TNFα6 was more common in patients whether or not they had this haplotype. None of the 11 patients lacking the TNFα6 allele had severe disease.
CONCLUSIONS—This study shows for the first time that TNF gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to RA in a non-white population. TNFα6 and HLA-DRB1*1402 independently conferred significantly increased risk in Peruvian mestizo patients.

 PMID:11454644

  6. LILRB2 Interaction with HLA Class I Correlates with Control of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Apps, Richard; Gao, Xiaojiang; Burke, Patrick S.; Taylor, Craig J.; Rogich, Jerome; Wolinsky, Steven; Bream, Jay H.; Duggal, Priya; Hussain, Shehnaz; Martinson, Jeremy; Weintrob, Amy; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Goedert, James J.; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Trowsdale, John; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Telenti, Amalio; Walker, Bruce D.; Allen, Rachel L.; Carrington, Mary; Yu, Xu G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs). We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126) to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10−2). Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10−11–10−9) and African (p = 10−5–10−3) descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement. PMID:24603468

  7. HLA in anthropology: the enigma of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thorsby, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we first present four significant cases where human leukocyte antigen (HLA) studies have been useful for the reconstruction of human peopling history on the worldwide scale; i.e., the spread of modern humans from East Africa, the colonization of East Asia along two geographic routes, the co-evolution of genes and languages in Africa, and the peopling of Europe through a main northward migration. These examples show that natural selection did not erase the genetic signatures of our past migrations in the HLA genetic diversity patterns observed today. In the second part, we summarize our studies on Easter Island. Using genomic HLA typing, we could trace an introduction of HLA alleles of native American (Amerindian) origin to Easter Island before the Peruvian slave trades; i.e., before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they may have already been introduced in prehistoric time. Our results give further support to an initial Polynesian population of the island, but also reveal an early contribution by Amerindians. Together, our data illustrate the usefulness of typing for HLA alleles to complement genetic analyses in anthropological investigations.

  8. Clinical Relevance of HLA Gene Variants in HBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Host gene variants may influence the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans, is one of the most important host factors that are correlated with the clinical course of HBV infection. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near certain HLA gene loci are strongly associated with not only persistent HBV infection but also spontaneous HBV clearance and seroconversion, disease progression, and the development of liver cirrhosis and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). These variations also influence the efficacy of interferon (IFN) and nucleot(s)ide analogue (NA) treatment and response to HBV vaccines. Meanwhile, discrepant conclusions were reached with different patient cohorts. It is therefore essential to identify the associations of specific HLA allele variants with disease progression and viral clearance in chronic HBV infection among different ethnic populations. A better understanding of HLA polymorphism relevance in HBV infection outcome would enable us to elucidate the roles of HLA SNPs in the pathogenesis and clearance of HBV in different areas and ethnic groups, to improve strategies for the prevention and treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:27243039

  9. Sequence variations at the HLA-linked olfactory receptor cluster do not influence female preferences for male odors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emma E; Haller, Gabe; Pinto, Jayant M; Sun, Ying; Zelano, Bethanne; Jacob, Suma; McClintock, Martha K.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that paternally-inherited human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are a template for women's preference for male odors (P = 0.0007). However, it has been suggested that sequence variation in a nearby olfactory receptor (OR) cluster on chromosome 6p influences smell preference. To determine if the HLA-linked OR genes contribute to previously observed HLA-mediated behaviors, we use the odor preference data from our earlier study in combination with a new resequencing study of four functional HLA-linked OR genes in the same subjects. Our results indicate that OR alleles in the genes surveyed are not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA variation and do not explain the previous findings of HLA-associated odor preference. PMID:19833159

  10. Appropriate clinical use of human leukocyte antigen typing for coeliac disease: an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Tye-Din, J A; Cameron, D J S; Daveson, A J; Day, A S; Dellsperger, P; Hogan, C; Newnham, E D; Shepherd, S J; Steele, R H; Wienholt, L; Varney, M D

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing emerge as a remarkably popular test for the diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease with high patient acceptance. Although limited in its positive predictive value for coeliac disease, the strong disease association with specific HLA genes imparts exceptional negative predictive value to HLA typing, enabling a negative result to exclude coeliac disease confidently. In response to mounting evidence that the clinical use and interpretation of HLA typing often deviates from best practice, this article outlines an evidence-based approach to guide clinically appropriate use of HLA typing, and establishes a reporting template for pathology providers to improve communication of results.

  11. HLA-DQ tetramers identify epitope-specific T cells in peripheral blood of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected individuals: direct detection of immunodominant antigen-responsive cells.

    PubMed

    Kwok, W W; Liu, A W; Novak, E J; Gebe, J A; Ettinger, R A; Nepom, G T; Reymond, S N; Koelle, D M

    2000-04-15

    Ag-specific CD4+ T cells are present in peripheral blood in low frequency, where they undergo recruitment and expansion during immune responses and in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases. MHC tetramers, which constitute a labeled MHC-peptide ligand suitable for binding to the Ag-specific receptor on T cells, provide a novel approach for the detection and characterization of such rare cells. In this study, we utilized this technology to identify HLA DQ-restricted Ag-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of human subjects and to identify immunodominant epitopes associated with viral infection. Peptides representing potential epitope regions of the VP16 protein from HSV-2 were loaded onto recombinant DQ0602 molecules to generate a panel of Ag-specific DQ0602 tetramers. VP16 Ag-specific DQ-restricted T cells were identified and expanded from the peripheral blood of HSV-2-infected individuals, representing two predominant epitope specificities. Although the VP16 369-380 peptide has a lower binding affinity for DQ0602 molecules than the VP16 33-52 peptide, T cells that recognized the VP16 369-380 peptide occurred at a much higher frequency than those that were specific for the VP16 33-52 peptide.

  12. Many de novo donor-specific antibodies recognize β2 -microglobulin-free, but not intact HLA heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Michel, K; Santella, R; Steers, J; Sahajpal, A; Downey, F X; Thohan, V; Oaks, M

    2016-05-01

    Solid-phase single antigen bead (SAB) assays are standard of care for detection and identification of donor-specific antibody (DSA) in patients who receive solid organ transplantation (SOT). While several studies have documented the reproducibility and sensitivity of SAB testing for DSA, there are little data available concerning its specificity. This study describes the identification of antibodies to β(2) -microglobulin-free human leukocyte antigen (β(2) -m-fHLA) heavy chains on SAB arrays and provides a reassessment of the clinical relevance of DSA testing by this platform. Post-transplant sera from 55 patients who were positive for de novo donor-specific antibodies on a SAB solid-phase immunoassay were tested under denaturing conditions in order to identify antibodies reactive with β(2) -m-fHLA or native HLA (nHLA). Antibodies to β(2) -m-fHLA were present in nearly half of patients being monitored in the post-transplant period. The frequency of antibodies to β(2) -m-fHLA was similar among DSA and HLA antigens that were irrelevant to the transplant (non-DSA). Among the seven patients with clinical or pathologic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), none had antibodies to β(2) -m-fHLA exclusively; thus, the clinical relevance of β(2) -m-fHLA is unclear. Our data suggests that SAB testing produces false positive reactions due to the presence of β(2) -m-fHLA and these can lead to inappropriate assignment of unacceptable antigens during transplant listing and possibly inaccurate identification of DSA in the post-transplant period.

  13. Many de novo donor‐specific antibodies recognize β2‐microglobulin‐free, but not intact HLA heterodimers

    PubMed Central

    Michel, K.; Santella, R.; Steers, J.; Sahajpal, A.; Downey, F. X.; Thohan, V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Solid‐phase single antigen bead (SAB) assays are standard of care for detection and identification of donor‐specific antibody (DSA) in patients who receive solid organ transplantation (SOT). While several studies have documented the reproducibility and sensitivity of SAB testing for DSA, there are little data available concerning its specificity. This study describes the identification of antibodies to β2‐microglobulin‐free human leukocyte antigen (β2‐m‐fHLA) heavy chains on SAB arrays and provides a reassessment of the clinical relevance of DSA testing by this platform. Post‐transplant sera from 55 patients who were positive for de novo donor‐specific antibodies on a SAB solid‐phase immunoassay were tested under denaturing conditions in order to identify antibodies reactive with β2‐m‐fHLA or native HLA (nHLA). Antibodies to β2‐m‐fHLA were present in nearly half of patients being monitored in the post‐transplant period. The frequency of antibodies to β2‐m‐fHLA was similar among DSA and HLA antigens that were irrelevant to the transplant (non‐DSA). Among the seven patients with clinical or pathologic antibody‐mediated rejection (AMR), none had antibodies to β2‐m‐fHLA exclusively; thus, the clinical relevance of β2‐m‐fHLA is unclear. Our data suggests that SAB testing produces false positive reactions due to the presence of β2‐m‐fHLA and these can lead to inappropriate assignment of unacceptable antigens during transplant listing and possibly inaccurate identification of DSA in the post‐transplant period. PMID:27060279

  14. A mechanism for evasion of CTL immunity by altered O-glycosylation of HLA class I.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Mihoko Sutoh; Tobisawa, Yuki; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Sato, Misaki; Tone, Kiyoshi; Tatara, Yota; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Funyu, Tomihisa; Fukuda, Minoru; Hoshi, Senji; Ohyama, Chikara; Tsuboi, Shigeru

    2016-12-22

    Anti-tumor immunity by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) is essential to suppress tumor progression. Cancer cells that evade CTL immunity proliferate in the host, promoting metastasis, but mechanisms underlying this capacity remain unknown. Here we report that bladder cancer cells metastasized to lymph nodes evade CTL immunity by a new mechanism via altered glycosylation. CTLs normally recognize and kill cancer cells presenting antigenic peptides on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. We show bladder cancer cells expressing the O-glycan processing enzyme, core2 β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) exhibit HLA class I O-glycan modified with poly-N-acetyllactosamine and are highly susceptible to CTL. In those cells, poly-N-acetyllactosamine on HLA class I O-glycan binds galectin-3 to form a cell-surface molecular lattice, enabling efficient cell-surface retention of HLA class I. By contrast, bladder cancer cells in which C2GnT is downregulated show decreased levels of poly-N-acetyllactosamine on HLA class I O-glycans, attenuating lattice formation and reducing the cell-surface half-life of HLA class I. These tumor cells present antigenic peptides less efficiently, thereby evading CTL lysis and facilitating metastasis.

  15. KIR2DL3 and the KIR ligand groups HLA-A-Bw4 and HLA-C2 predict the outcome of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Di Bona, Danilo; Aiello, Anna; Colomba, Claudia; Bilancia, Massimo; Accardi, Giulia; Rubino, Raffaella; Giannitrapani, Lidia; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Cascio, Antonio; Caiaffa, Maria Filomena; Rizzo, Sergio; Di Lorenzo, Gabriele; Candore, Giuseppina; Macchia, Luigi; Montalto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Calogero

    2017-02-17

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of Natural Killer cells through their interaction with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). KIR and HLA loci are highly polymorphic and certain HLA-KIR combinations have been found to protect against viral infections. In this study we analyzed whether the KIR/HLA repertoire may influence the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Fifty-seven subjects with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 44 subjects with resolved HBV infection, and 60 healthy uninfected controls (HC) were genotyped for KIR and their HLA ligands. The frequency of the HLA-A-Bw4 ligand group was higher in CHB (58%) than subjects with resolved infection (23%) (crude OR, 4.67; P< 0.001), and HC (10%) (crude OR,12.38; P< 0.001). Similar results were obtained for the HLA-C2 ligand group, more frequent in CHB (84%), than subjects with resolved infection (70%) (crude OR, 2.24; P< 0.10), and HC (60%) (crude OR, 3.56; P< 0.01). Conversely, the frequency of KIR2DL3 was lower in CHB (81%) than in subjects with resolved infection (98%) (crude OR,0.10; P< 0.05). These results suggest a detrimental role of HLA-A-Bw4 and HLA-C2 groups, which are associated with the development of CHB, and a protective role of KIR2DL3. A stepwise variable selection procedure, based on multiple logistic regression analysis, identified these three predictive variables as the most relevant, featuring high specificity (90.9%), and positive predictive value (87.5%) for the development of CHB. Our results suggest that a combination of KIR/HLA gene/alleles is able to predict the outcome of HBV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. A strong association between thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibody-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and HLA-DR8 and HLA-DQB1 0302 in Koreans

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Bo Youn; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang-Soon; Lee, Jung-Bin ); Shong, Young Kee ); Han, Hoon ); Chang, Youn Bok )

    1993-09-01

    The authors investigated whether the associations between HLA alleles of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism varied according to the presence or absence of TSH receptor-blocking antibody (TRBab). They analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR antigens by serotyping and the DQA1 and DQB1 genes using both enzymatic DNA amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridizations. The patient population consisted of 47 Korean patients with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and 62 patients with goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. The antigen frequency of HLA-DR8 was significantly increased in 23 atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis patients that were positive for TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) compared to 136 controls [52% vs. 16%; x[sup 2] = 13.1; Pc (corrected P value) = 0.003]. This relative risk was 5.7; the etiological fraction was 0.43. HLA-DQB1*0302 was also increased in patients with TBII-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (24% vs. 7%; x[sup 2] = 11.2; Pc = 0.012; relative risk = 4.4; etiological fraction = 0.19). No specific DR antigens or DQB1 alleles were increased in either TBII-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroidities or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. A significant decrease in the frequency of HLA-DR6 antigen was observed in both TBII-positive atrophic antoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 8.4; Pc = 0.03) and goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 23.2; Pc < 0.001) patients. The frequency of the HLC-Cwl