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Sample records for antigen specific ige

  1. IgE ELISA using antisera derived from epsilon chain antigenic peptides detects allergen-specific IgE in allergic horses.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Warren V; Pettigrew, Howard D; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-05-12

    Equine disease with an allergic etiology is common. Environmental antigens most often implicated as allergens in horses include molds, dusty hay, grass pollen, hay dust mites, and insect saliva. Although intradermal testing with allergen is a useful diagnostic tool for some species, skin testing frequently produces false positive results in horses. Allergen deprivation as a diagnostic tool is often impossible and at best it is ineffective at diagnosing the specific allergic reactivity. Synthesis of IgE after exposure to allergen is the instigator of the allergic process. While IgE exerts its effect after binding strongly to mast cell Fc receptors, the presence of free IgE in the serum can be used to quantify and determine the allergen specificity of the allergic disease. A lack of widely available reagents for detection of equine IgE has limited this approach in horses. We have used the nucleotide sequence of equine IgE to prepare a peptide-based immunogen to elicit equine epsilon chain-specific antisera. Selection of peptides was based on antigenic attributes of the deduced amino acid sequence of the equine epsilon chain. Six peptides were selected for conjugation to carrier molecules and rabbit immunization. Of these, one peptide elicited antisera that was successfully used in enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to screen horse serum from 64 allergic horses for allergen-specific IgE. Twenty-four of the 64 horses showed positive reactivity to one or more of the following allergens: grass, grain mill dust, mosquito, and horsefly. This study demonstrates the usefulness of peptide-based immunogens for development of antisera to rare or difficult to purify antigens such as IgE. Resultant antisera has great usefulness in diagnostic assays for equine allergy and as a research tool. PMID:12730014

  2. Profound specific suppression by antigen of persistent IgM, IgG, and IgE antibody production.

    PubMed Central

    Dintzis, H M; Dintzis, R Z

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing, high-titer T-cell-dependent immune responses in adult mice, consisting of IgM, IgG, and IgE anti-fluorescein antibodies, can be specifically and substantially reduced (90-99%) when the mice are injected with appropriate doses of fluoresceinated dextran of defined molecular weight and hapten valence. This suppressive form of the antigen is nontoxic and specific, as responses to other antigens are unaffected. The suppression is long lasting and reduces high-affinity antibodies most markedly. Moreover, plasma cell secretion of specific antibody is virtually eliminated. This demonstrates that the reduction in antibody titer is not simply due to masking of serum antibody by the suppressive polymer. The results are discussed with reference to proposed models of B-cell and T-cell tolerance. Extension of these findings to disease-related immunogens may yield effective antigen-specific treatments of human allergy and autoimmune diseases. PMID:1736295

  3. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  4. Silibinin attenuates antigen-specific IgE production through the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fu-Hua; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2009-03-01

    The effect of silibinin on antigen-specific antibody production and T-cell cytokine expression was investigated. BALB/c mice were either left untreated or administered daily with vehicle (VH; saline) and/or silibinin (200 or 400 mg/kg) by gavage for 3 consecutive days prior to sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). The antibody production in the serum and T-cell-derived cytokine expression by splenocytes were determined 7 days post OVA sensitization. Our results demonstrated that the production of OVA-specific serum IgE and total IgE was significantly attenuated by silibinin treatment, whereas OVA-specific IgG(2a) was markedly enhanced. In parallel with the differential modulation of the production of IgG(2a) and IgE, treatment of OVA-sensitized mice with silibinin markedly increased and decreased the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4, respectively, by splenocytes cultured in the presence of OVA. Together, these results suggest that silibinin treatment polarizes the Th1/Th2 immune balance toward the Th1-dominant direction, which may be beneficial against IgE-mediated allergy.

  5. Antigen Transfer from Exosomes to Dendritic Cells as an Explanation for the Immune Enhancement Seen by IgE Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Frida; Heyman, Birgitta; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    IgE antigen complexes induce increased specific T cell proliferation and increased specific IgG production. Immediately after immunization, CD23+ B cells capture IgE antigen complexes, transport them to the spleen where, via unknown mechanisms, dendritic cells capture the antigen and present it to T cells. CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, binds IgE antigen complexes and internalizes them. In this study, we show that these complexes are processed onto B-cell derived exosomes (bexosomes) in a CD23 dependent manner. The bexosomes carry CD23, IgE and MHC II and stimulate antigen specific T-cell proliferation in vitro. When IgE antigen complex stimulated bexosomes are incubated with dendritic cells, dendritic cells induce specific T-cell proliferation in vivo, similar to IgE antigen complexes. This suggests that bexosomes can provide the essential transfer mechanism for IgE antigen complexes from B cells to dendritic cells. PMID:25330118

  6. Control of IgE responses. III. IL-6 and IFN-alpha are isotype-specific regulators of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Kleiner, G I; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-03-01

    The ability of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GmCSF) to regulate peak benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses was investigated. These responses were induced in BALB/c mice by ip injection of BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH; 10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel on Days 0, 21, and 42. On Day 44, or on Days 43, 44, and 45, mice were injected sc with varying doses of cytokine or anti-cytokine antibody. On Day 46, the numbers of BPO-specific AFC (IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA) in spleen were determined ex vivo in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Among the cytokines tested, only IL-6 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses in an isotype-specific fashion (60-90%). However, treatment of mice with anti-IL-6 also suppressed these responses, suggesting that IL-6 can either suppress or increase peak antigen specific IgE responses, depending upon its concentration. Among the cytokines tested, only IFN-alpha increased BPO-specific IgE AFC responses in an isotype-specific fashion. Since treatment with anti-IFN-alpha suppressed these responses, it appears that IFN-alpha is required to maintain peak antigen-specific IgE AFC responses. IL-4 or IFN-gamma nonspecifically suppressed responses of all isotypes. Treatment with anti-IL-4 also suppressed IgE responses, suggesting that this cytokine is required to maintain peak antigen specific IgE responses. Treatment with anti-IFN-gamma increased IgE responses, indicating that IFN-gamma suppresses peak antigen-specific IgE responses.

  7. Tracing antigen signatures in the human IgE repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Novatchkova, Maria; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Jenisch, Stefan; Jäger, Siegfried; Kabelitz, Dieter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire. PMID:20573403

  8. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  9. A comparison between IgE and IgG4 as markers of allergy in children: an experimental trial in a model of natural antigen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Guerresi, S; Kantar, A; Lubrano, L; Olivieri, F; Boner, A L; Peroni, D G

    2011-01-01

    IgG4 have been hypothesized to act as blocking antibodies capable of preventing IgE-mediated effector cell triggering. This study aims to evaluate the changes in IgG4 in children during a period of natural antigen avoidance. Serum IgE and IgG4 were evaluated in a group of asthmatic children, aged between 7 and 17 years, admitted to the residential house Istituto Pio XII (Misurina, BL, Italy), located at 1,756 m, in a natural model of antigen avoidance. All the patients were skin prick test positive to at least two of the following allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronissynus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat epithelium, timothy grass pollen and Parietaria pollen. During the 180 days of hospitalization, serum specific IgE and IgG4 were measured six times. A significant decrease (p≤0.05) in serum specific IgE to house dust mite and pollen allergens was observed; by contrast, no significant variations were shown by IgG4 and IgG4/IgE ratio. No significant relationship was found between serum specific IgE, IgG4 and IgG4/IgE ratio variations and the re-exposure to house dust mite allergens during the Christmas holidays. A positive correlation between specific IgE and specific IgG4 was observed at each considered time (T0: r=0.57, p=0.08; T1: r=0.85, p=0.001; T3: r=0.76, p=0.01). The positive correlation between specific IgE and specific IgG4, enduring throughout the entire time of study, suggests a relationship between these classes of immunoglobulins.

  10. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  11. Control of IgE responses. II. Isotype specific suppression of peak hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell responses in BPO-KLH sensitized mice after oral administration of muramyldipeptide or murabutide.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-01-01

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB), a pyrogen free derivative of MDP, suppressed BPO specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. To induce IgE responses, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in alum on days 0 and 21, or on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). Mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA antibody forming cells (AFC) in lymphoid organs determined in ELISPOT assay. With either immunization schedule, oral treatment with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO specific IgE AFC responses within 48 h (65-100%). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype specific, dose dependent and transient. The suppression was also route specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB was given by gavage, and not when injected s.c. These results show that peak antigen specific IgE responses can be suppressed in vivo, in isotype specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. Pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic suppression of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  12. Anti-timothy IgE formation: suppression with antigen D-dGl conjugates.

    PubMed

    Malley, A; Deppe, L

    1980-01-01

    Antigen D fragments (AgD1 and AgD2) and chemically synthesized quercetin-glutathione were conjugated to the synthetic polypeptide copolymer of D-glutamic acid and D-lysine (dGL). These conjugates were tested at varying epitope densities to determine their ability to suppress a secondary anti-antigen B IgE response. The data showed that all of the conjugates used with epitope densities of 5-20 groups per dGL produced significant dose-dependent suppression of a secondary IgE response. The duration of the observed suppression was short (about 30 days), but could be extended by additional treatment with the conjugate prior to the loss of unresponsiveness.

  13. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  14. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities.

  15. Control of IgE responses. 4. Isotype-specific suppression of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses and of BPO-specific IgE in serum by muramyldipeptide or murabutide after administration to mice by gavage.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Carucci, J A; Chice, S M; Smith, M C; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-01-01

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB) suppressed hapten-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. IgE responses were induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum) on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously with varying concentrations of MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). The mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO-specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA AFC in various lymphoid organs were determined in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. In addition, levels of BPO-specific IgE in serum were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as AFC/10(7) cells or as micrograms/ml. Feeding with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses and serum levels of BPO-specific IgE within 48 h (day 46) (65-100% and approximately 50% decrease, respectively). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype-specific, dose-dependent and transient. The suppression was also route-specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB were given by gavage, and not when injected subcutaneously. These results show that peak antigen-specific IgE responses can be downregulated in vivo, in isotype-specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, MDP and MB, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. The mechanism of suppression probably involves the modulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunity. The clinical implications are that pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic downregulation of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE-mediated diseases in man such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  16. Tetracycline-mediated IgE isotype-specific suppression of ongoing human and murine IgE responses in vivo and murine memory IgE responses induced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joks, Rauno; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar; Nowakowski, Maja; Bluth, Martin H; Durkin, Helen G

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported that minocycline treatment of allergic asthmatic patients had oral steroid sparing effects and improved their clinical status and that minocycline suppressed in vitro induction of IgE responses by their PBMC. The effect of minocycline on human or animal IgE responses in vivo has not been studied. Allergic asthmatics (serum IgE: 505 +/- 535 IU ml(-1)) were given minocycline (150 mg po to 250 mg po BID) as add-on therapy to standard care for up to 10 months; control subjects (IgE: 405 +/- 472 IU ml(-1)) received standard care (n = 6 per group). Serum immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) levels were determined monthly (Nephelometry, Unicap Total IgE Fluoroenzyme immunoassay). BALB/c mice (n = 6 per group) were injected intraperitoneally with benzylpenicilloyl(14)-Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO(14)-KLH) in alum on days 0, 21 and 42, fed with minocycline or doxycycline (10-100 mg kg(-1)) on day 44 and numbers of BPO-specific IgG(1), IgE and IgA antibody-forming cell (AFC) in mesenteric LN and spleen and serum immunoglobulin levels were determined on days 46-70 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, ELISA). The ability of minocycline or doxycycline to suppress in vitro induction of murine memory IgE responses also was investigated. Minocycline strongly suppressed serum IgE levels of allergic asthmatics (9% per month) (P = 0.012). Minocycline (and doxycycline) also strongly suppressed peak murine IgE AFC and serum IgE responses (>95, approximately 75%, respectively) and in vitro induction of memory IgE responses by murine mesenteric LN and spleen cells (>95%). Tetracycline suppression of all human and murine IgE responses was IgE isotype specific. Suppression of murine IgE responses in vivo was dose dependent and lasted 5-7 days.

  17. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  18. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. PMID:21955446

  19. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  20. [Clinical research of specific IgE and IgG4 antibody in allergic children. Correlation specific IgE antibody to specific IgG4 antibody to food allergen].

    PubMed

    Koya, N; Suzuki, S; Hara, M; Nagata, K; Tateno, A; Moroi, T; Iikura, Y

    1989-06-01

    We analysed the correlation specific IgE antibodies to specific IgG4 antibodies to food allergens in 150 asthmatic children by Multiple Factor Analysis-Type II and examined the role of both antibodies. The following results were obtained. 1) Of soybean, there was the stronger influence power between specific IgE and IgG4 antibody than the other 2 food allergens. 2) IgE antibody to soybean had the strong influence power to IgG4 antibodies to egg white and cow's milk and IgG4 antibody to soybean had same influence power to IgE antibodies to egg white and cow's milk. So, the specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies to soybean may be play the role of "the bride" between specific IgE antibody group and specific IgG4 antibody group of food allergens.

  1. Suppression of the benzylpenicilloyl- (BPO) specific IgE formation with isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Blaser, K; Nakagawa, T; de Weck, A L

    1980-07-01

    In vivo effects of actively produced or passively administered isologous anti-idiotypic antisera (aId) on the benzylpenicilloyl- (BPO) specific IgE and IgG formation in BALB/c mice have been studied. Isologous anti-BPO aId were raised in BALB/c mice by immunization with purified anti-BPO antibodies isolated from ascites induced with BPO-bovine gamma-globulin in the same mouse strain. Mice producing isologous anti-BPO aId exhibited long-term suppression of BPO-specific IgE and IgG antibody responses induced by BPO-ovalbumin (BPO-OVA) in aluminum hydroxide. Simultaneously, they produced increased amounts of anti-BPO aId after each challenge with the BPO-OVA antigens. Passive administration of isologous anti-BPO aId into syngeneic mice previously sensitized with BPO-OVA caused depression of BPO-specific IgE antibody levels for 2 to 3 weeks. When anti-BPO IgE had again reached its previous level, passively administered aId had decreased to the level of untreated mice. Passive administration of anti-BPO aId also depressed the primary anti-BPO IgE formation for 2 to 3 weeks. In all these experiments the IgE antibody formation against the carrier proteins used for BPO-antigens was not affected. These results show that IgE and IgG antibodies share major idiotypic determinants and that IgE production is accessible to regulation by aId.

  2. Evaluation of an IgE ELISA with Culicoides spp. extracts and recombinant salivary antigens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Peeters, L M; Janssens, S; Goddeeris, B M; De Keyser, K; Wilson, A D; Kaufmann, C; Schaffartzik, A; Marti, E; Buys, N

    2013-10-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses represents an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to salivary antigens from biting midges (Culicoides spp.). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performances of IgE ELISAs using recombinant Culicoides spp. Obsoletus group salivary gland antigens or crude whole body extracts ('ObsWBE'), C. nubeculosus recombinant proteins (Culn1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10) and Obsoletus group recombinant proteins (Culo1 and 2). IgE levels were measured in plasma of 343 Warmblood horses classified as IBH-affected (n=167) and IBH-unaffected (n=176) according to the owners' descriptions. IBH-affected horses were subdivided based on the severity of their clinical signs at sampling and whether or not their IBH history was considered to be classical. The accuracies of the tests increased when clinical signs at sampling were more pronounced or when the IBH history could be considered as classical. A combination of IgE levels against the three best performing Culicoides spp. recombinant proteins (Culn4, Culo1 and Culo2) and ObsWBE resulted in the best performing test. When IBH-affected horses showing a classical history of the disease and severe clinical signs were compared with IBH-unaffected horses, the Youden's index at the optimal cut-off for the three tests in combination was 0.67. This optimal cut-off had a sensitivity of 70%, a specificity of 97% and a total accuracy of 92%. The performance of the IgE ELISA was affected by the severity of IBH clinical signs at sampling and was improved when IgE levels against several recombinant proteins were combined.

  3. Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes are the sites of first appearance of IgE bearing B lymphocytes and hapten specific IgE antibody forming cells in BPO-KLH sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Heusser, C; Athanassiades, T J; Durkin, H G

    1992-01-01

    Antigen specific IgE responses originate in gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of mice sensitized with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) in alum, regardless of the route (intraperitoneal [i.p.], oral [gavage], subcutaneous [s.c.], intramuscular [i.m.] or intravenous [i.v.]) used for immunization. When BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in alum, B lymphocytes bearing membrane bound IgE (sIgE+B cells) first appeared simultaneously in Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) on day 8. BPO specific IgE antibody forming cells (AFC) also appeared in PP on day 8, but were not found in MLN until day 10. On day 8, no sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC were found in bone marrow (BM) or other lymphoid organs. The appearance of sIgE+B cells and IgE AFC in PP and MLN was transient; these cells were no longer detected in PP on days 14 and 24, respectively, or in MLN on days 14 and 36, respectively. sIgE+B cells and IgE AFC did not appear in spleen until day 12, where they were detected through day 70. Although sIgE+B cells were never found in BM, IgE AFC appeared in BM on day 18, where they were detected through day 70. No sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC were found in other lymph nodes (OLN) on days 0-70. Boosting did not induce the reappearance of sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC in PP, the reappearance of sIgE+B cells in MLN, the appearance of sIgE+B cells in BM, or the appearance of sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC in OLN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  5. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  6. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU. PMID:26028921

  7. Reactivity of IgE antibodies with crustacea and oyster allergens: evidence for common antigenic structures.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L

    1987-08-01

    IgE-antibody reactivity to oysters and crustacea of sera from six oyster-sensitive, seven oyster- and crustacea-sensitive, and 12 crustacea-sensitive subjects was investigated. All six subjects with a history of only oyster sensitivity had minimal RAST reactivity (ratios 2 to 5) to extracts of raw or boiled oysters. Three of the seven oyster- and crustacea-sensitive subjects and six of the 12 crustacea-sensitive, oyster-tolerant or unexposed subjects had elevated RAST ratios to oyster (14 to 41). Generally, elevated oyster RAST correlated with skin prick test reactivity to oyster but not with total serum IgE levels. The oyster RAST values of the 19 crustacea-sensitive subjects (with or without oyster sensitivity) correlated with crustacea RAST reactivity (crab RAST, most significant; shrimp RAST, least significant). Rabbit antisera to crustacea extracts detected precipitating antigens present in extracts of raw or boiled oysters. Significant inhibition of the oyster RAST was obtained with oyster or crustacea extracts. These studies suggest that in the diagnosis of oyster sensitivity the RAST may not be useful and that oyster and crustacea contain common antigenic structures.

  8. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals.

  9. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A) locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42) located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7). UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8). In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P < 0.01) while for rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01), which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes. PMID:12927090

  10. Organ-Specific Membrane Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Sell, K. W.; Mori, W.; Rack, J. H.; Gurner, B. W.; Coombs, R. R. A.

    1969-01-01

    A satisfactory system for testing the reaction of rabbit antisera with membrane antigens of human tissue cells is described. This method allows the differentiation between IgG and IgM antibodies and provides an extremely sensitive method for the detection of antigens on all cells including non-viable fixed cells. Anti-organ serum before selective absorption showed very little organ specificity in their reactions, but may be made specific by extensive absorption although often the resulting specific titre was very low. Organ-specific membrane antigens were also identified and shown to be represented on tumour cells, although in some cases such as the colon the reactions were weaker with tumour cells than with normal parenchymal cells of an organ. On the other hand, in one case of carcinoma of the kidney the organ-specific antigens were detectably stronger on tumour cells than on normal kidney cells. Preliminary studies on human ascitic tumour cells from 4 different cancer patients show that species-specific membrane antigens can be demonstrated. Unfortunately none of the cases were derived from organs whose origin could be identified with the antisera which had been prepared for this series of experiments. ImagesFigs. 2-3 PMID:5806432

  11. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  12. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  13. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

  14. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample.

  15. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  16. Experiences of specific IgE in asthma due to diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Keskinen, H; Tupasela, O; Tiikkainen, U; Nordman, H

    1988-11-01

    The specific IgE antibodies were studied with the Phadebas RAST technique in 35 patients with asthma due to diisocyanates. Two had been sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 17 to methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and 16 to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). In each case the diagnosis was confirmed with a bronchial provocation test (BPT). The asthmatic reaction was immediate in 17 cases, of which three had also a late reaction (dual). Eighteen patients reacted only with a late reaction. Seven (20%) had specific IgE to diisocyanates. All RAST-positive patients had an immediate asthmatic reaction. None of the late reactors and referents had positive RASTs. RAST inhibition tests with 94-100% inhibition confirmed the specificity of the method. There was cross-reactivity between different diisocyanates, however. The patients with positive RAST to diisocyanates had a higher level of total IgE than the RAST negative group and the referents.

  17. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E; Velte, Cathy A; Spooner, Christina E; Munroe, Melissa E; Farris, A Darise; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M; James, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  18. Gene Encoding Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines Is Associated with Asthma and IgE in Three Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Candelaria; Tsai, Yuhjung J.; Grant, Audrey V.; Rafaels, Nicholas; Gao, Li; Hand, Tracey; Stockton, Maria; Campbell, Monica; Mercado, Dilia; Faruque, Mezbah; Dunston, Georgia; Beaty, Terri H.; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Ponte, Eduardo V.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Watson, Harold; Schleimer, Robert P.; Caraballo, Luis; Nickel, Renate G.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma prevalence and severity are high among underserved minorities, including those of African descent. The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax on erythrocytes and functions as a chemokine-clearing receptor. Unlike European populations, decreased expression of the receptor on erythrocytes is common among populations of African descent, and results from a functional T-46C polymorphism (rs2814778) in the promoter. This variant provides an evolutionary advantage in malaria-endemic regions, because Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines-negative erythrocytes are more resistant to infection by P. vivax. Objectives: To determine the role of the rs2814778 polymorphism in asthma and atopy as measured by total serum IgE levels among four populations of African descent (African Caribbean, African American, Brazilian, and Colombian) and a European American population. Methods: Family-based association tests were performed in each of the five populations to test for association between the rs2814778 polymorphism and asthma or total IgE concentration. Measurements and Main Results: Asthma was significantly associated with the rs2814778 polymorphism in the African Caribbean, Colombian, and Brazilian families (P < 0.05). High total IgE levels were associated with this variant in African Caribbean and Colombian families (P < 0.05). The variant allele was not polymorphic among European Americans. Conclusions: Susceptibility to asthma and atopy among certain populations of African descent is influenced by a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines. This genetic variant, which confers resistance to malarial parasitic infection, may also partially explain ethnic differences in morbidity of asthma. PMID:18827265

  19. Neuropeptide-mediated regulation of hapten-specific IgE responses in mice. II. Mechanisms of substance P-mediated isotype-specific suppression of BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses induced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carucci, J A; Herrick, C A; Durkin, H G

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that substance P (SP), injected into benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) sensitized mice at the peak of the benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE response, suppressed these responses in isotype-specific fashion within 48 h. These studies also showed that SP, but not neurotensin (NT), serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (SOM) or gastrin, suppressed BPO-specific memory IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses induced in vitro, also in isotype-specific fashion. To investigate the mechanisms by which SP suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses were induced in vitro, these responses were induced by culturing spleen cells from BPO-KLH sensitized mice for 5 days with BPO-KLH with or without whole SP, amino terminal SP (SP 1-4: Arg-Lys-Pro-Lys), or carboxy terminal SP (SP 8-11: Phe-Gly-Leu-Met). In some experiments, the SP receptor antagonist (D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9)-SP (D-SP) was included in culture. In other experiments anti-interferon monoclonal antibody (anti-IFN gamma mAb) was in culture. Whole SP and SP 8-11, but not SP 1-4, suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses induced in vitro. The suppression obtained was IgE isotype-specific and dose-dependent. Inclusion of SP receptor antagonist (D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9)-SP inhibited suppression of BPO-specific memory IgE AFC responses by SP or SP 8-11. The SP-mediated suppression of BPO-specific memory IgE responses appeared to involve interferon gamma (IFN gamma).

  20. [Comparison of food specific IgE antibody test (RAST) and skin tests in children with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Tang, R B; Chen, B S; Wu, K G; Hwang, B

    1993-09-01

    Thirty children with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in our study to evaluate the food specific IgE antibody assay (RAST) and skin tests as a screening test for food hypersensitivity. Our results showed that eight food antigens (fish, shrimp, crab, soybean, milk, egg-white, peanut, wheat) frequently elicited positive hypersensitivity reactions. Twenty-four patients had at least a positive skin reaction to one of the foods tested. Of the 240 skin tests, 30% (72/240) yield positive reactions. Eighteen patients had at least a positive RAST reaction to one of the foods tested, 20.9% (50/240) yield positive reaction. The agreement between skin test and RAST was 79.6%. Crab and shrimp accounted for most frequent positive reaction in both tests. The skin tests produced more positive results in skin testing than RAST, but gave a higher frequency of false positive results. The diagnosis of food allergy may be suspected from the medical history or by food specific IgE antibodies together with skin test as a screening test. Furthermore, the double blind placebo controlled food challenge should be considered as standard for clinical investigations.

  1. IL-6 mediated isotype specific suppression of hapten specific IgE in serum of BPO-KLH sensitized mice: role of IFN alpha in maintainance of hapten specific IgE responses.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Miller, H; Chice, S M; Durkin, H G

    1994-04-01

    The ability of IL-6 or IFN alpha or antibodies to these cytokines to regulate serum levels of hapten specific immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG1, IgE, IgA) was studied in BPO-KLH (benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) sensitized BALB/c mice at the peak of a hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) response. To induce peak IgE responses, mice were injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) on days 0, 21, and 42. On day 44, mice were injected s.c. with IL-6 (100-1000 U), IFN alpha (1000-10,000 U), anti-IL-6 (100-1000 neutralizing units [NU]), or anti-IFN alpha (1000-10,000 NU). On day 46, levels of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA in serum were determined (ELISA). Data are expressed as micrograms/ml. IL-6 suppressed BPO specific IgE in serum in isotype specific fashion (to > 90%), increasing IgA (approximately 3 fold), and leaving IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IL-6 with anti-IL-6 increased serum IgE, and suppressed IgG1 (approximately 50%), with IgM and IgA unchanged, this suggests that IL-6 is an isotype specific suppressor of peak IgE responses and as such may be useful in the therapeutic management of atopic disease. IFN alpha treatment increased serum IgE levels (60%), and potentiated IgA responses (> 30 fold), with IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IFN alpha with anti-IFN alpha decreased IgE levels (approximately 50%), increasing IgA, with IgM and IgG1 unchanged, this suggests a role for IFN alpha as an isotype specific helper of peak IgE responses and in maintenance of IgA responses.

  2. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  3. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Christine Y Y; Leung, Nicki Y H; Ho, Marco H K; Gershwin, Laurel J; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S C; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  4. Determination of insulin specific IgE in serum of diabetic patients by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Falholt, K.

    1982-04-01

    A solid-phase assay system for quantitative measurement of insulin specific IgE has been developed. Insulin specific IgE and IgG are bound to insulin covalently coupled to Sepharose particles. After a washing procedure which removes unbound immunoglobulins, /sup 125/I-anti-human IgE-rabbit globulin is added to the Sepharose to determine the amount of bound IgE. The use of standardized /sup 125/I-anti-human-IgE-globulin permits quantitation against a calibration curve of IgE and expression as units/ml. No cross-reactivity of IgG was found. Insulin specific IgE was determined in the sera of diabetic patients. Patients treated with procine or mixed species purified insulin (monocomponent MC) did not differ significantly from a non-diabetic control group, whereas serum samples taken from patients treated with crystallized insulin preparations showed a significantly higher level of insulin specific IgE (p < 0.05). Twenty-four patients with generalized insulin allergy and eight patients with immunological insulin resistance also had considerably higher values of IgE antibodies than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.005, respectively). No correlation was found between the concentration of insulin specific IgE and IgG in individual sera and the level of insulin specific IgE was independent of the total IgE. In all cases of allergy elicited by purified insulin (monocomponent MC), it was ascertained that the diabetic patients in question had received less pure insulin during earlier treatment.

  5. Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Schurink, Anouk; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.

  6. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E.; Montañez, María I.; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier. PMID:27731424

  7. Immunoassay of specific IgE: use of a single point calibration curve in the modified radioallergosorbent test.

    PubMed

    Williams, P B; Dolen, W K; Koepke, J W; Selner, J C

    1992-07-01

    Interest in immunoassay standardization has prompted development of specific IgE assays reporting results related to the international IgE reference. To examine the single point calibration curve employed in the modified RAST assay (MRT) to convert MRT counts to IgE units, independent dilutions of a 25 kU/L total IgE reference and nine allergic sera (three each for short ragweed, cat, and timothy) were made in horse serum and assayed. In a log-log plot, the single point curve was, by definition, linear over its entire range; the dilution curve was curvilinear because of reagent system saturation, which was at 7 kU/L. Curves were not parallel (P less than .001). Allergen-specific dilution curves showed saturation points at values similar to or less than the total IgE system. The linear portions of these curves paralleled the total IgE dilution curve but not the single point curve. This lack of parallelism would have resulted in varying magnitudes of error in estimation of IgE antibody levels in the upper and lower assay ranges, and would imply a lower detection limit for IgE than that which the assay actually has. Modified RAST assay is not appropriate in research or a clinical situation in which accurate quantitative results are needed. Modified RAST assay would furthermore be an inappropriate means of assigning units to proposed reference preparations for standardization.

  8. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  9. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  10. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  11. Antigen-dependent transition of IgE to a detergent-insoluble form is associated with reduced IgE receptor-dependent secretion from RBL-2H3 mast cells.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, J; Oliver, J M

    1990-07-01

    In mast cells, basophils, and the RBL-2H3 tumor mast cell model, crosslinking cell surface IgE-receptor complexes by multivalent ligands activates a signal transduction pathway that leads to the secretion of histamine, serotonin, and other inflammatory mediators. Receptor crosslinking in RBL-2H3 cells also changes cell surface morphology and increases F-actin assembly. Previously, Robertson et al. demonstrated that crosslinked IgE-receptor complexes become associated with the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction (the "cytoskeleton") of RBL-2H3 cells and raised the possibility that receptor-cytoskeletal association may be a required step in the stimulation of secretion. The studies reported here confirm by flow cytometry that crosslinking cell surface IgE by antigen induces the association of the crosslinked complexes with the detergent-insoluble fraction. Dose-response studies, also reported here, indicate that the detergent insolubility of the complexes does not correlate with secretion. Thus, secretion increases with antigen concentration to a maximum beyond which more antigen causes less, not more, secretion. There is little residual detergent-insoluble IgE at the concentrations of antigen that promote optimal secretion, whereas the association of IgE with the detergent-insoluble fraction is maximal at the high antigen concentrations that result in reduced secretion. The addition of monovalent hapten to reduce the amount of crosslinking caused by high concentrations of antigen increases secretion and simultaneously reduces the association of IgE with the detergent-insoluble fraction. Dihydrocytochalasin B, an inhibitor of antigen-stimulated actin polymerization, also increases the rate and extent of secretion and simultaneously delays the association of crosslinked IgE-receptor complexes with the detergent-insoluble fraction. From these data, we propose that the association of crosslinked IgE receptors with the detergent-insoluble fraction of RBL-2H3 cells increases

  12. Soluble CD23 Levels are Inversely Associated with Atopy and Parasite-Specific IgE Levels but Not with Polyclonal IgE Levels in People Exposed to Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rujeni, Nadine; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwisai, Reginald; Mduluza, Takafira; Taylor, David W.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Background Protective acquired immunity against helminths and allergic sensitisation are both characterised by high IgE antibody levels. Levels of IgE antibodies are naturally tightly regulated by several mechanisms including binding of the CD23 receptor. Following observations that helminth infections and allergic sensitisation may co-present, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between the soluble CD23 (sCD23) receptor, parasite-specific IgE responses and allergic sensitisation in people exposed to the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methods A cohort of 434 participants was recruited in two villages with different levels of S. haematobium infection in Zimbabwe. Serum levels of the 25-kDa fragment of sCD23 were related to levels of schistosome infection intensity, allergen (house dust mite, HDM) and schistosome-specific IgE, total IgE and skin sensitisation to HDM. Results sCD23 levels rose significantly with schistosome infection intensity but declined significantly with schistosome-specific IgE levels. Furthermore, sCD23 levels were negatively associated with skin sensitisation and IgE reactivity against HDM, but showed no relationship with total IgE. Conclusion The results are consistent with the suppression of parasite and allergen-specific IgE levels by sCD23. Further mechanistic studies will determine the relevance of this potential regulatory mechanism in the development of helminth-specific immune responses in atopic individuals. PMID:23689700

  13. Comparison of VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays for detection of specific IgE antibodies in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung Hyun; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    In vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies in serum is the most frequently used method, besides the skin test, for diagnosing allergies. Standardized and reproducible assays of specific IgE antibodies contribute to the quality of diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. This study compared the results and performance characteristics of the Pharmacia CAP system and a new specific IgE method using the VIDAS Stallertest (manufactured by bioMériux). To evaluate their clinical efficiency, the results of the CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were compared with skin prick test (SPT) results. After allergic patients completed SPTs, serum samples were collected and CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were performed to determine specific IgEs for Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, cockroach, and alternaria. For egg and milk, we measured only the correlation between the 2 in vitro assays. When SPT was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the CAP assay was a little higher in respect to all inhalant allergens. There were significant correlations between the results of VIDAS Stallertest and CAP assays for IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens. This study indicates that the VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays are feasible and replicable for measuring allergen-specific IgE. PMID:16081590

  14. [Radioimmunologic determination of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE-antibodies in diffuse neurodermitis].

    PubMed

    Pürschel, W; Zeidler, U; Kuse, M

    1975-10-01

    Total IgE levels in sera of 165 patients with atopic dermatitis and 79 patients with dermatoses as well as normal control patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas, Pharmacia). Although the mean value for patients with atopic dermatitis was found far above the mean value for normal controls, 38% of patients showed total IgE serum levels within the normal range. Highest IgE serum levels were observed in patients with the generalized form of the disease and in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. No direct correlation however, to severity of disease could be found. In a series of 50 patients prick tests were compared to total IgE serum levels and to levels of allergen specific antibodies determined by radioallergosorbent-test (RAST). Extracts of grass pollens and of animal dandruff were used. There was complete agreement between results of skin testing and RAST in at least 80%. While cross reactions were common with grass pollen extracts in RAST, there was no cross-over with animal dandruff. No correlation was found between titer of allergen specific antibody and severity of skin lesions. IgE specific antibody could be detected in 48% of patients with normal total IgE serum levels and in 82% of patients with elevated values. PMID:1201945

  15. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    PubMed

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  16. Comparison of specific IgE antibodies to wheat component allergens in two phenotypes of wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Young-Hee; Hwang, Eui-Kyung; Jin, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jeong Min; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Ye, Young-Min; Palacin, Arantxa; Salcedo, Gabriel; Lee, Soo-Young; Park, Hae-Sim

    2013-11-01

    Specific IgE to gliadin was proposed as a marker for wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis, while Tri a 14 was found to induce IgE response in baker's asthma. We evaluated whether these components could be used for discriminating phenotypes of wheat allergy. Twenty-nine patients who were wheat-induced anaphylaxis and/or urticaria (n=21, group I) and baker's asthma (n=8, group II) were enrolled. The prevalence of serum specific IgE to Tri a 14 was higher in group II (25%) than in group I (4.8%), while the serum specific IgE to gliadin was significantly higher in group I (70%) than in group II (12.5%). The cutoff value for predicting the baker's asthma using the ratio of serum specific IgE to Tri a 14 to gliadin was 742.8 optical density×1,000/(kU/L) with high sensitivity and specificity. These findings suggest that Tri a 14/gliadin may be a potential marker for predicting baker's asthma.

  17. Pecking order among tumor-specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Urban, J L; Van Waes, C; Schreiber, H

    1984-02-01

    The ultraviolet light-induced fibrosarcoma 1591 is regularly rejected upon transplantation into young syngeneic mice; in rare instances, however, this tumor grows progressively and the tumors that develop are then heritably stable variant progressor tumors (1591-PRO tumors). In this study, we have induced transplantation resistance to 1591-PRO tumors and determined which antigens were recognized by mice that rejected these progressor tumors. We found that cytolytic T cells of such mice recognized a 1591-specific antigen that was present not only on all the independently derived 1591-PRO tumors but also on the parental regressor tumor (1591-RE). However, the cytolytic immune response of mice that rejected 1591-RE lysed 1591-RE tumor cells but not 1591-PRO tumor cells. Thus, the 1591-RE tumor seemed to express two antigens that were specific for tumors of the 1591 lineage, one that was lost and a second that was retained by 1591-PRO tumor cells. Mice challenged with 1591-R# tumor cells mounted a response to only one of the tumor-specific antigens which was therefore "immunodominant" over the other "immunorecessive" antigen. This immunorecessive antigen became the target of the immune response once the immunodominant antigen was lost. This "pecking order" interfered with the simultaneous recognition of two tumor-specific antigens and this mechanism may favor immune escape.

  18. [Antigen specific immunoglobulin E to grass and weed pollens in the plasma of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Silny, W; Kuchta, D; Siatecka, D; Silny, P

    1999-01-01

    The study involved 22 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis between 13 and 53 years of age. The level of antigen specific IgE (AS IgE) to 5 grass and 3 weed pollens was determined with the use of CAP FEIA (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). The control group consisted of 20 persons. All above AS IgE were significantly higher in the patients with seasonal allergic rhinithis than in the control group. The most commonly present hypersensitivities were to Meadow fescue (Festuca elatior), Meadow grass (Poa pratensis), Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), Ribwort (Plantago lanceolata) and Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) allergens. The authors believe that the pathomechanism of the development of seasonal allergic rhinithis is governed to a large degree by hypersensitivity to grass and weed pollens and suggest that precise determination of AS IgE to these allergens in patients blood sera should form the basis of the construction of the vaccine used in their immunotherapy. PMID:10337158

  19. Lymphoid-specific antigen: distribution and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Potworowski, E. F.; Nairn, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    The distribution of a lymphoid-specific antigen has been studied by immunofluorescence in the thymus and other lymphoid organs of the rat and in the thymuses of other vertebrate species. It was demonstrable in all rat lymphocytes except those of the bone marrow. The thymic lymphocytes of all warm-blooded vertebrates also reacted with the lymphoid-specific serum. Plasma cells in antigenically stimulated lymph nodes did not seem to possess the antigen but similar cells appearing in lymph nodes of rats which had been irradiated and injected with marrow cells of the same strain showed a strong reaction with the antiserum. The antigen is depleted in human and murine leukaemic lymphocytes. X-irradiation did not appear to affect the antigen significantly in cells surviving the treatment. ImagesFIG. 1-6 PMID:4871349

  20. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  1. Microscale purification of antigen-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric P.; Normandin, Erica; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Mahan, Alison E.; Chan, Ying N.; Lai, Jennifer I.; Vaccari, Monica; Rao, Mangala; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain. PMID:26078040

  2. Microscale purification of antigen-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric P; Normandin, Erica; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Mahan, Alison E; Chan, Ying N; Lai, Jennifer I; Vaccari, Monica; Rao, Mangala; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2015-10-01

    Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain.

  3. Clinical and radiological signs of ABPA associated with airways infection with Aspergillus in the absence of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Sunzini, F; Barbato, C; Canofari, C; Lugari, L; Perricone, R; Bergamini, A

    2016-09-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A. galactomannans and A. Fumigatus were isolated, although we found normal levels of serum IgE, and the absence of serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus and A. galactomannans. In conclusion, clinical and radiological signs of ABPA can be associated with Aspergillus infection also in the absence of a specific serum antibody reaction. PMID:27608478

  4. Association of house dust mite-specific IgE with asthma control, medications and household pets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of creating a low-allergen environment or reducing allergen exposure to control asthma exacerbations. Objective This study determined the association of house dust mite (HDM)-specific IgE levels with asthma symptom control, selected medications, family history of allergic disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke and household pets. Methods Serum samples from 102 doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma patients and 100 non-atopic controls were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the HDM species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) allergens. Point-biserial correlation coefficient, Pearson R correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association of HDM-specific IgE levels with the abovementioned variables. Results Of the 102 cases, 38.24%, 47.06%, and 33.33% were sensitized to Bt, Df, and Dp, respectively. Sensitized patients showed greater probability [Bt (OR = 1.21), Df (OR = 1.14), and Dp (OR = 1.35)] to manifest symptoms than those who were not. Obtained p-values [Bt (p = 0.73), Df (p = 0.83), and Dp (p = 0.59)], however, proved that HDM-specific IgE levels had no significant contribution in predicting or explaining occurrence of asthma symptoms. Bt- and Df-specific IgEs showed moderately weak but significant relationship with bambuterol HCl and expectorant, respectively. Patients currently on said medications registered higher HDM-specific IgE levels than those who were not. No significant correlation between IgE levels and family history of allergic disease or with exposure to second-hand smoke was seen. Dp-specific IgE levels of patients exposed to household pets were significantly lower compared to those without exposure. Conclusion This study proves that sensitization to Bt, Df, and Dp allergens is not significantly associated with asthma symptoms and control. Although cases were shown to be sensitized

  5. Eosinophilic prostatitis and prostatic specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Miller, P D; Holmes, S A; Christmas, T J; Kirby, R S

    1992-01-01

    Eosinophilic prostatitis is a rare form of abacterial prostatitis with uncertain aetiology. Its clinical presentation, like other types of abacterial prostatitis, commonly mimics carcinoma of the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of prostatitis but histological confirmation is necessary. Prostatic specific antigen has been widely used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostatic carcinoma. High levels of this antigen (greater than 30 micrograms/l) have been claimed to be highly specific for prostate cancer, although lesser elevations may also occur in patients with large benign prostate glands and in bacterial prostatitis. We report 3 patients with histologically proven eosinophilic prostatitis and high levels of prostatic specific antigen. This diagnosis may closely mimic carcinoma of the prostate and must be excluded by histological examination of biopsy material before treatment for presumed prostate carcinoma is initiated.

  6. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  7. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  8. [The clinical picture is the most important reason to screen for the presence of allergen-specific IgE in children].

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M

    2007-10-13

    The presence of allergen-specific IgE in serum is associated with sensitization, but the clinical relevance depends on the patient's history. It supports the diagnosis of an acute allergic response to inhalation or food allergens. The presence of allergen-specific IgE in the serum is not necessary for the diagnosis of asthma, perennial rhinitis or eczema; since allergen avoidance has no beneficial effect in these chronic allergic diseases, one should be critical about the relevance of testing for allergen-specific serum IgE. Screening tests for the presence of allergen-specific serum IgE are frequently used in children; a screening test consists of either 5 inhalant or 5 food allergens and if the test is positive, the laboratory will determine the specific IgE for each of the 5 allergens present in the test. This carries the risk of over-diagnosis if the clinical indication is not clear-cut. Furthermore, in children sensitized to grass pollen, the panel of inhalation and food allergens present in screening tests may lead to serological cross-reactivity with wheat; this increases the number of positive screening tests for food allergens without having clinical relevance. In conclusion, the use of screening tests for the presence of allergen-specific serum IgE should be looked at critically since it may unnecessarily increase the number of allergen-specific IgE tests.

  9. Monitoring of peanut-allergic patients with peanut-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Borici-Mazi, Rozita; Mazza, Jorge A; Moote, David W; Payton, Keith B

    2008-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of the population. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are gold standard for diagnosis. Serum peanut-specific IgE (PN-IgE) is used in clinical practice as an additional diagnostic and monitoring tool. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features of a peanut-allergic patient's cohort and determine the optimum frequency of measuring PN-IgE to predict the outcome of future peanut challenges. Retrospective chart review was performed of peanut-allergic patients followed up and serially tested for PN-IgE with a qualitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay performed at the Immunology Laboratory, London Health Sciences Center, from 1997 to 2004. One hundred eighteen patients (median age at first reaction to peanut, 1.5 years; median baseline PN-IgE, 18.75) were reviewed. Younger age at first reaction and first PN-IgE measurement predicted slower decline of PN-IgE values (p < 0.001 and p = 0.044). At 2 and 5 years post-initial measurement, 12.9 and 66%, respectively, of all patients had a significant decrease of PN-IgE values. Twenty percent of the patients experienced elevation of PN-IgE levels during follow-up. For most patients with significant history of reaction to peanuts and positive skin-prick test, it is probably adequate to measure serum PN-IgE levels every 3-5 years to screen for development of tolerance and predict the outcome of future peanut challenges. More frequent measurements might be considered in older patients with lower initial PN-IgE levels.

  10. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  11. [Two cases of allergies due to Anisakis simplex, positive to specific IgE for Ani s 12 allergen].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Lee, Min; Shinohara, Rie; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of immediate allergies to Anisakis after ingestion of seafood. In case 1, after ingestion of flatfish, sea bream and mackerel, wheals and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 5 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 12. In case 2, after ingestion of flatfish and yellowtail, pruritus and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 6 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum reacted to Ani s 1, 4, 6 and 12. In both cases, skin prick tests were negative for suspected seafoods. These data suggests the possibility Ani s 12 is a major allergen of Anisakis allergy besides Ani s 1, 2 and 7. Ani s 12 is an allergen that was first reported in 2011. The reactivity of Ani s 12 specific IgE with ELISA may become useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis allergy.

  12. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Derived from Donors with Natural Rubber Latex Allergy Modulate Allergen-Specific T-Cell Responses and IgE Production

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Alejandro; Aguirre, Adam; Guzmán, María Antonieta; González, Rodrigo; Catalán, Diego; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Larrondo, Milton; López, Mercedes; Pesce, Barbara; Rolland, Jennifer; O’Hehir, Robyn; Aguillón, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL; Hevea brasiliensis) allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to latex proteins. When latex glove exposure is the main sensitizing agent, Hev b 5 is one of the major allergens. Dendritic cells (DC), the main antigen presenting cells, modulated with pharmacological agents can restore tolerance in several experimental models, including allergy. In the current study, we aimed to generate DC with tolerogenic properties from NRL-allergic patients and evaluate their ability to modulate allergen-specific T and B cell responses. Here we show that dexamethasone-treated DC (dxDC) differentiated into a subset of DC, characterized by low expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 molecules. Compared with LPS-matured DC, dxDC secreted lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 after CD40L activation, and induced lower alloantigenic T cell proliferation. We also show that dxDC pulsed with the dominant Hev b 5 T-cell epitope peptide, Hev b 546–65, inhibited both proliferation of Hev b 5-specific T-cell lines and the production of Hev b 5-specific IgE. Additionally, dxDC induced a subpopulation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells that suppressed proliferation of Hev b 5-primed T cells. In conclusion, dxDC generated from NRL-allergic patients can modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production, supporting their potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:24465795

  13. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  14. PROSTATE SPECIFIC MEMBRANE ANTIGEN-BASED IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of PC does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for PC specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in PC tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was 111In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab pendetide i.e. inability to bind to live PC cells. One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics including the identification of bone metastases in PC. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate timeframe for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for PC imaging with SPECT and PET. Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072 and MIP-1095, have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 in PC xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22658884

  15. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  16. Neuropeptide-mediated regulation of hapten-specific IgE responses in mice. I. Substance P-mediated isotype-specific suppression of BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses induced in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carucci, J A; Auci, D L; Herrick, C A; Durkin, H G

    1995-01-01

    The ability of substance P (SP) to regulate peak benzyl-penicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo and the ability of SP and other neuropeptides to regulate BPO-specific memory IgE AFC responses induced in vitro was determined. SP injected subcutaneously into BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH)-sensitized mice at the time of peak IgE responses suppressed these responses within 48 h (> 90%). The suppression obtained was IgE isotype-specific, dose-dependent, and transient. When spleen cells from immunized mice were cultured for 5 days with BPO-KLH, peak memory IgE AFC responses were induced in vitro. Inclusion of either SP or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), but not neurotensin, serotonin, somatostatin, or gastrin, in cultures suppressed these responses in isotype-specific, dose-dependent fashion (approximately 70%). SP-, but not VIP-mediated suppression of IgE responses was abrogated by inclusion of anti-IFN gamma culture.

  17. Tecemotide: An antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  18. Tecemotide: an antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  19. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  20. Sensitization rates of causative allergens for dogs with atopic dermatitis: detection of canine allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific IgE serology tests became commercially available in the 1980s. Since then these tests have been widely used to diagnose and treat allergic skin diseases. However, the relationship between a positive reaction and disease occurrence has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate allergens using a serologic allergy test in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Dogs clinically diagnosed with AD (n = 101) were tested using an allergen-specific IgE immunoassay. Among the total 92 environmental and food allergens, house dust and house dust mites were the most common. Several allergens including airborne pollens and molds produced positive reactions, and which was considered increasing allergens relating to the climate changes. The presence of antibodies against staphylococci and Malassezia in cases of canine AD was warranted in this study. Additionally, strong (chicken, turkey, brown rice, brewer's yeast, and soybean) and weakly (rabbit, vension, duck, and tuna) positive reactions to food allergens could be used for avoidance and limited-allergen trials. PMID:24962408

  1. Epicutaneous immunization converts subsequent and established antigen-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) to Th2-type responses.

    PubMed

    Strid, Jessica; Callard, Robin; Strobel, Stephan

    2006-09-01

    Epicutaneous immunization is a potential novel technique for topical vaccine delivery. It targets the immunologically rich milieu of the skin while having the advantage of being a non-invasive immunization procedure. By disrupting the stratum corneum of the epidermis a natural adjuvant effect can be achieved through activation of resident Langerhans cells. This negates the normal need for co-application of noxious adjuvants. Epicutaneous immunization on barrier-disrupted skin induces potent antigen-specific systemic immunity with a strong T helper type 2 (Th2) bias. We show here that epicutaneous immunization enhances the vigour of a subsequent T-cell response to the same antigen. The induced systemic Th2 response prevents the development of Th1 responses induced through injection of antigen in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Prior epicutaneous immunization results in reduced production of antigen-specific interferon-gamma and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and enhanced interleukin-4, IgG1 and IgE responses to immunization with CFA. Moreover, epicutaneous immunization converts an established Th1 response to a Th2 response, as demonstrated by the specific reduction of interferon-gamma and IgG2a and the enhancement of interleukin-4 and IgE. This Th2 dominance of epicutaneous immunization may have direct therapeutic application as an immune-modulating procedure in Th1-dominant diseases such as autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and multiple sclerosis. PMID:16764688

  2. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed.

  3. Evaluation of an in vitro method for the measurement of specific IgE antibody responses: the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay.

    PubMed

    Dearman, R J; Skinner, R A; Deakin, N; Shaw, D; Kimber, I

    2005-01-15

    The evaluation of allergenic potential is a key parameter in the safety assessment of novel proteins, including those expressed in genetically modified crops and foodstuffs. The majority of allergic reactions to food proteins are immediate type hypersensitivity reactions in which the principal biological effector is IgE antibody; the accurate measurement of specific IgE antibody is therefore a critical factor in experimental systems designed to characterize protein allergenic potential. Due to the presence of much higher concentrations of other immunoglobulin isotypes, the assessment of specific serum IgE antibody poses substantial technical challenges. We have examined the utility of the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line for the measurement of murine IgE responses. RBL cells were sensitized with mouse monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody and challenged with DNP-albumin conjugates with various hapten substitution ratios (SR). Polyclonal anti-OVA IgE antisera were also assessed for activity in the RBL assay. Results were compared with titers measured in homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay. Marked degranulation of RBL cells was induced by conjugates with SRs of between 16 and 32, whereas conjugates with lower SRs (of 10 or 3) failed to elicit significant serotonin release. All conjugates were able to induce mast cell degranulation in vivo in a PCA assay. Anti-OVA antisera with PCA titers of 1/32 to 1/64 failed to stimulate RBL cell degranulation, whereas high titer antibody (1/2048 to 1/4096 by PCA) induced a positive RBL cell response. Successful stimulation of RBL cell degranulation requires not only appropriate epitope densities but also high affinity antibody. These data indicate that this assay is inappropriate for the routine analysis of specific polyclonal IgE antibody responses such as those that are induced by exposure to complex protein allergens.

  4. Allergen-specific IgE in Icelandic horses with insect bite hypersensitivity and healthy controls, assessed by FcepsilonR1alpha-based serology.

    PubMed

    Frey, Rebecka; Bergvall, Kerstin; Egenvall, Agneta

    2008-11-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) and atopy can both be causes of pruritus in horses and are associated with allergen-specific IgE to biting insects and environmental allergens respectively. Information with respect to differences in IgE levels in diseased and healthy animals is crucial in enabling an understanding of the clinical relevance of results of allergen-specific IgE tests. The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate and compare levels of allergen-specific IgE, using an ELISA method, in Icelandic horses, with and without IBH, from Iceland and Sweden respectively; (ii) to investigate patterns of allergen-specific IgE to insects, pollens, moulds and mites in those groups of horses; and (iii) to investigate the clinical significance of employing two different cut-off levels for the ELISA. The study compromised a total number of 99 horses from Iceland and Sweden, with and without IBH, divided in 5 groups. Sera from the horses were analysed blindly with the use of Allercept , a non-competitive, solid-phase ELISA-test, designed to detect the presence of allergen-specific IgE in sera using the recombinant alpha chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonR1alpha). The distribution of the ELISA values was shown for each insect, mould, mite and pollen allergen, in the different groups using 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles. The use of two cut-off levels, 150 EA and 300 EA, did not eliminate the false positives. Horses with IBH had a higher number of positive reactions, counting all the 29 allergens, than healthy controls and this was borderline significant (P=0.053). In this study it was shown that serological testing with an ELISA that uses the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonR1alpha) is presently not suitable as a tool for establishing a diagnosis of IBH or equine atopy. The importance of establishing a correct cut-off level for the ELISA for the different allergens is emphasised.

  5. Antigenic specificities of delayed hypersensitivity in mice to dinitrophenylated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yonemasu, K.; Crowle, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Humoral antibodies capable of suppressing induction of delayed hypersensitivity to dinitrophenylated proteins in mice were tested for specific absorbability onto chemically insolubilized antigen and for the antigenic determinant specificities of their immunosuppressive (i.e. contrasensitizing) effects. The activity of an antiserum could be completely removed by absorption with homologous antigen, and it could be recovered by dissociating the absorbed antibodies at low pH and high salt concentration. The immunosuppressive antibodies therefore are specific for determinants on the native antigen, and non-antibody serum constituents are non-essential. By selective immunoabsorptions and elutions, antibodies specific for carrier protein, for dinitrophenyl hapten, and for new determinants unique to the hapten—protein complexes were prepared and were compared with unfractionated antiserum for contrasensitizing activity. Nearly all activity could be accounted for by the anti-hapten antibodies, although anti-carrier antibodies also had some. Despite this evidence that immunosuppressiveness was hapten-specific, the delayed hypersensitivity being suppressed by these antibodies was shown to be directed against hapten—carrier complexes or against carrier but not against hapten alone. Hence, humoral antibodies against a portion of an antigen molecule can suppress induction of delayed hypersensitivity specific for other sometimes unrelated parts of this same molecule, and it is possible to induce antibody-mediated tolerance to a multi-determinant antigen with an antibody response against just a part of the antigen. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Notable theoretically is the observation that although determinant specificities of humoral antibody and delayed hypersensitivity responses to one antigen usually differ, the former can regulate the latter for a given species of antigen molecule. Most important practically is the implication

  6. An epitope on membrane-bound but not secreted IgE: implications in isotype-specific regulation.

    PubMed

    Davis, F M; Gossett, L A; Chang, T W

    1991-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) on the surface of B lymphocytes are isotype-specific immunological markers of the B-cell subsets expressing them. Since these membrane-bound Igs (mIgs) are antigen receptors, their interaction with antibodies could be explored for modulating the activity of specific B-cell subsets. Targeting mIgs by antibodies in vivo, however, has not been feasible because of the presence of Igs in the circulation and the frequent association of Igs with various cell types via Fc receptors. To circumvent these problems, we proposed that the extracellular portions of the membrane-anchoring segments of the heavy chains of mIgs, referred to as "mIg isotype-specific" or "migis" peptides, may provide the antigenic sites for the isotype-specific targeting of B cells in vivo. Here we describe the exemplary development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing this unique epitope of mIgE.

  7. Assessing the allergenicity of proteins introduced into genetically modified crops using specific human IgE assays.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Leach, John N

    2004-01-01

    Global commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops has grown to over 67 million hectares annually, primarily of herbicide-tolerant and insect protection crop varieties. GM crops are produced by the insertion of specific genes that either encode a protein, or a regulatory RNA sequence. A comprehensive safety evaluation is conducted for each new commercial GM crop, including an assessment of the potential allergenicity of any newly introduced protein. If the gene was derived from an allergenic organism, or the protein sequence is highly similar to a known allergen, immunoassays, e.g., Western blot assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, are performed to identify protein-specific IgE binding by sera of individuals allergic to the gene source, or the source of the sequence-matched allergen. Although such assays are commonly used to identify previously unknown allergens, criteria have not been established to demonstrate that a protein is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. This review discusses factors that affect the predictive value of these tests, including clinical selection criteria for serum donors, selection of blocking reagents to reduce nonspecific antibody binding, inhibition assays to verify specificity of binding, and scientifically justified limits of detection (sensitivity) in the absence of information regarding biological thresholds.

  8. Enrichment of antigen-specific B lymphocytes by the direct removal of B cells not bearing specificity for the antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Antigen-specific B cells (ASC) were purified from other B cells by prior incubation with specific antigen followed by rosetting with erythrocytes conjugated with anti-mouse Ig and sedimenting on Ficoll- Isopaque. This procedure allowed the removal of most of the B cells, while those speicifc for the antigen used in incubation were retained. Relative to the B-cell content, ASC were enriched 64- to 132-fold. The method is highly specific in that B cells primed to two different antigens, turkey gamma globulin and sheep erythrocytes, could be separated from each other. The advantages of this indirect purification procedure over purification procedures which obtain ASC directly are the simplicity of obtaining the ASC and the ability of the ASC of respond to antigen without the addition of other cells. PMID:69002

  9. Biodegradable nanoellipsoidal artificial antigen presenting cells for antigen specific T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Randall A; Sunshine, Joel C; Perica, Karlo; Kosmides, Alyssa K; Aje, Kent; Schneck, Jonathan P; Green, Jordan J

    2015-04-01

    Non-spherical nanodimensional artificial antigen presenting cells (naAPCs) offer the potential to systemically induce an effective antigen-specific immune response. In this report it is shown biodegradable ellipsoidal naAPCs mimic the T-Cell/APC interaction better than equivalent spherical naAPCs. In addition, it is demonstrated ellipsoidal naAPCs offer reduced non-specific cellular uptake and a superior pharmacokinetic profile compared to spherical naAPCs. PMID:25641795

  10. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  11. Genetic basis of IgE responsiveness: relevance to the atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D G; Neely, J D; Breazeale, D R; Ghosh, B; Freidhoff, L R; Schou, C; Beaty, T H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 170 subjects in 11 extended Amish families revealed evidence for linkage of five markers in chromosome 5q31.1 with a gene controlling total serum IgE levels. No linkage was found between these markers and specific IgE antibody levels. Analysis of total IgE within a subset of 128 IgE-antibody-negative sib pairs confirmed evidence for linkage to 5q31.1, especially IL4 (p = 4 x 10(-6)). These and other data suggest that IL4 or a nearby gene regulates IgE production in a non-antigen-specific (noncognate) fashion and provide evidence for a possible link between asthma and the IL4 gene. PMID:7613143

  12. Identification and manipulation of antigen specific T-cells with artificial antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Koffeman, Eva; Keogh, Elissa; Klein, Mark; Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    T-cells specific for a particular antigen represent a small percentage of the overall T-cell population. Detecting the presence of antigen specific T-cells in patients, animal models or populations of cultured cells has presented a challenge to researchers. The T-cell capture method described here utilizes a truly artificial method of antigen presentation and requires only 50,000 cells for the detection of the major histomcompatibility complex (MHC) class II and antigen restricted T-cells. With this method, liposomes, prepared with readily available materials, are loaded with neutravidin "rafts" comprised of MHC/peptide complexes, anti-CD28, a costimulatory molecule, and anti-LFA-1, an adhesion molecule. These artificial APCs are easily manipulated to include any MHC, antibodies to cell surface markers and/or costimulatory signals of interest thereby enabling not only T-cell identification but also the manipulation of mechanisms of T-cell activation. PMID:17983141

  13. Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Kwanghoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Min-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic decision point (DDP) of peanut specific IgE (sIgE) for predicting the outcome of oral food challenge (OFC). We also evaluated the usefulness of sIgE to peanut components (Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9) in diagnosing peanut allergy. Methods Korean children aged over 12 months with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. Diagnosis of peanut allergy was confirmed by an open OFC or through the convincing history of anaphylaxis. Cutoff levels of sIgE to peanut and peanut components were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Forty-eight children (22 boys and 26 girls) with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. The previously established DDP for peanut-sIgE antibodies (14 kU/L) showed a sensitivity of 22.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value of 60.4% in our study population. The median levels of peanut-sIgE (5.4 kU/L vs 1.1 kU/L, P<0.001) and Ara h 2-sIgE (0.8 kU/L vs 0 kU/L, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the peanut allergy group than in the peanut tolerance group. The peanut-sIgE concentration indicating a PPV of 100% was 10.3 kU/L. The Ara h 2-sIgE level of 4.0 kU/L had a PPV of 100%. Conclusions Our results showed that the cutoff levels for peanut (10.3 kU/L) and Ara h 2 (4.0 kU/L) established in this study is useful for the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Korean children. PMID:26739409

  14. Association Between Specific Timothy Grass Antigens and Changes in Thelper 1 and 2 Cell Responses Following Specific Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Sidney, John; Greenbaum, Jason; Frazier, April; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Different populations of T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Objective We investigated changes in T-helper (Th) cell populations in patients with allergies following specific immunotherapy (SIT). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from patients with allergies who received specific immunotherapy (SIT) and those who did not (controls). We tested the ability of peptides from 93 Timothy grass (TG) proteins to induce T-cell responses (cytokine production). We used ELISPOT and staining assays for intracellular cytokines to measure production of interleukin (IL)4, IL5, IL13, interferon (IFN)γ, and IL10. Results Compared with PBMC from controls, PBMC from patients who received SIT produced lower levels of Th2 cytokines upon incubation with several different TG peptides. These data were used to select 20 peptides to be tested an independent cohort of 20 patients with allergies who received SIT and 20 controls. We again observed a significant decrease in production of Th2 cytokines, and an increase in production of the Th1 cytokine IFNγ, in PBMC from the validation groups. These changes correlated with improved symptoms after SIT. Immunization with this selected pool of peptides (or their associated antigens) could protect a substantial proportion of the population from TG allergy. Conclusions We observed a significant decrease in production of Th2 cytokines by PBMC from patients who received SIT for TG allergy, compared with those who did not. These changes might be used to monitor response to therapy. The decrease occurred in response to antigens that elicit little (if any) immunoglobulin (Ig)E responses; these antigens might be developed for use in immunotherapy. PMID:25042980

  15. Allergy to Red Meat: A Diagnosis Made by the Patient and Confirmed by an Assay for IgE Antibodies Specific for Alpha-1,3-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Kourouma, Sarah; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Allou, Ange S; Diabate, Almamy; Djeha, Djokouehi; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Yoboue, Yao Pauline

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of allergy to red meat observed in Ivory Coast. A 49-year-old male presented with pruritus. The diagnosis of allergy to red meat was confirmed by an assay for IgE antibodies specific for alpha-1,3 galactose. Interestingly, the disease was considered a spell to the patient who was suspected of being a sorcerer by the community. PMID:26933408

  16. Sensitivity and Specificity of Histoplasma Antigen Detection by Enzyme Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Lauren; Cook, Audrey; Hanzlicek, Andrew; Harkin, Kenneth; Wheat, Joseph; Goad, Carla; Kirsch, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on urine samples for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs. This retrospective medical records review included canine cases with urine samples submitted for Histoplasma EIA antigen assay between 2007 and 2011 from three veterinary institutions. Cases for which urine samples were submitted for Histoplasma antigen testing were reviewed and compared to the gold standard of finding Histoplasma organisms or an alternative diagnosis on cytology or histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and the kappa coefficient and associated confidence interval were calculated for the EIA-based Histoplasma antigen assay. Sixty cases met the inclusion criteria. Seventeen cases were considered true positives based on identification of the organism, and 41 cases were considered true negatives with an alternative definitive diagnosis. Two cases were considered false negatives, and there were no false positives. Sensitivity was 89.47% and the negative predictive value was 95.35%. Specificity and the positive predictive value were both 100%. The kappa coefficient was 0.9207 (95% confidence interval, 0.8131-1). The Histoplasma antigen EIA test demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs.

  17. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, N. Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism. PMID:26163514

  18. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Katir K; Webley, Wilmore C

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  19. Defining specificities, genes, antigens, and antibodies- A matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, A

    1978-12-01

    We study the consequences of assigning single letter symbols to operationally defined entities such as genes, antigens, specificities, and antibodies. If this is to be done and if reagents are not specific in recognizing the products of single genes or single antigens, then these entities must be defined by a 'definition matrix' to avoid mislabeling a matrix of data. A method is given whereby for a given matrix of data all possible definition matrices consistent with this data can be obtained. In particular, all the ways of labeling by the complex-complex code of Hirschfeld can be so obtained.

  20. A Naturally Occurring Hypoallergenic Variant of Vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris Venom as a Candidate for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E.; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant. PMID:22844463

  1. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant. PMID:22844463

  2. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant.

  3. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    PubMed

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. PMID:26943931

  4. Increases in schistosome-specific IgE and CD23+ B cells in a cohort of Kenyan children undergoing repeated treatment and reinfection with Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Black, Carla L.; Muok, Erick M. O.; Mwinzi, Pauline M. N.; Carter, Jennifer M.; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan; Colley, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Age prevalence curves from areas endemic for schistosomiasis suggest that humans develop partial immunity to reinfection beginning in early adolescence. We conducted a 2-year longitudinal study to determine if children infected with S. mansoni develop protection-related immune responses upon treatment with PZQ and if the development of these immune responses is accelerated by frequent treatment upon reinfection. Methods 8-10 year old children were tested for S. mansoni every four months and treated with praziquantel (PZQ) when positive (Arm A, N=68) or tested and treated at the end of the 2-year follow-up (Arm B, N=49). Results Children in Arm A who remained free of infection during follow-up had significantly higher baseline levels of schistosome-specific IgE than children with ≥2 repeat S. mansoni diagnoses. Children with ≥2 repeat S. mansoni diagnoses significantly increased their levels of anti-schistosome IgE and CD23+ B cells after receiving ≥3 PZQ treatments over the course of follow-up. No increase in either parameter was seen in children who received only the baseline PZQ treatment. Conclusions B cell activation and anti-schistosomal IgE are associated with resistance to S. mansoni in children, and these immunological parameters can be increased by multiple rounds of infections and PZQ-induced cures. PMID:20560767

  5. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W.; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D.; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.   PMID:26982805

  6. How antigen specificity directs regulatory T-cell function: self, foreign and engineered specificity.

    PubMed

    Hoeppli, R E; MacDonald, K G; Levings, M K; Cook, L

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a suppressive subset of T cells that have important roles in maintaining self-tolerance and preventing immunopathology. The T-cell receptor (TCR) and its antigen specificity play a dominant role in the differentiation of cells to a Treg fate, either in the thymus or in the periphery. This review focuses on the effects of the TCR and its antigen specificity on Treg biology. The role of Tregs with specificity for self-antigen has primarily been studied in the context of autoimmune disease, although recent studies have focused on their role in steady-state conditions. The role of Tregs that are specific for pathogens, dietary antigens and allergens is much less studied, although recent data suggest a significant and previously underappreciated role for Tregs during memory responses to a wide range of foreign antigens. The development of TCR- or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-transduced T cells means we are now able to engineer Tregs with disease-relevant antigen specificities, paving the way for ensuring specificity with Treg-based therapies. Understanding the role that antigens play in driving the generation and function of Tregs is critical for defining the pathophysiology of many immune-mediated diseases, and developing new therapeutic interventions. PMID:27256587

  7. Diabetes tolerogenic vaccines targeting antigen-specific inflammation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shuang; Zhang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Xian; He, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xie, Xiaoping; Li, Chaofan; He, Zhonghuai; Yu, Qingling; Zhong, Yiwei; Lowrie, Douglas B; Zheng, Guoxing; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance controls the magnitude of inflammation, and balance between beneficial and harmful effects of inflammation is crucial for organ function and survival. Inadequate tolerance leads to various inflammatory diseases. Antigen specific tolerance is ideal for inflammation control as alternative anti-inflammatory interventions are non-specific and consequently increase the risk of infection and tumorigenesis. With inherent antigen specificity, tolerogenic vaccines are potentially ideal for control of inflammation. Although the concept of tolerogenic vaccines is still in its infancy, tolerogenic mucosal vaccines and specific immuno-therapies have long been proven effective in pioneering examples. Now a body of evidence supporting the concept of tolerogenic vaccines has also accumulated. Here we comment on recent successes of the tolerogenic vaccine concept, present new evidence with a type 1 diabetes vaccine as an example and draw conclusions on the advantages and potential for inflammatory disease control at the bedside.

  8. Effects of geohelminth infection and age on the associations between allergen-specific IgE, skin test reactivity and wheeze: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, A-L; Vaca, M; Oviedo, G; Workman, L J; Chico, M E; Platts-Mills, T A E; Rodrigues, L C; Barreto, M L; Cooper, P J

    2013-01-01

    Background Most childhood asthma in poor populations in Latin America is not associated with aeroallergen sensitization, an observation that could be explained by the attenuation of atopy by chronic helminth infections or effects of age. Objective To explore the effects of geohelminth infections and age on atopy, wheeze, and the association between atopy and wheeze. Methods A case-control study was done in 376 subjects (149 cases and 227 controls) aged 7–19 years living in rural communities in Ecuador. Wheeze cases, identified from a large cross-sectional survey, had recent wheeze and controls were a random sample of those without wheeze. Atopy was measured by the presence of allergen-specific IgE (asIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) responses to house dust mite and cockroach. Geohelminth infections were measured in stools and anti-Ascaris IgE in plasma. Results The fraction of recent wheeze attributable to anti-Ascaris IgE was 45.9%, while those for SPT and asIgE were 10.0% and 10.5% respectively. The association between atopy and wheeze was greater in adolescents than children. Although Anti-Ascaris IgE was strongly associated with wheeze (adj. OR 2.24 (95% CI 1.33–3.78, P = 0.003) and with asIgE (adj. OR 5.34, 95% CI 2.49–11.45, P < 0.001), the association with wheeze was independent of asIgE. There was some evidence that the association between atopy and wheeze was greater in uninfected subjects compared with those with active geohelminth infections. Conclusions and clinical relevance Atopy to house dust mite and cockroach explained few wheeze cases in our study population, while the presence of anti-Ascaris IgE was an important risk factor. Our data provided only limited evidence that active geohelminth infections attenuated the association between atopy and wheeze in endemic areas or that age modified this association. The role of allergic sensitization to Ascaris in the development of wheeze, independent of atopy, requires further investigation. PMID

  9. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  10. Suppression of Antigen-Specific Lymphocyte Activation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David; Pride, Michael W.; Brown, Eric L.; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in astronauts during and after spaceflight, and in isolated immune cells in true and simulated microgravity. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T cells is severely suppressed in true and simulated microgravity. These recent findings with various polyclonal activators suggests a suppression of oligoclonal lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR), as a model for a primary immune response; a tetanus toxoid (TT) response and a B. burgdorferi (Bb) response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  11. Skin prick testing predicts peanut challenge outcome in previously allergic or sensitized children with low serum peanut-specific IgE antibody concentration.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Richard C; Richmond, Peter; Prescott, Susan L; Mallon, Dominic F; Gong, Grace; Franzmann, Annkathrin M; Naidoo, Rama; Loh, Richard K S

    2007-05-01

    Peanut allergy is transient in some children but it is not clear whether quantitating peanut-specific IgE by Skin Prick Test (SPT) adds additional information to fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) in discriminating between allergic and tolerant children. To investigate whether SPT with a commercial extract or fresh foods adds additional predictive information for peanut challenge in children with a low FEIA (<10 k UA/L) who were previously sensitized, or allergic to peanuts. Children from a hospital-based allergy service who were previously sensitized or allergic to peanuts were invited to undergo a peanut challenge unless they had a serum peanut-specific IgE>10 k UA/L, a previous severe reaction, or a recent reaction to peanuts (within two years). SPT with a commercial extract, raw and roasted saline soaked peanuts was performed immediately prior to open challenge in hospital with increasing quantity of peanuts until total of 26.7 g of peanut was consumed. A positive challenge consisted of an objective IgE mediated reaction occurring during the observation period. 54 children (median age of 6.3 years) were admitted for a challenge. Nineteen challenges were positive, 27 negative, five were indeterminate and three did not proceed after SPT. Commercial and fresh food extracts provided similar diagnostic information. A wheal diameter of >or=7 mm of the commercial extract predicted an allergic outcome with specificity 97%, positive predictive value 93% and sensitivity 83%. There was a tendency for an increase in SPT wheal since initial diagnosis in children who remained allergic to peanuts while it decreased in those with a negative challenge. The outcome of a peanut challenge in peanut sensitized or previously allergic children with a low FEIA can be predicted by SPT. In this cohort, not challenging children with a SPT wheal of >or=7 mm would have avoided 15 of 18 positive challenges and denied a challenge to one out of 27 tolerant children.

  12. Checkpoint Blockade Cancer Immunotherapy Targets Tumour-Specific Mutant Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gubin, Matthew M.; Zhang, Xiuli; Schuster, Heiko; Caron, Etienne; Ward, Jeffrey P.; Noguchi, Takuro; Ivanova, Yulia; Hundal, Jasreet; Arthur, Cora D.; Krebber, Willem-Jan; Mulder, Gwenn E.; Toebes, Mireille; Vesely, Matthew D.; Lam, Samuel S.K.; Korman, Alan J.; Allison, James P.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Pearce, Erika L.; Schumacher, Ton N.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gillanders, William E.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system plays key roles in determining the fate of developing cancers by not only functioning as a tumour promoter facilitating cellular transformation, promoting tumour growth and sculpting tumour cell immunogenicity1–6, but also as an extrinsic tumour suppressor that either destroys developing tumours or restrains their expansion1,2,7. Yet clinically apparent cancers still arise in immunocompetent individuals in part as a consequence of cancer induced immunosuppression. In many individuals, immunosuppression is mediated by Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), two immunomodulatory receptors expressed on T cells8,9. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 (checkpoint blockade) have yielded significant clinical benefits—including durable responses—to patients with different malignancies10–13. However, little is known about the identity of the tumour antigens that function as the targets of T cells activated by checkpoint blockade immunotherapy and whether these antigens can be used to generate vaccines that are highly tumour-specific. Herein, we use genomics and bioinformatics approaches to identify tumour-specific mutant proteins as a major class of T cell rejection antigens following αPD-1 and/or αCTLA-4 therapy of mice bearing progressively growing sarcomas and show that therapeutic synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines incorporating these mutant epitopes induce tumour rejection comparably to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Whereas, mutant tumour antigen-specific T cells are present in progressively growing tumours, they are reactivated following treatment with αPD-1- and/or αCTLA-4 and display some overlapping but mostly treatment-specific transcriptional profiles rendering them capable of mediating tumour rejection. These results reveal that tumour-specific mutant antigens (TSMA) are not only important targets of checkpoint blockade therapy but also can be

  13. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  14. Beyond model antigens: high-dimensional methods for the analysis of antigen-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Evan W.; Davis, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses often begin with the formation of a molecular complex between a T cell receptor (TCR) and a peptide antigen bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. These complexes are highly variable, however, due to the polymorphism of MHC genes, the random, inexact recombination of TCR gene segments and the vast array of possible self and pathogen peptide antigens. As a result, it has been very difficult to comprehensively study the TCR repertoire or identify and track more than a few antigen-specific T cells in mice or humans. For mouse studies, this had led to a reliance on model antigens and TCR transgenes. The study of limited human clinical samples, in contrast, requires techniques that can simultaneously survey phenotype, function and reactivity to many T cell epitopes. Thanks to recent advances in single-cell and cytometry methodologies, as well as high-throughput sequencing of the TCR repertoire, we now have or will soon have the tools needed to comprehensively analyze T-cell responses during health and disease. PMID:24441473

  15. IgE antibodies against snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Scavini, L M; Marino, G A; Rodríguez, S M

    1995-01-01

    A similar event was detected in the clinical records of a small group of atopic patients living in the northern provinces of Argentina, i.e., they were bitten by a snake of the Bothrops species (or yarará) during their rural activities (woodcutters, cattle-drivers and farmers). Those who were bitten twice suffered an acute episode of hives and angioedema within 15 minutes after the snake bite. The presence of specific antibodies against Bothrops alternata (Ba) extract was detected by means of RAST for IgE and Ouchterlony and Boyden for IgG. The Ouchterlony also demonstrated crossreactivity among the venoms of the Bothrops species and the positivity of the six fractions obtained by DEAE-cellulose column fractionation against the horse anti-Ba serum. The Ba antigen induced a definite inhibition of the RAST. We presume that hives and angioedema in atopic patients immediately after a second snake bite could be attributed to the presence of a specific IgE antibody against the venom, and must not be misinterpreted with the toxic effects that appear later. PMID:7551202

  16. Prenatal allergic sensitization to helminth antigens in offspring of parasite-infected mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, G J; Hussain, R; Kumaraswami, V; Tripathy, S P; Phillips, K S; Ottesen, E A

    1983-01-01

    Total and filaria-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were studied in cord blood from infants born in Madras, India, where filariasis and intestinal helminth infections are highly endemic. Increased total IgE levels were observed in 82% of 57 cord sera tested (geometric mean 12.6 ng/ml; range 1-1,900 ng/ml). 33 of these sera also contained IgE antibodies specific for filarial antigens as determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Comparison of ratios of filaria-specific IgE to total IgE in paired maternal and cord sera suggested that cord blood IgE was derived from the fetus in most cases and not from transplacental antibody transfer. Our results suggest that prenatal allergic sensitization to helminth parasites occurs in the tropics. Such sensitization may contribute to the heterogeneity in host immune response and disease expression noted in filariasis and other helminth infections. PMID:6343433

  17. The value of a single skin prick testing for specific IgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus to distinguish atopy from non-atopic asthmatic children in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Santoso, H

    1998-01-01

    In a tropical setting, where the prevalence of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) is high, we examined the advantage of a single battery of skin prick testing (SPT) for mite as a diagnostic tool by comparing the results of radio-allergo-sorbent-test (RAST) to distinguish allergic from non-allergic asthma in children. Fifty asthmatic children were enrolled in this study. After questioning the parents, SPT were carried out using house dust mite (D. pteronyssinus) and other 9 common aero-allergens and blood were taken for measuring the total IgE (PRIST) and specific IgE for mite (RAST). Dust was obtained from 14 asthmatic children's houses and mite counting was done under a high power microscope. With a daily temperature of 27.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 80 +/- 1%, house dust mites were found in all samples; and 81% of the allergic asthmatic children had positive SPT for D. pteronyssinus. SPT for D. pteronyssinus had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 52% using RAST as gold standard and there was a moderate positive correlation between the size of SPT wheals and RAST scores for D. pteronyssinus (r = 0.67 and p = 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that SPT for mites should be used as a screening test and positive SPT should be confirmed by RAST. PMID:9876943

  18. Antigen-specific human polyclonal antibodies from hyperimmunized cattle.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Yoshimi; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sathiyaseelan, Thillainayagen; Jiao, Jin-an; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Mellquist, Jenny; Hammitt, Melissa; Koster, Julie; Kamoda, Satoru; Tachibana, Katsumi; Ishida, Isao; Robl, James M

    2009-02-01

    Antigen-specific human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs), produced by hyperimmunization, could be useful for treating many human diseases. However, yields from available transgenic mice and transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying human immunoglobulin loci are too low for therapeutic applications. We report a Tc bovine system that produces large yields of hpAbs. Tc cattle were generated by transferring a human artificial chromosome vector carrying the entire unrearranged, human immunoglobulin heavy (hIGH) and kappa-light (hIGK) chain loci to bovine fibroblasts in which two endogenous bovine IgH chain loci were inactivated. Plasma from the oldest animal contained >2 g/l of hIgG, paired with either human kappa-light chain (up to approximately 650 microg/ml, fully human) or with bovine kappa- or lambda-light chain (chimeric), with a normal hIgG subclass distribution. Hyperimmunization with anthrax protective antigen triggered a hIgG-mediated humoral immune response comprising a high proportion of antigen-specific hIgG. Purified, fully human and chimeric hIgGs were highly active in an in vitro toxin neutralization assay and protective in an in vivo mouse challenge assay.

  19. Specific Antigen in Serum of Patients with Colon Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Herlyn, Meenhard; Steplewski, Zenon; Sears, Henry F.

    1981-04-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibody specific for colon carcinoma was inhibited by serum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon but not by serum from patients with other bowel diseases or from healthy volunteers. Of other malignancies studied, serum from two patients with gastric carcinoma and two patients with pancreatic carcinoma also inhibited the specific binding of monoclonal antibody. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in these serum samples were not correlated with their levels of binding inhibition. Such monoclonal antibodies may prove useful for the detection of colorectal carcinoma.

  20. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Avid Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Shankar; Shetty, Deepa; Le, Ken; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert; Loh, Han

    2016-10-01

    Ga-PSMA PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate recurrent prostatic malignancy due to its high specificity. A 75-year-old man with a previous history of treated prostate cancer 3 years earlier presented with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT which demonstrated a PSMA-avid focus in the neck of the pancreas. Triple-phase abdominal CT demonstrated enhancement in the arterial phase and to a lesser extent the venous phase of a soft tissue mass in the neck of the pancreas. Cytological and histopathological examination of the soft tissue mass confirmed a low-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

  1. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Scope Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Methods and results Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients’ sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients’ sera. Conclusion We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. PMID:23996905

  2. Airway inflammation and IgE production induced by dust mite allergen-specific memory/effector Th2 cell line can be effectively attenuated by IL-35.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Hui; Loo, Evelyn Xiu-Ling; Kuo, I-Chun; Soh, Gim Hooi; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Lee, Bee Wah; Chua, Kaw Yan

    2011-07-01

    CD4(+) memory/effector T cells play a central role in orchestrating the rapid and robust immune responses upon re-encounter with specific Ags. However, the immunologic mechanism(s) underlying these responses are still not fully understood. To investigate this, we generated an allergen (major house dust mite allergen, Blo t 5)-specific murine Th2 cell line that secreted IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IL-9 or TNF-α, upon activation by the cognate Ag. These cells also exhibited CD44(high)CD62L(-) and CD127(+) (IL-7Rα(+)) phenotypes, which are characteristics of memory/effector T cells. Experiments involving adoptive transfer of this Th2 cell line in mice, followed by three intranasal challenges with Blo t 5, induced a dexamethasone-sensitive eosinophilic airway inflammation. This was accompanied by elevation of Th2 cytokines and CC- and CXC-motif chemokines, as well as recruitment of lymphocytes and polymorphic mononuclear cells into the lungs. Moreover, Blo t 5-specific IgE was detected 4 d after the last intranasal challenge, whereas elevation of Blo t 5-specific IgG1 was found at week two. Finally, pulmonary delivery of the pVAX-IL-35 DNA construct effectively downregulated Blo t 5-specific allergic airway inflammation, and i.m. injection of pVAX-IL-35 led to long-lasting suppression of circulating Blo t 5-specific and total IgE. This model provides a robust research tool to elucidate the immunopathogenic role of memory/effector Th2 cells in allergic airway inflammation. Our results suggested that IL-35 could be a potential therapeutic target for allergic asthma through its attenuating effects on allergen-specific CD4(+) memory/effector Th2 cell-mediated airway inflammation.

  3. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-01-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge. PMID:3972438

  4. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-03-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge.

  5. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.

    1986-03-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with /sup 35/S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants.

  6. Anti-Candida albicans IgE and IgG subclasses in sera of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    PubMed

    Roig, E; Malo, J L; Montplaisir, S

    1997-04-01

    We performed immunoblotting experiments to determine specific IgE and IgG subclass responses to Candida albicans antigens in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) patients. This is a first report describing C. albicans antigens recognized by serum IgE and IgG subclasses of ABPA patients sensitized to that yeast. Among the various antigens reacting with serum IgE, a 43-kDa component was recognized by all seven patients and can be considered a major antigen of C. albicans for this particular group of patients. By comparison, only 20% of a group of asthmatic atopics (25 patients) and 10% of a group of normal controls (10 subjects) were 43-kDa positive. Multiple banding patterns, revealing no major antigen, were observed for all four IgG subclasses except for IgG1 in one case. In particular, the 43-kDa component was not always recognized by all the patients. Furthermore, oral or inhaled steroid treatment appears to have no impact on the specific IgE immunopatterns obtained. Using immunoelectron-microscopy, we localized IgE-binding primarily in the mannoprotein-containing layers of the C. albicans cell wall. In conclusion, C. albicans-IgE and IgG subclasses may participate in the physiopathology of ABPA by exacerbating pulmonary infiltrates (IgE) and inducing eosinophil-mediated inflammatory reaction (IgG1, IgG3).

  7. Immunogenetic analysis of the heavy chain variable regions of IgE from patients allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed

    Janezic, A; Chapman, C J; Snow, R E; Hourihane, J O; Warner, J O; Stevenson, F K

    1998-03-01

    Peanuts are one of the most allergenic of the foods, and hypersensitivity responses to peanut allergens can be fatal. Although the nature of the antigenic components of peanuts is being defined at the molecular level, there is little information on the induced IgE antibodies, which are central to the allergic reaction. Recognition sites of IgE antibody molecules arise from the variable regions of heavy and light chains (VH and VL). By using nested polymerase chain reactions with specific primers for the available repertoire of VH genes, together with primers in the constant epsilon region, we have amplified VH sequences of IgE from blood lymphocytes of two patients with peanut allergy. After cloning and sequencing the products, we found a predominance of VH1 family use in both patients, which was not found in control IgM-specific primers. The IgE VH sequences were highly somatically mutated, but in only six of 17 cases was there clear evidence for clustering of amino acids indicative of antigen selection. Previous results from patients with allergy to house dust mites have indicated predominance of VH5 use and little evidence for antigen selection. Although results from two patients allergic to peanuts must be regarded as preliminary, they do suggest that the IgE response to peanuts may have a different VH bias, with a similar mutational pattern.

  8. Experience with prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D

    1991-01-01

    A total of 71 prostatic tumour patients and 45 prostatic adenoma patients were tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), immunological prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration as well as serum prostatic phosphatase (SPP) and enzymic serum phosphatase. It was found among untreated patients that PSA showed the highest percentage of pathologic affection in each stage. PSA, on the evidence of clearance test in the initial days of therapy and after a follow-up period of several months, gave a good picture of the course that the disease had taken.

  9. ERYTHROCYTE SENSITIZATION BY BLOOD GROUP-SPECIFIC BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.

    PubMed

    SPRINGER, G F; HORTON, R E

    1964-07-01

    Human and chicken erythrocytes are readily coated in vitro by blood group active protein-lipopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from E. coli O(86) and E. coli O(128). Serum albumin, alpha(2)- and beta-lipoproteins inhibit this sensitization. Blood group B specific agglutination of erythrocytes with B or B-like antigens was obtained with antibodies purified by adsorption on and elution from B erythrocytes. Anti-blood group B and E. coli O(86)-specific antibodies could be eluted from E. coli O(86)-coated O erythrocytes. Eel anti-H(O) serum agglutinated O erythrocytes and only those A(1)B red cells which were coated with blood group H(O) active E. coli products. Blood group active substances specifically inhibited agglutination of lipopolysaccharide-coated erythrocytes by anti-B and anti-H(O) agglutinins. Demonstrable amounts of lipopolysaccharide could only be removed from coated erythrocytes by washing them at elevated temperatures (58 degrees C) in physiological solutions. Red cell sensitization with B active E. coli O(86) substances was achieved in vivo in a minority of severely diseased infants and in germ-free and ordinary chicks which were in tourniquet shock after treatment with cathartics. Therefore, a possible mode by which erythrocytes of patients with severe intestinal disorders acquire antigens is the fixation of bacterial substances to their surfaces, if there are not enough of the normally interfering plasma factors present.

  10. Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Puccia, R; Schenkman, S; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

    1986-01-01

    Yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis grown in liquid medium produced exocellular components. Immunodiffusion reactions and immunoprecipitations of 131I-radiolabeled antigenic components with sera from patients having paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) were used to monitor the isolation of specific constituents. Components having the main antigenic activity (fCon A) were isolated by exclusion from a Bio-Gel P30 column, followed by successive binding of eluted material to a Sepharose-concanavalin A column, and elution. The product contained, from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a minor 43,000-molecular-weight (MW) component (gp43), a polydisperse high-MW glycoconjugate, and a diffusely migrating 55,000-MW glycoprotein (gp55). Other components, including a 72,000-MW glycoprotein, were irregularly expressed. The high-MW glycoconjugate complex contained, on the basis of methylation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, a branched structure of mainly mannopyranosyl units. These were nonreducing ends, 6-O-, 2-O-, and 2,6-di-O-substituted, and the specific rotation of +16 degrees indicated that the glycosidic configurations of the units were alpha and beta in a ratio of ca. 1:1 (concanavalin A binding indicated that nonreducing ends or 2-O-substituted units or both of alpha-D-mannopyranose were present). A small proportion of nonreducing end units of D-galactopyranose were also present in this polysaccharide. gp55 is a glycoprotein containing a complex carbohydrate moiety with fucose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, either as terminal nonreducing units or substituted in positions indicated by methylation data. Both PCM and normal human sera precipitated the high-MW glycoconjugate from 131I-labeled fCon A preparations, whereas gp55 was unreactive with human sera. gp43 was a specific antigenic component of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates which could be isolated in a pure form by gel filtration column chromatography (Sephadex G150

  11. Meat-specific IgG and IgA antibodies coexist with IgE antibodies in sera from allergic patients: clinical association and modulation by exclusion diet.

    PubMed

    Calderon, T E; Ferrero, M; Marino, G M; Cordoba, A; Beltramo, D; Muino, J C; Rabinovich, G A; Romero, M D

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated responses play a pivotal role in allergic patients with food intolerance. However, the association of food-specific IgG and IgA antibodies with the clinical outcome of allergic patients is still a matter of controversy. In this study we investigate whether beef-specific IgG and IgA antibodies may coexist with beef-specific IgE antibodies in food-allergic patients and examined their clinical relevance in different allergic settings. Beef-specific IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies were determined by solid-phase enzymoimmunoassay (ELISA) in a population of allergic patients (N=125) classified into patients with asthma, skin disease or gastrointestinal disorders, as well as in control subjects (N=80). IgE antibodies specific for citric fruits, tomato, cows milk, chickens egg and wheat were also determined. Beef was the predominant allergenic food in the whole population, not only for IgE (57.6 percent; P less than 0.001), but also for IgG and IgA isotypes (53.6 percent and 34.0 percent, respectively, P less than 0.001). Beef-specific IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies increased significantly in sera from patients with asthma, gastrointestinal disorders and skin allergy compared to sera from control subjects (P less than 0.001). Remarkably, IgG and IgA isotypes were significantly detected, even in the absence of IgE, in the three allergic conditions. All allergic patients, including those showing only IgG and IgA antibodies, significantly ameliorated their symptoms, and their levels of beef-specific antibodies were considerably reduced in response to a cow meat exclusion diet. While patients with gastrointestinal or skin allergic diseases were capable of tolerating beef following an established period of diet exclusion, asthmatic patients experienced a relapse of symptoms and showed a considerable increase in IgE, IgG and IgA-specific antibodies when re-challenged with a beef-enriched diet. Thus, beef-specific IgG and IgA antibodies coexist with IgE antibodies in sera

  12. Oral sensitization with shrimp tropomyosin induces in mice allergen-specific IgE, T cell response and systemic anaphylactic reactions.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Francescamaria; Butteroni, Cinzia; Barletta, Bianca; Corinti, Silvia; Afferni, Claudia; Tinghino, Raffaella; Boirivant, Monica; Di Felice, Gabriella

    2008-08-01

    Appropriate murine models of shrimp tropomyosin (ST) allergy would be useful in investigating the mechanisms underlying food allergy in human subjects, as well as for the pre-clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety of novel therapeutic approaches. These models should mimic immune and clinical features of human disease, including anaphylactic response. We sensitized C3H/HeJ mice by the oral route with purified ST using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant. ST-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA responses were evaluated by ELISA. Spleen cell proliferation and cytokine production by allergen-specific activation were assessed. Jejunum and colon fragments were collected to evaluate the local expression of cytokine genes by PCR. Local and systemic anaphylactic reactions induced by oral ST challenge were scored according to symptoms observed. Faecal samples were collected to assess local IgA production and histamine levels. Oral sensitization with ST plus CT induced in mice significant levels of serum IgE and IgG1 and faecal IgA. ST-specific cell proliferation and IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-gamma cytokine production were induced in the spleen. After oral challenge, 100% of mice had anaphylactic symptoms while no symptoms were observed in challenged naive mice. Faecal histamine content after ST challenge appeared significantly increased in sensitized mice when compared with that observed in pre-immune mice. Jejunum mRNA expression of T(h)2 cytokines was up-regulated by ST sensitization. These results support the importance of the oral way of sensitization and of the in-depth characterization of the anaphylactic response for the development of a suitable in vivo model of food allergy.

  13. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-based imaging.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Joseph R; Akhtar, Naveed H; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T

    2013-02-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of CaP does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for CaP-specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in CaP tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells, and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was (111)In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab penditide (i.e., inability to bind to live CaP cells). One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics, including the identification of bone metastases in CaP. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate time frame for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds, such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for CaP imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072, and MIP-1095 have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of (123)I-MIP-1072 and (123)I-MIP-1095 in CaP xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Specificity of Heteroantisera to Human Acute Leukemia-Associated Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Michael A.; Ramachandar, K.; Taub, Robert N.

    1974-01-01

    Antisera have been raised to human leukemic blast cells from individual patients in mice rendered tolerant with cyclophosphamide to remission leukocytes from the same individual. 10 antisera were raised against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells and 5 antisera were raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Antisera to AML cells were absorbed with ALL cells, and antisera to ALL cells were absorbed with AML cells. Unabsorbed and absorbed antisera as well as antisera raised in nontolerant mice were tested for cytotoxicity against various cells of a panel containing myeloblasts from 35 patients with AML, lymphoblasts from 7 patients with ALL, myeloblasts from 7 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis, peripheral blood leukocytes from 12 patients with acute leukemia in remission and 30 nonleukemic patients, and nucleated bone marrow cells from 10 nonleukemic patients. Unabsorbed antisera to AML or ALL cells raised in tolerant mice were highly cytotoxic to leukemic blasts cells but significantly less cytotoxic to remission and control cells. Antisera to AML cells absorbed with ALL cells retained measurable cytotoxicity against AML cells but were not cytotoxic to ALL cells or control cells. Similarly, antisera to ALL cells absorbed with AML cells retained significant cytotoxicity only to ALL cells. Control antisera raised in nontolerant mice were cytotoxic to all cells tested. Although species specific, histocompatibility, differentiation, maturation, and cell cycle-associated antigens may be responsible in part for the cytotoxic activity of the unabsorbed antisera, the absorbed antisera are probably detecting antigens specific for their leukemic cell type. PMID:4140196

  15. New insights into antigen specific immunotherapy for chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a stem cell disease in which BCR/ABL plays an important role as an oncoprotein and a molecular and immunogenic target. Despite the success of targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), CML remains largely incurable, most likely due to the treatment resistance of leukemic stem cells. Several immunotherapies have been developed for CML in different stages and relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In the this review, several specific immunotherapeutic approaches for CML, including vaccination and adoptive cellular immunotherapy, are discussed along with results from clinical trials, and the value of such immunotherapies in the era of imatinib and leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs), which are capable of inducing specific T cell responses and are appropriate target structures for the immunological targeting of CML cells, are also summarized. PMID:23241263

  16. Prediction of anaphylaxis during peanut food challenge: usefulness of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Brynn Kevin; Studdert, Jennie; Ziegler, Mary; Ziegler, John B

    2010-06-01

    Cutoffs (decision points) of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level for predicting peanut allergy have been proposed. It is not known whether decision points indicating a significant risk of severe reactions on challenge differ from those indicating probable allergy. We aimed at determining the usefulness of allergy tests for predicting the risk of anaphylaxis on challenge following the ingestion of up to 12 g of peanut in peanut-sensitized children. Children attending the Allergy Clinic who had a positive peanut SPT and completed open-label in-hospital peanut challenges were included. The challenge protocol provided for challenges to be continued beyond initial mild reactions. Eighty-nine in-hospital peanut challenges were performed. Thirty-four were excluded as the challenge was not completed, leaving 55 for analysis. Children who completed the challenge and did not react (n = 28) or reacted without anaphylaxis (n = 6) represented the comparison group (n = 34). The study group comprised 21 children whose challenge resulted in anaphylaxis. The mean peanut SPT wheal size and specific IgE level were associated with the severity of reactions on challenge. Among the 21 children, who developed anaphylaxis, in only 3 cases was anaphylaxis the initial reaction. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge. Anaphylaxis developed at cumulative doses of peanut ranging from 0.02 to 11.7 g. Provided that a fixed amount of peanut is ingested, available tests for peanut allergy may assist in predicting the risk of anaphylaxis during challenge in peanut-sensitized children.

  17. Antigen specific killing assay using CFSE labeled target cells.

    PubMed

    Durward, Marina; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2010-11-09

    Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) can be used to easily and quickly label a cell population of interest for in vivo investigation. This labeling has classically been used to study proliferation and migration. In the method presented here, we have shortened the timeline after adoptive transfer to look at survival and killing of epitope specific CFSE labeled target cells. The level of specific killing of a CD8 + T cell clone can indicate the quality of the response, as their quantity may be misleading. Specific CD8+ T cells can become functionally exhausted over time with a decline in cytokine production and killing. Also, certain CD8 + T cell clones may not kill as well as others with differing TCR specificities. For effective Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI), antigens must be identified that produce not only adequate numbers of responding T cells, but also functionally robust responding T cells. Here we assess the percent cell specific killing of two peptide specific T cell clones in BALB/c mice.

  18. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  19. Recognition of antigen-specific B-cell receptors from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients by synthetic antigen surrogates.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-12-18

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe nonpeptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used to identify other classes of antigen surrogates.

  20. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Haber, S I; Herrmann, S; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens--ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu56LLys35LPhe9) [(GluLysPhe)n]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to controls in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or "processing independent" antigens. In parallel studies 125I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. At least some of the biotin-insulin surface sites are immunologically relevant, because the presentation of processed biotin-insulin by fixed APC is blocked by avidin. This effect is specific. Avidin binding to biotin-insulin-exposed APC does not inhibit allospecific stimulation nor the presentation of unconjugated insulin. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen. PMID:3467371

  1. Antigen presentation by chemically modified splenocytes induces antigen- specific T cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the antigen specificity and presentation requirements for inactivation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies revealed that splenocytes treated with the crosslinker 1-ethyl- 3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (ECDI) and soluble antigen fragments failed to stimulate significant proliferation by normal pigeon cytochrome c-specific T cell clones, suggesting that the chemical treatment inactivated full antigen presentation function. However, T cell clones exposed to ECDI-treated splenocytes and antigen in vitro were rendered unresponsive for at least 8 d to subsequent antigen stimulation with normal presenting cells. As predicted by the in vitro results, specific T cell unresponsiveness was also induced in vivo in B10.A mice injected intravenously with B10.A, but not B10.A(4R), splenocytes coupled with pigeon cytochrome c via ECDI. The antigen and MHC specificity of the induction of this T cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo was identical to that required for T cell activation. These results suggest that nonmitogenic T cell recognition of antigen/MHC on ECDI-modified APCs results in the functional inactivation of T cell clones. PMID:3029267

  2. Specificity of monoclonal antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharide antigens.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B W; Mihowich, J G; Blais, B W; Yamazaki, H

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were produced to the lipopolysaccharide antigens of Campylobacter jejuni strain 1249 (Penner serotype O:2/63). A polymyxin-cloth based enzyme immunoassay (pCEIA) was used for initial screening and for evaluating the specificity of these antibodies. Seven Mabs reacted with at least 11 and as many as 14 of 15 C. jejuni strains (representing 8 different Penner serotypes). These seven Mabs did not cross-react with any of 16 non-Campylobacter bacteria commonly encountered in food, with only two exceptions. Several combinations of these Mabs in pairs reacted with all 15 C. jejuni strains. These results suggest that pCEIA employing two of these Mabs in combination is potentially useful for detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods and other samples.

  3. The current state of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan; Hornberger, Brad

    2016-09-01

    Since prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was approved in 1994, the incidence of metastasis and mortality from prostate cancer have significantly decreased. However, PSA screening for prostate cancer has limitations and few large randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine the mortality benefit of PSA screening. Two studies that have been conducted are the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). These were the two main studies the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) used in its recommendation against prostate cancer screening in 2012. However, new evidence has demonstrated that the PLCO trial had significant limitations and the results of the ERSPC trial were more significant than previously thought. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of the USPSTF's recommendation, along with current guidelines for prostate cancer screening. PMID:27575906

  4. Idiotype and antigen-specific T cell responses in mice on immunization with antigen, antibody, and anti-idiotypic antibody.

    PubMed

    Mitra-Kaushik, S; Shaila, M S; Karande, A K; Nayak, R

    2001-05-01

    Idiotypic determinants of immunoglobulin molecules can evoke both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T responses and exist not only as the integral components of a bona fide antigen binding receptor but also as distinct molecular entities in the processed forms on the cell surface of B lymphocytes. The present work provides experimental evidence for the concept that regulation of memory B cell populations can be achieved through the presentation of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic determinants to helper and cytotoxic cell. The potential of B cells to present antigens to helper and cytotoxic T cells through class II and class I MHC suggests a mechanism by which both B and T cell homeostasis can be maintained. We provide evidence for the generation of idiotype- and antigen-specific Th and Tc cells upon immunization of syngenic mice with antigen or idiotypic antibody (Ab1) or anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2). The selective activation and proliferation of the antigen-specific Th and Tc cells mediated by idiotypic stimulation observed in these experiments suggests a B-cell-driven mechanism for the maintenance of antigen-specific T cell memory in the absence of antigenic stimulation, under certain conditions.

  5. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Any Successor in Sight?

    PubMed Central

    Obort, Aniebietabasi S; Ajadi, Mary B; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States and other parts of the world. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with PCa is approximately 16%. At present, the only widely accepted screening tools for PCa are prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination. PSA is known to be prostate specific, but not PCa specific, and hence lacks the sensitivity to detect a large number of tumors, especially during the early stages. The PSA level is also known to be affected by many factors, such as medication, inflammation (benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis), and urologic manipulation; hence, the controversy regarding the appropriate level of serum PSA that should trigger a biopsy or have clinical relevance to prostate metastases. Attempts to determine the level of prostate cells in peripheral blood by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction did not significantly improve cancer diagnosis or predict postoperative failure. Therefore, the search continues for a novel biomarker or a panel of markers as well as other possible interventions to improve the use of PSA. This article reviews several possibilities. PMID:24223021

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma secreting prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    James, G K; Pudek, M; Berean, K W; Diamandis, E P; Archibald, B L

    1996-08-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a 30 kDa glycoprotein serine protease that shows high tissue specificity for prostatic tissue, both benign and malignant. However, recent reports have shown that a variety of normal and neoplastic tissue types express PSA immunohistochemically. In addition, rare instances of the secretion of PSA by nonprostatic cancers have been reported in the literature. The authors present a case of salivary duct carcinoma associated with elevated serum levels of PSA. Both the primary tumor and metastases stained positively with anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies, but were negative with antibodies directed against prostate-specific acid phosphatase. Elevated serum PSA levels were confirmed with three different immunoassay methods. A peak serum level of 140 micrograms/L was measured and this correlates with levels of PSA associated with metastatic prostatic carcinoma. High performance liquid chromatography with a molecular sieve column characterized the serum PSA into both free protein (approximately 20%) and protein bound to alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (PSA-ACT)(approximately 80%). Molecular weights of the free PSA and PSA-ACT subfractions were 27-31 kDa and 100-110 kDa, respectively.

  7. Antigen presentation by hapten-specific B lymphocytes. II. Specificity and properties of antigen-presenting B lymphocytes, and function of immunoglobulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, A.K.; Haber, S.; Rock, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Studies were designed to examine the ability of hapten-binding murine B lymphocytes to present hapten-protein conjugates to protein antigen-specific, Ia-restricted T cell hybridomas. BALB/c B cells specific for TNP or FITC presented hapten-modified proteins (TNP-G1 phi, TNP-OVA, or FITC-OVA) to the relevant T cell hybridomas at concentrations below 0.1 microgram/ml. Effective presentation of the same antigens by B lymphocyte-depleted splenocytes, and of unmodified proteins by either hapten-binding B cells or Ig spleen cells, required about 10(3)-to 10(4)-fold higher concentrations of antigen. The use of two different haptens and two carrier proteins showed that this extremely efficient presentation of antigen was highly specific, with hapten specificity being a property of the B cells and carrier specificity of the responding T cells. The presentation of hapten-proteins by hapten-binding B lymphocytes was radiosensitive and was not affected by the depletion of plastic-adherent cells, suggesting that conventional APCs (macrophages or dendritic cells) are not required in this phenomenon. Antigen-pulsing and antibody-blocking experiments showed that this hapten-specific antigen presentation required initial binding of antigen to surface Ig receptors. Moreover, linked recognition of hapten and carrier determinants was required, but these recognition events could be temporally separated. Finally, an antigen-processing step was found to be necessary, and this step was disrupted by ionizing radiation. These data suggest a role for B cell surface Ig in providing a specific high-affinity receptor to allow efficient uptake or focusing of antigen for its subsequent processing and presentation to T lymphocytes.

  8. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  9. Specific radioimmunoprecipitation of histone H2A antigens by protein A conjugated sepharose.

    PubMed

    Ruder, F J; Frasch, M; Büsen, W

    1988-04-15

    A modified radioimmunoprecipitation technique is described which allows the specific detection of histone H2A antigens. The technique circumvents unspecific binding of histones to the bacterial adsorbent.

  10. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. PMID:27496408

  11. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. . E-mail: adamico@lroc.harvard.edu; Kantoff, Phillip; Loffredo, Marian; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Brittany; Chen Minghui

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of {approx}10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) <6 months (p = 0.04) and age at the time of PSA failure (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with length of survival. By 5 years, 35% and 65% of all-cause mortality was from prostate cancer in men whose age at PSA failure was 75 or higher vs. <75, respectively. Across all ages, 0%, 4%, as compared with 63% of men, were estimated to die of prostate cancer within 5 years after PSA failure if their PSA DT was >12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival.

  12. Specific adhesion of carcinoembryonic antigen-bearing colorectal cancer cells to immobilized carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Levin, L V; Griffin, T W

    1991-11-01

    Recent characterization of the genomic structure of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is consistent with that of a cellular adhesion molecule. To examine this function in colorectal cancer, the adherence of cell lines to microtiter wells coated with CEA and well-described adhesive molecules was determined. The CEA-positive cell line LoVo and the CEA-devoid cell line H-Meso-1 did not differ in adherence to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin, collagen and fibronectin, whereas LoVo cells adhered to CEA (10 micrograms/well) in a specific manner (43% bound cells vs. 1.5% bound cells with BSA or alpha-acidglycoprotein controls, P less than 0.01) while H-MESO-1 showed no adhesion to CEA (less than 0.6% bound cells). This adhesion of LoVo cells to CEA was not affected by co-incubation of cells with EDTA, sodium azide, or at 23 degrees C. However, the CEA to CEA adhesive interaction was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope in the N-terminal domain of the CEA molecule, and decreased by enzymatic removal of CEA from the LoVo cell membrane. The extent of adhesion to immobilized CEA by four CEA-producing cell lines (LoVo, HT29, LS174T and LS174-S), correlated with membrane CEA expression as determined by FACS analysis. The results of these experiments add support to the concept that CEA may function as a specific homotypic cellular adhesion molecule for colorectal cancer cells.

  13. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  14. Antigen exposure shapes the ratio between antigen-specific Tregs and conventional T cells in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Su, Laura F.; del Alcazar, Daniel; Stelekati, Erietta; Wherry, E. John; Davis, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) is required for maturation and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the ligand specificities of Tregs outside the context of transgenic TCRs are largely unknown. Using peptide–MHC tetramers, we isolated rare specific Foxp3+ cells directly ex vivo from adult peripheral blood and defined their frequency and phenotype. We find that a proportion of circulating Tregs recognize foreign antigens and the frequency of these cells are similar to that of self-reactive Tregs in the absence of cognate infection. In contrast, the frequencies of Tregs that recognize some common microbial antigens are significantly reduced in the blood of most adults. Exposure to peripheral antigens likely has a major influence on the balance between Tregs and conventional T-cell subsets because a larger proportion of flu-specific T cells has a regulatory cell phenotype in the cord blood. Consistent with this finding, we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection can directly modulate the ratio of virus-specific effectors and Tregs in mice. The resulting change in the balance within an antigen-specific T-cell population further correlates with the magnitude of effector response and the chronicity of infection. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of antigen specificity in the functional dynamics of the T-cell repertoire. Each specific population of CD4+ T cells in human peripheral blood contains a subset of Tregs at birth, but the balance between regulatory and effector subsets changes in response to peripheral antigen exposure and this could impact the robustness of antipathogen immunity. PMID:27681619

  15. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  16. Sequential class switching is required for the generation of high affinity IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Huizhong; Dolpady, Jayashree; Wabl, Matthias; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    IgE antibodies with high affinity for their antigens can be stably cross-linked at low concentrations by trace amounts of antigen, whereas IgE antibodies with low affinity bind their antigens weakly. In this study, we find that there are two distinct pathways to generate high and low affinity IgE. High affinity IgE is generated through sequential class switching (μ→γ→ε) in which an intermediary IgG phase is necessary for the affinity maturation of the IgE response, where the IgE inherits somatic hypermutations and high affinity from the IgG1 phase. In contrast, low affinity IgE is generated through direct class switching (μ→ε) and is much less mutated. Mice deficient in IgG1 production cannot produce high affinity IgE, even after repeated immunizations. We demonstrate that a small amount of high affinity IgE can cause anaphylaxis and is pathogenic. Low affinity IgE competes with high affinity IgE for binding to Fcε receptors and prevents anaphylaxis and is thus beneficial. PMID:22249450

  17. Auger Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Ana P.; Hobbs, Robert; Sgouros, George; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Shen, Colette J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Auger electron emitters such as 125I have a high linear energy transfer and short range of emission (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. We used a highly specific small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to deliver 125I to prostate cancer cells. Methods The PSMA-targeting Auger emitter 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-125I-iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid (125I-DCIBzL) was synthesized. DNA damage (via phosphorylated H2A histone family member X staining) and clonogenic survival were tested in PSMA-positive (PSMA+) PC3 PIP and PSMA-negative (PSMA−) PC3 flu human prostate cancer cells after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL. Subcellular drug distribution was assessed with confocal microscopy using a related fluorescent PSMA-targeting compound YC-36. In vivo antitumor efficacy was tested in nude mice bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP or PSMA− PC3 flu flank xenografts. Animals were administered (intravenously) 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-DCIBzL, 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-NaI, an equivalent amount of nonradiolabeled DCIBzL, or saline. Results After treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, PSMA+ PC3 PIP cells exhibited increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival when compared with PSMA− PC3 flu cells. Confocal microscopy of YC-36 showed drug distribution in the perinuclear area and plasma membrane. Animals bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors had significant tumor growth delay after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, with only 1 mouse reaching 5 times the initial tumor volume by 60 d after treatment, compared with a median time to 5 times volume of less than 15 d for PSMA− PC3 flu tumors and all other treatment groups (P = 0.002 by log-rank test). Conclusion PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy with the Auger emitter 125I-DCIBzL yielded highly specific antitumor efficacy in vivo, suggesting promise for treatment of prostate cancer micrometastases. PMID:26182968

  18. Revision of omalizumab dosing table for dosing every 4 instead of 2 weeks for specific ranges of bodyweight and baseline IgE.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Philip J; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Canvin, Janice

    2015-02-01

    The dosing level and frequency of omalizumab are guided by a dosing table based on total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and bodyweight. Using a validated, mathematical simulation model (based on concentration data from 8 studies), we evaluated the impact of a revised omalizumab dosing table (every 4 weeks dosing regimen) on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of free and total IgE. Safety analysis, in patients with high levels of exposure to omalizumab, was done using data from the clinical and post-marketing databases. The model accurately predicted observed omalizumab, free and total IgE concentrations. After reaching steady-state, the average increase in exposure was 10%, even for patients with the highest concentrations at the upper 97.5th percentile. Free IgE suppression slightly increased in the initial phase, and slightly reduced at the trough of the dosing cycle, but average suppression remained similar for both regimens. The safety profile of omalizumab was similar for patients receiving higher or lower doses. Thus, doubling the dose of omalizumab, in a subset of patients receiving 225-300 mg of omalizumab (every 2 weeks dosing regimen) can efficiently suppress free IgE without compromising safety or efficacy.

  19. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 ( P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 ( P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 ( P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  20. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of a monoclonal antibody (3C6) specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen

    PubMed Central

    Regino, C.A.S.; Wong, K.J.; Milenic, D.E.; Holmes, E.H.; Garmestani, K.; Choyke, P.L.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Better tumor markers are needed for early diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer, and for monitoring therapeutic response than the currently used prostate specific antigen (PSA). Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on the surface of prostatic epithelial cells making it a good target for prostate cancer. In this study, mAb 3C6, specific for the extracellular epitope of PSMA, was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for PSMA-targeting. Immunoreactivity and specificity of mAb 3C6 was evaluated by flow cytometry using prostate cell lines expressing PSMA such as LNCaP and 22Rv1 and a cell line, DU145, that expresses very little PSMA. 3C6 was conjugated with the acyclic CHX-A” DTPA chelate, radiolabeled with 111In, and its in vitro and in vivo properties were assessed. The biodistribution of the radioimmunoconjugate evaluated in athymic mice bearing xenografts of three human prostate carcinoma cell lines shows high uptake after 72 hr in LNCaP tumors (%ID/g 22.93 ± 6.32) and 22Rv1 (%ID/g 10.44 ± 2.32) in contrast to low uptake by the DU145 tumors (%ID/g 4.27 ± 0.37). Planar γ-scintigraphic images obtained for xenografted tumor bearing mice demonstrated targeting for PSMA positive tumors suggesting possible applications in imaging and for targeted radiation therapy. PMID:20047017

  2. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  3. Induction of immunological tolerance to the penicilloyl antigenic determinant--IV. The effect of BPO-oligolysines and cholestanol-bearing BPO-oligolysines on murine IgE responses.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, I F; Schneider, C H; de Weck, A L; Weber, E A

    1983-10-01

    Penta-, deca- and eicosalysine carriers were synthesized in solution and conjugated with benzylpenicillin to give BPO-conjugates of high haptenic density. Each oligolysine conjugate was prepared in two forms--with a free C-terminus and with an esterified C-terminus carrying via a benzylester bridge in essence a lipophilic cholestanol moiety [p-oxymethylbenzylcholestan-3 beta-yl succinate (OSuco group)]. Decalysines that carried a single haptenic BPO group and succinyl groups on the other amino functions were also prepared. Suppression of IgE responses was studied in BALB/c mice. It was found that BPO-specific suppression could be induced by injecting OSuco-bearing deca- or eicosalysine conjugates before immunization with BPO-Asc in A1(OH)3. The pentalysine conjugate was only slightly effective as were all OSuco-deficient conjugates. Ongoing IgE responses were only slightly suppressed and OSuco-bearing conjugates were not more effective than OSuco-deficient derivatives. When the monohaptenic OSuco-bearing decalysine, which exhibited weak tolerogenic effects on primary as well as on ongoing responses, was applied under conditions that favour suppressor T-cell induction, a pronounced unresponsiveness resulted. Direct evidence for suppressor T-cell involvement in the abrogation of anti-BPO responses by OSuco-bearing BPO-conjugates was obtained from cell transfer experiments. The study shows that relatively small haptenic conjugates, the lower limit of effectiveness being approximately represented by decalysine conjugates, may be effective tolerogens depending on the immune status.

  4. Bacterial surface antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies used to detect beer spoilage pediococci.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Ingledew, W M; Lee, S Y; Ziola, B

    1999-08-01

    Fourteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that react with surface antigens of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms, including P. damnosus, P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici, and unspeciated isolates. Immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) of protease- and neuraminidase-treated surface antigen extracts, carbohydrate competition EIAs, and cardiolipin EIAs were used to characterize the bacterial antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment or surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. In most cases, the Mabs bind to Pediococcus surface antigens that appear to be covalently bound cell wall polymers resistant to alteration or removal from the bacterial surface. These bacterial surface antigen reactive Mabs show good potential for rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay detection of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms.

  5. Internalization and presentation of myelin antigens by the brain endothelium guides antigen-specific T cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Pinheiro, Melissa A; Kamermans, Alwin; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van het Hof, Bert; Wierts, Laura; O'Toole, Tom; Boeve, Daniël; Verstege, Marleen; van der Pol, Susanne MA; van Kooyk, Yvette; de Vries, Helga E; Unger, Wendy WJ

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. Inflamed BECs internalized myelin, which was routed to endo-lysosomal compartment for processing in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. Furthermore, blocking the interaction between myelin/MHC-II complexes and myelin-reactive T-cells prevented T-cell transmigration. These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13149.001 PMID:27336724

  6. Correlation of IgE/IgG4 milk epitopes and affinity of milk-specific IgE antibodies with different phenotypes of clinical milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Lin, Jing; Bardina, Ludmilla; Goldis, Marina; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Results from large-scale epitope mapping using peptide microarray have been shown to correlate with clinical features of milk allergy. Objectives We sought to assess IgE and IgG4 epitope diversity and IgE affinity in different clinical phenotypes of milk allergy and identify informative epitopes that may be predictive of clinical outcomes of milk allergy. Methods Forty-one subjects were recruited from a larger study on the effects of ingesting heat-denatured milk proteins in milk-allergic individuals. Using food challenges, subjects were characterized as clinically reactive to all forms of milk (n = 17), tolerant to heated milk (HM) products (n = 16), or outgrown their milk allergy (n = 8). Eleven non-milk allergic, healthy volunteers served as controls. Peptide microarray was performed using the previously published protocol. Results Milk allergic subjects had increased epitope diversity as compared to those who outgrew their allergy. HM tolerant subjects had IgE binding patterns similar to those who had outgrown their allergy, but IgG4 binding patterns that were more similar to the allergic group. Binding to higher numbers of IgE peptides was associated with more severe allergic reactions during challenge. There was no association between IgG4 peptides and clinical features of milk allergy. Using a competitive peptide microarray assay, allergic patients demonstrated a combination of high and low affinity IgE binding whereas HM tolerant subjects and those who had outgrown their milk allergy had primarily low affinity binding. Conclusions Greater IgE epitope diversity and higher affinity as determined by peptide microarray were associated with clinical phenotypes and severity of milk allergy. PMID:20226304

  7. Identification of Enterococcus faecalis antigens specifically expressed in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Uttom K.; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a suspected endodontic pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here we report the identification of in vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis by using a novel immunoscreening technique called change-mediated antigen technology (CMAT) and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Materials and Methods Among 4,500 E. coli recombinant clones screened, 19 positive clones reacted reproducibly with hyperimmune sera obtained from rabbits immunized with E. faecalis cells isolated from an experimental endodontic infection. DNA sequences from 16 of these in vivo-induced (IVI) genes were determined. Results Identified protein antigens of E. faecalis included enzymes involved in housekeeping functions, copper resistance protein, putative outer membrane proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Conclusions In vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis could be identified by using a novel immune-screening technique CMAT and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Detailed analysis of these IVI genes will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the endodontic infection of E. faecalis. PMID:26587417

  8. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Tarhan, Fatih; Demir, Kadir; Orçun, Asuman; Madenci, Ozlem Cakır

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS). Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control). After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA), free (fPSA) and complexed PSA (cPSA) levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively). Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively). The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA. PMID:27286109

  9. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat in Patients with IgE Specific for Galactose alpha-1,3-Galactose (alpha-gal)

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. In instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody (Ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab, and (2) delayed onset anaphylaxis 3–6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g., beef and pork). The results of our studies strongly suggest that tick bites are a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the southern, eastern and central United States. Patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to emerge and, increasingly, these cases involve children. This IgE Ab response cross-reacts with cat and dog but does not appear to pose a risk for asthma; however, it may impair diagnostic testing in some situations. PMID:23054628

  10. T-cell hybridoma specific for a cytochrome c peptide: specific antigen binding and interleukin 2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Carel, S; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1983-01-01

    T-cell hybridomas were obtained after fusion of BW 5147 thymoma and long-term cultured T cells specific for cytochrome c peptide 66-80 derivatized with a 2,4-dinitroaminophenyl (DNAP) group. The resulting hybridomas were selected for their capacity to specifically bind to soluble radiolabeled peptide antigen. One T-cell hybrid was positive for antigen binding. This hybrid T cell exhibits surface phenotypic markers of the parent antigen-specific T cells. The binding could be inhibited either by an excess of unlabeled homologous antigen or by cytochrome c peptide 11-25 derivatized with a 2-nitrophenylsulfenyl group. Several other peptide antigens tested failed to inhibit binding of the radioactive peptide. This suggests that a specific amino acid sequence, modified by a DNAP group, is the antigenic structure recognized by the putative T-cell receptor. In addition, direct interaction of DNAP-66-80 peptide with the hybridoma cell line induced production of the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2. Furthermore, supernatants derived from syngeneic macrophages pulsed with the relevant peptide also induced the antigen-specific hybridoma to produce interleukin 2. Images PMID:6192442

  11. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)*

    PubMed Central

    Schölz, Christian; Parcej, David; Ejsing, Christer S.; Robenek, Horst; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Tampé, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in adaptive immunity by translocating proteasomal degradation products from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen for subsequent loading onto major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules. For functional and structural analysis of this ATP-binding cassette complex, we established the overexpression of TAP in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Screening of optimal solubilization and purification conditions allowed the isolation of the heterodimeric transport complex, yielding 30 mg of TAP/liter of culture. Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The antigen translocation activity is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol and -ethanolamine, whereas cholesterol has a negative effect on TAP activity. PMID:21357424

  12. Targeting HER2/neu with a fully human IgE to harness the allergic reaction against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Tracy R.; Leuchter, Richard K.; Quintero, Rafaela; Helguera, Gustavo; Rodíguez, José A.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Schultes, Birgit C.; Nicodemus, Christopher F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast and ovarian cancer are two of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Overexpression of the HER2/neu oncoprotein has been reported in patients affected with breast and ovarian cancers, and is associated with poor prognosis. To develop a novel targeted therapy for HER2/neu expressing tumors, we have constructed a fully human IgE with the variable regions of the scFv C6MH3-B1 specific for HER2/neu. This antibody was expressed in murine myeloma cells and was properly assembled and secreted. The Fc region of this antibody triggers in vitro degranulation of rat basophilic cells expressing human FcεRI (RBL SX-38) in the presence of murine mammary carcinoma cells that express human HER2/neu (D2F2/E2), but not the shed (soluble) antigen (ECDHER2) alone. This IgE is also capable of inducing passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in a human FcεRIα transgenic mouse model, in the presence of a cross-linking antibody, but not in the presence of soluble ECDHER2. Additionally, IgE enhances antigen presentation in human dendritic cells and facilitates cross-priming, suggesting that the antibody is able to stimulate a secondary T-cell antitumor response. Furthermore, we show that this IgE significantly prolongs survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice bearing D2F2/E2 tumors. We also report that the anti-HER2/neu IgE is well tolerated in a preliminary study conducted in Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus) monkeys. In summary, our results suggest that this IgE should be further explored as a potential therapeutic against HER2/ neu overexpressing tumors, such as breast and ovarian cancers. PMID:22127364

  13. Use of humanized rat basophilic leukemia reporter cell lines as a diagnostic tool for detection of allergen-specific IgE in allergic patients: time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Falcone, Franco H; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Okamoto-Uchida, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Ryosuke

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between allergens and specific IgE is at the heart of the allergic response and as such lies at the center of techniques used for diagnosis of allergic sensitization. Although serological tests are available, in vivo tests such as double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) and skin prick test (SPT) associated to the patients' clinical history are still the main guides to clinicians in many practices around the world. More recently, complex protein arrays and basophil activation tests, requiring only small amounts of whole blood, have been developed and refined, but are yet to enter clinical practice. Similarly, the use of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell lines for detection of allergen-specific IgE has been made possible by stable transfection of the human FcεRI α chain into this cell line more than 20 years ago, but has not found widespread acceptance among clinicians. Here, we review the perceived limitations of diagnostic applications of humanized RBL systems. Furthermore, we illustrate how the introduction of reporter genes into humanized RBL cells is able to overcome most of these limitations, and has the potential to become a new powerful tool to complement the armamentarium of allergists. A demonstration of the usefulness of humanized RBL reporter systems for elucidation of complex IgE sensitization patterns against wheat proteins and a section on the use of fluorescence-based reporter systems in combination with allergen arrays close the review. PMID:26452547

  14. A new approach for evaluating antigen-specific T cell responses to myelin antigens during the course of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Nathalie; Holz, Andreas; Sipe, Jack C.; Naniche, Denise; Romine, John S.; Zyroff, Jack; Oldstone, Michael B.A.

    2016-01-01

    We used a flow cytometry assay to measure proliferation and cytokine production of self-antigen-specific T cells in individual patients during the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein (MOBP) was selected for proof of principles in the assay, along with myelin basic protein (MBP) to assess specific activated T cells in 10 MS patients over an 18-month period, in parallel with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and clinical rating scale. A positive correlation occurred between antigen-specific T cell proliferation and interferon-γ production with clinical relapses and MRI lesion activity that was absent when the same patients were in remission. PMID:12667664

  15. Cell-type specific regulation of gene expression by simian virus 40 T antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Saenz-Robles, Maria Teresa; Rathi, Abhilasha V.; Beerman, Rebecca W.; Patterson, William H.; Whitehead, Robert H.; Pipas, James M.

    2009-03-30

    SV40 transforms cells through the action of two oncoproteins, large T antigen and small t antigen. Small t antigen targets phosphatase PP2A, while large T antigen stimulates cell proliferation and survival by action on multiple proteins, including the tumor suppressors Rb and p53. Large T antigen also binds components of the transcription initiation complex and several transcription factors. We examined global gene expression in SV40-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts, and in enterocytes obtained from transgenic mice. SV40 transformation alters the expression of approximately 800 cellular genes in both systems. Much of this regulation is observed in both MEFs and enterocytes and is consistent with T antigen action on the Rb-E2F pathway. However, the regulation of many genes is cell-type specific, suggesting that unique signaling pathways are activated in different cell types upon transformation, and that the consequences of SV40 transformation depends on the type of cell targeted.

  16. Universal artificial antigen presenting cells to selectively propagate T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor independent of specificity.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, David; Jena, Bipulendu; Olivares, Simon; Maiti, Sourindra; Briggs, Neima; Somanchi, Srinivas; Dai, Jianliang; Lee, Dean; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2014-05-01

    T cells genetically modified to stably express immunoreceptors are being assessed for therapeutic potential in clinical trials. T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) are endowed with a new specificity to target tumor-associated antigen (TAA) independent of major histocompatibility complex. Our approach to nonviral gene transfer in T cells uses ex vivo numeric expansion of CAR T cells on irradiated artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) bearing the targeted TAA. The requirement for aAPC to express a desired TAA limits the human application of CARs with multiple specificities when selective expansion through coculture with feeder cells is sought. As an alternative to expressing individual TAAs on aAPC, we expressed 1 ligand that could activate CAR T cells for sustained proliferation independent of specificity. We expressed a CAR ligand (designated CARL) that binds the conserved IgG4 extracellular domain of CAR and demonstrated that CARL aAPC propagate CAR T cells of multiple specificities. CARL avoids technical issues and costs associated with deploying clinical-grade aAPC for each TAA targeted by a given CAR. Using CARL enables 1 aAPC to numerically expand all CAR T cells containing the IgG4 domain, and simplifies expansion, testing, and clinical translation of CAR T cells of any specificity. PMID:24714354

  17. Universal Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells to Selectively Propagate T Cells Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor Independent of Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rushworth, David; Jena, Bipulendu; Olivares, Simon; Maiti, Sourindra; Briggs, Neima; Somanchi, Srinivas; Dai, Jianliang; Lee, Dean; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2014-01-01

    T cells genetically modified to stably express immunoreceptors are being assessed for therapeutic potential in clinical trials. T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) are endowed with a new specificity to target tumor-associated antigen (TAA) independent of major histocompatibility complex. Our approach to non-viral gene transfer in T cells uses ex vivo numeric expansion of CAR+ T cells on irradiated artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) bearing the targeted TAA. The requirement for aAPC to express a desired TAA limits the human application of CARs with multiple specificities when selective expansion through co-culture with feeder cells is sought. As an alternative to expressing individual TAAs on aAPC, we expressed one ligand that could activate CAR+ T cells for sustained proliferation independent of specificity. We expressed a CAR ligand (designated CARL) that binds the conserved IgG4 extracellular domain of CAR and demonstrated CARL+ aAPC propagate CAR+ T cells of multiple specificities. CARL avoids technical issues and costs associated with deploying clinical-grade aAPC for each TAA targeted by a given CAR. Employing CARL enables one aAPC to numerically expand all CAR+ T cells containing the IgG4 domain, and simplifies expansion, testing, and clinical translation of CAR+ T cells of any specificity. PMID:24714354

  18. Immune modulation of T regulatory cells and IgE responses in horses vaccinated with West Nile virus vaccine combined with a CpG ODN.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Nicole E; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-10-26

    Hypersensitivity reactions, such as hives or fatal anaphylactic shock, in response to vaccination constitute a health hazard for horses that develop allergies to vaccine components. In such horses vaccination with viral vaccines stimulates an IgE response to non-target antigens. Viral vaccines share contaminating non-target proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA); these antigens can stimulate IgE production with each exposure. We hypothesized that the addition of a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) administered in conjunction with a West Nile virus vaccine would decrease the IgE response; through up-regulation of T regulatory cells and T helper 1 cells thus decreasing the potential to induce a type 1 hypersensitivity response. Thirty adult horses were injected with either CpG ODN or control GpC ODN with a killed WNV vaccine. T regulatory cell numbers and BSA specific IgE concentrations were determined pre and post vaccination. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to evaluate expression of CD4, CD25, and intracellular Foxp3 on PBMCs. Serum concentrations of BSA specific IgE were determined by ELISA. Cell culture supernatants from BSA re-stimulated lymphocytes were evaluated for concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ. The inclusion of the CpG ODN significantly increased the differentiation of T regulatory cells in response to antigen in vitro and in vivo. A significant inverse correlation was found between T regulatory cell numbers and serum BSA specific IgE concentrations. These results suggest that we can provide a safer alternate vaccination strategy, particularly for horses that have demonstrated a pro-allergic phenotype. PMID:26424604

  19. Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yunginger, J W; Ahlstedt, S; Eggleston, P A; Homburger, H A; Nelson, H S; Ownby, D R; Platts-Mills, T A; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Weinstein, A M; Williams, P B; Wood, R A; Zeiger, R S

    2000-06-01

    During the past several years, immunoassays for specific IgE antibodies have been refined to permit reporting results in mass units. Thus quantitative immunoassays for IgE antibodies may be an adjunct to skin tests. In cases of food allergy among children with atopic dermatitis, cutoff values for IgE antibody concentrations to egg, milk, peanut, and fish have been derived to provide 95% positive and 90% negative predictive values. Food-specific IgE antibody determinations can also be used to predict which food allergies are resolving spontaneously. Elevated egg-specific IgE antibody levels in infancy are associated with significantly increased risk for development of inhalant allergies later in childhood. In cases of inhalant allergy, specific IgE antibody levels correlate closely with results of inhalation challenge studies in cat-sensitive persons. Also, mite-specific IgE antibody levels correlate significantly with the mite allergen contents of reservoir dust in the homes of mite-sensitive persons. Immunoassays for quantitation of specific IgE antibodies may be used to document allergen sensitization over time and to evaluate the risk of reaction on allergen exposure. However, immunoassays and skin tests are not entirely interchangeable, and neither will replace the other in appropriate circumstances.

  20. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  1. Development and evaluation of a sensitive and specific assay for diagnosis of human toxocariasis by use of three recombinant antigens (TES-26, TES-30USM, and TES-120).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Suharni; Azmi, Norhaida Che; Noordin, Rahmah

    2009-06-01

    Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serologic tests that use Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigen to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the larvae. In general, however, these assays do not have adequate specificity for use in countries in which other soil-transmitted helminths are endemic. The use of recombinant antigens in these assays, however, is promising for improving the specificity of the diagnosis of toxocariasis. Toward this goal, we developed an IgG4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involving three recombinant antigens: rTES-30USM (previously produced), rTES-26, and rTES-120. The latter two antigens were produced by reverse transcription-PCR cloning; subcloned into glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged and His-tagged prokaryotic expression vectors, respectively; and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were subsequently purified by affinity chromatography using GST and His-Trap resins. The diagnostic potential of each purified recombinant antigen was tested with various immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgM, and IgE) and IgG subclasses. The IgG4 ELISA was determined to have the highest specificity and was further evaluated using a panel of serum samples. The rTES-26 IgG4 ELISA showed 80.0% (24/30 samples positive) sensitivity, and both the rTES-30USM IgG4 ELISA and rTES-120 IgG4 ELISA had 93.0% (28/30) sensitivity. Combined use of rTES-120 and rTES-30 IgG4 ELISA for the diagnosis of toxocariasis provided 100% sensitivity. The specificities of rTES-26, rTES-30USM, and rTES-120 antigens were 96.2%, 93.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. These results indicate that the development of a diagnostic test using the three recombinant antigens will allow for more-accurate detection of toxocariasis.

  2. Antigen-specific suppression of anti-influenza antibody production in man. Possible role of a membrane-antigen complex.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, G W; Brown, M H; Basten, A

    1985-03-01

    E rosette-forming (E+) cells from human secondary lymphoid tissue were incubated with high dose influenza A virus (Mem-Bel) in an attempt to generate suppressor T cells. Suppression was assayed by transferring the antigen-pulsed E+ cells into effector cultures consisting of E+ and E- cells stimulated with immunogenic amounts of either the inducing virus Mem-Bel) or the non-cross-reacting influenza B virus (B/HK). The transfer resulted in marked inhibition of IgG, IgA and IgM antibody production to Mem-Bel but not to the control antigen, B/HK virus. The suppressive effect was specific at the level of induction as well as expression since E+ cells exposed to high dose Mem-Bel could provide help to an effector culture containing E- cells and optimal dose of B/HK virus. However, metabolically active cells did not appear to be required for suppression. Thus, it could be elicited (a) after only 15 min incubation of E+ cells with high-dose virus and (b) by E+ cells exposed to irradiation, incubated in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, or disrupted by repeated freeze thawing. In contrast, treatment of E+ cells with pronase reversed the suppressive effect. Interestingly, virus heated to 70 degree C failed to induced suppression, while retailing the ability to elicit a normal helper response. Suppression induced by exposure to standard amounts of high-dose antigen was mediated by T cells of both helper/inducer (Leu-3a+) and suppressor/cytotoxic subsets (Leu-2a+), but not by B cells. Two groups of observations pointed to the B cell as the target of suppression. First, suppression could still be transferred to effector cultures in which helper T cells had been replaced by T cell-replacing factor or suppressor T cells removed by irradiation. Second, significant inhibition of antibody production was obtained when the transfer of antigen-pulsed E+ cells was delayed for up to 120 h after initiation of the effector culture. Taken together the results suggest that suppression in

  3. The role of a human antigen specific T8+ cell subset in antigen presentation, helper function and contrasuppression.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Avery, J; Jones, T

    1985-01-01

    Regulation of the human immune response was studied by sequential separation of subsets of T cells, followed by assessment of their helper and suppressor functions in a series of reconstitution experiments. T8+ lymphocytes were separated by panning on streptococcal antigen (SA) coated plates into T8+ SA-adherent cells (T8+SA+) and T8+ SA-non-adherent cells (T8+SA-). The helper and suppressor functions of the T8+SA+ and T8+SA- cells, reconstituted with T4+ helper cells were then studied by a direct antibody forming cell assay. T4+ cells will not induce helper activity by 1000 ng SA alone but require the accessory function of monocytes (Mo). However, replacing Mo by T8+SA+ cells will elicit a similar helper activity by T4+ cells and SA as that induced by Mo. In addition to the antigen-specific presentation and induction of helper activity, the T8+SA+ subset displays the properties of antigen-specific contrasuppressor cells. Thus, reconstitution of T4+ cells and T8+SA- (suppressor cells) with T8+SA+ and 1000 ng SA induces helper and no suppressor activity. Substitution of Mo for the T8+SA+ cells converts the helper to a predominantly suppressor-cell function. T8+SA- cells elicit suppression with 1 ng SA in the absence of accessory cells and reconstitution with Mo, T8+SA+ or T4+ cells failed to affect the suppressor activity. Total reconstitution of the four principle subsets of T4+, T8+SA+, T8+SA- cells and Mo elicited similar antigen dose-dependent responses as those of the unseparated mononuclear cells. It seems that all four cell subsets are required for optimal immunoregulation. We suggest that the T8+SA+ can present antigen to T4+ helper cells and induce helper activity, but in addition these cells can prevent the suppressor subset of T8+ cells from inhibiting T4+ helper cells and function as contrasuppressor cells. The mechanism of these functions is not known but HLA class II antigens might play an essential role in antigen binding, presentation and

  4. Regeneration of tumor antigen-specific CTLs utilizing iPS technology.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Masuda, Kyoko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Tumor immunotherapy, especially tumor antigen specific T cell therapy, is currently attracting attention. However, a critical issue still awaits resolution; it is difficult to efficiently expand tumor antigen-specific T cells. To solve this problem, we are now utilizing iPS cell technology. When iPS cells are established from tumor antigen specific T cells, T cells regenerated from these iPS cells are expected to express the same TCRs as the original T cells. In line with this concept, we succeeded in regenerating tumor antigen specific cytotoxic T cells. The regenerated T cells exhibited TCR specific killing activity comparable to that of the original cells, and were able to kill leukemia cells in an antigen-specific manner. We are currently endeavoring to apply this method clinically. In the future, we intend to establish an allogeneic transfusion system, in which various tumor antigen specific T-iPS cells from a wide range of HLA haplotype homozygous donors will be lined up as a "T-iPS cell bank", with the aim of making off-the-shelf tumor immunotherapy a reality. PMID:27599425

  5. Presence of species-specific, monomorphic antigens on sheep and goat binucleate cells.

    PubMed

    Gall, J G; MacLaren, L A; Anderson, G B

    1995-07-15

    Immunocytochemical assays for sheep and goat species-specific, monomorphic antigens were developed utilizing polyclonal antisera from sheep and goats immunized by interspecific pregnancy. The assays were applied to cell isolates from sheep and goat fetal cotyledons collected from allogeneic pregnancies at Days 35, 40 and 120 of gestation. The isolates contained 7 to 48% binucleate cells (BNC). Using these assays, the sheep-specific antigen was detected on sheep cotyledonary cell isolates on all days of gestation tested (P < 0.001); the assay also detected the antigen on the BNC subset of the cotyledonary cell isolate population (P < 0.001). The caprine-specific antigen was shown to be present on cotyledonary cell isolates (P < 0.05), although the presence of the antigen could not be demonstrated with statistical confidence on goat BNC due to insufficient numbers of discernible cells. Binucleate cells contribute to the formation of the syncytial layer of the placenta by fusing with maternal epithelial cells and with the syncytium. The species-specific antigen (or antigens) is present on BNC at the appropriate time of gestation at which it (they) could play a role in the humoral immune response to interspecific and hybrid pregnancies observed in ewes and does. PMID:16727726

  6. Expression and characterization of a parasite-specific antigen on macrophages after infection with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Basu, N; Kole, L; Ghosh, A; Das, P K

    1994-03-16

    A rabbit polyclonal antibody to crude soluble antigen of Leishmania donovani promastigotes recognized a determinant expressed on the surface membrane of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte derived macrophages infected in vitro. The determinant was recognized on infected macrophage surface only when F(ab')2 fragments of anti-leishmanial antiserum was employed in immunofluorescence. F(ab')2 fragments of human patient sera also could recognize the determinant. The expression of this antigen was not stage-specific for the parasite. Immunochemical analyses revealed this antigen to be of 51 kDa protein. Specific leaching of membrane proteins by trypsin showed three bands of expressed antigens of 26, 11 and 10 kDa, which in all likelihood might be arising from the 51 kDa antigen. The antigen was not expressed until 12 h of post infection, reached a maximum level at 24 h and thereafter attained a steady state level as studied upto 96 h of post infection. This type of antigen might have a great potential in immunodiagnostics and site-specific drug targeting. PMID:8078503

  7. Antigen-specific tolerogenic and immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Shailesh R.; Durai, Malarvizhi; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To review various antigen-specific tolerogenic and immunomodulatory approaches for arthritis in animal models and patients in regard to their efficacy, mechanisms of action and limitations. Methods We reviewed the published literature in Medline (PubMed) on the induction of antigen-specific tolerance and its effect on autoimmune arthritis, as well as the recent work on B cell-mediated tolerance from our laboratory. The prominent key words used in different combinations included arthritis, autoimmunity, immunotherapy, innate immunity, tolerance, treatment, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although this search spanned the years 1975 to 2007, the majority of the short-listed articles belonged to the period 1990 to 2007. The relevant primary as well as cross-referenced articles were then collected from links within PubMed and reviewed. Results Antigen-specific tolerance has been successful in the prevention and/or treatment of arthritis in animal models. The administration of soluble native antigen or an altered peptide ligand intravenously, orally, or nasally, and the delivery of the DNA encoding a particular antigen by gene therapy have been the mainstay of immunomodulation. Recently, the methods for in vitro-expansion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have been optimized. Furthermore, interleukin-17 has emerged as a promising new therapeutic target in arthritis. However, in RA patients, non-antigen-specific therapeutic approaches have been much more successful than antigen-specific tolerogenic regimens. Conclusion An antigen-specific treatment against autoimmune arthritis is still elusive. However, insights into newly emerging mechanisms of disease pathogenesis provide hope for the development of effective and safe immunotherapeutic strategies in the near future. PMID:18177689

  8. Longitudinal analysis of antigen specific response in individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; LoVerde, Philip T.; Kloos, Helmut; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoepidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between IgE and IgG4 antibodies with age and with resistance and susceptibility to infection. It is believed that the IgE and IgG4 responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) can be used for serological analysis of infection and post-treatment status. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and anti-SEA IgG4 and IgE reactivities, and determine whether these reactivities could be used as biomarkers of infection. Methods Between 2001 and 2009, a longitudinal study was performed in which parasitologic and blood specimens and socioeconomic and water-contact information were collected from 127 individuals. All patients positive for S. mansoni infection were treated. Results Schistosomiasis prevalence and the geometric mean of the egg count in 2001 were 59% and 61.05, respectively, decreasing to 26.8% and 8.78 in 2009. IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity in infected individuals was significantly higher than that in uninfected individuals at all time points. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area showed that the IgG4 anti-SEA antibodies were able to predict infection by S. mansoni at each time point. Conclusion IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity can be used as a biomarker for immune monitoring of the presence of infection with S. mansoni in endemic areas. PMID:24189480

  9. Alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells generated with a chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Katherine G.; Hoeppli, Romy E.; Huang, Qing; Gillies, Jana; Luciani, Dan S.; Orban, Paul C.; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2–specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR–expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR–mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR–expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases. PMID:26999600

  10. Alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells generated with a chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine G; Hoeppli, Romy E; Huang, Qing; Gillies, Jana; Luciani, Dan S; Orban, Paul C; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan K

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2-specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR-expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR-mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR-expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases. PMID:26999600

  11. Phospholipase treatment of accessory cells that have been exposed to antigen selectively inhibits antigen-specific Ia-restricted, but not allospecific, stimulation of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-01-01

    The corecognition of antigen and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (Ia molecules) by the T-cell receptor is a cell surface event. Before antigen is recognized, it must be taken up, processed, and displayed on the surface of an Ia-bearing accessory cell (antigen-presenting cell, APC). The exact nature of antigen processing and the subsequent associations of antigen with the APC plasma membrane, Ia molecules, and/or the T-cell receptor are not well defined. To further analyze these events, we have characterized the processing and presentation of the soluble polypeptide antigen bovine insulin. We found that this antigen requires APC-dependent processing, as evidenced by the inability of metabolically inactivated APCs to present native antigen to antigen plus Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. The ability of the same APCs to present antigen after uptake and processing showed that this antigen subsequently becomes stably associated with the APC plasma membrane. To characterize the basis for this association, we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. APCs exposed to antigen, treated with phospholipase A2, and then immediately fixed lost the ability to stimulate bovine insulin plus I-Ad-specific hybridomas. In contrast, the ability of these same APCs to stimulate I-Ad allospecific hybridomas was unaffected. This effect of phospholipase is not mimicked by the broadly active protease Pronase, nor is there evidence for contaminating proteases in the phospholipase preparation. These results suggest that one consequence of antigen processing may be an antigen-lipid association that contributes to the anchoring of antigen to the APC membrane. The implications of this model are discussed. PMID:3529095

  12. The relevance of specific serum IgG, IgG4 and IgE in the determination of shrimp and crab allergies in Malaysian allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Sheah-Min, Y; Choon-Kook, S

    2001-03-01

    The significance of food specific serum IgG4 antibody in food allergy is unclear and this led us to investigate the relevance of specific IgG4, along with IgG and IgE antibodies to two common food allergens in Malaysia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum antibodies in 143 allergic rhinitis patients' sera, of which 47 were from patients with clinical indication of shrimp allergy, 46 with clinical indication of crab allergy and 50 without indication to either allergy. Clinical indication of allergy was based on answers to a questionnaire or results of the skin prick test. We found that the elevation of specific IgE or IgG4 is associated with shrimp and crab allergies but elevation of specific IgG is not associated with either allergy. However, the clinical utility of elevated specific IgG and IgG4 levels is pending further investigation.

  13. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  14. IgE and IgG1 antibody production by a soluble product of Ascaris suum in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, B E

    1979-01-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ascaris suum cultured to the fourth stage in a chemically defined culture medium produced a substance, the 'ACF antigen', which was allergenic in the guinea-pig. When three different concentrations (3.1, 31 and 62 micrograms) of the ACF antigen were given intraperitoneally, only the highest concentration induced a primary IgE specific antibody response (1:100 titre) as determined with the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Upon secondary exposure all concentrations demonstrated a strong IgE response (1:50,000 peak titre) with very little IgG1 activity (1:100). The secondary IgE responses began to rise on the fourth day, peaked on the sixth day and returned to relatively low levels by the fourteenth day (1:100). The intramuscular administration of the ACF antigen did not induce the extremely high titres of IgE as found with the intraperitoneal injection, but rather a low level response (1:500 peak) which did not differ greatly from the IgG1 response. PMID:521052

  15. CD4+ T Cell Tolerance to Tissue-Restricted Self Antigens Is Mediated by Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells Rather Than Deletion.

    PubMed

    Legoux, Francois P; Lim, Jong-Baeck; Cauley, Andrew W; Dikiy, Stanislav; Ertelt, James; Mariani, Thomas J; Sparwasser, Tim; Way, Sing Sing; Moon, James J

    2015-11-17

    Deletion of self-antigen-specific T cells during thymic development provides protection from autoimmunity. However, it is unclear how efficiently this occurs for tissue-restricted self antigens, or how immune tolerance is maintained for self-antigen-specific T cells that routinely escape deletion. Here we show that endogenous CD4+ T cells with specificity for a set of tissue-restricted self antigens were not deleted at all. For pancreatic self antigen, this resulted in an absence of steady-state tolerance, while for the lung and intestine, tolerance was maintained by the enhanced presence of thymically-derived antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Unlike deletional tolerance, Treg cell-mediated tolerance was broken by successive antigen challenges. These findings reveal that for some tissue-restricted self antigens, tolerance relies entirely on nondeletional mechanisms that are less durable than T cell deletion. This might explain why autoimmunity is often tissue-specific, and it offers a rationale for cancer vaccine strategies targeting tissue-restricted tumor antigens.

  16. Redistribution and modulation of Gross murine leukemia virus antigens induced by specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Sabbath, M

    1979-01-01

    Gross murine leukemia virus (G-MuLV)-induced rat leukemia cells in tissue culture replicate G-MuLV, express strong virus-associated membrane antigenicity, and are consistently killed by specific antibodies and complement in cytotoxicity tests. To explore the effect of specific antibodies, rat anti-G-MuLV antisera were added to the cultures of leukemia cells for variable periods of time. Redistribution of virus particles as well as of membrane virus antigens in the form of polar patches and caps was observed by electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. Substantial decreases in cytotoxicity indexes accompanied these changes. The antigen modulation induced by anti-G-MuLV antibodies in vitro paralleled similar changes obtained in vivo by transplanttion of leukemia cells in rats with high anti-G-MuLV antibody titers. The importance of antigen modulation in this system resides in its direct relationship with the malignant potential of the leukemia cells.

  17. Killer Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (KaAPC) for Efficient In Vitro Depletion of Human Antigen-specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Christian; Fleck, Martin; Schneck, Jonathan P.; Oelke, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment of T cell mediated autoimmune diseases relies mostly on strategies of global immunosuppression, which, in the long term, is accompanied by adverse side effects such as a reduced ability to control infections or malignancies. Therefore, new approaches need to be developed that target only the disease mediating cells and leave the remaining immune system intact. Over the past decade a variety of cell based immunotherapy strategies to modulate T cell mediated immune responses have been developed. Most of these approaches rely on tolerance-inducing antigen presenting cells (APC). However, in addition to being technically difficult and cumbersome, such cell-based approaches are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T cell responses, which limits their therapeutic capacity. Here we present a protocol for the generation of non-cellular killer artificial antigen presenting cells (KaAPC), which allows for the depletion of pathologic T cells while leaving the remaining immune system untouched and functional. KaAPC is an alternative solution to cellular immunotherapy which has potential for treating autoimmune diseases and allograft rejections by regulating undesirable T cell responses in an antigen specific fashion. PMID:25145915

  18. Killer artificial antigen presenting cells (KaAPC) for efficient in vitro depletion of human antigen-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christian; Fleck, Martin; Schneck, Jonathan P; Oelke, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment of T cell mediated autoimmune diseases relies mostly on strategies of global immunosuppression, which, in the long term, is accompanied by adverse side effects such as a reduced ability to control infections or malignancies. Therefore, new approaches need to be developed that target only the disease mediating cells and leave the remaining immune system intact. Over the past decade a variety of cell based immunotherapy strategies to modulate T cell mediated immune responses have been developed. Most of these approaches rely on tolerance-inducing antigen presenting cells (APC). However, in addition to being technically difficult and cumbersome, such cell-based approaches are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T cell responses, which limits their therapeutic capacity. Here we present a protocol for the generation of non-cellular killer artificial antigen presenting cells (KaAPC), which allows for the depletion of pathologic T cells while leaving the remaining immune system untouched and functional. KaAPC is an alternative solution to cellular immunotherapy which has potential for treating autoimmune diseases and allograft rejections by regulating undesirable T cell responses in an antigen specific fashion. PMID:25145915

  19. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  20. Antigen-specific suppression of inflammatory arthritis using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Capini, Christelle; Jaturanpinyo, Montree; Chang, Hsin-I; Mutalik, Srinivas; McNally, Alice; Street, Shayna; Steptoe, Raymond; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Davies, Nigel; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2009-03-15

    Existing therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases are not Ag specific, which increases the likelihood of systemic toxicity. We show that egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes loaded with Ag (OVA or methylated BSA) and a lipophilic NF-kappaB inhibitor (curcumin, quercetin, or Bay11-7082) suppress preexisting immune responses in an Ag-specific manner. We injected loaded liposomes into mice primed with Ag or into mice suffering from Ag-induced inflammatory arthritis. The liposomes targeted APCs in situ, suppressing the cells' responsiveness to NF-kappaB and inducing Ag-specific FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. This regulatory mechanism suppressed effector T cell responses and the clinical signs of full-blown Ag-induced arthritis. Thus, liposomes encapsulate Ags and NF-kappaB inhibitors stably and efficiently and could be readily adapted to deliver Ags and inhibitors for Ag-specific suppression of other autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  1. Systemic and mucosal IgE antibody responses of horses to infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Charles E; Lawson, April L; Coles, Gerald C; Wilson, A Douglas

    2014-01-17

    Infection of horses with Anoplocephala perfoliata induces a severe inflammatory reaction of the caecal mucosa around the site of parasite attachment adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Lesions show epithelial erosion or ulceration of the mucosa with infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and mast cells leading to oedema, gross thickening and fibrosis of the caecal wall. Despite this evidence of an inflammatory reaction to A. perfoliata within the mucosa of the caecum there is little information about the nature of the local immune response to A. perfoliata. An ELISA which assays serum IgG(T) antibodies to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens has been developed as a diagnostic test. However, the specificity of the ELISA remains sub-optimal and the role of other isotypes in the immune response to A. perfoliata has not been reported. This study measured IgA, IgE and IgG(T) antibody responses to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens in sera of 75 horses presented for slaughter. The prevalence of A. perfoliata infection, as confirmed by the presence of parasites in the terminal ileum, caecum or proximal colon, was 55%. A. perfoliata-specific IgG(T) and IgE antibodies were significantly elevated in infected horses compared to controls; IgA antibodies were also detected but did not differ between infected and control horses. Diagnosis by serum IgG(T) ELISA had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 80%, by comparison the serum IgE ELISA had a sensitivity of just 44% with a specificity of 82% and therefore did not provide an improved diagnostic test. Western blots with sera from infected horses demonstrated IgE-binding to at least 10 separate components of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens. A similar pattern was also found with IgG(T). Around 30% of horses had high levels of serum IgE which bound fucose-containing carbohydrate antigens on the parasite surface but this was unrelated to the presence of A. perfoliata infection. Immunoperoxidase staining detected

  2. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  3. Hepatitis B surface antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses in human chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers.

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, K R; Tiku, M L; Ogra, P L

    1978-01-01

    The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody (anti-HBe), the nature of T-cell function, and specific cell-mediated immunity to HBsAg were determined and evaluated serially in groups of subjects with chronic HBsAg carrier states and in seronegative controls. The techniques of in vitro lymphocyte transformation, spontaneous rosette formation, radioimmunoassay, reverse passive hemagglutination, passive hemagglutination, rheophoresis, and liver function tests were employed for these studies. For the lymphocyte transformation assay, multiple concentrations of phytohemagglutinin and purified HBsAg were used as stimulants. Cell-mediated immunity to HBsAg was detectable in 50% of the chronic HBsAg carriers (responders) at one or more concentrations of HBsAg. The remaining carriers (nonresponders) and controls failed to manifest HBsAg-specific lymphocyte transformation activity. The profile of the responders was characterized by elevated serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, the presence of anti-HBe, high HBsAg titers, and the conspicuous absence of HBeAg in the serum. The nonresponders were characterized by normal serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, the presence of HBeAg and anti-HBe, and lower HBsAg titers. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific cell-mediated immunity to HBsAg in chronic HBsAg carriers who manifest biochemical evidence of liver disease. PMID:80380

  4. Design of universal cancer vaccines using natural tumor vessel-specific antigens (SANTAVAC).

    PubMed

    Lokhov, Petr G; Balashova, Elena E

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against endothelial cells (ECs) lining the tumor vasculature represents one of the most attractive potential cancer immunotherapy options due to its ability to prevent solid tumor growth. Using this approach, target antigens can be derived from ECs and used to develop a universal cancer vaccine. Unfortunately, direct immunization with EC preparations can elicit autoimmune vasculitis in normal tissues. Recently, tumor-induced changes to the human EC surface were described that provided a basis for designing efficient EC-based vaccines capable of eliciting immune responses that targeted the tumor endothelium directly. This review examines these data from the perspective of designing EC-based cancer vaccines for the treatment of all solid tumors, including the antigen composition of vaccine formulations, the selection ECs for antigen derivation, the production and control of antigens, and the method for estimating vaccine efficacy and safety. As the vaccine preparation requires a specifically derived set of natural cell surface antigens, a new vaccine preparation concept was formulated. Antigen compositions prepared according to this concept were named SANTAVAC (Set of All Natural Target Antigens for Vaccination Against Cancer).

  5. Generation of tumor-specific transplantation antigens by UV radiation can occur independently of neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, L W; Ananthaswamy, H N; Kripke, M L

    1986-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the UV-associated antigens present on tumors induced in mice by chronic UV irradiation could be induced by in vitro irradiation of cells that were already tumorigenic, or whether their occurrence was associated with the primary neoplastic transformation event. Cells of a nonantigenic, spontaneous fibrosarcoma cell line were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, were cloned, and were tested for antigenic properties. A large number of the clones obtained after UV irradiation of the fibrosarcoma cells were highly antigenic (20 of 39), whereas clones derived from unirradiated cultures were not (0 of 10). The antigenic variants did not induce cross-protection among themselves, but induced only variant-specific immunity in vivo. Several antigenic variants were tested for susceptibility to the action of UV-induced suppressor cells, which seem to recognize a common determinant shared among UV-induced tumors. The variants tested were indeed subject to the activity of the UV-induced suppressor lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that the unique antigenic properties exhibited by UV-induced murine skin cancers are also exhibited by cells exposed to UV radiation in vitro. In addition, they imply that the UV-associated antigens arise as a consequence of exposing cells to UV radiation and that they can occur independently of an initial neoplastic transformation event. PMID:3760572

  6. Non-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Avid Metastatic Lung Nodule From Primary Prostatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepa; Loh, Han; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert; Hadjashrafi, Amirazin; Do, Viet

    2016-10-01

    Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate recurrent prostatic malignancy due to its high specificity. A 56-year-old man with previous history of treated prostate cancer 4 years earlier presented with rising prostate-specific antigen level and underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT, which demonstrated an enlarging pulmonary nodule without PSMA avidity. The pulmonary nodule, however, showed moderate uptake on a corresponding FDG PET/CT study, suspicious of primary lung malignancy. Cytological and histopathological examination of the pulmonary nodule confirmed a metastatic deposit from ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma, an uncommon variant of prostatic malignancy.

  7. Mapping of murine IgE epitopes involved in IgE-Fc epsilon receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Schwarzbaum, S; Nissim, A; Alkalay, I; Ghozi, M C; Schindler, D G; Bergman, Y; Eshhar, Z

    1989-06-01

    The generation of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies has permitted the identification of various serological epitopes on the IgE molecule. The relationship of the sites on IgE recognized by such antibodies to the Fc epsilon receptor (Fc epsilon R) interaction site has been determined using cross-inhibition studies. However, interpretation of this type of experiment is limited by problems of steric hindrance. Thus, to accomplish precise mapping on the IgE molecule of the Fc epsilon R interaction site and the binding sites of various anti-IgE mAb, we employed site-directed mutagenesis of the IgE heavy chain gene. To this end we have constructed and expressed a recombinant murine constant epsilon heavy chain (C epsilon) gene bearing a (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetic acid (NP)-binding VH region. Several site-specific mutants in the C epsilon 3 and C epsilon 4 domains of this recombinant C epsilon gene were prepared and expressed by transfection into the light chain-producing J558L myeloma cell line. The resulting IgE antibodies were tested for binding to mast cells and to various anti-IgE mAb. The mutants produced include a proline to histidine point mutant at amino acid residue 404 in the C epsilon 3 domain, a mutant with a truncated C epsilon 4 domain, a mutant with a 45 amino acid deletion in the carboxy end of C epsilon 3, and a chimeric human C epsilon in which the human C epsilon 3 was replaced by the homologous mouse C epsilon 3 domain. These mutants have permitted the localization, to the C epsilon 3 domain, of the epitopes recognized by the 84.1C and 95.3 anti-IgE mAb. The 84.1C mAb recognizes a site on IgE which is identical or very close to the Fc epsilon R binding site, and 95.3 recognizes a site on IgE which is related, but not identical to the Fc epsilon R binding site. The antigenic determinant recognized by the 51.3 mAb, which is inefficient at blocking the IgE-Fc epsilon R interaction, has been mapped to the C epsilon 4 domain. When tested for binding to

  8. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  9. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Augments Antigen-Specific PD-1-Mediated Anti-Tumor Immune Responses via Cross-Presentation of Tumor Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Andrew B.; Nirschl, Christopher J.; Kochel, Christina M.; Nirschl, Thomas R.; Francisca, Brian J.; Velarde, Esteban; Deweese, Theodore L.; Drake, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    The immune-modulating effects of radiation therapy have gained considerable interest recently and there have been multiple reports of synergy between radiation and immunotherapy. However, additional pre-clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the antigen-specific nature of radiation-induced immune responses and elucidate potential mechanisms of synergy with immunotherapy. Here we demonstrate the ability of stereotactic radiotherapy to induce endogenous antigen-specific immune responses when combined with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP), image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy delivered to B16-OVA melanoma or 4T1-HA breast carcinoma tumors resulted in the development of antigen-specific T and B cell-mediated immune responses. These immune-stimulating effects of radiotherapy were significantly increased when combined with either anti-PD-1 therapy or regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion, resulting in improved local tumor control. Phenotypic analyses of antigen-specific CD8 T cells revealed that radiotherapy increased the percentage of antigen-experienced T cells and effector memory T cells. Mechanistically we found that radiotherapy up-regulates tumor-associated antigen-MHC complexes, enhances antigen cross-presentation in the draining lymph node, and increased T-cell infiltration into tumors. These findings demonstrate the ability of radiotherapy to prime an endogenous antigen-specific immune response and provide additional mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with PD-1 blockade in the clinic. PMID:25527358

  10. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  11. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  12. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations. PMID:10759247

  13. Planning and Managing the IGE/S School. Theoretical Paper No. 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struve, Patrick W.; Schultz, James V.

    This document is the initial description of the specifications of the philosophies, procedures, and processes for secondary schools to use in planning, implementing, and managing Individually Guided Education (IGE) learning programs. This is specified in a target format. Also delineated is the general and specific developmental strategy the…

  14. Distribution and functional characteristics of antigen-specific helper T cells arising after Peyer's patch immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Dunkley, M L; Husband, A J

    1987-01-01

    Antigen-specific T-helper cells for IgA responses arise in Peyer's patches (PP) following their immunization by subserosal injection of keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). These are of the W3/25 phenotype and the W3/25 receptor is shown here to be involved in their helper function. These cells originate in PP and migrate via mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) to thoracic duct lymph, although the MLN appear to be unnecessary for the induction or maturation of antigen-specific helper cells collected in thoracic duct lymph after intra-Peyer's patch (i.p.p.) immunization. KLH-specific helper cells can be detected subsequently in the intraepithelial lymphocyte population and also among lamina propria lymphocytes. The helper cells also relocate to PP distant to their site of origin where they are retained only when antigen is present. While i.p.p. immunization is an efficient route for the induction of IgA helper cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, it differs from oral immunization in that concomitant induction of antigen-specific splenic suppressor cells does not occur, indicating a role for epithelial antigen processing in this phenomenon. PMID:2450831

  15. Immuno-PCR: Very sensitive antigen detection by means of specific antibody-DNA conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, T.; Smith, C.L.; Cantor, C.R. )

    1992-10-02

    An antigen detection system, termed immuno-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR), was developed in which a specific DNA molecule is used as the marker. A streptavidin-protein A chimera that possesses tight and specific binding affinity both for biotin and immunoglobulin G was used to attach a biotinylated DNA specifically to antigen-monoclonal antibody complexes that had been immobilized on microtiter plate wells. Then, a segment of the attached DNA was amplified by PCR. Analysis of the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis after staining with ethidium bromide allowed as few as 580 antigen molecules to be readily and reproducibly detected. Direct comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of a chimera-alkaline phosphatase conjugate demonstrates that enhancement in detection sensitivity was obtained with the use of immuno-PCR. Given the enormous amplification capability and specificity of PCR, this immuno-PCR technology has a sensitivity greater than any existing antigen detection system and, in principle, could be applied to the detection of single antigen molecules.

  16. Reprogramming the Local Lymph Node Microenvironment Promotes Tolerance that Is Systemic and Antigen Specific.

    PubMed

    Tostanoski, Lisa H; Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Gammon, Joshua M; Simon, Thomas; Andorko, James I; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-09-13

    Many experimental therapies for autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), aim to bias T cells toward tolerogenic phenotypes without broad suppression. However, the link between local signal integration in lymph nodes (LNs) and the specificity of systemic tolerance is not well understood. We used intra-LN injection of polymer particles to study tolerance as a function of signals in the LN microenvironment. In a mouse MS model, intra-LN introduction of encapsulated myelin self-antigen and a regulatory signal (rapamycin) permanently reversed paralysis after one treatment during peak disease. Therapeutic effects were myelin specific, required antigen encapsulation, and were less potent without rapamycin. This efficacy was accompanied by local LN reorganization, reduced inflammation, systemic expansion of regulatory T cells, and reduced T cell infiltration to the CNS. Our findings suggest that local control over signaling in distinct LNs can promote cell types and functions that drive tolerance that is systemic but antigen specific. PMID:27626664

  17. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  18. A novel agglutination test for antigen-specific detection of platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Oliver; Agaylan, Ashraf; Borchert, Hans-Hubert; Aslan, Tunay; Bombard, Stéphane; Kiesewetter, Holger; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2006-10-15

    A simple and rapid antigen-specific assay for the identification antibodies to platelets is lacking, yet. Red-dyed polystyrene microbeads were coated with monoclonal antibodies to various platelet glycoprotein complexes, and used for the detection of platelet autoantibodies and alloantibodies. The results were largely identical with those obtained by monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigen assay (MAIPA). The new test is reliable yet less complex and time-consuming than the currently available assays, and it can be implemented in any routine laboratory. PMID:16933262

  19. Group-specific human granulocyte antigens on a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line with a Philadelphia chromosome marker.

    PubMed

    Drew, S I; Terasaki, P I; Billing, R J; Bergh, O J; Minowada, J; Klein, E

    1977-05-01

    Group-specific human granulocyte antigens are serologically detectable with granulocytotoxic-positive human alloantisera on a cell line, K562, of chronic myelogenous leukemia origin which bears a Philadelphia chromosomal marker. The same cell line lacks serologically detectable HLA, B2 microglobulin, and B-lymphocyte antigens. Granulocyte antigens are important cell markers for cell lines of suspected myeloid lineage.

  20. Polymeric synthetic nanoparticles for the induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Roberto A; LaMothe, Robert A; Ferrari, Joseph D; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rossi, Robert J; Kolte, Pallavi N; Griset, Aaron P; O'Neil, Conlin; Altreuter, David H; Browning, Erica; Johnston, Lloyd; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Scott, David W; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Kishimoto, Takashi Kei

    2015-01-13

    Current treatments to control pathological or unwanted immune responses often use broadly immunosuppressive drugs. New approaches to induce antigen-specific immunological tolerance that control both cellular and humoral immune responses are desirable. Here we describe the use of synthetic, biodegradable nanoparticles carrying either protein or peptide antigens and a tolerogenic immunomodulator, rapamycin, to induce durable and antigen-specific immune tolerance, even in the presence of potent Toll-like receptor agonists. Treatment with tolerogenic nanoparticles results in the inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation, an increase in regulatory cells, durable B-cell tolerance resistant to multiple immunogenic challenges, and the inhibition of antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and antibody responses against coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia A mice, even in animals previously sensitized to antigen. Only encapsulated rapamycin, not the free form, could induce immunological tolerance. Tolerogenic nanoparticle therapy represents a potential novel approach for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases, and prevention of antidrug antibodies against biologic therapies. PMID:25548186

  1. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-07-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the (/sup 3/H)thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% (SD)) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition.

  2. Polymeric synthetic nanoparticles for the induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Roberto A.; LaMothe, Robert A.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rossi, Robert J.; Kolte, Pallavi N.; Griset, Aaron P.; O’Neil, Conlin; Altreuter, David H.; Browning, Erica; Johnston, Lloyd; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Langer, Robert; Scott, David W.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Kishimoto, Takashi Kei

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments to control pathological or unwanted immune responses often use broadly immunosuppressive drugs. New approaches to induce antigen-specific immunological tolerance that control both cellular and humoral immune responses are desirable. Here we describe the use of synthetic, biodegradable nanoparticles carrying either protein or peptide antigens and a tolerogenic immunomodulator, rapamycin, to induce durable and antigen-specific immune tolerance, even in the presence of potent Toll-like receptor agonists. Treatment with tolerogenic nanoparticles results in the inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation, an increase in regulatory cells, durable B-cell tolerance resistant to multiple immunogenic challenges, and the inhibition of antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and antibody responses against coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia A mice, even in animals previously sensitized to antigen. Only encapsulated rapamycin, not the free form, could induce immunological tolerance. Tolerogenic nanoparticle therapy represents a potential novel approach for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases, and prevention of antidrug antibodies against biologic therapies. PMID:25548186

  3. Effect of activated antigen-specific B cells on ES-62-mediated modulation of effector function of heterologous antigen-specific T cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Fraser A; Watson, Katherine A; Garside, Paul; Harnett, Margaret M; Harnett, William

    2008-01-01

    There is currently great interest in the idea of using helminth-derived molecules for therapeutic purposes and indeed we have shown that ES-62, a filarial nematode-derived phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein, significantly reduces the severity of arthritis in a murine model. Clearly, knowledge of mechanism of action is important when considering molecules for use in treating disease and although much is known regarding how ES-62 interacts with the immune system, gaps in our understanding remain. A feature of filarial nematode infection is a defective, T helper 2 (Th2)-polarized antigen-specific T-cell response and in relation to this we have recently shown that ES-62 inhibits clonal expansion and modulates effector function towards a Th2 phenotype, of antigen-specific T cells in vivo. ES-62 is also known to directly modulate B-cell behaviour and hence to determine whether it was mediating these effects on T cells by disrupting B–T-cell co-operation, we have investigated antigen-specific responses using an adoptive transfer system in which traceable numbers of tg ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells and hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-specific B cells respond to a chemically coupled form of OVA–HEL that contains linked epitopes that promote cognate T- and B-cell interactions. Surprisingly, these studies indicate that activated B cells restore T-cell expansion and prevent Th2-like polarization. However, ES-62-treated double cell transfer mice demonstrate a more generalized immunosuppression with reduced levels of Th1 and -2 type cytokines and antibody subclasses. Collectively, these results suggest that whilst ES-62 can target B–T-cell co-operation, this does not promote polarizing of T-cell responses towards a Th2-type phenotype. PMID:17961164

  4. Antigen-specific immunotherapeutic vaccine for experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2014-11-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) and experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) are caused by Ab-mediated autoimmune responses to muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that impair neuromuscular transmission, thereby causing muscle weakness. Previously, we discovered that i.p. injection of a therapeutic vaccine consisting of bacterially expressed cytoplasmic domains of human AChR subunits reduced the development of chronic EAMG in rats. In this article, we show that immunization with the therapeutic vaccine in adjuvants does not induce EAMG and, thus, is safe. The potency and efficacy of the therapeutic vaccine were greatly increased by s.c. administration of repeated low doses in IFA. Onset of chronic EAMG could be prevented. Established chronic EAMG could be rapidly reversed, modeling therapy of chronic MG. Therapy reduced pathological Abs assayed by immune precipitation of a main immunogenic region chimera. Successfully treated rats exhibited long-term resistance to reinduction of EAMG, suggesting a lasting cure of MG. A long-term effect of therapy was to change the isotype of the pathogenic Ab response from IgG2b, which fixes complement, to IgG1, which does not. Prevention and reversal of chronic EAMG was not caused by the isotype switch, but the isotype switch may contribute to resistance to reinduction of EAMG. Immunization with AChR cytoplasmic domains in adjuvant is promising as a safe, Ag-specific, potent, effective, rapidly acting, and long-lasting therapeutic approach to MG. PMID:25288571

  5. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells fail to respond to Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Stephanie P; Doling, Amy M; Giddings, Kara S; Phalipon, Armelle; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Goldberg, Marcia B; Starnbach, Michael N

    2011-05-01

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes often play a primary role in adaptive immunity to cytosolic microbial pathogens. Surprisingly, CD8(+) T cells are not required for protective immunity to the enteric pathogen Shigella flexneri, despite the ability of Shigella to actively secrete proteins into the host cytoplasm, a location from which antigenic peptides are processed for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. To determine why CD8(+) T cells fail to play a role in adaptive immunity to S. flexneri, we investigated whether antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells are primed during infection but are unable to confer protection or, alternatively, whether T cells fail to be primed. To test whether Shigella is capable of stimulating an antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell response, we created an S. flexneri strain that constitutively secretes a viral CD8(+) T-cell epitope via the Shigella type III secretion system and characterized the CD8(+) T-cell response to this strain both in mice and in cultured cells. Surprisingly, no T cells specific for the viral epitope were stimulated in mice infected with this strain, and cells infected with the recombinant strain were not targeted by epitope-specific T cells. Additionally, we found that the usually robust T-cell response to antigens artificially introduced into the cytoplasm of cultured cells was significantly reduced when the antigen-presenting cell was infected with Shigella. Collectively, these results suggest that antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells are not primed during S. flexneri infection and, as a result, afford little protection to the host during primary or subsequent infection.

  6. Antigen specific immunological responses of badgers (Meles meles) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, Sandrine; Corner, Leigh; Costello, Eamon; Sleeman, Paddy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Singh, Mahavir; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark; Gormley, Eamonn

    2008-03-15

    European badgers (Meles meles) are considered to be an important reservoir of infection for Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle in Ireland and Great Britain. Accurate tests are required for tuberculosis surveillance in badger populations and to provide a basis for the development of strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the incidence of the infection. In this study, we have developed an endobronchial M. bovis infection model in badgers in which we measured cell-mediated immune and serological responses for up to 24 weeks post-infection. Groups of badgers were subjected to necropsy at 6-week intervals and the gross lesion severity status compared with immune responses measured in blood samples taken throughout the course of the study. The panel of antigens included bovine and avian tuberculins (PPD) as well as single antigens, ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB70, Rv3019c, Rv3873, Rv3878 and Rv3879, all known to be recognised by the immune system in other animal models of tuberculosis infection. Our results demonstrated that M. bovis infected badgers responded to specific antigens as early as 6 weeks post-infection, consistent with the presence of visible lesions. The data also revealed unique patterns of antigen recognition with high levels of PBMC proliferation in the presence of CFP-10 but low proliferation levels with ESAT-6. Using a multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), we were able to confirm that MPB83 is the dominant antigen recognised by serum antibodies in infected badgers.

  7. A mutant chaperone converts a wild-type protein into a tumor-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Schietinger, Andrea; Philip, Mary; Yoshida, Barbara A; Azadi, Parastoo; Liu, Hui; Meredith, Stephen C; Schreiber, Hans

    2006-10-13

    Monoclonal antibodies have become important therapeutic agents against certain cancers. Many tumor-specific antigens are mutant proteins that are predominantly intracellular and thus not readily accessible to monoclonal antibodies. We found that a wild-type transmembrane protein could be transformed into a tumor-specific antigen. A somatic mutation in the chaperone gene Cosmc abolished function of a glycosyltransferase, disrupting O-glycan Core 1 synthesis and creating a tumor-specific glycopeptidic neo-epitope consisting of a monosaccharide and a specific wild-type protein sequence. This epitope induced a high-affinity, highly specific, syngeneic monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity. Such tumor-specific glycopeptidic neo-epitopes represent potential targets for monoclonal antibody therapy.

  8. Maximizing the retention of antigen specific lymphocyte function after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Disis, Mary L; dela Rosa, Corazon; Goodell, Vivian; Kuan, Ling-Yu; Chang, Jennie C C; Kuus-Reichel, Kristina; Clay, Timothy M; Kim Lyerly, H; Bhatia, Sonny; Ghanekar, Smita A; Maino, Vernon C; Maecker, Holden T

    2006-01-20

    The ability to cryopreserve lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to retain their function after thawing is critical to the analysis of cancer immunotherapy studies. We evaluated a variety of cryopreservation strategies with the aim of developing an optimized protocol for freezing and thawing PBMC to retain viability and function. We determined several factors which do not affect cell viability after cryopreservation such as shipping frozen samples on dry ice, the length of time and speed at which samples are washed and centrifuged after thawing, and the number of cells frozen per container. Different media additives, however, did impact the viability of the cells after thawing. There was a significant reduction in the viability of the cells after freezing when using human AB serum compared to all other additives tested (p<0.000). A second critical parameter was the temperature of the media used to wash the cells after removal from the cryotubes. When the media was cooled to 4 degrees C prior to washing, the mean viability was 69.7+/-12.5%, at 25 degrees C 92.55+/-3.1%, and at 37 degrees C 95.11+/-2.5%. Finally, we used an optimized cryopreservation protocol with different media additives to determine if functional T cell responses to tetanus toxoid could be preserved. There was a statistically significant correlation between the tetanus specific stimulation index (S.I.) of the non-cryopreserved PBMC and SI obtained from cells frozen with media containing human serum albumin as compared to other additives such as dextran or fetal bovine serum.

  9. Antigenic specificity of the 72-kilodalton major surface glycoprotein of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kutner, S; Pellerin, P; Breniere, S F; Desjeux, P; Dedet, J P

    1991-01-01

    We examined the expression and the antigenicity of the major surface polypeptides of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and Leishmania donovani chagasi, parasites which commonly coexist in the same endemic areas of Bolivia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles from surface-iodinated promastigotes showed the presence of a unique iodinatable polypeptide of 72 kDa on the L. b. braziliensis surface and of two major components of 65 and 50 kDa exposed at the surface of L. d. chagasi. Comparison of the peptide digestion profiles of the major iodinated polypeptides of both strains showed no similarity between the maps of the 72- and the 65-kDa polypeptides of L. b. braziliensis and L. d. chagasi, respectively. Immunoprecipitation of surface-labeled L. b. braziliensis Nonidet P-40 extracts with 35 serum specimens obtained from Bolivian patients with cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis showed that all serum specimens recognized predominantly the 72-kDa antigen and high-molecular-mass proteins in some cases. The recognition patterns were independent of the geographical origin of the patient, the type of lesion, and the serum antibody titer. Serum specimens from children with visceral leishmaniasis did not precipitate the L. b. braziliensis 72-kDa antigen. Hamster hyperimmune serum against L. b. braziliensis also recognized the 72-kDa surface antigen. However, this recognition was inhibited in the presence of the homologous nonlabeled antigen but not in the presence of heterologous (L. d. chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi) antigens. The specific recognition of 72-kDa surface antigen in both natural and experimental L. b. braziliensis infections suggests that this antigen could be a good candidate for use in the differential immunodiagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Images PMID:2037677

  10. A role for multiple chimeric antigen receptor-expressing leukocytes in antigen-specific responses to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S.M.; John, Liza B.; Devaud, Christel; Prince, Miles H.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Trapani, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells can induce remission of some tumors, the role of other CAR-modified leukocytes is not well characterized. In this study, we characterize the function of leukocytes including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and CAR T cells from transgenic mice expressing a CAR under the control of the pan-hematopoietic promoter, vav, and determine the ability of these mice to respond to ERB expressing tumors. We demonstrate the anti-tumor functions of leukocytes, including antigen specific cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. The adoptive transfer of CAR T cells provided a greater survival advantage in the E0771ERB tumor model than their wildtype (WT) counterparts. In addition, CAR NK cells and CAR T cells also mediated increased survival in the RMAERB tumor model. When challenged with Her2 expressing tumors, F38 mice were shown to mount an effective immune response, resulting in tumor rejection and long-term survival. This was shown to be predominantly dependent on both CD8+ T cells and NK cells. However, macrophages and CD4+ T cells were also shown to contribute to this response. Overall, this study highlights the use of the vav-CAR mouse model as a unique tool to determine the anti-tumor function of various immune subsets, either alone or when acting alongside CAR T cells in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27153556

  11. CTLA4 mediates antigen-specific apoptosis of human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, J G; Freeman, G J; Boussiotis, V A; Rennert, P; Jellis, C L; Greenfield, E; Barber, M; Restivo, V A; Ke, X; Gray, G S

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses requires a balance between amplification and generation of effector function and subsequent selective termination by clonal deletion. Although apoptosis of previously activated T cells can be induced by signaling of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, these molecules do not appear to regulate T-cell clonal deletion in an antigen-specific fashion. We demonstrate that cross-linking of the inducible T-cell surface molecule CTLA4 can mediate apoptosis of previously activated human T lymphocytes. This function appears to be antigen-restricted, since a concomitant signal T-cell receptor signal is required. Regulation of this pathway may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to delete antigen-specific activated T cells. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7846057

  12. Immunochemistry of sea anemone toxins: structure-antigenicity relationships and toxin-receptor interactions probed by antibodies specific for one antigenic

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Beress, L.; Rochat, H.

    1986-11-04

    Two antibody subpopulations directed against Anemonia sulcata toxin I or II have been purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. These antibodies are specific for a single antigenic region and were used in a structure-antigenicity relationship study using homologous toxins and chemically modified derivatives of A. sulcata toxin II. Asp-7 and/or Asp=9 and Gln-47 of toxin II were found to be implicated in the antigenic region recognized by the two antibody subpopulations. On the contrary, Arg-14, Lys-35, -36, and -46, and ..cap alpha..-NH/sub 2/ of the glycine residue of A. sulcata toxin II are not involved in the corresponding antigenic region. When assayed for interaction with the sodium channel, the antigenic region of toxin II, including Asp-9 and Gln-47, appeared fully accessible to its specific antibodies, suggesting that it is not involved in the binding of the toxin to its receptor.

  13. A novel immunogenic CS1-specific peptide inducing antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Song, Weihua; Smith, Robert; Daley, John; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2013-01-01

    The CS1 antigen provides a unique target for the development of an immunotherapeutic strategy to treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This study aimed to identify HLA-A2+ immunogenic peptides from the CS1 antigen, which induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against HLA-A2+ MM cells. We identified a novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CS1239–247 (SLFVLGLFL) peptide, which induced CS1-specific CTL (CS1-CTL) to MM cells. The CS1-CTL showed a distinct phenotype, with an increased percentage of effector memory and activated CTL and a decreased percentage of naive CTL. CS1239–247 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells were detected by DimerX analyses and demonstrated functional activities specific to the peptide. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and antigen-specific cytotoxicity, proliferation, degranulation and γ-interferon (IFN-γ)production against both primary MM cells and MM cell lines. In addition, the effector memory cells subset (CD45RO−CCR7−/CD3+CD8+) within CS1-CTL showed a higher level of CD107a degranulation and IFN-γproduction as compared to effector cells (CD45RO−CCR7−/CD3+CD8+) against HLA-A2+ primary MM cells or MM cell lines. In conclusion, this study introduced a novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CS1239–247 peptide capable of inducing antigen-specific CTL against MM cells that will provide a framework for its application as a novel MM immunotherapy. PMID:22533610

  14. A novel immunogenic CS1-specific peptide inducing antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jooeun; Song, Weihua; Smith, Robert; Daley, John; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2012-06-01

    The CS1 antigen provides a unique target for the development of an immunotherapeutic strategy to treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This study aimed to identify HLA-A2(+) immunogenic peptides from the CS1 antigen, which induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against HLA-A2(+) MM cells. We identified a novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CS1(239-247) (SLFVLGLFL) peptide, which induced CS1-specific CTL (CS1-CTL) to MM cells. The CS1-CTL showed a distinct phenotype, with an increased percentage of effector memory and activated CTL and a decreased percentage of naïve CTL. CS1(239-247) peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected by DimerX analyses and demonstrated functional activities specific to the peptide. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and antigen-specific cytotoxicity, proliferation, degranulation and γ-interferon (IFN-γ) production against both primary MM cells and MM cell lines. In addition, the effector memory cells subset (CD45RO(+) CCR7(-) /CD3(+) CD8(+) ) within CS1-CTL showed a higher level of CD107a degranulation and IFN-γ production as compared to effector cells (CD45RO(-) CCR7(-) /CD3(+) CD8(+) ) against HLA-A2(+) primary MM cells or MM cell lines. In conclusion, this study introduced a novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CS1(239-247) peptide capable of inducing antigen-specific CTL against MM cells that will provide a framework for its application as a novel MM immunotherapy. PMID:22533610

  15. Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oomizu, Souichi; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro . E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

  16. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  17. Characterization of antigen-presenting properties of tumour cells using virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Spierings, D C; Agsteribbe, E; Wilschut, J; Huckriede, A

    2000-04-01

    Immunotherapy of tumours by induction of tumour-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) will only be effective for tumours with a functional antigen processing and presentation machinery. However, many tumours are known to down-regulate expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and/or to impair antigen processing. It is therefore desirable to evaluate the ability of a given tumour to present antigenic epitopes before developing an immunotherapy protocol. In this study we have used influenza virus as a tool to determine the antigen-presenting capacities of the murine neuroblastoma C1300 cell line NB41A3, a frequently used model for human neuroblastoma. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed low and moderate expression of MHC class I molecules Dd and Kk respectively. Nevertheless, infected NB41 A3 cells were lysed efficiently by influenza-specific CTLs. These results demonstrate that all steps of the antigen-processing pathway function properly in the NB tumour cells, and that the limited MHC class I expression suffices for efficient recognition by CTLs. In addition, lysis of the NB tumour cells shows that the cells are susceptible to CTL-induced apoptosis, a pathway that is often impaired in tumour cells. These characteristics make neuroblastoma a suitable target for immunotherapy. The presented assay allows evaluation of various immunological properties of tumour cells and, thus, represents a valuable tool to assess whether a given tumour will be susceptible to immunotherapy or not.

  18. Deglycosylation of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens improves the specificity of the serodiagnosis for human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Roldán, W H; Elefant, G R; Ferreira, A W

    2015-11-01

    Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is difficult in tropical areas where other helminthiasis are endemic. Many studies have shown that glycans from helminths may be the responsible for cross-reactions in the immunoassays. In this study, we have evaluated the deglycosylation of the Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens for the detection of IgG antibodies using a panel of 228 serum samples (58 patients with toxocariasis, 75 patients with other helminth infections and 95 healthy individuals) by ELISA and Western blot assays. Our results showed that the deglycosylation of TES antigens resulted in a single fraction of 26 kDa (dTES) and was able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in both above-mentioned assays. The rate of cross-reactions, observed in ELISA with TES (13·3%), was significantly reduced (5·3%) when the dTES antigens were used. Likewise, the cross-reactivity observed with the fractions of 32, 55 and 70 kDa of the TES antigens was totally eliminated when the dTES were used in the Western blot. All these results showed that the deglycosylation of the TES antigens really improves the specificity of the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis in endemic areas for helminth infections. PMID:26315805

  19. Mutant HLA-A2 antigens as restricting elements for virus-specific cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Gaston, J S; Wallace, L E; Rickinson, A B; Epstein, M A; Pious, D

    1984-01-01

    Mutants of the EB virus-transformed cell line T5-1 (HLA-A1, 2; B8, 27), bearing well-characterized alterations in HLA-A2 antigen expression and unable to bind the HLA-A2-specific monoclonal antibody BB7.2, have been tested for their susceptibility to EB virus-specific cytolysis using effector T-cell preparations functionally restricted through relevant HLA antigens. Initial experiments first confirmed that the parent line T5-1 was susceptible to cytolysis by both "common" A2-restricted and B27-restricted effector cells. While those T5-1 mutants with little or no surface A2 expression were not lysed by A2-restricted effectors, those targets with quantitatively normal expression of mutant A2 molecules were as susceptible to A2-restricted lysis as the parent line itself. In contrast, all the T5-1 mutant lines were susceptible to B27-restricted cytolysis. The results demonstrate that experimentally induced mutations of HLA-A2 antigen structure, affecting a serologically defined site on the molecule, can occur without altering that same molecule's expression of the T cell-restricting determinant(s). Such experimentally induced mutations are quite different from the naturally occurring "variant" A2 antigens which are present within the serologically defined A2 antigen group and which show changes at the T cell-restricting site. PMID:6329950

  20. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Madhukar L.

    1990-01-01

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents.

  1. Extra-thymically induced T regulatory cell subsets: the optimal target for antigen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Johan; Wegner, Anja; Wraith, David C

    2015-01-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy aims to selectively restore tolerance to innocuous antigens in cases of autoimmune or allergic disease, without the need for general immune suppression. Although the principle of antigen-specific immunotherapy was discovered more than a century ago, its clinical application to date is limited, particularly in the control of autoimmunity. This has resulted mainly from a lack of in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanism. More recently, the differentiation of extra-thymically induced T regulatory (Treg) cell subsets has been shown to be instrumental in peripheral tolerance induction. Two main types of inducible Treg cells, interleukin-10-secreting or Foxp3+, have now been described, each with distinct characteristics and methods of therapeutic induction. It is crucial, therefore, to identify the suitability of either subset in the control of specific immune disorders. This review explores their natural function, the known mechanisms of therapeutic differentiation of either subset as well as their in vivo functionality and discusses new developments that may aid their use in antigen-specific immunotherapy, with a focus on autoimmune disease. PMID:25716063

  2. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  3. Critical Role of Autophagy in the Processing of Adenovirus Capsid-Incorporated Cancer-Specific Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sarah R.; Jiang, Hong; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Dong, Andrew; Alonso, Marta M.; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are highly immunogenic and are being examined as potential vectors for immunotherapy. Infection by oncolytic adenovirus is followed by massive autophagy in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesize that autophagy regulates the processing of adenoviral proteins for antigen presentation. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the presentation of viral antigens by infected cells using an antibody cocktail of viral capsid proteins. We found that viral antigens were processed by JNK-mediated autophagy, and that autophagy was required for their presentation. Consistent with these results, splenocytes isolated from virus-immunized mice were activated by infected cells in an MHC II-dependent manner. We then hypothesize that this mechanism can be utilized to generate an efficient cancer vaccine. To this end, we constructed an oncolytic virus encompassing an EGFRvIII cancer-specific epitope in the adenoviral fiber. Infection of cancer cells with this fiber-modified adenovirus resulted in recognition of infected cancer cells by a specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody. However, inhibition of autophagy drastically decreased the capability of the specific antibody to detect the cancer-related epitope in infected cells. Our data suggest that combination of adenoviruses with autophagy inducers may enhance the processing and presentation of cancer-specific antigens incorporated into capsid proteins. PMID:27093696

  4. Critical Role of Autophagy in the Processing of Adenovirus Capsid-Incorporated Cancer-Specific Antigens.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sarah R; Jiang, Hong; Hossain, Mohammad B; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Dong, Andrew; Alonso, Marta M; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are highly immunogenic and are being examined as potential vectors for immunotherapy. Infection by oncolytic adenovirus is followed by massive autophagy in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesize that autophagy regulates the processing of adenoviral proteins for antigen presentation. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the presentation of viral antigens by infected cells using an antibody cocktail of viral capsid proteins. We found that viral antigens were processed by JNK-mediated autophagy, and that autophagy was required for their presentation. Consistent with these results, splenocytes isolated from virus-immunized mice were activated by infected cells in an MHC II-dependent manner. We then hypothesize that this mechanism can be utilized to generate an efficient cancer vaccine. To this end, we constructed an oncolytic virus encompassing an EGFRvIII cancer-specific epitope in the adenoviral fiber. Infection of cancer cells with this fiber-modified adenovirus resulted in recognition of infected cancer cells by a specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody. However, inhibition of autophagy drastically decreased the capability of the specific antibody to detect the cancer-related epitope in infected cells. Our data suggest that combination of adenoviruses with autophagy inducers may enhance the processing and presentation of cancer-specific antigens incorporated into capsid proteins. PMID:27093696

  5. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  6. Cloning of a serotype-specific antigen from Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rayos, C; Lo, R Y; Shewen, P E; Beveridge, T J

    1986-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids coding for a soluble (or surface) antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 were identified. Two plasmids, both containing the same 5.4 kilobase pairs of insert DNA, were recovered independently by screening a clone band of P. haemolytica A1 genomic DNA in Escherichia coli for the expression of P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens (R. Y. C. Lo and L.A. Cameron, Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 64:73-76, 1986). E. coli cells carrying the plasmids were found to be agglutinated by an antiserum raised against the P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens. Analysis of the E. coli clones by electron microscopy revealed patches of amorphous material on the surface of the cells which were not present on the controls. Further characterization with protein A-colloidal gold labeled both these patches and the outer membranes of these cloned cells pretreated with the specific antiserum. These results indicated that the cloned antigen was expressed on the surface of the E. coli cells. The cloned antigen was found to be specific for serotype 1 when tested by slide agglutination against a collection of P. haemolytica typing antisera. Southern blot hybridization, using the cloned DNA as a probe, labeled the genomic DNA from P. haemolytica serotype 1 as well as the cross-agglutinating serotypes 2 and 7, but not DNA from the non-cross-agglutinating serotypes 3 and 4 and Pasteurella multocida. These results demonstrated that serotype specificity could be attributed to the particular antigenic determinants in the genome of the organism. Images PMID:3527985

  7. Effects of treatment on IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins and immunity to reinfection in childhood schistosome and hookworm coinfections.

    PubMed

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Jones, Frances M; Wilson, Shona; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Mwatha, Joseph K; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Dunne, David W

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring human immunity to both schistosomiasis and hookworm infection has been associated with IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins. Since the two helminths frequently coinfect the same individuals, there is growing advocacy for their concurrent treatment. However, both helminths are known to exert strong immunomodulatory effects; therefore, coinfected individuals could have immune responses different from those characteristically seen in monoinfected individuals. In this study, we measured changes in IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 responses to schistosome and hookworm antigens, including the allergen-like proteins Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like 1 protein (SmTAL1), SmTAL2, and Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2), following concurrent treatment of schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Antibody responses to schistosome egg (soluble egg antigen and SmTAL2) or somatic adult hookworm (AHW) antigens either decreased after treatment or were unchanged, whereas those to schistosome worm antigens (soluble worm antigen and SmTAL1) increased. The observed different effects of treatment likely reflect the different modes of drug action and sites of infection for these two helminths. Importantly, there was no evidence that the simultaneous treatment of coinfected children with praziquantel and albendazole affected schistosome- and hookworm-specific humoral responses differently from those characteristic of populations in which only one organism is endemic; schistosome- and hookworm-specific responses were not associated, and there was no evidence for cross-regulation. Posttreatment increases in the levels of IgE to schistosome worm antigens were associated with lower Schistosoma mansoni reinfection intensity, while no associations between humoral responses to AHW antigen and protection from hookworm reinfection were observed in this sample of school-aged children.

  8. Development of specific scFv antibodies to detect neurocysticercosis antigens and potential applications in immunodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; Araújo, Thaise Gonçalves; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Nascimento, Rafael; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that detection of circulating antibodies against mimotopes selected by phage display were useful in neurocysticercosis diagnosis. However, circulating antigens may also be useful in patients' clinical follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to select novel combinatorial antibodies, single-chain variable fragment (scFv), which can be used for specific antigens with pre-defined affinity and specificity without prior immunization. A phage scFv antibody library was selected against Taenia solium mimotopes displayed on phages coupled in beads and total saline extract of T. solium metacestodes (S) immobilized on microtiter plate wells. After two rounds of selection, 96 phage clones were evolved and validated against each target by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and dot-blot, and three specific antibodies (B6, G10 and A4) were further characterized by sequencing and indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assays. IFI revealed tegument staining for the B6, while the others showed a non-uniform staining in the whole parasite. The selected scFvs were used to capture their antigen targets that were elucidated through mass spectrometry, and used for antibody detection in NC patients' sera by ELISA, which achieved sensitivities greater than 97% and specificities above 95%. We have successfully developed scFv antibodies against important mimotopes used in NC diagnosis, and can be further explored to detect circulating antigens for clinical follow-up of patients with NC. Our strategy also highlighted the possibility of using this combinatorial approach to select, capture and characterize specific antigens to better understand this intriguing parasite infection and disease evolution.

  9. SIV antigen immunization induces transient antigen-specific T cell responses and selectively activates viral replication in draining lymph nodes in retroviral suppressed rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection causes a qualitative and quantitative loss of CD4+ T cell immunity. The institution of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ T cell responses to many pathogens, but HIV-specific responses remain deficient. Similarly, therapeutic immunization with HIV antigens of chronically infected, ART treated subjects results in poor induction of HIV-specific CD4 responses. In this study, we used a macaque model of ART treatment during chronic infection to study the virologic consequences of SIV antigen stimulation in lymph nodes early after immunization. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) seropositive, Mamu A*01 positive rhesus macaques were chronically infected with SIVmac251 and treated with ART. The immune and viral responses to SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 antigen immunization in draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood were analyzed. Animals were immunized on contralateral sides with SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 encoding plasmids, which allowed lymph nodes draining each antigen to be obtained at the same time from the same animal for direct comparison. Results We observed that both SIV and RhCMV immunizations stimulated transient antigen-specific T cell responses in draining lymph nodes. The RhCMV-specific responses were potent and sustained (50 days post-immunization) in the periphery, while the SIV-specific responses were transient and extinguished quickly. The SIV antigen stimulation selectively induced transient SIV replication in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions The data are consistent with a model whereby viral replication in response to SIV antigen stimulation limits the generation of SIV antigen-specific responses and suggests a potential mechanism for the early loss and poor HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21752277

  10. Design of a ProDer f 1 vaccine delivered by the MHC class II pathway of antigen presentation and analysis of the effectiveness for specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yuxin; Li, Chaopin

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) is one of leading cause for allergic asthma, and allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is currently recognized as the only etiological therapy to ameliorate asthmatic symptom. The current study was designed on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II pathway, invariant chain (Ii)-segment hybrids as vaccine basis to explore the efficacy of Der f 1 hybrid vaccine by virtue of Ii as carrier in enhancing the protective immune response to asthma. Initially, we engineered a fused molecule, DCP-IhC-ProDer f 1, to deliver ProDer f 1 antigen via specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides to dendritic cells (DCs). Then the DCP-IhC-ProDer f 1 was immunized to the asthmatic models of murine induced by ProDer f 1 allergen. The findings showed that the cytokine repertoire in the murine model was shifted after SIT, including stronger secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and a decreased production of IL-4 and IL-17. ELISA determination revealed that the hybrid displayed weak IgE and IgG1 reactivities, and IgG2a levels were elevated. Furthermore, DCP-IhC-ProDer f 1 treatment inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissues. Our results suggest that the DCP-Ihc-ProDer f 1 may be used as a candidate SIT against asthma. PMID:25197336

  11. Immunohistochemical demonstration of specific antigens in the human brain fixed in zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Korzhevskii, D E; Sukhorukova, E G; Kirik, O V; Grigorev, I P

    2015-08-05

    Tissue fixation is critical for immunohistochemistry. Recently, we developed a zinc-ethanol-formalin fixative (ZEF), and the present study was aimed to assess the applicability of the ZEF for the human brain histology and immunohistochemistry and to evaluate the detectability of different antigens in the human brain fixed with ZEF. In total, 11 antigens were tested, including NeuN, neuron-specific enolase, GFAP, Iba-1, calbindin, calretinin, choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin, and α-tubulin. The obtained data show that: i) the ZEF has potential for use in general histological practice, where detailed characterization of human brain morphology is needed; ii) the antigens tested are well-preserved in the human brain specimens fixed in the ZEF.

  12. Synthetic oligonucleotide antigens modified with locked nucleic acids detect disease specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Simone V.; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Balboni, Imelda M.; Mellins, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Astakhova, Kira

    2016-01-01

    New techniques to detect and quantify antibodies to nucleic acids would provide a significant advance over current methods, which often lack specificity. We investigate the potential of novel antigens containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as targets for antibodies. Particularly, employing molecular dynamics we predict optimal nucleotide composition for targeting DNA-binding antibodies. As a proof of concept, we address a problem of detecting anti-DNA antibodies that are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease with multiple manifestations. We test the best oligonucleotide binders in surface plasmon resonance studies to analyze binding and kinetic aspects of interactions between antigens and target DNA. These DNA and LNA/DNA sequences showed improved binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human samples of pediatric lupus patients. Our results suggest that the novel method is a promising tool to create antigens for research and point-of-care monitoring of anti-DNA antibodies. PMID:27775006

  13. Immunohistochemical Demonstration of Specific Antigens in the Human Brain Fixed in Zinc-ethanol-Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Korzhevskii, D.E.; Sukhorukova, E.G.; Kirik, O.V.; Grigorev, I.P.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fixation is critical for immunohistochemistry. Recently, we developed a zinc-ethanol-formalin fixative (ZEF), and the present study was aimed to assess the applicability of the ZEF for the human brain histology and immunohistochemistry and to evaluate the detectability of different antigens in the human brain fixed with ZEF. In total, 11 antigens were tested, including NeuN, neuron-specific enolase, GFAP, Iba-1, calbindin, calretinin, choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin, and α-tubulin. The obtained data show that: i) the ZEF has potential for use in general histological practice, where detailed characterization of human brain morphology is needed; ii) the antigens tested are well-preserved in the human brain specimens fixed in the ZEF. PMID:26428887

  14. Immunohistochemical demonstration of specific antigens in the human brain fixed in zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Korzhevskii, D E; Sukhorukova, E G; Kirik, O V; Grigorev, I P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fixation is critical for immunohistochemistry. Recently, we developed a zinc-ethanol-formalin fixative (ZEF), and the present study was aimed to assess the applicability of the ZEF for the human brain histology and immunohistochemistry and to evaluate the detectability of different antigens in the human brain fixed with ZEF. In total, 11 antigens were tested, including NeuN, neuron-specific enolase, GFAP, Iba-1, calbindin, calretinin, choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin, and α-tubulin. The obtained data show that: i) the ZEF has potential for use in general histological practice, where detailed characterization of human brain morphology is needed; ii) the antigens tested are well-preserved in the human brain specimens fixed in the ZEF. PMID:26428887

  15. Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Ávila, S L M; Ferreira, A W

    2001-01-01

    The biological parasite–host interactions involved in neurocysticercosis (NC) are of a complex nature. A lymphoproliferation assay was performed using mononuclear cells from 11 patients with NC, who were classified according to the alterations obtained by imaging examinations. Antigen extracts from the membrane and/or scolex of Taenia solium and from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps were used. Mononuclear cells from patients with NC showed antigen-specific suppression when compared with a control group. The patients presenting calcified cysts showed higher suppression when compared with patients in the active phase of disease. The antigen in the vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps seems to play a suppressor role in vitro, completely inhibiting cell proliferation induced by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. PMID:11703375

  16. Diversification of the antigen-specific T cell receptor repertoire after varicella zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian; Cavanagh, Mary M.; Le Saux, Sabine; NamKoong, Hong; Kim, Chulwoo; Turgano, Emerson; Liu, Yi; Wang, Chen; Mackey, Sally; Swan, Gary E.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Olshen, Richard A.; Boyd, Scott D.; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Diversity and size of the antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire are two critical determinants for successful control of chronic infection. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) that establishes latency during childhood is able to escape control mechanisms, in particular with increasing age. We examined the TCR diversity of VZV-reactive CD4 T cells in individuals older than 50 years by studying three identical twin pairs and three unrelated individuals before and after vaccination with live attenuated VZV. While all individuals had a small number of dominant T cell clones, the breadth of the VZV-specific repertoire differed markedly. A genetic influence was seen for the sharing of individual TCR sequences from antigen-reactive cells, but not for repertoire richness or the selection of dominant clones. VZV vaccination favored the expansion of infrequent VZV antigen-reactive TCRs including those from naïve T cells with lesser boosting of dominant T cell clones. Thus, vaccination does not reinforce the in vivo selection occurred during chronic infection but leads to a diversification of the VZV-reactive T cell repertoire. However, a single booster immunization seems insufficient to establish new clonal dominance. Our results suggest that repertoire analysis of antigen-specific TCRs can be an important read-out to assess whether a vaccination was able to generate memory cells in clonal sizes that are necessary for immune protection. PMID:27030598

  17. Diversification of the antigen-specific T cell receptor repertoire after varicella zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qian; Cavanagh, Mary M; Le Saux, Sabine; NamKoong, Hong; Kim, Chulwoo; Turgano, Emerson; Liu, Yi; Wang, Chen; Mackey, Sally; Swan, Gary E; Dekker, Cornelia L; Olshen, Richard A; Boyd, Scott D; Weyand, Cornelia M; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J

    2016-03-30

    Diversity and size of the antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire are two critical determinants for successful control of chronic infection. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) that establishes latency during childhood can escape control mechanisms, in particular with increasing age. We examined the TCR diversity of VZV-reactive CD4 T cells in individuals older than 50 years by studying three identical twin pairs and three unrelated individuals before and after vaccination with live attenuated VZV. Although all individuals had a small number of dominant T cell clones, the breadth of the VZV-specific repertoire differed markedly. A genetic influence was seen for the sharing of individual TCR sequences from antigen-reactive cells but not for repertoire richness or the selection of dominant clones. VZV vaccination favored the expansion of infrequent VZV antigen-reactive TCRs, including those from naïve T cells with lesser boosting of dominant T cell clones. Thus, vaccination does not reinforce the in vivo selection that occurred during chronic infection but leads to a diversification of the VZV-reactive T cell repertoire. However, a single-booster immunization seems insufficient to establish new clonal dominance. Our results suggest that repertoire analysis of antigen-specific TCRs can be an important readout to assess whether a vaccination was able to generate memory cells in clonal sizes that are necessary for immune protection.

  18. Diversification of the antigen-specific T cell receptor repertoire after varicella zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qian; Cavanagh, Mary M; Le Saux, Sabine; NamKoong, Hong; Kim, Chulwoo; Turgano, Emerson; Liu, Yi; Wang, Chen; Mackey, Sally; Swan, Gary E; Dekker, Cornelia L; Olshen, Richard A; Boyd, Scott D; Weyand, Cornelia M; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J

    2016-03-30

    Diversity and size of the antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire are two critical determinants for successful control of chronic infection. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) that establishes latency during childhood can escape control mechanisms, in particular with increasing age. We examined the TCR diversity of VZV-reactive CD4 T cells in individuals older than 50 years by studying three identical twin pairs and three unrelated individuals before and after vaccination with live attenuated VZV. Although all individuals had a small number of dominant T cell clones, the breadth of the VZV-specific repertoire differed markedly. A genetic influence was seen for the sharing of individual TCR sequences from antigen-reactive cells but not for repertoire richness or the selection of dominant clones. VZV vaccination favored the expansion of infrequent VZV antigen-reactive TCRs, including those from naïve T cells with lesser boosting of dominant T cell clones. Thus, vaccination does not reinforce the in vivo selection that occurred during chronic infection but leads to a diversification of the VZV-reactive T cell repertoire. However, a single-booster immunization seems insufficient to establish new clonal dominance. Our results suggest that repertoire analysis of antigen-specific TCRs can be an important readout to assess whether a vaccination was able to generate memory cells in clonal sizes that are necessary for immune protection. PMID:27030598

  19. Abnormal humoral immune response to Staphylococcus aureus in patients with Staphylococcus aureus hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matter, L; Wilhelm, J A; Roth, F; Schopfer, K

    1986-11-01

    Patients with the S. aureus hyper IgE syndrome (SAHIGES) have an abnormal IgE response to cell wall and surface antigens of S. aureus. In this paper we describe the detection of IgE antibodies to soluble antigens of staphylococci (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and qualitative abnormalities of the IgG response to soluble S. aureus antigens in patients with SAHIGES. These findings may be of pathogenetic importance and help to delineate SAHIGES from other diseases. PMID:3815899

  20. Two Allergen Model Reveals Complex Relationship Between IgE Cross-Linking and Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Deak, Peter E.; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Allergy is an immune response to complex mixtures of multiple allergens yet current models use a single synthetic allergen. Multiple allergens were modeled using two well-defined tetravalent allergens each specific for a distinct IgE thus enabling a systematic approach to evaluate the effect of each allergen and percent of allergen specific IgE on mast cell degranulation. We found the overall degranulation response caused by two allergens is additive for low allergen concentrations or low percent specific IgE, does not change for moderate allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE, and is reduced for high allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE. These results provide further evidence that supra-optimal IgE cross-linking decreases the degranulation response and establishes the two allergen model as a relevant experimental system to elucidate mast cell degranulation mechanisms. PMID:25308278

  1. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Detect CD19-Specific T Cells in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Bipulendu; Maiti, Sourindra; Huls, Helen; Singh, Harjeet; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials targeting CD19 on B-cell malignancies are underway with encouraging anti-tumor responses. Most infuse T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) with specificity derived from the scFv region of a CD19-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone FMC63). We describe a novel anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb) to detect CD19-specific CAR+ T cells before and after their adoptive transfer. This mouse mAb was generated by immunizing with a cellular vaccine expressing the antigen-recognition domain of FMC63. The specificity of the mAb (clone no. 136.20.1) was confined to the scFv region of the CAR as validated by inhibiting CAR-dependent lysis of CD19+ tumor targets. This clone can be used to detect CD19-specific CAR+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a sensitivity of 1∶1,000. In clinical settings the mAb is used to inform on the immunophenotype and persistence of administered CD19-specific T cells. Thus, our CD19-specific CAR mAb (clone no. 136.20.1) will be useful to investigators implementing CD19-specific CAR+ T cells to treat B-lineage malignancies. The methodology described to develop a CAR-specific anti-idiotypic mAb could be extended to other gene therapy trials targeting different tumor associated antigens in the context of CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy. PMID:23469246

  2. Selective IgE deficiency, immune dysregulation, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Schlesinger, Menachem; David, Michael; Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Vardy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Selective IgE deficiency (IgED) is currently defined as a significant decrease in serum levels of IgE (<2 kIU/L) in a patient whose other immunoglobulin levels are normal. There are no published large-scale epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of and clinical features of IgED. In the population-based case-control study, we investigated clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with IgED. Case samples were drawn from all subjects (n = 18487), with serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at Leumit Health Care Services (Israel) and had serum total IgE of <2 kIU/L. The control group was randomly sampled from the remaining 18,261 subjects with a case-control ratio of four controls for each case (1:4). Comorbid diseases were identified by specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes given by the corresponding board-certificated physicians. Two hundred twenty-six subjects showed serum total IgE levels of <2 kIU/L; 68 (30.9%) were between the ages of 4 and 12 years (children) and 250 (69.1%) were ≥12 years old (adults). Matched control groups were selected for each age group. The children group was characterized by higher prevalence of asthma and hyperreactive airways disease; and both children and adult groups had significantly higher prevalence of chronic sinusitis, otitis media, autoimmune, and oncological diseases than their respective controls. Undetectable serum total IgE may serve as a marker of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity.

  3. A Phase 1 Study of a Vaccine Targeting Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma and Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey S.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Goodman, Oscar B.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Marshall, John L.; Miles, Sabrina; Rosario, Dar; Diamond, David C.; Qiu, Zhiyong; Obrocea, Mihail; Bot, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are tumor-associated antigens implicated in cellular differentiation, genetic stability, and angiogenesis. MKC1106-PP is an immunotherapeutic regimen cotargeting PRAME and PSMA, comprised of a recombinant plasmid (pPRA-PSM encoding fragments derived from both antigens) and 2 peptides (E-PRA and E-PSM derived from PRAME and PSMA, respectively). This multicenter study evaluated MKC1106-PP with a fixed plasmid dose and 2 different peptide doses, administered by intralymph node injection in a prime-boost sequence in human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 and tumor-antigen-positive patients with progressing metastatic solid tumors who had failed standard therapy. Immune monitoring was done by tetramer and enzymatic-linked immune spot analysis. The treatment was well tolerated, with no significant differences in safety, immune response, and clinical outcome relative to peptide doses. Fifteen of 24 evaluable patients showed an immune response, as defined by the expansion of PRAME-specific or PSMA-specific T cells in the blood. There were no partial or complete responses by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Seven patients showed stable disease (SD) for 6 months or longer, or prostate specific antigen decline: 4 of 10 with prostate carcinoma, 2 of 2 with renal clear cell carcinoma, and 1 of 10 with metastatic melanoma. In addition, there was an association between the induction and persistence of antigen-specific T cells in blood above baseline levels and disease control, defined as SD for 6 months or longer. These results support further development of MKC1106-PP in specific clinical indications. PMID:21760528

  4. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  5. Transgenic antigen-specific, HLA-A*02:01-allo-restricted cytotoxic T cells recognize tumor-associated target antigen STEAP1 with high specificity.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, David; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Klar, Richard; Schmidt, Oxana; Wohlleber, Dirk; Rubío, Rebeca Alba; Uckert, Wolfgang; Thiel, Uwe; Bohne, Felix; Busch, Dirk H; Krackhardt, Angela M; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H S

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric cancers, including Ewing sarcoma (ES), are only weakly immunogenic and the tumor-patients' immune system often is devoid of effector T cells for tumor elimination. Based on expression profiling technology, targetable tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are identified and exploited for engineered T-cell therapy. Here, the specific recognition and lytic potential of transgenic allo-restricted CD8(+) T cells, directed against the ES-associated antigen 6-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1), was examined. Following repetitive STEAP1(130) peptide-driven stimulations with HLA-A*02:01(+) dendritic cells (DC), allo-restricted HLA-A*02:01(-) CD8(+) T cells were sorted with HLA-A*02:01/peptide multimers and expanded by limiting dilution. After functional analysis of suitable T cell clones via ELISpot, flow cytometry and xCELLigence assay, T cell receptors' (TCR) α- and β-chains were identified, cloned into retroviral vectors, codon optimized, transfected into HLA-A*02:01(-) primary T cell populations and tested again for specificity and lytic capacity in vitro and in a Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mouse model. Initially generated transgenic T cells specifically recognized STEAP1(130)-pulsed or transfected cells in the context of HLA-A*02:01 with minimal cross-reactivity as determined by specific interferon-γ (IFNγ) release, lysed cells and inhibited growth of HLA-A*02:01(+) ES lines more effectively than HLA-A*02:01(-) ES lines. In vivo tumor growth was inhibited more effectively with transgenic STEAP1(130)-specific T cells than with unspecific T cells. Our results identify TCRs capable of recognizing and inhibiting growth of STEAP1-expressing HLA-A*02:01(+) ES cells in vitro and in vivo in a highly restricted manner. As STEAP1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, we anticipate these STEAP1-specific TCRs to be potentially useful for immunotherapy of other STEAP1-expressing tumors. PMID:27471654

  6. Antigenic cross-reactivity and species-specific identification of Pseudocerastes persicus fieldi snake venom.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we recognized progressively high immunological cross-reactivity between Pseudocerastes persicus fieldi (Pf) venom and six other medically important Egyptian snake venoms belonging to families Viperidae and Elapidae. Antibodies with a range of bonding strengths were shown to be involved in such cross-reactivity. Two strategies have been tried to access specificity; (i) using affinity purified species-specific anti-Pf antivenom antibodies, (ii) conducting the assay in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). The discrimination power of the prepared species-specific antivenom was demonstrated by its ability to detect Pf venom over a range of Pf concentrations (2.5 ng-2.5 μg) in a variety of body fluids. The assay could distinguish circulating Pf antigens from other viper antigens in the whole blood of experimentally envenomed mice. What seems promising in our work is the use of the chaotrope, NH4SCN, which renders the reaction medium more favorable for the specific homologous antigen-antibody interactions, primarily via preventing lower avid antibodies to share and, to a bit lesser extent, by decreasing non-specific absorbance signals frequently encountered with ELISA assays. The ELISA described herein may be useful for clinicians for identification of snake bites inflicted by Pf snake species. Balancing between specificity and sensitivity has to be considered for best results. PMID:27319296

  7. Expression of the human mucosal lymphocyte antigen, HML-1, by T cells activated with mitogen or specific antigen in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brew, R; West, D C; Burthem, J; Christmas, S E

    1995-06-01

    Expression of the human mucosal lymphocyte antigen, HML-1 (CD103), recently identified as a novel alpha E beta 7 integrin, was studied on peripheral blood lymphocytes activated with mitogen or specific antigen. HML-1 was up-regulated on PHA activated T-lymphoblasts cultured in 100IU/ml interleukin-2 (IL-2), reaching a peak of > 50% positive cells at day 7, and expression was maintained at this level throughout the 28-day culture period. Following a transient decrease in the percentage of L-selectin cells, expression of this molecule was maintained on most PHA T-lymphoblasts. Cells activated by purified protein derivative of M. tuberculosis (PPD) or in mixed lymphocyte culture also up-regulated and maintained HML-1 expression for 14 days. In contrast, in all cases the percentage of CD25+ cells rose initially but subsequently declined over the same time periods. When freshly isolated cells from tonsil, spleen, mesenteric lymph node and lung were analysed, only lung contained significant numbers (39 +/- 6%) of HML-1+ cells. In both freshly isolated and activated cell populations the great majority of HML-1+ cells co-expressed CD8 although some HML-1+ CD8- cells were also present. Production of TGF-beta 1 peaked early during T-lymphoblast and MLR cultures and was not related to induction of HML-1 expression. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that the HML-1 molecule expressed on 10-day PHA T-lymphoblasts was indistinguishable from that found on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and that no alpha 4 beta 7 integrin was expressed by these cells. Although HML-1 expression is essentially restricted to mucosal leucocytes in vivo, these experiments show that it is readily induced and maintained along with co-expression of L-selectin following CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation in vitro.

  8. Developing antigen-specific therapies in multiple sclerosis: a tale of Tantalus or Ulysses?

    PubMed

    van Noort JM

    1999-10-01

    Autoreactive T-cell responses directed to myelin proteins in the central nervous system are widely believed to be crucial in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, effective ways of selectively targeting these T-cells in order to alter the clinical course of MS in a predictable manner has yet to be demonstrated. This review discusses two recent developments of crucial importance to the rational development of antigen-specific therapy in MS. The very idea of antigen-specific therapy in MS has long faced the challenge of determinant spreading, i.e., the development of novel autoimmune responses as the consequence of tissue damage. This phenomenon has led many to expect that in ongoing MS, many different pathogenic specificities would accumulate. Obviously, this would render antigen-specific therapy very difficult. Recent data now suggest that determinant spreading is most likely to be a transient phenomenon limited only to the first stages of tissue damage. A second development has changed our perspective on the specificity of individual T-cells and, thus, on the suitability of various ways to implement antigen-specific therapy. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that T-cell receptors are much more cross-reactive than previously assumed. This notion poses unexpected challenges to therapeutic approaches in MS that are based on selective targeting of autoreactive TCR. Vaccination with TCR peptides, administration of anti-TCR antibodies and development of therapeutically altered peptide ligands all depend on a significant level of predictability of pathogenic TCR. With such predictability now turning out to be much lower than was previously hoped, selective TCR-directed strategies for intervention may therefore turn out to be much less effective than anticipated. In the development of antigen-specific therapies, the use of whole protein tolerogens now seems to be the most promising route. Oral, intranasal or iv. administration of antigen remain viable options

  9. Candida albicans group A-specific soluble antigens demonstrated by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guinet, R M; Gabriel, S M

    1980-09-01

    Soluble cytoplasmic extracts of Candida albicans groups A and B were prepared and compared by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis experiments performed with a commercial anti-C. albicans group A immune serum. Although crossed immunoelectrophoresis, tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and line immunoelectrophoresis revealed many cross-reactions between the two groups, some components seemed to be specific to group A. However, the complexity of the extracts studied did not allow us to demonstrate specific constituents with these methods. Crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis with and without absorption of antibodies in situ was then used, and four specific antigens unique to group A cytoplasmic extract were demonstrated, one of which appeared to be quantitatively important. The value of various quantitative immunoelectrophoretic methods applied to complex antigenic preparations is discussed.

  10. Variability of total and free IgE levels and IgE receptor expression in allergic subjects in and out of pollen season.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Thorell, L; Sjölander, A; Larsson-Faria, S

    2015-04-01

    The inter- and intra-individual variability and seasonal variation of IgE, and high (FcεRI)- and low-affinity (CD23) IgE receptor expression in blood of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) subjects, is not well studied. Thirty-two otherwise healthy subjects with a history of SAR to birch pollen and a positive skin prick test to birch pollen were sampled three times out of the pollen season and three times during the pollen season. FcεRI and CD23 expressions were analysed using flow cytometry. Total IgE was analysed using ImmunoCAP(®) and free IgE was analysed with a novel customised research assay using an IgG-FcεRI-chimera protein coupled to ImmunoCAP as capture reagent, ImmunoCAP-specific IgE conjugate and ImmunoCAP IgE calibrators. The performance of the free IgE assay was compared well with the reference ImmunoCAP total IgE assay. The working range of the assay was 0.35-200 kU/l IgE. FcεRI expression on basophils and CD23 expression on B cells showed low intrasubject variability both in and out of the pollen season (<10% CV). There was a small seasonal difference with lower total IgE levels (120 versus 128 kU/l; P = 0.004) and FcεRI expression (283 versus 325 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI); P < 0.001) during the pollen season. IgE, FcεRI expression and CD23 expression fulfilled biomarker and assay requirements of variability, and allergen exposure affected the biomarkers only to a minor degree. The free IgE assay may be used for measurement of free IgE levels in patients after anti-IgE antibody treatment. PMID:25620574

  11. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. PMID:27436445

  12. Intra and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a monoclonal antibody cocktail based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE in dogs: proficiency monitoring of macELISA in six laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth W; Blankenship, Karen D; McCurry, Zachary M; McKinney, Brennan; Ruffner, Rick; Esch, Robert E; Tambone, Cecilia; Faas, Rebecca; Hermes, Darren; Brazis, Pilar; Drouet, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of results yielded using a monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE when run in six separate affiliated laboratories. On two separate occasions, duplicate samples of 15 different sera pools were independently evaluated by each laboratory in a single blinded fashion. The average intra-assay variance among reactive assay calibrators in all laboratories was 6.2% (range 2.6-18.2%), while the average intra-laboratory inter-assay variance was 12.1% (range 8.0-17.1%). The overall inter-assay inter-laboratory variance was consistent among laboratories and averaged 15.6% (range 15.1-16.6%). All laboratories yielded similar profiles and magnitudes of responses for replicate unknown samples; dose-response profiles observed in each of the laboratories were indistinguishable. Considering positive/negative results, inter-assay inter-laboratory concordance of results exceeded 95%. Correlation of OD values between and among all laboratories was strong (r>0.9, p<0.001). Correlation of OD values between the two separate evaluations was also high for all allergens except olive, which was attributed to lot-to-lot differences of allergen coated wells. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody based ELISA for measuring allergen specific canine IgE is reproducible, and documents that consistency of results can be achieved not only in an individual laboratory, but between laboratories using the same monoclonal-based ELISA.

  13. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  14. Specific Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium antigenic peptides for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis using serum samples.

    PubMed

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L D; Livramento, J A; Mielle, S R

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), i.e., the presence of the larval form of Taenia solium in tissues, is the most frequent and severe infection involving the central nervous system. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with NC, CSF and serum samples from a control group, and serum samples from patients with other parasitoses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblotting with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra) and Taenia solium total saline antigen (Tso) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies. ELISAs carried out with the Tso and Tcra antigens showed 94.1 and 95.6% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 70.6% and 91.2% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in serum, with 100% specificity for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 80% specificity for the detection of antibodies in serum for both antigens. On the basis of the reactivities of the peptides in the samples analyzed, the peptides of specific by immunoblotting and the peptides of specific. Tests with Tcra extract had higher sensitivities and more homogeneous results and permitted us to obtain the parasites easily. We suggest the use of Tcra ELISA for the study of serum and confirmation of the results for sera positive by an immunoblotting analysis in which specific peptides (e.g., peptides of 19 to 13 kDa) are detected.

  15. Antigen-specific activation and cytokine-facilitated expansion of naive, human CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wölfl, Matthias; Greenberg, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-specific priming of human, naïve T-cells has been difficult to assess. Due to the low initial frequency in the naïve cell pool of specific T-cell precursors, such an analysis has been obscured by the requirements for repeated stimulations and prolonged culture time. In this protocol, we describe how to rapidly evaluate antigen-specific priming of CD8+ -cells following a single stimulation. The assay provides reference conditions, which result in the expansion of a significant population of antigen-specific T-cells from the naïve repertoire. Various conditions and modifications during the priming process (e.g. testing new cytokines, costimulators, etc.) can now be directly compared to the reference conditions. Factors relevant to achieving effective priming include the dendritic cell preparation, the T-cell preparation, the cell ratio at the time of priming, the serum source used for the experiment, and the timing of addition and concentration of the cytokines used for expansion. This protocol is relevant for human immunology, vaccine biology and drug development. PMID:24675735

  16. Maternal serum reactivity to species-specific antigens in sheep-goat interspecific pregnancy.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, L A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Edmondson, A J; Bernoco, D

    1992-01-01

    Three models were used to test the hypothesis that interspecific pregnancy failure between the sheep and goat is due to a species-specific, maternal antibody response. Interspecific pregnancies were established in ewes and does, sheep in equilibrium goat chimeric conceptuses produced by injection of ovine blastocysts were transferred to ovine recipients, and ovine and caprine pregnancies were established in interspecific chimeras. Complement-mediated lymphocytotoxic and hemolytic assays were used to monitor onset and titer of antibodies. Sera from 3 of 8 injection-chimera recipients reacted with all caprine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and red blood cells (RBC) tested (n = 18). Sera from 3 of 6 ewes and 7 of 7 does also were pancytotoxic to PBL of the other species (n greater than or equal to 20). Absorptions with xenogeneic RBC generally removed the reactivity. The data were consistent with responses to species-specific, monomorphic antigens expressed on PBL and RBC, and probably trophoblast. The response preceded or coincided with interspecific pregnancy failure in does, but not in ewes. Accordingly, no xenoreactivity was observed in chimera sera but caprine pregnancies were resorbed (n = 16) and ovine pregnancies developed to term (n = 11). The data did not support the hypothesis that failure of caprine pregnancy in ewes or chimeras is due to a species-specific, maternal antibody response. In contrast, a maternal, cytotoxic antibody response to species-specific antigen(s) may contribute to failure of hybrid or ovine pregnancy in does. PMID:1547304

  17. Visualization of antigen-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes labeled with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Beer, Ambros J; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Neudorfer, Juliana; Piontek, Guido; Settles, Marcus; Krönig, Holger; Peschel, Christian; Schlegel, Jürgen; Rummeny, Ernst J; Bernhard, Helga

    2008-06-01

    New technologies are needed to characterize the migration and survival of antigen-specific T cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a novel technique for the labeling of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles and the subsequent depiction with a conventional 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes were labeled with ferucarbotran by lipofection. The uptake of ferucarbotran was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a dextran-specific antibody, and the intracellular enrichment of iron was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The imaging of T cells was performed by magnetic resonance on day 0, 2, 7 and 14 after the labeling procedure. On day 0 and 2 post labeling, a pronounced shortening of T2*-relaxation times was observed, which diminished after 7 days and was not detectable anymore after 14 days, probably due to the retained mitotic activity of the labeled T cells. Of importance, the antigen-specific cytolytic activity of the T cells was preserved following ferucarbotran labeling. Efficient ferucarbotran labeling of functionally active T lymphocytes and their detection by magnetic resonance imaging allows the in vivo monitoring of T cells and, subsequently, will impact the further development of T cell-based therapies. PMID:18286290

  18. Origin and fate of IgE-bearing lymphocytes. II. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue as sites of first appearance of IgE-bearing B lymphocytes and hapten-specific IgE antibody-forming cells in mice immunized with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin by various routes: relation to asialo GM1 ganglioside+ cells and IgE/CD23 immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Heusser, C; Athanassiades, T J; Durkin, H G

    1992-10-01

    The organs in which B cells bearing membrane-bound IgE (sIgE+) and benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cells (AFC) first appeared were determined in BALB/c mice given BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide by various routes (i.p, gavage, s.c., i.v., or i.m.). In mice immunized by the i.p. route, the numbers and location of sIgE+ B cells and asialo GM1 ganglioside (AsGm1+) cells, the location of IgE/CD23 immune complexes, and the numbers of BPO-specific IgE AFC in lymphoid organs were determined. With all routes of immunization, no sIgE+ B cells or BPO-specific IgE AFC were ever detected in any organ before day 8. On day 8, with the s.c., i.v., or i.m. routes, sIgE+ B cells and IgE AFC appeared exclusively in Peyer's patches (PP); with the i.p. or gavage routes, sIgE+ B cells simultaneously appeared in both PP and mesenteric lymph nodes, whereas IgE AFC appeared only in PP. In mice immunized by the i.p. route, IgE/CD23 immune complexes and strikingly increased numbers of AsGm1+ cells transiently appeared only in PP after the appearance and preceding the "disappearance" of the sIgE+ B cells and IgE AFC. The data suggest that specific IgE responses originate in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and appear later in spleen. The data also associate the appearance of IgE/CD23 immune complexes and AsGm1+ cells with the "disappearance" of sIgE+ B cells and IgE AFC from PP.

  19. Reactivity of human Lyme borreliosis sera with a 39-kilodalton antigen specific to Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, W J; Schrumpf, M E; Schwan, T G

    1990-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, a spirochetal illness with a variety of acute clinical manifestations that may lead to debilitating neurological and arthritic complications. Diagnosis is difficult because symptoms mimic a variety of unrelated clinical conditions, spirochetes cannot always be isolated from infected patients, and current serological tests are frequently inconclusive because of the presence of cross-reacting non-B. burgdorferi antibodies. To identify antigens specific to B. burgdorferi that could be used in the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, we screened a Borrelia DNA expression library in Escherichia coli for antigens reactive with human Lyme borreliosis sera. One clone carried a 6.3-kilobase EcoRI chromosomal fragment (pSPR33), which encoded two species-specific antigens with molecular masses of 28 (P28) and 39 (P39) kilodaltons (kDa). These two antigens were immunologically distinct from OspA, OspB, and the 41-kDa flagellin. Ninety-four serum specimens from patients having Lyme borreliosis were tested for reactivity with P39. All of 33 the serum specimens with immunofluorescence assay titers of greater than or equal to 1:256, 13 of 17 serum specimens with titers of 1:128, and 14 of 44 serum specimens with titers of less than or equal to 1:64 reacted with P39. Notably, many sera reactive to P39 did not appear to react with the 41-kDa flagellin. Therefore, antibody to P39 could be mistaken for antibody to the 41-kDa flagellin in tests of human sera by Western blot (immunoblot). Twenty-five control serum specimens, which included sera from syphilitic, relapsing fever, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as well as from 10 normal individuals, did not react to P39. Our data suggest that P39 may be a useful antigen for the serological confirmation of Lyme borreliosis. Images PMID:2380361

  20. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  1. Body composition and serum prostate-specific antigen: review and findings from Flint Men's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Faerber, Gary J; Morgenstern, Hal; Werny, David; Wojno, Kirk; Halstead-Nussloch, Bronwen; Cooney, Kathleen A

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that obesity is associated with lower serum prostate-specific antigen levels, perhaps influencing the recommendation for prostate biopsy and potentially explaining part of the observed poorer prognosis among obese men. African-American men have the greatest rates of prostate cancer and are more likely to die of the disease, making early detection a priority in this group. We present findings from the Flint Men's Health Study, a study of African-American men, that are consistent with most studies suggesting that overweight men have prostate-specific antigen levels that are 0.15 to 0.30 ng/mL lower than those who are not overweight. We have coupled our results with a systematic review of publications in this area.

  2. Anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen-based radioimmunotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Scott T; Beltran, Himisha; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Osborne, Joseph; Matulich, Dan; Petrillo, Kristen; Parmar, Sarojben; Nanus, David M; Bander, Neil H

    2010-02-15

    Despite recent advances, advanced prostate cancer is suboptimally responsive to current chemotherapeutic agents. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy that targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) shows promise and is an area of active investigation. J591 is a deimmunized IgG monoclonal antibody developed to target the extracellular domain of PSMA. Preclinical and early phase clinical studies using radiolabeled J591 have demonstrated efficacy in targeting tumor cells and decreasing levels of prostate-specific antigen. Radiolabeled J591 is well-tolerated, nonimmunogenic, and can be administered in multiple doses. The dose-limiting toxicity is reversible myelosuppression with little nonhematologic toxicity. Future studies will include approaches to optimize patient selection and incorporate novel strategies to improve the success of anti-PSMA radioimmunotherapy.

  3. [Renal histology in 44 patients with specific antibodies of soluble nuclear antigens].

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Gaudreau, A; Peltier, A P

    1980-10-01

    The authors studied the correlations between renal histology and specific antinuclear antibodies of soluble nuclear antigens (anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-protein) in 44 patients with such auto-antibodies. They were mostly patients with lupus erythematosus (35/44), more rarely mixed collagen disease or Sjögren's disease. The presence of any one of the specific antibodies of nuclear antigens is not associated with any special renal prognosis; thus the presence of anti-RNP does not mean that there are no histological renal lesions. The renal prognosis depends in fact on the presence of anti-ADN native antibodies. Among the other laboratory parameters (rheumatoid factors, complement levels, cryoglobulinemia) only hypocomplementemia seems to be associated with a poor renal prognosis, the presence of rheumatoid factor has perhaps a protective role.

  4. Antigen-specific T cell–mediated gene therapy in collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Atsuo; Seroogy, Christine M.; Sandora, Matthew R.; Tarner, Ingo H.; Costa, Gina L.; Taylor-Edwards, Cariel; Bachmann, Michael H.; Contag, Christopher H.; Fathman, C. Garrison

    2001-01-01

    Autoantigen-specific T cells have tissue-specific homing properties, suggesting that these cells may be ideal vehicles for the local delivery of immunoregulatory molecules. We tested this hypothesis by using type II collagen–specific (CII-specific) CD4+ T hybridomas or primary CD4+ T cells after gene transfer, as vehicles to deliver an immunoregulatory protein for the treatment of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CII-specific T cells or hybridomas were transduced using retroviral vectors to constitutively express the IL-12 antagonist, IL-12 p40. Transfer of engineered CD4+ T cells after immunization significantly inhibited the development of CIA, while cells transduced with vector control had no effect. The beneficial effect on CIA of IL-12 p40-transduced T cells required TCR specificity against CII, since transfer of T cells specific for another antigen producing equivalent amounts of IL-12 p40 had no effect. In vivo cell detection using bioluminescent labels and RT-PCR showed that transferred CII-reactive T-cell hybridomas accumulated in inflamed joints in mice with CIA. These results indicate that the local delivery of IL-12 p40 by T cells inhibited CIA by suppressing autoimmune responses at the site of inflammation. Modifying antigen-specific T cells by retroviral transduction for local expression of immunoregulatory proteins thus offers a promising strategy for treating RA. PMID:11375419

  5. Enhanced specificity of immunoblotting using radiolabeled antigen overlay: studies of blood coagulation factor XII and prekallikrein in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Laemmle, B.; Berrettini, M.; Griffin, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Immunoblotting of blood coagulation Factor XII and plasma prekallikrein in whole plasma was performed using radiolabeled antigen for detection. After sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasma and transfer to nitrocellulose sheets, the blots were first reacted with polyclonal goat anti-Factor XII or anti-prekallikrein antisera and then with /sup 125/I-Factor XII or /sup 125/I-prekallikrein, respectively. A major advantage of using radiolabeled antigen rather than radiolabeled secondary antibody was enhanced specificity of immunodetection of these antigens in plasma. This procedure was sensitive to approx.0.3 ng of either Factor XII or prekallikrein antigen and was useful for detection of Factor XII cleavage fragments in contact activated plasma. Radiolabeled antigen overlay may improve the specificity of immunoblotting of trace antigens in any complex mixtures.

  6. Localization of organ-specific antigens in the nervous system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Weinrauder, H; Lach, B

    1977-08-16

    Localization of organ-specific brain antigens in the central nervous system of the rat has been studied by means of indirect immunofluorescence. Rabbit antiserum against homogenate of rat brain, previously absorbed with normal serum and homogenates of rat organs (kidney, liver, spleen), reacted with the water-soluble antigens of rat brain prepared by extraction with phosphate buffer (pH 7.3) and ultracentrifugation at 50 000 X g to give one band in the immunodiffusion test and 2--3 precipitation arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. There was also a positive reaction with peripheral nerve. The antigen was detectable in all regions of the CNS. Cells with distinct cytoplasmic immunofluorescence were most frequently observed in cerebellar white matter, pons, cerebellar pedunculi, longitudinal tracts of the brain stem. Positive immunofluorecence reaction has appeared in the outer plexiform layer and granular layer of the retina, satelite cells of the spinal root ganglia and Schwann cells. A similar reaction was observed in human, mouse and guinea pig brain slices. Both the morphological and immunochemical reactions are indicative of glial localization of this antigen.

  7. T Lymphocyte–Endothelial Interactions: Emerging Understanding of Trafficking and Antigen-Specific Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Christopher V.; Martinelli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Antigen-specific immunity requires regulated trafficking of T cells in and out of diverse tissues in order to orchestrate lymphocyte development, immune surveillance, responses, and memory. The endothelium serves as a unique barrier, as well as a sentinel, between the blood and the tissues, and as such it plays an essential locally tuned role in regulating T cell migration and information exchange. While it is well established that chemoattractants and adhesion molecules are major determinants of T cell trafficking, emerging studies have now enumerated a large number of molecular players as well as a range of discrete cellular remodeling activities (e.g., transmigratory cups and invadosome-like protrusions) that participate in directed migration and pathfinding by T cells. In addition to providing trafficking cues, intimate cell–cell interaction between lymphocytes and endothelial cells provide instruction to T cells that influence their activation and differentiation states. Perhaps the most intriguing and underappreciated of these “sentinel” roles is the ability of the endothelium to act as a non-hematopoietic “semiprofessional” antigen-presenting cell. Close contacts between circulating T cells and antigen-presenting endothelium may play unique non-redundant roles in shaping adaptive immune responses within the periphery. A better understanding of the mechanisms directing T cell trafficking and the antigen-presenting role of the endothelium may not only increase our knowledge of the adaptive immune response but also empower the utility of emerging immunomodulatory therapeutics. PMID:26635815

  8. Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution.

  9. Engineered antigen-specific human regulatory T cells: immunosuppression of FVIII-specific T- and B-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Chan; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Su, Yan; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Rossi, Robert J.; Ettinger, Ruth A.; Pratt, Kathleen P.; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of human regulatory T cells (Tregs) for clinical applications offers great promise for the treatment of undesirable immune responses in autoimmunity, transplantation, allergy, and antidrug antibody responses, including inhibitor responses in hemophilia A patients. However, polyclonal Tregs are nonspecific and therefore could potentially cause global immunosuppression. To avoid this undesirable outcome, the generation of antigen-specific Tregs would be advantageous. Herein, we report the production and properties of engineered antigen-specific Tregs, created by transduction of a recombinant T-cell receptor obtained from a hemophilia A subject’s T-cell clone, into expanded human FoxP3+ Tregs. Such engineered factor VIII (FVIII)-specific Tregs efficiently suppressed the proliferation and cytokine production of FVIII-specific T-effector cells. Moreover, studies with an HLA-transgenic, FVIII-deficient mouse model demonstrated that antibody production from FVIII-primed spleen cells in vitro were profoundly inhibited in the presence of these FVIII-specific Tregs, suggesting potential utility to treat anti-FVIII inhibitory antibody formation in hemophilia A patients. PMID:25498909

  10. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions without affinity to concanavalin A are an important source of specific antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-04-01

    Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.

  11. Killer artificial antigen-presenting cells: a novel strategy to delete specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christian; Fleck, Martin; Mackensen, Andreas; Zoso, Alessia; Halbritter, Dagmar; Schneck, Jonathan P; Oelke, Mathias

    2008-04-01

    Several cell-based immunotherapy strategies have been developed to specifically modulate T cell-mediated immune responses. These methods frequently rely on the utilization of tolerogenic cell-based antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, APCs are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T-cell responses, thus limiting their therapeutic capacity. Here, we describe a novel bead-based approach to modulate T-cell responses in an antigen-specific fashion. We have generated killer artificial APCs (kappaaAPCs) by coupling an apoptosis-inducing alpha-Fas (CD95) IgM mAb together with HLA-A2 Ig molecules onto beads. These kappaaAPCs deplete targeted antigen-specific T cells in a Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent fashion. T-cell depletion in cocultures is rapidly initiated (30 minutes), dependent on the amount of kappaaAPCs and independent of activation-induced cell death (AICD). kappaaAPCs represent a novel technology that can control T cell-mediated immune responses, and therefore has potential for use in treatment of autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection. PMID:18096763

  12. Lupus-prone mice fail to raise antigen-specific T cell responses to intracellular infection.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Linda A; Tsokos, George C

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiple cellular abnormalities culminating in the production of autoantibodies and immune complexes, resulting in tissue inflammation and organ damage. Besides active disease, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE patients is infections, including those from opportunistic pathogens. To understand the failure of the immune system to fend off infections in systemic autoimmunity, we infected the lupus-prone murine strains B6.lpr and BXSB with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii and survival was monitored. Furthermore, mice were sacrificed days post infection and parasite burden and cellular immune responses such as cytokine production and cell activation were assessed. Mice from both strains succumbed to infection acutely and we observed greater susceptibility to infection in older mice. Increased parasite burden and a defective antigen-specific IFN-gamma response were observed in the lupus-prone mice. Furthermore, T cell:dendritic cell co-cultures established the presence of an intrinsic T cell defect responsible for the decreased antigen-specific response. An antigen-specific defect in IFN- gamma production prevents lupus-prone mice from clearing infection effectively. This study reveals the first cellular insight into the origin of increased susceptibility to infections in SLE disease and may guide therapeutic approaches.

  13. Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Provides More Precise Data on Benign Prostate Volume Than Total Prostate-Specific Antigen in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Methods From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV. Results Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement. Conclusion Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients. PMID:23869271

  14. Postsplenectomy type-1 hypersensitivity response: a correlation between IL-4 and IgE serum levels.

    PubMed

    Miniello, Stefano; Cristallo, Graziana; Testini, Mario; Balzanelli, Mario Giosuè; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Venezia, Pietro; Lissidini, Germana; Petrozza, Dino; Nacchiero, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Authors demonstrated the presence of allergic manifestations in splenectomized patients following traumatic rupture of this organ. In particular, allergic diathesis, as supported by serum IgE increase, was exclusively found in patients with preserved T helper (h)-2 lymphocyte function. Th-2 function was monitored by measuring serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, a cytokine involved in IgE synthesis. On the opposite, in splenectomized individuals with a reduced Th-2 function as supported by lower IL-4 serum levels, no IgE increase and allergic manifestations were detectable. On these grounds, authors hypothesize that allergic manifestations may be correlated to splenectomy since its exeresis may favor the persistence of antigens in the blood. Consequentially, in patients with a preserved Th-2 function, antigenic overload may lead to IgE increase and allergy onset.

  15. PD-1 expression conditions T cell avidity within an antigen-specific repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvain; Vignard, Virginie; Florenceau, Laetitia; Dreno, B.; Khammari, A.; Lang, F.; Labarriere, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its negative regulatory role on tumor-specific T cells, Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is also a marker of activated tumor-infiltrating T cells. In cancer, PD-1 blockade partially reverses T cell dysfunction allowing the amplification of tumor reactive T cells. Here, we investigated the role of PD-1 signaling on effector/memory human T cells specific for shared melanoma antigens, derived from blood. We documented for the first time the existence of melanoma-specific T cell clones unable to express PD-1. This stable feature was due to the persistent methylation of the PDCD1 promoter. These PD-1neg clones were of lower avidity than their PD-1pos counterparts, suggesting that high-affinity-specific T cell clones unable to express PD-1 are not or rarely present in peripheral blood, as they are probably eliminated by negative selection, due to their high reactivity. We also documented the existence of such PD-1neg T cell clones in melanoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), which also exhibited a lower functional avidity than PD-1pos TIL clones. This clearly shows that PD-1 expression identifies antigen-specific T cell clonotypes of high functional avidity. Finally, we demonstrated that PD-1 blockade during the in vitro selection process of Melan-A-specific T cells favored the amplification of higher avidity T cell clonotypes. This preferential amplification of high-avidity memory T cells upon PD-1 blockade resonates with the expansion of reactive T cells, including neo-antigen-specific T cells observed in anti-PD-1-treated patients. This feature should also be a useful biomarker of clinical efficiency, while providing new insights for adoptive transfer treatments. PMID:26942093

  16. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a Coccidioides immitis-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, S; Cole, G T

    1995-01-01

    Results of earlier investigations have indicated that the saprobic phase of Coccidioides immitis produces a heat-stable, 19-kDa antigen with serine proteinase activity which has been suggested to be specific for this pathogenic fungus. In the present study we have determined the N-terminal and partial internal amino acid sequences of the purified, 19-kDa antigen, cloned the gene which encodes this polypeptide, and confirmed that the secreted proteinase is a Coccidioides-specific antigen (CS-Ag). Both the genomic and cDNA sequences are reported and reveal that the csa gene which encodes this antigen has no introns. A 543-bp open reading frame encodes a 181-amino-acid-containing protein with a predicted molecular mass of 19.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.3. The csa gene was localized on chromosome I of three representative C. immitis clinical isolates on the basis of Southern hybridizations. Expression of the csa gene in Escherichia coli using the pET21a plasmid vector yielded a recombinant protein that was recognized in immunoblot assays by antibody raised to the purified 19-kDa CS-Ag. Secretion of the native antigen is suggested to occur by cleavage of a putative 23-residue signal peptide. The native CS-Ag showed a low degree of glycosylation. Analysis of the carbohydrate composition of the CS-Ag revealed xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. However, the purified antigen showed no affinity for concanavalin A. A PCR method with specificity and high sensitivity for detection of C. immitis genomic DNA, using a pair of synthetic oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were based on that of the csa gene, was developed. A 520-bp product was amplified only when C. immitis genomic DNA was used as the template. The lower limits of DNA detection using this PCR method were 1 pg of C. immitis genomic DNA by ethidium bromide staining and 100 fg after Southern hybridization. The csa gene-based PCR method for detection of C. immitis DNA is useful for culture

  17. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Jr., Joseph J.

    2012-10-16

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan ({sup 5F}W). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that {sup 5F}W incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when {sup 5F}W was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. {sup 19}F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each {sup 5F}W in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody-antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody-antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques.

  18. Selective IgE deficiency and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mishal, Joseph; Vardy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency (IgED) is defined as serum levels of IgE more than or equal to 2 kIU/L and is associated with immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate a prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in population with IgED. Within the electronic patient record (EPR) database of Leumit Health Care Services (LHS) in Israel, data capture was performed using IBM Cognos 10.1.1 BI Report Studio software. The case samples were drawn from the full study population (n = 18,487), having any allergy-related symptoms and/or those requesting antiallergy medications and performed serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at LHS. All subjects aged more than or equal to 40 years old, with serum total IgE less than 2 kIU/L were included in case group. Control group was randomly sampled from the remained subjects, with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case (1:10). The comorbid cardiovascular diseases during less than or equal to 10 years before serum total IgE testing were identified and retrieved using specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. There were 103 in case and 1030 subjects in control group. Compared with control group patients, the case group had significantly more arterial hypertension [34 (37.7%) versus 187 (18.2%), p < 0.001], ischemic heart disease (IHD) [26 (25.2%) versus 87 (8.4%), p < 0.001], carotid stenosis [5 (4.9%) versus 7 (0.7%), p = 0.003], cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [3 (2.9%) versus 5 (0.5%), p = 0.029], and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [4 (3.9%) versus 9 (0.9%), p = 0.024]. IgED is associated with higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and ASCVD. PMID:25976439

  19. Selective IgE deficiency and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Mishal, Joseph; Vardy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency (IgED) is defined as serum levels of IgE more than or equal to 2 kIU/L and is associated with immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate a prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in population with IgED. Within the electronic patient record (EPR) database of Leumit Health Care Services (LHS) in Israel, data capture was performed using IBM Cognos 10.1.1 BI Report Studio software. The case samples were drawn from the full study population (n = 18,487), having any allergy-related symptoms and/or those requesting antiallergy medications and performed serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at LHS. All subjects aged more than or equal to 40 years old, with serum total IgE less than 2 kIU/L were included in case group. Control group was randomly sampled from the remained subjects, with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case (1:10). The comorbid cardiovascular diseases during less than or equal to 10 years before serum total IgE testing were identified and retrieved using specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. There were 103 in case and 1030 subjects in control group. Compared with control group patients, the case group had significantly more arterial hypertension [34 (37.7%) versus 187 (18.2%), p < 0.001], ischemic heart disease (IHD) [26 (25.2%) versus 87 (8.4%), p < 0.001], carotid stenosis [5 (4.9%) versus 7 (0.7%), p = 0.003], cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [3 (2.9%) versus 5 (0.5%), p = 0.029], and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [4 (3.9%) versus 9 (0.9%), p = 0.024]. IgED is associated with higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and ASCVD.

  20. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  1. Practical Evaluation of Methods for Detection and Specificity of Autoantibodies to Extractable Nuclear Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Susan M.; Peace-Brewer, Amy; Schmitz, John L.; Freeman, Kristie; Miller, William C.; Folds, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Detection and specificity of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) play a critical role in the diagnosis and management of autoimmune disease. Historically, the detection of these antibodies has employed double immunodiffusion (DID). Autoantibody specificity was correlated with diagnoses by this technique. Enzyme immunoassays have been developed by multiple manufacturers to detect and identify the specificity ENA autoantibodies. To address the relationship of ENA detection by DID and enzyme immunoassay, the performances of five immunoassays were compared. These included two DID and three enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) (both screening and individual antigen profile kits). The sample set included 83 ENA-positive, antinuclear-antibody (ANA)-positive specimens, 77 ENA-negative, ANA-positive specimens, and 20 ENA- and ANA-negative specimens. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by two methods: first, by using the in-house DID result as the reference standard, and second, by using latent class analysis, which evaluates each kit result independently. Overall, the results showed that the ELISA methods were more sensitive for detection of ENA autoantibodies than DID techniques, but presence and/or specific type of ENA autoantibody did not always correlate with the patient's clinical presentation. Regardless of the testing strategy an individual laboratory uses, clear communication with the clinical staff regarding the significance of a positive result is imperative. The laboratory and the clinician must both be aware of the sensitivity and specificity of each testing method in use in the clinical laboratory. PMID:15013979

  2. [Expression of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and selection of its specific binding peptide].

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-Hua; Du, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; An, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2004-09-01

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a homologue of the Ly-6/Thy-1 family of cell surface antigen, is expressed by a majority of human prostate cancers and is a promising target for prostate cancer immunotherapy. To obtain the specific peptide binding with PSCA for targeted immunotherapy, PSCA gene was obtained by RT-PCR from human prostate cancer cell line DU145 and the transcated PSCA (tPSCA) gene was cloned into vector pQE30 for soluble expression in E. coli. The identity of recombinant tPSCA was confirmed through ELISA and western blot by use of anti-PSCA monoclonal antibody. Then the 12-peptide phage display library was screened with the purified tPSCA protein for its specific binding peptide through 3 rounds panning. For identifying the peptide's specificity, the peptide was coupled with EGFP (enhanced green fluorecent protein) by recombinant DNA technology and the recombinant coupled protein was termed 11-EGFP. The binding specificity with tPSCA of 11-EGFP was further confirmed by ELISA and competitive inhibition experiment. Flow cytometry demonstrated its binding specificity with cell line DU145. In conclusion, a 12-amino-acid peptide which could bind with PSCA specifically was found and it may be a potential tool for targeted immunotherapy of prostate carcinoma. PMID:15973992

  3. IgE Antibody Detection and Component Analysis in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Tripathi, Anubha; Ogbogu, Princess U.; Commins, Scott P.; Slack, Maria A.; Cho, Christine B.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Workman, Lisa J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although IgE antibodies to cow's milk and wheat are common in patients with EoE, titers are low and responses to diet are not dependent on having IgE antibodies. Objective To better define specific IgE antibody responses to foods, focusing on those foods that appear to play a role in EoE. Methods Adult (n=46) and pediatric (n=51) EoE patients were recruited for skin prick testing and serum measurement (whole and diluted) of IgE specific for aeroallergens, food extracts and component allergens by ImmunoCAP. Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip (ISAC) analysis was also used to measure IgE to 112 allergen molecules. Results In adults and children, there was a higher prevalence of sensitization to food extracts by ImmunoCAP compared with skin prick testing. Using ISAC to assess the specificity of IgE antibodies to 112 allergen molecules, results for food allergens were mostly negative. In contrast, ImmunoCAP assays for specific milk allergens gave positive IgE antibody results in 31/34 sera. The correlations between specific IgE antibody to Bosidi4 or Bos d 5 and milk extract were strong (R=0.89 and R=0.76 respectively; p<0.001). The evidence that IgE to foods was directed at minor components of the extracts was further supported by measurements on diluted sera. Conclusion The IgE responses in cow's milk sensitized EoE patients are frequently to whey proteins Bos d 4 and Bos d 5, minor components of the extract. These IgE assays may be able to identify the proteins that are relevant to EoE even though IgE is not the primary mechanism. PMID:26099818

  4. Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mazliah, Damián; Albareda, María C.; Alvarez, María G.; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela L.; Petti, Marcos; Viotti, Rodolfo J.; Laucella, Susana A.

    2012-01-01

    Allopurinol is the most popular commercially available xanthine oxidase inhibitor and it is widely used for treatment of symptomatic hyperuricaemia, or gout. Although, several anti-inflammatory actions of allopurinol have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, there have been few studies on the action of allopurinol on T cells. In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine production in human T cells. Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation with Herpes Simplex virus 1, Influenza (Flu) virus, tetanus toxoid and Trypanosoma cruzi-derived antigens. Allopurinol attenuated CD69 upregulation after CD3 and CD28 engagement and significantly reduced the levels of spontaneous and mitogen-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in T cells. The diminished T cell activation and cytokine production in the presence of allopurinol support a direct action of allopurinol on human T cells, offering a potential pharmacological tool for the management of cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23049532

  5. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Dilnot, Elizabeth M.; Shone, Clifford C.; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E.; Edwards, Laura J.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated <10% coefficient of variation (CV). Significant correlation was observed between microarray and ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. PMID:26178385

  6. Gene Therapy Induces Antigen-Specific Tolerance in Experimental Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jirholt, Pernilla; Turesson, Olof; Wing, Kajsa; Holmdahl, Rikard; Kihlberg, Jan; Stern, Anna; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Henningsson, Louise; Gustafsson, Kenth; Gjertsson, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Here, we investigate induction of immunological tolerance by lentiviral based gene therapy in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA). Targeting the expression of the collagen type II (CII) to antigen presenting cells (APCs) induced antigen-specific tolerance, where only 5% of the mice developed arthritis as compared with 95% of the control mice. In the CII-tolerized mice, the proportion of Tregs as well as mRNA expression of SOCS1 (suppressors of cytokine signaling 1) increased at day 3 after CII immunization. Transfer of B cells or non-B cell APC, as well as T cells, from tolerized to naïve mice all mediated a certain degree of tolerance. Thus, sustainable tolerance is established very early during the course of arthritis and is mediated by both B and non-B cells as APCs. This novel approach for inducing tolerance to disease specific antigens can be used for studying tolerance mechanisms, not only in CIA but also in other autoimmune diseases. PMID:27159398

  7. Specific and cross-reacting antigens of Staphylococcus aureus of human and canine origins.

    PubMed

    Live, I

    1985-01-01

    Biotype -specificity of Staphylococcus aureus of human and canine origins has been found to be associated with thermolabile agglutinogens represented in S. aureus strains 17 and 61218, respectively. Both strains also have exhibited a common thermostable antigen. On that basis, absorbed antisera have been developed for the differentiation of S. aureus of the two biotypes. In the present study, still another thermostable agglutinogen was established, shared by strain 17 and some S. aureus strains of canine origin, as represented by S. aureus strain 887. These findings led to modification and enhanced specificity of the serological method of distinguishing S. aureus of the human biotype from S. aureus of the canine biotype. PMID:2578480

  8. Surface antigens of melanoma and melanocytes. Specificity of induction of Ia antigens by human gamma-interferon

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    IFN-gamma is known to induce expression of Ia antigens on a variety of cell types. In the present study, this activity of IFN-gamma has been analyzed with a panel of 36 melanoma cell lines, normal melanocytes, and 97 cell lines representing a range of other differentiation lineages. 55% of the melanoma cell lines express Ia antigens in a constitutive manner without IFN-gamma induction. Of the 16 Ia-melanoma lines, 13 could be induced to express Ia antigens by IFN-gamma, whereas three were noninducible. Melanocytes, which do not normally express Ia antigens, are converted to Ia expression by IFN-gamma. Ia antigens expressed constitutively or after IFN-gamma induction were identified with antibodies detecting monomorphic and allomorphic products of DR and DC loci. IFN-gamma appeared to be unique in its ability to induce Ia expression on melanoma and melanocytes; 14 other agents (including IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) known to influence growth or differentiation did not have Ia-inducing activity. Equally striking is the restriction of antigenic changes following IFN-gamma induction to HLA-associated products; of the 38 systems of cell surface antigens examined, only HLA- A,B,C, beta 2m, and Ia antigens were affected. A variety of other Ia- cell types were shown to be Ia-inducible by IFN-gamma; these included established lines of breast, colon, pancreas, bladder, kidney, ovary, and brain cancers, and cultures of normal fibroblasts, kidney epithelia, and epidermal keratinocytes. In contrast, three tumor types, teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and neuroblastoma, were not inducible for Ia expression, even though IFN-gamma could induce expression of HLA- A,B,C products. The broad representation of Ia antigens on most somatic cell types expressed either constitutively or after IFN-gamma can be viewed in an immunological context (antigen presentation/immune regulatory signals) or could indicate that Ia products have functions other than those related to immune reactions. PMID

  9. New Commercially Available IgG Kits and Time-Resolved Fluorometric IgE Assay for Diagnosis of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Coralie; Richaud-Thiriez, Bénédicte; Rocchi, Steffi; Rognon, Bénédicte; Roussel, Sandrine; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Laboissière, Audrey; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Reboux, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is difficult to diagnose; diagnosis relies on clinical, radiological, pathological, and serological criteria. Our aim was to assess the performance of two new commercially available kits and a new in-house assay: an Aspergillus fumigatus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG kit (Bordier Affinity Products), an Aspergillus Western blotting IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics), and a new in-house time-resolved fluorometric IgE assay (dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay, or DELFIA) using recombinant proteins from an Aspergillus sp. recently developed by our laboratory for ABPA diagnosis in a retrospective study that included 26 cystic fibrosis patients. Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgG levels measured by a commercial ELISA kit were in accordance with the level of precipitins currently used in our lab. The ELISA kit could accelerate and help standardize ABPA diagnosis. Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgE levels measured by ImmunoCAP (Phadia) with A. fumigatus M3 antigen and by DELFIA with a purified protein extract of A. fumigatus were significantly correlated (P < 10−6). The results with recombinant antigens glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase were encouraging but must be confirmed with sera from more patients. The DELFIA is an effective tool that can detect specific IgE against more fungal allergens than can be detected with other commercially available tests. PMID:26698651

  10. T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    After immunization, activated splenic T cells proliferate in periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) and subsequently migrate to the lymphoid follicle where they enter nascent germinal centers. Analysis of TCR V(D)J gene rearrangements indicates extensive emigration, frequently involving more than a single white pulp region. These migrants constitute a unique set of T helper cells that express antigen- specific alpha beta TCR, CD3, and CD4, but little or no Thy-1, a differentiation antigen present on the great majority of peripheral murine T lymphocytes. The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular T cells appears to be the Thy+ population in the PALS, as both sets commonly share identical V(D)J rearrangements. PMID:9064325

  11. Pertussis toxin enhanced IgG1 and IgE responses to primary tetanus immunization are mediated by interleukin-4 and persist during secondary responses to tetanus alone.

    PubMed

    Samore, M H; Siber, G R

    1996-03-01

    Pertussis toxin (Ptx), the major toxin product of Bordetella pertussis, has potent immunologic effect including adjuvant effects on antibody responses and sensitization for anaphylaxis. In order to further define the effect of Ptx on the class and subclass of murine antibody response, we measured total and antigen specific IgG subclasses and IgE in Balb/c mice after primary and secondary immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT). Low doses of Ptx (100 ng) given intravenously at the time of primary immunization increased primary IgG1 and IgE anti-TT antibodies as well as total IgG1 and IgE concentrations compared to controls. The increase in IgG1 subclass and IgE response when Ptx was present during primary immunization was even more pronounced after secondary immunization with TT alone 3 weeks or 3 months later. Similar effects were noted after diphtheria toxoid immunization in the presence of Ptx. Administration of the anti IL-4 monoclonal antibody (11B11) suppressed the enhanced total and TT-specific IgE responses but not the enhanced IgG1 responses. The presence of low concentrations of Ptx during primary immunization primes for induction of IL-4 producing T-cell help which enhances IgGI and IgE responses to the primary exposure as well as to subsequent exposures of the antigen in the absence of Ptx. This phenomenon may have significance for the adjuvant activity of vaccines containing Ptx as well as for the immune response to natural pertussis.

  12. Antigen-specific and non-specific CD4{sup +} T cell recruitment and proliferation during influenza infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Timothy J.; Castrucci, Maria R.; Padrick, Ryan C.; Bradley, Linda M.; Topham, David J. . E-mail: david_topham@urmc.rochester.edu

    2005-09-30

    To track epitope-specific CD4{sup +} T cells at a single-cell level during influenza infection, the MHC class II-restricted OVA{sub 323-339} epitope was engineered into the neuraminidase stalk of influenza/A/WSN, creating a surrogate viral antigen. The recombinant virus, influenza A/WSN/OVA{sub II}, replicated well, was cleared normally, and stimulated both wild-type and DO11.10 or OT-II TCR transgenic OVA-specific CD4{sup +} T cells. OVA-specific CD4 T cells proliferated during infection only when the OVA epitope was present. However, previously primed (but not naive) transgenic CD4{sup +} T cells were recruited to the infected lung both in the presence and absence of the OVA{sub 323-339} epitope. These data show that, when primed, CD4{sup +} T cells may traffic to the lung in the absence of antigen, but do not proliferate. These results also document a useful tool for the study of CD4 T cells in influenza infection.

  13. Melanoma-associated antigen synthesized in vitro for active specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, K

    1992-11-01

    The immunogenicity of the antigen molecule is a prerequisite for active specific immunotherapy for melanoma. Since most of the melanoma-associated antigens recognized by the murine immune system are known to be not immunogenic in man, a detection and analysis system for melanoma-associated antigens is required to reflect in vivo immune responses in patients with melanoma. One of the promising approaches, an attempt to develop human monoclonal antibodies from B lymphocytes of patients with melanoma, has met with limited success due to the difficulties of producing large amounts of antibodies and using them in immunochemical assays, because most of them belong to the IgM class and have low affinity. Our approach is to utilize the screening of a cDNA expression library constructed from mRNA extracted from cultured melanoma cells with antibodies from patients with melanoma. The cloned cDNA, designated as D-1, had 1029 bp and showed no significant homology with viral and mammalian sequences stored in GENETYX. cDNA D-1 hybridized to a 2.0 kb mRNA species from 3 different cell lines of human melanoma, neuroblastoma, erythroleukemia, B lymphoid, and T lymphoid cells, but not from a renal carcinoma cell line, normal peripheral lymphocytes, or normal fibroblasts. The in vivo expression and distribution of mRNA related to cDNA D-1 has been examined in tissue specimens by in situ hybridization and shown to be rather restricted on melanoma cells. The polypeptide antigen encoded by cDNA D-1 may be a valuable immunogen for implementing active specific immunotherapy in patients with melanoma.

  14. Specific Nongluten Proteins of Wheat Are Novel Target Antigens in Celiac Disease Humoral Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  15. Detecting Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses: From Bulk Populations to Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Phetsouphanh, Chansavath; Zaunders, John James; Kelleher, Anthony Dominic

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of sensitive T cell-based assays facilitates the direct quantitation and characterization of antigen-specific T cell responses. Single-cell analyses have focused on measuring the quality and breadth of a response. Accumulating data from these studies demonstrate that there is considerable, previously-unrecognized, heterogeneity. Standard assays, such as the ICS, are often insufficient for characterization of rare subsets of cells. Enhanced flow cytometry with imaging capabilities enables the determination of cell morphology, as well as the spatial localization of the protein molecules within a single cell. Advances in both microfluidics and digital PCR have improved the efficiency of single-cell sorting and allowed multiplexed gene detection at the single-cell level. Delving further into the transcriptome of single-cells using RNA-seq is likely to reveal the fine-specificity of cellular events such as alternative splicing (i.e., splice variants) and allele-specific expression, and will also define the roles of new genes. Finally, detailed analysis of clonally related antigen-specific T cells using single-cell TCR RNA-seq will provide information on pathways of differentiation of memory T cells. With these state of the art technologies the transcriptomics and genomics of Ag-specific T cells can be more definitively elucidated. PMID:26274954

  16. Effective Delivery of Antigen-Encapsulin Nanoparticle Fusions to Dendritic Cells Leads to Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Activation and Tumor Rejection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bongseo; Moon, Hyojin; Hong, Sung Joon; Shin, Changsik; Do, Yoonkyung; Ryu, Seongho; Kang, Sebyung

    2016-08-23

    In cancer immunotherapy, robust and efficient activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell immune responses is a promising, but challenging task. Dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known professional antigen presenting cells that initiate and regulate antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that kill their target cells directly as well as secrete IFN-γ, a cytokine critical in tumor rejection. Here, we employed recently established protein cage nanoparticles, encapsulin (Encap), as antigenic peptide nanocarriers by genetically incorporating the OT-1 peptide of ovalbumin (OVA) protein to the three different positions of the Encap subunit. With them, we evaluated their efficacy in activating DC-mediated antigen-specific T cell cytotoxicity and consequent melanoma tumor rejection in vivo. DCs efficiently engulfed Encap and its variants (OT-1-Encaps), which carry antigenic peptides at different positions, and properly processed them within phagosomes. Delivered OT-1 peptides were effectively presented by DCs to naïve CD8(+) T cells successfully, resulting in the proliferation of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. OT-1-Encap vaccinations in B16-OVA melanoma tumor bearing mice effectively activated OT-1 peptide specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells before or even after tumor generation, resulting in significant suppression of tumor growth in prophylactic as well as therapeutic treatments. A large number of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that actively produce both intracellular and secretory IFN-γ were observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes collected from B16-OVA tumor masses originally vaccinated with OT-1-Encap-C upon tumor challenges. The approaches we describe herein may provide opportunities to develop epitope-dependent vaccination systems that stimulate and/or modulate efficient and epitope-specific cytotoxic T cell immune responses in nonpathogenic diseases.

  17. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng . E-mail: Dongfeng_pan@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10{sup 9} PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases.

  18. Single antigen flow beads for identification of human leukocyte antigen antibody specificities in hypersensitized patients with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçaslan-Ayna, Tülay; Özkızılcık-Koçyiğit, Aslı; Güleç, Derya; Pirim, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aims of this study Aims of this study were to identify class I and class II antibodies in highly sensitized patients by flow cytometry single antigen bead (FC-SAB) assay and to evaluate according to donor HLA type in order to increase their kidney transplantation chance. Material and methods We analyzed 60 hypersensitive patients of 351 individuals, who applied to our laboratory for PRA test in November 2013-December 2014. Flow cytometric PRA screening and single antigen bead commercial kits were used for these analyses. Results In our study group, 19 (31.7%) of these patients were male while 41 (68.3%) patients were female. The most common acceptable antigens were A*02 (10.11%), HLA-A*23 (10.11%), HLA-B*38 (8.79%) and HLA-DRB1*03 (7.83%) in hypersensitive patients. The highest antibody reactivity on SAB was observed against HLA-A*25, HLA-B*45, HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DRB1*08 antigens. Conclusions The determination of these acceptable and unacceptable antigens may increase their transplantation chance. Pre-transplant HLA antibody identifications provide prognostic information with respect to the determination of patients who are at increased risk of graft loss. PMID:27095928

  19. A combined biochemical, biophysical and immunological approach towards the identification of celiac disease-specific wheat antigens.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharani; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Swoboda, Ines; Constantin, Claudia; Mittermann, Irene; Pahr, Sandra; Vogelsang, Harald; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory affliction of the small bowel caused by an immunological hypersensitivity to ingested wheat antigens affecting almost 1 % of the population. The gliadin fraction of wheat has been shown to contain the pathogenic antigens which react with antibodies and T cells. However, there is only limited knowledge regarding the precise nature of the wheat antigens recognized by IgA antibodies from CD patients and diagnostic tests based on the gliadin fraction have been demonstrated to give frequently false positive results. The aim of this study was the characterization of wheat antigens specifically recognized by IgA antibodies of CD patients. We developed a combined biochemical, biophysical, and immunological approach for the identification of celiac disease-specific wheat antigens. It is based on sub-fractionation of the wheat gliadin fraction using two ion exchange chromatography steps, the localization of CD-specific antigens by immunoblotting with IgA antibodies from CD patients, subsequent digestion followed by electro spray ionization-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation. Through the sub-fractionation procedure it was possible to separate CD-specific IgA-reactive wheat antigens from other wheat antigens which were also recognized by IgA antibodies of individuals without CD or by CD patients on gluten-free diet. Analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS and N-terminal sequencing of the sub-fractions and the proteins specifically recognized by CD patients identified certain γ-gliadins with molecular mass of 37,000 and 45,000 as CD-specific wheat antigens. The CD-specific γ-gliadins with the molecular mass of 37,000 and 45,000 should be useful to study pathomechanisms of the disease and to improve the specificity of diagnostic tests for CD.

  20. Manipulation of regulatory T cells and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-based tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shirin; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chakraborty, Nitya G

    2015-01-01

    The most potent killing machinery in our immune system is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). Since the possibility for self-destruction by these cells is high, many regulatory activities exist to prevent autoimmune destruction by these cells. A tumour (cancer) grows from the cells of the body and is tolerated by the body's immune system. Yet, it has been possible to generate tumour-associated antigen (TAA) -specific CTL that are also self-antigen specific in vivo, to achieve a degree of therapeutic efficacy. Tumour-associated antigen-specific T-cell tolerance through pathways of self-tolerance generation represents a significant challenge to successful immunotherapy. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells, referred to as T regulatory (Treg) cells, are selected in the thymus as controllers of the anti-self repertoire. These cells are referred to as natural T regulatory (nTreg) cells. According to the new consensus (Nature Immunology 2013; 14:307–308) these cells are to be termed as (tTreg). There is another class of CD4+ Treg cells also involved in regulatory function in the periphery, also phenotypically CD4+ CD25±, classified as induced Treg (iTreg) cells. These cells are to be termed as peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells. In vitro-induced Treg cells with suppressor function should be termed as iTreg. These different Treg cells differ in their requirements for activation and in their mode of action. The current challenges are to determine the degree of specificity of these Treg cells in recognizing the same TAA as the CTL population and to circumvent their regulatory constraints so as to achieve robust CTL responses against cancer. PMID:25243729

  1. A novel beta 4, alpha 6 integrin-associated epithelial cell antigen involved in natural killer cell and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Efficient immune responses require interactions between cell adhesion molecules on lymphocytes and counter-receptors on antigen presenting cells or target cells. While target-specific receptors or ligands have not been identified for natural killer (NK) cells, cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in the interaction between NK cell effectors and tumor cell targets. Herein, we describe monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a carcinoma cell line that efficiently block the cytolytic activity of interleukin 2-activated NK cell lines and clones. L280 mAb reacts with secretory epithelial cells in normal human tissues, but does not react with hematopoietic cells or other tissue types. Biochemical analysis revealed that L280 mAb immunoprecipitates the beta 4, alpha 6 integrin, as well as a novel 98-kD glycoprotein, and probably reacts with a carbohydrate epitope on these molecules. Involvement of the L280 antigen in cellular immunity is not restricted to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. L280 mAb also efficiently inhibits alloantigen-specific cytotoxicity against Colo-205 cells mediated by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 alloantigen specific alpha beta-TCR+ and gamma delta-TCR+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones. Additionally, we demonstrate that L280 mAb blocks cytotoxicity mediated by influenza peptide-specific HLA-restricted CTL clones. These data indicate that the antigen recognized by L280 mAb is important in both NK and CTL function, and that an as yet unidentified receptor for this epithelial antigen is present on both NK and T lymphocytes. The restricted expression of L280 antigen indicates that this molecule may be important in immune reactions in epithelial tissues. PMID:1744585

  2. Crossreacting determinants in variant-specific surface antigens of African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Barbet, A F; McGuire, T C

    1978-04-01

    A number of variant-specific surface antigens (VSSAs) were purified from clones of Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense and tested for immunological crossreactivity. Anti-VSSA sera were clone-specific when tested by indirect immunofluorescence of living trypanosomes, but they were not clone-specific when tested by radioimmunoassay with purified 125I-labeled VSSAs. In this double-antibody radioimmunoassay every VSSA tested was precipitated by the homologous and all heterologous anti-VSSA sera. Any unlabeled VSSA could inhibit the heterologous precipitation reactions by 100%. The homologous precipitation reactions were effectively inhibited only by unlabeled homologous VSSA. Crossreactions between different VSSA molecules were also revealed by microcomplement fixation tests. The results confirm the presence, in VSSAs, of variable determinants specific to individual VSSAs and also show crossreacting determinants in all VSSAs tested, including those isolated from different species of trypanosomes. These results contrast with previous studies which failed to find evidence for immunological crossreactivity between different VSSA molecules. We suggest that the crossreacting determinants in VSSAs may represent common structural regions. The existence of such regions would have considerable implication for the development of theories and experiments concerning the mechanism of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes.

  3. Crossreacting determinants in variant-specific surface antigens of African trypanosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Barbet, A F; McGuire, T C

    1978-01-01

    A number of variant-specific surface antigens (VSSAs) were purified from clones of Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense and tested for immunological crossreactivity. Anti-VSSA sera were clone-specific when tested by indirect immunofluorescence of living trypanosomes, but they were not clone-specific when tested by radioimmunoassay with purified 125I-labeled VSSAs. In this double-antibody radioimmunoassay every VSSA tested was precipitated by the homologous and all heterologous anti-VSSA sera. Any unlabeled VSSA could inhibit the heterologous precipitation reactions by 100%. The homologous precipitation reactions were effectively inhibited only by unlabeled homologous VSSA. Crossreactions between different VSSA molecules were also revealed by microcomplement fixation tests. The results confirm the presence, in VSSAs, of variable determinants specific to individual VSSAs and also show crossreacting determinants in all VSSAs tested, including those isolated from different species of trypanosomes. These results contrast with previous studies which failed to find evidence for immunological crossreactivity between different VSSA molecules. We suggest that the crossreacting determinants in VSSAs may represent common structural regions. The existence of such regions would have considerable implication for the development of theories and experiments concerning the mechanism of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. PMID:77021

  4. DNA analysis of histocompatibility antigens: identification of new DQw specificities and of DPw patterns.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, A C; Kalil, J

    1989-01-01

    1. The HLA-D region of the major histocompatibility complex has several subregions, the most important of which are DR, DQ and DP. The genes coding for the beta chains of these proteins present most of the polymorphisms which result in the large variety of class II antigens observed. 2. We have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the DQ beta and DP beta genes in order to establish accurate typing patterns. 3. The data show that DQ typing based on RFLP permits the identification of the recently described DQw1 splits (new antigenic specificities), DQw5 and DQw6. The TA10-monoclonal antibody-positive split of DQw3, designated DQw7, is associated with specific DNA fragments after digestion with four different enzymes: Taq I, Hind III, Pvu II and Bgl II. Furthermore, the recently reported specificity DQw4 (formerly typed as a blank) is associated with a specific 2.4-kb fragment when the DNA is digested with EcoRV. 4. DP typing proved to be more difficult even though six enzymes were used, and only broad groups could be identified. PMID:2483530

  5. Application of fluorescent substrates to the in situ detection of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Gooch, James; Daniel, Barbara; Frascione, Nunzianda

    2014-07-01

    The forensic identification of body fluids frequently presents an important source of genetic material and investigative interpretation. However, presumptive testing techniques presently employed in the discrimination of biological fluids are subject to criticism for poor specificity, lack of fluid localisation ability and detrimental effects on DNA recovery rates. The recognition of fluid-specific biomarkers by fluorogenic substrates may provide a novel resolution to these issues but research has yet to establish any pertinent in situ fluid detection applicability. This study therefore utilises a fluorogenic substrate (Mu-HSSKLQ-AFC) specific to the seminal protein prostate specific antigen in an effort to detect human semen deposited on a number of surfaces typical to criminal investigation. The ability of fluorescent fluorogenic substrates to simultaneously identify and visualise biological fluids in situ is demonstrated for the first time, whilst the production of complete STR profiles from fluid sources is also confirmed to be completely unaffected by substrate application.

  6. Presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes by non-immune B-cell hybridoma clones: evidence for specific and non-specific presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohly, H. H.; Morrison, D. R.; Zouhair Atassi, M. Z.

    1989-01-01

    Non-immune SJL (H-2s) spleen cells were fused with non-secreting, non-antigen presenting (H-2d) Balb/c 653-myeloma cells and the hybridomas were cloned by two limiting dilutions. The resulting hybrid B-cell clones were tested for their antigen presentation capability to SJL T-cell lines that were specific for either lysozyme or myoglobin. In proliferative assays, 53% of the antigen presenting B-cell clones presented both myoglobin and lysozyme (general presenters) while the other 47% presented specifically either myoglobin or lysozyme (specific presenters). The ability to selectively present either myoglobin or lysozyme indicates that antigen presentation at the clonal level can be specific or non-specific depending on the particular B-cell clone.

  7. Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to species-specific antigens of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, H; Kobayashi, S; Nagakura, K; Kaneda, Y; Takeuchi, T

    1991-01-01

    Twenty monoclonal antibodies were produced against trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica strains HK-9 and HM-1: IMSS. When reactivity to various enteric protozoa was examined by an indirect fluorescence antibody test, 15 of the monoclonal antibodies were strongly reactive with E. histolytica trophozoites. Species-specific antigens recognized by these monoclonal antibodies were located on the plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeletal structures of the trophozoites. Two of the remaining five monoclonals reacted strongly with trophozoites of the E. histolytica-like Laredo strain. The determinant antigen was located in the cytoplasm. The three remaining monoclonal antibodies were found to recognize cross-reactive antigens between E. histolytica and E. histolytica-like Laredo, E. hartmanni, E. coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, and Trichomonas hominis. These three antibodies were also reactive with T. vaginalis and mammalian cells such as HeLa cells. Thus, the combined use of monoclonal antibodies seems capable of distinguishing E. histolytica and/or E. histolytica-like Laredo from other enteric protozoa. PMID:1724012

  8. Dendritic Cells in the Periphery Control Antigen-Specific Natural and Induced Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Sayuri; Morita, Akimichi

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that regulate both immunity and tolerance. DCs in the periphery play a key role in expanding naturally occurring Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Natural T-regs) and inducing Foxp3 expression (Induced T-regs) in Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. DCs are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, and further classified into several subsets depending on distinct marker expression and their location. Recent findings indicate the presence of specialized DC subsets that act to expand Natural T-regs or induce Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. For example, two major subsets of DCs in lymphoid organs act differentially in inducing Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− cells or expanding Natural T-regs with model-antigen delivery by anti-DC subset monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Furthermore, DCs expressing CD103 in the intestine induce Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− CD4+ T cells with endogenous TGF-β and retinoic acid. In addition, antigen-presenting DCs have a capacity to generate Foxp3+ T-regs in the oral cavity where many antigens and commensals exist, similar to intestine and skin. In skin and skin-draining lymph nodes, at least six DC subsets have been identified, suggesting a complex DC-T-reg network. Here, we will review the specific activity of DCs in expanding Natural T-regs and inducing Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− precursors, and further discuss the critical function of DCs in maintaining tolerance at various locations including skin and oral cavity. PMID:23801989

  9. Impairment of antigen-specific cellular immune responses under simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sastry, K J; Nehete, P N; Savary, C A

    2001-04-01

    Microgravity has been implicated to play a role in the observed immune dysfunction of astronauts and cosmonauts after either short-term or long-term space travel. These reports, together with studies describing increased levels of microorganisms in the space cabin environment suggest potential risk for in-flight incidences of infectious diseases. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these immune defects, it is important to have a ground-based model that would reliably mimic the effects of microgravity on antigen-specific immune function. We tested the utility of the rotating wall vessel (RWV) technology developed at NASA as a model system because in the RWV the culture medium and the cells rotate synchronously with the vessel, thereby creating simulated microgravity conditions. We compared the RWV to the conventional tissue culture flask (T-flask), for culturing immune precursor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity against synthetic viral peptides. We observed a significant loss of antigen-specific CTL activity in RWV cultures, but not in those from the T-flask, irrespective of the peptide immunogen used for inducing the primary immune response in different mouse strains. Loss of CTL activity in RWV cultures coincided with a significant reduction in CD8+ cells as well as CD4+ cells and DEC205+ dendritic cells, suggesting adverse effects of RWV culturing on both the effector and accessory cells for the loss of antigen-specific CTL function. These results provide a strong parallel to the reported defects in cell-mediated immunity during space travel and strongly support the utility of the RWV technology as an effective ground-based model for identifying key steps in immune cell dysfunction related to microgravity.

  10. Postoperative Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Independently Predicts for Failure of Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Presti, Joseph C.; Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Spiotto, Michael T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Identification of patients most likely to benefit from salvage radiotherapy (RT) using postoperative (postop) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics. Methods and Materials: From 1984 to 2004, 81 patients who fit the following criteria formed the study population: undetectable PSA after radical prostatectomy (RP); pathologically negative nodes; biochemical relapse defined as a persistently detectable PSA; salvage RT; and two or more postop PSAs available before salvage RT. Salvage RT included the whole pelvic nodes in 55 patients and 4 months of total androgen suppression in 56 patients. The median follow-up was >5 years. All relapses were defined as a persistently detectable PSA. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis were performed for all clinical, pathological, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 37 biochemical relapses observed after salvage RT. The 5-year bRFS after salvage RT for patients with postop prostate-specific antigen velocity {<=}1 vs. >1 ng/ml/yr was 59% vs. 29%, p = 0.002. In multivariate analysis, only postop PSAV (p = 0.0036), pre-RT PSA level {<=}1 (p = 0.037) and interval-to-relapse >10 months (p = 0.012) remained significant, whereas pelvic RT, hormone therapy, and RT dose showed a trend (p = {approx}0.06). PSAV, but not prostate-specific antigen doubling time, predicted successful salvage RT, suggesting an association of zero-order kinetics with locally recurrent disease. Conclusions: Postoperative PSA velocity independently predicts for the failure of salvage RT and can be considered in addition to high-risk features when selecting patients in need of systemic therapy following biochemical failure after RP. For well-selected patients, salvage RT can achieve high cure rates.

  11. Antigen-specific immune responses in cattle with inherited beta2-integrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Hoek, A; Rutten, V P; Bernadina, W E; Wentink, G H

    1997-08-01

    The significance of beta2-integrins for the generation of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo was studied employing the bovine model of beta2-integrin deficiency. To that end four cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and healthy age-matched controls were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) and rabies virus (RV) vaccines three times in monthly intervals. In addition, two animals with BLAD and three controls received a fourth vaccination 8 months after the start of the study. Proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the antigens TT and RV as well as specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were determined in intervals for up to 10 months after primary vaccination. Proliferative responses of PBMC to TT and RV were substantially lower in cattle with BLAD than in controls, although PBMC from cattle with BLAD were shown to have the capacity to proliferate in the response to the mitogen concanavalin A. Occurrence of antigen-specific IgG titers was delayed and they were considerably lower in cattle with BLAD compared to controls. Finally, treatment of TT- and RV-stimulated PBMC from an immunized control with different concentrations of the anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody R15.7 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation to almost 100%. The results of the present study show that beta2-integrin deficiency leads to delayedand severely impaired immune responsiveness in vivo. The observations that antibody production, although considerably delayed and impaired, does occur and that apparently class-switching takes place in BLAD indicate T-cell reactivity in vivo. PMID:9343338

  12. Discrimination of rat Brunner's gland carbohydrate antigens by site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Goso, Yukinobu; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kurihara, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Mucus produced and secreted by gastrointestinal mucosa contains various types of mucins equipped with unique sugar chains considered to play critical roles in protecting mucous membranes; therefore, the identification and verification of mucin sugar chains is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms. In our previous work, we generated three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42, which recognize sugar chains in rat gastric mucin. Here, we immunohistochemically analyzed the rat gastrointestinal mucosa and found that the antigens recognized by RGM22 and RGM42 were expressed in the rat antrum and Brunner's glands, whereas that recognized by RGM26 was detected in the antrum, but rarely in Brunner's glands. We found that these antibodies reacted with porcine gastric mucin-derived oligosaccharides bearing a common structure: GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6GalNAc-ol. Moreover, epitope analysis revealed that RGM42 and RGM22 recognized α-linked GalNAc and GalNAcα1-3Gal, respectively, on the GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal structure, whereas RGM26 was specific for GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal. These results indicate that rat Brunner's glands express specific antigens bearing GalNAcα1-3Gal that are recognized by RGM22 and RGM42. Thus, RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42 with their unique antigen specificities could be useful tools for investigation of oligosaccharide diversity among mucins. PMID:27454489

  13. Identification of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies using high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Li, Ruihua; Liu, Kun; Li, Liangliang; Zai, Xiaodong; Chi, Xiangyang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire provides a large number of antibody variable region sequences that can be used to generate human monoclonal antibodies. However, current screening methods for identifying antigen-specific antibodies are inefficient. In the present study, we developed an antibody clone screening strategy based on clone dynamics and relative frequency, and used it to identify antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that at least 52% of putative positive immunoglobulin heavy chains composed antigen-specific antibodies. Combining information on dynamics and relative frequency improved identification of positive clones and elimination of negative clones. and increase the credibility of putative positive clones. Therefore the screening strategy could simplify the subsequent experimental screening and may facilitate the generation of antigen-specific antibodies.

  14. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, M.L.

    1990-04-17

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents. No Drawings

  15. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing CD80, CD70, and 4-1BB ligand efficiently expand functional T cells specific to tumor-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wanyong; Su, Mei; Anderson, Karen S; Sasada, Tetsuro

    2014-08-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), notably dendritic cells (DCs), are the most potent for expanding antigen-specific T cells ex vivo. However, the labor-intensive and expensive procedure for customized preparation of autologous APCs has hampered their broad clinical application. Artificial APC (aAPC) systems, which can be readily prepared from off-the-shelf components, have been proposed as a promising alternative to custom-made professional APCs. Here, in order to develop a novel aAPC system, we established K562 erythroleukemia cells expressing different combinations of co-stimulatory molecule ligands, CD80, CD70, and/or 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL). When nucleofected with in vitro-generated mRNA encoding a tumor-associated antigen, MART-1, the K562 cells expressing all of CD80, CD70, and 4-1BBL were the most efficient for expansion of functional T cells specific to an HLA-A2-restricted immunodominant epitope, MART-126-35. In addition, only the K562 cells expressing all three of these co-stimulatory molecule ligands could clearly expand T cells specific to other less immunogenic antigen epitopes, gp100154-162 and Cyp1B1239-247, through transfection with in vitro generated gp100 and Cyp1B1 mRNA, respectively. These results indicated that non-redundant and synergistic effects of co-stimulation via CD28/CD80, CD27/CD70, and 4-1BB/4-1BBL might be critical for eliciting efficient expansion of T cells; co-stimulation via the 4-1BB/4-1BBL interaction might expand antigen-specific T cells by preventing apoptotic cell death triggered by specific antigens in the presence of the CD28/CD80 and CD27/CD70 signaling. Taken together, our findings suggested that this K562-based aAPC system expressing CD80, CD70, and 4-1BBL would be useful for efficiently stimulating functional antigen-specific T cells ex vivo, in particular when detailed information on the epitope specificities is unavailable. PMID:24713579

  16. Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein is a potent tolerogen in Lewis rat: suppression of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis is retinal antigen specific

    PubMed Central

    Laliotou, B.; Liversidge, J.; Forrester, J.; Dick, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—Administration of unfractionated retinal antigen(s) (retinal extract, RE) suppresses RE induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and offers a potential therapeutic alternative to non-specific immunosuppressive therapies for posterior uveitis and autoimmune diseases. S-Ag and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) are two major autoantigens within soluble RE. It was aimed to assess, firstly, as has previously been shown with S-Ag, if IRBP can induce intranasal tolerance and, secondly, the contribution of both these major autoantigens to tolerance induction by whole RE.
METHODS—Animals were tolerised by intranasal administration with S-Ag or IRBP, either alone or in combination, or RE before immunisation with either IRBP or RE. Control animals were administered nasally either PBS or MBP. Daily clinical responses were recorded biomicroscopically and histological grades were obtained using a semiquantitative scoring system. Weekly serum antibody levels to retinal antigens were measured by ELISA and delayed hypersensitivity responses (DTH) were assessed by skin reactivity to intradermal inoculation with retinal or non-specific antigens.
RESULTS—Microgram doses of IRBP successfully suppressed both clinically and histologically IRBP induced EAU. This suppression was accompanied by reduced antigen specific DTH reactivity but maintained T cell dependent (IgG2a) antibody responses. Furthermore, combined S-Ag and IRBP administration afforded equal suppression of RE induced EAU when compared with RE therapy alone. Suppression of RE induced EAU was not achieved with administration of a non-retinal specific autoantigen, MBP. Although individually, both S-Ag and IRBP suppressed RE induced EAU, whole RE was unable to protect against IRBP induced disease.
CONCLUSIONS—Intranasal administration of IRBP suppressed IRBP induced EAU in the Lewis rat. S-Ag and IRBP are the major contributors to the tolerogenicity within RE, despite the known

  17. Antigen-specific culture of memory-like CD8 T cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Litterman, Adam J; Zellmer, David M; LaRue, Rebecca S; Jameson, Stephen C; Largaespada, David A

    2014-09-01

    Cytotoxic T cells typically are expanded ex vivo in culture with IL2 for adoptive immunotherapy. This culture period leads to a differentiated phenotype and acquisition of effector function, as well as a loss of in vivo proliferative capability and antitumor efficacy. Here, we report antigen-specific and polyclonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells in a cocktail of cytokines and small molecules that leads to a memory-like phenotype in mouse and human cells even during extended culture, leading to enhanced in vivo expansion and tumor control in mice.

  18. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  19. Direct radiolabeling of antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Buck A.

    1994-01-01

    Antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 is radiolabeled by direct means with a radionuclide for use in detection of occult abscess and inflammation. Radiolabeling is accomplished by partial reduction of the disulfide bonds of the antibody using Sn(II), or using other reducing agents followed by the addition of Sn(II), removal of excess reducing agent and reduction by-products, and addition of a specified amount of radionuclide reducing agent, such as stannous tartrate. The resulting product may be store frozen or lyophilized, with radiolabeling accomplished by the addition of the radionuclide.

  20. Direct radiolabeling of antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for diagnostic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, B.A.

    1994-09-13

    Antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 is radiolabeled by direct means with a radionuclide for use in detection of occult abscess and inflammation. Radiolabeling is accomplished by partial reduction of the disulfide bonds of the antibody using Sn(II), or using other reducing agents followed by the addition of Sn(II), removal of excess reducing agent and reduction by-products, and addition of a specified amount of radionuclide reducing agent, such as stannous tartrate. The resulting product may be stored frozen or lyophilized, with radiolabeling accomplished by the addition of the radionuclide. No Drawings

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of 53 monoclonal antibodies to prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Nap, M; van der Kwast, T M

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-three antibodies submitted to the ISOBM TD-3 Workshop on the prostate specific antigen (PSA) were evaluated for their reactivity in frozen and formalin fixed tissue from benign hyperplastic prostate and salivary gland tissue. Only 13/53 antibodies showed clear reactivity in both frozen and paraffin sections, while some antibodies appeared to react only in formalin-fixed paraffin sections. Many antibodies showed extensive nonspecific reactivity in tissue sections. These results highlight the fact that the number of monoclonal antibodies suitable for immunohistochemical detection of PSA is still relatively limited.

  2. Peptide analysis of the transformation-specific antigen from avian sarcoma virus-transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, J; Erikson, E; Collett, M S; Erikson, R I

    1978-01-01

    Sera from rabbits bearing tumors induced by avian sarcoma virus (ASV) were ussed to immunopecipitate virus-specific proteins from extracts of chicken, hamster, and field vole cells transformed by ASV. Two virus-specific proteins having molecular weights of 76,000 and 60,000 were found in all cell lines examined. The 76,000-molecular-weight protein, Pr76, is the precursor to the internal core proteins of ASV. The 60,000-molecular-weight (60K) transformation-specific antigen from each cell line was subjected to peptide analysis, using chymotrypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. The resulting peptide maps of the 60K protein from the different ASV-infected cell types were similar for each enzyme, strongly suggesting that the 60K protein is virus coded. Two-dimensional analysis of chymotryptic peptides from Pr76 and 60K reveals that 60K is not related to the gs antigen precursor. Radiolabeling of ASV-transformed cells with inorganic phosphate revealed that 60K is phosphorylated in vivo. The 60K proteins isolated from both ASV-transformed chicken and field vole cells were found to contain one tryptic phosphopeptide. The tryptic phosphopeptides of 60K from both cell lines migrated identically upon two-dimensional peptide analyses, and their migration differed from that of the principal phosphopeptide of Pr76. Images PMID:209218

  3. Domain specificity of the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Reason, Donald C; Ullal, Anuska; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Keitel, Wendy; Zhou, Jianhui

    2008-07-29

    Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition moiety of the Bacillus anthracis A-B toxin system, and the active immunogenic component in the currently licensed human anthrax vaccine (BioThrax, or AVA). The serum antibody response to the PA protein is polyclonal and complex both in terms of the antibody combining sites utilized to bind PA and the PA-associated epitopes recognized. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed a large panel of PA-specific human monoclonal antibodies from seven AVA-immunized donors. Dot blots, Western blots, and radiolabeled antigen capture assays employing both proteolytic fragments of PA and engineered PA sub-domain fusion proteins were used to determine the region (domain) of the PA monomer to which each of the cloned human antibodies bound. The domain specificity of the isolated monoclonals was highly biased towards the amino-terminal 20kDa fragment of PA (PA(20)), with the majority (62%) of independently arising antibody clones reacting with determinants located on this PA fragment. A similar bias in domain specificity was also demonstrated in the serum response of AVA-vaccinated donors. Since PA(20) is cleaved from the remainder of the monomer rapidly following cell surface binding and has no known role in the intoxication process, the immunodominance of PA(20)-associated epitopes may directly affect the efficacy of PA-based anthrax vaccines.

  4. Variation in antigen-antibody affinity among serotypes of Salmonella O4 serogroup, determined using specific antisera.

    PubMed

    Aribam, Swarmistha Devi; Elsheimer-Matulova, Marta; Matsui, Hidenori; Hirota, Jiro; Shiraiwa, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Hikono, Hirokazu; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serotyping is widely used for typing Salmonella during surveillance, and depends on determining the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen and the flagellar protein (H-antigens) components. As the O-antigen is highly variable, and structurally unique to each serotype, we investigated the binding affinities of LPS from Salmonella serotypes of O4 serogroup with specific anti-antigen serum via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Since the serotypes from O4 serogroup also express the O-antigen factor 12, O12 antiserum was also used for the analysis. LPS from the different serotypes showed different binding affinities with the antisera. Therefore, based on the antigen-antibody affinity, a modified agglutination assay was carried out by using O4 and O12 antisera. Although serotypes from O4 serogroup have the common O-antigen factors 4 and 12, the analysis showed that the degree of agglutination reaction is different for each of the serotypes. We suggest that Salmonella serogroup O4 serotypes exhibit different binding affinities with specific antisera despite the presence of common O-antigen factors 4 and 12.

  5. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  6. IgE in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Commins, Scott P; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of allergy implied an abnormal response to an otherwise benign agent (eg, pollen or food), with an easily identifiable relationship between exposure and disease. However, there are syndromes in which the relationship between exposure to the relevant allergen and the "allergic" disease is not clear. In these cases the presence of specific IgE antibodies can play an important role in identifying the relevant allergen and provide a guide to therapy. Good examples include chronic asthma and exposure to perennial indoor allergens and asthma related to fungal infection. Finally, we are increasingly aware of forms of food allergy in which the relationship between exposure and the disease is delayed by 3 to 6 hours or longer. Three forms of food allergy with distinct clinical features are now well recognized. These are (1) anaphylactic sensitivity to peanut, (2) eosinophilic esophagitis related to cow's milk, and (3) delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. In these syndromes the immunology of the response is dramatically different. Peanut and galactose α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are characterized by high- or very high-titer IgE antibodies for Ara h 2 and alpha-gal, respectively. By contrast, eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by low levels of IgE specific for milk proteins with high- or very high-titer IgG4 to the same proteins. The recent finding is that patients with alpha-gal syndrome do not have detectable IgG4 to the oligosaccharide. Thus the serum results not only identify relevant antigens but also provide a guide to the nature of the immune response. PMID:27264001

  7. IgE responsiveness to Dermatophagoides farinae in West Highland white terrier dogs is associated with region on CFA35.

    PubMed

    Roque, Joana Barros; O'Leary, Caroline Ann; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Latter, Melanie; Mason, Kenneth; Vogelnest, Linda; Shipstone, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity against environmental allergens, commonly including Dermatophagoides farinae, is associated with atopic diseases in both humans and dogs. We have recently identified a family of clinically healthy West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) with high-serum D. farinae-IgE levels. In this study, we investigated the genetic mechanism controlling IgE responsiveness in dogs by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix V2 Dog SNP array in 31 high-IgE and 24 low-IgE responder WHWTs. A gene-dropping simulation method, using SIB-PAIR software, showed significant allelic association between serum D. farinae-specific IgE levels and a 2.3-Mb area on CFA35 (best empirical P = 1 × 10(-5)). A nearby candidate gene, CD83, encodes a protein which has important immunological functions in antigen presentation and regulation of humoral immune responses. We sequenced this gene in 2 high-IgE responders and 2 low-IgE responders and identified an intronic polymorphic repeat sequence with a predicted functional effect, but the association was insufficient to explain the GWAS association signal in this population (P = 1 × 10(-3)). Further studies are necessary to investigate the significance of these findings for IgE responsiveness and atopic disease in the dog.

  8. Artificial antigen presenting cells that express prevalent HLA alleles: A step towards the broad application of antigen-specific adoptive cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Aisha N; Selvakumar, Annamalai; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Riviere, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel W; O'Reilly, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    The artificial antigen-presenting cells (AAPCs) described in this review were generated to facilitate the production of virus-specific T-cells for the treatment of infections in patients after bone marrow transplant. These AAPCs consist of murine 3T3 cells genetically modified to express critical human molecules needed for T-cell stimulation, such as the co-stimulatory molecules B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 and one of a series of 6 common HLA class I alleles. When T-cells were sensitized against cytomegalovirus (CMV) using AAPCs that express a shared HLA allele or using autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) loaded with the CMVpp65 antigen, they were activated and expanded to become HLA-restricted CMVpp65-specific T-cells. These T-cells demonstrated functional activity in vitro against CMV by producing IFN-gamma and inducing CMVpp65-specific cytotoxicity. T-cells sensitized with AAPCs recognized antigenic epitopes presented by each HLA allele known to be immunogenic in Man. Sensitization with AAPCs also permitted expansion of IFN-gamma+ cytotoxic T-cells against subdominant epitopes that were not effectively recognized by T-cells sensitized with autologous APCs. This panel of AAPCs provides a source of immediately accessible, standardizable, and replenishable "off the shelf" cellular reagents with the potential to make adoptive immunotherapy widely available for the treatment of lethal infections, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:20040272

  9. Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; Haley, Kathleen; James, Judith A

    2016-05-27

    Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145μg/mL kappa, 2.82μg/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies.

  10. Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; Haley, Kathleen; James, Judith A

    2016-05-27

    Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145μg/mL kappa, 2.82μg/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies. PMID:27113164

  11. [Mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen: sensitivity and specificity in metastatic breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ammon, A; Eiffert, H; Alhusen, R; Weber, M; Rümelin, B; Groh, E; Bartsch, H; Marschner, N; Nagel, G A; Krieger, G

    1990-06-01

    The clinical usefulness of a tumor marker essentially depends on its sensitivity and specificity for a certain tumor. To prove, wheather the new tumor marker 'mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen' could be used for the management of breast cancer patients, we determined its serum concentration in 50 healthy blood donors, 130 patients with various non-malignant diseases, 138 patients with different metastazised tumors and 137 breast cancer patients. 78 of the breast cancer patients had known metastases while 59 had no evidence of disease after initial surgical and adjuvant therapy. Only 2% of the blood donors and 3% of the patients with non-malignant diseases exceeded the cut-off level of 15 U/ml. In contrast to these findings, 28% of patients with various metastazised tumors and 77% of patients with metastazised breast cancer had serum levels above 15 U/ml. Breast cancer patients without evidence of disease had elevated marker values in only 3%. In breast cancer the serum levels of this antigen depends on the type of metastases. Maximal concentrations were found in mixed metastases while cutaneous or lymph-node metastases showed the lowest rate of positivity. Furthermore a good correlation of serial determined marker levels with the course of the disease was observed, so that we conclude, that mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen can be used in follow-up of patients with metastazised breast cancer. Because of its high sensitivity and specificity it provides some advantage over other markers used in this disease. PMID:2204009

  12. Progressive graft fibrosis and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies in pediatric late liver allografts.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Yoshizawa, Atushi; Uchida, Yoichiro; Egawa, Hiroto; Yurugi, Kimiko; Masuda, Satohiro; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Maekawa, Taira; Uemoto, Shinji; Haga, Hironori

    2012-11-01

    The role of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) that develop late after living donor liver transplantation is unknown. Seventy-nine pediatric recipients who had good graft function and underwent protocol liver biopsy more than 5 years after transplantation (median = 11 years, range = 5-20 years) were reviewed. DSAs were determined with the Luminex single-antigen bead assay at the time of the last biopsy, and complement component 4d (C4d) immunostaining was assessed at the times of the last biopsy and the previous biopsy. The donor specificity of antibodies could be identified in 67 patients: DSAs were detected in 32 patients (48%), and they were usually against human leukocyte antigen class II (30 cases) but were rarely against class I (2 cases). These patients had a higher frequency of bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis (28/32 or 88%) than DSA-negative patients (6/35 or 17%, P < 0.001). Fibrosis was likely to be centrilobular-based. DSA-positive patients, in comparison with DSA-negative patients, had higher frequencies of diffuse/focal endothelial C4d staining (P < 0.001) and mild/indeterminate acute rejection [15/32 (47%) versus 5/35 (14%), P = 0.004]. Four DSA-negative patients were off immunosuppression, whereas no patients in the DSA-positive group were (P = 0.048). In conclusion, the high prevalence of graft fibrosis and anti-class II DSAs in late protocol biopsy samples suggests that humoral alloreactivity may contribute to the process of unexplained graft fibrosis late after liver transplantation.

  13. Antigen-Specific Acquired Immunity in Human Brucellosis: Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Cannella, Anthony P.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Liang, Li; Felgner, Philip L.; Saito, Mayuko; Sette, Alessandro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp., are Gram negative bacteria that cause disease by growing within monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are immune mediated, not due to bacterial virulence factors. Acquired immunity to brucellosis has been studied through observations of naturally infected hosts (cattle, goats), mouse models (mice), and human infection. Even though Brucella spp. are known for producing mechanisms that evade the immune system, cell-mediated immune responses drive the clinical manifestations of human disease after exposure to Brucella species, as high antibody responses are not associated with protective immunity. The precise mechanisms by which cell-mediated immune responses confer protection or lead to disease manifestations remain undefined. Descriptive studies of immune responses in human brucellosis show that TH1 (interferon-γ-producing T cells) are associated with dominant immune responses, findings consistent with animal studies. Whether these T cell responses are protective, or determine the different clinical responses associated with brucellosis is unknown, especially with regard to undulant fever manifestations, relapsing disease, or are associated with responses to distinct sets of Brucella spp. antigens are unknown. Few data regarding T cell responses in terms of specific recognition of Brucella spp. protein antigens and peptidic epitopes, either by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, have been identified in human brucellosis patients. Additionally because current attenuated Brucella vaccines used in animals cause human disease, there is a true need for a recombinant protein subunit vaccine for human brucellosis, as well as for improved diagnostics in terms of prognosis and identification of unusual forms of brucellosis. This review will focus on current understandings of antigen-specific immune responses induced Brucella peptidic epitopes that has promise for yielding new insights into vaccine and diagnostics development, and for

  14. Antigen-specific CD8{sup +} T cells induced by the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Takashi; Duan Xuefeng; Hisaeda, Hajime; Himeno, Kunisuke

    2008-01-25

    We have developed a DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein of ubiquitin (Ub) and target proteins at the N-terminus for effective induction of antigen-specific CD8{sup +} T cells. A series of expression plasmids encoding a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), fused with mutated Ub, was constructed. Western blotting analyses using COS7 cells transfected with these plasmids revealed that there were three types of amino acid causing different binding capacities between Ub and OVA. Natural Ub with a C-terminal glycine readily dissociated from OVA; on the other hand, artificially mutated Ub, the C-terminal amino acid of which had been exchanged to valine or arginine, stably united with the polypeptide, while Ub with a C-terminal alanine partially dissociated. The ability of DNA vaccination to induce OVA-specific CD8{sup +} T cells closely correlated with the stability of Ub fusion to OVA. Our strategy could be used to optimize the effect of genetic vaccines on the induction of CD8{sup +} T cells.

  15. Specificity of lymphocyte stimulation in vitro by microbial preparations: importance of antigen concentration.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, H H; Andersen, V

    1981-12-01

    Blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro by 7 different microbial preparations, and thymidine incorporation was investigated in 7 groups of persons sensitized to the microorganisms and in 7 groups of controls. The sensitized persons were: 18 BCG-vaccinated, 13 with previous Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, 22 who had serum antibodies to Herpes simplex virus, 14 with previous typhoid fever, 13 with previous acute pyelonephritis caused by Eschrerichia coli, 6 with previous Haemophilus influenzae meningitis, and 15 tetanus-vaccinated persons. Employing microbial preparations corresponding to the type of sensitization, higher responses were obtained with PPD, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Herpes simplex virus, Salmonella typhi and tetanus toxoid in sensitized than in controls, but the responses to E. coli and H. influenzae were similar. In each experiment a dose titration of the microbial preparation was carried out. The best separation between sensitized and non-sensitized persons was obtained at low concentrations, giving submaximal stimulation. It is concluded that lymphocyte responses to many microbial preparations are combined of antigen-specific components and of responses to cross-reacting or polyclonally activating moieties, and that the antigen-specific response is best investigated at low concentrations of these preparations.

  16. Reduction of prostate cancer mortality in Tyrol, Austria, after introduction of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Oberaigner, Willi; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut; Schönitzer, Dieter; Stühlinger, Wolf; Bartsch, Georg

    2006-08-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze in detail the time trend in prostate cancer mortality in the population of Tyrol, Austria. In Tyrol, prostate-specific antigen tests were introduced in 1988-1989 and, since 1993, have been offered to all men aged 45-74 years free of charge. More than three quarters of all men in this age group had at least one such test in the last decade. The authors applied the age-period-cohort model by Poisson regression to mortality data covering more than three decades, from 1970 to 2003. For Tyrol, the full model with age and period and cohort terms fit fairly well. Period terms showed a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality in the last 5 years, with a risk ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.98) for Tyrol; for Austria without Tyrol, no effect was seen, with a risk ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.05). Each was compared with the mortality rate in the period 1989-1993. Although the results of randomized screening trials are not expected until 2008-2010, these findings support the evidence that prostate-specific antigen testing offered to a population free of charge can reduce prostate cancer mortality.

  17. Antigen-Specific IP-10 Release Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sven D C; McGill, Kevina; Doyle, Mairead B; Goosen, Wynand J; van Helden, Paul D; Gormley, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used ante-mortem diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle are the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, both of which measure cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection. However, limitations in the performance of these tests results in a failure to identify all infected animals. In attempting to increase the range of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, measurement of the cytokine IP-10 in antigen-stimulated blood has previously been shown to improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infection, in humans and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), respectively. In the present study, 60 cattle were identified by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test as tuberculosis reactors (n = 24) or non-reactors (n = 36) and the release of IFN-γ and IP-10 in antigen-stimulated whole blood from these animals was measured using bovine specific ELISAs. There was a strong correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ production in these samples. Moreover, measurement of the differential release of IP-10 in response to stimulation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and M. avium PPD distinguished between reactor and non-reactor cattle with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 86%-100%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 85%-100%). These results suggest that IP-10 might prove valuable as a diagnostic biomarker of M. bovis infection in cattle. PMID:27167122

  18. Investigation of contactless detection using a giant magnetoresistance sensor for detecting prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuecheng; Zhi, Shaotao; Lei, Chong; Zhou, Yong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a contactless detection method for detecting prostate specific antigen with a giant magnetoresistance sensor. In contactless detection case, the prostate specific antigen sample preparation was separated from the sensor that prevented the sensor from being immersed in chemical solvents, and made the sensor implementing in immediately reuse without wash. Experimental results showed that applied an external magnetic field in a range of 50 Oe to 90 Oe, Dynabeads with a concentration as low as 0.1 μg/mL can be detected by this system and could give an approximate quantitation to the logarithmic of Dynabeads concentration. Sandwich immunoassay was employed for preparing PSA samples. The PSA capture was implemented on a gold film modified with a self-assembled monolayer and using biotinylated secondary antibody against PSA and streptavidinylated Dynabeads. With DC magnetic field in the range of 50 to 90 Oe, PSA can be detected with a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. Samples spiked with different concentrations of PSA can be distinguished clearly. Due to the contactless detection method, the detection system exhibited advantages such as convenient manipulation, reusable, inexpensive, small weight. So, this detection method was a promising candidate in biomarker detection, especially in point of care detection. PMID:27379844

  19. Detection, phenotyping, and quantification of antigen-specific T cells using a peptide-MHC dodecamer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zeng, Xun; Sigal, Natalia; Lund, Peder J; Su, Laura F; Huang, Huang; Chien, Yueh-hsiu; Davis, Mark M

    2016-03-29

    Here we report a peptide-MHC (pMHC) dodecamer as a "next generation" technology that is a significantly more sensitive and versatile alternative to pMHC tetramers for the detection, isolation, and phenotypic analysis of antigen-specific T cells. In particular, dodecamers are able to detect two- to fivefold more antigen-specific T cells in both human and murine CD4(+)and CD8(+)αβ T-cell compartments compared with the equivalent tetramers. The low-affinity, tetramer-negative, dodecamer-positive T cells showed comparable effector cytokine responses as those of high-affinity, tetramer-positive T cells. Dodecamers are able to detect early stage CD4(+)CD8(+)double-positive thymocytes on which T-cell receptors are 10- to 30-fold less dense than mature T cells. Dodecamers also show utility in the analysis of γδ T cells and in cytometry by time-of-flight applications. This construct has a simple structure with a central scaffold protein linked to four streptavidin molecules, each having three pMHC ligands or other molecules. The dodecamer is straightforward and inexpensive to produce and is compatible with current tetramer technology and commercially available streptavidin conjugates. PMID:26979955

  20. Clinical Potential of Antigen-Specific Therapies in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Ken T.; Sehested Hansen, Birgit; von Herrath, Matthias G.

    2012-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), pancreatic beta-cells are attacked and destroyed by the immune system, which leads to a loss of endogenous insulin secretion. The desirable outcome of therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases is the restoration of immune tolerance to prevent organ damage. Past trials with immune suppressive drugs highlight the fact that T1D is in principle a curable condition. However, the barrier in T1D therapy in terms of drug safety is set particularly high because of the predominantly young population and the good prognosis associated with modern exogenous insulin therapy. Thus, there is a general consensus that chronic immune suppression is associated with unacceptable long-term safety risks. On the other hand, immune-modulatory biologicals have recently failed to confer significant protection in phase 3 clinical trials. However, the concept of antigen-specific tolerization may offer a unique strategy to safely induce long-term protection against T1D. In this review, we analyze the potential reasons for the failure of the different tolerization therapies, and describe how the concept of antigen-specific toleraization may overcome the obstacles associated with clinical therapy in T1D. PMID:23804270

  1. Prostate specific antigen gene expression in androgen insensitive prostate carcinoma subculture cell line.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chao, Chun-Hsiang; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2008-01-01

    A novel prostate cancer cell line (PC-J) was isolated from an androgen independent non-prostate specific antigen (non-PSA) producing carcinoma cell line. The homologous correlation between PC-J and PC-3 was determined by short tandem repeat analysis. The PSA promoter activity was detected by transient expression assay in the PC-J and LNCaP cells but not in androgen insensitive PC-3 cells. When the PC-J cells were cotransfected with androgen receptor, androgen receptor coactivators and PSA reporter vector cells, the reporter assays indicated that nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) but not androgen receptor activator 24 (ARA24) increased the sensitivity and maximum stimulation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-inducing PSA promoter activity. The RT-PCR assays revealed that the expression of several tumor markers, including interleukin-6, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), prostate epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor (PDEF) and matriptase, was lower in the PC-J cells than in the PC-3 cells. This cell model elucidated the regulation of PSA expression and enabled comparison of the gene profile at different stages of metastasis in prostatic carcinoma.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus: specific quantification of the two most immunoreactive antigens in hydatid fluids

    PubMed Central

    Musiani, P.; Piantelli, M.; Lauriola, L.; Arru, E.; Pozzuoli, R.

    1978-01-01

    Preparations of the two most immunoreactive Echinococcus granulosus antigens (antigens 4 and 5) from sheep hydatid fluid, purified by a simplified method, and monospecific antisera against antigens 4 and 5, prepared by a new procedure, were used to measure the antigenic concentrations of antigens 4 and 5 in swine, sheep, and human hydatid fluids from pulmonary or hepatic cysts. Two bovine samples and two commercial preparations were also tested. The concentration of both antigens was significantly higher in sheep and human hydatid fluids than in swine hydatid fluid. The antigenic content of the two bovine samples and of the two commercial preparations was below the sensitivity level of the method employed. Independently of the species tested, the amount of Echinococcus antigens was greater in hepatic than in pulmonary cysts. The ratio between the concentrations of antigens 4 and 5 was constant at about 1:10 in the samples from various organs and from different species. When there were enough samples for statistical analysis a linear correlation was found between the contents of these two antigenic components but there was none between the amounts of proteins and the antigenic concentrations in the single cysts. Sheep hydatid fluid must therefore be considered the best source of antigenic material for diagnostic purposes even though in human cysts the antigenic fraction is less contaminated by serum proteins. We describe a reliable method of standardising antigenic material for the immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease. Imagesp476-a PMID:649773

  3. Isolation and characterization of type III group B streptococcal mutants defective in biosynthesis of the type-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M K; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Four classes of mutants of type III group B streptococcus were isolated by serial subculture of the wild-type strain in the presence of type III-specific rabbit antiserum. Class I mutants no longer synthesized sialic acid but still elaborated the core antigen. Class II mutants maintained the ability to synthesize sialic acid but could not attach it to the core antigen. Class III mutants did not produce the core antigen but still synthesized intracellular sialic acid. Class IV mutants synthesized the complete antigen; however, only approximately 4% of the antigen synthesized was found associated with the cell wall peptidoglycan (in the wild-type strain greater than 85% of the antigen synthesized is covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan), whereas greater than 90% of the antigen was secreted into the growth medium. Production of other components (CAMP factor, group B antigen, beta-hemolysin, neuraminidase) by these mutants appeared similar to those of the wild-type strain. Mouse lethality studies of these strains indicated that all four classes have greater than 3 log10-higher 50% lethal dose values than that of the wild-type strain. To understand the basis for this variation, the invasive ability of the wild-type strain and the sialic acid-deficient mutant strain M-10 (class I) was examined. Mice received 10(5) CFU of each organism; they were then sacrificed at various times postinoculation, and viable group B streptococci from different organs were enumerated. Mice were able to clear M-10 more efficiently, with greater than 80% of M-10 cells being phagocytized by macrophages within 1 h, whereas the wild-type strain was able to evade phagocytic killing and disseminate to other tissues. These data, therefore, strongly indicate that the sialic acid moiety greatly enhances the virulence of the type III antigen. In addition, the level of cell-associated type-specific antigen appears to contribute significantly to the pathogenicity of the organism. PMID

  4. Allergic Sensitization Underlies Hyperreactive Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses in Coincident Filarial Infection.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Bonne-Année, Sandra; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santiago, Helton C; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-10-01

    Among the various hypotheses put forward to explain the modulatory influence of helminth infection on allergic effector responses in humans, the IL-10-induced suppression of Th2-associated responses has been the leading candidate. To explore this helminth/allergy interaction more fully, parasite- and allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in 12 subjects with filarial infections, and coincident allergic sensitization (filarial [Fil](+)allergy [A](+)) were compared with the responses to three appropriate control groups (Fil(-)A(-) [n = 13], Fil(-)A(+) [n = 12], Fil(+)A(-) [n = 11]). The most important findings revealed that Fil(+)A(+) had marked (p < 0.0001 for all cytokines) increases in parasite Ag-driven Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), Th9 (IL-9), and the regulatory (IL-10) cytokines when compared with Fil(+)A(-) Moreover, using multiparameter flow cytometry, filarial parasite Ag induced a marked increase in not only the frequency of CD4(+) T cells producing IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, and TNF-α in Fil(+)A(+) when compared with Fil(+)A(-) patients, but also in the frequencies of polyfunctional Th2-like (CD4(+)IL-4(+)IL-5(+) and CD4(+)IL-2(+)IL-4(+)IL-5(+)TNF-α(+)) cells. The Th2-associated responses seen in the Fil(+)A(+) group were correlated with serum IgE levels (p < 0.01, r = 0.5165 for IL-4; p < 0.001, r = 0.5544 for IL-5; and p < 0.001, r = 0.4901 for IL-13) and levels of circulating eosinophils (p < 0.0116, r = 0.5656) and their degranulation/activation products (major basic protein [p < 0.001, r = 0.7353] and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin [p < 0.01, r = 0.7059]). CD4(+) responses to allergen were not different (to a large extent) among the groups. Taken together, our data suggest that allergic sensitization coincident with filarial infection drives parasite Ag-specific T cell hyperresponsiveness, which is characterized largely by an augmented Th2-dominated immune response. PMID:27566825

  5. HIV-specific Immunity Derived From Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Kamata, Masakazu; Rezek, Valerie; Rick, Jonathan; Levin, Bernard; Kasparian, Saro; Chen, Irvin Sy; Yang, Otto O; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2015-08-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is critical in controlling HIV infection. Since the immune response does not eliminate HIV, it would be beneficial to develop ways to enhance the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or clearance. Here, we report the use of a protective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in a hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based approach to engineer HIV immunity. We determined that CAR-modified HSPCs differentiate into functional T cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in vivo in humanized mice and these cells are resistant to HIV infection and suppress HIV replication. These results strongly suggest that stem cell-based gene therapy with a CAR may be feasible and effective in treating chronic HIV infection and other morbidities. PMID:26050990

  6. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen

    PubMed Central

    ABOU ELAZAB, Mohamed Fahmy; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  7. Association of In Utero Sensitization to Schistosoma haematobium with Enhanced Cord Blood IgE and Increased Frequencies of CD5– B Cells in African Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Seydel, Larsen S.; Petelski, Annika; van Dam, Govert J.; van der Kleij, Desiree; Kruize-Hoeksma, Yvonne C. M.; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated in utero priming as a consequence of maternal parasitic infections. Cord blood plasma samples of 63 African newborns were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for their content of total and schistosome-specific or filaria-specific IgE and IgG4. The frequencies of lymphocyte phenotypes in cord blood were also determined by using flow cytometry, and were compared with those of European newborns. We found significantly increased schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA)–specific IgE in cord plasma of those born to mothers with schistosome infections and correlations between fetal and maternal SEA-specific and filaria antigen–specific IgE. These data are evidence for in utero priming of the fetal immune system to maternal helminth infections. Furthermore, we show significantly enhanced percentages of CD5– B cells in African newborns cord blood compared with Europeans, which is consistent with earlier maturation of the African fetal immune system. PMID:22492145

  8. Issues on standardization of immunoassays for prostate-specific antigen: a review.

    PubMed

    Graves, H C

    1993-12-01

    The proposed use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for annual screening of men over age 50 will require careful standardization of the various commercial immunoassays to allow year-to-year comparisons for individual patients. Some current PSA assays give significantly different results on testing the same sample. The standardization process will require several steps. First, a primary antigen standard should be purified from seminal plasma (a convenient source), using a reproducible technique. The modified Sensabaugh-Blake purification of PSA yields a suitable pure antigen. Next, PSA values need to be assigned to PSA-containing serum samples. These secondary serum-based reference materials can be used by manufacturers and regulatory agencies to develop and monitor the performance of PSA assays. In serum, 2 forms of PSA are detected immunologically: a free form (M(r) = 30 kD) and a form complexed with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (M(r) = 100 kD). Different immunoassays for PSA detect these 2 forms in different molar ratios. The most promising approach to this problem is to select a reference immunoassay that detects both forms of PSA in equal molar ratios. A series of samples containing various and known levels of naturally occurring serum PSA can then serve as secondary serum-based reference materials for calibration of other commercial PSA immunoassays. Equimolar standardization is a useful method for any set of assays that detect free and bound forms of a ligand in differing molar ratios. The technical simplicity and power of this approach should allow early agreement on standardization of PSA immunoassays and will greatly assist PSA screening programs for prostate cancer now in progress.

  9. Multi-antibody composition in lupus nephritis: isotype and antigen specificity make the difference.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Alice; Vaglio, Augusto; Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Moroni, Gabriella; Franceschini, Franco; Allegri, Landino; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Candiano, Giovanni; Pesce, Giampaola; Ravelli, Angelo; Puppo, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Tincani, Angela; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-08-01

    Research on autoimmune processes involved in glomerulonephritis has been for years based on experimental models. Recent progress in proteomics has radically modified perspectives: laser microdissection and proteomics were crucial for an in vivo analysis of autoantibodies eluted from human biopsies. Lupus nephritis has been the subject of recent independent researches. Main topics have been the definition of renal autoimmune components in human lupus biopsies; methods were laser capture of glomeruli and/or of single cells (CD38+ or Ki-67+) from tubulointerstitial areas as starting step followed by elution and characterization of renal antibodies by proteomics. The innovative approach highlighted different panels of autoantibodies deposited in glomeruli and in tubulo-interstitial areas that actually represented the unique autoimmune components in these patients. IgG2 was the major isotype; new podocyte proteins (αenolase, annexin AI) and already known implanted molecules (DNA, histone 3, C1q) were their target antigens in glomeruli. Vimentin was the antigen in tubulo-interstitial areas. Matching renal autoantibodies with serum allowed the definition of a typical autoantibody serum map that included the same anti-αenolase, anti-annexin AI, anti-DNA, and anti-histone 3 IgG2 already detected in renal tissue. Serum levels of specific autoantibodies were tenfold increased in patients with lupus nephritis allowing a clear differentiation from both rheumatoid arthritis and other glomerulonephritis. In all cases, targeted antigens were characterized as components of lupus NETosis. Matching renal/serum autoantibody composition in vivo furnishes new insights on human lupus nephritis and allows to refine composition of circulating antibodies in patients with lupus. A thoughtful passage from bench to bedside of new knowledge would expand our clinical and therapeutic opportunities.

  10. IgE epitope proximity determines immune complex shape and effector cell activation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gieras, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Roux, Kenneth H.; Dutta, Moumita; Khodoun, Marat; Zafred, Domen; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Lupinek, Christian; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Keller, Walter; Finkelman, Fred D.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-allergen complexes induce mast cell and basophil activation and thus immediate allergic inflammation. They are also important for IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Objective To investigate whether the proximity of IgE binding sites on an allergen affects immune complex shape and subsequent effector cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Methods We constructed artificial allergens by grafting IgE epitopes in different numbers and proximity onto a scaffold protein. The shape of immune complexes formed between artificial allergens and the corresponding IgE was studied by negative-stain electron microscopy. Allergenic activity was determined using basophil activation assays. Mice were primed with IgE, followed by injection of artificial allergens to evaluate their in vivo allergenic activity. Severity of systemic anaphylaxis was measured by changes in body temperature. Results We could demonstrate simultaneous binding of 4 IgE antibodies in close vicinity to each other. The proximity of IgE binding sites on allergens influenced the shape of the resulting immune complexes and the magnitude of effector cell activation and in vivo inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the proximity of IgE epitopes on an allergen affects its allergenic activity. We thus identified a novel mechanism by which IgE-allergen complexes regulate allergic inflammation. This mechanism should be important for allergy and other immune complex–mediated diseases. PMID:26684291

  11. Prevention of Allogeneic Cardiac Graft Rejection by Transfer of Ex Vivo Expanded Antigen-Specific Regulatory T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takasato, Fumika; Morita, Rimpei; Schichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasuhide; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Niimi, Masanori; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The rate of graft survival has dramatically increased using calcineurin inhibitors, however chronic graft rejection and risk of infection are difficult to manage. Induction of allograft-specific regulatory T-cells (Tregs) is considered an ideal way to achieve long-term tolerance for allografts. However, efficient in vitro methods for developing allograft-specific Tregs which is applicable to MHC full-mismatched cardiac transplant models have not been established. We compared antigen-nonspecific polyclonal-induced Tregs (iTregs) as well as antigen-specific iTregs and thymus-derived Tregs (nTregs) that were expanded via direct and indirect pathways. We found that iTregs induced via the indirect pathway had the greatest ability to prolong graft survival and suppress angiitis. Antigen-specific iTregs generated ex vivo via both direct and indirect pathways using dendritic cells from F1 mice also induced long-term engraftment without using MHC peptides. In antigen-specific Treg transferred models, activation of dendritic cells and allograft-specific CTL generation were suppressed. The present study demonstrated the potential of ex vivo antigen-specific Treg expansion for clinical cell-based therapeutic approaches to induce lifelong immunological tolerance for allogeneic cardiac transplants. PMID:24498362

  12. Immunochemical studies on the specific agglutinogens of Staphylococcus aureus. I. Isolation and characterization of antigen h1.

    PubMed

    Grov, A; Flandrois, J P; Fleurette, J; Oeding, P

    1978-06-01

    The specific Staphylococcus aureus agglutinogen h1 has been purified and shown to be a protein with a molecular weight of about 95,000. Chemical analysis revealed all the common amino acids, except tyrosine and the sulphur-containing ones. The purified h1 antigen was strongly immunogenic in rabbits. The antiserum produced one precipitation line on double diffusion in agar against a suspension of bacteria. It also agglutinated bacteria of the h1-containing strains, as well as tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with h1, in high dilutions. Antibodies to other known staphylococcal antigens were not detected. The identity between h1 and Pillet's type 9 antigen was confirmed. PMID:102107

  13. Induction of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using human leukocyte antigen tetramer-based artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ling; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cai-E; Lu, Sheng-Jun; Weng, Xiu-Fang; Wu, Xiong-Wen

    2006-03-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) antigen are important reagents for the treatment of some EBV-associated malignancies, such as EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the therapeutic amount of CTLs is often hampered by the limited supply of antigen-presenting cells. To address this issue, an artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) was made by coating a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-pLMP2 tetrameric complex, anti-CD28 antibody and CD54 molecule to a cell-sized latex bead, which provided the dual signals required for T cell activation. By co-culture of the HLA-A2-LMP2 bearing aAPC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A2 positive healthy donors, LMP2 antigen-specific CTLs were induced and expanded in vitro. The specificity of the aAPC-induced CTLs was demonstrated by both HLA-A2-LMP2 tetramer staining and cytotoxicity against HLA-A2-LMP2 bearing T2 cell, the cytotoxicity was inhibited by the anti-HLA class I antibody (W6/32). These results showed that LMP2 antigen-specific CTLs could be induced and expanded in vitro by the HLA-A2-LMP2-bearing aAPC. Thus, aAPCs coated with an HLA-pLMP2 complex, anti-CD28 and CD54 might be promising tools for the enrichment of LMP2-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16518539

  14. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S.; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown, but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4+ T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4+ T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogeneticity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  15. Detection of Leptospira-Specific Antibodies Using a Recombinant Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Halsey, Eric S.; Guevara, Carolina; Canal, Enrique; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Tilley, Drake H.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We produced three highly purified recombinant antigens rLipL32, rLipL41, and rLigA-Rep (leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A repeat region) for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of these recombinant antigens was evaluated using 121 human sera. Among them, 63 sera were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-confirmed positive sera from febrile patients in Peru, 22 sera were indigenous MAT-negative febrile patient sera, and 36 sera were from patients with other febrile diseases from Southeast Asia, where leptospirosis is also endemic. Combining the results of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection from these three antigens, the overall sensitivity is close to 90% based on the MAT. These results suggest that an ELISA using multiple recombinant antigens may be used as an alternative method for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies. PMID:24166046

  16. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  17. Structural Analysis of Determinants of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in Genogroup I Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Czako, Rita; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Susceptibility to the majority of NoV infections is determined by genetically controlled secretor-dependent expression of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also critical for NoV attachment to host cells. Human NoVs are classified into two major genogroups (genogroup I [GI] and GII), with each genogroup further divided into several genotypes. GII NoVs are more prevalent and exhibit periodic emergence of new variants, suggested to be driven by altered HBGA binding specificities and antigenic drift. Recent epidemiological studies show increased activity among GI NoVs, with some members showing the ability to bind nonsecretor HBGAs. NoVs bind HBGAs through the protruding (P) domain of the major capsid protein VP1. GI NoVs, similar to GII, exhibit significant sequence variations in the P domain; it is unclear how these variations affect HBGA binding specificities. To understand the determinants of possible strain-specific HBGA binding among GI NoVs, we determined the structure of the P domain of a GI.7 clinical isolate and compared it to the previously determined P domain structures of GI.1 and GI.2 strains. Our crystallographic studies revealed significant structural differences, particularly in the loop regions of the GI.7 P domain, altering its surface topography and electrostatic landscape and potentially indicating antigenic variation. The GI.7 strain bound to H- and A-type, Lewis secretor, and Lewis nonsecretor families of HBGAs, allowing us to further elucidate the structural determinants of nonsecretor HBGA binding among GI NoVs and to infer several contrasting and generalizable features of HBGA binding in the GI NoVs. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown increased prevalence of genogroup I (GI) NoVs. Although secretor-positive status is strongly correlated with NoV infection, cases of NoV infection

  18. Parallel optical read-out of micromechanical pillars applied to prostate specific membrane antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Tardivo, Martina; Toffoli, Valeria; Fracasso, Giulio; Borin, Daniele; Dal Zilio, Simone; Colusso, Andrea; Carrato, Sergio; Scoles, Giacinto; Meneghetti, Moreno; Colombatti, Marco; Lazzarino, Marco

    2015-10-15

    Micro and nanomechanical resonators represent a promising platform for proteins label-free detection because of their extreme sensitivity, fast response and low cost. Micro-pillars are columnar resonators that can be easily arranged in dense arrays of several thousand sensors in a squared mm. To exploit such a large density, however, a method for tracking independently micropillars resonance frequency is required. Here we present a detection method based on CCD imaging and software image analysis, which can measure the resonance frequency of tens of pillars in parallel. Acquiring simultaneously the frequency shift of up to 40 sensors and applying a proper statistical analysis, we were able to overcome the variability of the single measures improving the device sensitivity at low analyte concentration range. As a proof of concept, this method has been tested for the detection of a tumor marker, the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA). Pillars have been functionalized with an antibody against PSMA. The tumor marker (PSMA) has been detected in a range of concentrations between 300 pM and 100 nM, in buffer and in diluted bovine serum. The sensitivity of our method was limited only by the affinity constant of the antigen-antibody recognition. Moreover, this detection technique demonstrated to be effective in the 1-6 nM range, which is the window of PSMA concentration of clinical interest.

  19. Detection of Q Fever Specific Antibodies Using Recombinant Antigen in ELISA with Peroxidase Based Signal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Glennon, Erin; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the accepted method for Q fever serodiagnosis is indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) using the whole cell antigen. In this study, we prepared the recombinant antigen of the 27-kDa outer membrane protein (Com1) which has been shown to be recognized by Q fever patient sera. The performance of recombinant Com1 was evaluated in ELISA by IFA confirmed serum samples. Due to the low titers of IgG and IgM in Q fever patients, the standard ELISA signals were further amplified by using biotinylated anti-human IgG or IgM plus streptavidin-HRP polymer. The modified ELISA can detect 88% (29 out of 33) of Q fever patient sera collected from Marines deployed to Iraq. Less than 5% (5 out of 156) of the sera from patients with other febrile diseases reacted with the Com1. These results suggest that the modified ELISA using Com1 may have the potential to improve the detection of Q fever specific antibodies. PMID:26904739

  20. Functional cloning of recurrence-specific antigens identifies molecular targets to treat tumor relapse.

    PubMed

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Kottke, Timothy; Pulido, Jose; Thompson, Jill; Diaz, Rosa Maria; Rommelfanger-Konkol, Diana; Embry, Addie; Saenz, Dyana; Poeschla, Eric; Pandha, Hardev; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Selby, Peter; Vile, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Aggressive regrowth of recurrent tumors following treatment-induced dormancy represents a major clinical challenge for treatment of malignant disease. We reported previously that recurrent prostate tumors, which underwent complete macroscopic regression followed by aggressive regrowth, could be cured with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-expressed cDNA library derived from recurrent tumor cells. By screening the protective, recurrence-derived VSV-cDNA library, here we identify topoisomerase-IIα (TOPO-IIα) as a recurrence-specific tumor antigen against which tolerance can be broken. Tumor recurrences, in two different types of tumor (prostate and melanoma), which had evaded two different frontline treatments (immunotherapy or chemotherapy), significantly overexpressed TOPO-IIα compared with their primary tumor counterparts, which conferred a novel sensitivity to doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy upon the recurrent tumors. This was exploited in vivo using combination therapies to cure mice, which would otherwise have relapsed, after suboptimal primary therapy in both models. Our data show that recurrent tumors-across histologies and primary treatments-express distinct antigens compared with the primary tumor which can be identified using the VSV-cDNA library technology. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a few common second-line therapies against a variety of tumor recurrences, in some cases using agents with no obvious activity against the primary tumor. PMID:23752316

  1. T-cell-specific membrane antigens in the Mexican axolotl (urodele amphibian).

    PubMed

    Kerfourn, F; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J; Tournefier, A

    1992-01-01

    Comparative analysis of SDS-PAGE patterns of axolotl spleen cells membrane detergent lysates showed important discrepancies between control and thymectomized animals. Among these, a 38-kD protein band, which appeared as a major protein in controls, was not or poorly expressed after thymectomy. A rabbit antiserum (L12) raised against the 38-kD eluted band labeled in indirect immunofluorescence 80-86% of thymocytes and 40-46% of mIg- lymphoid cells in the spleen. The anti-38-kD antibodies stained in Western blotting two antigenically related polypeptides of 38- and 36-kD on splenocyte membrane lysates. Two-dimensional NEPHGE-PAGE analysis indicated that the anti-38-kD antibodies reacted in the spleen with several gathered spots in the 7.8-8.2 pI range, corresponding to 38-36-kD microheterogeneous polypeptides. Most of these spots are not further expressed in thymectomized animals. These results support evidence that the 38-kD surface antigens can be considered as specific surface markers of the axolotl thymus-derived lymphocytes. PMID:1627952

  2. Diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infections by detection of parasite-specific antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Janoff, E N; Craft, J C; Pickering, L K; Novotny, T; Blaser, M J; Knisley, C V; Reller, L B

    1989-01-01

    Antigen detection methods may facilitate diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in stool specimens. As determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and immunoblotting, G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites share several antigens, especially in the 65-kilodalton and 30- to 34-kilodalton regions. By using blind methods, we compared results obtained by counterimmunoelectrophoresis using cyst-immune rabbit serum and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using trophozoite-immune rabbit serum with results obtained by microscopic examination of a preserved, concentrated, and permanently stained stool specimen. Results were similar when these three methods were used to examine 118 stool specimens from clinical microbiology laboratories (53 specimens with G. lamblia) and specimens from 239 day-care-center toddlers (39 specimens with G. lamblia). Compared with microscopy, we found, for counterimmunoelectrophoresis and ELISA, respectively: sensitivity, 88 versus 94%; specificity, 97 versus 95%; positive predictive value, 86 versus 76%; negative predictive value, 98 versus 97%; and concordance, 89%. The false-positive rate by ELISA was 24% (10 of 42) in day-care-center toddlers but only 3% (1 of 32) in healthy adults (P less than 0.04) as corroborated by microscopy. This discrepancy suggests that the ELISA may be more sensitive than microscopy, which is considered the reference standard, and that results may be dependent, in part, on the epidemiology of the infection in the study subjects. Images PMID:2715318

  3. Molecular studies of Ssa1, a serotype-specific antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, R Y; Strathdee, C A; Shewen, P E; Cooney, B J

    1991-01-01

    A serotype-specific antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 encoded on the recombinant plasmid pSSA1 is characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the insert DNA in pSSA1 identified the gene ssaI, which codes for a protein of approximately 100 kDa. In vivo labeling of pSSA1-encoded protein in Escherichia coli maxicells showed the expression of a 100-kDa protein from the insert DNA on the recombinant plasmid. Northern blot and primer extension analyses were used to identify the mRNA transcript in P. haemolytica A1 and the putative promoter of ssaI. The antigen (designated Ssa1) could be localized to the outer membrane of P. haemolytica A1 and E. coli clones carrying pSSA1. A rabbit serum against Ssa1 was produced by using whole cells of E. coli expressing Ssa1 on the surface as the immunogen, demonstrating that Ssa1 is immunogenic in rabbits. The results from colony immunoblot analysis with calf serum from animals that were resistant to P. haemolytica A1-induced pneumonia suggest indirectly that Ssa1 is also immunogenic in the animals. Images PMID:1840576

  4. IDO expressing fibroblasts promote the expansion of antigen specific regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Curran, Terry-Ann; Jalili, Reza Baradar; Farrokhi, Ali; Ghahary, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (Tregs) can be induced and expanded by dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Here we report that a possible alternative to DCs are IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts (DFs), which are easier to isolate and sustain in culture compared to DCs. When mouse splenocytes were co-cultured with IDO expressing DFs, a significant increase in frequency and the number of Tregs was found compared to those of control group (13.16%±1.8 vs. 5.53%±1.2, p<0.05). Despite observing a higher total number of dead CD4(+) cells in the IDO group, there was a more abundant live CD4(+)CD25(+) subpopulation in this group. Further analysis reveales that these CD4(+) CD25(+) cells have the capacity to expand in the presence of IDO expressing DFs. Greater number of CTLA-4(+) cells and high expression of TGF-β and IL-10 were found in CD4(+) cells of the IDO group compared to those of the controls. This finding confirmed a suppressive functionality of the expanded Tregs. Furthermore, CD4(+) CD25(+) cells isolated from the IDO group showed an alloantigen specific suppressive effect in a mixed lymphocyte reaction assay. These results confirm that IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts can expand a population of suppressive antigen specific Tregs. In conclusion, IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts have the capacity to stimulate the expansion of a subset of Tregs which can be used to generate antigen-specific immune tolerance.

  5. IL-35 inhibits HBV antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CTLs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefen; Tian, Li; Dong, Yuejiao; Zhu, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yiyin; Han, Wenzheng; Liu, Xia; Ni, Qin; Chen, Yu; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is an inhibitory cytokine consisting of IL-12A and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (Ebi3) and is required by regulatory T-cells (Tregs) for maximal activity. During chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, Tregs have immunosuppressive effects on HBV-specific T helper (Th) cells, yet little is known about the complex regulation of Tregs and their contribution to the inadequate immune system response to the virus. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-35 is involved in HBV-related cellular immune responses. Cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T-cells from peripheral blood were derived from healthy volunteers, resolved HBV individuals and chronic active hepatitis B patients and stimulated with CD3/28-conjugated beads. We analysed mRNA and protein levels of IL-35 and assessed the inhibitory effect of IL-35 on HBV core antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), dendritic cells (DCs) and effector T-cells (Teffs). Correlation analyses between liver inflammation and HBV DNA load were conducted. Results show that chronic HBV patients harbour significantly higher levels of Ebi3 mRNA and protein in CD4(+) T-cells compared with healthy volunteers and resolved HBV individuals. IL-35 suppressed the proliferation of HBV antigen-specific CTLs and interferon (IFN)-γ production in vitro. Ex vivo, IL-35 decreased the proliferation of CD4(+)CD45RA(+) naïve T-cells, especially in CD4(+)CD25(-)CD45RA(+) naïve Teffs. IL-35 inhibited the expansion of CD11c(+) DCs. Our data indicate that IL-35 is highly expressed in chronic HBV CD4(+) T-cells and plays an important role in the inhibition of the cellular immune response in chronic HBV.

  6. Presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes by non-immune B-cell hybridoma clones: evidence for specific and non-specific presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohly, H. H.; Morrison, D. R.; Atassi, M. Z.

    1988-01-01

    Non-immune SJL (H-2s) spleen cells were fused with (H-2d) Balb/c 653-myeloma cells and the hybridomas were cloned by two limiting dilutions. The resulting hybrid B- cell clones were tested for their antigen presentation capability to SJL T-cell lines that were specific for either lysozyme or myoglobin. In proliferative assays, 53% of the antigen presenting B-cell clones were able to present both myoglobin and lysozyme (general presenters) while the other 47% presented specifically either myoglobin or lysozyme (specific presenters). The ability to selectively present either myoglobin or lysozyme indicates that antigen presentation at the clonal level can be specific or non-specific depending on the particular B-cell clone.

  7. Dextramer Reagents are Effective Tools for Quantifying CMV Antigen-Specific T Cells from Peripheral Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tario, Joseph D.; Chen, George L.; Hahn, Theresa E.; Pan, Dalin; Furlage, Rosemary L.; Zhang, Yali; Brix, Liselotte; Halgreen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Kivin; McCarthy, Philip L.; Wallace, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of antigen-specific T cells is increasingly relevant in clinical and research settings. This information is useful for evaluating immune responses to treatment, monitoring the efficacy of anticancer vaccines, and for detecting self-reactive T cells in autoimmune disorders. Quantifying antigen-specific T cells can be accomplished via IFNγ ELISpot assay, the measurement of intracellular cytokine production by flow cytometry, or by lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to antigen. While robust, these technologies are labor-intensive and can take several days to obtain results. New technology has led to more powerful tools for quickly and accurately measuring antigen-specific T cells by flow cytometry via fluorescently-labeled TCR-specific multimers. In this study, we evaluated the use of an assay based on Dextramer reagents for enumerating cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen-specific T cells (CASTs). Assay performance characteristics were assessed by establishing Dextramers’ sensitivity (median= 0.4; range=0.1–1.4 CASTs µl−1), determining their specificity (100%), evaluating assay robustness with different leukocyte sources and assay reproducibility via interlaboratory and interinstrument investigations. Furthermore, the levels of CASTs in 95 peripheral blood samples from 62 unique blood and marrow transplants recipients correlated well between Dextramers and Tetramers (R2 = 0.9042). PMID:25338522

  8. Vaccination with Antigen Combined with αβ-ATP as a Vaccine Adjuvant Enhances Antigen-Specific Antibody Production via Dendritic Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Nishiuma, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yuta; Kawabata, Fumika; Kitahata, Kosuke; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are required to enhance antigen-specific immune responses by vaccines. Extracellular ATP serves as a danger signal to alert the immune system of tissue damage by acting on P2X and P2Y receptors and triggers the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Here we investigated the in vivo adjuvant efficacy of α,β-methylene-ATP (αβ-ATP), a non-hydrolysable form of ATP. We found that intradermal injection of ovalbumin (OVA), as a model antigen, combined with αβ-ATP, as the adjuvant, enhanced OVA-specific immune responses more than OVA alone. Additionally, DCs in the skin of mice injected with OVA and αβ-ATP had increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulator molecules, CD40, CD80, and CD86, suggesting that αβ-ATP activated DC. These findings indicate that αβ-ATP functions as a potent vaccine adjuvant. PMID:27251512

  9. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning.

  10. Regulation of SIV Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cellular Immunity via Autophagosome-Mediated MHC II Molecule-Targeting Antigen Presentation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liqiang; Li, Pingchao; Xiao, Lijun; Ren, Yizhong; Wang, Dimin; Li, Chufang; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity has increasingly received attention due to its contribution in the control of HIV viral replication; therefore, it is of great significance to improve CD4+ T cell responses to enhance the efficacy of HIV vaccines. Recent studies have suggested that macroautophagy plays a crucial role in modulating adaptive immune responses toward CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells. In the present study, a new strategy based on a macroautophagy degradation mechanism is investigated to enhance CD4+ T cell responses against the HIV/SIV gag antigen. Our results showed that when fused to the autophagosome-associated LC3b protein, SIVgag protein can be functionally targeted to autophagosomes, processed by autophagy-mediated degradation in autolysosomes/lysosomes, presented to MHC II compartments and elicit effective potential CD4 T cell responses in vitro. Importantly, compared with the SIVgag protein alone, SIVgag-LC3b fusion antigen can induce a stronger antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response in mice, which is characterized by an enhanced magnitude and polyfunctionality. This study provides insight for the immunological modulation between viral and mammalian cells via autophagy, and it also presents an alternative strategy for the design of new antigens in the development of effective HIV vaccines. PMID:24671203

  11. Direct Delivery of Antigens to Dendritic Cells via Antibodies Specific for Endocytic Receptors as a Promising Strategy for Future Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christian H. K.; Heger, Lukas; Heidkamp, Gordon F.; Baranska, Anna; Lühr, Jennifer J.; Hoffmann, Alana; Dudziak, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen presenting cells and are therefore indispensable for the control of immunity. The technique of antibody mediated antigen targeting to DC subsets has been the basis of intense research for more than a decade. Many murine studies have utilized this approach of antigen delivery to various kinds of endocytic receptors of DCs both in vitro and in vivo. Today, it is widely accepted that different DC subsets are important for the induction of select immune responses. Nevertheless, many questions still remain to be answered, such as the actual influence of the targeted receptor on the initiation of the immune response to the delivered antigen. Further efforts to better understand the induction of antigen-specific immune responses will support the transfer of this knowledge into novel treatment strategies for human diseases. In this review, we will discuss the state-of-the-art aspects of the basic principles of antibody mediated antigen targeting approaches. A table will also provide a broad overview of the latest studies using antigen targeting including addressed DC subset, targeted receptors, outcome, and applied coupling techniques. PMID:27043640

  12. Gold Nanoparticle Based Activatable Probe for Sensing Ultra-Low Levels of Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dingbin; Huang, Xinglu; Wang, Zhantong; Jin, Albert; Sun, Xiaolian; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Fu; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; HightWalker, Angela R.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    It is still in high demand to develop extremely sensitive and accurate clinical tools for biomarkers of interest for early diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. In this report, we present a highly sensitive and compatible gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based fluorescence activatable probe for sensing ultra-low levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patient serum samples. The limit of detection of the newly-developed probe for PSA was pushed down to 0.032 pg/mL, which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional fluorescence probe. The ultrahigh sensitivity of this probe was attributed to the high loading efficiency of the dyes on AuNP surfaces and high fluorescence quenching unquenching abilities of the dye-AuNP pairs. The efficiency and robustness of this probe was investigated in patient serum samples, demonstrating the great potential of this probe in real-world applications. PMID:23683064

  13. Prostate specific antigen detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-09-01

    Antibody-functionalized Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA). The PSA antibody was anchored to the gate area through the formation of carboxylate succinimdyl ester bonds with immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target PSA in a buffer at clinical concentrations was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The authors could detect a wide range of concentrations from 10pg/mlto1μg/ml. The lowest detectable concentration was two orders of magnitude lower than the cutoff value of PSA measurements for clinical detection of prostate cancer. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of portable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for PSA screening.

  14. Anti-Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-based Radioimmunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Scott T.; Beltran, Himisha; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Osborne, Joseph; Matulich, Dan; Petrillo, Kristen; Parmar, Sarojben; Nanus, David M.; Bander, Neil H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances, advanced prostate cancer is suboptimally responsive to current chemotherapeutic agents. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy that targets prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) shows promise and is an area of active investigation. J591 is a deimmunized IgG monoclonal antibody developed to target the extracellular domain of PSMA. Preclinical and early phase clinical studies utilizing radiolabeled J591 have demonstrated efficacy in targeting tumor cells and decreasing levels of PSA. Radiolabeled J591 is well-tolerated, non-immunogenic, and can be administered in multiple doses. The dose limiting toxicity is reversible myelosuppression with little non-hematologic toxicity. Future studies will include approaches to optimize patient selection and incorporate novel strategies to improve the success of anti-PSMA radioimmunotherapy. PMID:20127956

  15. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Induces Rapid Cytoskeletal Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an established enzyme-biomarker for prostate cancer, has attracted considerable attention as a target for imaging and therapeutic applications. We aimed to determine the effects of PSMA-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) on cytoskeletal networks in prostate cancer cells. PSMA-targeted PDT resulted in rapid disruption of microtubules (α-/β-tubulin), microfilaments (actin), and intermediate filaments (cytokeratin 8/18) in the cytoplasm of LNCaP cells. The collapse of cytoplasmic microtubules and the later nuclear translocation of α-/β-tubulin were the most dramatic alternation. It is likely that these early changes of cytoskeletal networks are partly involved in the initiation of cell death. PMID:20452720

  16. Interferon gamma response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific lipopentapeptide antigen L5P in cattle.

    PubMed

    Holbert, Sébastien; Branger, Maxime; Souriau, Armel; Lamoureux, Bérénice; Ganneau, Christelle; Richard, Gaëlle; Cochard, Thierry; Tholoniat, Christophe; Bay, Sylvie; Winter, Nathalie; Moyen, Jean Louis; Biet, Franck

    2015-10-01

    After Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response indicative of early Th1 activation may be detected using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Currently, the purified protein derivatives (PPDs), i.e., the total extract of mycobacteria antigens are used to recall CMI responses against Map. This study aimed to assess the ability of the chemically synthesized Map specific cell wall lipopentapeptide L5P to induce CMI response in cows infected by Map compared to PPD. L5P and PPD elicited an IFN-γ response in 12 and 35 animals from two Map infected herds respectively, but IFN-γ was not detected in the 13 cows recruited from a non-infected herd. Levels of IFN-γ detected were higher with PPD than with L5P. There was no correlation between the IFN-γ response and the humoral response to Map or faecal culture.

  17. Engineering antigen-specific T cells from genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Scott G; Bennett, Michael; Galić, Zoran; Kim, Joanne; Xu, Qing; Young, Alan; Lieberman, Alexis; Joseph, Aviva; Goldstein, Harris; Ng, Hwee; Yang, Otto; Zack, Jerome A

    2009-01-01

    There is a desperate need for effective therapies to fight chronic viral infections. The immune response is normally fastidious at controlling the majority of viral infections and a therapeutic strategy aimed at reestablishing immune control represents a potentially powerful approach towards treating persistent viral infections. We examined the potential of genetically programming human hematopoietic stem cells to generate mature CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express a molecularly cloned, "transgenic" human anti-HIV T cell receptor (TCR). Anti-HIV TCR transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells directed the maturation of a large population of polyfunctional, HIV-specific CD8+ cells capable of recognizing and killing viral antigen-presenting cells. Thus, through this proof-of-concept we propose that genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem cells will allow the tailoring of effector T cell responses to fight HIV infection or other diseases that are characterized by the loss of immune control.

  18. Interferon gamma response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific lipopentapeptide antigen L5P in cattle.

    PubMed

    Holbert, Sébastien; Branger, Maxime; Souriau, Armel; Lamoureux, Bérénice; Ganneau, Christelle; Richard, Gaëlle; Cochard, Thierry; Tholoniat, Christophe; Bay, Sylvie; Winter, Nathalie; Moyen, Jean Louis; Biet, Franck

    2015-10-01

    After Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response indicative of early Th1 activation may be detected using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Currently, the purified protein derivatives (PPDs), i.e., the total extract of mycobacteria antigens are used to recall CMI responses against Map. This study aimed to assess the ability of the chemically synthesized Map specific cell wall lipopentapeptide L5P to induce CMI response in cows infected by Map compared to PPD. L5P and PPD elicited an IFN-γ response in 12 and 35 animals from two Map infected herds respectively, but IFN-γ was not detected in the 13 cows recruited from a non-infected herd. Levels of IFN-γ detected were higher with PPD than with L5P. There was no correlation between the IFN-γ response and the humoral response to Map or faecal culture. PMID:26412530

  19. In vitro antigen-specific induction of IL-22 in human subjects that resolved HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Matthew F; Libbey, Jane E; Fujinami, Robert S; Eckels, David D

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine if in vitro production of IL-22 and IL-17 correlated with resolution of HCV infection. Materials & methods Human peripheral blood cells isolated from a well-defined cohort of resolved and chronic HCV-infected subjects were used to measure HCV-, influenza- and mitogen-activated T-cell proliferation. In addition, IL-22 and IL-17 production was measured via ELISAs and flow cytometry. Results Resolved HCV subjects had a significantly higher T-cell proliferative response to recombinant NS3 protein compared with chronic HCV subjects. Resolved subjects had a dose-dependent IL-22 response to recombinant NS3 compared with chronic HCV subjects. Conclusion IL-22 production is associated with antigen-specific induction of CD4 + T cells in individuals that resolved HCV infection, suggesting a potential role for IL-22 in HCV clearance. PMID:23185211

  20. Development of Auto Antigen-specific Regulatory T Cells for Diabetes Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for normal immune surveillance, and their dysfunction can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases, such as type-1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by islet β cell destruction, hypoinsulinemia, and severely altered glucose homeostasis. Tregs play a critical role in the development of T1D and participate in peripheral tolerance. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be utilized to obtain a renewable source of healthy Tregs to treat T1D as they have the ability to produce almost all cell types in the body, including Tregs. However, the right conditions for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) remain undefined, especially molecular mechanisms that direct differentiation of such Tregs. Auto Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be programmed to be tissue-associated and infiltrate to local inflamed tissue (e.g., islets) to suppress autoimmune responses after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. Developing auto Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can reduce overall immunosuppression after adoptive transfer by accumulating inflamed islets, which drives forward the use of therapeutic PSC-Tregs for cell-based therapies in T1D. PMID:27799873

  1. Early prostate-specific antigen changes and the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Botchorishvili, George; Matikainen, Mika P.; Lilja, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To delineate how recent findings on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) can improve prediction of risk, detection, and prediction of clinical endpoints of prostate cancer (PCa). Recent findings The widely used PSA cut-point of 4.0 ng/ml increasingly appears arbitrary, but no cut-point achieves both high sensitivity and high specificity. The accuracy of detecting PCa can be increased by additional predictive factors and combinations of markers. Evidence implies that a panel of kallikrein markers improves the specificity and reduces costs by eliminating unnecessary biopsies. Large, population-based studies have provided evidence that PSA can be used to predict PCa risk many years in advance, improve treatment selection and patient care, and predict the risk of complications and disease recurrence. However, definitive evidence is currently lacking as to whether PSA screening lowers PCa -specific mortality. Summary PSA is still the main tool for early detection, risk stratification, and monitoring of PCa. However, PSA values are affected by many technical and biological factors. Instead of using a fixed PSA cut-point, using statistical prediction models and considering the integration additional markers may be able to improve and individualize PCa diagnostics. A single PSA measurement at early middle age can predict risk of advanced PCa decades in advance and stratify patients for intensity of subsequent screening. PMID:19318948

  2. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  3. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Shinkan; Ando, Ryosuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (∼30%). There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1) adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2) improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3) fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1) examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers in biopsy specimens; 2) independent quantification of Gleason grading; 3) developing ethnicity-specific staging nomograms based on tumor stage, PSA value, and Gleason score; 4) delineation of the natural history; 5) revisiting the significance of the androgen/testosterone hypothesis; and 6) devoting special attention to individuals with a certain genetic predisposition. Finally

  4. Asthma phenotypes and IgE responses.

    PubMed

    Froidure, Antoine; Mouthuy, Jonathan; Durham, Stephen R; Chanez, Pascal; Sibille, Yves; Pilette, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of IgE represented a major breakthrough in allergy and asthma research, whereas the clinical interest given to IgE in asthma has been blurred until the arrival of anti-IgE biotherapy. Novel facets of the complex link between IgE and asthma have been highlighted by the effect of this treatment and by basic research. In parallel, asthma phenotyping recently evolved to the concept of endotypes, relying on identified/suspected pathobiological mechanisms to phenotype patients, but has not yet clearly positioned IgE among biomarkers of asthma.In this review, we first summarise recent knowledge about the regulation of IgE production and its main receptor, FcεRI. In addition to allergens acting as classical IgE inducers, viral infections as well as air pollution may trigger the IgE pathway, notably resetting the threshold of IgE sensitivity by regulating FcεRI expression. We then analyse the place of IgE in different asthma endo/phenotypes and discuss the potential interest of IgE among biomarkers in asthma.

  5. Isolate-Specific Differences in the Conformational Dynamics and Antigenicity of HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Thaddeus M.; Guttman, Miklos; Guo, Wenjin; Cleveland, Brad; Kahn, Maria; Hu, Shiu-Lok

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates viral entry into host cells and is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies. Much of the sequence diversity in the HIV-1 genome is concentrated within Env, particularly within its gp120 surface subunit. While dramatic functional diversity exists among HIV-1 Env isolates—observable even in the context of monomeric gp120 proteins as differences in antigenicity and immunogenicity—we have little understanding of the structural features that distinguish Env isolates and lead to isolate-specific functional differences, as crystal structures of truncated gp120 “core” proteins from diverse isolates reveal a high level of structural conservation. Because gp120 proteins are used as prospective vaccine immunogens, it is critical to understand the structural factors that influence their reactivity with antibodies. Here, we studied four full-length, glycosylated gp120 monomers from diverse HIV-1 isolates by using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to probe the overall subunit morphology and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to characterize the local structural order of each gp120. We observed that while the overall subunit architecture was similar among isolates by SAXS, dramatic isolate-specific differences in the conformational stability of gp120 were evident by HDX-MS. These differences persisted even with the CD4 receptor bound. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbance assays (ELISAs) showed that disorder was associated with poorer recognition by antibodies targeting conserved conformational epitopes. These data provide additional insight into the structural determinants of gp120 antigenicity and suggest that conformational dynamics should be considered in the selection and design of optimized Env immunogens. PMID:23903848

  6. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: False-Positive Results due to Sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Robert M.; Djannatian, Manoutschehr; Czech, Norbert; Nitsche, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a ‘granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells’. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897–898]. PMID:27721768

  7. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Niraj H.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Steinberg, Michael; Demanes, Jeffrey

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way.

  8. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Massa, P T; ter Meulen, V; Fontana, A

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain--in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)--we have compared the gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. We focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggests that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain. Images PMID:3495802

  9. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  10. Possible involvement of the OKT4 molecule in T cell recognition of class II HLA antigens. Evidence from studies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for SB antigens.

    PubMed

    Biddison, W E; Rao, P E; Talle, M A; Goldstein, G; Shaw, S

    1982-10-01

    A recently described HLA gene, SB, which maps between GLO and HLA-DR, codes for Ia-like molecules that are similar to but distinct from HLA-DR molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for SB1, SB2, SB3, and SB4 were compared with HLA-A2-specific CTL with respect to their surface expression of the T cell differentiation antigens OKT3, OKT4, and OKT8. All CTL activity was eliminated by treatment with OKT3 and C'. The SB-specific cytotoxicity was eliminated by OKT4 plus C' but not by OKT8 plus C'. In contrast, HLA-A2-specific killing was completely susceptible to treatment with OKT8 plus C' but not with OKT4 plus C'. Cytotoxicity was analyzed in the presence of OKT8 and a series of monoclonal antibodies (OKT4A, 4B, 4C, and 4D) that react with distinct epitopes on the OKT4 molecule. SB1-, SB3-, and SB4-specific CTL were partially inhibited by OKT4A and 4B (45-75%), whereas HLA-A2-specific CTL were partially inhibited by OKT8 (48-63%) but not by OKT4. SB2-specific CTL were not inhibited (less than 26%) by OKT8 or by any of the OKT4-related antibodies. These results suggest that the OKT4 marker may be expressed on most T cells that recognize allogeneic Ia or self Ia plus foreign antigens; OKT4+ cells do not appear to be functionally homogeneous in that they can act both as helper/inducer and cytotoxic cells. Models are proposed for the functional involvement of the OKT4 molecule in T cell-Ia antigen interactions. PMID:6984061

  11. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro (/sup 51/Cr)-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs.

  12. Activation requirements of circulating antigen-specific human CD8(+) memory T cells probed with insect cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Guelly, Christian; Küpcü, Zaruhi; Zalusky, Doris; Karner, Margarete; Zehetner, Margit; Schweighoffer, Tamás

    2002-01-01

    We sought to define the molecular setup of an antigen-presenting cell that elicits antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro using insect cells that were infected with recombinant baculoviruses. Expression of single-chain HLA was complemented step-by-step with costimulatory molecules, including CD54 and CD80, by co-infection with the relevant viruses. Role of CD8 was assessed by introducing hybrid class I molecules where the alpha-3 domain of the HLA heavy chain molecule was replaced by its murine K(b) counterpart. Circulating T cells that respond to the EBV-derived HLA-A2-restricted peptide GLGCTLVAML were previously shown to bear hallmarks of memory cells. We found that the HLA+peptide complex alone displayed on the surface of insect cells was sufficient to elicit IFN-gamma secretion from these freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells in ELISpot assays. Binding of CD8 was absolutely required, but coexpression of costimulatory molecules resulted only in minimal increase in the number of spots. Tumor antigen-specific CTL clones also reacted in a strictly antigen-specific manner, but required CD54 for quantitative responses. The amount of IFN-gamma produced by the individual reactive T cells was evaluated as spot size, and was also influenced by the costimulatory molecules: CD54 increased also the response magnitude of cultured CTL lines, while CD80 enhanced cytokine release from freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells. Understanding the stimulatory requirements of functionally competent effector/memory T cells and their exact enumeration will be helpful for increasing the efficacy of vaccines.

  13. Activation requirements of circulating antigen-specific human CD8(+) memory T cells probed with insect cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Guelly, Christian; Küpcü, Zaruhi; Zalusky, Doris; Karner, Margarete; Zehetner, Margit; Schweighoffer, Tamás

    2002-01-01

    We sought to define the molecular setup of an antigen-presenting cell that elicits antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro using insect cells that were infected with recombinant baculoviruses. Expression of single-chain HLA was complemented step-by-step with costimulatory molecules, including CD54 and CD80, by co-infection with the relevant viruses. Role of CD8 was assessed by introducing hybrid class I molecules where the alpha-3 domain of the HLA heavy chain molecule was replaced by its murine K(b) counterpart. Circulating T cells that respond to the EBV-derived HLA-A2-restricted peptide GLGCTLVAML were previously shown to bear hallmarks of memory cells. We found that the HLA+peptide complex alone displayed on the surface of insect cells was sufficient to elicit IFN-gamma secretion from these freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells in ELISpot assays. Binding of CD8 was absolutely required, but coexpression of costimulatory molecules resulted only in minimal increase in the number of spots. Tumor antigen-specific CTL clones also reacted in a strictly antigen-specific manner, but required CD54 for quantitative responses. The amount of IFN-gamma produced by the individual reactive T cells was evaluated as spot size, and was also influenced by the costimulatory molecules: CD54 increased also the response magnitude of cultured CTL lines, while CD80 enhanced cytokine release from freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells. Understanding the stimulatory requirements of functionally competent effector/memory T cells and their exact enumeration will be helpful for increasing the efficacy of vaccines. PMID:11754359

  14. Multiple independent IgE epitopes on the highly allergenic grass pollen allergen Phl p 5

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M; Rotthus, S; Wendel, S; Najafi, N; Källström, E; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R; Flicker, S; Ohlin, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Group 5 allergens are small proteins that consist of two domains. They belong to the most potent respiratory allergens. Objective To determine the binding sites and to study allergic patients' IgE recognition of the group 5 allergen (Phl p 5) from timothy grass pollen using human monoclonal IgE antibodies that have been isolated from grass pollen allergic patients. Methods Using recombinant isoallergens, fragments, mutants and synthetic peptides of Phl p 5, as well as peptide-specific antibodies, the interaction of recombinant human monoclonal IgE and Phl p 5 was studied using direct binding and blocking assays. Cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgE with group 5 allergens in several grasses was studied and inhibition experiments with patients' polyclonal IgE were performed. Results Monoclonal human IgE showed extensive cross-reactivity with group 5 allergens in several grasses. Despite its small size of 29 kDa, four independent epitope clusters on isoallergen Phl p 5.0101, two in each domain, were recognized by human IgE. Isoallergen Phl p 5.0201 carried two of these epitopes. Inhibition studies with allergic patients' polyclonal IgE suggest the presence of additional IgE epitopes on Phl p 5. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Our results reveal the presence of a large number of independent IgE epitopes on the Phl p 5 allergen explaining the high allergenic activity of this protein and its ability to induce severe allergic symptoms. High-density IgE recognition may be a general feature of many potent allergens and form a basis for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic disease. PMID:25262820

  15. Detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens in Trypanosoma evansi-infected animals using a T. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Nantulya, V M; Bajyana Songa, E; Hamers, R

    1989-09-01

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay based on a T. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in several animal species experimentally infected with T. evansi stocks from Sudan, Indonesia, Thailand and South America. Circulating antigens were detected as early as 6 days after infection, and they persisted throughout the observation period of up to 60 days postinfection. In an analysis of sera from naturally infected water buffaloes from Thailand, the test identified all the animals with positive parasitological findings, and 3 additional cases that had not been diagnosed by parasitological techniques. In an analysis of sera from pigs on a farm in Thailand suspected of a T. evansi outbreak, the assay detected "antigenaemia" in 66.7% of the animals, with antigen titres ranging from 1:2 to 1.512.

  16. Modulation of antigen presentation by autoreactive B cell clones specific for GAD65 from a type I diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    BANGA, J P; MOORE, J K; DUHINDAN, N; MADEC, A M; VAN ENDERT, P M; ORGIAZZI, J; ENDL, J

    2004-01-01

    We used a GAD65-specific human B–T cell line cognate system in vitro to investigate the modulation of GAD65 presentation by autoantibody, assessed in a proliferation assay. Generally, if the T cell determinant overlaps or resides within the antibody epitope, effects of presentation are blunted while if they are distant can lead to potent presentation. For three different autoreactive B–T cell line cognate pairs, the modulation of GAD65 presentation followed the mode of overlapping or distant epitopes with resultant potent or undetectable presentation. However, other cognate pairs elicited variability in this pattern of presentation. Notably, one B cell line, DPC, whose antibody epitope did not overlap with the T cell determinants, was consistently poor in presenting GAD65. Using the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor 647 conjugated to GAD65 to study receptor-mediated antigen endocytosis showed that all the antigen-specific B cell clones were efficient in intracellular accumulation of the antigen. Additionally, multicolour immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the internalized GAD65/surface IgG complexes were rapidly targeted to a perinuclear compartment in all GAD-specific B cell clones. This analysis also demonstrated that HLA-DM expression was reduced strongly in DPC compared to the stimulatory B cell clones. Thus the capability of antigen-specific B cells to capture and present antigen to human T cell lines is dependent on the spatial relationship of B and T cell epitopes as well other factors which contribute to the efficiency of presentation. PMID:14678267

  17. A Novel and Effective Cancer Immunotherapy Mouse Model Using Antigen-Specific B Cells Selected In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Moutai, Tatsuya; Yamana, Hideyuki; Nojima, Takuya; Kitamura, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies such as adoptive transfer of T cells or natural killer cells, or monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment have recently been recognized as effective means to treat cancer patients. However, adoptive transfer of B cells or plasma cells producing tumor-specific antibodies has not been applied as a therapy because long-term culture and selective expansion of antigen-specific B cells has been technically very difficult. Here, we describe a novel cancer immunotherapy that uses B-cell adoptive transfer. We demonstrate that germinal-center-like B cells (iGB cells) induced in vitro from mouse naïve B cells become plasma cells and produce IgG antibodies for more than a month in the bone marrow of non-irradiated recipient mice. When transferred into mice, iGB cells producing antibody against a surrogate tumor antigen suppressed lung metastasis and growth of mouse melanoma cells expressing the same antigen and prolonged survival of the recipients. In addition, we have developed a novel culture system called FAIS to selectively expand antigen-specific iGB cells utilizing the fact that iGB cells are sensitive to Fas-induced cell death unless their antigen receptors are ligated by membrane-bound antigens. The selected iGB cells efficiently suppressed lung metastasis of melanoma cells in the adoptive immunotherapy model. As human blood B cells can be propagated as iGB cells using culture conditions similar to the mouse iGB cell cultures, our data suggest that it will be possible to treat cancer-bearing patients by the adoptive transfer of cancer-antigen-specific iGB cells selected in vitro. This new adoptive immunotherapy should be an alternative to the laborious development of MoAb drugs against cancers for which no effective treatments currently exist. PMID:24647439

  18. A novel and effective cancer immunotherapy mouse model using antigen-specific B cells selected in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moutai, Tatsuya; Yamana, Hideyuki; Nojima, Takuya; Kitamura, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies such as adoptive transfer of T cells or natural killer cells, or monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment have recently been recognized as effective means to treat cancer patients. However, adoptive transfer of B cells or plasma cells producing tumor-specific antibodies has not been applied as a therapy because long-term culture and selective expansion of antigen-specific B cells has been technically very difficult. Here, we describe a novel cancer immunotherapy that uses B-cell adoptive transfer. We demonstrate that germinal-center-like B cells (iGB cells) induced in vitro from mouse naïve B cells become plasma cells and produce IgG antibodies for more than a month in the bone marrow of non-irradiated recipient mice. When transferred into mice, iGB cells producing antibody against a surrogate tumor antigen suppressed lung metastasis and growth of mouse melanoma cells expressing the same antigen and prolonged survival of the recipients. In addition, we have developed a novel culture system called FAIS to selectively expand antigen-specific iGB cells utilizing the fact that iGB cells are sensitive to Fas-induced cell death unless their antigen receptors are ligated by membrane-bound antigens. The selected iGB cells efficiently suppressed lung metastasis of melanoma cells in the adoptive immunotherapy model. As human blood B cells can be propagated as iGB cells using culture conditions similar to the mouse iGB cell cultures, our data suggest that it will be possible to treat cancer-bearing patients by the adoptive transfer of cancer-antigen-specific iGB cells selected in vitro. This new adoptive immunotherapy should be an alternative to the laborious development of MoAb drugs against cancers for which no effective treatments currently exist. PMID:24647439

  19. Incomplete clonal deletion as prerequisite for tissue-specific minor antigen tolerization

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Schwarz, Christoph; Farkas, Andreas M.; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wrba, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Central clonal deletion has been considered the critical factor responsible for the robust state of tolerance achieved by chimerism-based experimental protocols, but split-tolerance models and the clinical experience are calling this assumption into question. Although clone-size reduction through deletion has been shown to be universally required for achieving allotolerance, it remains undetermined whether it is sufficient by itself. Therapeutic Treg treatment induces chimerism and tolerance in a stringent murine BM transplantation model devoid of myelosuppressive recipient treatment. In contrast to irradiation chimeras, chronic rejection (CR) of skin and heart allografts in Treg chimeras was permanently prevented, even in the absence of complete clonal deletion of donor MHC-reactive T cells. We show that minor histocompatibility antigen mismatches account for CR in irradiation chimeras without global T cell depletion. Furthermore, we show that Treg therapy–induced tolerance prevents CR in a linked suppression–like fashion, which is maintained by active regulatory mechanisms involving recruitment of thymus-derived Tregs to the graft. These data suggest that highly efficient intrathymic and peripheral deletion of donor-reactive T cells for specificities expressed on hematopoietic cells preclude the expansion of donor-specific Tregs and, hence, do not allow for spreading of tolerance to minor specificities that are not expressed by donor BM.

  20. Incomplete clonal deletion as prerequisite for tissue-specific minor antigen tolerization

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Schwarz, Christoph; Farkas, Andreas M.; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wrba, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Central clonal deletion has been considered the critical factor responsible for the robust state of tolerance achieved by chimerism-based experimental protocols, but split-tolerance models and the clinical experience are calling this assumption into question. Although clone-size reduction through deletion has been shown to be universally required for achieving allotolerance, it remains undetermined whether it is sufficient by itself. Therapeutic Treg treatment induces chimerism and tolerance in a stringent murine BM transplantation model devoid of myelosuppressive recipient treatment. In contrast to irradiation chimeras, chronic rejection (CR) of skin and heart allografts in Treg chimeras was permanently prevented, even in the absence of complete clonal deletion of donor MHC-reactive T cells. We show that minor histocompatibility antigen mismatches account for CR in irradiation chimeras without global T cell depletion. Furthermore, we show that Treg therapy–induced tolerance prevents CR in a linked suppression–like fashion, which is maintained by active regulatory mechanisms involving recruitment of thymus-derived Tregs to the graft. These data suggest that highly efficient intrathymic and peripheral deletion of donor-reactive T cells for specificities expressed on hematopoietic cells preclude the expansion of donor-specific Tregs and, hence, do not allow for spreading of tolerance to minor specificities that are not expressed by donor BM. PMID:27699263

  1. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  2. Antigen/IgG immune complex-primed mucosal mast cells mediate antigen-specific activation of co-cultured T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Fang, Yu; Xiang, Zou

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are proposed to be one of the targets for mucosal vaccine adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that mucosal adjuvants containing IgG immune complexes could activate connective tissue mast cells enhancing immune responses. Here we suggest that mucosal mast cells (MMC) may also contribute to augmentation of antigen-specific immune responses following treatment with antigens complexed with IgG. We demonstrated that both bone marrow-derived cultured MMC and tissue resident MMC incorporated ovalbumin (OVA) at a greater level in the presence of anti-OVA IgG. Co-culture of OVA/IgG-pulsed bone marrow-derived MMC with splenocytes from OT-II mice promoted OVA-specific activation and proliferation of T cells, a process known as cross-presentation. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived cultured MMC underwent apoptosis following treatment with IgG immune complexes, a feature that has been described as favouring phagocytosis of mast cells by professional antigen-presenting cells. PMID:25196548

  3. The preparation of specific immune sera against type 3 poliovirus D-antigen and C-antigen and the demonstration of two C-antigenic components in vaccine strain populations.

    PubMed

    Minor, P D; Schild, G C; Wood, J M; Dandawate, C N

    1980-11-01

    Animals were immunized with purified D-antigen or C-antigen of type 3 poliovirus to produce specific antisera which were used to analyse the antigenic characteristics of the progeny virus in harvests from poliovirus type 3-infected cells. An examination of the virus progeny present at 24 h p.i. of cells with Sabin type 3 vaccine strain virus revealed a large population of particles sedimenting at a slightly lower rate (130S) than infectious virus (155S) in addition to slowly sedimenting (80S) empty capsids. Such 130S particles were not detected in the progeny from cells infected with strains genetically unrelated to the Sabin vaccine strains. They were non-infectious, contained RNA in an RNase-resistant form unless heated, and lacked the virion protein VP4. They expressed C-antigen rather than the D-antigen of infectious virus, and, therefore, had the properties previously described for poliovirus particles eluted from cells. The amount of incorporation of radio-isotope into the proteins or nucleic acids of such particles varied from 15 to 20% to 300% of the amount incorporated into infectious virus depending on the cells and virus strains studied. Virus strains genetically related to Sabin type 3 vaccine virus which were isolated from cases of paralytic poliomyelitis produced the particles in either low or undetectable quantities.

  4. In vitro characterization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies specific for the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jones, P M; Vallabahajosula, S; Goldsmith, S J; Navarro, V; Hunter, C J; Bastidas, D; Bander, N H

    2000-09-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-characterized cell surface antigen expressed by virtually all prostate cancers (PCas). PSMA has been successfully targeted in vivo with (111)In-labeled 7E11 monoclonal antibody (mAb; ProstaScint; Cytogen, Princeton, NJ), which binds to an intracellular epitope of PSMA. This work reports the in vitro characterization of three recently developed mAbs that bind the extracellular domain of PSMA (PSMAext). Murine mAbs J415, J533, J591, and 7E11 were radiolabeled with 131I and evaluated in competitive and saturation binding studies with substrates derived from LNCaP cells. J415 and J591 were conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid labeled with (111)In. The uptake and cellular processing of these antibodies were evaluated in viable LNCaP cells. All four mAbs could be labeled with 131I up to a specific activity of 350 MBq/mg with no or little apparent loss of immunoreactivity. Competition assays revealed that J415 and J591 compete for binding to PSMAext antigen. J533 bound to a region close to the J591 binding epitope, but J533 did not interfere with J415 binding to PSMA. mAb 7E11 did not inhibit the binding of J415, J533, or J591 (or vice versa), consistent with earlier work that these latter mAbs bind PSMAext whereas 7E11 binds the intracellular domain of PSMA. Saturation binding studies demonstrated that J415 and J591 bound with a similar affinity (Kds 1.76 and 1.83 nM), whereas J533 had a lower affinity (Kd, 18 nM). In parallel studies, all four mAbs bound to a similar number of PSMA sites expressed by permeabilized cells (1,000,000-1,300,000 sites/cell). In parallel studies performed with viable LNCaP cells, J415, J533, and J591 bound to a similar number of PSMA sites (i.e., 600,000-800,000 sites/cell), whereas 7E11 bound only to a subpopulation of the available PSMA sites (95,000 sites/cell). This apparent binding of 7E11 to viable cells can be accounted for by a 5

  5. Induction of antigen-specific immunity by pH-sensitive carbonate apatite as a potent vaccine carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hebishima, Takehisa; Tada, Seiichi; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Akaike, Toshihiro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Aida, Yoko

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To develop effective vaccine, we examined the effects of CO{sub 3}Ap as an antigen carrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OVA contained in CO{sub 3}Ap was taken up by BMDCs more effectively than free OVA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OVA-immunized splenocytes was activated by OVA contained in CO{sub 3}Ap effectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OVA contained in CO{sub 3}Ap induced strong OVA-specific immune responses to C57BL/6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 3}Ap is promising antigen carrier for the achievement of effective vaccine. -- Abstract: The ability of carbonate apatite (CO{sub 3}Ap) to enhance antigen-specific immunity was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate its utility as a vaccine carrier. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells took up ovalbumin (OVA) containing CO{sub 3}Ap more effectively than free OVA. Interestingly, mice immunized with OVA-containing CO{sub 3}Ap produced OVA-specific antibodies more effectively than mice immunized with free OVA. Furthermore, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-containing CO{sub 3}Ap induced the proliferation and antigen-specific production of IFN-{gamma} by splenocytes more strongly than immunization with free OVA. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, an immune reaction involving an antigen-specific, cell-mediated immune response between OVA-containing CO{sub 3}Ap and OVA-containing alumina salt (Alum), suggesting that CO{sub 3}Ap induced cell-mediated immune response to the same degree as Alum, which is commonly used for clinical applications. This study is the first to demonstrate the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo by CO{sub 3}Ap.

  6. Antigen Identification and Characterization of Lung Cancer Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Produced by mAb Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongdong; Hincapie, Marina; Guergova-Kuras, Mariana; Kadas, Janos; Takacs, Laszlo; Karger, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    A mass spectrometric (MS)-based strategy for antigen (Ag) identification and characterization of globally produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is described. Mice were immunized with a mixture of native glycoproteins, isolated from the pooled plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), to generate a library of IgG-secreting hybridomas. Prior to immunization, the pooled NSCLC plasma was subjected to 3-sequential steps of affinity fractionation, including high abundant plasma protein depletion, glycoprotein enrichment and polyclonal antibody affinity chromatography normalization. In this paper, in order to demonstrate the high quality of the globally produced mAbs, we selected 3 mAbs of high differentiating power against a matched, pooled normal plasma sample. After production of large quantities of the mAbs from ascites fluids, Ag identification was achieved by immunoaffinity purification, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and MS analysis of in-gel digest products. One antigen was found to be complement factor H, and the other two were mapped to different subunits of haptoglobin (Hpt). The 2 Hpt mAbs were characterized in detail in order to assess the quality of the mAbs produced by the global strategy. The affinity of one of the mAbs to the Hpt native tetramer form was found to have a KD of roughly 10−9 M and to be 2 orders of magnitude lower than the reduced form, demonstrating the power of the mAb proteomics technology in generating mAbs to the natural form of the proteins in blood. The binding of this mAb to the β-chain of haptoglobin was also dependent on glycosylation on this chain. The characterization of mAbs in this work reveals that the global mAb proteomics process can generate high-quality lung cancer specific mAbs capable of recognizing proteins in their native state. PMID:20146545

  7. Biodegradable polylactide microspheres enhance specific immune response induced by Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shaohui; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Zhenglun; Ma, Guanghui; Wang, Lianyan; An, Wenqi; Ma, Xiaowei; Fang, Xin; He, Peng; Li, Hemin; Hu, Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) infection caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common liver disease in the world. HB vaccine, when administered in conjunction with alum adjuvants, induces Th2 immunity that confers protection against HBV. However, currently available vaccine formulations and adjuvants do not elicit adequate Th1 and CTL responses that are important for prevention of maternal transmission of the virus. Microspheres synthesized from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PLA) polymers have been considered as promising tools for in vivo delivery of antigens and drugs. Here we describe PLA microspheres synthesized by premix membrane emulsification method and their application in formulating a new microsphere based HB vaccine. To evaluate the immunogenicity of this microsphere vaccine, BALB/c mice were immunized with microsphere vaccine and a series of immunological assays were conducted. Results of Enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assays revealed that the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing splenocytes and CD8(+) T cells increased significantly in the microsphere vaccine group. Microsphere vaccine group showed enhanced specific cell lysis when compared with HB surface antigen (HBsAg) only group in (51)Cr cytotoxicity assays. Moreover, microsphere vaccine elicited a comparable level of antibody production as that of HB vaccine administered with alum adjuvant. We show that phagocytosis of HBsAg by dendritic cells is more pronounced in microsphere vaccine group when compared with other control groups. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of using PLA microspheres as effective HB vaccine adjuvants for an enhanced Th1 immune response.

  8. Biodegradable polylactide microspheres enhance specific immune response induced by Hepatitis B surface antigen

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shaohui; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Zhenglun; Ma, Guanghui; Wang, Lianyan; An, Wenqi; Ma, Xiaowei; Fang, Xin; He, Peng; Li, Hemin; Hu, Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) infection caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common liver disease in the world. HB vaccine, when administered in conjunction with alum adjuvants, induces Th2 immunity that confers protection against HBV. However, currently available vaccine formulations and adjuvants do not elicit adequate Th1 and CTL responses that are important for prevention of maternal transmission of the virus. Microspheres synthesized from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PLA) polymers have been considered as promising tools for in vivo delivery of antigens and drugs. Here we describe PLA microspheres synthesized by premix membrane emulsification method and their application in formulating a new microsphere based HB vaccine. To evaluate the immunogenicity of this microsphere vaccine, BALB/c mice were immunized with microsphere vaccine and a series of immunological assays were conducted. Results of Enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assays revealed that the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing splenocytes and CD8+ T cells increased significantly in the microsphere vaccine group. Microsphere vaccine group showed enhanced specific cell lysis when compared with HB surface antigen (HBsAg) only group in 51Cr cytotoxicity assays. Moreover, microsphere vaccine elicited a comparable level of antibody production as that of HB vaccine administered with alum adjuvant. We show that phagocytosis of HBsAg by dendritic cells is more pronounced in microsphere vaccine group when compared with other control groups. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of using PLA microspheres as effective HB vaccine adjuvants for an enhanced Th1 immune response. PMID:25424942

  9. Crystal structure of human prostate-specific antigen in a sandwich antibody complex.

    PubMed

    Stura, Enrico A; Muller, Bruno H; Bossus, Marc; Michel, Sandrine; Jolivet-Reynaud, Colette; Ducancel, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Human prostate-specific antigen (PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 3) present in small quantities in the sera of healthy men becomes elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) and other prostate disorders. The ability to identify the free PSA fraction associated with PCa could increase the reliability of the PSA diagnostic test. Here we present the crystal structure of human PSA from seminal fluid in a sandwich complex with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). MAb 5D5A5 captures total PSA with exceptionally high affinity, and mAb 5D3D11 selectively discriminates between free PSA subforms that are more abundant in sera from patients with PCa. Although the antigen is not of seric origin, several insights into cancer diagnosis can be discerned from this complex. MAb 5D3D11 recognizes a PSA conformation different from that previously reported. Interacting with the kallikrein loop, the PSA N-linked glycan attached to asparagine 61 is an uncommonly complex sialated triantennary chain. O-linked glycosylation is observed at threonine 125. The description of how PSA subforms in prostatic fluid can be discriminated using pairs of antibodies is a first step in the design of new strategies that are capable of real discrimination among PSA subforms, which will lead to the formulation of more reliable diagnostic tests. In a companion article [Muller, B. H., Savatier, A., L'Hostis, G., Costa, N., Bossus, M., Michel, S., et al. (2011). In vitro affinity maturation of an anti-PSA antibody for prostate cancer diagnostic assay. J. Mol. Biol.], we describe engineering efforts to improve the affinity of mAb 5D3D11, a first step towards such goal. PMID:22037582

  10. Artificial antigen-presenting cells transduced with telomerase efficiently expand epitope-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Jakob; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Ma, Chia; Sadelain, Michel

    2005-06-15

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is overexpressed in most human tumors, making it a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. hTERT-derived CTL epitopes have been identified previously, including p865 (RLVDDFLLV) and p540 (ILAKFLHWL), which are restricted by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I A*0201 allele. However, it remains a major challenge to efficiently and consistently expand hTERT-specific CTLs from donor peripheral blood T lymphocytes. To bypass the need for generating conventional antigen-presenting cells (APC) on an autologous basis, we investigated the potential ability of fibroblast-derived artificial APCs (AAPC) to activate and expand HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs. We show here that AAPCs stably expressing HLA-A*0201, human beta(2)-microglobulin, B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and LFA-3, together with either p540 and p865 minigenes or the full-length hTERT, effectively stimulate tumoricidal, hTERT-specific CTLs. hTERT-expressing AAPCs stimulated both p540 and p865 CTLs as shown by peptide-specific cytolysis and tetramer staining, indicating that hTERT is processed by the AAPCs and that the two peptides are presented as codominant epitopes. The level of cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumors comprising hematologic and epithelial malignancies varied, correlating overall with the level of HLA-A2 and hTERT expression by the target cell. Starting from 100 mL blood, approximately 100 million hTERT-specific CTLs could be generated over the course of five sequential stimulations, representing an expansion of approximately 1 x 10(5). Our data show that AAPCs process hTERT antigen and efficiently stimulate hTERT-specific CTLs from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and suggest that sufficient expansion could be achieved to be clinically useful for adoptive cell therapy.

  11. Evaluation of Colon Cancer – Specific Antigen 2 as a Potential Serum Marker for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Eddy S.; Schoen, Robert E.; Magheli, Ahmed; Sokoll, Lori J.; Chan, Daniel W.; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A blood test to detect colon cancer at a preventable stage would represent a major advancement. We have previously identified colon cancer – specific markers using focused proteomics analysis of nuclear structural proteins. Two of these markers, colon cancer – specific antigen (CCSA)-3 and CCSA-4, have been developed into blood-based markers that are able to distinguish individuals with colorectal cancer from those without. CCSA-2 is a distinct novel colon cancer marker identified using focused proteomics. Experimental Design Using an indirect ELISA on serum samples obtained from two institutions, we evaluated CCSA-2 as a serum-based colon cancer marker. A total of111serumsamples from individuals who underwent colonoscopy and were subsequently diagnosed as either being normal or having hyperplastic polyps, nonadvanced adenomas, advanced adenomas, and colorectal cancer were evaluated. A diverse control population that consisted of 125 serum samples was also included in this study. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to measure the sensitivity and specificity of CCSA-2. CCSA-2 at a cutoff of 10.8 µg/mL has overall specificity of 78.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 67.3–87.1%] and sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI, 85.8–99.5%) in separating individuals with advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer from normal, hyperplastic, and nonadvanced adenoma populations. The receiver operating characteristic curve for CCSA-2 has an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83–0.95). Conclusion Our initial study shows that CCSA-2 is a potential serum-based marker for colon cancer detection with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:18316554

  12. Placental restriction of fetal growth reduces cutaneous responses to antigen after sensitization in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Amy L; Bischof, Robert J; Meeusen, Els N; Liu, Hong; Heinemann, Gary K; Hunter, Damien S; Giles, Lynne C; Kind, Karen L; Owens, Julie A; Clifton, Vicki L; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposures are implicated as causes of allergy, but the effects of intrauterine growth restriction on immune function and allergy are poorly defined. We therefore evaluated effects of experimental restriction of fetal growth on immune function and allergic sensitization in adolescent sheep. Immune function (circulating total red and white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, and the antibody response to Clostridial vaccination) and responses to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization (specific total Ig, IgG1, and IgE antibodies, and cutaneous hypersensitivity) were investigated in adolescent sheep from placentally restricted (PR, n = 23) and control (n = 40) pregnancies. Increases in circulating HDM-specific IgE (P = 0.007) and OVA-specific IgE (P = 0.038) were greater in PR than control progeny. PR did not alter total Ig, IgG1, or IgM responses to either antigen. PR increased OVA-specific but not HDM-specific IgA responses in females only (P = 0.023). Multiple birth increased Ig responses to OVA in a sex-specific manner. PR decreased the proportion of positive cutaneous hypersensitivity responders to OVA at 24 h (P = 0.030) but had no effect on cutaneous responses to HDM. Acute wheal responses to intradermal histamine correlated positively with birth weight in singletons (P = 0.023). Intrauterine growth restriction may suppress inflammatory responses in skin downstream of IgE induction, without impairment in antibody responses to a nonpolysaccharide vaccine. Discord between cutaneous and IgE responses following sensitization suggests new mechanisms for prenatal allergy programming.

  13. The 28-entity IGES test file results using ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was based on the following steps: (1) Read the 28 Entity IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) Test File into the CAD data base with the IGES post-processor; (2) Make the modifications to the displayed geometries, which should produce the normalized front view and the drawing entity defined display; (3) Produce the drawing entity defined display of the file as it appears in the CAD system after modification to the geometry; (4) Translate the file back to IGES format using IGES pre-processor; (5) Read the IGES file produced by the pre-processor back into the CAD data base; (6) Produce another drawing entity defined display of the CAD display; and (7) Compare the plots resulting from steps 3 and 6 - they should be identical to each other.

  14. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus. PMID:26403184

  15. Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Low Dose of IL-2 in Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh N; von Herrath, Matthias G; Vela, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in preventing effector T-cell (Teff) targeting of self-antigens that can lead to tissue destruction in autoimmune settings, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Autoimmunity is caused in part by an imbalance between Teff and Tregs. Early attempts to treat with immunosuppressive agents have led to serious side effects, thus requiring a more targeted approach. Low-dose IL-2 (LD IL-2) can provide immunoregulation with few side effects by preferentially acting on Tregs to drive tolerance. The concept of LD IL-2 as a therapeutic approach is supported by data in mouse models where autoimmunity is cured and further strengthened by success in human clinical studies in hepatitis C virus-induced vasculitis, chronic graft-versus-host disease, and Alopecia areata. Treatment will require identification of a safe therapeutic window, which is a difficult task given that patients are reported to have deficient or defective IL-2 production or signaling and have experienced mild activation of NK cells and eosinophils with LD IL-2 therapy. In T1D, an LD IL-2 clinical trial concluded that Tregs can be safely expanded in humans; however, the study was not designed to address efficacy. Antigen-specific therapies have also aimed at regulation of the autoimmune response but have been filled with disappointment despite an extensive list of diverse islet antigens tested in humans. This approach could be enhanced through the addition of LD IL-2 to the antigenic treatment regimen to improve the frequency and function of antigen-specific Tregs, without global immunosuppression. Here, we will discuss the use of LD IL-2 and islet antigen to enhance antigen-specific Tregs in T1D and focus on what is known about their immunological impact, their safety, and potential efficacy, and need for better methods to identify therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:26793191

  16. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2011-11-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138(260-268) (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138(+) MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8(+) activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4(+) T cell and naive CD8(+) T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ-interferon secretion to HLA-A2(+) /CD138(+) myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2(-) /CD138(+) or HLA-A2(+) /CD138(-) cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2(+) /CD138(+) cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138(260-268) (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  17. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138+ MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8+ activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4+ T cell and naive CD8+ T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ–interferon secretion to HLA-A2+/CD138+ myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2−/CD138+ or HLA-A2+/CD138− cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2+/CD138+ cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  18. Rising prostate-specific antigen values during neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy: The importance of monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Niblock, Paddy; Pickles, Tom . E-mail: tpickles@bccancer.bc.ca

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (N-ADT) before external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From prospectively collected data, we identified 182 patients who received between 3 and 12 months of N-ADT before definitive external beam radiotherapy and who had at least three PSA readings during the neoadjuvant period. One hundred fifty patients had PSA values that continued to fall (Non-Rise group), but 32 had a PSA value that started to rise (Rise group). The two groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Pearson chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were performed for time to treatment failure, cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up was 62.5 months for the Non-Rise group and 53 months for the Rise group. Patients who sustained a PSA rise during the N-ADT period had a shorter time to PSA relapse (p = 0.013), poorer CSS (p = 0.027), and poorer OS (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirms the significance of a PSA rise during the N-ADT period for CSS (p = 0.035) and OS (p = 0.038). Conclusions:: A subset of patients treated with N-ADT develop a rising PSA profile that likely represents early androgen resistance. They have significantly worse outcome.

  19. Construction of novel electrochemical immunosensor for detection of prostate specific antigen using ferrocene-PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Emre; Bahar, Özlem; Şenel, Mehmet; Abasıyanık, M Fatih

    2016-12-15

    In this study, an immunosensor was designed to utilize for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on three different generations (G1, G2 and G3) of ferrocene (Fc) cored polyamidiamine dendrimers (Fc-PAMAM) gold (Au) electrode. The self-assembled monolayer principle (SAM) was used to fabricate the sensitive, selective and disposable immunosensor electrodes. In electrode fabrication cysteamine (Cys) was the first agent covalently linked on the Au electrode surface. Immobilized redox center (ferrocene) cored PAMAM dendrimers served as a layer for the further binding of biological components. The monoclonal antibody of PSA (anti-PSA) was covalently immobilized on dendrimers which were attached onto the modified Au surface (Au/Cys/Fc-PAMAMs/anti-PSA). PSA levels were quantitatively analyzed by using electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) whose lowest detection limit was calculated as 0.001ngmL(-1). The Au/Cys/FcPAMAM/anti-PSA immunosensor showed excellent performance for PSA at the pulse amplitude; 50mV and the scan rate; 10mV/s in a wide linear concentration range of 0.01ng-100ngmL(-1). Analytical performance and specificity assays were carried out using human serum and different proteins.

  20. Tissue distribution and dependence of responsiveness of human antigen-specific memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, Claudia; Frölich, Daniela; Reiter, Karin; Mei, Henrik E; Wirries, Ina; Kuhly, Rainer; Killig, Monica; Glatzer, Timor; Stölzel, Katharina; Perka, Carsten; Lipsky, Peter E; Dörner, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Memory B cells (mBCs) are a key to immunologic memory, yet their distribution within lymphoid organs and the individual role of these for mBC functionality remain largely unknown. This study characterized the distribution and phenotype of human (Ag-specific) mBCs in peripheral blood (PB), spleen, tonsil, and bone marrow. We found that the spleen harbors most mBCs, followed by tonsils, BM, and PB, and we detected no major differences in expression of markers associated with higher maturity. Testing the distribution of tetanus toxoid-specific (TT(+)) mBCs revealed their presence in PB during steady state, yet absolute numbers suggested their largest reservoir in the spleen, followed by tonsils. To explore the role of both tissues in the maintenance of reactive B cell memory, we revaccinated controls and splenectomized and tonsillectomized individuals with TT. All donor groups exhibited comparable emergence of anti-TT IgG, TT(+) plasma cells, and TT(+) mBCs in the PB, together with similar molecular characteristics of TT(+) plasma cells. In summary, human mBCs recirculate through PB and reside in different lymphoid organs that do not reflect different mBC maturity stages. The spleen and tonsil, although harboring the largest number of overall and TT(+) mBCs, appear to be dispensable to preserve adequate responsiveness to secondary antigenic challenge.

  1. Aptamer-MIP hybrid receptor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pawan; Tamboli, Vibha; Harniman, Robert L; Estrela, Pedro; Allender, Chris J; Bowen, Jenna L

    2016-01-15

    This study reports the design and evaluation of a new synthetic receptor sensor based on the amalgamation of biomolecular recognition elements and molecular imprinting to overcome some of the challenges faced by conventional protein imprinting. A thiolated DNA aptamer with established affinity for prostate specific antigen (PSA) was complexed with PSA prior to being immobilised on the surface of a gold electrode. Controlled electropolymerisation of dopamine around the complex served to both entrap the complex, holding the aptamer in, or near to, it's binding conformation, and to localise the PSA binding sites at the sensor surface. Following removal of PSA, it was proposed that the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) cavity would act synergistically with the embedded aptamer to form a hybrid receptor (apta-MIP), displaying recognition properties superior to that of aptamer alone. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate subsequent rebinding of PSA to the apta-MIP surface. The apta-MIP sensor showed high sensitivity with a linear response from 100pg/ml to 100ng/ml of PSA and a limit of detection of 1pg/ml, which was three-fold higher than aptamer alone sensor for PSA. Furthermore, the sensor demonstrated low cross-reactivity with a homologous protein (human Kallikrein 2) and low response to human serum albumin (HSA), suggesting possible resilience to the non-specific binding of serum proteins.

  2. Amyloid Form of Ovalbumin Evokes Native Antigen-specific Immune Response in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Saba; Owais, Mohammad; Kazmi, Shadab; Balyan, Renu; Kaur Khalsa, Jasneet; Faisal, Syed Mohd.; Sherwani, Mohd. Asif; Gatoo, Manzoor Ahmad; Umar, Mohd. Saad; Zubair, Swaleha

    2015-01-01

    Amyloids are highly organized protein aggregates that arise from inappropriately folded versions of proteins or polypeptides under both physiological as well as simulated ambiences. Once thought to be irreversible assemblies, amyloids have begun to expose their more dynamic and reversible attributes depending upon the intrinsic properties of the precursor protein/peptide and experimental conditions such as temperature, pressure, structural modifications in proteins, or presence of chemicals in the reaction mixture. It has been repeatedly proposed that amyloids undergo transformation to the bioactive peptide/protein forms under specific conditions. In the present study, amyloids assembled from the model protein ovalbumin (OVA) were found to release the precursor protein in a slow and steady manner over an extended time period. Interestingly, the released OVA from amyloid depot was found to exhibit biophysical characteristics of native protein and reacted with native-OVA specific monoclonal as well as polyclonal antibodies. Moreover, antibodies generated upon immunization of OVA amyloidal aggregates or fibrils were found to recognize the native form of OVA. The study suggests that amyloids may act as depots for the native form of the protein and therefore can be exploited as vaccine candidates, where slow antigen release over extended time periods is a pre-requisite for the development of desired immune response. PMID:25512377

  3. Human Skin Cells That Express Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 3 Associate with Dermal Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vega Crespo, Agustin; Awe, Jason P.; Reijo Pera, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) is a glycosphingolipid that has previously been used to identify cells with stem cell-like, multipotent, and pluripotent characteristics. A rare subpopulation of SSEA3-expressing cells exists in the dermis of adult human skin. These SSEA3-expressing cells undergo a significant increase in cell number in response to injury, suggesting a possible role in regeneration. These SSEA3-expressing regeneration-associated (SERA) cells were derived through primary cell culture, purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and characterized. Longer in vitro culture of the primary skin cells led to lower SSEA3 expression stability after FACS-based purification, suggesting that the current culture conditions may need to be optimized to permit the large-scale expansion of SERA cells. The SERA cells demonstrated a global transcriptional state that was most similar to bone marrow- and fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the highest expressing SSEA3-expressing cells co-expressed CD105 (clone 35). However, while a rare population of MSCs was observed in primary human skin cell cultures that could differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, or chondrocytes, SERA cells did not possess this differentiation capacity, suggesting that there are at least two different rare subpopulations in adult human skin primary cultures. The identification, efficient purification, and large-scale expansion of these rare subpopulations (SERA cells and MSCs) from heterogeneous adult human skin primary cell cultures may have applications for future patient-specific cellular therapies. PMID:23514702

  4. Construction of novel electrochemical immunosensor for detection of prostate specific antigen using ferrocene-PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Emre; Bahar, Özlem; Şenel, Mehmet; Abasıyanık, M Fatih

    2016-12-15

    In this study, an immunosensor was designed to utilize for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on three different generations (G1, G2 and G3) of ferrocene (Fc) cored polyamidiamine dendrimers (Fc-PAMAM) gold (Au) electrode. The self-assembled monolayer principle (SAM) was used to fabricate the sensitive, selective and disposable immunosensor electrodes. In electrode fabrication cysteamine (Cys) was the first agent covalently linked on the Au electrode surface. Immobilized redox center (ferrocene) cored PAMAM dendrimers served as a layer for the further binding of biological components. The monoclonal antibody of PSA (anti-PSA) was covalently immobilized on dendrimers which were attached onto the modified Au surface (Au/Cys/Fc-PAMAMs/anti-PSA). PSA levels were quantitatively analyzed by using electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) whose lowest detection limit was calculated as 0.001ngmL(-1). The Au/Cys/FcPAMAM/anti-PSA immunosensor showed excellent performance for PSA at the pulse amplitude; 50mV and the scan rate; 10mV/s in a wide linear concentration range of 0.01ng-100ngmL(-1). Analytical performance and specificity assays were carried out using human serum and different proteins. PMID:27641479

  5. Expression and purification of recombinant active prostate-specific antigen from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sujin; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2007-05-01

    Human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a 33 kDa serine protease with comprehensive homology to glandular kallikrein, is secreted from prostatic tissue into the seminal fluid and enters into the circulation. The level of PSA increases in the serum of patients with prostatic cancer and hence is widely employed as a marker of the disease status. In particular, an enzymatically active PSA that is a form cleaved at the N-terminal seven-amino-acids prosequence, APLILSR, of proPSA may play an important roll in the progression of prostate cancer. Thus, the presence of the active form would selectively discriminate the cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we developed a convenient purification method for the acquisition of active PSA and proPSA. Recombinant proPSA and active PSA were expressed directly in Escherichia coli, easily and efficiently isolated from inclusion bodies, refolded, and purified. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of the recombinant active PSA was confirmed as serine protease using chromogenic chymotrypsin substrate. This purified active PSA could be further applied to scrutinize the biological or conformational characteristics of the protein and to develop specific diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  6. Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 contains the gene for a noncapsular serotype 1-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, C T; Maheswaran, S K; Murtaugh, M P

    1995-01-01

    An ssa1-homologous genomic fragment cloned from Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 (ST2) enabled transformation of Escherichia coli DH5 alpha to a serotype 1 (ST1) phenotype through expression of the ST1-specific antigen (Ssa1). The Ssa1 protein expressed by ssa1-transformed E. coli was susceptible to heat and protease treatment and was distinct from P. haemolytica ST1-specific capsular polysaccharide. Electrophoretic analysis of in vitro-translated proteins, as well as the predicted amino acid sequence, demonstrated that Ssa1 proteins encoded from either ST1- or ST2-derived ssa1 genes were essentially identical. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of ssa1 genes derived from P. haemolytica ST1 and ST2 revealed greater than 99% homology. Amino acid sequence homology of the predicted products of ST1- and ST2-derived ssa1 genes was greater than 98%. Northern (RNA) blot studies revealed that the presence of an increased level of ssa1 transcript in P. haemolytica ST1 grown as surface-adherent cultures on solid medium was correlated with a serologically detectable Ssa1 protein. Expression of the ssa1 transcript in ST1 was similarly upregulated by a high iron concentration in the growth medium. PMID:7890392

  7. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children.

  8. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children. PMID:25976436

  9. Efficacy of lower cut off value of serum prostate specific antigen in diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M M; Alam, A K M K; Habib, A K M K; Rahman, H; Hossain, A K M S; Salam, M A; Rahman, S

    2012-12-01

    Indications of prostate biopsy are high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) value and or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. Although serum PSA value of 4 ng/ml is the most commonly used threshold for recommending prostate biopsy, significant proportion of men harbor prostate cancer even when their serum PSA values are less than 4.0 ng/ml. Therefore present study was designed to determine the performance status of serum PSA in lower cut-off values. This hospital based prospective study was conducted in the Department of Urology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Comfort Nursing Home Pvt. Ltd, Dhaka from July 2009 to October 2010. Two hundred six male patients aged over 50 years having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and serum PSA more than 2.5 ng/ml were prepared for prostate biopsy. Trans rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy was done. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, ROC curve. For all analytical tests, the level of significance was set at 0.05 and p < 0.05 was considered significant. In 2.5-4 serum PSA range, 28.26% (13 out of 46) of all malignancy were found, which would be missed if we take cut off value 4. At 2.5 PSA cut-off, Sensitivity 91.3%, Specificity 14.37%, PPV 23.46%, NPV 85.18%, Efficacy 31.55%. At 4 PSA cut-off value, Sensitivity 71.73%, Specificity 46.25%, PPV 27.73%, NPV 85.05%, Efficacy 51.94%. So it can be concluded that, for early diagnosis of prostate cancer cut-off value of serum PSA of 2.5 ng/ml can be recommended as an indication for prostate biopsy.

  10. The B-cell tumor–associated antigen ROR1 can be targeted with T cells modified to express a ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Thomas M.; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Nishida, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tori N.; Bleakley, Marie; Turtle, Cameron J.; Chang, Wen-Chung; Greisman, Harvey A.; Wood, Brent; Maloney, David G.; Jensen, Michael C.; Rader, Christoph; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors specific for B-cell lineage surface molecules such as CD20 exert antitumor activity in B-cell malignancies, but deplete normal B cells. The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) was identified as a highly expressed gene in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), but not normal B cells, suggesting it may serve as a tumor-specific target for therapy. We analyzed ROR1-expression in normal nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells including B-cell precursors, and in hematopoietic malignancies. ROR1 has characteristics of an oncofetal gene and is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, B-CLL and mantle cell lymphoma, but not in major adult tissues apart from low levels in adipose tissue and at an early stage of B-cell development. We constructed a ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor that when expressed in T cells from healthy donors or CLL patients conferred specific recognition of primary B-CLL and mantle cell lymphoma, including rare drug effluxing chemotherapy resistant tumor cells that have been implicated in maintaining the malignancy, but not mature normal B cells. T-cell therapies targeting ROR1 may be effective in B-CLL and other ROR1-positive tumors. However, the expression of ROR1 on some normal tissues suggests the potential for toxi-city to subsets of normal cells. PMID:20702778

  11. In Situ Peptide-MHC-II Tetramer Staining of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Dileepan, Thamotharampillai; Kim, Hyeon O; Cleary, P Patrick; Skinner, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    The invention of peptide-MHC-tetramer technology to label antigen-specific T cells has led to an enhanced understanding of T lymphocyte biology. Here we describe the development of an in situ pMHC-II tetramer staining method to visualize antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in tissues. This method complements other methods developed that similarly use MHC class II reagents to stain antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in situ. In this study, we used group A streptococcus (GAS) expressing a surrogate peptide (2W) to inoculate C57BL/6 mice, and used fresh nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) in optimizing the in situ staining of 2W:I-Ab specific CD4+ T cells. The results showed 2W:I-Ab tetramer-binding CD4+ T cells in GAS-2W but not GAS infected mice. This method holds promise to be broadly applicable to study the localization, abundance, and phenotype of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in undisrupted tissues. PMID:26067103

  12. Induction of antigen-specific immunity by pH-sensitive carbonate apatite as a potent vaccine carrier.

    PubMed

    Hebishima, Takehisa; Tada, Seiichi; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Akaike, Toshihiro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Aida, Yoko

    2011-12-01

    The ability of carbonate apatite (CO(3)Ap) to enhance antigen-specific immunity was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate its utility as a vaccine carrier. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells took up ovalbumin (OVA) containing CO(3)Ap more effectively than free OVA. Interestingly, mice immunized with OVA-containing CO(3)Ap produced OVA-specific antibodies more effectively than mice immunized with free OVA. Furthermore, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-containing CO(3)Ap induced the proliferation and antigen-specific production of IFN-γ by splenocytes more strongly than immunization with free OVA. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, an immune reaction involving an antigen-specific, cell-mediated immune response between OVA-containing CO(3)Ap and OVA-containing alumina salt (Alum), suggesting that CO(3)Ap induced cell-mediated immune response to the same degree as Alum, which is commonly used for clinical applications. This study is the first to demonstrate the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo by CO(3)Ap.

  13. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  14. Mannosylated Mucin-Type Immunoglobulin Fusion Proteins Enhance Antigen-Specific Antibody and T Lymphocyte Responses

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tomas; Nilsson, Anki; Chatzissavidou, Nathalie; Sjöblom, Magnus; Rova, Ulrika; Holgersson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented. OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays. Immunizations with the OVA − mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect. Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23071675

  15. Polymeric hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A nanocapsules induce intrahepatic antigen-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Michael; Piradashvili, Keti; Pietrzak-Nguyen, Anette; Pretsch, Leah; Kuhn, Gabor; Strand, Susanne; Knuf, Markus; Zepp, Fred; Wurm, Frederik R; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Gehring, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Targeting antigen combined with adjuvants to hepatic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is essential for the induction of intrahepatic T cellular immunity controlling and resolving viral infections of the liver. Intravenous injection of antigen-loaded nanoparticles is a promising approach for the delivery of antigens to liver APCs. Accordingly, polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) synthesized exclusively of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) and the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adsorbed to the nanocapsule surface were developed. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of MPLA-functionalized NS5A-NCs regarding the interaction with liver dendritic cells (DCs) and the potential to induce intrahepatic immune responses in a mouse model. Maturation of DCs was significantly increased by application of NS5A+MPLA-NCs compared to non-functionalized NS5A-NCs promoting a vigorous expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and a strong secretion of the Th1-related cytokine IL-12. NS5A-NCs were preferentially deposited in DCs and Kupffer cells residing in the liver after intravenous administration. Immunization with NS5A-NCs induced intrahepatic antigen-specific CD4(+) T cellular immune responses determined by the secretion of IFNγ and IL-2. Furthermore, supplementation with MPLA induced significant levels of NS5A-specific antibodies. The application of polymeric nanocapsules synthesized exclusively out of antigen avoids the risk of unintended side effects caused by additional carrier substances. Functionalization with adjuvants like MPLA and the efficient targeting to liver-resident APCs inherits the potential for application of antigen nanocapsules in further vaccination approaches against pathogens affecting the liver. PMID:27614817

  16. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolu