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Sample records for antigen specific ige

  1. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J.; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. Objectives We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. Methods C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti–2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl–human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Results Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Conclusions Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23810240

  2. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007), and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003). A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P < 0.02). We detected specific IgE in 34 newborns (40 positive tests). A long-standing contact with a cat during pregnancy decreased the specific IgE level for wheat/grass (OR = 3.2; P < 0.07) and for children's food (OR = 5.0; P < 0.04), and the contact with a dog decreased the specific-IgE for wheat/grass (OR = 0.3; P < 0.05). Exposure to tobacco smoke correlated with the positive specific IgE toward house dust mite (OR = 4.7; P = 0.005). PMID:20156762

  4. Antigen-specific regulation of IgE antibodies by non-antigen-specific γδ T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yafei; Aydintug, M. Kemal; Loomis, Joshua; MacLeod, Megan K.; McKee, Amy S.; Kirchenbaum, Greg; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Kedl, Ross M.; Sun, Deming; Jacobelli, Jordan; O'Brien, Rebecca L.; Born, Willi K.

    2013-01-01

    We re-examined the observation that γδ T cells, when transferred from mice tolerized to an inhaled conventional antigen (Ag), suppress the allergic IgE response to this Ag specifically. Using ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme in crisscross fashion, we confirmed the Ag-specific IgE regulatory effect of the γδ T cells. Although only Vγ4+ γδ T cells are regulators, the Ag specificity does not stem from specificity of their γδ TCRs. Instead, the Vγ4+ γδ T cells failed to respond to either Ag, but rapidly acquired Ag-specific regulatory function in vivo following i.v. injection of non-T cells derived from the spleen of Ag-tolerized mice. This correlated with their in vivo Ag acquisition from i.v. injected Ag-loaded splenic non-T cells, and in vivo transfer of membrane label provided evidence for direct contact between the injected splenic non-T cells and the Vγ4+ γδ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Ag itself, when acquired by γδ T cells, directs the specificity of their IgE suppression. PMID:23275606

  5. Specific antigen targeting to surface IgE and IgG on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells enhances efficiency of antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczyk, C; Viguier, M; Boutin, Y; Frandji, P; David, B; Hébert, J; Mécheri, S

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that bone marrow-derived mast cells can express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and act as antigen-presenting cells prompted us to evaluate this function when antigen is internalized through fluid-phase endocytosis or via specific uptake by using IgG and IgE antibodies. This study was performed using a specific T-cell hybridoma developed against Lol p 1, the major allergen of grass pollen Lolium perenne. Expression of Fc gamma R and Fc epsilon RI by mast cells led us to investigate the influence of IgG- and IgE-targeted antigen on the antigen-presenting function of mast cells. Internalization of Lol p 1 through different specific IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAb) resulted in the activation of Lol p 1-specific T-cell hybridoma at concentrations about 100-fold less than that required for T-cell stimulation by uncomplexed antigen. IgE-complexed Lol p 1, which facilitates trapping of antigen by mast cells, induced an accelerated and more efficient antigen-presenting capacity of mast cells than that obtained with uncomplexed antigen. However, aggregation of anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE mAb by the irrelevant antigen DNP-human serum albumin did not substantially increase the capacity of mast cells to present Lol p 1 to T cells. This suggests that the mere aggregation of Fc epsilon RI is not sufficient for enhanced antigen presentation mediated by IgE. Tissue distribution and strategic location of mast cells at the mucosal barriers and their capacity to process the antigen through efficient fluid-phase pinocytosis as well as IgG- and IgE-dependent targeting of antigens provide mast cells with a prominent role in immune surveillance. Images Figure 1 PMID:9767412

  6. Thermoinactivation of human IgE: antigenic and functional modifications.

    PubMed Central

    Demeulemester, C; Weyer, A; Peltre, G; Laurent, M; Marchand, F; David, B

    1986-01-01

    The thermoinactivation kinetics of IgE were studied in experimental models revealing the antigenic properties and the basophil-sensitizing capacity of these immunoglobulins. A pool of human sera containing anti-Dactylis glomerata (Dg) IgE was heated from 5 min up to 4 hr at 56 degrees. The IgE antigenicity was tested by two polyclonal 125I-labelled anti-IgE antibodies; one anti-IgE was specific of the whole Fc epsilon region, while the other had a specificity restricted to the D epsilon 2 domain. Radioimmunoassays showed that the D epsilon 2 epitopes were more rapidly altered than the D epsilon 1 epitopes. The capacity of IgE to bind to basophil Fc epsilon receptors was assayed by passive sensitization experiments. Basophil sensitivity towards the Dg pollen extract was tested by histamine release experiments in the presence of this allergen. A progressive decrease in cell sensitivity was observed when IgE samples used for cell sensitization were heated for longer than 5 min. Thermoinactivation kinetics of IgE revealed an unexpected increase in the apparent quantity and biological activity of IgE heated for 5 min at 56 degrees. This fact could be due to auto-anti-IgE antibodies linked to the unheated IgE and which interfere with the biological activities of IgE and their quantification. Images Figure 2 PMID:2420711

  7. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  8. Intradermal Delivery of Antigens Enhances Specific IgG and Diminishes IgE Production: Potential Use for Vaccination and Allergy Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Takuwa; Ura, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2016-01-01

    Skin is protected by a tough but flexible multilayered barrier and is a front line for immune responses against invading particles. For many years now, skin has been a tissue where certain vaccines are injected for the prevention of infectious disease, however, the detailed mechanisms of the skin immune response are not yet well understood. Using thin and small injection needles, we carefully injected OVA into a restricted region of mouse skin, i.e., intradermal (ID), and examined the antibody response in comparison with subcutaneous (SC) injection or epicutaneous patch administration of OVA. Epicutaneous patches induced a high IgE response against OVA, but IgG production was low. High IgG production was induced by both ID and SC injection, moreover, ID injection induced higher IgG production without any adjutants. Furthermore, OVA-specific IgE production was diminished by ID injection. We found that ID injection could efficiently stimulate skin resident DCs, drive Th1-biased conditions and diminish IgE production. The ID injection response was regulated by Langerin+ dermal DCs, because OVA was taken up mainly by these cells and, after transiently deleting them, the IgE response was no longer diminished and IgG1 production was enhanced. We also tested whether ID injection might be an effective allergy treatment by attempting to inhibit ongoing IgE production in mice with experimentally induced high serum IgE levels. Multiple ID injections of OVA were shown to prevent elevation of serum OVA-specific IgE after repeated allergen challenge. In contrast, SC OVA injection could only transiently inhibit the OVA-specific IgE production. These findings indicated that ID injection results in higher induction of antigen-specific IgG, and thus may be useful for vaccine delivery with little or no adjuvant components. Moreover, the observed diminishment of IgE and induction of Th1-biased immune responses suggest that ID may be a useful injection route for allergy immunotherapy

  9. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  10. Epicutaneous sensitization with nematode antigens of fish parasites results in the production of specific IgG and IgE.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, G; Knoff, M; Verícimo, M A; São Clemente, S C

    2017-08-07

    Fish consumption plays an important role in the human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, trahira, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and it is frequently infected by Contracaecum multipapillatum third-instar larvae (L3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the C. multipapillatum L3 crude extract (CECM). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (ip) with 10 or 50 μg CECM associated with 2 mg of aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 14 and 48. The determination of specific IgG and IgE antibody levels was done after immunization, and the late immunity was evaluated by the intradermal reaction in the ear pavilion. Epicutaneous sensitization was performed in the dorsal region, with antigenic exposure via a Finn-type chamber, containing 100 μg of chicken ovum albumin (OVA) or 100 μg CECM. After the exposures, the specific antibody levels were determined. In the ip immunization, there was a gradual increase in IgG antibody levels, independent of CECM concentration. In relation to IgE production, it was transitory, and immunization with 10 μg was more efficient than that of 50 μg. The same result was observed in the cellular hypersensitivity reaction. In the case of antigen exposure by the epicutaneous route, it was verified that only CECM was able to induce detectable levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies. In the present study it was demonstrated that both intraperitoneal immunization and epicutaneous contact with C. multipapillatum larval antigens are potentially capable of inducing allergic sensitization in mice.

  11. House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitization to bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Dzoro, S; Mittermann, I; Resch-Marat, Y; Vrtala, S; Nehr, M; Hirschl, A M; Wikberg, G; Lundeberg, L; Johansson, C; Scheynius, A; Valenta, R

    2017-07-25

    IgE reactivity to antigens from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitization are not fully understood. The analysis of the genome, transcriptome and microbiome of house dust mites (HDM) has shown that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) species are abundant bacteria within the HDM microbiome. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitization in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Plasma samples from patients with AD (n = 179) were analysed for IgE reactivity to a comprehensive panel of microarrayed HDM allergen molecules and to S. aureus and E. coli by IgE immunoblotting. Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies, and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE immunoblot inhibition experiments. IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP™ inhibition experiments. IgE reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in patients with AD sensitized to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitization. S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract, and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. House dust mites (HDM) may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mechanism of the Antigen-Independent Cytokinergic SPE-7 IgE Activation of Human Mast Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Heather J.; Bowen, Holly; Dodev, Tihomir S.; Sutton, Brian J.; Gould, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Release of pro-inflammatory mediators by mast cells is a key feature of allergic disease. The ‘dogma’ is that IgE molecules merely sensitise mast cells by binding FcεRI prior to cross-linking by multivalent allergen, receptor aggregation and mast cell activation. However, certain monoclonal IgE antibodies have been shown to elicit mast cell activation in an antigen-independent cytokinergic manner, and DNP-specific murine SPE-7 IgE is the most highly cytokinergic antibody known. We show that both monovalent hapten and recombinant SPE-7 IgE Fab inhibit its cytokinergic activity as measured by mast cell degranulation and TNF-α release. Using SPE-7 IgE, a non-cytokinergic human IgE and a poorly cytokinergic murine IgE, we reveal that interaction of the Fab region of ‘free’ SPE-7 IgE with the Fab of FcεRI-bound SPE-7 IgE is the basis of its cytokinergic activity. We rule out involvement of IgE Fc, Cε1 and Cλ/κ domains, and propose that ‘free’ SPE-7 IgE binds to FcεRI-bound SPE-7 IgE by an Fv-Fv interaction. Initial formation of a tri-molecular complex (one ‘free’ IgE molecule cross-linking two receptor-bound IgE molecules) leads to capture of further ‘free’ and receptor-bound IgEs to form larger clusters that trigger mast cell activation. PMID:25892150

  13. Active induction of tumor-specific IgE antibodies by oral mimotope vaccination.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Angelika B; Untersmayr, Eva; Knittelfelder, Regina; Duschl, Albert; Pehamberger, Hubert; Zielinski, Christoph C; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2007-04-01

    A role of IgE antibodies in cancer surveillance has been implicated for a long time. Studies dealing with IgE antibodies directly targeted to tumor antigens have shown marked anticancer effects mediated by this antibody class. Thus, the basic function of IgE antibodies may be to control tumor growth. Thus far, cancer-specific IgE has only been applied passively. Consequently, the aim of this study was to establish an active vaccination protocol to induce tumor antigen-specific IgE antibodies, and to evaluate functional properties. We previously generated epitope mimics, so-called mimotopes, for the epitope recognized by the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab. Upon i.p. immunizations, IgG antibodies with trastuzumab-like properties could be elicited. In the present study, we immunized BALB/c mice via the oral route with these trastuzumab mimotopes, under simultaneous neutralization and suppression of gastric acid. As shown in preceding experiments, this feeding regimen effectively induces Th2 immune responses. Oral immunizations with trastuzumab mimotopes under hypoacidic conditions indeed resulted in the formation of IgE antibodies towards the HER-2 antigen. Moreover, anti-HER-2 IgE-sensitized effector cells mediated SK-BR-3 target cell lysis in an antibody-dependent cytotoxicity assay. We conclude that directed and epitope-specific induction of IgE against tumor antigens is feasible with an oral mimotope vaccination regimen, and that these antibodies mediate anticancer effects.

  14. Quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE on protein chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Eun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Nam-Yun; Choi, Seung-Young; Yong, Tai-soon; Nahm, Baek-Hie; Lee, Sangsun; Noh, Geunwoong

    2002-05-31

    Type I allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity disease inflicting more than quarter of the world population. In order to identify allergen sources, skin provocation test and IgE serology was performed using allergen extracts. Such process identifies allergen-containing sources but cannot identify the disease-eliciting allergenic molecules. Recently, microarray technology has been developed for allergen-specific IgE detection using rolling circle amplification. This study was carried out to evaluate protein chip technology for the quantitative measurement and limits of sensitivity of multiple allergen-specific IgE by an immunofluorescence assay. Significance of positive calibrators was tested using purified human IgE. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), egg white, milk, soybean, and wheat were used as allergens and human serum albumin as negative control. Sensitivity and clinical efficacy of protein chip were evaluated using allergy immune serum for Dp. The fluorescent intensities for purified human IgE as calibrator were well correlated with the concentrations of human IgE. Two-fold dilution of serum allowed an optimal reaction with Dp (1 mg/ml) at which serum Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip were compatible with those by UniCap. The sensitivity of protein chip in this study was found at level of 1 IU/ml of IgE. Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip correlated well with those of UniCap by comparing 10 atopic dermatitis. Additional 18 sera were tested for above multiple antigens other than Dp and significant results were obtained for many antigens as well as Dp. These results indicated that spotting of heterogeneous protein mixture on protein chip and the quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE levels using immunofluorescence assay can be successfully applied in the clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of allergy and could be applied to diagnosis of autoimmune and infectious diseases

  15. Tannic acid, a higher galloylated pentagalloylglucose, suppresses antigen-specific IgE production by inhibiting ɛ germline transcription induced by STAT6 activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Yoshimoto, Miki; Nakayama, Kazuko; Tanino, Sousuke; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 is a critical stimulator that induces ɛ germline transcripts (ɛGT) for switch recombination to initiate immunoglobulin (Ig) E and is important in allergic disease pathogenesis. We found pentagalloylglucose (PGG) inhibited IL-4-induced ɛGT expression. PGG exerted its inhibitory function by suppressing IL-4-induced activation of IL-4Rα, JAK3 and STAT6. Furthermore, tannic acid, a higher galloylated PGG, attenuated ovalbumin-induced IgE production in vivo by inhibiting IL-4-induced ɛGT expression and the IL-4 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that tannic acid may attenuate allergic diseases by suppressing IgE production by inhibiting IL-4-induced signaling.

  16. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sakura; Ogura, Kiyotake; Takahashi, Kyohei; Sato, Yasunori; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-04-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibody detection using the Siemens IMMULITE(®) 3gAllergy™ (3gAllergy) assay have not been sufficiently examined for the diagnosis of food allergy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring sIgE levels using the 3gAllergy assay to diagnose allergic reactions to egg, milk, and wheat. This retrospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosed or suspected allergies to egg, milk and wheat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their clinical reactivity to these allergens based on oral food challenge outcomes and/or convincing histories of immediate reaction to causative food(s). The sIgE levels were measured using 3gAllergy and ImmunoCAP. Predicted probability curves were estimated using logistic regression analysis. We analyzed 1561 patients, ages 0-19 y (egg = 436, milk = 499, wheat = 626). The sIgE levels determined using 3gAllergy correlated with those of ImmunoCAP, classifying 355 patients as symptomatic: egg = 149, milk = 123, wheat = 83. 3gAllergy sIgE levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (P < 0.0001). Predictive probability for positive food allergy was significantly increased and correlated with increased sIgE levels. The cut-offs for allergic reaction with 95% predictive probability as determined by the 3gAllergy probability curves were different from those of ImmunoCAP. Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Involvement of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants-specific IgE in pollen allergy testing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yuma; Kawada, Michitsugu; Takato, Yoshiki; Shinagawa, Kiyomi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Saito, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Specific IgE antibodies against the low-molecular-weight carbohydrate antigen that does not bridge IgE molecules on mast cells are not associated with clinical symptoms. Cross reactivity can be determined in allergen-specific IgE detection assays when the carbohydrate structures between pollen allergens and plant derived food allergens are similar; in such cases, false positive results for grain or legume allergens can be reported for pollen allergic patients who are not sensitized to those allergens. This phenomenon arises owing to the presence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of CCD interference on the results for pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the general adult population and to perform CCD inhibition tests evaluating the involvement of CCD on samples positive to pollen allergens. Methods Serum samples from 322 subjects were tested for IgE antibodies to pollens and CCD. The research subjects were given questionnaires about pollen allergic symptoms to help assess the presence of allergies. Allergen IgE antibodies for Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, orchard grass, ragweed, MUXF, bromelain, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate oxidase (ASOD) were analyzed. Results It was observed that among individuals who tested positive to any of the pollen allergens, the positive ratio of CCD-specific IgE antibody was the highest for HRP (13.5%–50.0%). The results from the inhibition tests revealed that CCD was marginally present. Although IgE antibodies for cedar pollen did not react with CCD, IgE antibodies for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed might be detected by the presence of CCD. Conclusion The results of the inhibition tests revealed the obvious presence of CCD suggesting its involvement. Considering these findings, careful evaluation of patient IgE results should be performed for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed. PMID:28154803

  18. IgE antibodies produced in mice instrumental in analyses of antigenicity of cephalothin preparation.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, M; Tadokoro, K; Hirai, K; Koizumi, K; Fukuba, S; Suzuki, S

    1980-01-01

    IgE antibodies to a cephalothin preparation were produced in mice which had been immunized with cephalothin-Ascaris extract conjugate mixed with Al(OH)3 gel plus Bordetella pertussis. Mice which had been irradiated just before receiving the booster injection wtih the conjugate showed higher IgE antibody levels against the preparation in comparison with unirradiated mice. The specificities of IgE antibodies against the preparation were examined with an inhibition test of passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction. The intensity of the PCA reaction evoked by the cephalothin preparation in the rats was substantially or partially reduced by a pretreatment of the animals with an injection of a cephalothin preparation from another source or a cephaloridine preparation. Meanwhile, a prior injection of a cefazolin, a 7-aminocephalosporanic acid, a benzylpenicillin (PcG) preparation, or an aminobenzylpenicillin preparation into the animals showed only weak or no influence on the PCA reaction. These results suggest that the acyl side chain of cephalothin plays an important role as eliciting antigenic determinant in the PCA reaction. The difference in the antigenic specificity between the cephalothin and PcG preparation is also discussed.

  19. Polyethylene glycol-coated graphene oxide attenuates antigen-specific IgE production and enhanced antigen-induced T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Kun-Ju; Wang, Ping-Yen; Lin, Chi-Wen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Lu, Yu-Jen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Background Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising nanomaterial for potential application in the versatile field of biomedicine. Graphene-based nanomaterials have been reported to modulate the functionality of immune cells in culture and to induce pulmonary inflammation in mice. Evidence pertaining to the interaction between graphene-based nanomaterials and the immune system in vivo remains scarce. The present study investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol-coated GO (PEG-GO) on antigen-specific immunity in vivo. Methods BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with a single dose of PEG-GO (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) 1 hour before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization, and antigen-specific antibody production and splenocyte reactivity were measured 7 days later. Results Exposure to PEG-GO significantly attenuated the serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E. The production of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 by splenocytes restimulated with OVA in culture was enhanced by treatment with PEG-GO. In addition, PEG-GO augmented the metabolic activity of splenocytes restimulated with OVA but not with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that systemic exposure to PEG-GO modulates several aspects of antigen-specific immune responses, including the serum production of immunoglobulin E and T-cell functionality. PMID:25228804

  20. Polyethylene glycol-coated graphene oxide attenuates antigen-specific IgE production and enhanced antigen-induced T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Kun-Ju; Wang, Ping-Yen; Lin, Chi-Wen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Lu, Yu-Jen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising nanomaterial for potential application in the versatile field of biomedicine. Graphene-based nanomaterials have been reported to modulate the functionality of immune cells in culture and to induce pulmonary inflammation in mice. Evidence pertaining to the interaction between graphene-based nanomaterials and the immune system in vivo remains scarce. The present study investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol-coated GO (PEG-GO) on antigen-specific immunity in vivo. BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with a single dose of PEG-GO (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) 1 hour before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization, and antigen-specific antibody production and splenocyte reactivity were measured 7 days later. Exposure to PEG-GO significantly attenuated the serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E. The production of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 by splenocytes restimulated with OVA in culture was enhanced by treatment with PEG-GO. In addition, PEG-GO augmented the metabolic activity of splenocytes restimulated with OVA but not with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A. Collectively, these results demonstrate that systemic exposure to PEG-GO modulates several aspects of antigen-specific immune responses, including the serum production of immunoglobulin E and T-cell functionality.

  1. Tracing antigen signatures in the human IgE repertoire.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Novatchkova, Maria; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Jenisch, Stefan; Jäger, Siegfried; Kabelitz, Dieter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire.

  2. Tracing antigen signatures in the human IgE repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Novatchkova, Maria; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Jenisch, Stefan; Jäger, Siegfried; Kabelitz, Dieter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire. PMID:20573403

  3. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  4. T cells produce an antigen-binding factor with in vivo activity analogous to IgE antibody

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    T cell-dependent activation of resident tissue mast cells is required for the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions in mice. A T cell-derived antigen-binding factor that transfers the ability to elicit an immediate hypersensitivity-like skin reaction is described and compared with a hybridoma IgE antibody. Both the T cell factor and IgE mediate reactions with increased vascular permeability and both are mast cell dependent, as they are inactive in two different types of mast cell deficient mice (W/Wv and Sl/Sld). The T cell factor was distinguished from IgE by affinity chromatography using specific anti-IgE and anti-factor antibodies and by a shorter duration of passive sensitization. The T cell factor is a suitable candidate for participation in the mechanism by which T cells activate mast cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity. PMID:6187880

  5. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation report on the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-05

    IGES is a communication file structure for data produced on and used by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems in widespread use today. It is intended to provide a means for data interchange between CAD/CAM systems of different brand name, and to allow the transfer of geometric data to and from external applications programs. IGES represents an initial organized attempt to address and resolve the interface problems that arise as a result of the introduction of the computer into the design and manufacturing environment by introducing a set of specifications where none presently exists. This report gives an overview of IGES progress as of April 1980. 5 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  7. Interleukin 3-dependent and -independent mast cells stimulated with IgE and antigen express multiple cytokines

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In response to IgE and specific multivalent antigen, mast cell lines (both growth factor-dependent and -independent) induce the transcription and/or secretion of a number of cytokines having a wide spectrum of activities. We have identified IL-1, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, IFN- gamma, GM-CSF, JE, MIP1 alpha, MIP1 beta, and TCA3 RNA in at least two of four mast cell clones. The production of these products (except JE) is activation-associated and can be induced by IgE plus antigen. In selected instances cytokine expression can also be induced by activation with Con A or phorbol ester plus ionophore, albeit to levels less than those observed with IgE plus antigen. In addition, long-term mast cell clones and primary cultures of bone marrow-derived mast cells specifically release IL-1, IL-4, and/or IL-6 bioactivity after activation. These findings suggest that in addition to their inflammatory effector function mast cells may serve as a source of growth and regulatory factors. The relationship of mast cells to cells of the T lymphocyte lineage is discussed. PMID:2473161

  8. A comparison between IgE and IgG4 as markers of allergy in children: an experimental trial in a model of natural antigen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Guerresi, S; Kantar, A; Lubrano, L; Olivieri, F; Boner, A L; Peroni, D G

    2011-01-01

    IgG4 have been hypothesized to act as blocking antibodies capable of preventing IgE-mediated effector cell triggering. This study aims to evaluate the changes in IgG4 in children during a period of natural antigen avoidance. Serum IgE and IgG4 were evaluated in a group of asthmatic children, aged between 7 and 17 years, admitted to the residential house Istituto Pio XII (Misurina, BL, Italy), located at 1,756 m, in a natural model of antigen avoidance. All the patients were skin prick test positive to at least two of the following allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronissynus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat epithelium, timothy grass pollen and Parietaria pollen. During the 180 days of hospitalization, serum specific IgE and IgG4 were measured six times. A significant decrease (p≤0.05) in serum specific IgE to house dust mite and pollen allergens was observed; by contrast, no significant variations were shown by IgG4 and IgG4/IgE ratio. No significant relationship was found between serum specific IgE, IgG4 and IgG4/IgE ratio variations and the re-exposure to house dust mite allergens during the Christmas holidays. A positive correlation between specific IgE and specific IgG4 was observed at each considered time (T0: r=0.57, p=0.08; T1: r=0.85, p=0.001; T3: r=0.76, p=0.01). The positive correlation between specific IgE and specific IgG4, enduring throughout the entire time of study, suggests a relationship between these classes of immunoglobulins.

  9. Role of T gamma cells in the in vitro IgE response after antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Vela, C; Garcia, R; Tricas, L; Platas, C; Lahoz, C

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with seasonal allergic pollenosis and five controls were investigated to elucidate the role of the T gamma-cell population in the in vitro IgE response by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In vitro IgE production by PBL of atopic patients after antigenic stimulation was measured in culture supernatants. The optimal dose for antigenic stimulation was found to be 0.16 micrograms/20 X 10(6) cells of purified antigen. No difference was found when comparing the percentages of T cells (E rosettes) between the two groups: mean per cent for controls was 69.2 +/- 5.76 versus 69.54 +/- 4.42 for the allergic group. With regard to the T gamma-cell population, the values obtained by rosetting with ox erythrocytes sensitized with IgG antibody were 12 +/- 0.71% in normals and 9.8 +/- 1.32% in those with allergic pollenosis. This difference, although significant, may not be enough to explain the different pattern when the in vitro IgE production of both groups investigated was compared. In order to detect the role of T gamma cells in this system, lymphocyte cultures, depleted of T gamma cells, were performed and compared with unfractionated cultures from the same donors. Our results show no differences in the in vitro IgE production when T gamma cells were depleted as compared with the unfractionated cultures. PMID:6978222

  10. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  11. ELISA method for monitoring human serum IgE specific for Cry1Ab introduced into genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Teshima, Reiko; Takagi, Kayoko; Okunuki, Haruyo; Sawada, Jun-ichi

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most convenient method of monitoring the occurrence of IgE antibodies specific for novel proteins in genetically modified (GM) foods. The levels of IgE specific for a recombinant protein, Cry1Ab, were determined using an ELISA method. A soluble form of the Cry1Ab protein purified from pCold1 vector-transformed Escherichia coli pTf16/BL21 was used as the ELISA coating antigen, and 1M NaCl was used as the washing buffer to remove IgE non-specifically bound to the coated antigen. Sera from 44 patients allergic to major food allergens were obtained, diluted 20-fold, tested, and found no identifiable IgE above background levels. We also tested sera from patients with corn allergy against whole extracts of non-GM and GM-corn (MON 810) using immunoblotting. The staining patterns were similar for the two types of corn. These results indicate that significant levels of IgE antibodies specific to Cry1Ab were not found in the sera of Japanese patients with food allergies.

  12. Correlations Between Allergen-Specific IgE Serum Levels in Patients With Ocular Allergy.

    PubMed

    Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.

  13. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  14. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities.

  15. Specific IgE response to purified and recombinant allergens in latex allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Viswanath P; Sussman, Gordon L; Yeang, Hoong Y; Elms, Nancy; Breiteneder, Heimo; Arif, Siti AM; Kelly, Kevin J; Bansal, Naveen K; Fink, Jordan N

    2005-01-01

    Background In recent years, allergy to natural rubber latex has emerged as a major allergy among certain occupational groups and patients with underlying diseases. The sensitization and development of latex allergy has been attributed to exposure to products containing residual latex proteins. Although improved manufacturing procedures resulted in a considerable reduction of new cases, the potential risk for some patient groups is still great. In addition the prevalent cross-reactivity of latex proteins with other food allergens poses a major concern. A number of purified allergens and a few commercial kits are currently available, but no concerted effort was undertaken to evaluate them. Methods We studied 11 purified latex allergens, Hev b 1 to Hev b 10, and Hev b 13 along with several crude allergen extracts and two commercial ImmunoCAP assays to evaluate specific IgE antibody in the sera from latex allergic patients and controls. Health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical symptoms of latex allergy, spina bifida patients without latex allergy, and non-atopic health care workers have been studied. Results The results suggest that Hev b 2, 5, 6, and 13 together identified over 80 percent health care workers with latex allergy, while Hev b 6 along with Hev b 1 or 3 detected specific IgE antibody in all sera studied from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. The ImmunoCAP results using both Hev b 5 amplified and non-amplified closely agreed with the clinical diagnosis of latex allergy in health care workers and in spina bifida. Conclusion Although the purified allergens and crude extracts reacted diversely with IgE from different patient groups, the results indicated that use of certain combinations of purified recombinant antigens will be useful in commercial kits or in in-house assays for detecting specific IgE antibody in the sera. The results suggest that a combination of Hev b 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13 together detected specific IgE in 80% of

  16. Multiplexed Method to Calibrate and Quantitate Fluorescence Signal for Allergen-Specific IgE

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Margo R.; Reddington, Alexander P.; Collins, Austin D.; LaBoda, Craig; Cretich, Marina; Chiari, Marcella; Little, Frédéric F.; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2012-01-01

    Using a microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of serum. However, variation of probe immobilization on microarrays hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics. To address this problem, we have developed a calibrated, inexpensive, multiplexed, and rapid protein microarray method that directly correlates surface probe density to captured labeled secondary antibody in clinical samples. We have identified three major technological advantages of our calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) technique: (i) a significant increase in fluorescence emission over a broad range of fluorophores on a layered substrate optimized specifically for fluorescence; (ii) a method to perform label-free quantification of the probes in each spot while maintaining fluorescence enhancement for a particular fluorophore; and (iii) a calibrated, quantitative technique that combines fluorescence and label-free modalities to accurately measure probe density and bound target for a variety of antibody–antigen pairs. In this paper, we establish the effectiveness of the CaFE method by presenting the strong linear dependence of the amount of bound protein to the resulting fluorescence signal of secondary antibody for IgG, β-lactoglobulin, and allergen-specific IgEs to Ara h 1 (peanut major allergen) and Phl p 1 (timothy grass major allergen) in human serum. PMID:22060132

  17. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  18. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  20. Immediate hypersensitivity to penicillins with negative skin tests--the value of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Cruz, L; Botelho, C; Castro, E; Cadinha, S; Castel-Branco, M G; Rodrigues, J

    2009-08-01

    The determination of specific IgE in patients with history of penicillins hypersensitivity is simple, safe and widely available. The positive and negative predictive values of this determination, however, are not yet established. In order to evaluate them, we performed specific IgE determination and diagnostic drug challenges in a group of 22 patients with a clear history of immediate penicillins hypersensitivity but negative skin tests. In this sample, the positive and negative predictive values were 29% and 87%, respectively. This seems to indicate that a positive specific IgE is not enough to confirm the diagnosis, and further study is necessary.

  1. Evaluation of an IgE ELISA with Culicoides spp. extracts and recombinant salivary antigens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Peeters, L M; Janssens, S; Goddeeris, B M; De Keyser, K; Wilson, A D; Kaufmann, C; Schaffartzik, A; Marti, E; Buys, N

    2013-10-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses represents an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to salivary antigens from biting midges (Culicoides spp.). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performances of IgE ELISAs using recombinant Culicoides spp. Obsoletus group salivary gland antigens or crude whole body extracts ('ObsWBE'), C. nubeculosus recombinant proteins (Culn1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10) and Obsoletus group recombinant proteins (Culo1 and 2). IgE levels were measured in plasma of 343 Warmblood horses classified as IBH-affected (n=167) and IBH-unaffected (n=176) according to the owners' descriptions. IBH-affected horses were subdivided based on the severity of their clinical signs at sampling and whether or not their IBH history was considered to be classical. The accuracies of the tests increased when clinical signs at sampling were more pronounced or when the IBH history could be considered as classical. A combination of IgE levels against the three best performing Culicoides spp. recombinant proteins (Culn4, Culo1 and Culo2) and ObsWBE resulted in the best performing test. When IBH-affected horses showing a classical history of the disease and severe clinical signs were compared with IBH-unaffected horses, the Youden's index at the optimal cut-off for the three tests in combination was 0.67. This optimal cut-off had a sensitivity of 70%, a specificity of 97% and a total accuracy of 92%. The performance of the IgE ELISA was affected by the severity of IBH clinical signs at sampling and was improved when IgE levels against several recombinant proteins were combined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fine specificity of the IgE interaction with the low and high affinity Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Nissim, A; Schwarzbaum, S; Siraganian, R; Eshhar, Z

    1993-02-15

    The characterization of the site(s) on the IgE molecule that accommodate the high (Fc epsilon RI) and low (Fc epsilon RII) affinity receptors for IgE should allow the design of IgE analogues that can be used to block the onset of the allergic response or to regulate IgE production. To identify the IgE domain responsible for receptor binding, we generated a series of chimeric IgE antibodies in which constant region domains were interchanged between the human and mouse molecules. Binding studies with these chimeras revealed that both the high and low affinity receptor binding-sites reside primarily in the third constant domain of IgE (C epsilon 3). Additional chimeric IgE molecules were generated in which different parts of the human C epsilon 3 domain were exchanged with their murine homologues. Binding experiments with these chimeras suggest that not only the sequence of a particular C epsilon 3 fragment, but the entire C epsilon 3 domain in its native configuration is essential for binding to the Fc epsilon RI. The amino acid residues determining the species specificity of the Fc epsilon RII are not contained in the first 16 amino acids of the C epsilon 3 domain.

  3. Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Jonathan I; Hendricks, Anke; Loeffler, Anette; Chang, Yu-Mei; Verheyen, Kristien L; Garden, Oliver A; Bond, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Despite conflicting data on their utility and no reports on interlaboratory reproducibility, serum food-specific antibodies are commonly assayed in first-opinion canine practice. To determine both the variability of test results between two laboratories and the frequencies and magnitudes of food reactivity in dogs of different disease status. Sera were obtained from eight dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (Group A), 22 with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (Group B), 30 with an allergic/inflammatory phenotype (Group C), 12 with miscellaneous skin diseases (Group D) and nine healthy dogs (Group E). Paired sera were submitted to two laboratories (A and B) for assays of food-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Numbers of positive IgE and IgG tests determined by each laboratory in Groups A, B, D and E were comparable (Group C not included). Significant differences in the magnitude of IgE reactivity between groups for each allergen were seen only for lamb (Laboratory A, P = 0.003); lamb reactivity in Group D exceeded Group E (P = 0.004) but was comparable between all other groups. Agreement (kappa statistic) between the two laboratories' tests was 'moderate' for one antigen (potato IgE), 'fair' for four (corn IgE, rice IgE and IgG and soya bean IgG), 'slight' for eight (six IgE and two IgG) and 'less than chance' for the remaining six antigens (three IgE and three IgG). These laboratories' tests appear to have dubious predictive clinical utility because they neither correlate nor distinguish between dogs of different disease status. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  5. Specific IgE of common foods in Chinese children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L E; Chan, Iris H-S; Chow, Chung-Mo; Wang, Shuxin S; Lam, Christopher W-K; Ng, Pak-Cheung; Leung, Ting-fan

    2011-02-01

    Food atopy is important but inadequately studied among children with atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated whether any association existed between AD severity, quality of life, total IgE, eosinophil counts, and the number of food items sensitized. Specific IgE of ten common food items was measured for a group of consecutive AD patients (n=85) enrolled during a randomized trial and correlated the findings with eczema severity. Twenty-four patients (28%) were negative for any of the ten common food items. The most commonly sensitized foods were shrimp (54%), egg white (43%), wheat (42%), and peanut (41%). Atopy to beef as a protein and orange as a fruit were least common among the food items studied, even among patients positive for 8-9 IgE items. Patients with severe AD (objective SCORAD>40) were more likely to be positive for at least one of the food items (Yates corrected p=0.024 for ≥1 food-specific IgE in severe vs. moderate AD, OR 3.42 and 95% CI 1.15-10.32); and for at least seven of the food items (p=0.001 for ≥7 food-specific IgE vs. nil with OR 11.67 and 95% CI 2.29-67.77), respectively. The Spearman coefficients between the number of positive food-specific IgE and total SCORAD, objective SCORAD, area of AD involvement, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), total IgE levels, and eosinophil counts were 0.42 (p<0.001), 0.45 (p<0.001), 0.50 (p<0.001), 0.17 (p=0.116), 0.80 (p<0.001), and 0.22 (p=0.043), respectively. Specific IgE levels for beef correlated with all the other food-specific IgE levels, including cow's milk (ρ=0.061, p<0.001) and soy (ρ=0.70, p<0.001). The number of common food items sensitized correlated with disease severity, extent, and total IgE levels. IgE sensitization to beef protein is unlikely in the majority of children with AD, but its serum IgE level is associated with disease severity and risk of sensitization to other foods. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals.

  7. IgE sequences in individuals living in an area of endemic parasitism show little mutational evidence of antigen selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jackson, K J L; Chen, Z; Gaëta, B A; Siba, P M; Pomat, W; Walpole, E; Rimmer, J; Sewell, W A; Collins, A M

    2011-05-01

    Patterns of somatic mutation in IgE genes from allergic individuals have been a focus of study for many years, but IgE sequences have never been reported from parasitized individuals. To study the role of antigen selection in the evolution of the anti-parasite response, we therefore generated 118 IgE sequences from donors living in Papua New Guinea (PNG), an area of endemic parasitism. For comparison, we also generated IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 sequences from these donors, as well as IgG1 sequences from Australian donors. IgE sequences had, on average, 23.0 mutations. PNG IgG sequences had average mutation levels that varied from 17.7 (IgG3) to 27.1 (IgG4). Mean mutation levels correlated significantly with the position of their genes in the constant region gene locus (IgG3 < IgG1 < IgG2 < IgG4). Interestingly, given the heavy, life-long antigen burden experienced by PNG villagers, average mutation levels in IgG sequences were little different to that seen in Australian IgG1 sequences (19.2). Patterns of mutation provide clear evidence of antigen selection in many IgG sequences. The percentage of IgG sequences that showed significant accumulations of replacement mutations in the complementarity determining regions ranged from 22% of IgG3 sequences to 39% of IgG2 sequences. By contrast, only 12% of IgE sequences had such evidence of antigen selection, and this was significantly less than in PNG IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 subclass sequences (P < 0.01). The anti-parasite IgE response therefore has the reduced evidence of antigen selection that has previously been reported in studies of IgE sequences from allergic individuals.

  8. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  9. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  10. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.

  11. Glycoproteins are species-specific markers and major IgE reactants in grass pollens.

    PubMed

    Manduzio, Hélène; Fitchette, Anne-Catherine; Hrabina, Maud; Chabre, Henri; Batard, Thierry; Nony, Emmanuel; Faye, Loïc; Moingeon, Philippe; Gomord, Véronique

    2012-02-01

    Grass pollen allergic patients are concomitantly exposed and sensitized to pollens from multiple Pooideae (i.e. common grass) species. As such, they are currently desensitized by allergen-specific immunotherapy using extracts made from mixes of pollens from Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis. Herein, we demonstrate that species-specific glycoprotein patterns are documented by 1D and 2D electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis, which can be used as an identity test for such pollens. Most allergens are glycoproteins bearing complex N-glycans encompassing β1,2 xylose and α1,3 fucose glycoepitopes. Glycoepitope destruction using periodate oxidation has no impact on seric IgE reactivity in 75% atopic patients (n = 24). The latter have thus no significant IgE responses to carbohydrate-containing epitopes. In contrast, periodate treatment strongly impairs IgE recognition of glycoallergens in 25% of patients tested, demonstrating the presence of carbohydrate-specific IgE in those patients. While the clinical impact of carbohydrate-specific IgE is still a matter of controversy, the presence of these IgE in the serum of many allergic patients illustrates the need for cross-reacting carbohydrate epitope-free recombinant allergens to develop relevant diagnostic tests. These data also support the pertinence of mixing multiple grass pollens to desensitize atopic patients, with the aim to broaden the repertoire of glycoepitopes in the vaccine, thus mimicking natural exposure conditions.

  12. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A) locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42) located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7). UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8). In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P < 0.01) while for rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01), which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes. PMID:12927090

  13. The Wilson-Fowler spline in a global IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) coordinate frame

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report re-examines the original Wilson-Fowler spline. The Wilson-Fowler spline is a two-dimensional, cubic, piecewise-smooth, curve-fitting algorithm. Its defining equations are redeveloped. The intended application of the redevelopment is the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) environment. IGES is the current national geometry standard. Splines are by far the most ambiguous form of geometry that IGES deals with. The work contained in this report is an effort to understand the Wilson-Fowler spline, both how it works and how it can be applied to IGES. The two important features of our work are a global Wilson-Fowler spline definition and a scheme for computing normalized offsets.

  14. A study on the immunological basis of the dissociation between type I-hypersensitivity skin reactions to Blomia tropicalis antigens and serum anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ponte, João Cm; Junqueira, Samuel B; Veiga, Rafael V; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza M

    2011-06-01

    Two conditions are used as markers of atopy: the presence of circulating anti-allergen IgE antibodies and the presence of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to allergenic extracts. The correlation between these conditions is not absolute. This study aimed at investigating immunological parameters that may mediate this lack of correlation. Individuals whose sera contained anti-B. tropicalis extract IgE antibodies (α-BtE IgE) were divided into two groups, according to the presence or absence of skin reactivity to B. tropicalis extract (BtE). The following parameters were investigated: total IgE levels; α-BtE IgE levels; an arbitrary α-BtE IgE/total IgE ratio; the proportion of carbohydrate-reactive α-BtE IgE; the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with Ascaris lumbricoides extract (AlE); the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). Total IgE levels were similar in the two groups, but α-BtE IgE was significantly higher in the SPT-positive group (SPT+). A large overlap of α-BtE IgE levels was found in individuals of both groups, indicating that these levels alone cannot account for the differences in SPT outcome. Individuals of the two groups did not differ, statistically, in the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with carbohydrate and in the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated PBMC. Both groups had part of α-BtE IgE activity absorbed out by AlE, indicating the existence of cross-reactive IgE antibodies. However, the α-BtE IgE from the SPT-negative individuals (SPT-) was more absorbed with AlE than the α-BtE IgE from the SPT+ individuals. This finding may be ascribed to avidity differences of the α-BtE IgE that is present in the two groups of individuals, and could occur if at least part of the α-BtE IgE from the SPT- individuals were elicited by A. lumbricoides infection. The present results suggest that a low ratio of specific IgE to total IgE levels (in a minority of individuals), and differences

  15. A study on the immunological basis of the dissociation between type I-hypersensitivity skin reactions to Blomia tropicalis antigens and serum anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two conditions are used as markers of atopy: the presence of circulating anti-allergen IgE antibodies and the presence of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to allergenic extracts. The correlation between these conditions is not absolute. This study aimed at investigating immunological parameters that may mediate this lack of correlation. Individuals whose sera contained anti-B. tropicalis extract IgE antibodies (α-BtE IgE) were divided into two groups, according to the presence or absence of skin reactivity to B. tropicalis extract (BtE). The following parameters were investigated: total IgE levels; α-BtE IgE levels; an arbitrary α-BtE IgE/total IgE ratio; the proportion of carbohydrate-reactive α-BtE IgE; the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with Ascaris lumbricoides extract (AlE); the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). Results Total IgE levels were similar in the two groups, but α-BtE IgE was significantly higher in the SPT-positive group (SPT+). A large overlap of α-BtE IgE levels was found in individuals of both groups, indicating that these levels alone cannot account for the differences in SPT outcome. Individuals of the two groups did not differ, statistically, in the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with carbohydrate and in the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated PBMC. Both groups had part of α-BtE IgE activity absorbed out by AlE, indicating the existence of cross-reactive IgE antibodies. However, the α-BtE IgE from the SPT-negative individuals (SPT-) was more absorbed with AlE than the α-BtE IgE from the SPT+ individuals. This finding may be ascribed to avidity differences of the α-BtE IgE that is present in the two groups of individuals, and could occur if at least part of the α-BtE IgE from the SPT- individuals were elicited by A. lumbricoides infection. Conclusion The present results suggest that a low ratio of specific IgE to total IgE levels (in a minority of

  16. [Recognition of excretory/secretory antigens of Anisakis type I and evolution of IgE in experimentally infected rats].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Valero-López, Adela; de la Rubia-Nieto, Teresa; Romero-López, María Del Carmen; Díaz-Sáez, Victoriano

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis spp., during parasitism, release excretory-secretory antigens that, in contact with the human immune system, can trigger a hypersensitivity response mediated by IgE, causing various allergic symptoms. To evaluate the IgE response in Wistar rats after infection with L3 larvae of the parasite Anisakis spp. Some determining factors involved in the technique have been improved in this work, such as: the concentration of polyacrylamide used in the preparation of the gels, the antigen concentration used, and the temperature required for denaturation of proteins. Immune responses (Ag-Ab) observed by the immunoblotting technique showed a greater intensity with serum obtained after reinfection, which have recognized proteins that may correspond to the major antigen Ani s 1 and other polypeptides of interest in the diagnosis of human anisakiasis. This paper concludes that immunoblotting is a useful technique to detect IgE antibodies against Anisakis proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. The component-specific to total IgE ratios do not improve peanut and hazelnut allergy diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Grabenhenrich, Linus; Lange, Lars; Härtl, Magdalena; Kalb, Birgit; Ziegert, Mandy; Finger, Antje; Harandi, Neda; Schlags, Ruppert; Gappa, Monika; Puzzo, Letizia; Stephan, Volker; Heigele, Thomas; Büsing, Susanne; Ott, Hagen; Niggemann, Bodo; Beyer, Kirsten

    2016-06-01

    Specific IgE measurement predicts the outcome of oral food challenges with considerable uncertainty when evaluating food allergy. Our aim was to assess whether accounting for the ratio of component- or allergen-specific to total IgE can improve this prediction. This multicenter study collected blood samples from children with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy referred to allergy specialist clinics for food challenges. Specific IgE to peanuts, hazelnuts, and their components (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, and Cor a 14) and total IgE levels were determined by using the ImmunoCAP-FEIA. Specific to total IgE ratios were compared with raw IgE levels in terms of discrimination and prediction. Eighty-eight (43%) of 207 children with suspected peanut allergy and 44 (31%) of 142 children with suspected hazelnut allergy had symptoms during food challenge. Discrimination was similar for raw and ratio measures: areas under the curve of 0.93 for Ara h 2-specific IgE versus 0.92 for the Ara h 2-specific/total IgE ratio and 0.89 for Cor a 14-specific IgE versus 0.87 for the Cor a 14-specific/total IgE ratio. The probability for a positive peanut challenge with 0.35 kU/L Ara h 2-specific IgE was 16% when the total IgE level was greater than 500 kU/L compared with 51%/48% for low/medium total IgE levels (<100/100-500 kU/L). A positive hazelnut challenge with 0.35 kU/L Cor a 14-specific IgE was estimated in 7% when total IgE levels were high compared with 34%/32% with low/medium total IgE levels. Raw Ara h 2- and Cor a 14-specific IgE levels were the best single predictors for pediatric peanut and hazelnut allergies, suggesting the omission of challenges at very high levels. Calculating ratio measures did not improve prediction in this population. However, estimation of individual probabilities for challenge outcomes could be supported by total IgE levels because high levels might indicate lower probabilities at a given component-specific IgE

  18. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

  19. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  20. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of allergen-specific IgE by immunoblotting method in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi, M R; Hassanzadeh, D; Seyfizadeh, N; Borzoueisileh, S

    2017-09-01

    Background and Objectives. Stimulating the immune system by exposure to various allergens to produce specific IgE has a significant role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Identifying disease-causing allergens, prevention of exposure to those allergens, and immunotherapy will play an important role in the treatment of Atopic Disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the common allergens of northwest of Iran in patients with atopic dermatitis that are resistant to treatment. Materials and methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, serum levels of total IgE and frequency of specific IgE were measured by Immunoblotting against 20 common allergens in 150 cases of patients with atopic dermatitis, attending to dermatology and asthma and allergy clinics from 2010 to 2011. The control group consisted of individuals who had been clinically healthy. Results. In the 90% of patients that were included in this study, total IgE levels were higher than in healthy people with mean serum levels of total IgE 227.51 ± 103 IU/ml. 136 patients (90.6%) had specific IgE for at least one allergen. The frequency of positive allergens among the patients who were included in this study were 53.34%, 26.8%, and 19.56% respectively in plants and fungus allergens group, animal allergens group and food allergens group. After avoiding of the allergens (which they had been sensitized to), 60% of patients were cured with immune therapy, and total IgE serum levels in the control group were not increased. Conclusion. Identifying the abundant allergens such as cultivated rye, Timothy grass, house dust mite, birch, cat, horse, potato, dog, egg white, cow milk, in order to advise patients to avoid them or to do immunotherapy and desensitization, is useful in this area.

  2. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2).

  3. Renaturation of blotted allergens increases the sensitivity of specific IgE detection.

    PubMed

    Muro, M D; Fernández, C; Moneo, I

    1996-01-01

    Several authors have demonstrated that renaturation is an essential step for the appropriate recognition of blotted proteins. The use of nonionic detergents has been described as a useful alternative to enhance the antigenicity in immunoblotting, although elution from proteins by detergents has been observed. To measure the influence of different factors on the sensitivity of specific IgE by immunoblotting, we used twenty human sera from atopic patients who were allergic or nonallergic to a common, reliable allergen (grass pollen mixture). The use of Nonidet-P40 was found to be a useful alternative for the renaturation of the allergens. No elution from the membrane was found when employing this detergent, even at high concentrations (3%), and its use gave better sensitivity than methanol. On the other hand, we detected that methanol possessed renaturing properties. A transfer method using diffusion instead of electric transfer gave the best results and two membranes could be obtained from each gel. Using this method, we found that after NP-40 incubation of the membrane, the use of bovine albumin could be omitted as blocking agent and that its use had even deleterious effects.

  4. Cross-reactivity among edible nuts: double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and human specific igE serologic surveys.

    PubMed

    Goetz, David W; Whisman, Bonnie A; Goetz, Andrew D

    2005-07-01

    As many as one third of all food allergen anaphylactic events are related to tree nut ingestion. Although concurrent allergen sensitivity to tree nuts is common, cross-reactivity among nut antigens is less well defined. To survey serologic cross-reactivities among 7 tree nuts (walnut, pecan, hazelnut, cashew, Brazil nut, pistachio, and almond) and peanut. Human specific IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition was used to identify nut allergen cross-reactivities. Single-nut rabbit antisera were used in double immunodiffusion, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel studies of nut antigen cross-reactivity. Nut specific IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition demonstrated no cross-reactivities between peanut and tree nuts. Among tree nuts, 2 groups with allergen cross-reactivity were defined: (1) walnut, pecan, and hazelnut and (2) hazelnut, cashew, Brazil nut, pistachio, and almond. Double immunodiffusion, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel results supported the same groupings of cross-reactive tree nuts and identified several less prominent nut-nut antigen cross-reactivities between groups and with peanut. With few exceptions (notably limited peanut cross-reactivity with pistachio and walnut), peanut antigens did not serologically cross-react with tree nuts. Walnut, pecan, and hazelnut form a group of strongly cross-reactive tree nuts. Hazelnut, cashew, Brazil nut, pistachio, and almond form a group of moderately cross-reactive tree nuts. Cross-reactivities between these groups are less pronounced (notably limited cross-reactivity of walnut and pecan with Brazil nut). The strongest cross-reactivities among tree nuts follow botanical family associations: (1) walnut and pecan in the family Juglandaceae and (2) cashew and pistachio in the family Anacardiaceae.

  5. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E.; Velte, Cathy A.; Spooner, Christina E.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Farris, A. Darise; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  6. Atopy, IgE and eosinophilic cationic protein concentration, specific IgE positivity, eosinophil count in cutaneous T Cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kural, Yasemin Balsever; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Uras, Ahmet Riza

    2010-04-01

    Even though several case studies have reported a relationship between Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) and atopic diathesis, this association is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual presence of atopic status in CTCL patients. A total of 78 patients with both clinical and histological features typical of CTCL and 77 control cases from our outpatient dermatology clinic were included in this study. After initial evaluation and staging, all patients were investigated for history of atopic disease, serum total IgE and eosinophil cationic protein concentration (ECP), eosinophil count, serum specific IgE, and skin prick test positivity. Personal atopy in CTCL group was 23,1% (n = 18) and familial atopy was 9.0% (n = 7) whereas in the control group, these values were 11.7% (n = 9) and 7.8% (n = 6), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference, however, the number of atopic patients were higher in CTCL group than the control group (p = 0.151). Serum total IgE levels were significantly increased in patients with CTCL when compared to control group (p = 0.04). Serum specific IgE panel and prick test positivity between patients and controls were significantly different, respectively (p = 0. 03) (p = 0. 00). Eosinophil counts and ECP levels were not significantly different, respectively (p = 0.10) (p = 0.885). In high stages of CTCL, patients were found to have elevated IgE, ECP levels and eosinophil count. These results were statistically significant (p = 0.011) (p = 0.009) (p = 0.007). Eventhough the number of patients with atopy in the CTCL group was higher than the control cases, there was no significant different. On the other hand high levels of serum IgE, elevated eosinophil count and specific IgE positivity may be found in CTCL patients with or without atopic disease, especially with high stages.

  7. IGES/RIM Parser/Converter users guide. [Initial Graphics Exchange Specification/Relational Information Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Isler, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integrating the communications among computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) activities throughout DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). A primary objective is to provide a capability for the exchange of digital data between dissimilar CAD systems within the NWC. A subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) will be the data exchange format. The IGES/RIM Parser/Converter is the first in a series of programs being developed within the NWC to carry out this automated exchange. The Parser/Converter program converts an IGES file into a file of input commands to a Relational Information Manager (RIM) database.

  8. Specific IgE for wheat in tear fluid of patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Noma, Hidetaka; Kamei, Yuko; Goto, Mari; Kondo, Aki; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-03-01

    Allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap has become a major social issue in Japan. It has been reported that the most frequent early symptoms of allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap are allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis, while wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis can be induced by long-term use. We evaluated the relation between tear fluid levels of specific IgE for wheat and the features of allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective, non-randomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in 103 patients with moderate to severe allergic conjunctivitis (allergic group) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (control group). Specific IgE for wheat was measured in tear fluid with an immunochromatography assay, and a skin prick test (SPT) was also performed. Symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching, and lacrimation) were assessed in each subject along with the activities of daily living (ADL) score and the total ocular symptom score for allergic conjunctivitis. A severity score (0, 1, 2, or 3) was assigned for various changes of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, as well as for limbal and corneal lesions associated with allergic conjunctivitis. The IgE positive rate and specific IgE score were both higher in the allergic group than in the control group (71.8% versus 40.0% and 1.9 ± 0.7 versus 1.4 ± 0.5). A positive SPT for wheat was also more frequent in the allergic group than in the control group (6.8% versus 0.0%). Within the allergic group, patients with a positive SPT had higher specific IgE scores than patients with a negative SPT (3.3 ± 0.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). In the allergic group, the wheat IgE level in tear fluid was correlated with the severity of allergic conjunctivitis symptoms, including ocular itching (r = 0.665), tearing (r = 0.672), and the total ocular symptom score (r = 0.204). Wheat IgE in tear fluid was also correlated with the severity of rhinitis symptoms, including

  9. Induction of IgE-isotype specific tolerance by passive antigenic stimulation of the respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, J D; Holt, P G

    1983-01-01

    Repeated exposure of high IgE-responder BN rats to an aerosol of ovalbumin (OVA) induced tolerance which was specific both for the antigen and the IgE antibody class. Radiotracer studies with 125I-OVA indicated that inhaled antigen doses in the low microgram range were tolerogenic, the bulk of the inhaled antigen being distributed 2:1 between the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts. Subsequent gastric intubation studies showed that the gastric component did not contribute to tolerance induction, suggesting that antigenic stimulation of the respiratory mucosa was central to this process. PMID:6654389

  10. Gene encoding Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is associated with asthma and IgE in three populations.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Candelaria; Tsai, Yuhjung J; Grant, Audrey V; Rafaels, Nicholas; Gao, Li; Hand, Tracey; Stockton, Maria; Campbell, Monica; Mercado, Dilia; Faruque, Mezbah; Dunston, Georgia; Beaty, Terri H; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Ponte, Eduardo V; Cruz, Alvaro A; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Watson, Harold; Schleimer, Robert P; Caraballo, Luis; Nickel, Renate G; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2008-11-15

    Asthma prevalence and severity are high among underserved minorities, including those of African descent. The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax on erythrocytes and functions as a chemokine-clearing receptor. Unlike European populations, decreased expression of the receptor on erythrocytes is common among populations of African descent, and results from a functional T-46C polymorphism (rs2814778) in the promoter. This variant provides an evolutionary advantage in malaria-endemic regions, because Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines-negative erythrocytes are more resistant to infection by P. vivax. To determine the role of the rs2814778 polymorphism in asthma and atopy as measured by total serum IgE levels among four populations of African descent (African Caribbean, African American, Brazilian, and Colombian) and a European American population. Family-based association tests were performed in each of the five populations to test for association between the rs2814778 polymorphism and asthma or total IgE concentration. Asthma was significantly associated with the rs2814778 polymorphism in the African Caribbean, Colombian, and Brazilian families (P < 0.05). High total IgE levels were associated with this variant in African Caribbean and Colombian families (P < 0.05). The variant allele was not polymorphic among European Americans. Susceptibility to asthma and atopy among certain populations of African descent is influenced by a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines. This genetic variant, which confers resistance to malarial parasitic infection, may also partially explain ethnic differences in morbidity of asthma.

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy: comparative study between specific IgE, western blot and allergen leukocyte stimulation (CAST).

    PubMed

    Santos, M C Pereira; Carlos, M L Palma; Pedro, E; Carlos, A G Palma

    2002-01-01

    Allergy to hymenoptera venom is a classical IgE mediated disease with a potentially fatal course. Specific venom immunotherapy (SIT) is the most effective mean of treating this serious condition, after the diagnosis has been clearly established by a clinical history, in-vivo and in vitro tests. We have evaluated the usefulness of a cellular test (CAST) which is a recently developed ELISA method based on the evaluation of sulfidoleukotriene secretion by leukocytes stimulated with specific antigen. We also evaluated the correlation of CAST with skin tests, specific IgE (sIgE) and western blot for sIgE for hymenoptera venom sIgE. We have included in this study 14 patients, with a clinical history suggestive of hymenoptera venom allergy. None of them had previously been subjected to immunotherapy. A good correlation was obtained between skin tests, sIgE and western blot. However, there was no correlation between these methods and CAST. We conclude that the positivity of CAST method raises some questions about other mechanisms, which maybe non-IgE dependent. Although the number of patients in this study is quite small, the immunoblot analysis may be a valuable additional method in insect venom allergy.

  12. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  13. Detection of ovomucoid-specific low-affinity IgE in infants and its relationship to eczema.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Norio; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    Allergen-specific low-affinity IgE was previously detected in cord blood by a highly sensitive densely carboxylated protein (DCP) chip, but not by ImmunoCAP. Here, we investigated the presence of low-affinity IgE during the early life of infants and observed its relationship with eczema. We conducted a birth cohort study, collecting sera at birth and 6 and 14 months of age (n = 110). We monitored the ovomucoid (OM)- and egg white (EW)-specific IgE (sIgE) by ImmunoCAP or DCP chip and analyzed the antigen affinity of sIgE by binding inhibition assays in the presence or absence of a mild chaotropic agent, diethyl amine (DEA). The low- and high-affinity OM-sIgEs and sensitization risk factors were analyzed by a multivariate logistic analysis. The OM-sIgE measured by DCP chip significantly correlated with that measured by ImmunoCAP, but some samples assessed as OM-sIgE positive by DCP chip were considered OM-sIgE negative by ImmunoCAP. Binding inhibition analysis after DEA treatment was performed for participants judged as OM-sIgE positive by DCP chip at 14 M. The group assessed as negative for OM- and EW-sIgE by ImmunoCAP at 6 and 14 months showed a larger binding inhibition curve shift after DEA treatment than did the group assessed as positive at these times, indicating the presence of low-affinity sIgE antibodies at 14 months. The logistic regression analysis found that persistent eczema from 6 to 14 months is a significant risk factor for developing high-affinity, but not low-affinity, sIgE. Human infant peripheral blood contains allergen-specific low-affinity sIgE. Persistent eczema is related to the development of high-affinity, but not low-affinity, IgE. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunoproteomics Identification of Major IgE and IgG4 Reactive Schistosoma japonicum Adult Worm Antigens Using Chronically Infected Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Daniel; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Okamoto, Kenta; Chen, Honggen; Ayi, Irene; Boakye, Daniel Adjei; Bosompem, Kwabena Mante; Hirayama, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Immunoepidemiological studies from endemic areas have revealed age-dependent resistance correlation with increased level of IgE and decreased level of IgG4 antibodies in responses to schistosomes’ soluble worm antigen. However, there have been limited studies on analyses of major antigens that provoke IgE and IgG4 immune response during chronic stage of schistosomiasis. In this study, for the first time, immunoproteomics approach has been applied to identify S. japonicum worm antigens in liquid fractions that are recognized by IgE and IgG4 antibody using plasma from chronically infected population. ProteomeLabPF 2D fractionated 1-D and 2-D fractions of SWA antigens were screened using pooled high IgE/IgG4 reactive plasma samples by dot-blot technique. In 1-D fractions, IgE isotype was detected by fewer antigenic fractions (43.2%). The most recognized isotype was IgG3 (79.5%) followed by IgG1 (75.0%) and IgG4 (61.4%). Liquid chromatography MS/MS protein sequencing of reactive 2-D fractions revealed 18 proteins that were identified, characterized and gene ontology categories determined. 2-D fractions containing proteins such as zinc finger, RanBP2-type, domain-containing protein were strongly recognized by IgE and moderately by IgG4 whereas fractions containing proteins such as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and cytosolic II 5'-nucleotidase strongly recognizing by IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4) but not IgE. By this study, a simple and reproducible proteomic method has been established to identify major immunoreactive S. japonicum antigens. It is anticipated that this will stimulate further research on the immunogenicity and protective potential of proteins identified as well as discovery of novel compounds that have therapeutic importance. PMID:23264728

  15. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E.; Montañez, María I.; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier. PMID:27731424

  16. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E; Montañez, María I; Torres, María J

    2016-10-12

    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier.

  17. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  18. Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Schurink, Anouk; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.

  19. Utility of specific IgE to Ara h 6 in peanut allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Caballero, Teresa; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Specific IgE to Ara h 2 has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of peanut allergy, whereas the peanut lipid transfer protein, Ara h 9, has been suggested to be responsible for peanut allergy in the Mediterranean population. To better characterize peanut allergy in children from a Mediterranean area and determine the value of specific IgE to Ara h 6 (conglutinin, 2S albumin) for the diagnosis of peanut allergy. Ninety-one children with suspected allergy to edible vegetables were included in the study. They were classified as allergic or tolerant to peanut. Specific IgE to peanut allergens was measured by a commercially available microarray (ImmunoCAP ISAC 112, ThermoFisher, Uppsala, Sweden). Patients allergic to peanut showed positive specific IgE changes to peanut seed storage proteins (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) more frequently than tolerant subjects. Ara h 9 showed a similar frequency of reactivity in the 2 groups. Ara h 6 was the allergen most frequently recognized by patients with allergy. Four patients with allergy were found to be mono-sensitized to Ara h 6. Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 showed similar diagnostic accuracy (areas under the curve 0.792 and 0.852). A combined cutoff point for Ara h 2 (≥0.1 ISU) and Ara h 6 (≥2 ISU) yielded the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity 0.77, specificity 0.97, positive predictive value 0.89, negative predictive value 0.93). Peanut allergy cannot be ruled out without obtaining a negative determination of Ara h 6. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  1. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo

    2010-03-01

    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NE1: a new neutrophil specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Claas, F H; Langerak, J; Sabbe, L J; van Rood, J J

    1979-02-01

    The sera of three children with chronic benign neutropenia, due to anti-neutrophil antibodies, were studied with respect to their antibody specificity. This was done by screening the sera against a panel of leukocyte donors in the EDTA micro-agglutination test and in the indirect fluorescence test. Two of the sera contained antibodies against the known neutrophil-specific antigen NA2. The third serum was directed against a new neutrophil-specific antigen. Genetic analysis showed no correlation between this antigen and the already known neutrophil-specific antigens: 9A, NA1, NA2, NB1, and NC1. In the Dutch population the frequency of the new antigen, tentatively called NE1, is 23%, which gives a gene frequency of 0.12.

  4. [A study of occupational asthma and specific IgE in sericulture workers].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, H

    1994-10-01

    Clinical investigation revealed that 75.6% (68/90) of sericulture workers examined had allergic respiratory symptoms. Of the 90 workers, 14 (15.6%) suffered from occupational asthma. Work-related allergens including silkworm cocoon (SC), silkworm urine (SU), moth excrete (ME) and moth scales (MS) were collected and prepared. Serum specific IgE levels were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the level of sIgE in asthmatic workers was significantly higher than that in the "common symptom" group, asymptomatic group and control group. No significant difference in total IgE was found between the workers and controls. The anti-SU-sIgE positive rate was significantly higher than those of sIgE to the other three allergens. These results indicate that the high levels of sIgE are responsible for occupational asthma in sericulture workers and that SU is an important allergen in these patients.

  5. FAS Inactivation Releases Unconventional Germinal Center B Cells that Escape Antigen Control and Drive IgE and Autoantibody Production.

    PubMed

    Butt, Danyal; Chan, Tyani D; Bourne, Katherine; Hermes, Jana R; Nguyen, Akira; Statham, Aaron; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Strasser, Andreas; Price, Susan; Schofield, Peter; Christ, Daniel; Basten, Antony; Ma, Cindy S; Tangye, Stuart G; Phan, Tri Giang; Rao, V Koneti; Brink, Robert

    2015-05-19

    The mechanistic links between genetic variation and autoantibody production in autoimmune disease remain obscure. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by inactivating mutations in FAS or FASL, with autoantibodies thought to arise through failure of FAS-mediated removal of self-reactive germinal center (GC) B cells. Here we show that FAS is in fact not required for this process. Instead, FAS inactivation led to accumulation of a population of unconventional GC B cells that underwent somatic hypermutation, survived despite losing antigen reactivity, and differentiated into a large population of plasma cells that included autoantibody-secreting clones. IgE(+) plasma cell numbers, in particular, increased after FAS inactivation and a major cohort of ALPS-affected patients were found to have hyper-IgE. We propose that these previously unidentified cells, designated "rogue GC B cells," are a major driver of autoantibody production and provide a mechanistic explanation for the linked production of IgE and autoantibodies in autoimmune disease.

  6. Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Raz, E; Tighe, H; Sato, Y; Corr, M; Dudler, J A; Roman, M; Swain, S L; Spiegelberg, H L; Carson, D A

    1996-01-01

    We compared the antigen-specific antibody isotypes and lymphokine secretion by CD4+ T cells in BALB/c mice immunized intradermally with either Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding beta-gal in a cytomegalovirus-based expression vector (pCMV-LacZ). pCMV-LacZ induced mainly IgG2a, whereas beta-gal in saline or alum induced IgG1 and IgE beta-gal-specific antibodies. In addition, splenic CD4+ T helper (Th) cells isolated from pDNA-immunized mice secreted interferon-gamma but not interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, whereas Th cells from beta-gal-injected mice secreted IL-4 and IL-5 but not interferon-gamma after in vitro stimulation with antigen. Together these data demonstrate that pDNA immunization induced a T helper type 1 (Th1) response, whereas protein immunization induced a T helper type 2 (Th2) response to the same antigen. Interestingly, priming of mice with pCMV-LacZ prevented IgE antibody formation to a subsequent i.p. beta-gal in alum injection. This effect was antigen-specific, because priming with pCMV-LacZ did not inhibit IgE anti-ovalbumin antibody formation. Most importantly, intradermal immunization with pCMV-LacZ (but not pCMV-OVA) of beta-gal in alum-primed mice caused a 66-75% reduction of the IgE anti-beta-gal titer in 6 weeks. Also, pCMV-LacZ induced specific IgG2a antibody titers and interferon-gamma secretion by Th cells in the beta-gal in alum-primed mice. The data demonstrate that gene immunization induces a Th1 response that dominates over an ongoing protein-induced Th2 response in an antigen-specific manner. This suggests that immunization with pDNA encoding for allergens may provide a novel type of immunotherapy for allergic diseases. PMID:8643542

  7. Specific IgE recognition of pollen allergens from subtropic grasses in patients from the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Nony, Emmanuel; Timbrell, Victoria; Hrabina, Maud; Boutron, Mélanie; Solley, Graham; Moingeon, Philippe; Davies, Janet M

    2015-03-01

    Pollens of subtropical grasses, Bahia (Paspalum notatum), Johnson (Sorghum halepense), and Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon), are common causes of respiratory allergies in subtropical regions worldwide. To evaluate IgE cross-reactivity of grass pollen (GP) found in subtropical and temperate areas. Case and control serum samples from 83 individuals from the subtropical region of Queensland were tested for IgE reactivity with GP extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A randomly sampled subset of 21 serum samples from patients with subtropical GP allergy were examined by ImmunoCAP and cross-inhibition assays. Fifty-four patients with allergic rhinitis and GP allergy had higher IgE reactivity with P notatum and C dactylon than with a mixture of 5 temperate GPs. For 90% of 21 GP allergic serum samples, P notatum, S halepense, or C dactylon specific IgE concentrations were higher than temperate GP specific IgE, and GP specific IgE had higher correlations of subtropical GP (r = 0.771-0.950) than temperate GP (r = 0.317-0.677). In most patients (71%-100%), IgE with P notatum, S halepense, or C dactylon GPs was inhibited better by subtropical GP than temperate GP. When the temperate GP mixture achieved 50% inhibition of IgE with subtropical GP, there was a 39- to 67-fold difference in concentrations giving 50% inhibition and significant differences in maximum inhibition for S halepense and P notatum GP relative to temperate GP. Patients living in a subtropical region had species specific IgE recognition of subtropical GP. Most GP allergic patients in Queensland would benefit from allergen specific immunotherapy with a standardized content of subtropical GP allergens. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of immunoglobulin E-specific antibodies and viral antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions of children with respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Russi, J C; Delfraro, A; Borthagaray, M D; Velazquez, B; García-Barreno, B; Hortal, M

    1993-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays were developed to detect the presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus structural proteins in nasopharyngeal secretions in order to improve the knowledge on some aspects of the pathogenesis of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections caused by RS virus. These assays were used to analyze clinical specimens from children with RS virus-associated infections (bronchiolitis and pneumonia), and the findings were correlated with the patients' clinical symptoms. The results indicate the presence of specific IgE against the two external glycoproteins (G and F) and the absence of detectable IgE levels for the internal viral antigens. There was a correlation between the levels of IgE-specific antibodies and the amount of viral protein F in the secretions, indicating that the IgE response against the viral glycoproteins might be related to the antigen load. In addition, a correlation was found between higher levels of both viral protein F-specific IgE and F antigen with higher respiratory rates in children with pneumonia. These findings may be relevant because they suggest an association between the virus load and the immune response in the pathogenesis of RS virus infections. PMID:8463392

  9. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L

    1990-03-01

    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  10. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose-specific IgE is associated with anaphylaxis but not asthma.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kelly, Libby A; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R; Pochan, Shawna L; Peters, Edward J; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W; Cooper, Philip J; Hoskins, Janelle M; Eapen, Saju S; Matos, Luis A; McBride, Dane C; Heymann, Peter W; Woodfolk, Judith A; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2012-04-01

    IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.

  11. Sensitivity of the skin prick test and specificity of the serum-specific IgE test for airway responsiveness to house dust mites in asthma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Koh, Jeom-seok; Lee, Min-Gu

    2005-04-01

    The concept that asthma diagnosis based on allergen-specific IgE levels in serum is more accurate than diagnosis based on skin test reactivity is controversial. To determine the atopy parameter that correlates most closely with airway reactivity to house dust mites in asthma. Forty-three asthma cases were examined retrospectively for data on Dermatophagoides farinae-specific bronchoprovocation, serum-specific IgE, and skin prick tests. The maximal decreases in FEV1 following bronchoprovocation were correlated significantly with both the IgE levels and skin test scores. The accuracies of the tests were highest at a cutoff value of class 4 or higher for the IgE and of 3+ or higher for the skin test. At the cutoff values, the accuracies of both tests were similar (70% vs. 70%). The sensitivity of the skin test (81%) was higher than that of the IgE test (67%), whereas the specificity of the IgE test (71%) was higher than that of the skin test (52%). The sensitivity of the skin test was 91% at 2+ or higher, and the specificity of the IgE test was 95% at class 6 or higher. These results suggest that both the specific IgE level and the skin test reactivity are useful parameters in the prediction of positive airway responses to house dust mites in asthma. However, the skin test is more sensitive, whereas the IgE test is more specific. Therefore, these tests can be used in a complementary fashion (i.e., the skin test for screening and the specific IgE test for confirmation of the relevant allergen).

  12. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Quantification of specific IgE antibodies in immediate drug hypersensitivity: More shortcomings than potentials?

    PubMed

    Decuyper, I I; Ebo, D G; Uyttebroek, A P; Hagendorens, M M; Faber, M A; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S; Sabato, V

    2016-09-01

    For many physicians, quantification of serum drug-specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies constitutes the first measure in the diagnostic approach of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHR). To review the accuracy and limitations of the main drug-sIgE tests, especially those that are commercially available. A literature search was conducted, using the key-words allergy, diagnosis, drugs, hypersensitivity, specific IgE antibodies; this was complemented by the authors' own experience. The drugs that have mostly been studied appeared to be β-lactam antibiotics, neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) and morphine, the latter as a biomarker for sensitisation to substituted ammonium structures that constitute the major epitope of NMBA. For β-lactams sensitivity and specificity varied between 0-85% and 52-100%, respectively. For NMBA, sensitivity and specificity varied between 38.5-92% and 92-100%, respectively. With respect to sIgE to morphine it appears this drug to be a sensitive biomarker for sensitisation to rocuronium and suxamethonium but not for atracurium. However, sIgE morphine should not be applied in isolation to diagnose IDHR to NMBA nor opiates. Although drug-sIgE assay can provide valuable information they should not be performed in isolation to establish correct diagnosis, as their predictive value is not per se absolute. Larger comprehensive studies are urgently required to determine the accuracy of drug-sIgE assays. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Microscale purification of antigen-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric P.; Normandin, Erica; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Mahan, Alison E.; Chan, Ying N.; Lai, Jennifer I.; Vaccari, Monica; Rao, Mangala; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain. PMID:26078040

  15. Microscale purification of antigen-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric P; Normandin, Erica; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Mahan, Alison E; Chan, Ying N; Lai, Jennifer I; Vaccari, Monica; Rao, Mangala; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2015-10-01

    Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive values of component-specific IgE for the outcome of peanut and hazelnut food challenges in children.

    PubMed

    Beyer, K; Grabenhenrich, L; Härtl, M; Beder, A; Kalb, B; Ziegert, M; Finger, A; Harandi, N; Schlags, R; Gappa, M; Puzzo, L; Röblitz, H; Millner-Uhlemann, M; Büsing, S; Ott, H; Lange, L; Niggemann, B

    2015-01-01

    Oral challenges are the gold standard in food allergy diagnostic, but time-consuming. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of peanut- and hazelnut-component-specific IgE in the diagnostics of peanut and hazelnut allergy and to identify cutoff levels to make some challenges superfluous. In a prospective and multicenter study, children with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy underwent oral challenges. Specific IgE to peanut, hazelnut, and their components (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 8, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, and Cor a 14) were determined by ImmunoCAP-FEIA. A total of 210 children were challenged orally with peanut and 143 with hazelnut. 43% of the patients had a positive peanut and 31% a positive hazelnut challenge. With an area under the curve of 0.92 and 0.89, respectively, Ara h 2 and Cor a 14-specific IgE discriminated between allergic and tolerant children better than peanut- or hazelnut-specific IgE. For the first time, probability curves for peanut and hazelnut components have been calculated. A 90% probability for a positive peanut or hazelnut challenge was estimated for Ara h 2-specific IgE at 14.4 kU/l and for Cor a 14-specific IgE at 47.8 kU/l. A 95% probability could only be estimated for Ara h 2 at 42.2 kU/l. Ara h 2- and Cor a 14-specific IgE are useful to estimate the probability for a positive challenge outcome in the diagnostic work-up of peanut or hazelnut allergy making some food challenges superfluous. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  18. Anti-Malassezia-Specific IgE Antibodies Production in Japanese Patients with Head and Neck Atopic Dermatitis: Relationship between the Level of Specific IgE Antibody and the Colonization Frequency of Cutaneous Malassezia Species and Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kato, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis of the head and neck (HNAD) is recognized as a separate condition. Malassezia, the predominant skin microbiota fungus, is considered to exacerbate atopic dermatitis (AD), especially HNAD. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between the levels of specific IgE antibodies, colonization frequency of eight predominant Malassezia species, and clinical severity in 61 patients with HNAD (26 mild, 24 moderate, and 11 severe cases). As clinical severity increased, the levels of specific IgE antibodies against eight Malassezia species also increased. Species diversity of the Malassezia microbiota in scale samples from patients was analyzed by nested PCR using species-specific primers. The clinical severity of HNAD was correlated with the total level of specific IgE antibodies against Malassezia species and the number of Malassezia species detected. PMID:22253636

  19. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    PubMed

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  20. Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, Holger; Tang, Line; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) were collected from 2,090 adult participants in a cross-sectional survey. 13% of the population reported symptoms of sting reactions and about half were systemic in nature. In all, 15% were sensitized to venom but only 31% of these had reacted to stings and only 38% of those with reactions had IgE to venom. In addition, 12% with IgE to venom were double-sensitized (DS), i.e. to both bee and wasp venom. Among DS IgE to major venom allergens, rApi m 1, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 were negative and of no help in 31%, but 59% could be identified as likely sensitized to bee or wasp. IgE to CCDs occurred in only 0.7%, but 80% of these were DS. Finally, 36% with IgE to CCDs had had symptoms, mostly local. Serum tryptase was not associated with a history of sting reactions. In a temperate climate, self-reported insect sting reactions and sensitization to venom are frequent, but in most cases, these are not seen in the same individual. In DS individuals, measurements of IgE to major allergens can be helpful in some but not all cases and additional analyses are needed. IgE to CCDs may have some clinical relevance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Change in venom-specific IgE levels during 2-year follow-up in five cases with a history of Hymenoptera sting].

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Yoshida, M; Nakazono, N

    1997-11-01

    Levels of specific IgE antibodies to three kinds of venom (honeybee, wasp and yellow jacket) were followed up for two years in five male pest control operators (age: 24 to 50 years) with Hymenoptera sting within the latest six months. At the first examination, all subjects had a positive reaction for venom-specific IgE but their levels were varied in the range from class 2 to 5 (0.70 approximately 99.9 UA/ml), and a positive reaction was observed in the case of unoffending Hymenoptera. A subject who was re-stung during the two-year follow-up period showed increase in all of the venom-specific IgE levels. Of four subjects without re-stung during the two years, three subjects had a logarithmic decrease in all the specific IgE levels time-dependently, but one subject with a high total serum IgE level showed an increase and decrease alternately in the specific IgE The total serum IgE level may be a factor which influences the change in the venom-specific IgE level. In the four subjects without a high total serum IgE level, the biological half-life of venom-specific IgE was estimated to be 6 to 12 months based on the decreased level during the follow-up period.

  2. Neural antigen-specific autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Raffaele; Lennon, Vanda A

    2012-07-01

    Neural-specific autoantibodies have been documented and their diagnostic utility validated in diseases affecting the neuraxis from cerebral cortex to the somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous system and skeletal muscle. These neurological disorders occur both idiopathically and in a paraneoplastic context. Molecular identification of the antigens has expedited development of confirmatory and high-throughput tests for serum and cerebrospinal fluid, which permit early diagnosis and reveal the underlying molecular pathogenic mechanisms. The autoantibodies are classifiable on the basis of antigen location: intracellular (nuclear or cytoplasmic) or plasma membrane. Immunohistopathological studies of patients' biopsied and autopsied tissues suggest that effector T cells mediate the autoimmune neurological disorders for which defining autoantibodies recognize intracellular antigens. Antigens within intact cells are inaccessible to circulating antibody, and the associated neurological deficits rarely improve with antibody-depleting therapies. Tumoricidal therapies may arrest neurological progression, but symptom reversal is rare. In contrast, autoantibodies specific for plasma membrane antigens have pathogenic potential, and the associated neurological deficits are often amenable to antibody-depleting immunotherapy, such as plasma exchange and anti-B-cell monoclonal antibody therapy. These reversible neurological disorders are frequently misdiagnosed as neurodegenerative. The focus of this review is the immunobiology, pathophysiology, and clinical spectrum of autoimmune neurological disorders accompanied by neural-specific IgGs.

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of food specific IgE and IgG determinations for the diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kochuyt, A M

    2006-01-01

    Among the methods currently used to demonstrate a sensitization to foods, the measurement of food specific IgE antibodies (sIgE) is the most practical but not the most accurate. The "sensitivity" of food sIgE determinations is, for example, suboptimal with unstable allergens in fruits and vegetables that are involved in the (birch) pollen-related immediate oral allergy syndromes. In this particular syndrome the history is often conclusive and can be substantiated by skin prick tests with fresh foods. The "sensitivity" of sIgE tests is much better when sIgE are directed to stable plant or animal food allergens which often cause non-immediate generalized reactions. Foods, usually, contain many different (glyco)proteinic allergens of which some are stable and others not. The "sensitivity" of the sIgE test with a particular food, therefore, varies according to the type of allergen that is recognized by the patient. The "specificity" of sIgE tests with foods is affected by the existence of homologous food allergens which induce cross-reactive IgE that may or may not be clinically relevant. While variable, clinical cross-reactivity is more common among botanically-related fruits, among different nuts, among mammalian foods and among seafood than among cereals, grains and legumes. The "specificity" of food sIgE tests is much better when sIgE are directed to unique non-cross-reactive food allergens. Unfortunately, neither the presence of food sIgE nor its level are predictive of clinical reactivity. The identification of individual allergens in foods and the characterization of the relevant IgE binding sites in these allergens might lead to the development of tests that only measure sIgE to clinical relevant food allergens.

  4. Association of Schistosoma mansoni-Specific IgG and IgE Antibody Production and Clinical Schistosomiasis Status in a Rural Area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Fittipaldi, Juliana F.; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in murine models and human populations have indicated that the collagen-rich granulomatous response against parasite eggs trapped in the liver is associated with the development of severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, characterized by periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. The role of the humoral response in parasite susceptibility has been well established, but its participation in disease severity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between parasite-reactive IgE and IgG levels and schistosomiasis morbidity in infected patients with similar parasite burdens. Methodology/Principal Findings Ninety-seven Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were subjected to clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound analysis. IgG reactivity and IgE concentration against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) and adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) were evaluated by ELISA assay. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite-reactive antibodies and the co-variables investigated. The study population showed low parasite burden (median 30 eggs/g feces), constant re-infection, and signs of fibrosis was detected in more than 30% of individuals. Most infected individuals showed IgG reactivity, and the median concentrations of IgE anti-SEA and anti-SWAP antibodies were 1,870 and 1,375 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between parasite burden and antibody response or any parameter of disease severity. However, IgG anti-SWAP level was positively associated with morbidity parameters, such as spleen size and thickness of portal vein at the entrance and secondary branch. In contrast, the data also revealed independent inverse correlations between concentration of parasite-reactive IgE and gallbladder wall thickness, a marker of fibrosis in schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance The data indicate that IgG anti-SWAP is positively associated with severe

  5. Association of Schistosoma mansoni-specific IgG and IgE antibody production and clinical schistosomiasis status in a rural area of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Fittipaldi, Juliana F; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    Studies in murine models and human populations have indicated that the collagen-rich granulomatous response against parasite eggs trapped in the liver is associated with the development of severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, characterized by periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. The role of the humoral response in parasite susceptibility has been well established, but its participation in disease severity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between parasite-reactive IgE and IgG levels and schistosomiasis morbidity in infected patients with similar parasite burdens. Ninety-seven Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were subjected to clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound analysis. IgG reactivity and IgE concentration against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) and adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) were evaluated by ELISA assay. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite-reactive antibodies and the co-variables investigated. The study population showed low parasite burden (median 30 eggs/g feces), constant re-infection, and signs of fibrosis was detected in more than 30% of individuals. Most infected individuals showed IgG reactivity, and the median concentrations of IgE anti-SEA and anti-SWAP antibodies were 1,870 and 1,375 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between parasite burden and antibody response or any parameter of disease severity. However, IgG anti-SWAP level was positively associated with morbidity parameters, such as spleen size and thickness of portal vein at the entrance and secondary branch. In contrast, the data also revealed independent inverse correlations between concentration of parasite-reactive IgE and gallbladder wall thickness, a marker of fibrosis in schistosomiasis. The data indicate that IgG anti-SWAP is positively associated with severe schistosomiasis, independently of parasite burden, while high production

  6. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  7. Detection of Fungi in Indoor Environments and Fungus-Specific IgE Sensitization in Allergic Children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between fungal colonization in the house and IgE sensitization to fungi, and to clarify the effects of house care in relation to fungi. Materials and Methods We measured levels of fungi in the houses of 52 allergic children. Of these, 32 children displayed detectable levels of IgE (≥ 0.35 UA/ml) to a combination of fungi (positive group). The remaining 20 children were not sensitized to fungi (negative group). Each fungus-specific IgE level was also measured in sera of the positive group, and a questionnaire-based survey was conducted for daily lifestyles. Results Cladosporium was the most prevalent in the houses. From the 32 sera of the positive group, specific IgE levels ≥ 0.70 UA/ml were most frequently detected in 21 sera for Alternaria. Children in whose houses Alternaria was found displayed higher levels of Alternaria-IgE than those in whose houses where Alternaria was not found. In addition, Alternaria-IgE level was lower for children using an air purifier than for children who were not. Windows were more frequently opened for ventilation in negative-group houses than in positive-group houses. Conclusions The existence of Alternaria might strongly induce IgE sensitization for Alternaria. Using an air purifier and frequently opening windows may minimize fungal sensitization of allergic children. PMID:23283150

  8. Is nonhomogeneous expression of tissue mast cells or allergen specific IgEs bound to tissue mast cells possible?

    PubMed Central

    Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik

    2017-01-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are widely used to demonstrate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to a specific allergen. However, local allergic conditions cannot be diagnosed with SPTs. Local specific IgE production was only presented before in mucosal tissues. We present a patient with house dust mite sensitization that had variable SPTs results in different body regions. PMID:28765824

  9. Is nonhomogeneous expression of tissue mast cells or allergen specific IgEs bound to tissue mast cells possible?

    PubMed

    Türk, Murat; Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik; Yılmaz, İnsu

    2017-07-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are widely used to demonstrate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to a specific allergen. However, local allergic conditions cannot be diagnosed with SPTs. Local specific IgE production was only presented before in mucosal tissues. We present a patient with house dust mite sensitization that had variable SPTs results in different body regions.

  10. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  11. Presence of functional, autoreactive human milk-specific IgE in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, K M; Geller, L; Bencharitiwong, R; Sampson, H A

    2012-02-01

    Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding epitopes [α-lactalbumin (ALA), β- and κ-casein] and the corresponding, highly homologous human milk peptides were labelled with sera from 15 breastfed infants with CMA, aged 3 weeks to 12 months, and peptide (epitope)-specific IgE antibodies were assessed. Nine of the 15 breastfed infants became asymptomatic during strict maternal avoidance of milk and other major food allergens; six infants remained symptomatic until weaned. Ten older children, aged 5-15 years, with CMA were also assessed. The functional capacity of specific IgE antibodies was assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release from rat basophilic leukaemia cells passively sensitized and stimulated with human and bovine ALA. A minimum of one human milk peptide was recognized by IgE antibodies from 9 of 15 (60%) milk-allergic infants, and the majority of older children with CMA. Genuine sensitization to human milk peptides in the absence of IgE to bovine milk was occasionally seen. There was a trend towards specific IgE being detected to more human milk peptides in those infants who did not respond to the maternal milk elimination diet than in those who did (P = 0.099). Functional IgE antibody to human ALA was only detected in infants not responding to the maternal diet. Endogenous human milk epitopes are recognized by specific IgE from the majority of infants and children with CMA. Such autoreactive, human milk-specific IgE antibodies appear to have functional properties in vitro. Their role in provoking allergic symptoms in infants exclusively breastfed by mothers strictly avoiding dietary milk remains unclear. © 2011 Blackwell

  12. Anaphylaxis to pork kidney is related to IgE antibodies specific for galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.

    PubMed

    Morisset, M; Richard, C; Astier, C; Jacquenet, S; Croizier, A; Beaudouin, E; Cordebar, V; Morel-Codreanu, F; Petit, N; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2012-05-01

    Carbohydrate-specific IgE antibodies present on nonprimate mammalian proteins were incriminated recently in delayed meat anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to explore whether anaphylaxis to mammalian kidney is also associated with galactose-α-1,3-galactose (αGal)-specific IgE. Fourteen patients with anaphylaxis to pork or beef kidney underwent prick tests to meat and kidney. Some patients also underwent skin tests to Erbitux(®) (cetuximab). IgE antibodies to αGal, swine urine proteins, beef and pork meat, serum albumin proteins, cat, and rFel d 1 were measured by ImmunoCAP(®). The αGal levels were estimated in meats and kidney by ELISA inhibition assay. Cross-reactivity between αGal and pork kidney was studied with the ImmunoCAP(®) inhibition assay. Among the 14 patients, 12 presented with anaphylactic shock. Reactions occurred within 2 h from exposure in 67% of patients. Associated risk factors were observed in 10 cases, and alcohol was the main cofactor. Three patients underwent an oral challenge to pork kidney, and anaphylaxis occurred after ingestion of small quantities (1-2 g). Prick tests to kidney were positive in 54% of patients. All tested patients showed positive skin tests to Erbitux(®). All patients tested positive for IgE to αGal, with levels ranging from 0.4 to 294 kU/l. IgE binding to αGal was inhibited by raw pork kidney extract (mean, 77%; range, 55-87%), which showed a high amount of αGal determinants. Pork or beef kidney anaphylaxis is related to αGal IgE. Its peculiar severity could be due to an elevated content of αGal epitopes in kidney. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. CD23 surface density on B cells is associated with IgE levels and determines IgE-facilitated allergen uptake, as well as activation of allergen-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Selb, Regina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus; Marth, Katharina; Gamper, Jutta; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Pickl, Winfried F.; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that the low-affinity receptor for IgE, CD23, plays an important role in controlling the activity of allergen-specific T cells through IgE-facilitated allergen presentation. Objective We sought to determine the number of CD23 molecules on immune cells in allergic patients and to investigate whether the number of CD23 molecules on antigen-presenting cells is associated with IgE levels and influences allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation. Methods Numbers of CD23 molecules on immune cells of allergic patients were quantified by using flow cytometry with QuantiBRITE beads and compared with total and allergen-specific IgE levels, as well as with allergen-induced immediate skin reactivity. Allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation in relation to CD23 surface density were determined by using flow cytometry in combination with confocal microscopy and T cells transfected with the T-cell receptor specific for the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, respectively. Defined IgE-allergen immune complexes were formed with human monoclonal allergen-specific IgE and Bet v 1. Results In allergic patients the vast majority of CD23 molecules were expressed on naive IgD+ B cells. The density of CD23 molecules on B cells but not the number of CD23+ cells correlated with total IgE levels (RS = 0.53, P = .03) and allergen-induced skin reactions (RS = 0.63, P = .008). Uptake of allergen-IgE complexes into B cells and activation of allergen-specific T cells depended on IgE binding to CD23 and were associated with CD23 surface density. Addition of monoclonal IgE to cultured PBMCs significantly (P = .04) increased CD23 expression on B cells. Conclusion CD23 surface density on B cells of allergic patients is correlated with allergen-specific IgE levels and determines allergen uptake and subsequent activation of T cells. PMID:27372566

  14. Production of serum immunoglobulins and T cell antigen binding molecules specific for cow's milk antigens in adults intolerant to cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Little, C H; Georgiou, G M; Shelton, M J; Cone, R E

    1998-11-01

    The immune response to three cow's milk antigens, beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (AL), and casein (CA) was studied in 15 milk-intolerant adult patients and 11 adult controls. IgG, IgE, and IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) and T cell-derived antigen-binding molecules (TABM) specific for each antigen were measured in both groups. In the patient group, a significant elevation of total IgG and TABM against each of the milk antigens was found as well as raised levels of IgG1 to BLG and CA, IgG4 to BLG, and IgE to CA. TABM specific for BLG were isolated by affinity for BLG and found to be Mr 28,000-46,000 polypeptides functionally and physically associated with TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. These results indicate a Th2-type immune response to the milk antigens in milk-intolerant individuals compared with the control group which shows a pattern typical of anergy or deletion.

  15. Association of house dust mite-specific IgE with asthma control, medications and household pets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of creating a low-allergen environment or reducing allergen exposure to control asthma exacerbations. Objective This study determined the association of house dust mite (HDM)-specific IgE levels with asthma symptom control, selected medications, family history of allergic disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke and household pets. Methods Serum samples from 102 doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma patients and 100 non-atopic controls were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the HDM species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) allergens. Point-biserial correlation coefficient, Pearson R correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association of HDM-specific IgE levels with the abovementioned variables. Results Of the 102 cases, 38.24%, 47.06%, and 33.33% were sensitized to Bt, Df, and Dp, respectively. Sensitized patients showed greater probability [Bt (OR = 1.21), Df (OR = 1.14), and Dp (OR = 1.35)] to manifest symptoms than those who were not. Obtained p-values [Bt (p = 0.73), Df (p = 0.83), and Dp (p = 0.59)], however, proved that HDM-specific IgE levels had no significant contribution in predicting or explaining occurrence of asthma symptoms. Bt- and Df-specific IgEs showed moderately weak but significant relationship with bambuterol HCl and expectorant, respectively. Patients currently on said medications registered higher HDM-specific IgE levels than those who were not. No significant correlation between IgE levels and family history of allergic disease or with exposure to second-hand smoke was seen. Dp-specific IgE levels of patients exposed to household pets were significantly lower compared to those without exposure. Conclusion This study proves that sensitization to Bt, Df, and Dp allergens is not significantly associated with asthma symptoms and control. Although cases were shown to be sensitized

  16. Longitudinal study on specific IgE against natural rubber latex, banana and kiwi in patients with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Cremer, R; Mennicken, O

    2011-11-01

    Up to 2 out of 3 spina bifida (sb) patients with natural rubber latex (NRL) antibodies (ab) have crossreacting IgE-ab against tropical fruit, due to structural homologies between several NRL antigens and allergenic fruit proteins. It is essential to investigate whether the patients were first sensitized against NRL or fruit, to give recommendations for an evidence-based prophylaxis. We investigated sera of 96 sb patients for specific IgE ab against NRL, banana and kiwi as examples for crossreacting fruit by FEIA (ImmunoCAP System, Phadia). These tests were repeated up to 3 times (mean after 2 years, maximum after 7 years). In the first testing only 2 of 50 NRL-IgE negative patients (4%) had ab against banana or kiwi. 4 of the 46 NRL-IgE positive patients (8%) showed ab against banana (2) or kiwi (2), 3 (7%) against both fruit. Symptoms of fruit allergy were presented by 3 patients, all symptomatic patients had high levels of specific fruit-ab. In the follow-up study 2 patients with low sensitization against NRL lost their NRL ab and their fruit ab, another 2 only the fruit ab, whereas 4 NRL-sensitized patients newly developed ab against banana and 1 against kiwi. Only 2 patients developed ab against fruit without being sensitized against NRL. 7 out of 10 patients with banana and kiwi ab were atopics. In most cases the sensitization against fruit follows the NRL sensitization. There is no need to recommend sb patients without NRL sensitization to primarily avoid tropical fruit. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in High IgE Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Monica G

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic elevations in the serum IgE level are seen both in polygenic allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and food allergy, and in a growing list of monogenic primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Although the IgE produced in patients with PID has generally been considered to be driven by dysregulated IL-4 production and thus lack antigen specificity, in fact allergen-specific IgE can be detected by skin and serum testing in many of these patients. However, perhaps not surprisingly given the distinct immunologic pathways involved, the patterns of allergic disease and atopic sensitization vary widely between syndromes, leading to strikingly different clinical phenotypes.

  18. Antigen specific quantification of sulfidoleukotrienes in patients allergic to Betalactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    García-Avilés, C; Sanz, M L; Gamboa, P M; Urrutia, I; Antépara, I; Jauregui, I; De Weck, A L

    2005-01-01

    After in vitro allergen-specific stimulation, basophils become activated and release sulfidoleukotrienes LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4. This can be detected by means of the CAST assay. We assessed the positivity criteria and the reliability of antigen-specific sulfidoleukotriene production (CAST) in the in vitro diagnosis of betalactam (BL) allergic patients. We studied a sample of 67 patients (age 48.94 +/- 15.76 years) who had presented with anaphylaxis or urticaria-angioedema within the first 60 minutes after administration of Amoxicillin (54/67), Penicillin G (7/67), Cefuroxime (5/67) or Cefazoline (1/67). All of them had a positive skin test to at least one of the antigenic determinants of Penicillin. As control group 30 adults with negative skin tests who tolerated BL were included. All of them underwent skin tests, oral provocation tests, specific IgE (CAP-FEIA, Pharmacia) and CAST. Positivity criteria were established by means of ROC curves: a sLT release induced by Betalactams of at least 100 pg/ml and greater than or equal to 3 times the basal value. The overall sensitivity of CAST is 47.7% and specificity 83.3%. Sensitivity of specific IgE is 37.8% and specificity 83.3%. We have established validated positivity criteria for the CAST technique in patients allergic to Betalactams. This technique is a useful in vitro diagnostic method in patients with IgE-mediated allergy to Betalactam antibiotics.

  19. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mediaty, Anja; Neuber, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330). Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD), 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE < 300 kU/l a reduction of total serum IgE was significantly correlated with age. In contrast, patients with IgE levels > 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis. PMID:15927080

  20. High Serum β-Lactams Specific/Total IgE Ratio Is Associated with Immediate Reactions to β-Lactams Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Virgili, Gianni; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions. PMID:25880869

  1. High serum β-lactams specific/total IgE ratio is associated with immediate reactions to β-lactams antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Virgili, Gianni; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions.

  2. A new quantitative in vitro for the detection of latex-specific IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moussadeh, M; Hamedi, N; Alem, N; Alem, M

    1999-12-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity to latex allergens has resulted in anaphylactic shock and death in numerous reported cases. The allergenic proteins of latex are contained within the natural rubber extract of Hevea brasiliensis and are eluted into the final product during the manufacturing process. The quantity and types of latex allergens found in different latex products depends on the manufacturing process. Not all of these allergens are available for use in the latex prick skin test, and as a result, such tests may not be conclusive. Furthermore, application of such allergens to the skin of undiagnosed hypersensitive individuals may have harmful effects on their health. Therefore, it is important to be able to utilize in vitro methods, which reliably identify latex allergy without placing hypersensitive individuals at risk. We have developed a relatively simple and new enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) method for the detection of latex allergy. This in vitro method is quantitative and allows for the classification of allergy to latex in a short time. In comparative studies, ninety-nine serum specimens with documented clinical history of latex allergy were tested by this method, and the results paralleled those of the skin prick test performed by an independent group. The data showed that the specificity and sensitivity of our assay approaches 97.5% and 100%, respectively. We conclude that, by using a simple assay, the detection of specific IgE to latex proteins may be valuable for screening individuals and for the diagnosis of allergy to latex.

  3. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Laleh; Karimi, Akram; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Miri, Sara; Heydar Nazhad, Hassan; Bokaie, Saied; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  4. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  5. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. PMID:27812635

  6. Relationship between specific serum IgE to Ascaris lumbricoides and onset of respiratory symptoms in Bangladesh immigrants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Pacor, M L; Mansueto, P; Esposito-Pellitteri, M; Scichilone, N; Ditta, V; Lo Bianco, C; Leto-Barone, M S; Di Fede, G; Corrocher, R; Mansueto, S; Rini, G B

    2006-01-01

    The role of helminths in asthma and/or rhinitis and in allergic sensitization is still unclear. We assessed the relationship between Ascaris-specific IgE, respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitization in Bangladesh immigrants. 246 individuals were examined from 1996 to 2001. Serum total IgE, Ascaris IgE, specific IgE to inhalant allergens, skin prick tests (SPT) and parasitological evaluation of the stool were performed. Total serum IgE were significantly higher in Ascaris-IgE positive (> 0.35 kU/L) individuals (806.5 [409.0-1436.0] kU/L vs. 207.0 [127.0-332.5] kU/L; P < 0.0001) and in subjects with respiratory symptoms (413.0 [239.0-1096.0] kU/L vs. 259.5 [147.0-387.0] kU/L), (P < 0.0001), but not in SPT positive subjects (413.0 [179.0-894.0] kU/L vs. 404.6 [305.0-1201.0] kU/L (P = 0.5). Ascaris-specific IgE were detected in 48 subjects with respiratory symptoms (40.0%) and in 46 subjects without respiratory symptoms (36.5%) (P = 0.5). The SPT positivity was similar between Ascaris-IgE seropositive (38.2%) and Ascaris-IgE seronegative (38.1%) subjects (P = 0.9). Total IgE and length of stay in Italy correlated with SPT positivity (OR 5.6 [CI 95% 1.5-19.8], P = 0.007, and OR 1.5 [CI 95% 1.3-1.7], P< 0.0001), and with respiratory symptoms (OR 13.7 [CI 95% 3.0-62.4];, P = 0.0007, and OR 2.4 [CI 95% 1.9-3.0], P < 0.0001). Ascaris-IgE were negatively associated with SPT positivity (OR 0.3 [CI 95% 0.1-0.8], P = 0.02) and with respiratory symptoms (OR 0.1 [CI 95% 0.04-0.7], P = 0.01). Our findings favour the role of environmental factors in the development of respiratory symptoms in immigrants, irrespective of Ascaris-IgE.

  7. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shade, Kai-Ting C; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R; Fiebiger, Edda; Anthony, Robert M

    2015-04-06

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell-bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. © 2015 Shade et al.

  8. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C.; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D.; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell–bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. PMID:25824821

  9. A mimotope gene encoding the major IgE epitope of allergen Phl p 5 for epitope-specific immunization.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, J; Proell, M; Stepanoska, T; Hantusch, B; Pali-Schöll, I; Thalhamer, T; Thalhamer, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Hartl, A

    2009-01-29

    A gene vaccine based on a mammalian expression vector containing the sequence of a peptide mimotope of Phl p 5 was constructed. To test whether mimotope gene vaccines can induce allergen-specific antibody responses via molecular mimicry, BALB/c mice were immunized using the mimotope construct with or without a tetanus toxin T-helper epitope. Moreover, intradermal injection was compared to epidermal application via gene gun immunization. Immunization with both mimotope gene constructs elicited allergen-specific antibody responses. As expected, gene gun bombardment induced a Th2-biased immune response, typically associated with IgG1 and IgE antibody production. In contrast, intradermal injection of the vaccine triggered IgG2a antibody expression without any detectable IgE levels, thus biasing the immune response towards Th1. In an RBL assay, mimotope-specific IgG antibodies were able to prevent cross-linking of allergen-specific IgE by Phl p 5. A construct coding for the complete Phl p 5 induced T-cell activation, IFN-gamma and IL-4 production. In contrast, the mimotope-DNA construct being devoid of allergen-specific T-cell epitopes had no capacity to activate allergen-specific T cells. Taken together, our data show that it is feasible to induce blocking IgG antibodies with a mimotope-DNA construct when applied intradermally. Thus the mimotope-DNA strategy has two advantages: (1) the avoidance of IgE induction and (2) the avoidance of triggering allergen-specific T-lymphocytes. We therefore suggest that mimotope gene vaccines are potential candidates for epitope-specific immunotherapy of type I allergy.

  10. PROSTATE SPECIFIC MEMBRANE ANTIGEN-BASED IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of PC does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for PC specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in PC tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was 111In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab pendetide i.e. inability to bind to live PC cells. One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics including the identification of bone metastases in PC. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate timeframe for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for PC imaging with SPECT and PET. Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072 and MIP-1095, have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 in PC xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22658884

  11. Establishment of two novel ELISA methods for Dermatophagoides farinae-specific IgE detection with recombinant group 2 allergen.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Guifang; Shi, Weihong; Yang, Li; Wang, Yungang

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae, or the American house dust mite, is a common cause of allergy and asthma. Current tests for sensitization to D. farinae include an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for specific IgE detection, which, while clinically useful, is time-consuming and has low sensitivity since it uses crude mite extracts. We developed two new ELISA methods to detect the group 2 allergen from D. farinae (Der f 2) and the Der f 2-specific IgE in sera of patients with asthma. Using recombinant Der f 2 protein for the analysis of Der f 2-specific IgE, we tested both indirect ELISA and avidin biotin complex ELISA (ABC-ELISA) methods in 46 patients who were also tested by Pharmacia UniCap. Both of these approaches are more specific than traditional methods using crude mite extracts. These new tests could aid in the laboratory diagnosis of asthma due to sensitization to D. farinae.

  12. Tecemotide: An antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  13. [Two cases of allergies due to Anisakis simplex, positive to specific IgE for Ani s 12 allergen].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Lee, Min; Shinohara, Rie; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of immediate allergies to Anisakis after ingestion of seafood. In case 1, after ingestion of flatfish, sea bream and mackerel, wheals and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 5 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 12. In case 2, after ingestion of flatfish and yellowtail, pruritus and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 6 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum reacted to Ani s 1, 4, 6 and 12. In both cases, skin prick tests were negative for suspected seafoods. These data suggests the possibility Ani s 12 is a major allergen of Anisakis allergy besides Ani s 1, 2 and 7. Ani s 12 is an allergen that was first reported in 2011. The reactivity of Ani s 12 specific IgE with ELISA may become useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis allergy.

  14. Application of immuno-PCR assay for the detection of serum IgE specific to Bermuda allergen.

    PubMed

    Rahmatpour, Samine; Khan, Amjad Hayat; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Motevaseli, Elahe; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-04-01

    In vivo and in vitro tests are the two major ways of identifying the triggering allergens in sensitized individuals with allergic symptoms. Both methods are equally significant in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, in certain circumstances, in vitro methods are highly preferred because they circumvent the use of sensitizing drugs in patients. In current study, we described a highly sensitive immuno-PCR (iPCR) assay for serum IgE specific to Bermuda allergens. Using oligonucleotide-labelled antibody, we used iPCR for the sensitive detection of serum IgE. The nucleotide sequence was amplified using conventional PCR and the bands were visualized on 2.5% agarose gel. Results demonstrated a 100-fold enhancement in sensitivity of iPCR over commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Our iPCR method was highly sensitive for Bermuda-specific serum IgE and could be beneficial in allergy clinics.

  15. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Derived from Donors with Natural Rubber Latex Allergy Modulate Allergen-Specific T-Cell Responses and IgE Production

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Alejandro; Aguirre, Adam; Guzmán, María Antonieta; González, Rodrigo; Catalán, Diego; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Larrondo, Milton; López, Mercedes; Pesce, Barbara; Rolland, Jennifer; O’Hehir, Robyn; Aguillón, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL; Hevea brasiliensis) allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to latex proteins. When latex glove exposure is the main sensitizing agent, Hev b 5 is one of the major allergens. Dendritic cells (DC), the main antigen presenting cells, modulated with pharmacological agents can restore tolerance in several experimental models, including allergy. In the current study, we aimed to generate DC with tolerogenic properties from NRL-allergic patients and evaluate their ability to modulate allergen-specific T and B cell responses. Here we show that dexamethasone-treated DC (dxDC) differentiated into a subset of DC, characterized by low expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 molecules. Compared with LPS-matured DC, dxDC secreted lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 after CD40L activation, and induced lower alloantigenic T cell proliferation. We also show that dxDC pulsed with the dominant Hev b 5 T-cell epitope peptide, Hev b 546–65, inhibited both proliferation of Hev b 5-specific T-cell lines and the production of Hev b 5-specific IgE. Additionally, dxDC induced a subpopulation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells that suppressed proliferation of Hev b 5-primed T cells. In conclusion, dxDC generated from NRL-allergic patients can modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production, supporting their potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:24465795

  16. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  17. Role of specific IgE in predicting the clinical course of lentil allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Suleyman T; Sahiner, Umit M; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Tuncer, Ayfer; Yilmaz, Ebru A; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Karabulut, Erdem; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-06-01

    Legumes, and particularly lentils, are frequently consumed in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and some Asian countries. The aim of this study was to document the demographic features of children with lentil allergy and to determine the role of specific IgE (sIgE) in predicting the risk of clinical reactivity and disease persistence. Thirty children were enrolled. The diagnosis of lentil allergy was based on convincing history of symptoms or anaphylaxis after the ingestion of lentils, with positive skin tests and/or sIgE to lentils. To determine the diagnosis and prognosis of lentil allergy, 24 children were evaluated with food challenges. The median age at the onset of symptoms was 1.5 yr (0.9-2.3) (inter-quartile range). The most frequent symptoms were immediate cutaneous (97%) and respiratory (30%) reactions, whereas eight patients (27%) reported anaphylactic reactions. The median level of lentil sIgE at the time of diagnosis was 3 kU/l (1.2-9.6). Of the 24 challenges, 12 were positive. Fifteen patients (50%) outgrew the lentil allergy by the age of 3.5 (2.5-11) years. Children with an initial lentil sIgE < 4.9 kU/l had a significantly higher likelihood (68.4% vs. 18.2%) of outgrowing the lentil allergy than children with an initial lentil sIgE ≥ 4.9 k/l (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that sIgE levels may be important for predicting clinical reactivity and persistence of lentil allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Probiotics enhance the effect of allergy immunotherapy on regulating antigen specific B cell activity in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Feng-Hong; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Yang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Li, Hua-Bin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulatory system dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The therapeutic effect of allergic asthma is to be improved. The immune regulatory function of probiotics has been recognized. This study tests a hypothesis that Clostridium butyricum (CB) enhances the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) on asthma. In this study patients with allergic asthma were treated with AIT or/and CB for six months. The therapeutic effect and IgE production of the patients were observed. The results showed that administration with AIT alone alleviated the asthma symptoms; but the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and specific IgE were not altered, which was markedly improved by the administration with CB plus AIT. Such effects were maintained only for two months in the patients treated with AIT alone; but maintained more than 12 months in those patients treated with both AIT and CB. CB facilitated AIT to induce IL-10(+) B cells (B10 cells) in asthma patients. AIT/CB therapy converted antigen specific B cells to antigen specific regulatory B cells. Butyrate modulated the gene transcription of IgE and IL-10 in the allergen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration of CB can enhance the therapeutic effect of AIT in the treatment of allergic asthma via facilitating generation of B10 cells.

  19. Probiotics enhance the effect of allergy immunotherapy on regulating antigen specific B cell activity in asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Feng-hong; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Yang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Li, Hua-Bin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulatory system dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The therapeutic effect of allergic asthma is to be improved. The immune regulatory function of probiotics has been recognized. This study tests a hypothesis that Clostridium butyricum (CB) enhances the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) on asthma. In this study patients with allergic asthma were treated with AIT or/and CB for six months. The therapeutic effect and IgE production of the patients were observed. The results showed that administration with AIT alone alleviated the asthma symptoms; but the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and specific IgE were not altered, which was markedly improved by the administration with CB plus AIT. Such effects were maintained only for two months in the patients treated with AIT alone; but maintained more than 12 months in those patients treated with both AIT and CB. CB facilitated AIT to induce IL-10+ B cells (B10 cells) in asthma patients. AIT/CB therapy converted antigen specific B cells to antigen specific regulatory B cells. Butyrate modulated the gene transcription of IgE and IL-10 in the allergen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration of CB can enhance the therapeutic effect of AIT in the treatment of allergic asthma via facilitating generation of B10 cells. PMID:28078000

  20. Antigen-Specific versus Non-Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorption in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Koch, Raphael; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Busch, Veit; Wolters, Heiner; Kelsch, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction ABO-incompatible (ABOi) renal transplantation (RTx) from living donors is an established procedure to expand the donor pool for patients with end stage renal disease. Immunoadsorption (IA) is a standard procedure for the removal of preformed antibodies against the allograft. In this study, antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IA in ABOi RTx were compared. Patients and Methods 10 patients underwent antigen-specific IA (Glycosorb group) and 13 patients non-antigen-specific IA (Immunosorba group). The effects of both procedures regarding antibody reduction, number of treatments, complications, costs, as well as the allograft function and patient survival were compared between both groups. Results Although the IgG levels were reduced equally by both procedures (p=0.82), the reduction of the IgM level was more effective in the Glycosorb group (p=0.0172). Patients in both groups required a median number of 6 IA before ABOi RTx. Allograft function at one year after AB0i RTx was similar in both groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 66 vs. 64 ml/min/1.73m² respectively), with a death-censored graft survival of 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. Complication rates did not differ between procedures. Due to the reuse of non-antigen-specific Immunosorba columns, costs were considerably lower in this group; however, the use of the Immunosorba-based IA was less time-efficient. Conclusion Considering upcoming alternatives as simultaneous performance of dialysis and IA or a possible reuse of Glycosorb columns, this might become less relevant in the future. PMID:26121389

  1. Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Brightbill, Hans D.; Jeet, Surinder; Lin, Zhonghua; Yan, Donghong; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Martha; Nguyen, Allen; Yeh, Sherry; Delarosa, Donnie; Leong, Steven R.; Wong, Terence; Chen, Yvonne; Ultsch, Mark; Luis, Elizabeth; Ramani, Sree Ranjani; Jackman, Janet; Gonzalez, Lino; Dennis, Mark S.; Chuntharapai, Anan; DeForge, Laura; Meng, Y. Gloria; Xu, Min; Eigenbrot, Charles; Lee, Wyne P.; Refino, Canio J.; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wu, Lawren C.

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Although neutralization of serum IgE with IgE-specific antibodies is in general an efficacious treatment for allergic asthma, one limitation of this approach is its lack of effect on IgE production. Here, we have developed a strategy to disrupt IgE production by generating monoclonal antibodies that target a segment of membrane IgE on human IgE-switched B cells that is not present in serum IgE. This segment is known as the M1′ domain, and using genetically modified mice that contain the human M1′ domain inserted into the mouse IgE locus, we demonstrated that M1′-specific antibodies reduced serum IgE and IgE-producing plasma cells in vivo, without affecting other immunoglobulin isotypes. M1′-specific antibodies were effective when delivered prophylactically and therapeutically in mouse models of immunization, allergic asthma, and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, likely by inducing apoptosis of IgE-producing B cells. In addition, we generated a humanized M1′-specific antibody that was active on primary human cells in vivo, as determined by its reduction of serum IgE levels and IgE plasma cell numbers in a human PBMC-SCID mouse model. Thus, targeting of human IgE-producing B cells with apoptosis-inducing M1′-specific antibodies may be a novel treatment for asthma and allergy. PMID:20458139

  2. Agreement between allergen-specific IgE assays and ensuing immunotherapy recommendations from four commercial laboratories in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Jon D; Neradelik, Moni B; Polissar, Nayak L; Fadok, Valerie A; Scott, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine allergen-specific IgE assays in the USA are not subjected to an independent laboratory reliability monitoring programme. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of diagnostic results and treatment recommendations of four serum IgE assays commercially available in the USA. Methods Replicate serum samples from 10 atopic dogs were submitted to each of four laboratories for allergen-specific IgE assays (ACTT®, VARL Liquid Gold, ALLERCEPT® and Greer® Aller-g-complete®). The interlaboratory agreement of standard, regional panels and ensuing treatment recommendations were analysed with the kappa statistic (κ) to account for agreement that might occur merely by chance. Six comparisons of pairs of laboratories and overall agreement among laboratories were analysed for ungrouped allergens (as tested) and also with allergens grouped according to reported cross-reactivity and taxonomy. Results The overall chance-corrected agreement of the positive/negative test results for ungrouped and grouped allergens was slight (κ = 0.14 and 0.13, respectively). Subset analysis of the laboratory pair with the highest level of diagnostic agreement (κ = 0.36) found slight agreement (κ = 0.13) for ungrouped plants and fungi, but substantial agreement (κ = 0.71) for ungrouped mites. The overall agreement of the treatment recommendations was slight (κ = 0.11). Altogether, 85.1% of ungrouped allergen treatment recommendations were unique to one laboratory or another. Conclusions and clinical importance Our study indicated that the choice of IgE assay may have a major influence on the positive/negative results and ensuing treatment recommendations. PMID:24461034

  3. Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, R; Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-06-01

    The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. This study aims to analyze the production of Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in SCID mice after transplantation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients sensitive to grass pollens and from nonatopic donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transplanted into SCID mice, which were then challenged with Lol p I, and antibody responses (IgG and IgE) were analyzed over a 6-week period. Total IgG antibody was measured in each mouse serum after transplantation. Also, most mice (regardless of whether donors were atopic) that were challenged with Lol p I produced specific IgG antibody. Total IgE antibody production was observed only in mice grafted with cells from atopic patients. Lol p I-specific IgE antibodies were also produced after immunization with Lol p I. Although IgG antibody/response tended to plateau, the IgE antibody response increased until it peaked and declined thereafter. Interferon-gamma was detected in sera from mice producing IgE antibody, which supports a possible role of interferon-gamma in the decrease of IgE response. This study suggests that the SCID mouse model could represent an interesting approach to studying specific, total IgG and IgE antibody production, and ultimately their regulation.

  4. Is the Quantification of Antigen-Specific Basophil Activation a Useful Tool for Monitoring Oral Tolerance Induction in Children With Egg Allergy?

    PubMed

    Gamboa, P M; Garcia-Lirio, E; Gonzalez, C; Gonzalez, A; Martinez-Aranguren R M; Sanz María, L

    2016-01-01

    To assess modifications in baseline specific IgE- and anti-IgE- and antigen-specific-mediated basophil activation in egg-allergic children. The values were compared before and after the children completed specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) with egg. We studied 28 egg-allergic children who completed SOTI with egg. The basophil activation test and specific IgE determinations with egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid were performed in all 28 children. A decrease in antigen-specific activation with egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid was observed only at the 2 lowest concentrations used (5 and 0.05 ng/mL). Baseline activation was higher in patients with multiple food allergies and in those who developed anaphylaxis during SOTI; this activation decreased in both groups after completion of SOTI. A significant decrease was also observed in specific IgE values for egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid after tolerance induction. Food tolerance induction is a specific process for each food that can be mediated by immunologic changes such as a decrease in specific IgE values and in specific and spontaneous basophil activation.

  5. Bahia grass pollen specific IgE is common in seasonal rhinitis patients but has limited cross-reactivity with Ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Bright, M L; Rolland, J M; O'hehir, R E

    2005-02-01

    Perennial Ryegrass is a major cause of rhinitis in spring and early summer. Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, flowers late into summer and could account for allergic rhinitis at this time. We determined the frequency of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E reactivity with Bahia grass in Ryegrass pollen allergic patients and investigated IgE cross-reactivity between Bahia and Ryegrass. Serum from 33 Ryegrass pollen allergic patients and 12 nonatopic donors were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia and Ryegrass pollen extracts (PE) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and inhibition ELISA. Allergen-specific antibodies from a pool of sera from allergic donors were affinity purified and tested for IgE cross-reactivity. Seventy-eight per cent of the sera had IgE reactivity with Bahia grass, but more weakly than with Ryegrass. Antibodies eluted from the major Ryegrass pollen allergens, Lol p 1 and Lol p 5, showed IgE reactivity with allergens of Ryegrass and Canary but not Bahia or Bermuda grasses. Timothy, Canary and Ryegrass inhibited IgE reactivity with Ryegrass and Bahia grass, whereas Bahia, Johnson and Bermuda grass did not inhibit IgE reactivity with Ryegrass. The majority of Ryegrass allergic patients also showed serum IgE reactivity with Bahia grass PE. However, Bahia grass and Ryegrass had only limited IgE cross-reactivity indicating that Bahia grass should be considered in diagnosis and treatment of patients with hay fever late in the grass pollen season.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Klemans, R J B; van Os-Medendorp, H; Blankestijn, M; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut extract in diagnosing peanut allergy is suboptimal. Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to assess the diagnostic value of sIgE to peanut components in diagnosing peanut allergy. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results were subsequently screened for in- and exclusion criteria. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using a standardized quality assessment tool (QUADAS-2). Data on sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were extracted or calculated for a descriptive analysis. Twenty-two studies were eligible, of which 21 studies in paediatric populations. Most studies reported on sIgE to peanut extract (15) and sIgE to Ara h 2 (12), followed by SPT (9) and sIgE to Ara h 1 (7). All studies were at risk of bias or caused applicability concerns on at least one item of the quality assessment tool. The best combination of diagnostic accuracy measures of all diagnostic tests was found for sIgE to Ara h 2. This finding was independent of geographical location. Compared to SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was mainly superior in diagnosing peanut allergy in case of a positive test result. Worst diagnostic accuracy measures were found in general for sIgE to Ara h 8 and sIgE to Ara h 9. sIgE to Ara h 2 showed the best diagnostic accuracy of all diagnostic tests to diagnose peanut allergy. Compared to the currently used SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was superior in diagnosing peanut allergy and should therefore replace these tests in daily clinical practice, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Impact of Allergic Reactions on Food-Specific IgE Concentrations and Skin Test Results.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Wood, Robert A; Vickery, Brian P; Perry, Tamara T; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Blackwell, Beth; Dawson, Peter; Burks, A Wesley; Lindblad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is concern that food allergy reactions may negatively affect the natural history of food allergy, the impact of reactions on food-specific IgE (sIgE) levels or skin prick test (SPT) wheal size is unknown. To measure the effects of allergic reactions on SPT wheal size and sIgE concentrations to milk, egg, and peanut. Participants included 512 infants with likely milk or egg allergy enrolled in a multicenter observational study. Changes in sIgE level and SPT wheal size to milk, egg, and peanut were measured before and after oral food challenge (OFC) or accidental exposure for 377 participants. The median age of the cohort at the time of analysis was 8.5 years (67% males). There were no statistically significant changes in sIgE level or SPT wheal size after positive OFC to milk, egg, or peanut (n = 20-27 for each food). Change in sIgE level and SPT wheal size was measured after 446 and 453 accidental exposure reactions, respectively. The median change in sIgE level was a decrease of 0.33 kU(A)/L (P < .01) after milk and 0.34 kU(A)/L (P < .01) after egg reactions, but no other statistically significant changes in sIgE level or SPT wheal size were observed for milk, egg, or peanut. When we limited the analysis to only those participants who had diagnostic testing done within 6 months of an accidental exposure reaction, we found that peanut SPT wheal size increased by 1.75 mm (P < .01), but a significant increase was not noted when all participants with testing done within 12 months were considered. The results suggest that reactions from OFCs and accidental exposure are not associated with increases in sensitization among children allergic to milk, egg, or peanut. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of specific IgE antibodies to Ses i 1 improves the diagnosis of sesame allergy.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, N; Nakagawa, T; Ito, K; Cabanos, C; Borres, M P; Movérare, R; Tanaka, A; Sato, S; Ebisawa, M

    2016-01-01

    The number of reported cases of allergic reactions to sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) has increased significantly. The specific IgE tests and skin prick tests presently available for diagnosis of sesame allergy are all based on crude sesame extract and are limited by their low clinical specificity. Thus, oral food challenge (OFC) is still the gold standard in the diagnosis. The aim was to identify the allergen components useful to diagnose sesame-allergic children with the goal to reduce the number of OFCs needed. Ninety-two sesame-sensitized children were consecutively enrolled and diagnosed based on OFC or convincing history. Specific IgE to purified native 11S globulin (nSes i 11S), 7S globulin (nSes i 7S), 2S albumin (nSes i 2S), and two recombinant 2S albumins (rSes i 1 and rSes i 2) was measured by ELISA and/or ImmunoCAP (rSes i 1/streptavidin application). Based on area under curve (AUC) values from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, rSes i 1 was shown to have the best diagnostic performance of the allergen components in ELISA. The experimental rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test had larger AUC (0.891; 95% CI, 0.826-0.955) compared to the commercially available sesame ImmunoCAP (0.697; 95% CI, 0.589-0.805). The clinical sensitivity and specificity for the rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test at optimal cut-off (3.96 kUA /L) were 86.1% and 85.7%, respectively. Sensitization to Ses i 1 is strongly associated with clinical sesame allergy. Measurement of specific IgE to rSes i 1 could reduce the numbers of OFCs needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Production of a mouse/human chimeric IgE monoclonal antibody to the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 and its use for the absolute quantification of allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J; Perdok, G J; Lourens, T E; Parren, P W; Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C

    1997-04-01

    A chimeric human IgE monoclonal antibody was developed against the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. This chimeric antibody (hIgE-Dp2A) was composed of the heavy-chain variable domains and light chains of the original murine monoclonal antibody retaining its binding characteristics, whereas the heavy-chain constant domains were exchanged with the human IgE heavy chain. The chimeric IgE expression level was IgE 600 IU/ml (1 IU = 2.4 ng/ml). The binding of the chimeric hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract was indistinguishable from that of the original mouse monoclonal antibody. Parallel dose-response curves were found when the binding of hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract and anti-IgE coupled to sepharose were compared. Binding levels were not identical; however, hIgE-Dp2A bound significantly better to the mite-extract sepharose. This result indicates that the commonly used anti-IgE on solid phase calibration systems may lead to an overestimation of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in the serum sample. The less efficient binding of the detector anti-IgE in case of the anti-IgE sepharose is likely to be because of the occupation of epitopes of the IgE by the sepharose-bound anti-IgE. Dose-response curves of serial dilutions of patient samples were parallel with the hIgE-Dp2A dose-response curve, which indicates that hIgE-Dp2A behaves like natural IgE antibodies in binding to allergen coupled to solid phase. This antibody is well suited for use as a reference reagent in the RAST and enables the expression of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in a patient sample in absolute amounts.

  10. Increase of regulatory T cells and the ratio of specific IgE to total IgE are candidates for response monitoring or prognostic biomarkers in 2-year sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for Japanese cedar pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonekura, Syuji; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Taniguchi, Yuriko; Saito, Akemi; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Inamine, Ayako; Nakayama, Toshinori; Takemori, Toshitada; Taniguchi, Masaru; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Okamoto, Yoshitaka

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the therapeutic effects of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and to identify potential biomarkers that would predict the therapeutic response in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial was carried out over two pollinosis seasons in 2007 and 2008. Carry-over therapeutic effects were analyzed in 2009. SLIT significantly ameliorated the symptoms of pollinosis during the 2008 and 2009 pollen seasons. Cry j 1-specific cytokine production in a subgroup of patients with mild disease in the SLIT group was significantly attenuated. The ratio of specific IgE to total IgE before treatment correlated with the symptom-medication score in the SLIT group in 2008. Patients with increased Cry j 1-iTreg in the SLIT group had significantly improved QOL and QOL-symptom scores. In summary, the specific IgE to total IgE ratio and upregulation of Cry j 1-iTreg are candidates for biomarker of the clinical response to SLIT.

  11. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  13. Role of specific IgE to β-lactoglobulin in the gastrointestinal phenotype of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Poza-Guedes, Paloma; Barrios, Yvelise; González-Pérez, Ruperto; Sánchez-Machín, Inmaculada; Franco, Andres; Matheu, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of many phenotypes of food allergy is increasing. Specific gastrointestinal (GI) phenotype of food allergy (GI allergy) is also increasing but it is difficult to know the prevalence because of many entities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 1 year retrospective study of pediatric patients complaining exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms after cow's milk consumption and at least one positive specific IgE (sIgE) to cow's milk (CM) proteins (CMP) was done (n = 39). The most prevalent symptom was abdominal cramps in 35 patients (90 %), discomfort or abdominal distention in 30 patients (75 %), diarrhea in 10 patients (25 %) and constipation in 5 patients (12 %). IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies were absent and lactose intolerance was ruled out in all patients. Average of total IgE on this group was 288 UI/ml. sIgE against β-lactoglobulin was the dominant with an average of 4.14 kU/l. sIgE to casein (CAS), which is the dominant protein in systemic anaphylaxis was 1.74 kU/l; sIgE to α-lactoalbumin, the other whey protein, was 0.83 kU/l and sIgE levels to CM were 0.78 kU/l. The quotient sIgE CAS/sIgE β-lactoglobulin in these patients was always lower than 1. Patients experienced an improvement of their symptoms after a CM free diet. An open oral challenge with CM did mimic their initial symptoms in all patients. However, the open oral challenge with dairy products was well tolerated. Patients with a specific phenotype of GI allergy with CM have specific IgE against β-lactoglobulin, as a dominant sIgE. These patients could beneficiate of a diet with dairy products.

  14. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    PubMed

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a_11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a_11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a_11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a_11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG4 binding to rBet v 1a_11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. IgG2 deficiency in a healthy blood donor. Concomitant lack of IgG2, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins and specific anti-carbohydrate antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, L; Smith, C I

    1983-01-01

    Lack of serum IgG2, IgA and IgE was found in a healthy male adult blood donor. No secretory IgA could be demonstrated. In vitro activation of lymphocytes did not induce IgA secreting cells although no class specific suppressor cells could be found. Normal or slightly subnormal titres to a variety of bacterial and viral antigens were demonstrated whereas anti-carbohydrate antibodies (anti-teichoic acid, anti-dextran and anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide) were virtually absent. Isoagglutinins and heteroagglutinins were present in somewhat lower concentrations than normal. PMID:6189654

  16. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  17. An assay that may predict the development of IgG enhancing allergen-specific IgE binding during birch immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Selb, R.; Eckl-Dorna, J.; Vrtala, S.; Valenta, R.; Niederberger, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been shown that birch pollen immunotherapy can induce IgG antibodies which enhance IgE binding to Bet v 1. We aimed to develop a serological assay to predict the development of antibodies which enhance IgE binding to Bet v 1 during immunotherapy. Methods In 18 patients treated by Bet v 1-fragment-specific immunotherapy, the effects of IgG antibodies specific for the fragments on the binding of IgE antibodies to Bet v 1 were measured by ELISA. Blocking and possible enhancing effects on IgE binding were compared with skin sensitivity to Bet v 1 after treatment. Results We found that fragment-specific IgG enhanced IgE binding to Bet v 1 in two patients who also showed an increase of skin sensitivity to Bet v 1. Conclusion Our results indicate that it may be possible to develop serological tests which predict the induction of unfavourable IgG antibodies enhancing the binding of IgE to Bet v 1 during immunotherapy. PMID:23998344

  18. Enhancement of Antigen-Specific Suppression by Muramyl Dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Thomas A.; Krieger, Nancy J.; Pesce, Amadeo; Michael, J. Gabriel

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the synthetic adjuvant MDP (N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglu-tamine) on the generation of antigen-specific suppression was investigated. Suppression of the anti-bovine serum albumin response, which was achieved by intravenous administration of a peptic fragment of the antigen, was greatly enhanced by simultaneous administration of MDP. Induction of suppression by a combination of bovine serum albumin fragments and MDP was found to be antigen specific and appeared to occur via the generation of antigen-specific suppressor T cells. PMID:6187686

  19. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Kurosawa, Kohei; Zheng, Yupeng; Akin, Louesa R.; Świst-Rosowska, Kalina M.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Koide, Akiko; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Koide, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. This “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies. PMID:26862167

  20. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Kurosawa, Kohei; Zheng, Yupeng; Akin, Louesa R.; Świst-Rosowska, Kalina M.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Koide, Akiko; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Koide, Shohei

    2016-02-09

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. This “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies.

  1. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    DOE PAGES

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; ...

    2016-02-09

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. Thismore » “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies.« less

  2. Comparison of intradermal skin testing (IDST) and serum allergen-specific IgE determination in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Spinka, Christine M; Ellebracht, Ryan D; Reinero, Carol R

    2009-11-15

    Intradermal skin testing (IDST) and allergen-specific IgE determination are used to determine allergen sensitization. In cats, studies have found poor correlation between the two tests. However, these studies were mainly conducted in pet cats sensitized to unknown allergens with unknown dose and duration of exposure. We hypothesized that in an experimental model of allergic sensitization where these variables are controlled, IDST would demonstrate greater sensitivity and specificity than would serum allergen-specific IgE determination. A model of feline asthma employing Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) or house dust mite allergen (HDMA) was used to test the hypothesis. Thirteen cats were assigned to undergo sensitization to BGA, HDMA or saline (placebo). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed development of an asthmatic phenotype. Serum collection and IDST were performed on D0, D28 and D50. A portion of serum was pooled, and an aliquot heat inactivated (HI) to destroy IgE. Individual, pooled, and pooled HI samples were used for allergen-specific IgE determination using an Fc epsilon R1 alpha-based ELISA; pooled samples were also analyzed using an enzymoimmunometric assay. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated for IDST and for BGA- and HDMA-specific IgE. Combined results for IDST found SE=90.9%, SP=86.7%, PPV=83.3%, and NPV=92.9%. For ELISA-based serum IgE testing, the SE=22.7%, SP=100%, PPV=100% and NPV=63.8%. The enzymoimmunometric assay did not detect sensitizing IgE, but did detect IgE reactivity to a variety of irrelevant allergens (even in HI samples). Sensitivity of IDST was greater than sensitivity of serum IgE measurement supporting use as a screening test for aeroallergens. Both IDST and allergen-specific IgE determination via ELISA were specific; either test can be used to guide selection of allergens for immunotherapy. The enzymoimmunometric assay was unreliable and cannot be recommended.

  3. IgG and IgE circulating immune complexes, total serum IgE and parasite related IgE in patients with mono- or mixed infection with Schistosoma mansoni and/or S. haematobium. Influence of therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, W J; Feldmeir, H; Bridts, C H; Daffalla, A A

    1983-01-01

    IgG and IgE containing circulating immune complexes (CIC), total serum IgE and parasite related IgE were determined in monoinfected patients with Schistosoma mansoni or S.haematobium and in patients with a mixed infection. IgE- and IgG-CIC and total serum IgE were significantly higher in the mixed infection group. There is considerable cross-reactivity between the crude S.haematobium and S.mansoni antigen preparations. The level of IgE-CIC is correlated to the levels of total serum IgE and parasite related IgE respectively. Furthermore IgE-CIC levels were related to the intensity of infection. Twelve out of 21 patients suffering from a monoinfection were reinvestigated 1-4 months after specific chemotherapy. Parasitological cure is followed by a significant decrease of total serum IgE and IgE-CIC, whereas parasite related IgE did not change significantly. The importance of the disappearance of IgE-CIC is discussed. PMID:6861371

  4. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma.

    PubMed

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em

  5. Substrate Specificity of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Marc O.; Wu, Lisa Y.; Santiago, Nicholas M.; Moser, Jamie M.; Rowley, Jennifer A.; Bolstad, Erin S. D.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2007-01-01

    A series of putative dipeptide substrates of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was prepared that explored α- and β/γ-linked acidic residues at the P1 position and various chromophores at the P2 position, while keeping the P1’ residue constant as L-Glu. Four chromophores were examined, including 4-phenylazobenzoyl, 1-pyrenebutyrl, 9-anthracenylcarboxyl-γ-aminobutyrl, and 4-nitrophenylbutyryl. When evaluating these chromophores, it was found that a substrate containing 4-phenylazobenzoyl at the P2 position was consumed most efficiently. Substitution at the P1 position with acidic residues showed that only γ-linked L-Glu and D-Glu were recognized by the enzyme, with the former being more readily proteolyzed. Lastly, binding modes of endogenous substrates and our best synthetic substrate (4-phenylazobenzoyl-Glu-γ-Glu) were proposed by computational docking studies into an X-ray crystal structure of the PSMA extracellular domain. PMID:17764959

  6. The value of specific IgE to peanut and its component Ara h 2 in the diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Lopes de Oliveira, Lucila C; Aderhold, Martina; Brill, Marianne; Schulz, Gabriele; Rolinck-Werninghaus, Claudia; Clare Mills, E N; Niggemann, Bodo; Naspitz, Charles Kirov; Wahn, Ulrich; Beyer, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    To avoid unnecessary oral food challenges, which are time consuming, stressful, and risky, improved in vitro diagnostic methods for food allergy such as component resolved diagnostics are still under investigation. To investigate the role of whole peanut- and peanut-component (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 6 and Ara h 8)-specific IgE levels in the diagnostic procedure of peanut allergy as well as the diagnostic properties of peanut-specific IgG and IgG4. Sixty-one children underwent oral peanut challenge tests for diagnostic purposes irrespective of their peanut-specific IgE levels. Peanut-specific serum IgE, IgG, and IgG4 levels were determined by ImmunoCAP FEIA and specific IgE against individual peanut proteins by Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip. Thirty-four of 61 patients (56%) had a peanut allergy. No significant difference was observed for peanut-specific IgG or peanut-specific IgG4 levels between patients who were allergic and tolerant patients, whereas peanut-specific IgE was significant higher in patients who were allergic than in tolerant patients (P < .005). Twenty-five of 61 children had peanut-specific IgE above a previously proposed cutoff level of 15 kUA/L; however, 7 of these 25 children (28%) were clinically tolerant. Ara h 2-specific IgE was significantly lower in tolerant than in patients with allergies (P < .0001). Interestingly, 94% of the patients with peanut allergies showed IgE-binding to Ara h 2. Unfortunately, 26% of the sensitized but tolerant patients have shown IgE binding to Ara h 2 too. Neither the level of specific IgE to peanut nor to Ara h 2 was able to clearly distinguish patients with clinical relevant peanut allergy from those who were clinical tolerant in our population. As expected, peanut-specific IgG and IgG4 did not improve the diagnostic procedure. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  8. An immunodiagnostic assay for quantitation of specific IgE to the major pollen allergen component, Pas n 1, of the subtropical Bahia grass.

    PubMed

    Timbrell, Victoria L; Riebelt, Lindsay; Simmonds, Claire; Solley, Graham; Smith, William B; Mclean-Tooke, Andrew; van Nunen, Sheryl; Smith, Peter K; Upham, John W; Langguth, Daman; Davies, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Pollens of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses including Bahia (Paspalum notatum) are important allergen sources in subtropical regions of the world. An assay for specific IgE to the major molecular allergenic component, Pas n 1, of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) would have immunodiagnostic utility for patients with pollen allergy in these regions. Biotinylated Pas n 1 purified from BaGP was coated onto streptavidin ImmunoCAPs. Subjects were assessed by clinical history of allergic rhinitis and skin prick test (SPT) to aeroallergens. Serum total, BaGP-specific and Pas n 1-specific IgE were measured. Pas n 1 IgE concentrations were highly correlated with BaGP SPT (r = 0.795, p < 0.0001) and BaGP IgE (r = 0.915, p < 0.0001). At 0.23 kU/l Pas n 1 IgE, the diagnostic sensitivity (92.4%) and specificity (93.1%) for the detection of BaGP allergy was high (area under receiver operator curve 0.960, p < 0.0001). The median concentrations of Pas n 1 IgE in non-atopic subjects (0.01 kU/l, n = 67) and those with other allergies (0.02 kU/l, n = 59) showed no inter-group difference, whilst grass pollen-allergic patients with allergic rhinitis showed elevated Pas n 1 IgE (6.71 kU/l, n = 182, p < 0.0001). The inter-assay coefficient of variation for the BaGP-allergic serum pool was 6.92%. Pas n 1 IgE appears to account for most of the BaGP-specific IgE. This molecular component immunoassay for Pas n 1 IgE has potential utility to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis of BaGP allergy for patients in subtropical regions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Carotenoids on the Degranulation of Mast Cells via Suppression of Antigen-induced Aggregation of High Affinity IgE Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Shota; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Kiminori; Hirata, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids have been demonstrated to possess antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report that the effects of carotenoids on degranulation of mast cell is critical for type I allergy. In this study, we focused on the effect of carotenoids on antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. Fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene significantly inhibited the antigen-induced release of β-hexosaminidase in rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Those carotenoids also inhibited antigen-induced aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcϵRI), which is the most upstream of the degranulating signals of mast cells. Furthermore, carotenoids inhibited FcϵRI-mediated intracellular signaling, such as phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and Fyn kinase. It suggests that the inhibitory effect of carotenoids on the degranulation of mast cells were mainly due to suppressing the aggregation of FcϵRI followed by intracellular signaling. In addition, those carotenoids inhibited antigen-induced translocation of FcϵRI to lipid rafts, which are known as platforms of the aggregation of FcϵRI. We assume that carotenoids may modulate the function of lipid rafts and inhibit the translocation of FcϵRI to lipid rafts. This is the first report that focused on the aggregation of FcϵRI to investigate the mechanism of the inhibitory effects on the degranulation of mast cells and evaluated the functional activity of carotenoids associated with lipid rafts. PMID:19700409

  10. Purification of allergenic proteins from peanut for preparative of the reactive solid phase of a specific IgE radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Moutete, H F; Olszewski, A; Gastin, I; Namour, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guéant, J L

    1995-02-03

    Peanut is one of the most allergenic foods. Detection of specific IgE in the serum of allergic patients requires the purification of allergenic proteins. In the present work, proteins were recovered from peanut kernel after successive treatment in acetone and diethyl ether. The proteins were dissolved in 0.05% TFA and analysed by RP-HPLC with a 0-100% gradient of methanol containing 0.05% TFA. The protein peaks were recovered and tested in SDS-PAGE. Eleven proteins were identified with a M(r) ranging from 13 to 81. Western blotting was performed with sera from allergic patients. Allergenic proteins had a M(r) of 15, 18, 19, 33, 41 and 67. By comparison, a protein fraction from peanut shell contained seven proteins with M(r) ranging from 15 to 81. Only two proteins with M(r) of 18 and 41 were detected in a Western blot. The protein fractions were coupled to epoxy-Sepharose and the gels were used as a solid reactive phase for detection by IgE-RIA of specific IgE from the serum of allergic patients.

  11. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens.

  12. Host antigens on avian oncoviruses: evidence for virus envelope antigens related to specific chicken erythrocyte membrane antigens.

    PubMed

    Aupoix, M; Vigier, P; Blanchet, J P

    1980-01-01

    Avian sarcoma viruses (ASV) of subgroups A to D, produced by chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), are inactivated to a high degree by rabbit antisera to the membrane antigens of adult chicken and chick embryo erythrocytes, notably by antisera to an antigen of embryo erythrocytes, which is lost by adult erythrocytes and to another antigen specific to the latter erythrocytes. Contrary to virus inactivation by anti-CEF serum reported earlier, virus inactivation by the antisera to these two age-specific antigens does not require complement and is not paralleled by virolysis but by aggregation of virions. The two antigens related, or identical, to the age-specific erythrocyte membrane antigens thus shown to be present on the virus envelope do not pre-exist, or pre-exist only in a low amount, on the CEF membrane, since the virus-inactivating capacity of their antisera is not removed by absorption with CEF. Their appearance on the virus does not depend on cell transformation but only on infection, since both antigens are found on a ts ASV mutant produced at restrictive temperature by untransformed CEF and the virus-inactivating capacity of their antisera is removed by absorption with CEF infected with Rous-associated virus (RAV-1). These findings suggest that infection of CEF by avian oncoviruses may elicit the appearance, or enhance the expression at the cell surface of antigens characteristic of another cell type which may contribute to the formation of specific virus budding sites.

  13. Is trimellitic anhydride skin testing a sufficient screening tool for selectively identifying TMA-exposed workers with TMA-specific serum IgE antibodies?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ghosh, Debajyoti; Sublett, Wesley J; Wells, Heather; Levin, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) can elicit specific IgE-mediated immune responses leading to asthma. This single-blinded study investigated the ability of TMA skin testing to identify workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Forty TMA-exposed workers who were previously screened for the presence of TMA-IgG and/or IgE serum specific antibodies were skin tested to a TMA-human serum albumin reagent by nurses blinded to their antibody responses. Findings from skin-prick tests were positive in 8 of 11 workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Intracutaneous testing, performed only on skin prick testing-negative workers, was positive in two additional workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. A significant correlation was found between serum and skin test dilutions eliciting positive responses (ρ = 0.87, P < 0.05; n = 11). TMA skin testing provides an alternative and potentially more practical method for monitoring TMA-exposed workers for developing IgE sensitization.

  14. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed.

  15. Food Allergy in Infants With Atopic Dermatitis: Limitations of Food-Specific IgE Measurements.

    PubMed

    Spergel, Jonathan M; Boguniewicz, Mark; Schneider, Lynda; Hanifin, Jon M; Paller, Amy S; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis (AD) have a higher risk for development of food allergies. The objective of this study was to examine incidence of food allergy development in infants with AD and the predictive value of food-antigen-specific immunoglobulin E measurements. This trial examined the long-term safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus cream 1% in >1000 infants (3-18 months) with mild-to-severe AD without a history of food allergy. Food allergy development was followed throughout a 36-month randomized double-blind phase followed by an open-label (OL) phase up to 33 months. Additionally, sIgE for cow's milk, egg white, peanut, wheat, seafood mix, and soybean was measured by ImmunoCAP at baseline, end of the double-blind phase, and end of OL phase. By the end of the OL phase, 15.9% of infants with AD developed at least 1 food allergy; allergy to peanut was most common (6.6%), followed by cow's milk (4.3%) and egg white (3.9%). Seafood, soybean, and wheat allergies were rare. Levels of sIgE for milk, egg, and peanut increased with severity of AD, as determined by Investigator's Global Assessment score. We assigned sIgE decision points for the 6 foods and tested their ability to predict definite food allergy in this population. Positive predictive values for published and newly developed sIgE decision points were low (<0.6 for all values tested). In a large cohort of infants at risk for development of food allergy, sIgE levels were not clinically useful for predicting food allergy development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Application of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence to Detection of Low Serum Concentrations of Human IgE Antibodies Specific for a Purified Cat Allergen (Fel d1)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Halsey, John F.; Tang, Tiantian; Wetering, Scott Vande; Taine, Elaine; Van Cleve, Mark; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of low concentrations of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human sera using a Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF) microarray platform. The Photonic Crystal (PC) surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cy5, was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed allergen microarray. Surface-based sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify specific IgE antibodies against a highly purified cat allergen (Fel d1). A comparison of the lowest detectable concentration of IgE measured by the PC microarray system and a commercially available clinical analyzer demonstrated that the PCEF microarray system provides higher sensitivity. The PCEF system was able to detect low concentrations of specific IgE (~0.02 kU/L), which is 5 to 17 -fold more sensitive than the commercially available FDA-approved analyzers. In preliminary experiments using multi-allergen arrays, we demonstrate selective simultaneous detection of IgE antibodies to multiple allergens. PMID:26406461

  17. Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to detection of low serum concentrations of human IgE antibodies specific for a purified cat allergen (Fel D1).

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafang; Halsey, John F; Tang, Tiantian; Wetering, Scott Vande; Taine, Elaine; Cleve, Mark Van; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-03-15

    We demonstrate the detection of low concentrations of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human sera using a Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF) microarray platform. The Photonic Crystal (PC) surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cy5, was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed allergen microarray. Surface-based sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify specific IgE antibodies against a highly purified cat allergen (Fel d1). A comparison of the lowest detectable concentration of IgE measured by the PC microarray system and a commercially available clinical analyzer demonstrated that the PCEF microarray system provides higher sensitivity. The PCEF system was able to detect low concentrations of specific IgE (~0.02 kU/L), which is 5-17-fold more sensitive than the commercially available FDA-approved analyzers. In preliminary experiments using multi-allergen arrays, we demonstrate selective simultaneous detection of IgE antibodies to multiple allergens.

  18. Measurement of Ara h 1-, 2-, and 3-specific IgE antibodies is useful in diagnosis of peanut allergy in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Movérare, Robert; Sato, Sakura; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Borres, Magnus P; Komata, Takatsugu

    2012-09-01

    Food challenges are time-consuming, expensive, and not always possible to perform. Therefore, new tools to diagnose food allergy are desired. The aim was to evaluate IgE antibodies to peanut allergens in the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Japanese children using ImmunoCAP(®) and IgE immunoblotting. The study included 2-13-yr-old consecutive patients (n = 57) referred to our specialist clinic for investigation of current peanut allergy using food challenge. All children had a previous doctor's diagnosis of peanut allergy and were on elimination diet. Serum samples were analyzed for IgE reactivity to peanut, recombinant (r) Ara h 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9. IgE immunoblotting (n = 23) was performed using extracts from raw and roasted peanut. Twenty-six of the children failed (allergic group), and 31 passed the peanut challenge (tolerant group). The rAra h 2 ImmunoCAP test was superior in its ability to differentiate between children in the allergic and tolerant groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 84%, respectively (cutoff, 0.35 kU(A)/l). The combination of rAra h 1, 2, and 3 resulted in a higher specificity (94%) when IgE to all of them was the criteria for positivity. ImmunoCAP generally showed a good agreement with immunoblotting using both raw and roasted peanut for IgE reactivity to Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Measurement of IgE antibodies to rAra h 1, 2, and 3 is useful in the diagnosis of peanut allergy and in the investigation of reactions to raw and roasted peanut. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 response to specific allergens in sensitized subjects showing different clinical reactivity to Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M T; Rodriguez-Perez, R; Caballero, M L; Garcia-Alonso, M; Antonicelli, L; Asero, R

    2017-03-01

    Background. Anisakis simplex hypersensitive subjects may be sensitized without clinical allergy, or experience acute symptoms or chronic urticaria induced by raw fish. We studied whether the 3 subgroups differ in IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to specific Anisakis simplex allergens. Methods. 28 Anisakis simplex-hypersensitive adults, 11 with acute symptoms, 9 with chronic urticaria, and 8 sensitized were studied. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 to rAni s 1, 5, 9 and 10 were sought by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to nAni s 4 were determined by WB. Results. IgE to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were found in 8, 3, 2, 5, and 9 sera, respectively. Nine sera did not react to any allergen. IgG1 to Ani s 1, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 5, 16, 14, and 4 sera, respectively. Four sera did not react to any of the 4 allergens. IgG4 to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 10, 0, 2, 6 and 1 sera, respectively. Fifteen subjects did not react to any of the 5 allergens. On ELISA sensitized subjects showed lower IgE and IgG1 levels than patients. IgG4 levels were highest in the sensitized group. The prevalence of IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to any of the studied allergens did not differ between the 3 subgroups. Conclusion. The clinical expression of Anisakis simplex sensitization does not seem to depend on IgE reactivity to a specific allergen of the parasite, nor on the presence of IgG antibodies possibly related with blocking activity.

  20. Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone on allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Tater, Kathy C; Jackson, Hilary A; Paps, Judy; Hammerberg, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    To determine the acute corn-specific serum IgE and IgG, total serum IgE, and clinical responses to s.c. administration of prophylactic vaccines and aluminum adjuvant in corn-allergic dogs. 20 allergic and 8 nonallergic dogs. 17 corn-allergic dogs were vaccinated. Eight clinically normal dogs also were vaccinated as a control group. Serum corn-specific IgE, corn-specific IgG, and total IgE concentrations were measured in each dog before vaccination and 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by use of an ELISA. The corn-allergic dogs also had serum immunoglobulin concentrations measured at 8 and 9 weeks after vaccination. Twenty allergic dogs received a s.c. injection of aluminum adjuvant, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in each dog 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. The allergic dogs were examined during the 8 weeks after aluminum administration for clinical signs of allergic disease. The allergic dogs had significant increases in serum corn-specific IgE and IgG concentrations 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination but not 8 or 9 weeks after vaccination. Control dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations after vaccination. After injection of aluminum adjuvant, the allergic dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations or clinical signs. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG concentrations increase after prophylactic vaccination in allergic dogs but not in clinically normal dogs. Prophylactic vaccination of dogs with food allergies may affect results of serologic allergen-specific immunoglobulin testing performed within 8 weeks after vaccination.

  1. Murine cell-mediated immune response recognizes an enterovirus group-specific antigen(s).

    PubMed Central

    Beck, M A; Tracy, S M

    1989-01-01

    Splenocytes taken from mice inoculated with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) (Nancy) developed an in vitro proliferative response against CVB3 antigen. This response could not be detected earlier than 8 days postinoculation but could be detected up to 28 days after exposure to CB3. CVB3-sensitized splenocytes responded not only to the CVB3 antigen but to other enteroviruses as well. This response was found to be enterovirus specific in that no response was detected to a non-enteroviral picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or to an unrelated influenza virus. The generation of a splenocyte population capable of responding to an enterovirus group antigen(s) was not limited to inoculation of mice with CVB3, as similar responses were generated when mice were inoculated with CVB2. Cell subset depletions revealed that the major cell type responding to the enterovirus group antigen(s) was the CD4+ T cell. Current evidence suggests that the group antigen(s) resides in the structural proteins of the virus, since spleen cells from mice inoculated with a UV-inactivated, highly purified preparation of CVB3 virions also responded in vitro against enteroviral antigens. PMID:2476566

  2. Discordance between Aeroallergen Specific Serum IgE and Skin Testing in Children < 4 years of age

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Gabriele; Nazari, Ramin; Ferastraoaru, Denisa; Parikh, Purvi; Geliebter, Rebecca; Pichardo, Yikania; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic sensitization to aeroallergens in early life has been shown to be a strong risk factor for developing persisting asthma in young children with recurrent wheeze. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the yield of skin prick test (SPT) compared to allergen specific serum IgE testing (sIgE) at identifying aeroallergen sensitization in atopic children < 4 years of age. Methods Concordance between SPT (Greer Laboratories, ComforTen™) and allergen specific sIgE (Immulite 2000™) for 7 common aeroallergens was analyzed in forty atopic inner-city children, 18–48 months of age (mean 36 +/− 9 months) with recurrent wheezing, family history of asthma and/or eczema. Results In 80% of children one or more allergen sensitizations would have been missed if only SPT had been performed, and in 38% of children one or more sensitizations would have been missed if only serum IgE testing had been performed. Agreement and between SPT and sIgE test was fair for most allergens (kappa between −0.04 and 0.50), as was correlation between sIgE levels and SPT grade (rho between 0.21 and 0.55). Children with high total sIgE (≥300 kU/l) were more likely to have sIgE positive tests with negative corresponding skin test (p=0.025). Conclusions Our study showed significant discordance between allergen specific SPT and sIgE testing results for common aeroallergens, suggesting that both SPT and sIgE testing should be done when diagnosing allergic sensitization in young children at high risk of asthma. PMID:23706713

  3. [The comparative study of LUMIWARD immunoassay system and CAP RAST system for determination of specific IgE antibody against mite in infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, M; Sakurai, T; Kodama, S

    1998-08-01

    We determined the levels of specific IgE antibody against mite in 91 infants with atopic dermatitis by CAP RAST system and LUMIWARD immunoassay system, and observed them for about two years. The correlation between CAP RAST and LUMIWARD was weak. The cut off point was set up at 0.06 IU/ml, most of the patients who had asthma attack or whose atopic dermatitis were poorly controlled during two years judged to be positive. In conclusion, the determination of low levels of specific IgE antibody against mite in infants with atopic dermatitis was reliable to prediction of allergy.

  4. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  5. Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Netherwood, Kristina A; Norris, Meredith Somerville; Behrens, Nicole E; Shao, Matt X

    2012-12-14

    Vaccination of horses is performed annually or semi-annually with multiple viral antigens, either in a combination vaccine or as separate injections. While this practice undoubtedly prevents infection from such diseases as rabies, equine influenza, West Nile virus, and equine herpes virus, the procedure is not without repercussions. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock, after vaccination, although uncommon, have increased in incidence in recent years. Studies reported herein document the development of IgE antibodies against non-target antigen components of equine viral vaccines. We hypothesize that viral vaccines can induce an IgE response to non-target antigens, which could elicit an adverse response after vaccination with another viral vaccine containing the same component. In one study IgE responses to components of West Nile virus vaccine were evaluated by ELISA before and after vaccination in 30 horses. In a second five-year study 77 horses were similarly tested for IgE antibodies against bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component of most viral vaccines. Mast cell sensitization was evaluated in horses with high, moderate, and negative serum BSA specific IgE using an intradermal skin test with BSA. Over the five-year period high IgE responder horses showed gradually increasing BSA specific serum IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity, yet none had an adverse event. Sera from horses that had developed adverse vaccine reactions were also tested for IgE antibodies. Several of these horses had extremely high levels of BSA-specific IgE. These data suggest that non-essential protein components of vaccines may sensitize horses for future adverse responses to vaccination.

  6. Persistence of IgE-Associated Allergy and Allergen-Specific IgE despite CD4+ T Cell Loss in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire. PMID:24896832

  7. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire.

  8. Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Oliver T.; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies have long been recognized as the antigen-specific triggers of allergic reactions. This review briefly introduces the established functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity and then focuses on emerging evidencefrom our own investigations as well as those of others that IgE plays important roles in protective immunity against parasites and exerts regulatory influences in the expression of its own receptors, FcεRI and CD23, as well as controlling mast cell homeostasis. We provide an overview of the multifaceted ways in which IgE antibodies contribute to the pathology of food allergy and speculate regarding potential mechanisms of action of IgE blockade. PMID:21682742

  9. Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C

    2011-07-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies have long been recognized as the antigen-specific triggers of allergic reactions. This review briefly introduces the established functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity and then focuses on emerging evidence from our own investigations as well as those of others that IgE plays important roles in protective immunity against parasites and exerts regulatory influences in the expression of its own receptors, FcεRI and CD23, as well as controlling mast cell homeostasis. We provide an overview of the multifaceted ways in which IgE antibodies contribute to the pathology of food allergy and speculate regarding potential mechanisms of action of IgE blockade.

  10. Effects of maternal diet during late pregnancy and lactation on the development of IgE and egg- and milk-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in infants.

    PubMed

    Lilja, G; Dannaeus, A; Foucard, T; Graff-Lonnevig, V; Johansson, S G; Oman, H

    1991-03-01

    The IgE levels and food-allergen-specific IgE- and IgG-antibodies (Ab) to ovalbumin (OA), ovomucoid (OVO) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) were determined up to 18 months of age in 163 infants born to women who were atopic. A high (HIGH group) or a low (REDUCED group) intake of hen's egg and cow's milk by the mother during the third trimester gave no significant differences in the concentrations of IgE or in IgE-Ab (OVO, BLG) and IgG-Ab (OA, OVO, BLG). Similarly, a prolongation of the abstention diet to the early lactation period did not influence the immune response. The IgG-Ab levels to all three food allergens decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) in both study groups between birth and 2 months of age, but then increased significantly (P less than 0.001) between 6 and 18 months of age. The presence in serum of IgE-Ab to OVO (greater than or equal to 0.15 PRU/ml) was associated with significantly higher IgG-Ab levels to OVO at 6 months (P less than 0.001) and at 18 months (P less than 0.05). Infants with positive skin-prick tests (SPT) to OA and OVO showed higher IgG-Ab levels at 6 and 18 months of age than did infants with negative SPT reactions to the two egg allergens. This indicates a relation between the IgE- and IgG-Ab response and it also suggests that some individuals are 'high responders' to both types of immunoglobulin isotypes while others are 'low responders'.

  11. Update on antigen-specific immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sarah A; Walter, Roland B

    2015-06-01

    Among the few drugs that have shown a benefit for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in randomized clinical trials over the last several decades is the CD33 antibody-drug conjugate, gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO). Undoubtedly, this experience has highlighted the value of antigen-specific immunotherapy in AML. A wide variety of therapeutics directed against several different antigens on AML cells are currently explored in preclinical and early clinical studies. On the one hand, these include passive strategies such as unconjugated antibodies targeting one or more antigens, antibodies armed with drugs, toxic proteins, or radionuclides, or adoptive immunotherapies, in particular utilizing T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or modified T cell receptor (TCR) genes; on the other hand, these include active strategies such as vaccinations. With the documented benefit for GO and the emerging data with several classes of therapeutics in other leukemias, in particular small bispecific antibodies and CAR T cells, the future is bright. Nevertheless, a number of important questions related to the choice of target antigen(s), patient population, exact treatment modality, and supportive care needs remain open. Addressing such questions in upcoming studies will ultimately be required to optimize the clinical use of antigen-specific immunotherapies in AML and ensure that such treatments become an effective, versatile tool for this disease for which the outcomes have remained unsatisfactory in many patients.

  12. Specific antigen/antibody interactions measured by force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Dammer, U; Hegner, M; Anselmetti, D; Wagner, P; Dreier, M; Huber, W; Güntherodt, H J

    1996-01-01

    Molecular recognition between biotinylated bovine serum albumin and polyclonal, biotin-directed IG antibodies has been measured directly under various buffer conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that even highly structured molecules such as IgG antibodies preserve their specific affinity to their antigens when probed with an AFM in the force mode. We could measure the rupture force between individual antibody-antigen complexes. The potential and limitations of this new approach for the measurement of individual antigen/antibody interactions and some possible applications are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 PMID:9172770

  13. Performance of a polymer coated silicon microarray for simultaneous detection of food allergen-specific IgE and IgG4.

    PubMed

    Sievers, S; Cretich, M; Gagni, P; Ahrens, B; Grishina, G; Sampson, H A; Niggemann, B; Chiari, M; Beyer, K

    2017-08-01

    Microarray-based component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) has become an accepted tool to detect allergen-specific IgE sensitization towards hundreds of allergens in parallel from one drop of serum. Nevertheless, specificity and sensitivity as well as a simultaneous detection of allergen-specific IgG4 , as a potential parameter for tolerance development, remain to be optimized. We applied the recently introduced silicon chip coated with a functional polymer named copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to the simultaneous detection of food allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 , and compared it with ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC. Inter- and intraslide variation, linearity of signal and working range, sensitivity and application of internal calibrations for IgE and IgG4 were assessed. Native and recombinant allergenic proteins from hen's egg and cow's milk were spotted on silicon chips coated with copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) along with known concentrations for human IgE and IgG4 . A serum pool and 105 patient samples were assessed quantitatively and semi-quantitatively with the ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC and correlated with IgE- and IgG4 -specific fluorescence on silicon microarrays. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 were detected in parallel using two fluorescent dyes with no crosstalk. Results from the ImmunoCAP correlated better with microarray fluorescence than with ImmunoCAP ISAC except for the allergen ovomucoid. The working range of the silicon microarray for total hen's egg-specific IgE was comparable to the range of 0.1 to >100 kUA /L of the ImmunoCAP system, whereas for total cow's milk, the silicon microarray was less sensitive. Detectable allergen-specific IgG4 could be determined only for low concentrations, but still correlated positively with ImmunoCAP results. We confirmed the ability of the polymer coated silicon microarray to be comparably sensitive to the ImmunoCAP ISAC for various food allergens. This suggests that the copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) microarray is a low-cost, self

  14. Predictive value of specific IgE for clinical peanut allergy in children: relationship with eczema, asthma, and setting (primary or secondary care).

    PubMed

    van Veen, Wilma J; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Roberts, Graham; Brand, Paul Lp

    2013-10-10

    The usefulness of peanut specific IgE levels for diagnosing peanut allergy has not been studied in primary and secondary care where most cases of suspected peanut allergy are being evaluated. We aimed to determine the relationship between peanut-specific IgE levels and clinical peanut allergy in peanut-sensitized children and how this was influenced by eczema, asthma and clinical setting (primary or secondary care). We enrolled 280 children (0-18 years) who tested positive for peanut-specific IgE (> 0.35 kU/L) requested by primary and secondary physicians. We used predefined criteria to classify participants into three groups: peanut allergy, no peanut allergy, or possible peanut allergy, based on responses to a validated questionnaire, a detailed food history, and results of oral food challenges.Fifty-two participants (18.6%) were classified as peanut allergy, 190 (67.9%) as no peanut allergy, and 38 (13.6%) as possible peanut allergy. The association between peanut-specific IgE levels and peanut allergy was significant but weak (OR 1.46 for a 10.0 kU/L increase in peanut-specific IgE, 95% CI 1.28-1.67). Eczema was the strongest risk factor for peanut allergy (aOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.07-10.35), adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Asthma was not significantly related to peanut allergy (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 0.90-4.13). Peanut allergy was less likely in primary than in secondary care participants (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.86), at all levels of peanut-specific IgE.The relationship between peanut-specific IgE and peanut allergy in children is weak, is strongly dependent on eczema, and is weaker in primary compared to secondary care. This limits the usefulness of peanut-specific IgE levels in the diagnosis of peanut allergy in children.

  15. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  16. Measurement of IgG, IgA and IgE antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by antigen-binding assay, using a partially purified fraction of mite extract (F4P1).

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M D; Platts-Mills, T A

    1978-01-01

    An extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus culture has been fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and Pevikon block electrophoresis to obtain a partially purified allergen (F4P1). This preparation has a molecular weight of between 15--25,000 Dalton, migrates slowly on electrophoresis, and is colourless in solution. The skin-test reactivity of F1P1 was comparable to that of crude D. pteronyssinus extract. F4P1 was radio-labelled with 125I and used in an antigen-binding radioimmunoassay to measure IgG, IgA and IgE antibody (ab) to D. pteronyssinus. IgG, ab was detected in serum from 32/34 (94%) mite-allergic persons, and from 10/31 (30%) nonallergic persons. IgA ab and IgE ab were found in sera from 22/34 (65%) and 37/34 (79%) allergic persons respectively. Neither IgA nor IgE ab could be detected in sera from non-allergic persons. An excellent correlation was found between radioallergo-sorbent technique (RAST), using crude D. pteronyssinus extract and IgE-binding activity (BA) for F4P1, (r=0.94, P less than 0.001). The antigen-binding assay for IgE BA was as sensitive as RAST, but less sensitive than PK testing. There was a very good quantitative correlation between IgG BA and IgE BA (r = 0.84, P less than 0.001). IgG BA was shown to rise in the serum of three patients treated with injections of D. pteronyssinus extract. PMID:750116

  17. Autoreactive IgE in Chronic Spontaneous/Idiopathic Urticaria and Basophil/Mastocyte Priming Phenomenon, as a Feature of Autoimmune Nature of the Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panaszek, Bernard; Pawłowicz, Robert; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Obojski, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Recent years of research have shed a new light on the role of IgE in immune reactions. It seems to be more than just a contribution to immediate type of allergic response. It appears that monomeric IgE may enhance mast cell activity without cross-linking of FcεRI by IgE specific allergen or autoreactive IgG anti-IgE antibodies. Monomeric IgE molecules are heterogeneous concerning their ability to induce survival and activation of mast cells only by binding the IgE to FcεRI, but not affecting degranulation of cells. It also turned out that IgE may react to autoantigens occurring in the blood not only in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) but also in other autoimmune diseases. The aforementioned phenomena may promote the activity of mast cells/basophils in CSU that easily degranulate when influenced by various inner (autoreactive IgG against IgE and FcεRI, autoreactive IgE for self-antigens) and outer factors (cold, heat, pressure) or allergens. These findings forced the new approach to the role of autoimmunity, self-antigens and IgE autoantibodies in the pathology of CSU. CSU put in the scheme of autoreactive IgG and autoreactive IgE seems to be either a kind of an autoimmune disease or a clinical manifestation of some other defined autoimmune diseases or both.

  18. Association Between Specific Timothy Grass Antigens and Changes in Thelper 1 and 2 Cell Responses Following Specific Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Sidney, John; Greenbaum, Jason; Frazier, April; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Different populations of T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Objective We investigated changes in T-helper (Th) cell populations in patients with allergies following specific immunotherapy (SIT). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from patients with allergies who received specific immunotherapy (SIT) and those who did not (controls). We tested the ability of peptides from 93 Timothy grass (TG) proteins to induce T-cell responses (cytokine production). We used ELISPOT and staining assays for intracellular cytokines to measure production of interleukin (IL)4, IL5, IL13, interferon (IFN)γ, and IL10. Results Compared with PBMC from controls, PBMC from patients who received SIT produced lower levels of Th2 cytokines upon incubation with several different TG peptides. These data were used to select 20 peptides to be tested an independent cohort of 20 patients with allergies who received SIT and 20 controls. We again observed a significant decrease in production of Th2 cytokines, and an increase in production of the Th1 cytokine IFNγ, in PBMC from the validation groups. These changes correlated with improved symptoms after SIT. Immunization with this selected pool of peptides (or their associated antigens) could protect a substantial proportion of the population from TG allergy. Conclusions We observed a significant decrease in production of Th2 cytokines by PBMC from patients who received SIT for TG allergy, compared with those who did not. These changes might be used to monitor response to therapy. The decrease occurred in response to antigens that elicit little (if any) immunoglobulin (Ig)E responses; these antigens might be developed for use in immunotherapy. PMID:25042980

  19. Is peanut causing food allergy in Cuba? Preliminary assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis; Torralba-Averoff, Damaris; Cruz-Jimenez, Rayza; Oliva-Díaz, Yunia; Álvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Ciria-Martín, Alexander; Jiménez-Frandín, Marlene; Reyes-Zamora, Mary Carmen; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Tamargo-García, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Peanut allergy is increasing at an alarming pace in developed countries. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a common food in Cuba. Nevertheless, reported values of sensitization and symptom severity are usually low. As our objective, we carried out an evaluation of allergic sensitivity to perform an assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients. The Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed for each patient, using two glycerinated allergenic extracts, prepared from raw or roasted peanuts. Overall, 316 food allergic patients (159 adults and 157 children) attending allergy services at four hospitals in Havana were included, as well as 303 adult non- allergic volunteers. The IgE binding profile of 26 selected SPT positive patients was further analyzed by immunoblotting. The prevalence of sensitization to peanut was 4.6% in general adult population, whereas in adult food-allergic patients it was 18.6%. Prevalence rates were even greater in food allergic children achieving 25.8%. Sensitization frequencies were apparently greater for roasted, as compared to raw peanuts, although the difference was not significant (p> 0.05, Mc Nemar's). IgE binding was shown mostly by the 15 and 17 kDa bands, tentatively identified as the major allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. The IgG4 binding profile was similar to IgE, although with more prominence of the bands at 37 and 28 KDa, corresponding to an Ara h 3 fragment and Peanut Agglutinin. The study estimated a relatively high prevalence of peanut sensitization in population. Data reported here suggest that IgE sensitization in Cuban patients is focused mostly on MW bands corresponding to the major allergens Ara h 6 and Ara h 2. Sensitization to peanut allergen is indeed relatively frequent in Cuba. The IgE profile is congruent to a sensitization pattern by ingestion of roasted peanuts and is directed to well-known major allergens.

  20. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Specific IgE to Hymenoptera Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Pfender, Nikolai; Lucassen, Ralf; Offermann, Nadine; Schulte-Pelkum, Johannes; Fooke, Margrit; Jakob, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Allergy Lateral Flow Assay (ALFA) is a novel rapid assay for the detection of sIgE to allergens. The objective of this study is the evaluation of ALFA for the detection of sIgE to bee venom (BV) and wasp venom (WV) in insect venom allergic patients. Methods. Specific IgE to BV and WV was analyzed by ALFA, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP in 80 insect venom allergic patients and 60 control sera. Sensitivity and specificity of ALFA and correlation of ALFA and ImmunoCAP results were calculated. Results. The sensitivity/specificity of ALFA to the diagnosis was 100%/83% for BV and 82%/97% for WV. For insect venom allergic patients, the Spearman correlation coefficient for ALFA versus ImmunoCAP was 0.79 for BV and 0.80 for WV. However, significant differences in the negative control groups were observed. Conclusion. ALFA represents a simple, robust, and reliable tool for the rapid detection of sIgE to insect venoms. PMID:22500188

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Histoplasma Antigen Detection by Enzyme Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Lauren; Cook, Audrey; Hanzlicek, Andrew; Harkin, Kenneth; Wheat, Joseph; Goad, Carla; Kirsch, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on urine samples for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs. This retrospective medical records review included canine cases with urine samples submitted for Histoplasma EIA antigen assay between 2007 and 2011 from three veterinary institutions. Cases for which urine samples were submitted for Histoplasma antigen testing were reviewed and compared to the gold standard of finding Histoplasma organisms or an alternative diagnosis on cytology or histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and the kappa coefficient and associated confidence interval were calculated for the EIA-based Histoplasma antigen assay. Sixty cases met the inclusion criteria. Seventeen cases were considered true positives based on identification of the organism, and 41 cases were considered true negatives with an alternative definitive diagnosis. Two cases were considered false negatives, and there were no false positives. Sensitivity was 89.47% and the negative predictive value was 95.35%. Specificity and the positive predictive value were both 100%. The kappa coefficient was 0.9207 (95% confidence interval, 0.8131-1). The Histoplasma antigen EIA test demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs.

  2. Antigen-specific immune reactions to ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Urra, Xabier; Miró, Francesc; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain proteins are detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of stroke patients and their concentration is related to the extent of brain damage. Antibodies against brain antigens develop after stroke, suggesting a humoral immune response to the brain injury. Furthermore, induced immune tolerance is beneficial in animal models of cerebral ischemia. The presence of circulating T cells sensitized against brain antigens, and antigen presenting cells (APCs) carrying brain antigens in draining lymphoid tissue of stroke patients support the notion that stroke might induce antigen-specific immune responses. After stroke, brain proteins that are normally hidden from the periphery, inflammatory mediators, and danger signals can exit the brain through several efflux routes. They can reach the blood after leaking out of the damaged blood-brain barrier (BBB) or following the drainage of interstitial fluid to the dural venous sinus, or reach the cervical lymph nodes through the nasal lymphatics following CSF drainage along the arachnoid sheaths of nerves across the nasal submucosa. The route and mode of access of brain antigens to lymphoid tissue could influence the type of response. Central and peripheral tolerance prevents autoimmunity, but the actual mechanisms of tolerance to brain antigens released into the periphery in the presence of inflammation, danger signals, and APCs, are not fully characterized. Stroke does not systematically trigger autoimmunity, but under certain circumstances, such as pronounced systemic inflammation or infection, autoreactive T cells could escape the tolerance controls. Further investigation is needed to elucidate whether antigen-specific immune events could underlie neurological complications impairing recovery from stroke. PMID:25309322

  3. Establishing a cut-off for the serum levels of specific IgE to milk and its components for cow's milk allergy: results from a specific population.

    PubMed

    Castro, A P; Pastorino, A C; Gushken, A K F; Kokron, C M; Filho, U D; Jacob, C M A

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy diagnosis many times requires double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), which presents high accuracy but involves risks, specifically in infants and anaphylactic patients. The identification of the cut-off values for specific IgE to milk or its components would contribute to cow's milk allergy (CMA) diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare discriminating concentration of a cow's milk specific IgE and its fractions (α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, casein) in children for the CMA diagnosis. this study included 123 patients (M:F=1.3:1) median age at diagnosis=1.91 years, (3.5m to 13.21y) with CMA diagnosis via DBPCFC (n=26), proven anaphylaxis due to cow's milk (n=46) or a suggestive clinical history associated with a positive skin prick test (n=51) and open oral food challenge. The control group included 61 patients (1 male:1.1 female) ages ranging from 0.66 to 16.7 years (median=6.83 years). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the best cut-offs that guarantees high specificity (>95%) for cow's milk and its components. considering 98% specificity, cut-off points were: 3.06 kU/L for cow's milk, 2.06 kU/L for α-lactalbumin, 1.85 kU/L for β-lactoglobulin and 1.47kU/L for casein. The best ROC curve (area under the curve=0.929) was obtained evaluating cow's milk. this study showed that the cut-off point detected for whole cow's milk revealed a better discriminatory capacity for CMA diagnosis without the necessity of the milk components testing. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Fetal- and uterine-specific antigens in human amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, R G; Brock, D J; Nicholson, L V; Dunn, E

    1978-09-01

    Removal of the major maternal serum proteins from second trimester amniotic fluid by antibody affinity chromatography revealed various soluble tissue antigens, of which two were fetal-specific skin proteins and another, of alpha2-mobility, was specific to the uterus, and was therefore designated alpha-uterine protein (AUP). These proteins could not be detected in maternal serum by antibody-antigen crossed electrophoresis. The concentration of AUP in amniotic fluid reached a maximum between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation, suggesting that there is an influx of uterine protein into the amniotic fluid at this stage of pregnancy.

  5. Use of immunoblotting in testing Madurella mycetomatis specific antigen

    PubMed Central

    ELbadawi, Hana S.; Mahgoub, Elsheikh; Mahmoud, Najwa; Fahal, Ahmed H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Though serodiagnosis of actinomycetoma is established, that of eumycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis is limited because of lack of pure antigen. Reliable rapid tests are needed to make an accurate timely diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to detect antigen parts of M. mycetomatis, which act specifically with M. mycetomatis antibodies. Methods Cytoplasmic antigen was prepared from molecularly identified cultures of M. mycetomatis by sonication, ultracentrifugation, dried, weighed and appropriately reconstituted. M. mycetomatis cytoplasmic antigen were separated using 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, and immunoblotting to detect the reactive ones. Immunoblotting was carried out in nitrocellulose strips containing different molecular size. Sera from patients and co-patients as control were used. Results When stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R 250 seven molecular weights appeared but only three, 45, 60, 95 kDa reacted with M. mycetomatis patients few from control group, one from a malaria patient. No reactive band was observed with sera from actinomycetoma, Aspergillus flavus-associated aspergillosis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, fungal sinusitis nor healthy controls. Conclusions Specific fractions of M. mycetomatis antigen which were demonstrated by immunoblotting showed 75% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The true negative tests were 14 patients (32.5%). This also means that immunoblotting is reasonably reliable in diagnosis and follow-up of eumycetoma patients. PMID:27198216

  6. Central Tolerance to Tissue-specific Antigens Mediated by Direct and Indirect Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Alena M.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Intrathymic expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) by medullary thymic epithelial cells (Mtecs) leads to deletion of autoreactive T cells. However, because Mtecs are known to be poor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for tolerance to ubiquitous antigens, and very few Mtecs express a given TSA, it was unclear if central tolerance to TSA was induced directly by Mtec antigen presentation or indirectly by thymic bone marrow (BM)-derived cells via cross-presentation. We show that professional BM-derived APCs acquire TSAs from Mtecs and delete autoreactive CD8 and CD4 T cells. Although direct antigen presentation by Mtecs did not delete the CD4 T cell population tested in this study, Mtec presentation efficiently deleted both monoclonal and polyclonal populations of CD8 T cells. For developing CD8 T cells, deletion by BM-derived APC and by Mtec presentation occurred abruptly at the transitional, CD4high CD8low TCRintermediate stage, presumably as the cells transit from the cortex to the medulla. These studies reveal a cooperative relationship between Mtecs and BM-derived cells in thymic elimination of autoreactive T cells. Although Mtecs synthesize TSAs and delete a subset of autoreactive T cells, BM-derived cells extend the range of clonal deletion by cross-presenting antigen captured from Mtecs. PMID:15492126

  7. Antigen-specific immune responses to influenza vaccine in utero

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Deepa; Wang, Chaodong; Mao, Xia; Lendor, Cynthia; Rothman, Paul B.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    Initial immune responses to allergens may occur before birth, thereby modulating the subsequent development of atopy. This paradigm remains controversial, however, due to the inability to identify antigen-specific T cells in cord blood. The advent of MHC tetramers has revolutionized the detection of antigen-specific T cells. Tetramer staining of cord blood after CMV infection has demonstrated that effective CD8+ antigen-specific immune responses can follow intrauterine viral infections. We hypothesized that sensitization to antigens occurs in utero in humans. We studied cord blood B and T cell immune responses following vaccination against influenza during pregnancy. Anti-Fluzone and anti-matrix protein IgM antibodies were detected in 38.5% (27 of 70) and 40.0% (28 of 70), respectively, of cord blood specimens. Using MHC tetramers, HA-specific CD4+ T cells were detected among 25.0% (3 of 12) and 42.9% (6 of 14) of cord blood specimens possessing DRB1*0101 and DRB1*0401 HLA types, respectively, and were detected even when the DRB1 HLA type was inherited from the father. Matrix protein–specific CD8+ T cells were detected among 10.0% (2 of 20) of HLA-A*0201+ newborns. These results suggest that B and T cell immune responses occur in the fetus following vaccination against influenza and have important implications for determining when immune responses to environmental exposures begin. PMID:17549258

  8. The Immunomodulating Effect of a Diet Consisting of Green Vegetables, Beef, Whole Milk and Full-Fat Butter for Children with Non-Specific Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, Ellen Jose; Forbes, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific elevated IgE and allergies are common in children, and their prevalence is increasing. Dietary changes could be an explanation for this increase. Zinc, iron, vitamins A, C and E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids all play possible roles in the etiology and possible treatment of allergies due to their numerous immunomodulating properties. To investigate the immunomodulating effect of recommending a nutrient-rich diet consisting of green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter. We conducted a case-controlled, non-randomized, retrospective study. Children between the ages of 1 and 18 years with non-specific elevated IgE were included. Baseline and follow-up measurements of serum total IgE and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared for 49 children who received the dietary advice (to eat green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter) and 56 children who did not. The initial analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in IgE in the intervention group compared to the control group; a 9.2 kU/l versus a 0.1 kU/l decrease, respectively (P = 0.02). When supplement (vitamin D) use was taken into account, however, no significant difference was produced by the dietary effect alone (unstandardized coefficient = 71.3 kU/l, P = 0.16). 53.2 % of participants in the intervention group reported considerable improvement in symptoms versus 28.6 % in the control group (P < 0.001). Overall, the effects of nutrients and vitamins on the decrease in IgE are promising. The separate contributions of dietary advice and/or supplements need to be investigated in the future.

  9. Evaluation of the prevalence of antiwheat-, anti-flour dust, and anti-alpha-amylase specific IgE antibodies in US blood donors.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Raymond E; MacKenzie, Barbara A; Sammons, Deborah L; Smith, Jerome P; Striley, Cynthia A F; Robertson, Shirley K; Snawder, John E

    2004-06-01

    Asthma in bakery workers is one of the most frequently occurring forms of occupational asthma in the world. Experience from other countries has shown the prevalence of sensitization (IgE) to bakery-associated allergens (BAAs) (wheat [W], flour dust [FD], alpha-amylase [AA]) in bakery workers to be 5% to 53%, whereas the prevalence in nonoccupationally exposed individuals was estimated to be 1.2% to 6.4%. To estimate the prevalence of BAA sensitization by measuring BAA specific IgE in the residual serum tubes of volunteer blood donors. Serum samples from 534 volunteer blood donors were measured for anti-W, anti-FD, and anti-AA specific IgE antibodies (in duplicate) using the AlaSTAT microplate assay. Samples with BAA IgE concentrations of 0.35 kU/L or greater were considered positive. Nineteen of 530 serum samples (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3%-3.9%) were positive for W (range, 0.38-3.61 kU/L), whereas 31 of 534 (5.8%; 95% CI, 5.3%-6.3%) were positive for FD (range, 0.35-2.34 kU/L) and 5 of 529 (1.0%; 95% CI, 0.9%-1.1%) were positive for AA (range, 0.38-1.59 kU/L). Thirteen serum samples were positive for both W and FD; 1 sample each was positive for W and AA and FD and AA. The prevalence of IgE sensitization in serum samples from a relatively large unselected population of volunteer blood donors is 1.0% for AA, 3.6% for W, and 5.8% for FD, which agrees well with data from other countries for sensitization prevalence rates for nonoccupationally exposed individuals.

  10. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  11. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W.; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D.; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.   PMID:26982805

  12. Reflections on current food allergy controversies: specific IgE test application, patch testing, eosinophilic esophagitis, and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Bahna, Sami L

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addresses four selected issues that are current controversies in the area of food allergy. First, the diagnostic proficiency of specific IgE (sIgE) measurement. sIgE testing has been a useful screening test; the higher the level, the more likely to be clinically relevant. However, published predictive values varied from one study to another. Levels derived from data on certain groups of patients reflect probabilities that can not be applied with certainty to individual patients. Several factors need to be considered in interpreting the value of sIgE in any particular patient. Definitive decisions require well-designed challenge testing. Second, a few studies suggested the usefulness of including patch testing in food allergy evaluation. It may reveal positive results that may or may not be clinically relevant. At present, its use is not generally accepted because of inconsistency in the reported findings and the lack of standardization of test materials and interpretation. It may possibly have a role in evaluating eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) more than in atopic dermatitis. Third, EE does not seem to be a new disease or is causing a miniepidemic. Its increasing diagnosis is probably because of a greater awareness and better biopsy assessment. Fourth, the usefulness of probiotics on allergy prevention or treatment has been reported by some studies but not by others. Appropriately designed studies are needed to identify the efficacious type(s) of probiotics, effective doses, method of administration, optimal time to begin, and duration of therapy.

  13. Skin prick tests and specific IgE in 10-year-old children: Agreement and association with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, A; Dalphin, M-L; Mauny, F; Kaulek, V; Schmausser-Hechfellner, E; Renz, H; Riedler, J; Pekkanen, J; Karvonen, A M; Lauener, R; Roduit, C; Vuitton, D A; von Mutius, E; Dalphin, J-C

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of atopic sensitization is pivotal to clinical practice and research. Skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) are often used interchangeably. Some studies have suggested a disagreement between these two methods, and little is known about their association with allergic diseases. The aims of our study were to evaluate agreement between SPT and sIgE, and to compare their association with allergic diseases in 10-year-old children. Skin prick test, sIgE measurements, and assessment of allergic diseases were performed in children aged 10 years in the Protection against Allergy: STUdy in Rural Environments (PASTURE) cohort. The agreement between SPT and sIgE was assessed by Cohen's kappa coefficient with different cutoff values. Skin prick tests and sIgE were performed in 529 children. The highest agreement (κ=.44) was found with a cutoff value of 3 and 5 mm for SPT, and 3.5 IU/mL for sIgE. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained with SPT was not significantly different from that obtained with sIgE. For asthma and hay fever, SPT (cutoff value at 3 mm) had a significantly higher specificity (P<.0001) than sIgE (cutoff value at 0.35 IU/mL) and the specificity was not different between both tests (P=.1088). Skin prick test and sIgE display moderate agreement, but have a similar AUC for allergic diseases. At the cutoff value of 3 mm for SPT and 0.35 IU/mL for sIgE, SPT has a higher specificity for asthma and hay fever than sIgE without difference for sensitivity. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. Predicted complementarity determining regions of the T cell antigen receptor determine antigen specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, C D; Eidelman, F J; Duncan, A; Hooshmand, F; Hedrick, S M

    1995-01-01

    The antigen receptor on T cells (TCR) has been predicted to have a structure similar to a membrane-anchored form of an immunoglobulin F(ab) fragment. Virtually all of the conserved amino acids that are important for inter- and intramolecular interactions in the VH-VL pair are also conserved in the TCR V alpha and V beta chains. A molecular model of the TCR has been constructed by homology and we have used the information from this, as well as the earlier structural predictions of others, to study the basis for specificity. Specifically, regions of a TCR cloned from an antigen-specific T cell were stitched into the corresponding framework of a second TCR. Results indicate that the substitution of amino acid sequences corresponding to the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of immunoglobulin can convey the specificity for antigen and major histocompatibility complex molecules. These data are consistent with a role, but not an exclusive role, for CDR3 in antigen peptide recognition. Images PMID:7534228

  15. A Naturally Occurring Hypoallergenic Variant of Vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris Venom as a Candidate for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E.; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant. PMID:22844463

  16. Monoclonal antibody specific for a pigmentation associated antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.M.; Mattes, M.J.; Old, L.J.; Lloyd, K.O

    1989-01-17

    Monoclonal antibody TA99, which specifically binds to a pigmentation associated antigen present on melanoma cells is described. Additionally, the hybridoma cell line deposited with the ATCC under Accession Number HB 8704 from which the antibody is derived, as well as methods for using the antibody are described.

  17. Diabetes tolerogenic vaccines targeting antigen-specific inflammation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shuang; Zhang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Xian; He, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xie, Xiaoping; Li, Chaofan; He, Zhonghuai; Yu, Qingling; Zhong, Yiwei; Lowrie, Douglas B; Zheng, Guoxing; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance controls the magnitude of inflammation, and balance between beneficial and harmful effects of inflammation is crucial for organ function and survival. Inadequate tolerance leads to various inflammatory diseases. Antigen specific tolerance is ideal for inflammation control as alternative anti-inflammatory interventions are non-specific and consequently increase the risk of infection and tumorigenesis. With inherent antigen specificity, tolerogenic vaccines are potentially ideal for control of inflammation. Although the concept of tolerogenic vaccines is still in its infancy, tolerogenic mucosal vaccines and specific immuno-therapies have long been proven effective in pioneering examples. Now a body of evidence supporting the concept of tolerogenic vaccines has also accumulated. Here we comment on recent successes of the tolerogenic vaccine concept, present new evidence with a type 1 diabetes vaccine as an example and draw conclusions on the advantages and potential for inflammatory disease control at the bedside.

  18. Diabetes tolerogenic vaccines targeting antigen-specific inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Shuang; Zhang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Xian; He, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xie, Xiaoping; Li, Chaofan; He, Zhonghuai; Yu, Qingling; Zhong, Yiwei; Lowrie, Douglas B; Zheng, Guoxing; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance controls the magnitude of inflammation, and balance between beneficial and harmful effects of inflammation is crucial for organ function and survival. Inadequate tolerance leads to various inflammatory diseases. Antigen specific tolerance is ideal for inflammation control as alternative anti-inflammatory interventions are non-specific and consequently increase the risk of infection and tumorigenesis. With inherent antigen specificity, tolerogenic vaccines are potentially ideal for control of inflammation. Although the concept of tolerogenic vaccines is still in its infancy, tolerogenic mucosal vaccines and specific immuno-therapies have long been proven effective in pioneering examples. Now a body of evidence supporting the concept of tolerogenic vaccines has also accumulated. Here we comment on recent successes of the tolerogenic vaccine concept, present new evidence with a type 1 diabetes vaccine as an example and draw conclusions on the advantages and potential for inflammatory disease control at the bedside. PMID:25622092

  19. Allergen component specific ige measurement with the Immulite™ 2000 system: diagnostic accuracy and intermethod comparison.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Danilo; Da Re, Mirella; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Martelli, Paola; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Barrale, Maria; La Chiusa, Stella Maria; Brusca, Ignazio

    2015-03-01

    The identification of the allergenic molecules, associated to the advances in the field of recombinant allergens, led to the development of a new concept in allergy diagnosis called component-resolved diagnosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different allergen components using the full automatic singleplex quantitative platform Immulite™ 2000. One hundred ninety-five allergic outpatients (35 to olive pollen, 35 to birch pollen, 35 to profilin, 35 to house dust mites, 35 to peach, and 20 to shrimp) and 20 negative controls were enrolled for the study. Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ole e 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pru p 3, tropomyosin were tested both with Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Sensitivity of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to Ole e 1, Bet v 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pen m 1, and Pru p 3 with Immulite™ 2000 was 100%, 100%, 77.1%, 94.3%, 71.4%, 94%, 75%, and 97.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for all the allergens. The overall agreement between Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific) platforms was 98.6% (Cohen's kappa = 0.979; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.960-0.997). From moderate to strong, positive linear correlations between the assays (r(2) from 0.322 to 0.860, and Spearman's rho from 0.824 to 0.971) were showed. A high diagnostic accuracy of the sIgE to allergen components measurement with Immulite™ 2000 and a high agreement with ImmunoCAP™ platforms were shown in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Allergen-specific IgE levels against crude mould and storage mite extracts and recombinant mould allergens in sera from horses affected with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Eder, C; Crameri, R; Mayer, C; Eicher, R; Straub, R; Gerber, H; Lazary, S; Marti, E

    2000-03-15

    between healthy and CB-affected animals nor correlations between IgA and IgG or IgE titres could be found. These results show that horses suffering from CB are more often sensitised to some Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata allergens than control horses and that they are partly sensitised to the same fungal proteins as mould-allergic human patients. Furthermore, this study shows that r-allergens allow a much more sensitive determination of specific serum antibody levels by ELISA than crude mould extracts.

  1. Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Kwanghoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Min Ji; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic decision point (DDP) of peanut specific IgE (sIgE) for predicting the outcome of oral food challenge (OFC). We also evaluated the usefulness of sIgE to peanut components (Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9) in diagnosing peanut allergy. Korean children aged over 12 months with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. Diagnosis of peanut allergy was confirmed by an open OFC or through the convincing history of anaphylaxis. Cutoff levels of sIgE to peanut and peanut components were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. Forty-eight children (22 boys and 26 girls) with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. The previously established DDP for peanut-sIgE antibodies (14 kU/L) showed a sensitivity of 22.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value of 60.4% in our study population. The median levels of peanut-sIgE (5.4 kU/L vs 1.1 kU/L, P<0.001) and Ara h 2-sIgE (0.8 kU/L vs 0 kU/L, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the peanut allergy group than in the peanut tolerance group. The peanut-sIgE concentration indicating a PPV of 100% was 10.3 kU/L. The Ara h 2-sIgE level of 4.0 kU/L had a PPV of 100%. Our results showed that the cutoff levels for peanut (10.3 kU/L) and Ara h 2 (4.0 kU/L) established in this study is useful for the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Korean children.

  2. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-Ai; Song, Zhi-Jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost all Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. The prevalence of birch allergy among patients visiting health care during pollen season can be as high as 16.7% in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch allergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 as well as to the major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4. A relatively high number of patients (17.6%) are IgE-sensitized to birch pollen allergen(s) other than Bet v 1. The high prevalence of specific IgE to Mal d 1 and Gly m 4 among Bet v 1-sensitized patients indicates that pollen-food allergy syndrome could be of clinical relevance in China.

  3. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) are suppressed in female C57BL/6N mice exposed to ≥3.75 mg/kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 15 days. To determine if suppression of humoral immunity by PFOA is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa)-dependent and if suppression is associated with specific targeting of T- or B-cells, three separate experiments were conducted: (1) female PPARa constitutive knockout (PPARa KO; B6.129S4-Ppar(tm1Gonz)N12) and wild-type controls (WT; C57BL/6-Tac) exposed to 0, 7.5, or 30 mg PFOA/kg for 15 days were immunized on Day 11 with a T-cell-dependent antigen and sera then collected for measures of antigen-specific lgM titers (TDAR) 5 days later; (2) female C57BL/6N WT mice exposed to 0, 0.94, 1.88, 3.75, or 7.5mg PFOA/kg for 15 days were immunized with a T-cell-independent antigen on Day 11 and sera were then collected foranalyses of antigen-specific lgM titers (TIAR) 7 days later; and (3) splenic lymphocyte phenotypes were assessed in unimmunized female C57BL/6N WT mice exposed to 0, 3.75, or 7.5 mg PFOA/kg for 10 days to investigate effects of PFOA in the absence of specific immunization. Separate groups of mice were immunized with a T-cell-dependent antigen after 11 days of exposure and splenic lymphocyte sub-populations were assessed after 13 or 15 days of exposure to assess numbers of stimulated cells. The results indicated that exposure to ≥1.88mg PFOA/kg suppressed the TIAR; exposure to 30 mg PFOA/k

  4. Determinants of total and specific IgE in infants with atopic dermatitis. ETAC Study Group. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child), a multi-centre predominantly European study to investigate the potential for cetirizine to prevent the development of asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis has completed enrollment: 817 children have been randomised to 18 months' treatment with either active or placebo and a subsequent 18 months of post-treatment follow-up. Results of the therapeutic effects will not be available for some time, but the study has provided an opportunity to investigate influences on sensitization to allergens in a large cohort of 1-2 years olds with already established atopic dermatitis, resident in different countries and in different environments. The study shows that in infants with atopic dermatitis, raised serum total IgE has significantly different determinants from that a specific allergen sensitization. In infancy, increased total IgE is more affected by factors increasing risk of intercurrent infection and non-specific airway inflammation, such as environmental tobacco smoke exposure (p < 0.001) and the use of gas cookers (p = 0.02). Specific allergen sensitization as represented by detectable IgE antibodies is influenced primarily by allergen exposure. In Sweden, low level exposure to allergens is associated with reduced specific allergen sensitization rates even though the infants already have atopic dermatitis.

  5. The transfer of maternal IgE and other immunoglobulins specific for Trichostrongylus colubriformis larval excretory/secretory product to the neonatal lamb.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, A; Shaw, R J; Green, R S; Phegan, M D

    2005-12-15

    The transference of immunoglobulins from six New Zealand Romney ewes to their lambs was examined. Immunoglobulin levels were determined in ewe plasma, colostrum and lamb plasma shortly after birth and before the lambs fed, in lamb plasma 2 days after birth, and lamb plasma, ewe plasma and milk 30 days after parturition. Levels of total IgE, and IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA with specificity for Trichostronglus colubriformis third stage larval secretory/excretory products (TcL3E/S) were determined. Mean levels of total IgE were three times higher in colostrum than in parturient ewe plasma while only trace amounts were detected in milk at 30 days after birth (107.7, 34.3, and 0.2U ml(-1), respectively, differences between means P< or =0.01). Mean total IgE in lamb plasma rose from being undetectable before suckling to levels comparable to those of the ewes by 2 days after birth (21.7U ml(-1)) and then declined to low levels by 30 days (0.4U ml(-1)). Total IgE levels in lamb plasma were significantly correlated with levels in ewe plasma and colostrum (r=0.91, P< or =0.01; r=0.96, P< or =0.003, respectively). The transference of TcL3E/S-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgA was substantial with mean levels of these antibodies in lamb plasma at 2 days comparable to that in parturient ewe plasma (absorbance levels in lamb plasma of 0.283, 0.537, and 0.334, respectively). Proportionally less maternal IgM and IgG2 appeared to be transferred to the lambs (absorbance of 0.112 and 0.081, respectively). Levels of TcL3E/S-specific IgE and IgG1 in lamb plasma at 2 days were significantly correlated with levels in parturient ewe plasma and colostrum (r=0.89 and 0.82, 0.85 and 0.96; all P< or =0.05, respectively). These results indicate that IgE is concentrated in ewe colostrum and that substantial amounts of maternal IgE are transferred to lambs via colostrum. Further, the results suggest that humoral immunity against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites and potentially other parasites in

  6. Cut-off values of serum IgE (total and A. fumigatus -specific) and eosinophil count in differentiating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis from asthma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Garg, Mandeep; Saikia, Biman; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2014-11-01

    The cut-off values of immunological tests employed in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) have never been validated. Herein, we compare the immunological findings in patients with ABPA and asthma using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Consecutive asthmatic subjects underwent all the following investigations: Aspergillus skin test, IgE levels (total and A. fumigatus-specific), Aspergillus precipitins, eosinophil count, chest radiograph and CT chest. There were 372 subjects (179 men, mean age 35.9 years) with a mean asthma duration of 8 years. ABPA was diagnosed in 76 patients (64 bronchiectasis, 12 without bronchiectasis). ABPA was separated from asthma using the best cut-off values of total IgE, A. fumigatus IgE and total eosinophil count of 2347 IU ml(-1) , 1.91 kUA l(-1) and 507 cells per μl respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of these parameters were 87/81%; 99/87%; and, 79/76% respectively. The corresponding AUC values were 0.95, 0.90 and 0.82 respectively. The combination of these three tests at the aforementioned cut-offs provided 100% specificity. Our study provides evidence-based cut-off values of IgE (total and A. fumigatus-specific) and eosinophil counts in differentiating ABPA from asthma. As this is a single centre retrospective study, further studies from different centres are required, as these values could vary by ethnicity and environmental exposure. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Allergy to Red Meat: A Diagnosis Made by the Patient and Confirmed by an Assay for IgE Antibodies Specific for Alpha-1,3-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Kourouma, Sarah; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Allou, Ange S.; Diabate, Almamy; Djeha, Djokouehi; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Yoboue, Yao Pauline

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of allergy to red meat observed in Ivory Coast. A 49-year-old male presented with pruritus. The diagnosis of allergy to red meat was confirmed by an assay for IgE antibodies specific for alpha-1,3 galactose. Interestingly, the disease was considered a spell to the patient who was suspected of being a sorcerer by the community. PMID:26933408

  8. Serum concentrations of allergen-specific IgE in horses with equine recurrent airway obstruction and healthy controls assessed by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedz, Artur; Jaworski, Zbigniew; Kubiak, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves, is one of the most common respiratory problems in older horses. When RAO-affected horses stay pastured or in a dust-free environment for a prolonged time, clinical signs as well as airway inflammation wane. A number of environmental, immunologic, infectious, and genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of RAO, and the immunologic basis of this disease is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE in the serum of horses suffering from RAO and healthy controls. The study included a group of 14 adult Polish Konik horses, kept in a standardized environment, and divided into 2 groups: 7 horses which did not have any respiratory problems comprised the control group and 7 horses with a history of RAO constituted the study group. A clinical and laboratory evaluation, endoscopic examination, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in all horses. Sera of all horses were tested against allergens from 9 molds and 3 mites using the Heska Allercept assay. In the serologic tests, a statistically significant difference between both groups was found for specific IgE against mites, wherein Tyrophagus putrescentia correlated most clearly with RAO. There was no difference between groups for IgE specific against molds. On the basis of our observations and results, we conclude that RAO is associated with increased serum concentrations of specific serum IgE against mites, in particular T putrescentia. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Suppression of Antigen-Specific Lymphocyte Activation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David; Pride, Michael W.; Brown, Eric L.; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in astronauts during and after spaceflight, and in isolated immune cells in true and simulated microgravity. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T cells is severely suppressed in true and simulated microgravity. These recent findings with various polyclonal activators suggests a suppression of oligoclonal lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR), as a model for a primary immune response; a tetanus toxoid (TT) response and a B. burgdorferi (Bb) response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  10. Comparison of techniques for the detection of monocyte specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Jager, M J; Thompson, J S; Claas, F H; Van Rood, J J

    1985-10-10

    Monocyte specific antigens are relevant in renal and bone marrow transplantation, but a reproducible monocyte-antigen system has not yet been recognized. In order to establish a sensitive test system with reproducible results in monocyte serology, 3 different monocyte cytotoxicity techniques were compared. In our hands the two-colour fluorescence test on post-Ficoll total leukocyte suspensions fulfilled the criteria. This technique was used to screen sera from multiparous women and renal transplant recipients for the presence of monocyte specific antibodies. By testing sera on cells from individuals who were HLA compatible with the serum donors, anti-HLA reactions were excluded. Several promising sera containing monocyte specific antibodies were identified, thus indicating the success of our approach.

  11. Induction of antigen-specific T suppressor cells by soluble Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    In naturally acquired paracoccidioidomycosis, patients have depressed in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. In addition, it has been reported that these patients have significant levels of circulating paracoccidioidal antigen in their sera. The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of P. brasiliensis antigen on the CMI responses in a mouse model. On the basis of findings with other fungal agents, we predicted that circulating paracoccidioidal antigen may be inducing suppressor cells which modulate the CMI response. In this study, we show (i) that a soluble P. brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into mice induces reasonably high levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in CBA/J mice; (ii) that Pb.Ag elicits DTH reactions specific for P. brasiliensis when injected into footpads of immunized mice; and (iii) that an intravenous injection of Pb.Ag induces a population of lymph node and spleen cells which, upon adoptive transfer, suppress the afferent limb of the DTH response to paracoccidioidal antigen. The afferent suppressor cells can be detected in spleens as early as 5 days after Pb.Ag treatment, are present in significant numbers by 7 days in both spleens and lymph nodes, and are virtually absent by 14 days. In contrast, at 14 days after antigen injection, efferent suppressor cells were detected in spleens and lymph nodes. The Pb.Ag-induced afferent suppressor cells specifically inhibit the antiparacoccidioidal DTH response. They are nylon wool-nonadherent cells, and their activity is abrogated by anti-Thy-1 and complement treatment, indicating that they are T lymphocytes. The phenotype of these afferent suppressor T cells is L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+. The Pb.Ag-specific suppressor cells described in this paper are similar to the Ts1 cells in the azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, and

  12. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, N. Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism. PMID:26163514

  13. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-09-04

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism.

  14. Flow cytometric investigation of non-specific erythrocyte antigens.

    PubMed

    Ernst, M; Sonneborn, H H

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies submitted to the Third Workshop on Erythrocyte Antigens from the panel "non-specific erythrocyte antigens" were tested for their reactivity with different types of cells. Most of them were defined as specific for adhesion antigens. The CD 44 antibodies 2D3-1, 2D3-2, 2D3-3 and 2D3-4 reacted as expected for CD 44 except their negative reactivity with the myeloid cell line HL 60 and B-cell line Raji. The CD 47 antibodies 2D3-5 and 2D3-6 reacted specific. Only with Raji and T-cell line MOLT 4 the CD 58 antibodies 2D3-7 and 2D3-8 showed reactivity as expected which indicates that they are "CD 58 related". The CD 99 antibody 2D3-9 shows similar results as expected for a CD 99 specific antibody except its high reactivity against Raji. From the RBC-related antibodies 2D3-11 and 2D3-12 the latter becomes completely negative with trypsin treated erythrocytes. The antibody is negative on normal peripheral blood lymphocytes but reacts with transformed cell lines like Raji and MOLT 4. With a view to their reactivity to the cells tested at least 2D3-13 of the Rh-related antibodies seems to be similar to CD 47 antibodies.

  15. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D; Pride, M W; Brown, E L; Risin, D; Pellis, N R

    2001-02-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  16. Antigen specificity can be irrelevant to immunocytokine efficacy and biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Alice; Kwan, Byron H.; Opel, Cary F.; Navaratna, Tejas; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine therapy can activate potent, sustained antitumor responses, but collateral toxicity often limits dosages. Although antibody–cytokine fusions (immunocytokines) have been designed with the intent to localize cytokine activity, systemic dose-limiting side effects are not fully ameliorated by attempted tumor targeting. Using the s.c. B16F10 melanoma model, we found that a nontoxic dose of IL-2 immunocytokine synergized with tumor-specific antibody to significantly enhance therapeutic outcomes compared with immunocytokine monotherapy, concomitant with increased tumor saturation and intratumoral cytokine responses. Examination of cell subset biodistribution showed that the immunocytokine associated mainly with IL-2R–expressing innate immune cells, with more bound immunocytokine present in systemic organs than the tumor microenvironment. More surprisingly, immunocytokine antigen specificity and Fcγ receptor interactions did not seem necessary for therapeutic efficacy or biodistribution patterns because immunocytokines with irrelevant specificity and/or inactive mutant Fc domains behaved similarly to tumor-specific immunocytokine. IL-2–IL-2R interactions, rather than antibody–antigen targeting, dictated immunocytokine localization; however, the lack of tumor targeting did not preclude successful antibody combination therapy. Mathematical modeling revealed immunocytokine size as another driver of antigen targeting efficiency. This work presents a safe, straightforward strategy for augmenting immunocytokine efficacy by supplementary antibody dosing and explores underappreciated factors that can subvert efforts to purposefully alter cytokine biodistribution. PMID:25733854

  17. Antigen specificity can be irrelevant to immunocytokine efficacy and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Alice; Kwan, Byron H; Opel, Cary F; Navaratna, Tejas; Wittrup, K Dane

    2015-03-17

    Cytokine therapy can activate potent, sustained antitumor responses, but collateral toxicity often limits dosages. Although antibody-cytokine fusions (immunocytokines) have been designed with the intent to localize cytokine activity, systemic dose-limiting side effects are not fully ameliorated by attempted tumor targeting. Using the s.c. B16F10 melanoma model, we found that a nontoxic dose of IL-2 immunocytokine synergized with tumor-specific antibody to significantly enhance therapeutic outcomes compared with immunocytokine monotherapy, concomitant with increased tumor saturation and intratumoral cytokine responses. Examination of cell subset biodistribution showed that the immunocytokine associated mainly with IL-2R-expressing innate immune cells, with more bound immunocytokine present in systemic organs than the tumor microenvironment. More surprisingly, immunocytokine antigen specificity and Fcγ receptor interactions did not seem necessary for therapeutic efficacy or biodistribution patterns because immunocytokines with irrelevant specificity and/or inactive mutant Fc domains behaved similarly to tumor-specific immunocytokine. IL-2-IL-2R interactions, rather than antibody-antigen targeting, dictated immunocytokine localization; however, the lack of tumor targeting did not preclude successful antibody combination therapy. Mathematical modeling revealed immunocytokine size as another driver of antigen targeting efficiency. This work presents a safe, straightforward strategy for augmenting immunocytokine efficacy by supplementary antibody dosing and explores underappreciated factors that can subvert efforts to purposefully alter cytokine biodistribution.

  18. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  19. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  20. A TYPE-SPECIFIC ANTIGENIC PROTEIN DERIVED FROM THE STAPHYLOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Verwey, W. F.

    1940-01-01

    Chemical extraction of lyophilized and ground staphylococci of type A has yielded a type-specific, antigenic fraction which has been shown to be protein. In precipitin tests this fraction reacts in high dilution with homologous immune sera prepared by the injection of animals either with the whole organisms or with the protein itself. Reactions with sera prepared against heterologous types of staphylococci occur only in low dilutions. The type specificity of this fraction has been found to be entirely independent of that of the type-specific carbohydrate described by Julianelle and Wieghard. PMID:19870987

  1. Gallium-68 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Iravani, Amir

    2017-04-01

    The role of gallium-68 ((68)Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging is evolving and finding its place in the imaging armamentarium for prostate cancer (PCa). Despite the progress of conventional imaging strategies, significant limitations remain, including identification of small-volume disease and assessment of bone. Clinical studies have demonstrated that (68)Ga-PSMA is a promising tracer for detection of PCa metastases, even in patients with low prostate-specific antigen. To provide an accurate interpretation of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/computed tomography, nuclear medicine specialists and radiologists should be familiar with physiologic (68)Ga-PSMA uptake, common variants, patterns of locoregional and distant spread of PCa, and inherent pitfalls.

  2. Hay fever and predictive value of prick test and specific IgE antibodies: a prospective study in children.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Torsten; Hoelscher, Bernd; Adam, Horst; Ring, Johannes; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2003-04-01

    Little is known from population-based studies in children about the diagnostic values of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (RAST) and skin prick test (SPT) with respect to hay fever. We aimed to determine and compare the diagnostic values of SPT and RAST to aeroallergens with respect to the incidence of hay fever cases in schoolchildren at different cut-off points. A prospective cohort study was performed on 1100 school children (5-7 and 8-10 years). Information on a doctor's diagnosis of hay fever was obtained by questionnaire and allergic sensitization to grass and birch pollen, cat, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were measured using SPT and RAST between September 1992 and July 1993. Thirty-eight children give a history of hay fever (3.5%) in 1992/93 and additionally 37 cases occurred until 1996. Allergic sensitization was present in 17.9% (SPT), 30.2% (RAST) and more frequent in children with a history of hay fever (SPT: OR 11.7, 5.5-24.7; RAST: OR 10.6, 4.3-26.4). This difference was most pronounced for sensitization to pollen allergens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for SPT and RAST were 65.6, 83.7, 11.9, 98.6 and 79.3, 71.6, 9.3, 99.0, respectively, with differences for specificity being significant (p < 0.001). Whereas NPV were equally high for SPT (99.2) and RAST (99.3), the incidence of hay fever cases were predicted rather poorly though somewhat better by SPT than by RAST (PPV 16.7 vs. 9.8; p < 0.001) initially. With increasing cut-off point for RAST reactivity, the PPV increased and reached 25.0 at 17.5 kU/l, whereas the NPV decreased to 97.9, which was lower than that of SPT reactivity (p < 0.01). At the cut-off point of 1.5 kU/l almost identical predictive values for SPT and RAST were obtained. SPT and RAST perform better in the negative than positive prediction of hay fever cases in epidemiological studies. Differences in the predictive capabilities depend on the chosen cut-off point for RAST

  3. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Katir K; Webley, Wilmore C

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  4. Analysis of T cell responses to the major allergens from German cockroach: epitope specificity and relationship to IgE production.

    PubMed

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Tripple, Victoria; Grey, Howard; Wood, Robert; Broide, David H; Greenbaum, Jason; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Pomés, Anna; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-07-15

    Bla g allergens are major targets of IgE responses associated with cockroach allergies. However, little is known about corresponding T cell responses, despite their potential involvement in immunopathology and the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy. Bioinformatic predictions of the capacity of Bla g 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 peptides to bind HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ molecules, and PBMC responses from 30 allergic donors, identified 25 T cell epitopes. Five immunodominant epitopes accounted for more than half of the response. Bla g 5, the most dominant allergen, accounted for 65% of the response, and Bla g 6 accounted for 20%. Bla g 5 induced both IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, whereas Bla g 6 induced mostly IL-5, and, conversely, Bla g 2 induced only IFN-γ. Thus, responses to allergens within a source are independently regulated, suggesting a critical role for the allergen itself, and not extraneous stimulation from other allergens or copresented immunomodulators. In comparing Ab with T cell responses for several donor/allergen combinations, we detected IgE titers in the absence of detectable T cell responses, suggesting that unlinked T cell-B cell help might support development of IgE responses. Finally, specific immunotherapy resulted in IL-5 down modulation, which was not associated with development of IFN-γ or IL-10 responses to any of the Bla g-derived peptides. In summary, the characteristics of T cell responses to Bla g allergens appear uncorrelated with IgE responses. Monitoring these responses may therefore yield important information relevant to understanding cockroach allergies and their treatment.

  5. Specific Antigen in Serum of Patients with Colon Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Herlyn, Meenhard; Steplewski, Zenon; Sears, Henry F.

    1981-04-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibody specific for colon carcinoma was inhibited by serum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon but not by serum from patients with other bowel diseases or from healthy volunteers. Of other malignancies studied, serum from two patients with gastric carcinoma and two patients with pancreatic carcinoma also inhibited the specific binding of monoclonal antibody. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in these serum samples were not correlated with their levels of binding inhibition. Such monoclonal antibodies may prove useful for the detection of colorectal carcinoma.

  6. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Avid Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Shankar; Shetty, Deepa; Le, Ken; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert; Loh, Han

    2016-10-01

    Ga-PSMA PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate recurrent prostatic malignancy due to its high specificity. A 75-year-old man with a previous history of treated prostate cancer 3 years earlier presented with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT which demonstrated a PSMA-avid focus in the neck of the pancreas. Triple-phase abdominal CT demonstrated enhancement in the arterial phase and to a lesser extent the venous phase of a soft tissue mass in the neck of the pancreas. Cytological and histopathological examination of the soft tissue mass confirmed a low-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

  7. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.

    1986-03-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with /sup 35/S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants.

  8. THE INDIVIDUAL ANTIGENIC SPECIFICITY OF ANTIBODIES TO STREPTOCOCCAL CARBOHYDRATES

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Dietmar G.; Krause, Richard M.

    1968-01-01

    Although a single electrophoretically uniform antibody component with specificity for the group carbohydrate may comprise the bulk of the γ-globulin in rabbits immunized with streptococcal vaccines, this is not always the case. Not infrequently, electrophoresis may reveal multiple antibody components. Nevertheless, it has been feasible by various preparative procedures to isolate from a single antiserum at least two antibody components with similar reactivity for the carbohydrate both of which are electrophoretically monodisperse. Light chains from such antibodies reveal a restricted pattern when examined by disc electrophoresis. Antibodies to streptococcal carbohydrates have been examined for their individual antigenic specificity. Goats were immunized with isolated Group C and Group A-variant antibodies raised in rabbits. Individual antigenic specificity of these antibodies was brought out by absorption of the goat anti-antiserum with Fr II of pooled normal rabbit sera. Additional absorption of the goat anti-antisera with Fr II diminished but did not eliminate the reactivity for the homologous antibody. Immunoelectrophoretic studies with papain fragments of purified streptococcal antibodies localized the specificity to the Fab fragment. Specificity was not confined to the isolated light chains of the antibody. PMID:4176226

  9. Immunochemical properties of antigen-specific monkey T-cell suppressor factor induced with a Streptococcus mutans antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, J R; Zanders, E D; Kontiainen, S; Lehner, T

    1980-01-01

    Antigen-specific suppressor factor could be released from monkey suppressor T cells induced in vitro with a protein antigen isolated from the carcinogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The suppressor activity was due to the factor itself and not to carryover of free antigen. Characterization of the monkey factor revealed it to have a molecular weight of ca. 70,000, and to contain a constant region and determinants encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. The presence of immunoglobulin determinants could not be demonstrated. However, by virtue of its adsorption to specific antigen, an antigen-combining site was shown to be present. The possible regulatory role of streptococcal antigen-specific suppressor factor in protection against dental caries is discussed. PMID:6164645

  10. Baseline specific IgE levels are useful to predict safety of oral immunotherapy in egg-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, M; Alvaro, M; Piquer, M; Dominguez, O; Machinena, A; Martín-Mateos, M A; Plaza, A M

    2014-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for food allergy but dose-related reactions are common. To evaluate safety of egg-OIT. To identify predictors of dose-related reactions. Fifty children aged 5-18 underwent egg-OIT after confirming IgE-mediated egg allergy by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC). All dose-related reactions over a median period of 18 months on-OIT (range: 12-28) were registered. Children were retrospectively divided into three subgroups: (1) children who stopped reacting to OIT-doses over time (RR, Resolved Reactions); (2) children with ongoing dose-related reactions over the whole period on-OIT (PR, Persistent Reactions); (3) children who discontinued OIT within induction phase due to frequent reactions not improved by protocol re-adaptation and medication (ED, Early Discontinuation). Baseline clinical/immunological parameters associated with subgroups were investigated. Reactions occurred in 7.6% of doses. Adrenaline was required in 26% of children. The three subgroups corresponded to three different safety phenotypes: (1) twenty-four children (48%, RR) experienced infrequent and mainly mild reactions that resolved over time. None required adrenaline; (2) seventeen children (34%, PR) experienced more frequent and severe ongoing reactions over time; (3) nine children (18%, ED) discontinued OIT due to very frequent and mainly moderate reactions. Early discontinuation was associated with underlying asthma, higher specific IgE (sIgE) and lower threshold at DBPCFC. In contrast, lower sIgE and less severe reactions at DBPCFC were associated with subgroup RR. sIgE showed excellent performance in predicting belonging to subgroup RR. Levels below the optimal cut-off (ovomucoid-sIgE 8.85 kU/L) indicated 77% probability of belonging to subgroup RR, whereas levels above it indicated 95% probability of early discontinuation or ongoing reactions over time. Egg-OIT involves substantial risks. However, baseline parameters

  11. Diagnostic Decision Points of Specific IgE Concentrations in Korean Children With Egg and Cow's Milk Allergies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Hye Young; Park, Mi Ran; Choi, Jaehee; Shim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Min Ji; Han, Youngshin; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of specific IgE (sIgE) concentrations for the diagnosis of immediate-type egg and cow's milk (CM) allergies in Korean children and to determine the optimal cutoff levels. In this prospective study, children ≥12 months of age with suspected egg or CM allergy were enrolled. Food allergy was diagnosed by an open oral food challenge (OFC) or through the presence of a convincing history after ingestion of egg or CM. The cutoff levels of sIgE for egg white (EW) and CM were determined by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic curves. Out of 273 children, 52 (19.0%) were confirmed to have egg allergy. CM allergy was found in 52 (23.1%) of 225 children. The EW-sIgE concentration indicating a positive predictive value (PPV) of >90% was 28.1 kU/L in children <24 months of age and 22.9 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age. For CM-sIgE, the concentration of 31.4 kU/L in children <24 months of age and 10.1 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age indicated a >90% PPV. EW-sIgE levels of 3.45 kU/L presented a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.6% in children <24 months of age, while 1.80 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age presented a NPV of 99.2%. The CM-sIgE levels of 0.59 kU/L in children <24 months of age and 0.94 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age showed NPVs of 100% and 96.9%. Our results indicate that different diagnostic decision points (DDPs) of sIgE levels should be used for the diagnosis of egg or CM allergy in Korean children. The data also suggest that DDPs with high PPV and high NPV are useful for determining whether OFC is required in children with suspected egg or CM allergy.

  12. Solid modeling and IGES

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.C.

    1985-09-01

    The current status of IGES as concerns solid modeling is described. Covered are the activities of the IGES Solids Committee, planned solids capability for IGES and IGES-PDES by December 1986. One of the key requirements of CIM is data integration. Data are entered once and then made available to all applications. IGES was developed to allow communication of CAD data between different vendor's systems. Originally the requirement was to communicate drawings. IGES Version 3.0 due in October 1985 contains no capability to communicate solids. But as industry moves toward the use of solids, the IGES Committee has been preparing to meet the foreseen need for solids.

  13. Reduced level of sex-specific antigen (H-Y antigen) on lymphocytes in some patients with bilateral cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Fedder, J; Hansen, L G; Hjort, T

    1989-01-01

    Sex-specific (Sxs) antigen on the surface of nucleated cells from normal human males seems to be essential for the formation of testes. The relative quantity of the antigen on lymphocytes was evaluated by absorption experiments in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity test or in an ELISA technique using antisera against Sxs antigen produced by immunization of female rats. Lymphocytes from 13 normal males were Sxs-antigen positive, and cells from 12 normal females were characterized as Sxs-antigen negative. However, in the testing of lymphocytes from nine boys with bilateral cryptorchidism, only six revealed a normal male absorption pattern, whereas the antigen level on cells from three boys, all of them with normal karyotype, was reduced compared with the normal male level. No correlation between Sxs-antigen level and testosterone response after treatment with hCG could be demonstrated.

  14. Differential response in allergen-specific IgE, IgGs, and IgA levels for predicting outcome of oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mayumi; Kamemura, Norio; Nagao, Mizuho; Irahara, Makoto; Kagami, Shoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Kido, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) induces desensitization and/or tolerance in patients with persistent food allergy, but the biomarkers of clinical outcomes remain obscure. Although OIT-induced changes in serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels have been investigated, the response of other allergen-specific IgG subclasses and IgA during OIT remains obscure. A pilot study was conducted to investigate egg OIT-induced changes in allergen-specific IgE, IgG subclasses, and IgA levels and search for possible prediction biomarkers of desensitization. We measured serum levels of egg white-, ovomucoid-, and ovalbumin-specific IgE, IgA, and IgG subclasses by high-sensitivity allergen microarray in 26 children with egg allergy who received rush OIT. Allergen-specific IgE gradually decreased while IgG4 increased during 12-month OIT. Serum levels of IgG1, IgG3, and IgA increased significantly after the rush phase, then decreased during the maintenance phase. IgG2 levels changed in a manner similar to that of IgG4. In particular, significantly high fold increases in egg white-specific IgG1, relative to baseline, after the rush phase and high IgA levels before OIT were observed in responders, compared with low-responders to OIT. Patients who could not keep desensitization showed relatively small changes in all immunoglobulin levels during OIT. The response to OIT was associated with significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgG1 levels after rush phase and high baseline IgA levels, compared with small changes in immunoglobulin response in low-responders. The characteristic IgG1 changes and IgA levels in the responders could be potentially useful biomarkers for the prediction of positive clinical response to OIT. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands for Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Eiber, Matthias; Fendler, Wolfgang P; Rowe, Steven P; Calais, Jeremie; Hofman, Michael S; Maurer, Tobias; Schwarzenboeck, Sarah M; Kratowchil, Clemens; Herrmann, Ken; Giesel, Frederik L

    2017-09-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on most prostate cancer (PC) cells. Therefore, the targeting of PSMA has become increasingly important over the last decade. Glu-urea-based PSMA ligands used for both imaging and radioligand therapy are the mainstays of the current success. For PET imaging, both (68)Ga- and (18)F-labeled agents have been successfully translated to clinical applications. Mainly retrospective cohort studies have shown a high value in the setting of biochemical recurrence, with high detection rates even in the presence of low prostate-specific antigen levels. Preliminary data indicated that radioguided surgery with PSMA ligands may help to further improve patient outcomes because it facilitates the removal of small tumor deposits that are otherwise difficult to detect. For primary PC, PSMA ligand PET imaging has been shown to be superior to cross-sectional imaging for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes. In addition, it promises to also provide intraprostatic tumor localization, especially when used in combination with multiparametric MRI. Increasing numbers of studies have reported considerable changes in management resulting from PSMA ligand PET imaging for both biochemical recurrence and primary disease. The use of (177)Lu-PSMA-based radioligand therapy has demonstrated a reasonable response, mainly as defined by a prostate-specific antigen response of more than 50%, comparable to other recently introduced agents. Especially given the high level of safety of (177)Lu-PSMA radioligand therapy, with only minimal grade 3 and 4 toxicities reported so far, it has the potential to expand options for metastatic castration-resistant PC. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current literature on low-molecular-weight PSMA ligands for both PET imaging and therapeutic approaches, with a focus on agents that have been clinically adopted. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular

  16. Elevated prostate-specific antigen: a case report and analysis.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R J

    1993-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequent concern of the clinician caring for older male patients. The certainty of arriving at the correct diagnosis is related to the presenting patient's risk for prostate cancer, the results of the digital rectal examination, and the value of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). A case report of a patient with acute urinary retention and an elevated PSA is presented. Possible explanations for the elevated PSA are discussed. The clinician's intuitive thought process is compared with an analytic approach using calculated probabilities. Several factors that complicate the estimation of the likelihood of prostate cancer are discussed.

  17. Specific binding of antigen onto human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Charron, D.; Griscelli, C.

    1986-05-01

    Human T lymphocytes sensitized to Candida albicans (CA) were shown to proliferate in cultures induced with mannan, a ramified polysaccharide extracted from the cell well of CA. We presently describe that, when we used strongly labeled (/sup 3/H)mannan, antigen-specific T blast cells were able to bind the labeled mannan on their membrane. The observations that irrelevant blast cells did not bind (/sup 3/H)mannan, and that mannan-specific blast cells did not bind tritiated pneumococcal polysaccharide SIII, indicate the specificity of mannan binding. Mannan binding was reversible and saturable. Mannan binding on T blast cells was inhibited by preincubation with monoclonal antibodies to T3 but not to other T cell-related molecules. The characteristics of this receptor suggest its identity with the T cell receptor for antigen. The direct binding of mannan could be either due to a cross-linking of the receptor by multivalent mannan or to a recognition of mannan in association with HLA-DQ molecules, as suggested by partial blocking of mannan binding using anti-HLA-DQ monoclonal antibodies.

  18. A Monoclonal Antibody Specific to Surface Antigen on Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Raymond; Faure, Odile; Carloti, Arnaud; Lebeau, Bernadette; Bernard, Christian; Marot-Leblond, Agnès; Grillot, Renée; Senet, Jean-Marcel

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb; MAb 6B3) which reacts specifically with a cell wall antigen found in all strains or isolates of Candida krusei was developed. MAb 6B3 was extensively tested by immunofluorescence assay for cross-reaction with many Candida, Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula species and was found to react only with the species C. krusei. The specific epitope is expressed on the surface of fungal cells and appears to reside on a protein moiety. Taking into account the increasing importance of fluconazole-resistant strains in nosocomial fungal infections, the very high degree of specificity of this MAb for C. krusei could be useful for the routine detection of C. krusei in culture or in tissue samples. PMID:9455893

  19. Quantitation of IgE and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement of dot-immunobinding assay patterns visualized by an ELISA technique.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, S; Kimura, H; Tu, C Y; Kitamori, T; Sawada, T

    1993-05-05

    Dot-immunobinding assays of IgE and CEA were performed by a conventional dot-ELISA technique with diaminobenzidine staining, and the quantitative results were compared by densitometry and a new, spectroscopic, optical beam deflection (OBD) method using the same membrane. It was possible with the OBD method to detect quantities of these substances at least ten times smaller than with densitometry. Better intra-assay reproducibility for IgE and CEA measurements was obtained by the OBD method. The measurable ranges of the OBD method was broader than that of densitometry, because dark bands caused OBD in proportion to their color densities. When the dot-immunobinding assay with OBD measurement for CEA was also compared with a microtube ELISA using biotin-avidin conjugates, the sensitivities and reproducibilities of the two methods were found to be similar, with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  20. Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome is not associated with local production of specific IgE in nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Rasp, Julia; Eder, Katharina; Berghaus, Alexander; Kramer, Matthias F; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-06-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is an eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal mucosa without evidence of an allergy or other nasal pathologies. Patients complain about perennial symptoms like nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itchiness and sneezing of the nose sometimes accompanied by hyposmia. The aim of the study was to better characterize NARES patients using immunoassay-biochip technology to examine serum and nasal secretion. Sera and nasal secretion of patients with NARES (perennial nasal symptoms, no evidence of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, negative SX1-Screening test and/or negative skin prick test, eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal secretion >200 ng/ml) were tested by immunoassay-biochip technology (ImmunoCAP(®) ISAC, Phadia). 112 different allergen components from 51 allergen sources were tested on the chip. Furthermore, serum and nasal secretion were tested for specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1 by fluorescence-enzyme-immunoassay (UniCAP(®), Phadia). Unrecognized systemic sensitization could be ruled out by negative ISAC results in sera of all patients. Testing of nasal secretion for allergen-specific IgE by ISAC chip technology was negative as well in all cases. In one patient, a systemic sensitization to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen TSST-1 was detectable but no allergen-specific IgE to TSST-1 was measurable in nasal secretion of any patient. The results demonstrate that NARES is not associated with local allergy (entopy) nor with a local inflammation driven by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1. Further studies are necessary to better understand the underlying mechanisms of NARES.

  1. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  2. Updates of prostate cancer staging: Prostate-specific membrane antigen

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Alastair; Nair, Rajesh; Geurts, Nicolas; Mitchell, Catherine; Lawrentschuk, Nathan L; Moon, Daniel A; Murphy, Declan G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to accurately stage prostate cancer in both the primary and secondary staging setting can have a major impact on management. Until recently radiological staging has relied on computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear bone scans to evaluate the extent of disease. However, the utility of these imaging technologies has been limited by their sensitivity and specificity especially in detecting early recurrence. Functional imaging using positron-emission tomography with a radiolabeled ligand targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen has transformed the prostate cancer imaging landscape. Initial results suggest that it is a substantial improvement over conventional imaging in the setting of recurrence following primary therapy by having a superior ability to detect disease and to do so at an earlier stage. Additionally, it appears that the benefits seen in the secondary staging setting may also exist in the primary staging setting. PMID:27995218

  3. Multiple sclerosis: Skin-induced antigen-specific immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wildner, Paula; Selmaj, Krzysztof W

    2017-10-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly prevalent demyelinating disorder, presumed to be driven by an autoimmune response toward the central nervous system (CNS) components. All currently available treatments modulate the immune system globally and besides the reduction of disease activity, they may also impose considerable disturbances on the immune protective mechanisms. Thus, induction of antigen-specific immune tolerance remains the ultimate goal of MS therapy. Such approach carries promising therapeutic perspectives and, above all, a desirable safety profile. Several studies have been performed to evaluate highly selective, antigen-induced, therapies for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and MS. These trials have also indicated the importance of the antigen administration route. The continued efforts to develop efficient and safe MS therapy gave rise to the idea of incorporating the skin immune system in order to modulate autoimmunity in MS. Skin is the largest immunological organ of human body, and thus provides ample opportunities to modify immune responses. Skin dendritic cells have a significant ability to modulate the immune reactions, promoting either immunity or tolerance. Their capacity to induce tolerance has already been described in several experimental models of MS. In a one-year, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study assessing the effectiveness of transdermal myelin peptides patches, significant changes in the morphology of Langerhans cells (LCs) and shifts in the dendritic cell (DC) populations in the draining lymph nodes have been observed. In addition, patients treated with myelin patches showed a decreased brain inflammatory activity on MRI and a reduced relapse rate. In this review, we further discuss the potential to use skin-induced immune tolerance for MS treatment, with a particular focus on dermal DCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Regulator T cells: specific for antigen and/or antigen receptors?

    PubMed

    Rubin, B; de Durana, Y Diaz; Li, N; Sercarz, E E

    2003-05-01

    Adaptive immune responses are regulated by many different molecular and cellular effectors. Regulator T cells are coming to their rights again, and these T cells seem to have ordinary alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs) and to develop in the thymus. Autoimmune responses are tightly regulated by such regulatory T cells, a phenomenon which is beneficial to the host in autoimmune situations. However, the regulation of autoimmune responses to tumour cells is harmful to the host, as this regulation delays the defence against the outgrowth of neoplastic cells. In the present review, we discuss whether regulatory T cells are specific for antigen and/or for antigen receptors. Our interest in these phenomena comes from the findings that T cells produce many more TCR-alpha and TCR-beta chains than are necessary for surface membrane expression of TCR-alphabeta heterodimers with CD3 complexes. Excess TCR chains are degraded by the proteasomes, and TCR peptides thus become available to the assembly pathway of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Consequently, do T cells express two different identification markers on the cell membrane, the TCR-alphabeta clonotype for recognition by B-cell receptors and clonotypic TCR-alphabeta peptides for recognition by T cells?

  5. Specific affinity between fibronectin and the epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, D T; O'Keefe, E J; McDonald, J A; Reese, M J; Briggaman, R A; Gammon, W R

    1987-01-01

    Autoantibodies in the skin and sera of patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita bind to a large matrix molecule within the lamina densa region of skin basement membrane. At the site of these immune complexes, the epidermis separates from the dermis, which creates a subepidermal blister just below the lamina densa. The target molecule for the autoantibodies is in close apposition to fibronectin, a major extracellular matrix molecule that is abundant in the upper dermis of skin. In this report, we show specific affinity between fibronectin and the 290,000-D chain of the epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen, and that this affinity is mediated by the gelatin/collagen-binding domain of fibronectin (Mr = 60,000). Since blistering in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita often occurs in the absence of clinical and histological inflammation, a direct interruption in the fibronectin-epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen bond may be involved in the pathogenesis of epidermal-dermal disadherence that occurs in this bullous disease. Images PMID:3584471

  6. Recognition of antigen-specific B-cell receptors from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients by synthetic antigen surrogates.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-12-18

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe nonpeptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used to identify other classes of antigen surrogates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of sandwich ELISA for testing bovine β-lactoglobulin allergenic residues by specific polyclonal antibody against human IgE binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    He, Shengfa; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinyan; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-07-15

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main allergen in cows' milk, and the most commonly used method for detecting BLG is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, antibodies used in commercial ELISA kits do not recognize specifically BLG IgE epitopes. Here, an antibody specific to IgE linear epitopes for BLG was used to develop a sandwich ELISA using a rabbit anti-BLG polyclonal antibody. The linear range for BLG detection was 31.25-8000ng/mL and limit of detection was 1.96ng/mL. BLG content in dairy samples was determined, and there was a good agreement between this immunoassay and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high recovery. Additionally, BLG content in food samples had an average recovery of 104.25%. Allergenic residues were also detected in hydrolyzed infant formulas. The method developed could be a practical approach to determine BLG and its allergenic residues in food with a high degree of sensitivity, reliability and recovery.

  8. Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Kristi; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Singer, Kathleen; Panduro, Marisella; Lexmond, Willem S.; Turner, Devin; Vargas, Sara O.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Maurer, Dieter; Baron, Rebecca M.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated crosslinking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcεRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcεRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcεRI signals for DC function remain poorly understood. We show that humanized mice that express FcεRI on DCs carry IgE like non-allergic humans and do not develop spontaneous allergies. Antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking fails to induce maturation or production of inflammatory mediators in human DCs and FcεRI-humanized DCs. Furthermore, conferring expression of FcεRI to DCs decreases the severity of food allergy and asthma in disease-relevant models suggesting anti-inflammatory IgE/FcεRI signals. Consistent with the improved clinical parameters in vivo, antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking on papain or LPS-stimulated DCs inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Migration assays confirm that the IgE-dependent decrease in cytokine production results in diminished recruitment of mast cell progenitors; providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced mast cell-dependent allergic phenotype observed in FcεRI-humanized mice. Our study demonstrates a novel immune regulatory function of IgE and proposes that DC-intrinsic IgE signals serve as a feedback mechanism to restrain allergic tissue inflammation. PMID:25227985

  9. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Haber, S I; Herrmann, S; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens--ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu56LLys35LPhe9) [(GluLysPhe)n]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to controls in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or "processing independent" antigens. In parallel studies 125I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. At least some of the biotin-insulin surface sites are immunologically relevant, because the presentation of processed biotin-insulin by fixed APC is blocked by avidin. This effect is specific. Avidin binding to biotin-insulin-exposed APC does not inhibit allospecific stimulation nor the presentation of unconjugated insulin. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen. PMID:3467371

  10. Prostate-specific antigen lowering effect of metabolic syndrome is influenced by prostate volume.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Suk; Heo, Nam Ju; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen levels by considering prostate volume and plasma volume. We retrospectively analyzed 4111 men who underwent routine check-ups including prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. The definition of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Prostate-specific antigen mass density (prostate-specific antigen × plasma volume / prostate volume) was calculated for adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. We compared prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen mass density levels of participants with metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome group, n = 1242) and without metabolic syndrome (non-prostate-specific antigen metabolic syndrome group, n = 2869). To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen, linear regression analysis for the natural logarithm of prostate-specific antigen was used. Patients in the metabolic syndrome group had significantly older age (P < 0.001), larger prostate volume (P < 0.001), higher plasma volume (P < 0.001) and lower mean serum prostate-specific antigen (non-metabolic syndrome group vs metabolic syndrome group; 1.22 ± 0.91 vs 1.15 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P = 0.006). Prostate-specific antigen mass density in the metabolic syndrome group was still significantly lower than that in the metabolic syndrome group (0.124 ± 0.084 vs 0.115 ± 0.071 μg/mL, P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, prostate volume and plasma volume using linear regression model, the presence of metabolic syndrome was a significant independent factor for lower prostate-specific antigen (prostate-specific antigen decrease by 4.1%, P = 0.046). Prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with metabolic syndrome seem to be lower, and this finding might be affected by the prostate volume. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. An Analytical Study of Prostate-Specific Antigen Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Deliz, Giovanni; Rivera-Rodriguez, Jaileen; Laureano, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out a quantitative study of prostate-specific antigen dynamics for patients with prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and localized prostate cancer (LPC). The proposed PSA mathematical model was implemented using clinical data of 218 Japanese patients with histological proven BPH and 147 Japanese patients with LPC (stages T2a and T2b). For prostatic diseases (BPH and LPC) a nonlinear equation was obtained and solved in a close form to predict PSA progression with patients' age. The general solution describes PSA dynamics for patients with both diseases LPC and BPH. Particular solutions allow studying PSA dynamics for patients with BPH or LPC. Analytical solutions have been obtained and solved in a close form to develop nomograms for a better understanding of PSA dynamics in patients with BPH and LPC. This study may be useful to improve the diagnostic and prognosis of prostatic diseases. PMID:27956935

  12. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Scope Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Methods and results Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients’ sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients’ sera. Conclusion We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. PMID:23996905

  13. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients' sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients' sera. We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

  15. HLA-DR antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with specificity of autoantibody responses to nuclear antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, J S; Klippel, J H; Penner, E; Reichlin, M; Steinberg, A D; Chused, T M; Scherak, O; Graninger, W; Hartter, E; Zielinski, C C

    1987-01-01

    HLA-DR antigens and autoantibodies to the nuclear or cytoplasmic antigens Ro/SSA, La/SSB, Sm, and RNP were determined in North American and Austrian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Analysis of the association of antibodies to these ribonucleic acid (RNA)-protein antigens with HLA-DR antigens showed that HLA-DR3 was related to the presence of anti-Ro/SSA or anti-La/SSB, or both. In contrast, anti-Sm or anti-RNP, or both were associated with HLA-DR4. HLA-DR5 was associated with absence of these autoantibodies. The data extend evidence for the complexity and heterogeneity of SLE. Moreover, they indicate that, in SLE, genes linked to those coding for HLA-DR antigens, are related to the specificity of autoantibody responses rather than to the primary immunological abnormalities of this disorder. PMID:3498447

  16. Cloning and characterization of canine prostate-specific membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sonja; Fracasso, Giulio; Colombatti, Marco; Naim, Hassan Y

    2013-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and a potential target for antibody-based therapeutic strategies. We isolated the canine PSMA cDNA and investigated the cellular and biochemical characteristics of the recombinant protein as a potential target for animal preclinical studies of antibody based-therapies. Canine PSMA cDNA was isolated by PCR, cloned into expression vectors and transfected into COS-1 and MDCK cells. The biosynthesis and glycosylation of the recombinant protein were investigated in pulse-chase experiments, the cellular localization by confocal laser microscopy, the mode of association of PSMA with the membrane with solubilization in different detergents and its quaternary structure in sucrose-density gradients. Canine PSMA shows 91% amino acid homology to human PSMA, whereby the major difference is a longer cytoplasmic tail of canine PSMA compared to its human counterpart. Canine PSMA is trafficked efficiently along the secretory pathway, undergoes homodimerization when it acquires complex glycosylated mature form. It associates with detergent-resistant membranes, which act as platforms along its intracellular trafficking. Confocal analysis revealed canine PSMA at the cell surface, Golgi, and the endoplasmic reticulum. A similar distribution is revealed for human PSMA, yet with reduced cell surface levels. The cloning, expression, biosynthesis, processing and localization of canine PSMA in mammalian cells is described. We demonstrate that canine PSMA reveals similar characteristics to human PSMA rendering this protein useful as a translational model for investigations of prostate cancer as well as a suitable antigen for targeted therapy studies in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Catalase, a specific antigen in the feces of human subjects infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Wakasugi, Masahiko; Nakaya, Seigo; Kokubo, Naomi; Sato, Masami; Kajiyama, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Ryoki; Hirata, Haruhisa; Ezure, Yohji; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Shimoyama, Takashi

    2002-07-01

    Recently, we reported the production of three new monoclonal antibodies with high specificity for a Helicobacter pylori antigen suitable for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to identify the antigen recognized by these monoclonal antibodies concerning both H. pylori and the feces of human subjects infected with H. pylori. The cellular antigen was purified from an H. pylori cell extract by immunoaffinity column chromatography with the monoclonal antibody as a ligand. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences (eight residues) of the purified antigen and H. pylori catalase were the same. The molecular weights of native and subunit, specific catalase activity, and UV and visible spectra of the purified antigen were in good agreement with those of H. pylori catalase. The human fecal antigens were purified from two fecal samples of two H. pylori-positive subjects by ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-Sephadex C(50) chromatography, and the same immunoaffinity chromatography used for the H. pylori cellular antigen. The fecal antigens had catalase activity. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences (five residues) of the human fecal antigen and H. pylori catalase were the same. The monoclonal antibodies reacted with the native cellular antigen, but did not react with the denatured antigen, human catalase, and bovine catalase. The results show that the target antigen of the monoclonal antibodies is native H. pylori catalase and that the monoclonal antibodies are able to specifically detect the antigen, which exists in an intact form, retaining the catalase activity in human feces.

  18. The CAD/CAM product data standards, IGES/PDES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification/Product Data Exchange Standards): The present and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) has more capability than most people infer from the name. It can already provide some product data for manufacturing and test of products and, in particular, products having electrical and electronic aspects. The Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES) promises to do even better. Both of these efforts address the demonstrated need to move product descriptions from one computer-aided system to another in a way that maximizes the utility of the data received. Receiving systems can use these product descriptions (usually after some augmentation) to perform simulations, numerically controlled fabrication operations, process planning and variety of inspections and tests. PDES is expected to support Computer Integrated Manufacturing with the emphasis on Integrated.''

  19. Engineering HIV-Specific Immunity with Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Scott G; Zack, Jerome A

    2016-12-01

    HIV remains a highly important public health and clinical issue despite many recent advances in attempting to develop a cure, which has remained elusive for most people infected with HIV. HIV disease can be controlled with pharmacologic therapies; however, these treatments are expensive, may have severe side effects, and are not curative. Consequently, an improved means to control or eliminate HIV replication is needed. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in controlling viral replication and are an important part in the ability of the immune response to eradicate most viral infections. There are considerable efforts to enhance CTL responses in HIV-infected individuals in hopes of providing the immune response with armaments to more effectively control viral replication. In this review, we discuss some of these efforts and focus on the development of a gene therapy-based approach to engineer hematopoietic stem cells with an HIV-1-specific chimeric antigen receptor, which seeks to provide an inexhaustible source of HIV-1-specific immune cells that are MHC unrestricted and superior to natural antiviral T cell responses. These efforts provide the basis for further development of T cell functional enhancement to target and treat chronic HIV infection in hopes of eradicating the virus from the body.

  20. Making IGES work for CAD/CAM data exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.; Fletcher, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines Sandia National Laboratories effort to integrate the CAE/CAD/CAM capabilities of three laboratories and six production plants in the DOE weapons complex with the Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES). The problems with IGES are addressed and solutions are explained. The implementation of the IGES concept is also outlined.

  1. Skin prick test and specific serum IgE in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected cow's milk and hen's egg allergy in children: does one replace the other?

    PubMed

    Mehl, A; Niggemann, B; Keil, T; Wahn, U; Beyer, K

    2012-08-01

    The measurement of specific serum immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and the skin prick test (SPT) are accepted tools in the diagnostic work-up of suspected food allergy. Often only one of the methods is used to determine sensitization; however, it is still under debate whether these two methods can be used interchangeably. To investigate the concordance of SPT and sIgE serum assays with regard to suspected food allergy. In 395 children referred to our clinic with suspected cow's milk allergy and in 268 children with suspected hen's egg allergy specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured, a SPT and an oral food challenge performed. A weal size ≥ 3 mm and sIgE ≥ 0.35 kU/L were considered positive. The weal size of the SPT and the level of food-specific IgE were tested for correlation for each allergen. Of the 395 (23%) children orally challenged with cow's milk, 92 showed no corresponding results for SPT and sIgE as either positive or negative. For hen's egg, in 27 of 268 (10%) children differing test results for SPT and sIgE in serum were obtained. Moreover, regarding the quantitative values for sIgE and SPT in children with or without clinically relevant food allergy, sIgE and SPT correlated badly. The concordance between SPT and sIgE is surprisingly low for cow's milk and hen's egg on an individual basis. Therefore, the tests should not be used interchangeably. Especially in children who receive a negative test result the alternative test should also be used. Furthermore, our data indicate again that oral food challenges are still the method of choice to diagnose food allergies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Classification of specific IgE antibodies in children with hay fever and other atopic diseases in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Langen, U

    2012-03-01

    The dependencies between sensitization to common allergens (mono- and polysensitization, IgE level and patterns) and symptomatic hay fever and other atopic diseases, respectively, in children and adolescents are shown in this analysis. The evaluation was based on the KiGGS ("Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey") study. Our analysis was performed using complex samples methods with SPSS. Participants were interviewed by a physician using a validated questionnaire asking for atopic diseases and symptoms. Specific IgE levels were measured from the age of 3 years on by using the ImmunoCap® test system. The prevalences of hay fever and polysensitizations both significantly increase with increasing age of the participants, while boys are more often affected than girls and migrants less often regarding sensitizations. Prevalence of hay fever decreases with increasing number of older siblings and increases with atopy of one or both parents. Different positive correlations between increasing IgE levels and hay fever were identified, the greatest association was observed with herbal inhalative allergens and cross-reacting food allergens. Lowest IgE levels to nearly all of the tested allergens show a positive correlation with hay fever prevalence. In conclusion, the study indicates that the clinical definition of the lowest positive IgE levels as "marginal" should be discussed as well as indications for specific immunotherapy.

  3. Specificity and Sensitivity of Radioimmunoassay for Hepatitis B Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Gilbert R.; Allen, Alfred M.; Bancroft, William H.; Willhight, Milton; Russell, Philip K.

    1974-01-01

    Sera from a survey of 6,026 people were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen by using radioimmunoassay and counterelectrophoresis. Forty-eight sera (0.79%) were positive by counterelectrophoresis and 152 sera (2.52%) were positive by radioimmunoassay, using the most liberal of the recommended criteria for positivity (i.e., counts 3 standard deviations above the mean). Absorption tests performed on the 152 radioimmunoassay-positive sera showed that 10 (6.6%) were false-positive reactions to guinea pig protein, 74 (48.6%) were due to false-positive reaction(s) with other protein(s) in the test system, and 68 (44.8%) were true positives. There was a strong correlation between the degree of elevation of radioactive counts and the proportions of sera that were true positives; all 49 sera with counts >50 standard deviation units above the mean were true positives, but only 19 (18.4%) of the 103 sera with counts <50 standard deviation units were true positives. A few sera with high counts required absorption with type-specific (type D) antisera. The following conclusions were reached from this study: (i) absorption tests should be run on all radioimmunoassay-positive, counterelectrophoresis-negative sera; (ii) most (about 90%) false positives are not due to anti-guinea-pig protein reactions; and (iii) radioimmunoassay, in combination with absorption tests, yields a modest increase (about 35%) in detection of true positives over use of counterelectrophoresis alone. PMID:4472833

  4. Repeat Prostate-Specific Antigen Tests Before Prostate Biopsy Decisions.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Tobias; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Despite limited scientific support, a repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test before prostate biopsy decisions is common. We analyzed biopsy outcomes in 1686 men from the STHLM3 study with PSA 3-10 ng/mL and two PSA tests taken within eight weeks and before prostate biopsy using percentages and multinomial logistic regression. We found that omitting prostate biopsy for men with PSA values decreasing to PSAs of 3 ng/mL or less would save 16.8% of biopsy procedures, while missing 5.4% of the cancers with Gleason scores (GSs) of 7 or higher. The proportion of cancers with GSs of 6 or lower was independent of the first PSA value, as well as of PSA change. Also, the risk of tumors with GSs of 7 or higher decreased with both decreasing and increasing PSA levels: It was 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.3% to 20.9%) for men with PSA changes of less than 20%, 12.1% (95% CI = 8.0% to 16.2%) for men with PSA levels increasing at least 20%, and 6.6% (95% CI = 3.8% to 9.3%) for men with PSA levels decreasing at least 20%. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. . E-mail: adamico@lroc.harvard.edu; Kantoff, Phillip; Loffredo, Marian; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Brittany; Chen Minghui

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of {approx}10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) <6 months (p = 0.04) and age at the time of PSA failure (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with length of survival. By 5 years, 35% and 65% of all-cause mortality was from prostate cancer in men whose age at PSA failure was 75 or higher vs. <75, respectively. Across all ages, 0%, 4%, as compared with 63% of men, were estimated to die of prostate cancer within 5 years after PSA failure if their PSA DT was >12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival.

  6. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific Antibodies for the Detection of Alternaria Allergens and the Identification of Cross-Reactive Antigens in Other Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E.; Curin, Mirela; Sterflinger, Katja; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Background The mould Alternaria alternata is an important source of respiratory allergens. A. alternata extracts show great variations regarding allergenic potency. The aim of this study was to generate antibody probes specific for important Alternaria allergens and to use them to study allergen expression, depending on different culture conditions, as well as to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. Methods Synthetic peptides from antigenic regions of A. alternata allergens (Alt a 1, Alt a 2, Alt a 3, Alt a 6 and Alt a 8) were used to raise highly specific rabbit antibodies. These antibodies and IgE from allergic patients were used to detect allergens by immunoblotting in extracts of 4 A. alternata strains grown under varying culturing conditions, in commercial skin-prick extracts and in closely (Cladosporium herbarum and Aureobasidium pullulans) or distantly related (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum) mould species. Results There was a wide variation of expression of the individual A. Alternata allergens, depending on the strain and culture conditions, but the antibody probes allowed us to distinguish strains and culture conditions with low and high allergen expression. In the commercial skin-prick solutions, varying levels of Alt a 1 were found, but no other allergens were detectable. Alt a 1 was identified as species-specific A. Alternata allergen, whereas Alt a 3, 6- and Alt a 8-cross-reactive antigens were found in C. herbarum and/or A. pullulans. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Peptide-specific antibodies are useful to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic mould extracts, to study the presence of A. Alternata allergens in biological samples and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. PMID:27780168

  8. In Vitro Generation of Antigen-Specific T Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Antigen-Specific T Cell Origin.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from T lymphocyte (T-iPS cells) preserve the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β gene rearrangements identical to the original T cell clone. Re-differentiated CD8 single positive αβ T cells from the T-iPS cells exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity, improved proliferative response, and elongation of telomere indicating rejuvenation of antigen specific T cell immunity in vitro. To regenerate antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), first, we have optimized a method for reprogramming-resistant CD8 T cell clones into T-iPS cells by using sendaiviral vectors. Second, we have optimized stepwise differentiation methods for inducing hematopoietic progenitor cells, T cell progenitors, and functionally matured CD8 single positive CTL. These protocols provide useful in vitro tools and models both for research of antigen-specific T cell immunotherapy and for research of normal and pathological thymopoiesis.

  9. Prediction of anaphylaxis during peanut food challenge: usefulness of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Brynn Kevin; Studdert, Jennie; Ziegler, Mary; Ziegler, John B

    2010-06-01

    Cutoffs (decision points) of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level for predicting peanut allergy have been proposed. It is not known whether decision points indicating a significant risk of severe reactions on challenge differ from those indicating probable allergy. We aimed at determining the usefulness of allergy tests for predicting the risk of anaphylaxis on challenge following the ingestion of up to 12 g of peanut in peanut-sensitized children. Children attending the Allergy Clinic who had a positive peanut SPT and completed open-label in-hospital peanut challenges were included. The challenge protocol provided for challenges to be continued beyond initial mild reactions. Eighty-nine in-hospital peanut challenges were performed. Thirty-four were excluded as the challenge was not completed, leaving 55 for analysis. Children who completed the challenge and did not react (n = 28) or reacted without anaphylaxis (n = 6) represented the comparison group (n = 34). The study group comprised 21 children whose challenge resulted in anaphylaxis. The mean peanut SPT wheal size and specific IgE level were associated with the severity of reactions on challenge. Among the 21 children, who developed anaphylaxis, in only 3 cases was anaphylaxis the initial reaction. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge. Anaphylaxis developed at cumulative doses of peanut ranging from 0.02 to 11.7 g. Provided that a fixed amount of peanut is ingested, available tests for peanut allergy may assist in predicting the risk of anaphylaxis during challenge in peanut-sensitized children.

  10. Immediate hypersensitivity and serum IgE antibody responses in patients with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Mansouri, Parvin

    2012-03-01

    The association of dermatophytes with atopic patients and improvement in allergic signs with antifungal treatment suggest a possible link between chronic infection and atopy. The purpose of this study was to determine skin reactivity and serum IgE antibody responses in patients with chronic and acute dermatophytosis. One hundred and sixty-three patients with chronic dermatophytosis, 35 patients with acute dermatophytosis, 41 atopic patients and 49 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Sensitization to Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus antigens has been evaluated in patients by skin prick test (SPT) and by the presence of specific IgE antibody in enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Positive immediate hypersensitivity (IH) reactions were obtained in 95.1% of the atopic patients with chronic infection for T. mentagrophytes, representing a significant difference from other patient groups (P < 0.05). Specificanti-T. mentagrophytes IgE antibodies were detected in atopic patients with chronic (65.9%) and acute (50%) dermatophytosis, while none of the atopic subjects had positive IgE reactions to T. mentagrophytes. The results showed significant higher positive IH and specific anti-T. mentagrophytes IgE responses in atopic patients with chronic dermatophytosis than the other groups.

  11. Radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen small-molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Will, Leon; Sonni, Ida; Kopka, Klaus; Kratochwil, Clemens; Giesel, Frederik L; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been found to be expressed in most PCs and represents an ideal target for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Numerous PSMA tracers have been recently developed. This review aims to provide an overview on the clinical influence of PSMA tracers in primary staging, biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PC and advanced, metastatic PC. Additionally, the use of PSMA tracers in systemic radioligand therapy (RLT) of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), as well as non-prostatic specific uptake of PSMA tracers and the use of PSMA imaging to manage therapy have been described. A computerized search of the literature (PubMed) was conducted in order to find evidence on the role of PSMA tracers in the diagnosis and therapy of PC. PSMA positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) outperforms conventional imaging in the settings of primary PC, BCR and advanced PC. Especially in BCR of PC, PSMA PET/CT shows clinical value with significantly higher detection rates than standard modalities. The use of PSMA PET/CT resulted in a change of the therapeutic management in up to half of the cases. Regarding RLT, smaller studies were able to show positive clinical effects of 177Lu-labeled PSMA tracers without the occurrence of severe side effects. The currently available data clearly shows that PSMA targeting has a clinical impact on the diagnosis of PC, and that RLT using radiolabeled PSMA tracers has high potentiality in the settings of resistance to conventional therapeutic approaches.

  12. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    PubMed

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; D'Aliberti, Deborah; Venza, Mario; Borgogni, Erica; Castellino, Flora; Biondo, Carmelo; D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Tramontano, Anna; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  13. Impact of obesity on the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen density and prostate-specific antigen in native Korean men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Lee, Kwang Woo; Lee, Chang Ho; Song, Yun Seob; Jeon, Yoon Su; Kim, Min Eui; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on the biopsy detection of prostate cancer. We retrospectively reviewed data of 1182 consecutive Korean patients (≥50 years) with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial extended 12-cores biopsy from September 2009 to March 2013. Patients who took medications that were likely to influence the prostate-specific antigen level were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density predicting cancer status among non-obese and obese men. A total of 1062 patients (mean age 67.1 years) were enrolled in the analysis. A total of 230 men (21.7%) had a positive biopsy. In the overall study sample, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of serum prostate-specific antigen for predicting prostate cancer on biopsy were 0.584 and 0.633 for non-obese and obese men, respectively (P = 0.234). However, the area under the curve for prostate-specific antigen density in predicting cancer status showed a significant difference (non-obese 0.696, obese 0.784; P = 0.017). There seems to be a significant difference in the ability of prostate-specific antigen density to predict biopsy results between non-obese and obese men. Obesity positively influenced the overall ability of prostate-specific antigen density to predict prostate cancer. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Antigen exposure shapes the ratio between antigen-specific Tregs and conventional T cells in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Su, Laura F.; del Alcazar, Daniel; Stelekati, Erietta; Wherry, E. John; Davis, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) is required for maturation and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the ligand specificities of Tregs outside the context of transgenic TCRs are largely unknown. Using peptide–MHC tetramers, we isolated rare specific Foxp3+ cells directly ex vivo from adult peripheral blood and defined their frequency and phenotype. We find that a proportion of circulating Tregs recognize foreign antigens and the frequency of these cells are similar to that of self-reactive Tregs in the absence of cognate infection. In contrast, the frequencies of Tregs that recognize some common microbial antigens are significantly reduced in the blood of most adults. Exposure to peripheral antigens likely has a major influence on the balance between Tregs and conventional T-cell subsets because a larger proportion of flu-specific T cells has a regulatory cell phenotype in the cord blood. Consistent with this finding, we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection can directly modulate the ratio of virus-specific effectors and Tregs in mice. The resulting change in the balance within an antigen-specific T-cell population further correlates with the magnitude of effector response and the chronicity of infection. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of antigen specificity in the functional dynamics of the T-cell repertoire. Each specific population of CD4+ T cells in human peripheral blood contains a subset of Tregs at birth, but the balance between regulatory and effector subsets changes in response to peripheral antigen exposure and this could impact the robustness of antipathogen immunity. PMID:27681619

  15. Antigen-specific lymphocyte transformation in patients with recent yersiniosis.

    PubMed

    Vuento, R

    1983-04-01

    Lymphocyte transformation in patients with recent yersiniosis was studied. A micromethod using washed blood cells and Yersinia enterocolitica antigen was employed. The washed blood cells were incubated in the presence of various dilutions of heat-treated whole bacteria; these proved as antigen superior to gentamicin- or formalin-treated bacteria. Patients with recent yersiniosis had a significantly higher response against Yersinia antigen as compared to 20 healthy controls, who had either no response or a low response. No difference could be observed in responses against PPD or streptokinase-streptodornase, or in the mitogen responses between these two groups. A marked cross-reaction was observed between Yersinia and Escherichia coli antigen. The results show that patients with recent yersiniosis develop lymphocyte transformation response against Yersinia. Lymphocyte transformation test can be used in the study of host responses against infecting Yersinia in patients with different clinical pictures of yersiniosis.

  16. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression.

  17. Antigen specificity of invariant natural killer T-cells.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Alysia M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer T-cells, with an invariant T-cell antigen receptor α-chain (iNKT cells), are unique and conserved subset of lymphocytes capable of altering the immune system through their rapid and potent cytokine responses. They are reactive to lipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that is not highly polymorphic. iNKT cell responses frequently involve mixtures of cytokines that work against each other, and therefore attempts are underway to develop synthetic antigens that elicit only strong interferon-gamma (IFNγ) or only strong interleukin-4 responses but not both. Strong IFNγ responses may correlate with tighter binding to CD1d and prolonged stimulation of iNKT cells, and this may be useful for vaccine adjuvants and for stimulating anti-tumor responses. iNKT cells are self-reactive although the structure of the endogenous antigen is controversial. By contrast, bacterial and fungal lipids that engage the T-cell receptor and activate IFNγ from iNKT cells have been identified from both pathogenic and commensal organisms and the responses are in some cases highly protective from pathogens in mice. It is possible that the expanding knowledge of iNKT cell antigens and iNKT cell activation will provide the basis for therapies for patients suffering from infectious and immune diseases and cancer.

  18. Comparative analysis of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) versus a prostate-specific membrane antigen-like gene.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Denise S; Bacich, Dean J; Heston, Warren D W

    2004-02-01

    Currently prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is showing promise both as an imaging and therapeutic target for occult prostate cancer metastases. First generation antibodies against PSMA are used for the FDA approved Prostascint trade mark monoclonal antibody scan and second generation antibodies are being developed for therapeutic targeting as well as imaging 1. However, there have been reports describing PSMA expression in non-prostatic tissues including kidney, liver, and brain. As we had previously showed the existence of a human PSMA homolog, we set out to determine if this non-prostatic expression was due to expression of the PSMA or another gene. The PSMA homolog (PSMA-like) cDNA was cloned by screening a liver cDNA library. mRNA expression of the PSMA and PSMA-like genes was determined via Northern blot analysis using two different probes and protein expression confirmed in some tissues via Western blot analysis. Transcriptional regulation of the two genes was examined using reporter constructs driving luciferase expression. The PSMA-like gene possesses 98% identity to the PSMA gene at the nucleotide level and is expressed in kidney and liver under the control of a different promoter to the PSMA gene. The PSMA gene is expressed in several human tissues and is most abundant in the nervous system and the prostate. The non-prostatic expression of PSMA should be taken into consideration when designing clinical strategies targeting PSMA. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cor a 14, Hazelnut-Specific IgE, and SPT as a Reliable Tool in Hazelnut Allergy Diagnosis in Eastern Mediterranean Children.

    PubMed

    Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit M; Yilmaz, Ebru Arik; Yavuz, S Tolga; Soyer, Ozge; Sekerel, Bulent E; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2016-01-01

    Improving the diagnostic efficacy of laboratory tests might reduce the need for oral food challenges and facilitate our daily practice. We aimed to determine cutoff values and probability curves, as well as to investigate the role of component-resolved diagnosis in predicting clinical reactivity in children with hazelnut allergy and to evaluate the association with pollen sensitivity. A total of 56 children with hazelnut allergy who underwent double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge and 8 children who experienced anaphylaxis after accidental hazelnut intake were included. Serum IgE levels to hazelnut extract, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 14, and Bet v 1 were measured with the ImmunoCAP system. Skin prick tests (SPT) with hazelnut, other implicated foods, and aeroallergens were performed. The optimal cutoff levels for hazelnut sIgE and SPT wheal diameter that predicted clinical reactivity with the highest sensitivity and specificity were 3.15 kU/L and 7.5 mm, respectively. Among the components, only Cor a 14 discriminated between reactive and nonreactive children. The area under curve (AUC) at the optimal cutoff point of 0.63 kU/L for Cor a 14 (0.936) was higher than the AUC of hazelnut sIgE (0.818) and SPT wheal diameter (0.803). For the first time, a 95% probability for clinical reactivity was estimated for SPT wheal diameter, IgE to hazelnut extract, and to Cor a 14 at 12 mm, 10.2 kU/L, and 1.0 kU/L, respectively. Cor a 14 was found to be a useful and reliable tool for predicting clinical reactivity in children with hazelnut allergy in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The diagnostic value of specific IgE to Ara h 2 to predict peanut allergy in children is comparable to a validated and updated diagnostic prediction model.

    PubMed

    Klemans, Rob J B; Otte, Dianne; Knol, Mirjam; Knol, Edward F; Meijer, Yolanda; Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Knulst, André C; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2013-01-01

    A diagnostic prediction model for peanut allergy in children was recently published, using 6 predictors: sex, age, history, skin prick test, peanut specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE), and total IgE minus peanut sIgE. To validate this model and update it by adding allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and sIgE to peanut components Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 8 as candidate predictors. To develop a new model based only on sIgE to peanut components. Validation was performed by testing discrimination (diagnostic value) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and calibration (agreement between predicted and observed frequencies of peanut allergy) with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and a calibration plot. The performance of the (updated) models was similarly analyzed. Validation of the model in 100 patients showed good discrimination (88%) but poor calibration (P < .001). In the updating process, age, history, and additional candidate predictors did not significantly increase discrimination, being 94%, and leaving only 4 predictors of the original model: sex, skin prick test, peanut sIgE, and total IgE minus sIgE. When building a model with sIgE to peanut components, Ara h 2 was the only predictor, with a discriminative ability of 90%. Cutoff values with 100% positive and negative predictive values could be calculated for both the updated model and sIgE to Ara h 2. In this way, the outcome of the food challenge could be predicted with 100% accuracy in 59% (updated model) and 50% (Ara h 2) of the patients. Discrimination of the validated model was good; however, calibration was poor. The discriminative ability of Ara h 2 was almost comparable to that of the updated model, containing 4 predictors. With both models, the need for peanut challenges could be reduced by at least 50%. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Auger Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Ana P.; Hobbs, Robert; Sgouros, George; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Shen, Colette J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Auger electron emitters such as 125I have a high linear energy transfer and short range of emission (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. We used a highly specific small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to deliver 125I to prostate cancer cells. Methods The PSMA-targeting Auger emitter 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-125I-iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid (125I-DCIBzL) was synthesized. DNA damage (via phosphorylated H2A histone family member X staining) and clonogenic survival were tested in PSMA-positive (PSMA+) PC3 PIP and PSMA-negative (PSMA−) PC3 flu human prostate cancer cells after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL. Subcellular drug distribution was assessed with confocal microscopy using a related fluorescent PSMA-targeting compound YC-36. In vivo antitumor efficacy was tested in nude mice bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP or PSMA− PC3 flu flank xenografts. Animals were administered (intravenously) 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-DCIBzL, 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-NaI, an equivalent amount of nonradiolabeled DCIBzL, or saline. Results After treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, PSMA+ PC3 PIP cells exhibited increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival when compared with PSMA− PC3 flu cells. Confocal microscopy of YC-36 showed drug distribution in the perinuclear area and plasma membrane. Animals bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors had significant tumor growth delay after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, with only 1 mouse reaching 5 times the initial tumor volume by 60 d after treatment, compared with a median time to 5 times volume of less than 15 d for PSMA− PC3 flu tumors and all other treatment groups (P = 0.002 by log-rank test). Conclusion PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy with the Auger emitter 125I-DCIBzL yielded highly specific antitumor efficacy in vivo, suggesting promise for treatment of prostate cancer micrometastases. PMID:26182968

  2. Auger Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Ana P; Minn, Il; Chen, Ying; Hobbs, Robert; Sgouros, George; Mease, Ronnie C; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Shen, Colette J; Foss, Catherine A; Pomper, Martin G

    2015-09-01

    Auger electron emitters such as (125)I have a high linear energy transfer and short range of emission (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. We used a highly specific small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to deliver (125)I to prostate cancer cells. The PSMA-targeting Auger emitter 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-(125)I-iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid ((125)I-DCIBzL) was synthesized. DNA damage (via phosphorylated H2A histone family member X staining) and clonogenic survival were tested in PSMA-positive (PSMA+) PC3 PIP and PSMA-negative (PSMA-) PC3 flu human prostate cancer cells after treatment with (125)I-DCIBzL. Subcellular drug distribution was assessed with confocal microscopy using a related fluorescent PSMA-targeting compound YC-36. In vivo antitumor efficacy was tested in nude mice bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP or PSMA- PC3 flu flank xenografts. Animals were administered (intravenously) 111 MBq (3 mCi) of (125)I-DCIBzL, 111 MBq (3 mCi) of (125)I-NaI, an equivalent amount of nonradiolabeled DCIBzL, or saline. After treatment with (125)I-DCIBzL, PSMA+ PC3 PIP cells exhibited increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival when compared with PSMA- PC3 flu cells. Confocal microscopy of YC-36 showed drug distribution in the perinuclear area and plasma membrane. Animals bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors had significant tumor growth delay after treatment with (125)I-DCIBzL, with only 1 mouse reaching 5 times the initial tumor volume by 60 d after treatment, compared with a median time to 5 times volume of less than 15 d for PSMA- PC3 flu tumors and all other treatment groups (P = 0.002 by log-rank test). PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy with the Auger emitter (125)I-DCIBzL yielded highly specific antitumor efficacy in vivo, suggesting promise for treatment of prostate cancer micrometastases. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  3. T cells expressing CD19/CD20 bi-specific chimeric antigen receptors prevent antigen escape by malignant B cells

    PubMed Central

    Zah, Eugenia; Lin, Meng-Yin; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Jensen, Michael C.; Chen, Yvonne Y.

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown remarkable curative potential against advanced B-cell malignancies, but multiple trials have also reported patient relapses due to the emergence of CD19-negative leukemic cells. Here, we report the design and optimization of single-chain, bi-specific CARs that trigger robust cytotoxicity against target cells expressing either CD19 or CD20, two clinically validated targets for B-cell malignancies. We determined the structural parameters required for efficient dual-antigen recognition, and we demonstrate that optimized bi-specific CARs can control both wild-type B-cell lymphoma and CD19− mutants with equal efficiency in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first bi-specific CAR capable of preventing antigen escape by performing true OR-gate signal computation on a clinically relevant pair of tumor-associated antigens. The CD19-OR-CD20 CAR is fully compatible with existing T-cell manufacturing procedures and implementable by current clinical protocols. These results present an effective solution to the challenge of antigen escape in CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, and they highlight the utility of structure-based rational design in the development of receptors with higher-level complexity. PMID:27059623

  4. The NASA-IGES geometry data visualizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Jasinskyj, Lonhyn; Chou, Jin J.

    1992-01-01

    NIGESview, an interactive software tool for reading, viewing, and translating geometry data available in the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) format, is described. NIGESview is designed to read a variety of IGES entities, translate some of the entities, graphically view the data, and output a file in a specific IGES format. The software provides a modern graphical user interface and is designed in a modular fashion so developers can utilize all or part of the code in their grid generation software for computational fluid dynamics.

  5. A cytokine-independent approach to identify antigen-specific human germinal center Tfh cells and rare antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in blood

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Jennifer M.; Arlehamn, Cecilia S. Lindestam; Weiskopf, Daniela; Antunes, Ricardo da Silva; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Reiss, Samantha; Brigger, Matthew; Bothwell, Marcella; Sette, Alessandro; Crotty, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Detection of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is central to the study of many human infectious diseases, vaccines, and autoimmune diseases. However, such cells are generally rare and heterogeneous in their cytokine profiles. Identification of antigen-specific germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells by cytokine production has been particularly problematic. The function of a GC Tfh cell is to selectively help adjacent GC B cells via cognate interaction; thus, GC Tfh cells may be ‘stingy’ cytokine producers, fundamentally different than Th1 or Th17 cells in the quantities of cytokines produced. Conventional identification of antigen-specific cells by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) relies on the ability of the CD4+ T cell to generate substantial amounts of cytokine. To address this problem, we have developed a cytokine-independent activation induced marker (AIM) methodology to identify antigen-specific GC Tfh cells in human lymphoid tissue. Whereas Group A Streptococcus (Strep)-specific GC Tfh cells produced minimal detectable cytokines by ICS, the AIM method identified 85-fold more antigen-specific GC Tfh cells. Intriguingly, these GC Tfh cells consistently expressed programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) upon activation. AIM also detected non-Tfh cells in lymphoid tissue. As such, we applied AIM for identification of rare antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in human peripheral blood. Dengue-, tuberculosis-, and pertussis-vaccine-specific CD4+ T cells were readily detectable by AIM. In sum, cytokine assays missed 98% of antigen-specific human GC Tfh cells, reflecting the biology of these cells, which could instead be sensitively identified by co-expression of TCR-dependent activation markers. PMID:27342848

  6. Association of Diet With Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Zeyghami, Shahryar; Hosseini, Mohammad Mehdi; Khezri, Abdol Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate is an important male reproductive system gland and its disorders can affect men's quality of life and health. Prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate adenocarcinoma are major disorders that can be found in all men in different ages. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of diet with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level as well as prostate volume. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 950 men older than 40 years of age who had attended our clinic for a screening program for prostate cancer were enrolled. Data was extracted from the program database. The eligible cases included all noncancerous subjects with available data concerning serum PSA level and prostate volume; the patients had completed a 50-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire about their diet during the preceding two year. Results: No overall association was found between the consumption of foods and prostate volume as well as serum PSA level. There was a significant correlations between age and serum PSA level (r = 0.24) as well as with prostate volume (r = 0.22) (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between serum PSA level and prostate volume (r = 0.41 and P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the previous reports regarding the serum PSA level correlation with prostate volume. There was no evidence that dietary patterns might have any important effect on prostate volume and serum PSA in this Iranian population. PMID:25695023

  7. Urinary prostate specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Takayama, T K; Vessella, R L; Brawer, M K; True, L D; Noteboom, J; Lange, P H

    1994-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that urinary prostate specific antigen (PSA) is discordant with serum PSA in many patients after radical prostatectomy. This observation led to the speculation that elevated urinary PSA in the face of undetectable serum PSA may indicate early disease recurrence. We measured urinary PSA levels in 30 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 7 patients who had undergone cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. PSA levels of randomly collected urine samples ranged from 0.00 to 22.9 ng./ml. and 0.01 to 8.37 ng./ml., respectively. There was no correlation among urinary and serum PSA levels, pathological stage or type of operation. In 14 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy and who had measurable levels of urinary PSA voided specimens were divided into initial stream and end stream voided samples. The PSA levels in the end stream voided samples were significantly less than the initial stream sample in 12 of the 14 patients. In men who had undergone radical prostatectomy urethral swab samples were analyzed for PSA. Of 26 patients 24 had detectable levels of urethral swab PSA (range 0.01 to 39.04 ng./ml., median 0.93 ng./ml.). Urethral swab PSA levels did not correlate with serum PSA values or pathological stage of disease. Of 7 patients who had defunctionalized urethras after radical cystoprostatectomy 5 had significantly elevated PSA in the urethral wash or swab samples (range 4.3 to 24.5 ng./ml.). Immunohistochemical analysis of urethrectomy specimens demonstrated positive staining for PSA in 3 of 4 specimens. We conclude that the major source of urinary PSA following total prostatectomy is the urethra itself rather than residual prostate tissue. Measuring serial urinary PSA appears to have limited value in monitoring patients after radical prostatectomy. Whether this urethral PSA can ever contaminate the serum levels of PSA after radical prostatectomy is currently under investigation.

  8. Antigen specificity of antihistone antibodies in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Fujimoto, M; Ihn, H; Kikuchi, K; Takehara, K

    1994-10-01

    Recently, we detected antihistone antibodies (AHAs) in patients with localized scleroderma. However, the exact antigen specificity of AHAs in this disease is still unknown. Therefore, we determined the reactivity of AHAs with five individual histones and the correlation of AHAs with rheumatoid factor in localized scleroderma by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty patients with localized scleroderma who had IgG and/or IgM AHAs, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were examined. These patients were classified into the following three subgroups: patients with generalized morphea (n = 11), patients with linear scleroderma (n = 6), and patients with morphea (n = 3). In generalized morphea, IgG AHAs strongly reacted with histones H1, H2A, and H2B; and IgM AHAs strongly reacted with H1 and H2B, as determined by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pattern of reactivity in linear scleroderma and morphea was similar to that in generalized morphea. A homogeneous immunofluorescent pattern on HEp-2 cells, which was produced by localized scleroderma sera, was completely abolished by absorption with total histones. By employing a latex agglutination test, IgM rheumatoid factor was detected in 60% of the 20 patients with localized scleroderma and at a frequency of 82% in those with generalized morphea. However, an absorption test of rheumatoid factor activity with human IgG revealed no cross-reactivity of AHAs with rheumatoid factor. Our data suggest that AHAs in localized scleroderma are directed against native chromatin, since H1, H2A, and H2B occupy a relatively exposed portion of chromatin.

  9. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  10. Suppression of IgE production in mice treated with a traditional Chinese medicine, bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: hochu-ekki-to).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Kishihara, K; Kawakita, T; Nakamura, T; Takimoto, H; Nomoto, K

    1997-04-01

    The ability of a traditional herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to, HOT), to suppress IgE production was investigated. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally immunized with aluminium hydroxide adsorbed with DNP-KLH (DNP-KLH + alum). When oral administration of HOT was begun just after immunization, the serum level of antigen-specific IgE was significantly decreased, although those of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a were not influenced. In the culture of spleen cells obtained 14 days after immunization with DNP-KLH, antigen-specific IgE and IgG1 production by the cells of the HOT-treated mice was significantly suppressed compared to that in immunized mice. Furthermore, in the combination culture with CD4+ T cells and B cells separated from spleen cells, IgE production by the cells from immunized mice was inhibited by replacement of their corresponding cell population with either CD4+ T cells or B cells of HOT-treated mice. Additionally, production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 was significantly suppressed in HOT-treated mice but not that of IFN-gamma in comparison to the immunized mice. These results suggested that HOT decreased the IgE level in serum by inhibiting the development of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells.

  11. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  12. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  13. Hetero-bivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen ( PSMA ) and Hepsin PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Youngjoo Byun, Ph. D. CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Hetero-bivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen ( PSMA ) and Hepsin 5b...prostate cancer by targeting simultaneously PSMA and hepsin, which are highly expressed in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. In Year 3, we

  14. Preexisting antigen-specific immune responses are modulated by oral KLH feeding in humans.

    PubMed

    Hostmann, Arwed; Meyer, Tim; Maul, Jochen; Preiss, Jan; Boortz, Bertram; Thiel, Andreas; Duchmann, Rainer; Ullrich, Reiner

    2015-07-01

    Oral tolerance is the antigen-specific inhibition of a systemic immune response after oral antigen uptake and well established in animal models. We recently showed that keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) feeding modulates subsequently induced systemic immune responses in humans as well. In the present study, we investigated whether oral KLH can also modulate preexisting antigen-specific systemic B- and T-cell responses. We induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions as well as systemic KLH-specific B- and T-cell responses by subcutaneous KLH injections. Subsequent oral KLH administration decreased the small proportion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells positive for the cytokine IL-17 at the end of the feeding regimen even further. After reimmunization, there was no difference in DTH reactions and the KLH-specific B-cell responses, but KLH-fed volunteers had an increased proportion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells positive for IL-10 and a reduced proportion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells positive for the skin-homing receptor cutaneous lymphocyte antigen and IL-2 and IFN-γ. Taken together, oral KLH can modulate a preexisting systemic KLH-specific immune response. These results suggest that feeding antigen may offer therapeutic strategies for the suppression of unwanted immune reactions in humans.

  15. Red blood cells as innovative antigen carrier to induce specific immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cremel, Magali; Guérin, Nathalie; Horand, Françoise; Banz, Alice; Godfrin, Yann

    2013-02-25

    The route of administration, the dose of antigen as well as the type of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) targeted are important factors to induce immune tolerance. Despite encouraging results obtained in animal models, intravenous injection of soluble antigen is unsuccessful in human clinical trials on autoimmune disease due to inefficient antigen delivery. To improve antigen delivery, we used mouse red blood cells (RBCs) as antigen vehicles to specifically target APCs which are responsible for removal of senescent RBCs after phagocytosis. In this study, we demonstrated that antigen-delivery by RBCs induced a strong decrease in the humoral response compared with the ovalbumin (OVA) free form in mice. In addition, OVA-loaded RBC treated with [bis(sulphosuccinimidyl)] suberate (BS3), a chemical compound known to enhance RBC phagocytosis, induced an inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responses and an increase in the percentage of regulatory T cells. The state of tolerance induced is long lasting, antigen-specific and sufficiently robust to withstand immunization with antigen mixed with cholera toxin adjuvant. This RBC strategy, which does not abolish the immune system, constitutes an attractive approach for induction of tolerance compared to systemic immunosuppressant therapies already in use.

  16. Stable reagent for the detection of antibody to the specific fraction I antigen of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Rust, J H; Berman, S; Habig, W H; Marshall, J D; Cavanaugh, D C

    1972-04-01

    A stable hemagglutinating antigen for detection of fraction I (FR-I) antibody of Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis) is described. The antigen was prepared by sensitizing tanned, pyruvaldehyde-treated sheep erythrocytes (PAT SRBC) with FR-I antigen. Preliminary standardization by titration of each lot of FR-I was required to minimize the effect of molecular heterogeneity of specific FR-I antigen and to eliminate nonspecific reactions caused by the presence of a minor antigenic contaminant. In tests with sera from rabbits, dogs, and humans, FR-I PAT SRBC were as reactive as the previously employed standard antigen, FR-I-sensitized tanned erythrocytes. Fluid suspensions of FR-I PAT SRBC stored at 4 C for 3 months, or lyophilized preparations stored at ambient temperature for 6 months, showed no loss in antigenic activity.

  17. Erythrocytes in human transplantation: effects of pretreatment with ABO group-specific antigens

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, F. T.; Dausset, J.; Legrand, L.; Barge, A.; Lawrence, H. S.; Converse, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Erythrocyte group antigens A and B can act as potent and group-specific transplantation antigens in man. ABO group-incompatible recipients pretreated with such antigens have rejected skin allografts obtained from donors incompatible for the same antigens in an accelerated (4-5 days) or white graft manner. Skin grafts applied to the same recipients from ABO-compatible donors were accorded first-set survival times. Intact erythrocyte suspensions and antigens isolated from hog (A substance) and horse (B substance) stomachs, were equally capable of inducing this type of allograft sensitivity. The latter observation broadens the spectrum of heterologous antigens capable of inducing allograft sensitivity in the mammalian host and provides a readily available, heat-stable, and water-soluble source of antigens for further studies of allograft rejection mechanisms in man. PMID:4877681

  18. Bacterial surface antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies used to detect beer spoilage pediococci.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Ingledew, W M; Lee, S Y; Ziola, B

    1999-08-01

    Fourteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that react with surface antigens of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms, including P. damnosus, P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici, and unspeciated isolates. Immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) of protease- and neuraminidase-treated surface antigen extracts, carbohydrate competition EIAs, and cardiolipin EIAs were used to characterize the bacterial antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment or surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. In most cases, the Mabs bind to Pediococcus surface antigens that appear to be covalently bound cell wall polymers resistant to alteration or removal from the bacterial surface. These bacterial surface antigen reactive Mabs show good potential for rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay detection of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms.

  19. Evolution of IgM, IgE and IgG(1-4 )antibody responses in early childhood monitored with recombinant allergen components: implications for class switch mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Verena; Niggemann, Bodo; Kraft, Dietrich; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2002-02-01

    The formation of IgE antibodies against environmental allergens represents the hallmark of type I allergy. Data from in vitro cultured cells and experimental animal models provide controversial evidence for isotype switching from IgM to IgE production via sequential as well as non-sequential (i.e. direct) class switch. We analyzed the evolution of IgE responses in 11 children developing birch pollen and/or grass pollen allergy during the first 7 years of life using purified recombinant allergen molecules (major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1; major timothy grass pollen allergens, Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5). Demographic, clinical and serological data indicated a postnatal sensitization to pollen allergens. A parallel development of IgG(1-4) and IgE responses to recombinant allergen molecules compatible with a strictly sequential class switch to IgE was observed only in one child. The only partly synchronized and dissociated development of allergen-specific antibody responses found in all other cases can be best explained by a partly sequential class switch involving few switch stations or, more likely, by direct class switching. Kinetics and courses of allergen-specific antibody responses (IgM, IgG(1-4), IgE) during the first years of life suggest that, once established, allergen-specific IgE responses are driven by antigen contact rather than by cytokines controlling class switch to IgE.

  20. Evaluation of risk and diagnostic value of quantitative assays for anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgE, and IgM and analytical study of specific IgG in immunodeficient patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pinon, J M; Foudrinier, F; Mougeot, G; Marx, C; Aubert, D; Toupance, O; Niel, G; Danis, M; Camerlynck, P; Remy, G

    1995-01-01

    To determine their prognostic and diagnostic values for toxoplasmosis in immunodepressed subjects, we assayed immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgE antibodies by means of immunocapture (IC) tests, with revelation done by using a suspension of T. gondii (ICT). We also carried out a simultaneous analytical study of IgG antibodies on cellulose acetate membranes by using the comparative immunological profile method and an enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA). A total of 1,238 samples (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and aqueous humor from 318 patients) were tested. IgA and IgE antibodies were detected in all heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients with clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis; IgA was detected in the aqueous humor of a patient with chorioretinitis. In patients with AIDS-related toxoplasmosis, including the cerebral form, IgA and IgE antibodies or a significant modification of ELIFA IgG values were observed in 38, 19, and 25% of patients, respectively. IgM was detected by ICT only in 12% of patients and aided the diagnosis in 1 of 71 patients. IC tests for specific IgA and IgE alone and combined with ELIFA were positive in 39 and 46% of patients who developed clinical toxoplasmosis, respectively. In a serial study of 16 patients in whom at least one of these three tests was positive, a significant immunological signal sometimes preceded clinical onset by 1, 6, and even 17 months. Similarly, in a group of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with evidence of previous exposure to T. gondii but no clinical manifestations, IgA, IgE, and IgA and/or IgE antibodies were detected in only 11, 4, and 12% of patients, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7790453

  1. Total serum immunoglobulin E as a marker for missed antigens on in vitro allergy screening.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jeanne L; Cohen, Samuel D; Mims, J Whit

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of inhalant allergies involves a medical history, physical exam, and allergen sensitivity testing; allergen sensitivity can be assessed by a specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) screen for inhalant allergens. Some patients with clinical suspicion for inhalant allergies have a negative specific IgE screen, but high total IgE. We theorize that elevated total IgE may indicate a false-negative screen caused by "missed allergens" not initially identified. Study patients with a negative allergy screen and elevated IgE (>116 kU/L) were identified (n = 26). Control patients (n = 26) were defined as having a negative screen and an IgE <2.95 kU/L. Both groups were tested with an expanded specific IgE panel and completed a questionnaire about other causes of elevated IgE. The expanded panel was positive for inhalant allergens in 4 study patients (15%) and 0 control patients (p = 0.037). Within the study patients, 50% had asthma and 76.9% had chronic sinusitis. Only 2 control patients had asthma (11.5%), p = 0.003; 4 (19.2%) reported chronic sinusitis, p < 0.0001. Food allergen sensitivity was identified in 5 study patients and 1 control, p = 0.083. This pilot study evaluated patients clinically suspected of allergy with a negative inhalant IgE screen. Those with a high total IgE were more likely to have a missed inhalant allergen on expanded testing, as well as asthma and chronic sinusitis, compared to those with a low total IgE. Further investigation of "missed antigen" and the role of chronic respiratory inflammatory disease in patients with elevated total IgE is warranted. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  3. Measurement of Hymenoptera venom specific IgE by the IMMULITE 3gAllergy in subjects with negative or positive results by ImmunoCAP

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mineaki; Arima, Masafumi; Hayashi, Yumeko; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naruo; Ikeno, Yoshihiko; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Komura, Reiko; Okazaki, Kazumi; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients may receive negative results from a specific IgE (sIgE) test such as the ImmunoCAP (CAP) despite a documented history of systemic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting. Thus, further testing may be required using another serological method or venom skin prick tests to confirm allergy diagnosis and correct species. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of CAP and IMMULITE 3gAllergy (IMMULITE) for detecting sIgE to Paper wasp (WA) and Yellow Jacket (YJ) venoms using patient clinical history as the comparator. Methods Sera from 70 participants with a history of systemic reactions (SR) to WA and/or YJ stings were tested using CAP and IMMULITE. Fifty participants from this group had negative results on CAP. To assess specificity, sera from 71 participants who had never experienced either a WA or YJ sting were tested using CAP and IMMULITE. Fifty participants from this group tested positive using CAP. Results In participants with a history of systemic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting, yet who tested negative for WA and/or YJ sIgE according to CAP, the positivity rate according to IMMULITE was 20-42% using 0.10 IUA/mL as the limit of detection (LoD), per the manufacturer's specification. When the LoD for CAP (0.35 IUA/mL) was applied to the IMMULITE results, positivity according to IMMULITE was 14-26%. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, and agreement with SR were greater for IMMULITE than for CAP. For YJ: sensitivity (IMMULITE:CAP), 42.8%:28.5%; specificity, 53.5%:39.4%; agreement, 48.2%:34%. For WA, sensitivity (IMMULITE:CAP), 58.6%:28.5%; specificity, 49.3%:47.8%; agreement, 43.9%:38.3%. Conclusion The IMMULITE performed well for detecting sIgE to Hymenoptera venom PMID:22872822

  4. Contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis from corn in a patient with serum IgE specific for a salt-soluble corn protein of low molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Cristaudo, Antonio; Simonato, Barbara; Pasini, Gabriella; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Curioni, Andrea; Giannattasio, Matteo

    2004-08-01

    Among the cereals, wheat, rye, barley and oats, have been reported to cause protein contact dermatitis. However, in these cases neither the involvement of an immunological mechanism nor the role of specific protein(s) has been demonstrated. We present a case of protein contact dermatitis from corn. The patient presented with a Type I sensitization to corn, as shown by the presence of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and positivity to prick tests with both a flour suspension and the salt-soluble protein fraction of this cereal. The same corn preparations induced a strong urticarial reaction on scratch testing. This reaction was followed several days later by the appearance of erythema and then eczema at the site of application. When boiled, these preparations became inactive on both prick and scratch testing. Patch tests were negative in all cases. Immunoblotting performed with the patient's serum showed the presence of a unique IgE-binding protein band with a molecular weight of around 14 kDa, belonging to the salt-soluble corn protein fraction. Our results give the first clear evidence that cornflour can induce protein contact dermatitis. The IgE-binding 14-kDa protein has characteristics identical to those of the trypsin/alpha-amylase inhibitors from cereals.

  5. Retrospective analysis on the agreement between skin prick test and serum food specific IgE antibody results in adults with suspected food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ling; Ospina, Maria B; Sideri, Kyriaki; Vliagoftis, Harissios

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a common clinical problem in adults. Given logistical barriers to conducting food challenges, the use of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) are important in establishing the diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the agreement of SPT and sIgE results in adults presenting to an allergy clinic with suspected food allergy. Retrospective analysis of medical records at the University of Alberta Allergy Clinic between September 2013 and May 2015 was performed. Demographic, medical history as well as SPT and specific IgE results were recorded. Agreement of SPT and sIgE for individual food allergens was analyzed by Kappa statistics. Data from 260 patients was collected. The population was predominantly female, often having other atopic diseases. Very few food challenges were performed; IgE mediated food allergy was diagnosed in a minority (29.6 %) of cases. Kappa values which reached statistical significance were moderate for peanut ĸ = 0.535 (p = 0.0002, CI 0.364-0.707), walnut ĸ = 0.408 (p = 0.001 CI 0.159-0.657), pecan ĸ = 0.530 (p = 0.001 CI 0.211-0.848), and lobster ĸ = 0.543 (p = 0.004 CI 0.197-0.889), substantial for pistachio ĸ = 0.657 (p = 0.023 CI 0.224-1.000), codfish ĸ = 0.770 (p = 0.0002 CI 0.558-0.983), shrimp ĸ = 0.627 (p = 0.0006 CI 0.383-0.871) and egg white ĸ = 0.625 (p = 0.002 CI 0.293-0.957), almost perfect for cashew ĸ = 0.894 (p = 0.0008 CI 0.693-1.000) and salmon ĸ = 0.874 (p = 0.004 CI 0.705-1.000). The agreement between SPT and sIgE results on adults being evaluated for food allergy is at least moderate or better for peanut, walnut, pecan, pistachio, cashew, lobster, shrimp, codfish, salmon and egg white. This should be reassuring for patients who have contraindications or restricted access to either test as the results for the above allergens will likely agree. These findings may suggest that these tests could possibly be interchangeable in adults being

  6. Probability of an abnormal screening prostate-specific antigen result based on age, race, and prostate-specific antigen threshold.

    PubMed

    Espaldon, Roxanne; Kirby, Katharine A; Fung, Kathy Z; Hoffman, Richard M; Powell, Adam A; Freedland, Stephen J; Walter, Louise C

    2014-03-01

    To determine the distribution of screening prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values in older men, and how different PSA thresholds affect the proportion of white, black, and Latino men who would have an abnormal screening result across advancing age groups. We used linked national Veterans Affairs and Medicare data to determine the value of the first screening PSA test (ng/mL) of 327,284 men older than 65 years who underwent PSA screening in the Veterans Affairs health care system in 2003. We calculated the proportion of men with an abnormal PSA result based on age, race, and common PSA thresholds. Among men older than 65 years, 8.4% had a PSA >4.0 ng/mL. The percentage of men with a PSA >4.0 ng/mL increased with age and was highest in black men (13.8%) vs white (8.0%) or Latino men (10.0%) (P <.001). Combining age and race, the probability of having a PSA >4.0 ng/mL ranged from 5.1% of Latino men aged 65-69 years to 27.4% of black men older than 85 years. Raising the PSA threshold from >4.0 ng/mL to >10.0 ng/mL reclassified the greatest percentage of black men older than 85 years (18.3% absolute change) and the lowest percentage of Latino men aged 65-69 years (4.8% absolute change) as being under the biopsy threshold (P <.001). Age, race, and PSA threshold together affect the pretest probability of an abnormal screening PSA result. Based on screening PSA distributions, stopping screening among men whose PSA <3 ng/mL means more than 80% of white and Latino men older than 70 years would stop further screening, and increasing the biopsy threshold to >10 ng/mL has the greatest effect on reducing the number of older black men who will face biopsy decisions after screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  8. Ejaculation increases the serum prostate-specific antigen concentration.

    PubMed

    Tchetgen, M B; Song, J T; Strawderman, M; Jacobsen, S J; Oesterling, J E

    1996-04-01

    To determine the effect of ejaculation on the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in men at risk for developing prostate cancer. A prospective, community-based study was conducted in which 64 men, aged 49 to 79 years, underwent a serum PSA determination immediately before ejaculation (baseline) and at 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours following ejaculation. The serum PSA also was measured 48 hours and 1 week after ejaculation if the concentration had not returned to the baseline value by the previous time interval. All subjects abstained from ejaculation for a minimum of 7 days prior to the study and until the PSA concentration returned to the baseline level. Absolute and relative change in serum PSA concentration, as well as the time to return to baseline PSA concentration following ejaculation, were assessed. The serum PSA concentration increased following ejaculation in 87% of the subjects. The mean baseline PSA was 1.8 ng/mL (median, 0.7 ng/mL). The mean absolute PSA change +/- standard deviation 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ejaculation was 0.8 +/- 1.32 ng/mL, 0.3 +/- 0.66 ng/mL, 0.2 +/- 0.33 ng/mL, and 0.4 +/- 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. The mean relative PSA change +/- standard error 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ejaculation was 41 +/- 4%, 9 +/- 1.5%, 8 +/- 1.3%, and 10 +/- 2.3%, respectively. The absolute and relative changes in PSA concentration noted 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after ejaculation were statistically significant (P = 0.0001). A strong correlation was observed between absolute change in PSA and baseline serum PSA, at each time interval (1 hour: r = 0.68, 6 hours: r = 0.77, 24 hours: r = 0.70; P < 0.0001) after ejaculation. Similarly, a significant correlation was noted between absolute change in PSA and patient age at each time interval (1 hour: r = 0.37, 6 hours: r = 0.38; P = 0.002, 24 hours: r = 0.55; P < 0.0001). Ninety-two percent of subjects returned to baseline by 24 hours (95% confidence

  9. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF TUMOR-SPECIFIC ANTIGENS IN HUMAN COLONIC CARCINOMATA BY IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE AND ABSORPTION TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Phil; Freedman, Samuel O.

    1965-01-01

    Two methods were used to demonstrate the presence of tumor-specific antigens in adenocarcinomata of the human colon: (a) rabbits were immunized with extracts of pooled colonic carcinomata, and the antitumor antisera thus produced were absorbed with a pooled extract of normal human colon and with human blood components; (b) newborn rabbits were made immunologically tolerant to normal colonic tissue at birth, and were then immunized with pooled tumor material in adult life. Normal and tumor tissues were obtained from the same human donors in order to avoid misinterpretation of results due to individual-specific antigenic differences. The antisera prepared by both methods were tested against normal and tumor antigens by the techniques of agar gel diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, hemagglutination, PCA, and immunofluorescence. Distinct antibody activity directed against at least two qualitatively tumor-specific antigens, or antigenic determinants, was detected in the antisera prepared by both methods and at least two additional tumor antigens were detected exclusively in antisera prepared by the tolerance technique. Whether these additional antigens were qualitatively different from normal tissue antigens, or merely present in tumor tissue in higher concentrations than in normal tissue has not as yet been determined. Furthermore, it was shown that the tumor-specific antibodies were not directed against bacterial contaminants or against the unusually high concentrations of fibrin found in many neoplastic tissues. It was concluded from these results that the pooled tumor extracts contained tumor-specific antigens not present in normal colonic tissue. Identical tumor-specific antigens were also demonstrated in a number of individual colonic carcinomata obtained from different human donors. PMID:14270243

  11. Specific bovine brucellosis diagnosis based on in vitro antigen-specific gamma interferon production.

    PubMed Central

    Weynants, V; Godfroid, J; Limbourg, B; Saegerman, C; Letesson, J J

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the specificity of the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, we developed a test which can be regarded as an in vitro correlate of the delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH). A mixture of cytoplasmic proteins from Brucella melitensis B115 was used as a specific antigenic stimulus in bovine whole blood culture. Supernatants harvested at 18 to 24 h after the in vitro antigenic stimulus were assayed for their gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) content by using a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The IFN-gamma assay was evaluated with 10 heifers during the course (80 days) of an experimental infection and with 14 cows from an ongoing brucellosis outbreak. All of these animals were slaughtered, and pertinent organs were subjected to classical bacteriological analyses. In addition, we analyzed 23 field cases in which false-positive serological reactions occurred. The IFN-gamma results were compared with those of the standard DTH and a battery of serological assays, and they were correlated with bacteriological data. Both for the experimental infection and for the field brucellosis outbreak, the IFN-gamma assay detected infection in more animals than any combination of the serological tests, and it detected infection earlier than these tests. Finally, none of the samples from cows showing false-positive serological reactions was classified as positive by the IFN-gamma assay, attesting to its specificity and to its usefulness in interpreting ambiguous serological results. A rapid and convenient alternative to the DTH, the IFN-gamma assay appears to be an ideal method that is complementary to the serological diagnosis protocols. PMID:7751381

  12. Type-Specific Antigens in the Psittacosis-Lymphogranuloma Venereum Group of Organisms1

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C. E. Ovid; Berman, David T.

    1965-01-01

    Fraser, C. E. Ovid (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and David T. Berman. Type-specific antigens in the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum group of organisms. J. Bacteriol. 89:943–948. 1965.—Antigens of 14 strains of the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum (PLV) group of organisms were prepared by treating purified particles with deoxycholate and trypsin. In complement-fixation tests of these antigens with the homologous and heterologous antisera, specific serotype differences were observed. Application of the method of specificity differences permitted placement of the 14 strains into 7 subgroups. The possible value of these techniques in immunology, epizootiology, and taxonomy of the PLV group is discussed. PMID:14276119

  13. Specific IgE to peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7 has a discriminative ability comparable to Ara h 2 and 6.

    PubMed

    Blankestijn, M A; Otten, H G; Suer, W; Weimann, A; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C

    2017-09-14

    Little is known on the clinical relevance of peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7. To investigate the discriminative ability of Ara h 7 in peanut allergy and assess the role of cross-reactivity between Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. Sensitization to recombinant peanut storage proteins Ara h 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 was assessed using a line blot in sera from 40 peanut-tolerant and 40 peanut-allergic patients, based on food challenge outcome. A dose-dependent ELISA inhibition experiment was performed with recombinant Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. For Ara h 7.0201, an area under the ROC curve was found of 0.83, comparable to Ara h 2 (AUC 0.81) and Ara h 6 (AUC 0.85). Ara h 7 intensity values strongly correlated with those from Ara h 2 and 6 (rs = 0.81). Of all patients sensitized to 2S albumins Ara h 2, 6, or 7, the majority was co-sensitized to all three (n = 24, 68%), although mono-sensitization to either 2S albumin was also observed in selected patients (Ara h 2: n = 6, 17%; Ara h 6: n = 2, 6%; Ara h 7: n = 2, 6%). Binding to Ara h 7.0101 could be strongly inhibited by Ara h 7.0201, but not the other way around. Specific IgE against Ara h 7.0201 has a predictive ability for peanut allergy similar to Ara h 2 and 6 and possesses unique IgE epitopes as well as epitopes shared between the other Ara h 7 isoform and Ara h 2 and 6. While co-sensitization to all three 2S albumins is most common, mono-sensitization to either Ara h 2, 6, or 7 occurs in selected patients, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis when testing for a single 2S albumin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay. Allergy Project--PROAL].

    PubMed

    Naspitz, Charles K; Solé, Dirceu; Jacob, Cristina A; Sarinho, Emanuel; Soares, Francisco J P; Dantas, Vera; Mallozi, Márcia C; Wandalsen, Neusa F; Borges, Wellington; Rocha Filho, Wilson

    2004-01-01

    To determine the frequency of sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in children seen at Brazilian allergy services. Total and specific IgE serum levels to inhalant and food allergens (RAST, UniCAP - Pharmacia) were measured in 457 children accompanied in pediatric allergy services and in 62 control children age matched. RAST equal or higher than class 1 was considered as positive (R+). Frequency of R+ was significantly higher among atopics (361/457, 79%) when compared to controls (16/62, 25.8%). There were no differences according to gender. The frequency of R+ to all allergens evaluated was higher among atopics when compared to controls. Significantly higher total IgE serum levels were observed among the atopics with R+ in comparison to those with R-. The frequency of R+ to main inhalant allergens were: D. pteronyssinus = 66.7% x 14.5% (p < 0.05), D. farinae = 64.5% x 17.8% (p < 0.05), B. tropicalis = 55.2% x 19.4% (p < 0.05), cockroach = 32.8% x 9.7% (p < 0.05), and cat = 12% x 8.1%. In relation to food allergens we observed: fish = 29.5% x 11.3% (p < 0.05), egg = 24.4% x 4.8% (p < 0.05), cow's milk = 23.1% x 3.2% (p < 0.05), wheat = 20% x 8.1% (p < 0.05), peanuts = 14% x 4.8% (p < 0.05), soy = 11.8% x 4.8% (p < 0.05), and corn = 10.6% x 4.8% (p < 0.05). With respect of age, food allergen sensitization predominates in young children whereas the inverse occurs with inhalant allergens. There was a predominant frequency of sensitization to inhalant allergens, mainly house dust mites in the evaluated patients. Food allergens were also responsible for a significant proportion of sensitization, mainly in infants.

  15. Characterization of New Breast Tumor-Specific Antigens Using a Novel Antigen Discovery System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    The tyrosinase gene codes for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. JExp Med 178, no. 2:489. 2. Coulie...cold PBS, pelleted and stored at -800 C for later use. Detergent lysis buffer (1% CHAPS) and a cocktail of protease inhibitors (2 mM PMSF, 100 gM...40 REFERENCES 1. Brichard, V., Van Pel, A., Wolfel, T., Wolfel, C., De Plaen, E., Lethe, B., Coulie, P., and Boon, T. The tyrosinase gene codes for

  16. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination and IgE synthesis in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    IgE synthesis requires interleukin 4 (IL-4) and a T-B cell interaction that involves the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand expressed on activated T cells. IL-4 induces epsilon germline transcription whereas ligation of CD40 results in deletional S mu-->S epsilon switch recombination, expression of mature epsilon transcripts, and IgE synthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a drug commonly used for the prophylactic treatment of allergic disease, inhibits T cell-driven IgE synthesis by human B cells at concentrations readily achievable in the course of inhaled therapy for asthma. Inhibition of IgE synthesis by DSCG was not the result of drug toxicity because DSCG did not affect the viability of T and B cells or their proliferation to mitogens. DSCG did not interfere with CD40 ligand expression by T cells but clearly targeted the B cells because it inhibited IgE synthesis induced by anti-CD40 and IL-4 in populations of highly purified B cells. DSCG had no effect on the induction of epsilon germline transcripts by IL-4 but strongly inhibited CD40 mediated S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination in IL-4- treated B cells as assayed by nested primer PCR. The effect of DSCG was not specific for CD40-mediated induction of IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited IgE synthesis as well as S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination induced by hydrocortisone and IL-4 in B cells. Moreover, the effect of DSCG was not specific for IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited the synthesis of IgG4 by B cells sorted for lack of surface expression of IgG4 and stimulated with anti- CD40 and IL-4. DSCG caused only minimal inhibition (< 15%) of spontaneous IgE synthesis by lymphocytes from patients with the hyper- IgE syndrome and did not affect pokeweed mitogen-induced IgG and IgA synthesis by lymphocytes suggesting that it has little effect on B cells that have already undergone isotype switching. These results indicate that DSCG

  17. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of tolerance in children with a previous diagnosis of peanut, egg and milk allergy. A systematic search identified twenty-six studies, of which most reported SPT or sIgE thresholds which predicted persistent or resolved allergy. However, results were inconsistent between studies. Previous research was hampered by several limitations including the absence of gold standard test to diagnose food allergy or tolerance, biased samples in retrospective audits and lack of systematic protocols for triggering re-challenges. There is a need for population-based, prospective studies that use the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC) to diagnose food allergy at baseline and follow-up to develop SPT and sIgE thresholds that predict the course of food allergy. PMID:24132133

  18. Exploring the antigenic relatedness of influenza virus haemagglutinins with strain-specific polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    García-Barreno, Blanca; Delgado, Teresa; Benito, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Melero, José A

    2014-10-01

    Alternative methods to the standard haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests to probe the antigenic properties of the influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) were developed in this study. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing reference HAs were used to immunize rabbits from which polyclonal antibodies were obtained. These antibodies were subtype specific but showed limited intra-subtype strain specificity in ELISA. The discriminatory capacity of these antibodies was, however, markedly increased after adsorption to cells infected with heterologous influenza viruses, revealing antigenic differences that were otherwise undistinguishable by standard HI and neutralization tests. Furthermore, the unadsorbed antibodies could be used to select escape mutants of the reference strain, which after sequencing unveiled amino acid changes responsible of the noted antigenic differences. These procedures therefore provide alternative methods for the antigenic characterization of influenza HA and might be useful in studies of HA antigenic evolution.

  19. Augmentation by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pine wood nematode, of polyclonal IgE production induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interleukin-4 in murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroaki; Kawada, Masahiko; Tai, Akihiro; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2003-02-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus) is a pine wood nematode that is known to cause pine wilt disease. We report here that B. xylophilus extracts augmented the polyclonal immunoglobulin E (IgE) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interleukin-4 (IL-4) both in murine splenocytes and purified B cells as determined by ELISA and ELIspot assays, but they did not cause such a promotion in the absence of either LPS or IL-4. We also observed that the antigen-nonspecific IgE levels were increased in sera of mice treated with B. xylophilus extracts, which were comparable to those of Ascaris suum extracts. These findings suggest that administration of B. xylophilus extracts could suppress allergic diseases via a saturation of mast cell Fcepsilon receptors or/and an inhibition of antigen-specific IgE synthesis to the allergen by a polyclonal response.

  20. Separation of antigens by immunological specificity. Studies on the desorption of homologous antigen from disulphide-linked antibody immunosorbents

    PubMed Central

    Chidlow, J. W.; Stephen, J.; Smith, H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Glycine–hydrochloric acid buffer, pH2.2, desorbed 131I-labelled human serum albumin (100%), lysozyme (100%), ovalbumin (90%), fluorescent ovalbumin (50–60%) and fluorescent human γ-globulin (20%) from their respective homologous disulphide-linked antibody immunosorbents; reasons are suggested for the low recoveries of the fluorescently labelled proteins. 2. Approx. 40% of the recovered 131I-labelled human serum albumin and fluorescent ovalbumin was desorbed above pH6.0, but lysozyme was not eluted until the pH was 3.0 or below. 3. In all cases where high recoveries of antigen were obtained, the immunosorbents could be regenerated and recycled at least four times with full retention of specificity and minimal diminution of capacity. 4. The desorbed antigens were unchanged when compared with the original antigens by quantitative precipitin, specificradioactivity, fluorescent and enzymic analyses and by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. 5. Desorption of antigen with a variety of reagents was investigated. These reagents were less satisfactory than glycine–hydrochloric acid. PMID:5420956

  1. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-11-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 μg/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB.

  2. Platelet subpopulation bearing leukocyte specific antigen and tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Z A; Saburova, O S; Antonova, O A; Golubeva, N V; Khaspekova, S G; Shustova, O N; Zyuryaev, I T; Ruda, M Ya; Mazurov, A V

    2016-11-01

    Platelets bearing leukocyte antigen CD45 were identified in the blood of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and healthy donors by flow cytofluorimetry. Part of these platelets contained tissue factor (TF)-primary initiator of blood clotting. The number of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets in MI patients at the first day was comparable with their level in healthy donors, but was increased at 8-12 days after MI onset. At that time in some patients the amount of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets reached 5-6 and 2-3% of their total number. It is assumed that CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets could be formed as a result of platelet interaction with leukocytes or leukocyte produced membrane microparticles.

  3. Co-Administration of Lipid Nanoparticles and Sub-Unit Vaccine Antigens Is Required for Increase in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thoryk, Elizabeth A.; Swaminathan, Gokul; Meschino, Steven; Cox, Kara S.; Gindy, Marian; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bett, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h. We also evaluated formulations combining antigen, LNP, and aluminum-based adjuvant amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) to look for synergistic adjuvant effects. Analyses of antigen-specific B-cell and T-cell responses from immunized mice revealed that the LNPs and antigens must be co-administered—both at the same time and in the same location—in order to boost antigen-specific immune responses. Mixing of antigen with MAA prior to formulation with LNP did not impact the generation of antigen-specific B-cell responses, but drastically reduced the ability of LNPs to boost antigen-specific T-cell responses. Overall, our data demonstrate that the administration of LNPs and vaccine antigen together enables their immune-stimulatory properties. PMID:27929422

  4. Co-Administration of Lipid Nanoparticles and Sub-Unit Vaccine Antigens Is Required for Increase in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Thoryk, Elizabeth A; Swaminathan, Gokul; Meschino, Steven; Cox, Kara S; Gindy, Marian; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-12-06

    A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h. We also evaluated formulations combining antigen, LNP, and aluminum-based adjuvant amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) to look for synergistic adjuvant effects. Analyses of antigen-specific B-cell and T-cell responses from immunized mice revealed that the LNPs and antigens must be co-administered-both at the same time and in the same location-in order to boost antigen-specific immune responses. Mixing of antigen with MAA prior to formulation with LNP did not impact the generation of antigen-specific B-cell responses, but drastically reduced the ability of LNPs to boost antigen-specific T-cell responses. Overall, our data demonstrate that the administration of LNPs and vaccine antigen together enables their immune-stimulatory properties.

  5. In vivo reprogramming of immune cells: Technologies for induction of antigen-specific tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ryan M; Casey, Liam M; Hughes, Kevin R; Miller, Stephen D; Shea, Lonnie D

    2017-05-15

    Technologies that induce antigen-specific immune tolerance by mimicking naturally occurring mechanisms have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of many immune-mediated pathologies such as autoimmunity, allograft rejection, and allergy. The immune system intrinsically has central and peripheral tolerance pathways for eliminating or modulating antigen-specific responses, which are being exploited through emerging technologies. Antigen-specific tolerogenic responses have been achieved through the functional reprogramming of antigen-presenting cells or lymphocytes. Alternatively, immune privileged sites have been mimicked using biomaterial scaffolds to locally suppress immune responses and promote long-term allograft survival. This review describes natural mechanisms of peripheral tolerance induction and the various technologies being developed to achieve antigen-specific immune tolerance in vivo. As currently approved therapies are non-specific and carry significant associated risks, these therapies offer significant progress towards replacing systemic immune suppression with antigen-specific therapies to curb aberrant immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. IGE AND IGGA ANTIBODY-MEDIATED RELEASE OF HISTAMINE FROM RAT PERITONEAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael K.; Bloch, Kurt J.; Austen, K. Frank

    1971-01-01

    The optimum conditions for antigen-induced release of histamine in the rat IgE and IgGa antibody-mediated systems were studied in vitro. The IgE antibody-mediated reaction could be separated into two steps: preparation of target cells with antibody and challenge with antigen. The optimal conditions for these two steps were distinctly different. Release of histamine by IgGa antibody and antigen could not be separated into two steps, and the optimal conditions for the total reaction were identical to those of the antigen challenge step of the IgE antibody-mediated system. PMID:4100657

  7. Evidence-based guidelines for anti-allergic drug withdrawal times before allergen-specific intradermal and IgE serological tests in dogs.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Saridomichelakis, Manolis

    2013-04-01

    Anti-allergic drugs (e.g. antihistamines, glucocorticoids and ciclosporin) are often administered to dogs with atopic dermatitis to relieve pruritus and skin lesions. Allergen-specific intradermal tests (IDT) and allergen-specific IgE serological (ASIS) tests are used to characterize the allergens to which dogs are hypersensitive. Anti-allergic drugs have the potential to influence the results or interpretation of these tests. To provide evidence-based recommendations for anti-allergic drug withdrawal times before IDT and ASIS tests. Three citation databases and abstracts from international meetings were searched for relevant studies. Studies were grouped based on similar interventions and types of tests. Withdrawal times for each type of drug and test were then extrapolated from the study results. Before the assessment of immediate reactions to IDT, proposed optimal withdrawal times for antihistamines, oral glucocorticoids, topical/otic glucocorticoids and ciclosporin are 7, 14, 14 and 0 days, respectively. Studies have provided no evidence for drug withdrawal prior to ASIS tests for oral ciclosporin or prednisone/prednisolone. Owing to a lack of studies, recommendations for withdrawal times before ASIS tests cannot be made for topical glucocorticoids and antihistamines. These proposed withdrawal times are based on the existing evidence at the end of 2011. Care must be taken before extrapolating the suggested withdrawal times to other species, higher dosages, different formulations and/or durations of administration of tested drugs, as well as to other medications from the same category. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Levels of house dust mite-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in different cat populations using a monoclonal based anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bexley, Jennifer; Hogg, Janice E; Hammerberg, Bruce; Halliwell, Richard E W

    2009-10-01

    Levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for the house dust mites (HDMs) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) in 58 cats with clinical signs suggestive of atopic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis cats), 52 cats with no history of allergic or immunological disease (nonallergic cats) and 26 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were measured using a monoclonal anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reactivity to both native and reduced HDM allergens was compared. SPF cats had significantly lower levels of HDM-specific serum IgE than cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats. The difference in levels of HDM-specific IgE in the serum of cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats was significant for native DF allergen, but not for native DP allergen or reduced HDM allergens. The results suggest that DF in its native form may be a significant allergen in cats with allergic dermatitis. The clinical relevance of these reactions, however, remains to be proven.

  9. The absence of IgE antibody-mediated augmentation of immune responses in CD23-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, H; Kikutani, H; Suematsu, S; Naka, T; Yoshida, K; Yoshida, K; Tanaka, T; Suemura, M; Matsumoto, N; Kojima, S

    1994-01-01

    The CD23 antigen, a low-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RII), is a type II membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on various cells, particularly mature B cells. A number of functions have been ascribed to CD23, including specific regulation of IgE production, IgE-mediated cytotoxicity and release of mediators, IgE-dependent antigen focusing, promotion of B-cell growth, prevention of germinal center B cells from apoptosis, proliferation of myeloid precursors, and maturation of early thymocytes. It is not clear whether these activities represent in vivo functions. To explore in vivo functions of CD23, we have produced CD23-deficient mice. These mice displayed normal lymphocyte differentiation and could mount normal antibody responses, including IgE responses upon immunization with T-dependent antigens and infection with Nippostrongyrus brasiliensis. Germinal center formation after immunization and in vitro proliferative response of B cells were not affected in mutant mice. However, antigen-specific IgE-mediated enhancement of antibody responses was severely impaired. Images PMID:8041705

  10. Chitin enhances serum IgE in Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Holmskov, Uffe

    2015-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a ubiquitous fungus that activates, suppresses or modulates the immune response by changing its cell wall structure and by secreting proteases. In this study, we show that chitin acts as an adjuvant in a murine model of A. fumigatus protease induced allergy. The mice were immunised intraperitoneally with A. fumigatus culture filtrate antigen either with or without chitin and were subsequently challenged with the culture filtrate antigen intranasally. Alum was used as an adjuvant control. Compared to alum, chitin induced a weaker inflammatory response in the lungs, measured as the total cell efflux in BAL, EPO and chitinase production. However, chitin enhanced the total IgE, specific IgE and specific IgG1 production as efficiently as alum. Pre-treatment with chitin but not with alum depressed the concentration of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in BAL fluid. These results shows that chitin, in spite of a reduction of the Th2 cytokine levels in the lungs, enhanced the total and specific IgE production in A. fumigatus culture filtrate induced allergy.

  11. Recombinant IgE antibodies for passive immunotherapy of solid tumours: from concept towards clinical application.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Sophia N; Josephs, Debra H; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E; Saul, Louise; Rudman, Sarah M; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Blower, Philip J; Corrigan, Christopher; Beavil, Andrew J; Spicer, James F; Nestle, Frank O; Gould, Hannah J

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have revolutionised treatment of some cancers and improved prognosis for many patients. Over half of those available are approved for haematological malignancies, but efficacious antibodies for solid tumours are still urgently needed. Clinically available antibodies belong to the IgG class, the most prevalent antibody class in human blood, while other classes have not been extensively considered. We hypothesised that the unique properties of IgE, a class of tissue-resident antibodies commonly associated with allergies, which can trigger powerful immune responses through strong affinity for their particular receptors on effector cells, could be employed for passive immunotherapy of solid tumours such as ovarian and breast carcinomas. Our laboratory has examined this concept by evaluating two chimaeric antibodies of the same specificity (MOv18) but different isotype, an IgG1 and an IgE against the tumour antigen folate receptor α (FRα). The latter demonstrates the potency of IgE to mount superior immune responses against tumours in disease-relevant models. We identified Fcε receptor-expressing cells, monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils, activated by MOv18 IgE to kill tumour cells by mechanisms such as ADCC and ADCP. We also applied this notion to a marketed therapeutic, the humanised IgG1 antibody trastuzumab and engineered an IgE counterpart, which retained the functions of trastuzumab in restricting proliferation of HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells but also activated effector cells to kill tumour cells by different mechanisms. On-going efficacy, safety evaluations and future first-in-man clinical studies of IgE therapeutics constitute key metrics for this concept, providing new scope for antibody immunotherapies for solid tumours.

  12. MHC Class II tetramers and the pursuit of antigen-specific T cells: define, deviate, delete.

    PubMed

    Mallone, Roberto; Nepom, Gerald T

    2004-03-01

    Selective expansion and activation of a very small number of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells is a remarkable and essential property of the adaptive immune response. Antigen-specific T cells were until recently identified only indirectly by functional assays, such as antigen-induced cytokine secretion and proliferation. The advent of MHC Class II tetramers has added a pivotal tool to our research armamentarium, allowing the definition of allo- and autoimmune responses in deeper detail. Rare antigen-specific CD4(+) cells can now be selectively identified, isolated and characterized. The same tetramer reagents also provide a new mean of stimulating T cells, more closely reproducing the MHC-peptide/TCR interaction. This property allows the use of tetramers to direct T cells toward the more desirable outcome, that is, activation (in malignancies and infectious diseases) or Th2/T regulatory cell deviation, anergy and deletion (in autoimmune diseases). These experimental approaches hold promise for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications.

  13. Alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells generated with a chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Katherine G.; Hoeppli, Romy E.; Huang, Qing; Gillies, Jana; Luciani, Dan S.; Orban, Paul C.; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2–specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR–expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR–mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR–expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases. PMID:26999600

  14. Alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells generated with a chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine G; Hoeppli, Romy E; Huang, Qing; Gillies, Jana; Luciani, Dan S; Orban, Paul C; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan K

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2-specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR-expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR-mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR-expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases.

  15. Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

  16. Phospholipase treatment of accessory cells that have been exposed to antigen selectively inhibits antigen-specific Ia-restricted, but not allospecific, stimulation of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-01-01

    The corecognition of antigen and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (Ia molecules) by the T-cell receptor is a cell surface event. Before antigen is recognized, it must be taken up, processed, and displayed on the surface of an Ia-bearing accessory cell (antigen-presenting cell, APC). The exact nature of antigen processing and the subsequent associations of antigen with the APC plasma membrane, Ia molecules, and/or the T-cell receptor are not well defined. To further analyze these events, we have characterized the processing and presentation of the soluble polypeptide antigen bovine insulin. We found that this antigen requires APC-dependent processing, as evidenced by the inability of metabolically inactivated APCs to present native antigen to antigen plus Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. The ability of the same APCs to present antigen after uptake and processing showed that this antigen subsequently becomes stably associated with the APC plasma membrane. To characterize the basis for this association, we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. APCs exposed to antigen, treated with phospholipase A2, and then immediately fixed lost the ability to stimulate bovine insulin plus I-Ad-specific hybridomas. In contrast, the ability of these same APCs to stimulate I-Ad allospecific hybridomas was unaffected. This effect of phospholipase is not mimicked by the broadly active protease Pronase, nor is there evidence for contaminating proteases in the phospholipase preparation. These results suggest that one consequence of antigen processing may be an antigen-lipid association that contributes to the anchoring of antigen to the APC membrane. The implications of this model are discussed. PMID:3529095

  17. Efficacy and safety of oral desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy according to their serum specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    García-Ara, Carmen; Pedrosa, María; Belver, María Teresa; Martín-Muñoz, María Flor; Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Oral desensitization in children allergic to cow's milk proteins is not risk free. The analysis of factors that may influence the outcome is of utmost importance. To analyze the efficacy and safety of the oral desensitization according to specific IgE (sIgE) level and adverse events during the maintenance phase. Thirty-six patients allergic to cow's milk (mean age, 7 years) were included in an oral desensitization protocol. Patients were grouped according to sIgE levels (ImmunoCAP) into groups 1 (sIgE <3.5 kU/L), 2 (3.5-17 kU/L), and 3 (>17-50 kU/L). Nineteen children were included as a control group. Serum sIgE levels to cow's milk and its proteins were determined at inclusion and 6 and 12 months after finishing the desensitization protocol. Thirty-three of 36 patients were successfully desensitized (200 mL): 100% of group 1 and 88% of groups 2 and 3. Desensitization was achieved in a median of 3 months (range, 1-12 months); 90% of the patients in group 1, 50% of the patients in group 2, and 30% of the patients in group 3 achieved tolerance in less than 3 months (P = .04). In the control group only 1 child tolerated milk in oral food challenge after 1 year. During the induction phase, there were 53 adverse events in 27 patients (75%). Patients of groups 2 and 3 had more severe adverse events compared with group 1. During the maintenance phase, 20 of 33 patients (60%) had an adverse event. Oral desensitization is efficacious. Tolerance is achieved earlier when sIgE is lower. Severe adverse events are frequent, especially in patients with higher sIgE levels. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The correlation between intradermal testing and serum specific IgE to house dust mite in negative skin prick test allergic rhinitis adult patients.

    PubMed

    Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Danpornprasert, Piyanart; Ngaotepprutaram, Premyot; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Thinkhamrop, Bandit

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on history, physical examination, and skin prick test (SPT) while intradermal (ID) test can be performed to confirm the diagnosis in case of negative result of SPT. However, the ID test is not recommended for cat and timothy grass allergy because of its high false positive rate. As a result, the "quantitative" technique of serum specific IgE (sIgE) measurement might be helpful to diagnose AR with more confidence. To evaluate the correlation between ID tests and sIgE in the diagnosis of house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive AR patients. Patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) were recruited and SPT was performed. If SPT was negative, ID test and sIgE to HDM [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp)] measurement were performed. Eighty-two patients with chronic rhinitis (CR), whose SPTs were negative for Dp, were included. There were 39 males (47.6%) and 43 females (52.4%) aged between 18 and 76 years old (mean age = 43.3 years). The ID test was positive in 13 patients (15.9%), and was negative in 69 patients (84.1 %). sIgE to HDM was positive ( ≥ 0.35 kUA/l) in 2 patients (2.4%). There was a fair to moderate correlation between the size of wheal of ID test and sIgE to HDM (r = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.67, p < 0.01). ID test has a fair to moderate correlation with sIgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and it can be used in CR patients with negative SPT where sIgE is not feasible.

  19. Investigation on the effects of ciclosporin (Atopica) on intradermal test reactivity and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology in atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Candice; Rosser, Edmund; Petersen, Annette; Hauptman, Joe

    2010-08-01

    The ability to use ciclosporin (Atopica®: Novartis Animal Health, Greensboro, NC, USA) prior to intradermal testing (IDT) would help avoid exacerbation of clinical disease that can be associated with drug withdrawal. This study evaluated the effects of 30 days of administration of ciclosporin at a dose of 5 mg/kg once daily on IDT reactivity (immediate phase reactions) in a group of dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) with initial positive IDT reactions. 16 dogs diagnosed with AD were included in the study. Eight dogs (group A) were treated with ciclosporin orally at 5 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. Eight dogs (group P) were treated with a placebo orally once daily for 30 days. IDT was performed at day 0 and day 30 on all dogs enrolled using a standardized panel of 45 aqueous allergens (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, NC, USA) appropriate to our geographical region. IDT reactivity was assessed by both subjective and objective methods at 15 min post-intradermal injection. Serum for allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology was obtained at day 0 and day 30. The study was designed as a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Data were analysed using a split-plot analysis of variance with the grouping factor of treatment and the repeat factor of time (SAS System for Windows). At week 4, ciclosporin did not have a statistically significant effect on IDT reactivity or serology results. It therefore appears that, no withdrawal is recommended to evaluate immediate phase reactions.

  20. Antigen-specific T-cell lines transfer protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Riedlinger, J; Grencis, R K; Wakelin, D

    1986-01-01

    T-cell lines specific for infective muscle larvae antigens of the intestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis have been generated in vitro. These antigen-specific T-cell lines express the L3T4+ Ly2- phenotype and secrete the lymphokines IL-2, IL-3 and gamma-IFN. They are stable in culture for up to 15 weeks and are protective when adoptively transferred into naive recipients. As few as 2 x 10(5) T. spiralis-specific tract. In addition, intestinal mastocytosis and peripheral blood eosinophilia were accelerated after adoptive transfer of T. spiralis-specific T-cell lines. PMID:2423438

  1. Regulation of B cell fate by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Robinson, Marcus J; Chen, Xiangjun; Smith, Geoffrey A; Taunton, Jack; Liu, Wanli; Allen, Christopher D C

    2016-12-09

    IgE can trigger potent allergic responses, yet the mechanisms regulating IgE production are poorly understood. Here we reveal that IgE(+) B cells are constrained by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR). In the absence of cognate antigen, the IgE BCR promoted terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (PCs) under cell culture conditions mimicking T cell help. This antigen-independent PC differentiation involved multiple IgE domains and Syk, CD19, BLNK, Btk, and IRF4. Disruption of BCR signaling in mice led to consistently exaggerated IgE(+) germinal center (GC) B cell but variably increased PC responses. We were unable to confirm reports that the IgE BCR directly promoted intrinsic apoptosis. Instead, IgE(+) GC B cells exhibited poor antigen presentation and prolonged cell cycles, suggesting reduced competition for T cell help. We propose that chronic BCR activity and access to T cell help play critical roles in regulating IgE responses.

  2. Regulation of B cell fate by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Robinson, Marcus J; Chen, Xiangjun; Smith, Geoffrey A; Taunton, Jack; Liu, Wanli; Allen, Christopher D C

    2016-01-01

    IgE can trigger potent allergic responses, yet the mechanisms regulating IgE production are poorly understood. Here we reveal that IgE+ B cells are constrained by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR). In the absence of cognate antigen, the IgE BCR promoted terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (PCs) under cell culture conditions mimicking T cell help. This antigen-independent PC differentiation involved multiple IgE domains and Syk, CD19, BLNK, Btk, and IRF4. Disruption of BCR signaling in mice led to consistently exaggerated IgE+ germinal center (GC) B cell but variably increased PC responses. We were unable to confirm reports that the IgE BCR directly promoted intrinsic apoptosis. Instead, IgE+ GC B cells exhibited poor antigen presentation and prolonged cell cycles, suggesting reduced competition for T cell help. We propose that chronic BCR activity and access to T cell help play critical roles in regulating IgE responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21238.001 PMID:27935477

  3. Longitudinal analysis of antigen specific response in individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; LoVerde, Philip T.; Kloos, Helmut; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoepidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between IgE and IgG4 antibodies with age and with resistance and susceptibility to infection. It is believed that the IgE and IgG4 responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) can be used for serological analysis of infection and post-treatment status. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and anti-SEA IgG4 and IgE reactivities, and determine whether these reactivities could be used as biomarkers of infection. Methods Between 2001 and 2009, a longitudinal study was performed in which parasitologic and blood specimens and socioeconomic and water-contact information were collected from 127 individuals. All patients positive for S. mansoni infection were treated. Results Schistosomiasis prevalence and the geometric mean of the egg count in 2001 were 59% and 61.05, respectively, decreasing to 26.8% and 8.78 in 2009. IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity in infected individuals was significantly higher than that in uninfected individuals at all time points. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area showed that the IgG4 anti-SEA antibodies were able to predict infection by S. mansoni at each time point. Conclusion IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity can be used as a biomarker for immune monitoring of the presence of infection with S. mansoni in endemic areas. PMID:24189480

  4. Rabies Group-Specific Ribonucleoprotein Antigen and a Test System for Grouping and Typing of Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L. G.; Dietzschold, B.; Dierks, R. E.; Matthaeus, W.; Enzmann, P.-J.; Strohmaier, K.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-associated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was isolated from BHK-21 cells infected with several strains of rabies and rabies-related viruses. The RNP-antigen from rabies and related viruses induced the formation of complement-fixing, precipitating, and immunofluorescent antibodies, and proved to be the group-specific antigen common to all rabies viruses. Antigens of the envelope which induce virus-neutralizing antibodies are apparently determinative for the serotype of a virus as evidenced by two-way neutralization tests. A combination of these methods seems to be a useful approach to the serological grouping and typing of rhabdoviruses. Images PMID:4196634

  5. Killer Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (KaAPC) for Efficient In Vitro Depletion of Human Antigen-specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Christian; Fleck, Martin; Schneck, Jonathan P.; Oelke, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment of T cell mediated autoimmune diseases relies mostly on strategies of global immunosuppression, which, in the long term, is accompanied by adverse side effects such as a reduced ability to control infections or malignancies. Therefore, new approaches need to be developed that target only the disease mediating cells and leave the remaining immune system intact. Over the past decade a variety of cell based immunotherapy strategies to modulate T cell mediated immune responses have been developed. Most of these approaches rely on tolerance-inducing antigen presenting cells (APC). However, in addition to being technically difficult and cumbersome, such cell-based approaches are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T cell responses, which limits their therapeutic capacity. Here we present a protocol for the generation of non-cellular killer artificial antigen presenting cells (KaAPC), which allows for the depletion of pathologic T cells while leaving the remaining immune system untouched and functional. KaAPC is an alternative solution to cellular immunotherapy which has potential for treating autoimmune diseases and allograft rejections by regulating undesirable T cell responses in an antigen specific fashion. PMID:25145915

  6. Tear and serum IgE concentrations by Tandem-R IgE immunoradiometric assay in allergic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Insler, M.S.; Lim, J.M.; Queng, J.T.; Wanissorn, C.; McGovern, J.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors studied a population of 39 allergic and 15 nonallergic patients, and determined their tear and serum IgE concentrations. Samples of tear and serum were tested for IgE by the Tandem-R immunoradiometric assay, which uses monoclonal antibody to produce a specific assay for IgE. The serum IgE levels in the study group showed a range from 23,280 to 16 IU/ml compared with controls of 72 to 2 IU/ml. Tear IgE in the study group varied from 159 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml compared with controls of 8 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml. A statistically significant correlation between tear and serum IgE exists in the allergic patients with eye symptoms. It also exists when serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml, the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml, or when both the serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml and the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml.

  7. Effects of tumor-specific antigen induced by lentinan on murine H22 hepatocellular carcinoma immunoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Han, X; Li, Y-D; Zhao, S-Y; Zhang, D-J; Zhao, Z-H; Wang, Y-B

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent tumor types and the third most common form of morbidity in cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lentinan isolated from Lentinus edodes, is known to be a biologically active macromolecule with extremely strong activation of the human immune system such as host-mediated anti-cancer activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunoprophylaxis effect of the antigens induced by lentinan on murine hepatocellular carcinoma. The antigens were prepared by a co-culture method (HCL) and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation precipitation (Z1, Z2, Z3). The effects of antigens on murine hepatocellular carcinoma immunoprophylaxis were determined in vivo. The cellular immunity of the immunized mice was tested by spleen lymphocyte proliferation tests and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis assays. The tumor-specific antigen was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results in vivo revealed that the antigens (HCL/Z1) activated immunoprophylaxis against hepatocellular carcinoma with a better survival status. The survival rates (60%, 100%) of the HCL/Z1 group were better than the model group (p < 0.01). The quantity of lymphocytes in the spleen in the HCL or Z1 groups treated with ConA or LPS were higher than that of the model group (p < 0.01). The phagocytosis ability of macrophages in the HCL or Z1 groups was better than that of the control group or model group (p < 0.01). The characterization of Western blot analysis showed that about 59.6 kDa tumor specific antigen combined with antiserum of immunized mice specifically appeared in antigens. The newly generated tumor-specific antigen played a key role in the anti-tumor immune response and in activating the immune system. Our results suggest that this protein could serve as a tumor vaccine, and it could generate new ideas for tumor immunoprophylaxis.

  8. Hetero-bivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Prostate- Specific Membrane Antigen ( PSMA ) and Hepsin PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Youngjoo Byun, Ph. D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Korea...Membrane Antigen ( PSMA ) and Hepsin 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0189 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Youngjoo Byun, Ph. D. 5d...accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis by targeting simultaneously PSMA and hepsin, which are highly expressed in advanced and metastatic prostate

  9. Identification and visualization of multidimensional antigen-specific T-cell populations in polychromatic cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Finak, Greg; Seshadri, Chetan; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; McElrath, Julie; DeRosa, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    An important aspect of immune monitoring for vaccine development, clinical trials, and research is the detection, measurement, and comparison of antigen-specific T-cells from subject samples under different conditions. Antigen-specific T-cells compose a very small fraction of total T-cells. Developments in cytometry technology over the past five years have enabled the measurement of single-cells in a multivariate and high-throughput manner. This growth in both dimensionality and quantity of data continues to pose a challenge for effective identification and visualization of rare cell subsets, such as antigen-specific T-cells. Dimension reduction and feature extraction play pivotal role in both identifying and visualizing cell populations of interest in large, multi-dimensional cytometry datasets. However, the automated identification and visualization of rare, high-dimensional cell subsets remains challenging. Here we demonstrate how a systematic and integrated approach combining targeted feature extraction with dimension reduction can be used to identify and visualize biological differences in rare, antigen-specific cell populations. By using OpenCyto to perform semi-automated gating and features extraction of flow cytometry data, followed by dimensionality reduction with t-SNE we are able to identify polyfunctional subpopulations of antigen-specific T-cells and visualize treatment-specific differences between them.

  10. IgE isotype suppression in anti-epsilon-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bozelka, B E; McCants, M L; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1982-01-01

    Two groups of CBA/J mice received a total of eight intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of heavy-chain-specific rabbit anti-IgE or rabbit gammaglobulin within 48 hr of birth through day 38. A third group of animals was untreated. All mice were subsequently immunized with four i.p. injections of castor allergen plus aluminum hydroxide. Results indicate that anti-treatments severely suppressed murine serum IgE levels as compared with control mice. In addition anti-epsilon-treated mice were initially unable to produce detectable reaginic antibody upon immunization with castor bean allergens (CA). Upon further CA immunization, these animals did produce an IgE antibody response, but this was still lower than that detected in control immunized mice. Other immunoglobulin levels in the anti-epsilon-treated mice were not suppressed as compared with those in the control mice. These results suggest that neonatally administered anti-epsilon antisera selectively diminished total IgE levels as well as antigen-induced IgE antibodies in mice. PMID:6807838

  11. Multivalent nanomaterials: learning from vaccines and progressing to antigen-specific immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Brittany L; Antunez, Lorena; Sullivan, Bradley P; Thati, Sharadvi; Sestak, Joshua O; Berkland, Cory

    2015-02-01

    Continued development of multivalent nanomaterials has provided opportunities for the advancement of antigen-specific immunotherapies. New insights emerge when considering the backdrop of vaccine design, which has long employed multivalent presentation of antigen to more strongly engage and enhance an immunogenic response. Additionally, vaccines traditionally codeliver antigen with adjuvant to amplify a robust antigen-specific response. Multivalent nanomaterials have since evolved for applications where immune tolerance is desired, such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. In particular, soluble, linear polymers may be tailored to direct antigen-specific immunogenicity or tolerance by modulating polymer length, ligand valency (number), and ligand density, in addition to incorporating secondary signals. Codelivery of a secondary signal may direct, amplify, or suppress the response to a given antigen. Although the ability of multivalent nanomaterials to enact an immune response through molecular mechanisms has been established, a transport mechanism for biodistribution must also be considered. Both mechanisms are influenced by ligand display and other physical properties of the nanomaterial. This review highlights multivalent ligand display on linear polymers, the complex interplay of physical parameters in multivalent design, and the ability to direct the immune response by molecular and transport mechanisms.

  12. Possible Role of Trichophytin Antigen in Inducing Impaired Immunological Clearance of Fungus in Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chhavi; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V G; Saha, Rumpa; Bhattacharya, S N; Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Atri, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    The immunology of onychomycosis is poorly understood. Th1 and Th17 are the principal effector cells responsible for protective immunity against fungi, while it is assumed that Th2 responses are associated with deleterious effects. The study was conducted to appraise the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in onychomycosis patients and to study skin reactivity to trichophytin antigen in them. Serum samples of 60 cases of chronic onychomycosis and 30 healthy controls were assayed for serum IgE, IL-6 and TGF-β levels using specific immunoassay kits; 0.01 ml of trichophytin antigen, Candida antigen and phosphate-buffered saline using separate syringes were injected intradermal at three independent sites of the forearm in cases and controls. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls, while serum TGF-β levels in both cases and controls were comparable. Serum IgE levels in cases were significantly higher when compared with controls. Thirty-eight patients showed immediate hypersensitivity response to trichophytin antigen, while none showed delayed hypersensitivity reaction to trichophytin antigen. Constant fungal antigenic stimuli induce a state of anergy as indicated by low serum IL-6 levels and the absence of delayed hypersensitivity reaction to trichophytin antigen in cases, leading to chronicity of infection. High total IgE may indicate a high probability of prior fungal sensitization.

  13. Design of universal cancer vaccines using natural tumor vessel-specific antigens (SANTAVAC).

    PubMed

    Lokhov, Petr G; Balashova, Elena E

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against endothelial cells (ECs) lining the tumor vasculature represents one of the most attractive potential cancer immunotherapy options due to its ability to prevent solid tumor growth. Using this approach, target antigens can be derived from ECs and used to develop a universal cancer vaccine. Unfortunately, direct immunization with EC preparations can elicit autoimmune vasculitis in normal tissues. Recently, tumor-induced changes to the human EC surface were described that provided a basis for designing efficient EC-based vaccines capable of eliciting immune responses that targeted the tumor endothelium directly. This review examines these data from the perspective of designing EC-based cancer vaccines for the treatment of all solid tumors, including the antigen composition of vaccine formulations, the selection ECs for antigen derivation, the production and control of antigens, and the method for estimating vaccine efficacy and safety. As the vaccine preparation requires a specifically derived set of natural cell surface antigens, a new vaccine preparation concept was formulated. Antigen compositions prepared according to this concept were named SANTAVAC (Set of All Natural Target Antigens for Vaccination Against Cancer).

  14. Heligmosomoides polygyrus abrogates antigen-specific gut injury in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Hang, Long; Blum, Arthur; Setiawan, Tommy; Stoyanoff, Korynn; Weinstock, Joel

    2012-08-01

    Developing countries have a low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), perhaps prevented by the high prevalence of helminth infections and other alterations in intestinal flora and fauna. Helminth infections prevent colitis in various murine models of IBD. IBD may be driven by an aberrant immune response to luminal antigen(s). We developed a murine model of IBD in which gut injury was induced by a specific antigen to better simulate the IBD disease process and to determine if helminth infections could abolish gut injury induced by an orally administered antigen. The model features pan-enterocolitis triggered by feeding ovalbumin (OVA). The intestinal inflammation is antigen-specific and generates interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), but not IL-4. Full expression of the disease required T cells with defective capacity to make IL-10 and treatment with a noninjurious, low dose of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. Exposure to Heligmosomoides polygyrus abrogated this antigen-induced gut injury. H. polygyrus colonization induced Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) and mucosal production of IL-10 from non-T cells. Lamina propria mononuclear cells from H. polygyrus-infected mice released less IL-17 and IFN-γ constitutively and when stimulated with OVA or anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies. We developed a murine IBD model featuring antigen-specific enterocolitis and demonstrate for the first time that gut inflammation induced by an antigen could be abrogated by H. polygyrus infection. Protection was associated with suppressed IL-17 and IFN-γ production, induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs, and elevated secretion of non-T-cell-derived IL-10, all of which could be part of the protective processes. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  15. Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R

    2014-06-05

    T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into RORγt-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines.

  16. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-12-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection.

  17. Co-expression and impact of prostate specific membrane antigen and prostate specific antigen in prostatic pathologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to relate the co-expression of prostate-associated antigens, PSMA and PSA, with the degree of vascularization in normal and pathologic (hyperplasia and cancer) prostate tissues to elucidate their possible role in tumor progression. Methods The study was carried out in 6 normal, 44 benign prostatic hyperplastic and 39 cancerous human prostates. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed using the monoclonal antibody CD34 to determine the angiogenic activity, and the monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 to assess PSMA and PSA expression, respectively. Results In our study we found that in normal prostate tissue, PSMA and PSA were equally expressed (3.7 ± 0.18 and 3.07 ± 0.11). A significant difference in their expression was see in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostates tissues (16.14 ± 0.17 and 30.72 ± 0.85, respectively) for PSMA and (34.39 ± 0.53 and 17.85 ± 1.21, respectively) for PSA. Study of prostate tumor profiles showed that the profile (PSA+, PSMA-) expression levels decreased between normal prostate, benign prostatic tissue and primary prostate cancer. In the other hand, the profile (PSA-, PSMA+) expression levels increased from normal to prostate tumor tissues. PSMA overexpression was associated with high intratumoral angiogenesis activity. By contrast, high PSA expression was associated with low angiogenesis activity. Conclusion These data suggest that these markers are regulated differentially and the difference in their expression showed a correlation with malignant transformation. With regard to the duality PSMA-PSA, this implies the significance of their investigation together in normal and pathologic prostate tissues. PMID:21189143

  18. [IgE antibodies in human Fasciola hepatica distomiasis].

    PubMed

    Sampaio Silva, M L; Vindimian, M; Wattré, P; Capron, A

    1985-09-01

    In patients infected by Fasciola hepatica, total IgE and specific IgE antibodies have been determined by radioimmunoassays, and IgG, IgA, IgM levels by radial immunodiffusion test (Mancini, 1965). Moreover, total and specific IgE levels have been related to parasite egg burden, age, clinical features and eosinophilia. Elevated total IgE and specific IgE antibodies levels have been found respectively in 76% and 48% of the patients whereas there was no significant variations in other immunoglobulins levels. However, though the amount of total and specific IgE was lower than in other helminthic diseases, it appears to be a significant data of the immune response to parasites as it has been reported and discussed previously. It has been shown a significant relationship between total and specific IgE levels, the number of lines by immunoelectrophoresis, and the results of the indirect haemagglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques; each method appeared to be in equal value to perform the early diagnosis of human Fasciola hepatica. In addition, specific IgE antibodies levels were correlated with eosinophilia specially when it exceeds 15%. This results demonstrate the availability of their measurement in the diagnosis of fascioliasis versus other diseases with marked eosinophilia.

  19. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P < .0001). Of these specimens, 94 were negative for IgE to both species, 10 were positive for A fumigatus and negative for A niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  20. The sequential appearance of IgG subclasses and IgE during the course of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungström, I; Hammarström, L; Kociecka, W; Smith, C I

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that IgG1 and IgG4 are the dominant IgG subclasses in the specific response during a chronic helminthic infection. It has also been suggested that IgG4 production results from chronic or repetitive antigenic stimulation and a correlation between IgG4 and IgE levels exists. An outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infection in Poland provided the opportunity to follow the sequential appearance of the IgG subclass and IgE responses in 15 patients during the early stage of Trichinella infection and to compare these observations in sera obtained one year later from the same patients. The results show that the sequential appearance of the IgG subclasses were IgG1 before IgG3 and IgG3 before IgG4. IgG1 antibodies dominated the immune response in all patients. A statistically significant increase in the number of IgG4 positive sera was observed in patients during the chronic stage compared to the findings during the early stage of infection (13% vs 73%; p less than 0.001), supporting the view that IgG4 results from a chronic antigenic stimulation. A correlation between the appearance of IgG4 and IgE was not found. The highest levels of IgE were seen in the first serum samples obtained, with a decrease during the course of infection. PMID:3224442

  1. Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Hill, David; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-five percent positive predictive values (PPVs) provide an invaluable tool for clinicians to avoid unnecessary oral food challenges. However, 95% PPVs specific to infants, the age group most likely to present for diagnosis of food allergy, are limited. We sought to develop skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) thresholds with 95% PPVs for challenge-confirmed food allergy in a large population-based cohort of 1-year-old infants with challenges undertaken irrespective of SPT wheal size or previous history of ingestion. HealthNuts is a population-based, longitudinal food allergy study with baseline recruitment of 1-year-old infants. Infants were recruited from council-run immunization sessions during which they underwent SPTs to 4 allergens: egg, peanut, sesame, and cow's milk/shrimp. Any infant with a detectable SPT response was invited to undergo oral food challenge and sIgE testing. Five thousand two hundred seventy-six infants participated in the study. Peanut SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 7-9 mm), egg SPT responses of 4 mm or greater (95% CI, 3-5 mm), and sesame SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 5-9 mm) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Peanut sIgE levels of 34 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 14-48 kUA/L) and egg sIgE levels of 1.7 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 1-3 kUA/L) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Results were robust when stratified on established risk factors for food allergy. Egg SPT responses and sIgE levels were poor predictors of allergy to egg in baked goods. These 95% PPVs, which were generated from a unique dataset, are valuable for the diagnosis of food allergy in young infants and were robust when stratified across a number of different risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-Folate Receptor-α IgE but not IgG Recruits Macrophages to Attack Tumors via TNFα/MCP-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Debra H; Bax, Heather J; Dodev, Tihomir; Georgouli, Mirella; Nakamura, Mano; Pellizzari, Giulia; Saul, Louise; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Cheung, Anthony; Herraiz, Cecilia; Ilieva, Kristina M; Correa, Isabel; Fittall, Matthew; Crescioli, Silvia; Gazinska, Patrycja; Woodman, Natalie; Mele, Silvia; Chiaruttini, Giulia; Gilbert, Amy E; Koers, Alexander; Bracher, Marguerite; Selkirk, Christopher; Lentfer, Heike; Barton, Claire; Lever, Elliott; Muirhead, Gareth; Tsoka, Sophia; Canevari, Silvana; Figini, Mariangela; Montes, Ana; Downes, Noel; Dombrowicz, David; Corrigan, Christopher J; Beavil, Andrew J; Nestle, Frank O; Jones, Paul S; Gould, Hannah J; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria; Blower, Philip J; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2017-03-01

    IgE antibodies are key mediators of antiparasitic immune responses, but their potential for cancer treatment via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been little studied. Recently, tumor antigen-specific IgEs were reported to restrict cancer cell growth by engaging high-affinity Fc receptors on monocytes and macrophages; however, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms were undefined and in vivo proof of concept was limited. Here, an immunocompetent rat model was designed to recapitulate the human IgE-Fcε receptor system for cancer studies. We also generated rat IgE and IgG mAbs specific for the folate receptor (FRα), which is expressed widely on human ovarian tumors, along with a syngeneic rat tumor model expressing human FRα. Compared with IgG, anti-FRα IgE reduced lung metastases. This effect was associated with increased intratumoral infiltration by TNFα(+) and CD80(+) macrophages plus elevated TNFα and the macrophage chemoattractant MCP-1 in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Increased levels of TNFα and MCP-1 correlated with IgE-mediated tumor cytotoxicity by human monocytes and with longer patient survival in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer. Monocytes responded to IgE but not IgG exposure by upregulating TNFα, which in turn induced MCP-1 production by monocytes and tumor cells to promote a monocyte chemotactic response. Conversely, blocking TNFα receptor signaling abrogated induction of MCP-1, implicating it in the antitumor effects of IgE. Overall, these findings show how antitumor IgE reprograms monocytes and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, encouraging the clinical use of IgE antibody technology to attack cancer beyond the present exclusive reliance on IgG. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1127-41. ©2017 AACR.

  3. SHIP represses mast cell activation and reveals that IgE alone triggers signaling pathways which enhance normal mast cell survival.

    PubMed

    Kalesnikoff, Janet; Lam, Vivian; Krystal, Gerald

    2002-09-01

    The hemopoietic specific, Src homology 2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase (SHIP) hydrolyzes the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3-kinase generated second messenger, PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), to PI-3,4-bisphosphate (PI-3,4-P(2)) in normal bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs). As a consequence, SHIP negatively regulates IgE+antigen (Ag)-induced degranulation as well as leukotriene and inflammatory cytokine production. Interestingly, in the absence of SHIP, BMMCs degranulate extensively with IgE alone, i.e. without Ag, suggesting that IgE alone is capable of stimulating signaling in normal BMMCs and that SHIP prevents this signaling from progressing to degranulation. To test this, we compared signaling events triggered by monomeric IgE versus IgE+Ag in normal BMMCs and found that multiple pathways are triggered by monomeric IgE alone and, while they are in general weaker than those stimulated by IgE+Ag, they are more prolonged. Moreover, while SHIP prevents this IgE-induced signalling from progressing to degranulation or leukotriene production it allows sufficient production of autocrine acting cytokines, in part by activation of NFkappaB, to enhance BMMC survival. Interestingly, the activation of NFkappaB and the level of cytokines produced are far higher with IgE than with IgE+Ag. Moreover, IgE alone maintains Bcl-X(L) levels and enhances the adhesion of BMMCs to fibronectin and this likely enhances their survival still further.

  4. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Augments Antigen-Specific PD-1-Mediated Anti-Tumor Immune Responses via Cross-Presentation of Tumor Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Andrew B.; Nirschl, Christopher J.; Kochel, Christina M.; Nirschl, Thomas R.; Francisca, Brian J.; Velarde, Esteban; Deweese, Theodore L.; Drake, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    The immune-modulating effects of radiation therapy have gained considerable interest recently and there have been multiple reports of synergy between radiation and immunotherapy. However, additional pre-clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the antigen-specific nature of radiation-induced immune responses and elucidate potential mechanisms of synergy with immunotherapy. Here we demonstrate the ability of stereotactic radiotherapy to induce endogenous antigen-specific immune responses when combined with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP), image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy delivered to B16-OVA melanoma or 4T1-HA breast carcinoma tumors resulted in the development of antigen-specific T and B cell-mediated immune responses. These immune-stimulating effects of radiotherapy were significantly increased when combined with either anti-PD-1 therapy or regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion, resulting in improved local tumor control. Phenotypic analyses of antigen-specific CD8 T cells revealed that radiotherapy increased the percentage of antigen-experienced T cells and effector memory T cells. Mechanistically we found that radiotherapy up-regulates tumor-associated antigen-MHC complexes, enhances antigen cross-presentation in the draining lymph node, and increased T-cell infiltration into tumors. These findings demonstrate the ability of radiotherapy to prime an endogenous antigen-specific immune response and provide additional mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with PD-1 blockade in the clinic. PMID:25527358

  5. Degradable emulsion as vaccine adjuvant reshapes antigen-specific immunity and thereby ameliorates vaccine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Hsiung; Huang, Chiung-Yi; Cheng, Chih-Ping; Dai, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chong, Pele; Liu, Shih-Jen; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the feasibility and adjuvant mechanism of a degradable emulsion for tuning adaptive immune responses to a vaccine antigen. We featured a mouse model with ovalbumin (OVA) as the antigen to deepen our understanding of the properties of a degradable emulsion-based adjuvant, dubbed PELC, interacting with immune cells and to elucidate their roles in vaccine immunogenicity in vivo. First, we demonstrated that the emulsion, which is stabilized by an amphiphilic bioresorbable polymer, shows degradation in mimic human body conditions and considerable tolerance in vivo. Then, we confirmed the model protein could be loaded into the emulsion and released from the matrix in a sustained manner, subsequently driving the production of antigen-specific antibodies. We also comprehended that PELC not only recruits antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to the injection site but also induces the activation of the recruited APCs and migration to the draining lymph nodes. As an adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy, PELC-formulated OVA could strongly enhance antigen-specific T-cell responses as well as anti-tumor ability with respected to non-formulated OVA, using OVA protein/EG7 cells as a tumor antigen/tumor cell model. Accordingly, our data paved the way for the clinical application of degradable emulsions based on amphiphilic bioresorbable polymers as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:27827451

  6. A human T cell clone that mediates the monocyte procoagulant response to specific sensitizing antigen.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Reitnauer, P J; Hank, J A; Sondel, P M

    1985-09-01

    A panel of human purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacillus (PPD)-reactive T cell clones was derived by cloning out of soft agar followed by cultivation on inactivated feeder cells in the presence of interleukin-2. 1 of 4 clones tested was able to mediate an increase in monocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) in response to PPD. All four clones had identical surface marker phenotypes (T4+, T8-) and proliferated in response to antigen. The reactive T cell clone possessed no PCA of its own, but upon being presented with PPD was able to instruct monocytes to increase their expression of PCA. Antigen presentation could be performed only by autologous monocytes; allogeneic monocytes from donors unrelated to the donor of the reactive clone could not present antigen to cells of the clone in a way that would initiate the procoagulant response. Cells of the reactive clone did not mediate increased monocyte PCA in response to Candida, even though peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the donor demonstrated increased PCA to both Candida and PPD. Thus, the PCA response to specific antigen can be mediated by a single clone of cells that shows specificity in the recognition of both antigen and antigen presenting cell.

  7. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  8. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  9. Western blot diagnosis of vivax malaria with multiple stage-specific antigens of the parasite

    PubMed Central

    Son, Eui-Sun; Kim, Tong Soo

    2001-01-01

    Western blot analysis was performed to diagnose vivax malaria using stage-specific recombinant antigens. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as templates to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1) of Plasmodium vivax. Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into a pGEX-4T plasmid to induce the expression of GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli by IPTG. The bacterial cell extracts were separated on 10% SDS-PAGE followed by western blot analysis with patient sera which was confirmed by blood smear examination. When applied with patient sera, 147 (91.9%) out of 160 vivax malaria, 12 (92.3%) out of 13 falciparum malaria, and all 9 vivax/falciparum mixed malaria reacted with at least one antigen, while no reactions occurred with 20 normal uninfected sera. In the case of vivax malaria, CSP-1 reacted with 128 (80.0%) sera, MSP-1 with 102 (63.8%), AMA-1 with 128 (80.0%), SERA with 115 (71.9%), and EXP-1 with 89 (55.6%), respectively. We obtained higher detection rates when using 5 antigens (91.9%) rather than using each antigen solely (55.6-80%), a combination of 2 (76.3-87.5%), 3 (85.6-90.6%), or 4 antigens (89.4-91.3%). This method can be applied to serological diagnosis, mass screening in endemic regions, or safety test in transfusion of prevalent vivax malaria. PMID:11441504

  10. Western blot diagnosis of vivax malaria with multiple stage-specific antigens of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Son, E S; Kim, T S; Nam, H W

    2001-06-01

    Western blot analysis was performed to diagnose vivax malaria using stage-specific recombinant antigens. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as templates to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1) of Plasmodium vivax. Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into a pGEX-4T plasmid to induce the expression of GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli by IPTG. The bacterial cell extracts were separated on 10% SDS-PAGE followed by western blot analysis with patient sera which was confirmed by blood smear examination. When applied with patient sera, 147 (91.9%) out of 160 vivax malaria, 12 (92.3%) out of 13 falciparum malaria, and all 9 vivax/falciparum mixed malaria reacted with at least one antigen, while no reactions occurred with 20 normal uninfected sera. In the case of vivax malaria, CSP-1 reacted with 128 (80.0%) sera, MSP-1 with 102 (63.8%), AMA-1 with 128 (80.0%), SERA with 115 (71.9%), and EXP-1 with 89 (55.6%), respectively. We obtained higher detection rates when using 5 antigens (91.9%) rather than using each antigen solely (55.6-80%), a combination of 2 (76.3-87.5%), 3 (85.6-90.6%), or 4 antigens (89.4-91.3%). This method can be applied to serological diagnosis, mass screening in endemic regions, or safety test in transfusion of prevalent vivax malaria.

  11. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations.

  12. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis inhibition: evidence for heterogeneity in IgE mast cell interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L; Farris, P N; Bazin, H

    1981-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that IgE molecules are heterogeneous with respect to ability to compete with IgE myeloma for sensitization of histamine release from chopped human lung and ability to passively sensitize human basophils for antigen-induced histamine release. These observations prompted further investigation of the possibility that there exists a functional heterogeneity in the IgE molecules with respect to mast-cell binding properties. Using eight different purified rat IgE myeloma proteins, we found that they differ in their ability to inhibit the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction of mouse reaginic antisera. This suggests that IgE molecules differ in their ability to bind to mast cell receptors. Since maximal inhibition of different mouse reaginic antisera and mouse IgE hybridomas is achieved with different IgE myelomas, there may exist a functional heterogeneity in mast-cell binding receptors as well. PMID:7319556

  13. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation.

  15. Immuno-PCR: Very sensitive antigen detection by means of specific antibody-DNA conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, T.; Smith, C.L.; Cantor, C.R. )

    1992-10-02

    An antigen detection system, termed immuno-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR), was developed in which a specific DNA molecule is used as the marker. A streptavidin-protein A chimera that possesses tight and specific binding affinity both for biotin and immunoglobulin G was used to attach a biotinylated DNA specifically to antigen-monoclonal antibody complexes that had been immobilized on microtiter plate wells. Then, a segment of the attached DNA was amplified by PCR. Analysis of the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis after staining with ethidium bromide allowed as few as 580 antigen molecules to be readily and reproducibly detected. Direct comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of a chimera-alkaline phosphatase conjugate demonstrates that enhancement in detection sensitivity was obtained with the use of immuno-PCR. Given the enormous amplification capability and specificity of PCR, this immuno-PCR technology has a sensitivity greater than any existing antigen detection system and, in principle, could be applied to the detection of single antigen molecules.

  16. Antigen-specific regulatory T cells: are police CARs the answer?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Nicholas A J; Levings, Megan K

    2017-09-01

    Cellular therapy with T-regulatory cells (Tregs) is a promising strategy to control immune responses and restore immune tolerance in a variety of immune-mediated diseases, such as transplant rejection and autoimmunity. Multiple clinical trials are currently testing this approach, typically by infusing a single dose of polyclonal Tregs that have been expanded in vitro. However, evidence from animal models of Treg therapy has clearly shown that antigen-specific Tregs are vastly superior to polyclonal cells, meaning that fewer cells are needed for the desired therapeutic effect. Traditional methods to obtain antigen-specific Tregs include antigen-stimulated expansion or T-cell receptor (TCR) overexpression. However, these methods are limited by low cell numbers, complex manufacturing procedures, and knowledge of patient-specific TCRs which recognize disease-relevant MHC-peptide complexes. Recently, several groups have explored the potential to use chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to generate antigen-specific Tregs. Here, we discuss the progress in this field and highlight the major outstanding questions that remain to be addressed as this approach moves toward clinical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Rapid production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although a variety of animals have been used to produce polyclonal antibodies against antigens, the production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from animals remains challenging. Results We propose a simple and rapid strategy to produce monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals. By staining lymph node cells with an antibody against immunoglobulin and a fluorescent dye specific for the endoplasmic reticulum, plasma/plasmablast cells were identified without using a series of antibodies against lineage markers. By using a fluorescently labeled antigen as a tag for a complementary cell surface immunoglobulin, antigen-specific plasma/plasmablast cells were sorted from the rest of the cell population by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Amplification of cognate pairs of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes followed by DNA transfection into 293FT cells resulted in the highly efficient production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of immunized animals. Conclusions Our technology eliminates the need for both cell propagation and screening processes, offering a significant advantage over hybridoma and display strategies. PMID:23017270

  18. Dendritic cells and the promise of antigen-specific therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease resulting from an autoimmune response to self-antigens, leading to inflammation of synovial tissue of joints and subsequent cartilage and bone erosion. Current disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biologic inhibitors of TNF, IL-6, T cells and B cells block inflammation nonspecifically, which may lead to adverse effects, including infection. They do not generally induce long-term drug-free remission or restoration of immune tolerance to self-antigens, and lifelong treatment is usual. The development of antigen-specific strategies in RA has so far been limited by insufficient knowledge of autoantigens, of the autoimmune pathogenesis of RA and of the mechanisms of immune tolerance in man. Effective tolerance-inducing antigen-specific immunotherapeutic strategies hold promise of greater specificity, of lower toxicity and of a longer-term solution for controlling or even preventing RA. This paper reviews current understanding of autoantigens and their relationship to immunopathogenesis of RA, and emerging therapeutics that aim to leverage normal tolerance mechanisms for implementation of antigen-specific therapy in RA. PMID:23374912

  19. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Methods: Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. Results: For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 μg/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB. PMID:23287127

  20. Chemical Composition and Immunological Specificity of the Streptococcal Group O Cell Wall Polysaccharide Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mukasa, Hidehiko; Slade, Hutton D.

    1972-01-01

    The group O streptococcal group antigen was shown to be a polysaccharide located in the cell wall of the organism. The antigen could be extracted by one of several methods: (i) 0.5 n NaOH at 37 C, (ii) phenol-water (50:50) at 68 C, (iii) 0.2 n HCl at 100 C, or (iv) 10% trichloroacetic acid at 4 C. The last method yielded more polysaccharide with less protein contamination. The polysaccharide was purified on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 and Sephadex G-200. It was composed of two-thirds glucosamine and galactosamine, and the remainder glucose plus galactose. Rhamnose, glycerol, ribitol, and muramic acid were absent. Total phosphorus and amino acids were each less than 0.1%. N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosamine exerted a strong inhibition of the precipitin reaction and is considered the immunodominant sugar. Glucosamine and glucose possessed a partial inhibitory activity. Galactose and galactosamine were essentially negative. No evidence of cross-reactivity was found between the O polysaccharide and group A and L polysaccharides, and group A and Staphylococcus aureus teichoic acids, which posesss N-acetylglucosamine specificity. The release of limited quantities of N-acetyl-glucosamine from its terminal location by enzyme, and glucose by acid hydrolysis, indicates a limited number of side chains in the O antigen. The glucosamine is in acid-stable linkage in the polysaccharide. Glucose was not released by β-glucosidase and probably does not occupy a terminal position. The O antigen is the only known streptococcal polysaccharide antigen which does not contain rhamnose. The effect of these factors on the immunological specificity is discussed. O serum, after adsorption with the purified polysaccharide, was used to demonstrate the presence of protein antigens in acid extracts of cells from each of the nine strains examined. These antigens may represent type antigens. Two of these strains, originally described as group O, did not contain the O polysaccharide. Images PMID:4629249

  1. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  2. Safety and predictors of adverse events during oral immunotherapy for milk allergy: severity of reaction at oral challenge, specific IgE and prick test.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ortiz, M; Alvaro-Lozano, M; Alsina, L; Garcia-Paba, M B; Piquer-Gibert, M; Giner-Muñoz, M T; Lozano, J; Domínguez-Sánchez, O; Jiménez, R; Días, M; Martín-Mateos, M A; Plaza-Martín, A M

    2013-01-01

    Strict avoidance is the only accepted management for cow's milk (CM) allergy. CM oral immunotherapy (CM-OIT) is under investigation. To evaluate long-term safety of CM-OIT. To identify clinical/immunological predictors of adverse events. Prospective longitudinal epidemiological intervention study. CM-allergic children aged 5-18 underwent a Spanish-approved CM-OIT protocol without premedication. Clinical data, skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) at baseline and 1 year after OIT were registered. All dose-related reactions, treatments needed and cofactors involved were recorded. Through survival analysis, we studied the cumulative probability of reactions resolution over time and clinical/immunological risk factors of reactions persistence. 81 children were recruited. Mean follow-up was 25 months. 95% of children suffered reactions, 91% of which affected a single organ. Reactions were heterogeneously distributed: (a) 60 children (75%) had occasional symptoms which ceased over time. 86% of them reached complete desensitization (200 mL). (b) 20 children (25%) suffered frequent (78% of total reactions), more severe and unpredictable reactions, which persisted during follow-up or led to withdrawal (6 cases). Reactions persistence was associated with a higher frequency and severity. Kaplan-Meier estimate revealed a cumulative probability of reactions resolution of 25% at 3 months (95% CI: 1.9-4.1) and 50% (95% CI: 6.1-9.9) at 8 months based on all patients. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression model identified 3 variables (CM-sIgE ≥ 50 KU L(-1) , CM-SPT ≥ 9 mm and Sampson's severity grades 2, 3 and 4 at baseline food challenge) as independent risk factors of reactions persistence. The combination of 2 or 3 of these factors involved hazard ratios to develop persistent reactions of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.14-4.46; P = 0.019) and 6.06 (95% CI: 2.7-13.7; P < 0.001), respectively. CM-OIT was insufficiently safe in 25% of children. The above-mentioned clinical

  3. Purification of the group-specific antigen of bluetongue virus by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Hübschle, O J; Yang, C

    1983-03-01

    A method for the purification of the precipitating antigen of bluetongue virus (BTV) is described. The results obtained indicate that the precipitating antigen is identical with a core protein of BTV having a molecular weight of 39,000 (P7). So far all bluetongue virus serotypes have been shown to possess this protein. It is evident therefore that a group-specific reaction could be based on the presence of antibodies against this core protein. The purification of this protein by chromatofocusing proved relatively easy to perform and immunodiffusion tests revealed a group-specific reaction.

  4. IgE versus IgG4 epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 1 in patients with severe allergy.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, K L; Nielsen, H; Eiwegger, T; Madsen, C B; Mills, E N C; Rigby, N M; Szépfalusi, Z; Roggen, E L

    2014-04-01

    Development and maintenance of tolerance to food allergens appears to be associated with alterations in antigen specific IgE and IgG4 responses. Previous studies have focused only on comparing IgE and IgG4 linear epitope recognition patterns but take no account of conformational epitopes. The aim of this study was to compare Ara h 1-specific IgE and IgG4 epitope recognition patterns in patients with severe peanut allergy, applying a method allowing for identification of both linear and conformational epitopes. Polyclonal sera from three individual patients, suffering from severe allergic reaction to peanuts, including anaphylaxis, were used to analyse the IgE and IgG4 epitope recognition patterns of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1. Epitope identification was conducted by competitive immuno-screening of a phage-displayed random heptamer peptide library. Resulting epitope-mimicking sequences were aligned for identification of consensus sequences and localised on the surface of the Ara h 1 molecule by a computer-based algorithm. All epitope-mimicking sequences identified were found to correspond to conformational epitopes. Each individual patient had his/her own distinct IgE as well as IgG4 epitope recognition profile, though some important IgE epitopes were common to all patients. In general the IgG4 epitope pattern was more heterogeneous than the IgE pattern, did not coincide with IgE epitopes and had a lower affinity than IgE. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the phage-display technology in distinguishing between the epitope pattern of IgE and IgG4, giving detailed information on fine specificity and affinity. Competitive immuno-screening of phage-display random peptide libraries could be a future valuable tool to study the balance and dynamics of the IgE and IgG4 epitope recognition repertoire and provide a diagnostic tool giving information on the associated allergic phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An antigenic threshold for maintaining human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, X.; Ogg, G.; Bonhoeffer, S.; Safrit, J.; Vesanen, M.; Bauer, D.; Chen, D.; Cao, Y.; Demoitie, M. A.; Zhang, L.; Markowitz, M.; Nixon, D.; McMichael, A.; Ho, D. D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model in mice, a number of studies show that memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are maintained in the presence of continuous antigenic stimulation. Yet, other groups found that memory CTL specific for LCMV could last for a lifetime in mice without viral antigens. Thus, the extent to which an antigen is required for the maintenance of virus-specific CTL remains controversial. In humans, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between the quantity of antigen and the magnitude of CTL responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantified CTL precursors (CTLp) using a limiting-dilution analysis (LDA) and CTL effectors (CTLe) using a new Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I tetramer technology in six long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, as well as in eight patients whose viral loads were well suppressed by antiretroviral therapy. The viremia levels in these patients were measured using an reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The proviral DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) was also measured by PCR in four LTNPs. RESULTS: The LTNPs had high levels of HIV-1-specific memory CTLp and CTLe, while maintaining a low plasma viral load. Despite also having low viral loads, patients whose plasma viremia was well-suppressed by effective therapy had low levels of CTLe. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a complex, rather than a monotonic, relationship exists between CTL levels and HIV-1 viremia, including what appears to be an antigenic threshold for the maintenance of CTL at a measurable level. Under conditions of "antigen excess,", CTLe levels correlate inversely with viral load. On the other hand, under conditions that are "antigen limited," the correlation appears to be direct. PMID:11071274

  6. Characterization and purification of Parafilaria bovicola antigens by chromatofocusing to enhance specificity in serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, B; Bech-Nielsen, S; Zakrisson, G

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine if the purification of Parafilaria bovicola antigens can increase the specificity of serodiagnosis of parafilariasis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antigens released from adult worms of P. bovicola were separated by chromatofocusing on a polybuffer exchanger of the pH range 7.3-4.0 Polypeptide analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the presence of four major polypeptides with MWs of 41, 36, 24 and 20 kDa. Additional biochemical characterization identified the 24- and 20-kDa polypeptides as hydrophobic glycoproteins. The chromatofocusing purification procedures were also applied for separation of a whole-worm extract. Again, the 41- and 36-kDa antigens were identified in separate peak fractions. Using ELISA, it was shown that the 41- and 35-kDa antigens were recognized by bovine antibodies specific for P. bovicola, but not by other sera collected from cattle infected by Onchocerca gutturosa, Onchocerca lienalis, Ostertagia ostertagi and Dictyocaulus viviparus. The serological evaluation strongly suggests that the 41- and 36-kDa antigens are P. bovicola specific.

  7. Polymeric synthetic nanoparticles for the induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Roberto A.; LaMothe, Robert A.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rossi, Robert J.; Kolte, Pallavi N.; Griset, Aaron P.; O’Neil, Conlin; Altreuter, David H.; Browning, Erica; Johnston, Lloyd; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Langer, Robert; Scott, David W.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Kishimoto, Takashi Kei

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments to control pathological or unwanted immune responses often use broadly immunosuppressive drugs. New approaches to induce antigen-specific immunological tolerance that control both cellular and humoral immune responses are desirable. Here we describe the use of synthetic, biodegradable nanoparticles carrying either protein or peptide antigens and a tolerogenic immunomodulator, rapamycin, to induce durable and antigen-specific immune tolerance, even in the presence of potent Toll-like receptor agonists. Treatment with tolerogenic nanoparticles results in the inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation, an increase in regulatory cells, durable B-cell tolerance resistant to multiple immunogenic challenges, and the inhibition of antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and antibody responses against coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia A mice, even in animals previously sensitized to antigen. Only encapsulated rapamycin, not the free form, could induce immunological tolerance. Tolerogenic nanoparticle therapy represents a potential novel approach for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases, and prevention of antidrug antibodies against biologic therapies. PMID:25548186

  8. Polymeric synthetic nanoparticles for the induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Roberto A; LaMothe, Robert A; Ferrari, Joseph D; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rossi, Robert J; Kolte, Pallavi N; Griset, Aaron P; O'Neil, Conlin; Altreuter, David H; Browning, Erica; Johnston, Lloyd; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Scott, David W; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Kishimoto, Takashi Kei

    2015-01-13

    Current treatments to control pathological or unwanted immune responses often use broadly immunosuppressive drugs. New approaches to induce antigen-specific immunological tolerance that control both cellular and humoral immune responses are desirable. Here we describe the use of synthetic, biodegradable nanoparticles carrying either protein or peptide antigens and a tolerogenic immunomodulator, rapamycin, to induce durable and antigen-specific immune tolerance, even in the presence of potent Toll-like receptor agonists. Treatment with tolerogenic nanoparticles results in the inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation, an increase in regulatory cells, durable B-cell tolerance resistant to multiple immunogenic challenges, and the inhibition of antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and antibody responses against coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia A mice, even in animals previously sensitized to antigen. Only encapsulated rapamycin, not the free form, could induce immunological tolerance. Tolerogenic nanoparticle therapy represents a potential novel approach for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases, and prevention of antidrug antibodies against biologic therapies.

  9. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-07-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the (/sup 3/H)thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% (SD)) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition.

  10. Specific inactivation of sensitized lymphocytes in vitro using antigens labelled with astatine-211

    PubMed Central

    Smit, J. A.; Myburgh, J. A.; Neirinckx, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    This is a study of the use of astatine-211 as an alternative to iodine isotopes in radioactive antigen suicide experiments. The theoretical advantages of 211At are that it is a high energy (5·87 MeV), short half-life (7·2 hr)α-emitter with a short path length of 60 μm. Its destructive effect, measured in terms of degree of ionization per micron is 300 times that of 125I and 131I. Streptokinase (SK), tuberculin (PPD) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were labelled electrolytically with 211At (3–9% incorporation). These antigens were not destroyed by the labelling technique or by self-irradiation during radioactive decay. Autoradiography showed that only a small fraction of lymphocytes bound 211At-labelled SK and PPD whilst most lymphocytes bound 211At-labelled PHA. Lymphocytes exposed for 40 min to 0·35–1·40 μCi of labelled antigens lost 35–83% of their ability to transform upon subsequent exposure to the unlabelled antigens. The inhibition was specific in that responsiveness to unrelated antigens was retained. These results extend our previous findings with the use of 211At in in vivo antigen suicide experiments. ImagesFig. 1(a)Fig. 1(b) PMID:4716099

  11. Antigen specific immunological responses of badgers (Meles meles) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, Sandrine; Corner, Leigh; Costello, Eamon; Sleeman, Paddy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Singh, Mahavir; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark; Gormley, Eamonn

    2008-03-15

    European badgers (Meles meles) are considered to be an important reservoir of infection for Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle in Ireland and Great Britain. Accurate tests are required for tuberculosis surveillance in badger populations and to provide a basis for the development of strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the incidence of the infection. In this study, we have developed an endobronchial M. bovis infection model in badgers in which we measured cell-mediated immune and serological responses for up to 24 weeks post-infection. Groups of badgers were subjected to necropsy at 6-week intervals and the gross lesion severity status compared with immune responses measured in blood samples taken throughout the course of the study. The panel of antigens included bovine and avian tuberculins (PPD) as well as single antigens, ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB70, Rv3019c, Rv3873, Rv3878 and Rv3879, all known to be recognised by the immune system in other animal models of tuberculosis infection. Our results demonstrated that M. bovis infected badgers responded to specific antigens as early as 6 weeks post-infection, consistent with the presence of visible lesions. The data also revealed unique patterns of antigen recognition with high levels of PBMC proliferation in the presence of CFP-10 but low proliferation levels with ESAT-6. Using a multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), we were able to confirm that MPB83 is the dominant antigen recognised by serum antibodies in infected badgers.

  12. NB1, a new neutrophil-specific antigen involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Lalezari, Parviz; Murphy, Georgette B.; Allen, Fred H.

    1971-01-01

    A new human antigen is reported which is present only on blood neutrophils. A neutrophil-specific antigen, designated NA1, has previously been identified in two unrelated families, and was shown to be involved in fetomaternal incompatibility and the development of isoimmune neonatal neutropenia in five newborns. In the present paper, a second antigen, designated NB1, is identified in four families with seven affected children. Antibodies that react with this second antigen are shown to produce selective agglutination of neutrophils but not other blood cells. They are neither absorbed by cells prepared from solid tissues nor by non-neutrophilic blood cells. By family and population studies, NB is shown to be distinct from NA, representing an independent genetic locus. 68% of the New York population are homozygous for NB1, 29% heterozygous, and 3% negative. The NB locus is shown to be independent from those of HL-A and other known leukocyte antigens. No evidence for linkage between NA, NB, and red cell antigens was obtained. PMID:5552408

  13. Characterisation of an engineered trastuzumab IgE antibody and effector cell mechanisms targeting HER2/neu-positive tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Singer, Josef; Hunt, James; Gan, Samuel K E; Rudman, Sarah M; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Knittelfelder, Regina; Daniels, Tracy R; Hobson, Philip S; Beavil, Andrew J; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O; Penichet, Manuel L; Gould, Hannah J; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2009-06-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized IgG1 antibody raised against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), is the main antibody in clinical use against breast cancer. Pre-clinical evidence and clinical studies indicate that trastuzumab employs several anti-tumour mechanisms that most likely contribute to enhanced survival of patients with HER2/neu-positive breast carcinomas. New strategies are aimed at improving antibody-based therapeutics like trastuzumab, e.g. by enhancing antibody-mediated effector function mechanisms. Based on our previous findings that a chimaeric ovarian tumour antigen-specific IgE antibody showed greater efficacy in tumour cell killing, compared to the corresponding IgG1 antibody, we have produced an IgE homologue of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab IgE was engineered with the same light- and heavy-chain variable-regions as trastuzumab, but with an epsilon in place of the gamma-1 heavy-chain constant region. We describe the physical characterisation and ligand binding properties of the trastuzumab IgE and elucidate its potential anti-tumour activities in functional assays. Both trastuzumab and trastuzumab IgE can activate monocytic cells to kill tumour cells, but they operate by different mechanisms: trastuzumab functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), whereas trastuzumab IgE functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab IgE, incubated with mast cells and HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells, triggers mast cell degranulation, recruiting against cancer cells a potent immune response, characteristic of allergic reactions. Finally, in viability assays both antibodies mediate comparable levels of tumour cell growth arrest. These functional characteristics of trastuzumab IgE, some distinct from those of trastuzumab, indicate its potential to complement or improve upon the existing clinical benefits of trastuzumab.

  14. The hamster model for identification of specific antigens of Taenia solium tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Jiménez, Lucía; Landa, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24  kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  15. Conjugating Prussian blue nanoparticles onto antigen-specific T cells as a combined nanoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Burga, Rachel A; Patel, Shabnum; Bollard, Catherine M; Y Cruz, Conrad Russell; Fernandes, Rohan

    2016-07-01

    To engineer a novel nanoimmunotherapy comprising Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) conjugated to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which leverages PBNPs for their photothermal therapy (PTT) capabilities and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigen-specific CTL for their ability to traffic to and destroy EBV antigen-expressing target cells. PBNPs and CTL were independently biofunctionalized. Subsequently, PBNPs were conjugated onto CTL using avidin-biotin interactions. The resultant cell-nanoparticle construct (CTL:PBNPs) were analyzed for their physical, phenotypic and functional properties. Both PBNPs and CTL maintained their intrinsic physical, phenotypic and functional properties within the CTL:PBNPs. This study highlights the potential of our CTL:PBNPs nanoimmunotherapy as a novel therapeutic for treating virus-associated malignancies such as EBV+ cancers.

  16. CTLA4 mediates antigen-specific apoptosis of human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, J G; Freeman, G J; Boussiotis, V A; Rennert, P; Jellis, C L; Greenfield, E; Barber, M; Restivo, V A; Ke, X; Gray, G S

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses requires a balance between amplification and generation of effector function and subsequent selective termination by clonal deletion. Although apoptosis of previously activated T cells can be induced by signaling of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, these molecules do not appear to regulate T-cell clonal deletion in an antigen-specific fashion. We demonstrate that cross-linking of the inducible T-cell surface molecule CTLA4 can mediate apoptosis of previously activated human T lymphocytes. This function appears to be antigen-restricted, since a concomitant signal T-cell receptor signal is required. Regulation of this pathway may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to delete antigen-specific activated T cells. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7846057

  17. Dissecting the antigenic mosaic of the Archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum by monoclonal antibodies of defined molecular specificity

    SciTech Connect

    de Macario, E.C.; Macario, A.J.L.; Magarinos, M.C.; Koenig, H.; Kandler, O.

    1983-10-01

    The antigenic mosaic of the Archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, strain ..delta..H, was analyzed with a panel of six monoclonal antibodies. Five antigenic determinants were identified. One contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, another contains N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and a third contains ..gamma..-glutamylalanine (..gamma..-Glu-Ala). These residues are not involved, at least as immunodominant epitopes, in the other two determinants, one of which contains L-talosaminuronic acid, a component of pseudomurein found only in Methanobacteriaceae. Each of the five determinants was recognized by one monoclonal antibody exclusively. A sixth antibody recognized a structure containing ..gamma..-Glu-Ala that could be either a sixth determinant or a subdeterminant within the site already recognized as containing ..gamma..-Glu-Ala. It is postulated that two of the determinants are strain specific, three are species specific, and one is a common antigen.

  18. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  19. Molecular forms of serum prostate-specific antigen. The clinical value of percent free prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, P A; Lilja, H; Oesterling, J E

    1997-05-01

    The concept of measuring the proportions of various forms of PSA in serum, particularly the proportion of free to total PSA, represents a new and exciting method of detecting early curable prostate cancers and avoiding unnecessary prostate biopsies in men who have BPH only. Compared with other methods of improving diagnostic specificity, it does not require transrectal ultrasound for determination of prostate volume, as does the use of PSA density, and it does not require multiple blood sampling over a sufficiently long period, as does PSA velocity. Recent findings suggest determination of the proportion of free to total PSA, rather than that of complexed to total PSA, to be the optimal discriminator between patients with prostate cancer and those with BPH in the PSA reflex range of 2.5 or 3 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL, and to improve the clinical accuracy of the PSA test substantially. If the total PSA value is normal, percent free PSA improves the sensitivity (increases cancer detection) of the PSA test; if the total PSA value is slightly elevated, percent free PSA enhances the specificity (eliminates unnecessary negative prostate biopsies) of the PSA test. Both of these outcomes are clinically desirable in attempting to diagnose early, curable prostate cancers in a cost-effective manner among men who also have varying degrees of BPH. Figure 5 contains a diagnostic algorithm for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancers at a curable stage, employing the concept of percent free PSA. As more is learned about percent free PSA, however, it may be necessary to make modifications in how this concept is used clinically.

  20. Induction of antigen-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells by soluble proteins in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, S; Tonks, M; Carbone, F; Ryskamp, T; Morrow, W J; Hanna, N

    1992-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are induced specifically against viral and tumor antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on the surface of infected or transformed cells. Intracellular synthesized antigens are processed and associated with class I antigens within cells before presentation on the cell surface. Because of this special requirement for CTL induction, exogenous soluble antigens do not, in general, induce specific CTL responses. To overcome this problem, various laboratories have resorted to the use of vaccinia virus and other replicating expression vectors for intracellular antigen delivery leading to the stimulation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity to specific proteins. However, for human use it is safer to use purified and defined antigens for inducing immune responses. Using soluble ovalbumin and human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein gp120, we have explored the possibility of using an antigen formulation consisting of squalane and Tween 80 to elicit antigen-specific CTL responses in mice. We have demonstrated that this antigen formulation is a potent inducer of CD8+, class I-restricted, antigen-specific CTLs. The CTL priming induced by soluble antigen in squalane/Tween 80 resembles the reported response to the vaccinia recombinant containing human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein and by splenocytes cytoplasmically loaded with soluble ovalbumin. The ramifications of these findings for vaccine development are discussed. PMID:1518862

  1. Induction of antigen-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells by soluble proteins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, S; Tonks, M; Carbone, F; Ryskamp, T; Morrow, W J; Hanna, N

    1992-09-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are induced specifically against viral and tumor antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on the surface of infected or transformed cells. Intracellular synthesized antigens are processed and associated with class I antigens within cells before presentation on the cell surface. Because of this special requirement for CTL induction, exogenous soluble antigens do not, in general, induce specific CTL responses. To overcome this problem, various laboratories have resorted to the use of vaccinia virus and other replicating expression vectors for intracellular antigen delivery leading to the stimulation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity to specific proteins. However, for human use it is safer to use purified and defined antigens for inducing immune responses. Using soluble ovalbumin and human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein gp120, we have explored the possibility of using an antigen formulation consisting of squalane and Tween 80 to elicit antigen-specific CTL responses in mice. We have demonstrated that this antigen formulation is a potent inducer of CD8+, class I-restricted, antigen-specific CTLs. The CTL priming induced by soluble antigen in squalane/Tween 80 resembles the reported response to the vaccinia recombinant containing human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein and by splenocytes cytoplasmically loaded with soluble ovalbumin. The ramifications of these findings for vaccine development are discussed.

  2. Impaired Antigen-Specific Immune Response to Vaccines in Children with Antibody Production Defects.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Breborowicz, Anna; Samara, Husam; Ossowska, Lidia; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    The impaired synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies, which is indispensable for an adaptive immune response to infections, is a fundamental pathomechanism that leads to clinical manifestations in children with antibody production defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies following immunization in relation to peripheral blood B cell subsets in young children with hypogammaglobulinemia. Twenty-two children, aged from 8 to 61 months, with a deficiency in one or more major immunoglobulin classes participated in the study. Postvaccination antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus, and the capsular Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen were assessed along with an immunophenotypic evaluation of peripheral blood B lymph cell maturation. A deficiency of antibodies against the tetanus toxoid was assessed in 73% of cases and that against the diphtheria toxoid was assessed in 68% of cases, whereas a deficiency of antibodies against the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus was revealed in 59% of the children included in the study. A defective response to immunization with a conjugate vaccine with the Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen was demonstrated in 55% of hypogammaglobulinemic patients. Increased proportions of transitional B lymph cells and an accumulation of plasmablasts accompanied antibody deficiencies. The defective response to vaccine protein and polysaccharide antigens is a predominating disorder of humoral immunity in children with hypogammaglobulinemia and may result from a dysfunctional state of the cellular elements of the immune system. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Galectin-8 activates dendritic cells and stimulates antigen-specific immune response elicitation.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Julieta; Quattrocchi, Valeria; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Zamorano, Patricia; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Campetella, Oscar

    2017-08-15

    Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a mammalian β-galactoside-binding lectin, endowed with proinflammatory properties. Given its capacity to enhance antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, we investigated whether Gal-8 was also able to promote APC activation to sustain T cell activation after priming. Both endogenous [dendritic cells (DCs)] and bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) treated with exogenous Gal-8 exhibited a mature phenotype characterized by increased MHC class II (MHCII), CD80, and CD86 surface expression. Moreover, Gal-8-treated BMDCs (Gal-8-BMDCs) stimulated antigen-specific T cells more efficiently than immature BMDCs (iBMDCs). Proinflammatory cytokines IL-3, IL-2, IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and MCP-5, as well as growth factor G-CSF, were augmented in Gal-8-BMDC conditioned media, with IL-6 as the most prominent. Remarkably, BMDCs from Gal-8-deficient mice (Lgals8(-/-) BMDC) displayed reduced CD86 and IL-6 expression and an impaired ability to promote antigen-specific CD4 T cell activation. To test if Gal-8-induced activation correlates with the elicitation of an effective immune response, soluble Gal-8 was coadministrated with antigen during immunization of BALB/cJ mice in the experimental foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) model. When a single dose of Gal-8 was added to the antigen formulation, an increased specific and neutralizing humoral response was developed, sufficient to enhance animal protection upon viral challenge. IL-6 and IFN-γ, as well as lymphoproliferative responses, were also incremented in Gal-8/antigen-immunized animals only at 48 h after immunization, suggesting that Gal-8 induces the elicitation of an inflammatory response at an early stage. Taking together, these findings argue in favor of the use of Gal-8 as an immune-stimulator molecule to enhance the adaptive immune response. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Induction of the c-myc protooncogene following antigen binding to hapten-specific B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, E.C.; Fetherston, J.; Zimmer, S.

    1986-03-01

    Considerable controversy has centered on the role that the surface immunoglobulin (sIg) receptor for antigen plays during the induction of B cell activation. Stimulation by anti-Ig reagents has been shown to activate G/sub 0/ B cells to enter the cell cycle. The binding of thymus-dependent antigens to hapten-specific B cell populations apparently does not result in the movement of the antigen-binding cells (ABC) into the G/sub 1/ stage of the cell cycle. However, the authors have recently demonstrated that antigen binding to such hapten-specific B cells does result in the initiation of the membrane phosphatidylinositol cycle. In the present experiments, hapten-specific B cells (80-90% ABC, 99% in G/sub 0/) were incubated with either the correct hapten-carrier conjugate, with the carrier protein, or only media for 2 hours at 37/sup 0/C. At that time, total cellular RNA was isolated and subsequently analyzed by either dot blots or Northern gel techniques. The blots were probed with a (/sup 32/P)-c-myc SstI-Xhol fragment. The results indicate that hapten carrier stimulation of the hapten-specific B cells induces enhanced transcription of the c-myc gene. These observations lend further support to the premise that antigen binding to the sIg receptor results in the transduction to the cell of important signals and implicates the active participation of sIg during the process of antigen-mediated B cell activation.

  5. Epitope selection to male specific antigens for sex selection in swine.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Azarm Akhavien; Tetro, Jason A; Filion, Lionel G

    2011-04-01

    Immunological approaches to gender selection have been contemplated since the discovery of the family of male-specific H-Y antigens found only on the surface of male cells. H-Y antigens are able to elicit an immune reaction when cells or tissues from a male donor are grafted to a female recipient. We describe here the development and testing of an inexpensive approach using polyclonal antibodies against four specific H-Y outer membrane proteins male enhanced antigen 1 (MEA 1), male enhanced antigen 2 (MEA 2), sex determining region Y (SRY) and testis determining factor (TDF). Epitopes based on hydrophilic primary sequences of the proteins were synthesized, N-terminal biotin-labeled, linked to streptavidin and mixed with a Ribi adjuvant prior to immunization in rabbits. The antiserum was tested to determine affinity to swine spermatozoa using anti-motility, flow cytometry and motility and sedimentation chambers. Fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify the percentage of motile spermatozoa that contained the Y chromosome. We found that the polyclonal antibodies had high affinity to the spermatozoa leading to a cessation of motility. Furthermore, the majority of these non-motile spermatozoa contained the Y chromosome. We conclude that the use of polyclonal antiserum against synthetic H-Y peptide antigens may be an inexpensive and simple means to inhibit the motility of swine spermatozoa bearing the Y chromosome.

  6. Deglycosylation of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens improves the specificity of the serodiagnosis for human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Roldán, W H; Elefant, G R; Ferreira, A W

    2015-11-01

    Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is difficult in tropical areas where other helminthiasis are endemic. Many studies have shown that glycans from helminths may be the responsible for cross-reactions in the immunoassays. In this study, we have evaluated the deglycosylation of the Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens for the detection of IgG antibodies using a panel of 228 serum samples (58 patients with toxocariasis, 75 patients with other helminth infections and 95 healthy individuals) by ELISA and Western blot assays. Our results showed that the deglycosylation of TES antigens resulted in a single fraction of 26 kDa (dTES) and was able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in both above-mentioned assays. The rate of cross-reactions, observed in ELISA with TES (13·3%), was significantly reduced (5·3%) when the dTES antigens were used. Likewise, the cross-reactivity observed with the fractions of 32, 55 and 70 kDa of the TES antigens was totally eliminated when the dTES were used in the Western blot. All these results showed that the deglycosylation of the TES antigens really improves the specificity of the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis in endemic areas for helminth infections.

  7. Specificity of antigens from pathogenic Aspergillus species. I. Studies with ELISA and immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    De Magaldi, S W; Mackenzie, D W

    1984-01-01

    Studies were made by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests on the reactivities and specificities of 13 antigens prepared from four species of Aspergillus against antisera from immunized rabbits and 64 sera from patients with aspergillosis, other systemic mycoses and nocardiosis. Although reactions in both serological tests were invariably strongest with homologous antigen: antibody systems, antisera from rabbits immunized with A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida albicans and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis reacted in the ELISA test with all of the Aspergillus antigens. In contrast, cross-reactivity was virtually non-existent with antiserum to Histoplasma capsulatum. Of five antigens prepared from A fumigatus tested by ELISA against human sera from patients with aspergillosis and other nocardial and systemic fungal infections, sensitivities varied from 81 to 100% for sera from 32 patients with aspergillosis, and specificities from 20 to 97% for sera from 30 patients with nocardiosis and other systemic mycoses. Purified A. fumigatus C antigen reacted weakly with sera from eight of these 30 patients, but the reactions were readily distinguishable from those obtained with sera from patients with aspergillosis. At optimal serum dilutions, cross-reactivities of A. fumigatus in the IFA studies were non-existent in the sera from 28 patients with candidosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and nocardiosis. Sensitivities of IFA were 94% for patients with aspergilloma and 83% for patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

  8. Leishmania major-Like Antigen for Specific and Sensitive Serodiagnosis of Human and Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-de-Deus, RosÂngela; Luíz dos Mares-Guia, Marcos; Zacarias Nunes, Adriane; Morais Costa, Kátia; Gonçalves Junqueira, Roberto; Mayrink, Wilson; Genaro, Odair; Pereira Tavares, Carlos Alberto

    2002-01-01

    An antigen (LMS) prepared from Leishmania major-like promastigotes was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of human and dog visceral leishmaniasis. The results were compared with those from the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 1,822 canine sera were tested, including sera from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, transmissible venereal tumors, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis, or Chagas' disease and sera from healthy dogs. The antigen was also tested with 227 samples of human sera, including sera from patients with visceral, cutaneous, or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and from noninfected individuals, as well as sera from patients with Chagas' disease, toxoplasmosis, rickettsiosis, hepatitis B, schistosomiasis, ascaridiasis, malaria, rheumatoid factor, leprosy and rheumatoid factor, tuberculosis, or leprosy. All dogs and all human patients had a clinical and/or serological and/or parasitological diagnosis. For detecting antibodies in sera from dogs with leishmaniasis, the antigen showed a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 95%, and concordance of 93% and when used for detecting antibodies in human sera presented a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 100%, and con