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Sample records for antigens tumor-associated carbohydrate

  1. Cancer vaccine with mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.

    PubMed

    Kozbor, Danuta

    2010-03-01

    The GD2 ganglioside, displayed by five carbohydrate Neu5Acalpha2-8Neu5Acalpha2-3(GalNAcbeta1-4)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta residues attached to a ceramide chain that anchors the ganglioside in the cell membrane, is expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors. GD2 has been used as a target for passive and active immunotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. We have generated 47-LDA mimotope of GD2 by screening a phage display peptide library with anti-GD2 mAb 14G2a and reported that vaccination with the 47-LDA mimotope elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses as well as MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells to syngeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells. The cytotoxic activity of the vaccine-induced CTLs was independent of GD2 expression, suggesting recognition of a novel tumor-associated antigen cross-reacting with 47-LDA. Immunoblotting studies using 14G2a mAb demonstrated that this antibody cross-reacts with a 105 kDa glycoprotein expressed by GD2(+) and GD2(-) neuroblastoma and melanoma cells. Functional studies of tumor cells grown in three-dimensional (3D) collagen cultures with 14G2a mAb showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by 105 kDa activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (ALCAM/CD166). The CD166 glycoprotein was shown to be recognized by 14G2a antibody, and inhibition of CD166 expression by RNA interference ablated the cell sensitivity to lysis by 47-LDA-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the vaccine-induced CTLs recognize a 47-LDA cross-reactive epitope expressed by CD166 and reveal a novel mechanism of induction of potent tumor-specific cellular responses by mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.

  2. Recent Advance in Tumor-associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs)-based Antitumor Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Feng, Danyang; Shaikh, Abdul Sami; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-04-15

    Cancer cells can be distinguished from normal cells by displaying aberrant levels and types of carbohydrate structures on their surfaces. These carbohydrate structures are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). TACAs were considered as promising targets for the design of anticancer vaccines. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone can only evoke poor immunogenicity because they are unable to induce T-cell-dependent immune responses, which is critical for cancer therapy. Moreover, immunotolerance and immunosuppression are easily induced by using natural occurring TACAs as antigens due to their endogenous property. This review summarizes the recent strategies to overcome these obstacles: (1) covalently coupling TACAs to proper carriers to improve immunogenicity, including clustered or multivalent conjugate vaccines, (2) coupling TACAs to T-cell peptide epitopes or the built-in adjuvant to form multicomponent glycoconjugate vaccines, and (3) developing vaccines based on chemically modified TACAs, which is combined with metabolic engineering of cancer cells.

  3. Tobacco Mosaic Virus as a New Carrier for Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhaojun; Nguyen, Huong Giang; Chowdhury, Sudipa; Bentley, Philip; Bruckman, Michael A.; Miermont, Adeline; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are being actively studied as targets for anti-tumor vaccine development. One serious challenge was the low immunogenecity of these antigens. Herein, we report the results on using the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) capsid as a promising carrier of a weakly immunogenic TACA, the monomeric Tn antigen. The copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction was highly efficient in covalently linking Tn onto the TMV capsid without resorting to a large excess of the Tn antigen. The location of Tn attachment turned out to be important. Tn introduced at the N terminus of TMV was immunosilent, while that attached to tyrosine 139 elicited strong immune responses. Both Tn specific IgG and IgM antibodies were generated as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a glycan microarray screening study. The production of high titers of IgG antibodies suggested that the TMV platform contained the requisite epitopes for helper T cells and was able to induce antibody isotype switching. The antibodies exhibited strong reactivities towards Tn antigen displayed in its native environment, i.e., cancer cell surface, thus highlighting the potential of TMV as a promising TACA carrier. PMID:22812480

  4. Biosignals modulated by tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: novel targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Koichi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Aixinjueluo, Wei; Furukawa, Keiko

    2006-11-01

    Based on the remodeling of glycosphingolipids on the human tumor cell lines with manipulation of glycosyltransferase genes, roles of sugar moieties in tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been analyzed. Two main topics, that is, the roles of ganglioside GD3 in human malignant melanomas and those of GD2 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were reported. GD3 enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of two adaptor molecules, p130Cas and paxillin, resulting in the increased cell growth and invasion in melanoma cells. GD2 also enhances the proliferation and invasion of SCLC cells. GD2 also mediates apoptosis with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) via dephosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase. These approaches have promoted further understanding of mechanisms by which gangliosides modulate malignant properties of human cancer, and the results obtained here propose novel targets for cancer therapy.

  5. Immune activation with peptide assemblies carrying Lewis y tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Watabe, Naoki; Obata, Hiroaki; Hara, Eri; Ohmae, Masashi; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2017-02-01

    Molecular assemblies varying morphologies in a wide range from spherical micelle, nanosheet, curved sheet, nanotube and vesicle were prepared and loaded with Lewis y (Le(y) ) tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen on the assembly surface. The molecular assemblies were composed of poly(sarcosine)m -block-poly(L-lactic acid)30 (m = 15 or 50, Lactosome), poly(sarcosine)m -block-(D/L-Leu-Aib)n (m = 22 or 30, n = 6 or 8) and their combinations. The molecular assemblies carrying Le(y) on the surface were administered in BALB/c nu/nu mice. The major epitopes of the molecular assemblies are commonly Le(y) and poly(sarcosine). IgM productions upon administrations of the molecular assemblies were assayed by ELISA, showing that anti-poly(sarcosine) IgM was highly produced by Lactosome of spherical micelle but with a negligible amount of anti-Le(y) IgM. On the other hand, the nanosheet of the interdigitated monolayer triggered the production of anti-Le(y) IgM but with less anti-poly(sarcosine) IgM production. Taken together, IgM specificity differs according to the molecular environment of the epitopes in the molecular assemblies. The antigenicity of poly(sarcosine) was augmented in polymeric micelle providing loose environment for B cells to penetrate in, whereas a high density of Le(y) on the molecular assembly was required for anti-Le(y) IgM production. The antigenicity of Le(y) is therefore dependent on the molecular assemblies on which Le(y) is displayed on the surface. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The cytokine-cosmc signaling axis upregulates the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Tn

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hsiao-Ling; Chin, Yu-Tang; Huang, Rui-Lan; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Hsu, Yaw-Wen; Kuo, Po-Jan; Chen, Chiao-En; Lin, Hung-Yun; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Nieh, Shin; Fu, Earl; Liu, Leroy F.; Hwang, Jaulang

    2016-01-01

    Tn antigen (GalNAc-α-O-Ser/Thr), a mucin-type O-linked glycan, is a well-established cell surface marker for tumors and its elevated levels have been correlated with cancer progression and prognosis. There are also reports that Tn is elevated in inflammatory tissues. However, the molecular mechanism for its elevated levels in cancer and inflammation is unclear. In the current studies, we have explored the possibility that cytokines may be one of the common regulatory molecules for elevated Tn levels in both cancer and inflammation. We showed that the Tn level is elevated by the conditioned media of HrasG12V-transformed-BEAS-2B cells. Similarly, the conditioned media obtained from LPS-stimulated monocytes also elevated Tn levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts, suggesting the involvement of cytokines and/or other soluble factors. Indeed, purified inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 up-regulated Tn levels in gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, TNF-α was shown to down-regulate the COSMC gene as evidenced by reduced levels of the COSMC mRNA and protein, as well as hypermethylation of the CpG islands of the COSMC gene promoter. Since Cosmc, a chaperone for T-synthase, is known to negatively regulate Tn levels, our results suggest elevated Tn levels in cancer and inflammation may be commonly regulated by the cytokine-Cosmc signaling axis. PMID:27542280

  7. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6010 Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  8. Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    antigens expressed on breast tumors. Towards this end we are developing peptide mimotopes of tumor associated carbohydrate antigens as they are T cell...dependent antigens. In our progress to date we have shown the 1) immunization with peptide mimotope activates a specific cellular response to a model murine...tumor cell line; 2) vaccination of mice with peptide eradicates established tumor; 3) Immunization with DNA format of the peptide suppresses tumor

  9. 78 FR 50425 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of Brachyury Tumor Associated Antigens as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... INFORMATION: Cancer immunotherapy is a recent approach where tumor associated antigens (TAAs), which are... metastasizing tumor cells, and could be a potential target for human T-cell mediated cancer immunotherapy, such... Brachyury Tumor Associated Antigens as Cancer Vaccines for Colorectal Cancer AGENCY: National Institutes...

  10. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. 866.6010 Section 866.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunological Test Systems § 866.6010 Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. 866.6010 Section 866.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunological Test Systems § 866.6010 Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  12. Natural and adaptive IgM antibodies in the recognition of tumor-associated antigens of breast cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DÍAZ-ZARAGOZA, MARIANA; HERNÁNDEZ-ÁVILA, RICARDO; VIEDMA-RODRÍGUEZ, RUBÍ; ARENAS-ARANDA, DIEGO; OSTOA-SALOMA, PEDRO

    2015-01-01

    For early detection of cancer, education and screening are important, but the most critical factor is the development of early diagnostic tools. Methods that recognize the warning signs of cancer and take prompt action lead to an early diagnosis; simple tests can identify individuals in a healthy population who have the disease but have not developed symptoms. Early detection of cancer is significant and is one of the most promising approaches by which to reduce the growing cancer burden and guide curative treatment. The early diagnosis of patients with breast cancer is challenging, since it is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite the advent of mammography in screening for breast cancer, low-resource, low-cost alternative tools must be implemented to complement mammography findings. IgM is part of the first line of defense of an organism and is responsible for recognizing and eliminating infectious particles and removing transformed cells. Most studies on breast cancer have focused on the development of IgG-like molecules as biomarkers or as a treatment for the advanced stages of cancer, but autoantibodies (IgM) and tumor-associated antigens (proteins or carbohydrates with aberrant structures) have not been examined as early diagnostic tools for breast cancer. The present review summarizes the function of natural and adaptive IgM in eliminating cancer cells in the early stages of pathology and their value as early diagnostic tools. IgM, as a component of the immune system, is being used to identify tumor-associated antigens and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. PMID:26133558

  13. 75 FR 16490 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of PANVAC and Tumor Associated Antigens as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...; Facsimile: (301) 435-4013; E-mail: chatterjeesa@od.nih.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Cancer immunotherapy... PANVAC and Tumor Associated Antigens as Cancer Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public... Rights for development of therapeutics for human cancers. The field of use will specifically...

  14. Targeting carbohydrate antigens in HIV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Pashov, Anastas; Canziani, Gabriela; Macleod, Stewart; Plaxco, Jason; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2005-03-18

    Peptide mimotopes provide a strategy to augment human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) specific carbohydrate reactive immune responses. Their antigenic and immunological properties will depend on the optimization of motif clustering and multimerization. We observe that structural variants of the same mimetic motif, linear versus cyclic, can be used to tune the properties of the antibodies elicited. The expansion of the database of mimotope sequence motifs can be increased by analyzing structures that bind to HIV directed monoclonal antibody 2G12 and the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A), fostering new mimotope designs. Such analysis indicates that these reagents bind to subsets of mannosyl antigens on the envelope (env) protein.

  15. Molecular Characterization of a Fully Human Chimeric T-Cell Antigen Receptor for Tumor-Associated Antigen EpCAM

    PubMed Central

    Shirasu, Naoto; Yamada, Hiromi; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Kuroki, Motomu; Kuroki, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    The transduction of T cells to express chimeric T-cell antigen receptor (CAR) is an attractive strategy for adaptive immunotherapy for cancer, because the CAR can redirect the recognition specificity of T cells to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) on the surface of target cells, thereby avoiding the limitations of HLA restriction. However, there are considerable problems with the clinical application of CAR, mostly due to its xenogeneic components, which could be immunogenic in humans. Moreover, while extensive studies on the CARs have been performed, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of CAR-grafted T cells remain unclear. In order to eliminate potential immunogenicity and investigate the molecular basis of the CAR-mediated T-cell activation, we constructed a novel CAR (CAR57-28ζ) specific for one of the most important TAAs, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), using only human-derived genes. We revealed that in Jurkat T cells, lentivirally expressed CAR57-28ζ can transmit the T-cell-activating signals sufficient to induce IL-2 production upon EpCAM stimulation. An immunofluorescent analysis clearly showed that the CAR57-28ζ induces the formation of signaling clusters containing endogenous CD3ζ at the CAR/EpCAM interaction interface. These results suggest that this CAR gene may be safely and effectively applied for adaptive T-cell immunotherapy. PMID:22547929

  16. A panel of autoantibodies against multiple tumor-associated antigens for detecting gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Isamu; Nagata, Matsuo; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Atsushi; Yokoi, Sana; Kuwajima, Akiko; Tagawa, Masatoshi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Satoshi, Yajima; Hideaki, Shimada

    2017-01-08

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and effective diagnosis is extremely important for good outcome. We assessed the diagnostic potential of an autoantibody panel that may provide a novel tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. We analyzed data from patients with gastric cancer and normal controls in a test and validation cohorts. Autoantibody levels were measured against a panel of six tumor-associated antigens [TAAs; p53, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), HCC-22-5, peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI), KM-HN-1, and p90 TAA (CYP2A)] via ELISA. We assessed serum autoantibodies in 100 participants in the test cohort. The validation cohort comprised 248 participants. Autoantibodies to at least one of the six antigens demonstrated a sensitivity/specificity of 49.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 39.2-58.8%]/92.4% (95% CI, 87.2-97.6%) and 52.0% (95% CI, 42.2-61.8%)/90.5% (95% CI, 84.8-96.3%) in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. In the validation cohort, no significant differences were seen when patients were subdivided based on age, sex, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and TNM stage. Patients who were positive for more than two antibodies in the panel tended to have a worse prognosis than those who were positive for one or no antibody. Measurement of autoantibody response to multiple TAAs in an optimized panel assay to discriminate patients with early stage gastric cancer from normal controls may aid in the early detection of gastric cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Making an avipoxvirus encoding a tumor-associated antigen and a costimulatory molecule.

    PubMed

    Howley, Paul M; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Hayball, John D

    2014-01-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a history of use as a live attenuated vaccine in commercial poultry production systems. FPV is also highly amenable to genetic engineering, with a large cloning capacity and many nonessential sites available for integration, meaning that in recombinant form, several transgenes can be expressed simultaneously. Recombinant FPV has proven an effective prophylactic vaccine vector for other diseases of birds, as well as other animal species (Brun et al., Vaccine 26:6508-6528, 2008). These vectors do not integrate into the host genome nor do they undergo productive replication in mammalian cells; thus they have a proven and impeccable safety profile and have been progressed as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine vectors for use in humans (Beukema et al., Expert Rev Vaccines 5:565-577, 2006; Lousberg et al., Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1435-1449, 2011). Furthermore, repeated immunization with FPV does not blunt subsequent vaccine responses, presumably because it is replication-defective, and thus larger doses can be routinely administered (Brun et al., Vaccine 26:6508-6528, 2008). This strengthens the case for FPV as a viable platform vaccine vector, as it means it can be used repeatedly in an individual to achieve different immunological outcomes. Here we describe in detail the construction of a recombinant variant of FPV expressing the prostate tumor-associated antigen prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in conjunction with the immunostimulatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), which, if undertaken under the appropriate regulatory conditions and with approvals in place, would theoretically be amenable to clinical trial applications.

  18. Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    means to eradicate tumor cells would therefore be an advantage in vaccine development (manuscript #2 submitted). Choice of peptide mimotope Arrays of...peptide mimotopes of carbohydrate antigens formulated as multiple antigen peptides or as DNA vaccines can elicit carbohydrate reactive IgM serum...specific CTL. Immunity 1999; 10:51-61. 1. Kieber-Emmons T, Luo P, Qiu J, et al. Vaccination with carbohydrate peptide mimotopes promotes anti-tumor

  19. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 and identification of related transmembrane antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Szala, S.; Kasai, Yasushi; Steplewski, Z.; Rodeck, U.; Koprowski, H.; Linnenbach, A.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 is a monoclonal antibody-defined cell surface glycoprotein of 27-34 kDa. By using the high-efficiency COS cell expression system, a full-length cDNA clone for CO-029 was isolated. When transiently expressed in COS cells, the cDNA clone directed the synthesis of an antigen reactive to monoclonal antibody CO-029 in mixed hemadsorption and immunoblot assays. Sequence analysis revealed that CO-029 belongs to a family of cell surface antigens that includes the melanoma-associated antigen ME491, the leukocyte cell surface antigen CD37, and the Sm23 antigen of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. CO-029 and ME491 antigen expression and the effect of their corresponding monoclonal antibodies on cell growth were compared in human tumor cell lines of various histologic origins.

  20. Thermodynamic Switch in Binding of Adhesion/Growth Regulatory Human Galectin-3 to Tumor-Associated TF Antigen (CD176) and MUC1 Glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A shift to short-chain glycans is an observed change in mucin-type O-glycosylation in premalignant and malignant epithelia. Given the evidence that human galectin-3 can interact with mucins and also weakly with free tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen (CD176), the study of its interaction with MUC1 (glyco)peptides is of biomedical relevance. Glycosylated MUC1 fragments that carry the TF antigen attached through either Thr or Ser side chains were synthesized using standard Fmoc-based automated solid-phase peptide chemistry. The dissociation constants (Kd) for interaction of galectin-3 and the glycosylated MUC1 fragments measured by isothermal titration calorimetry decreased up to 10 times in comparison to that of the free TF disaccharide. No binding was observed for the nonglycosylated control version of the MUC1 peptide. The most notable feature of the binding of MUC1 glycopeptides to galectin-3 was a shift from a favorable enthalpy to an entropy-driven binding process. The comparatively diminished enthalpy contribution to the free energy (ΔG) was compensated by a considerable gain in the entropic term. 1H–15N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance data reveal contact at the canonical site mainly by the glycan moiety of the MUC1 glycopeptide. Ligand-dependent differences in binding affinities were also confirmed by a novel assay for screening of low-affinity glycan–lectin interactions based on AlphaScreen technology. Another key finding is that the glycosylated MUC1 peptides exhibited activity in a concentration-dependent manner in cell-based assays revealing selectivity among human galectins. Thus, the presentation of this tumor-associated carbohydrate ligand by the natural peptide scaffold enhances its affinity, highlighting the significance of model studies of human lectins with synthetic glycopeptides. PMID:26129647

  1. Influenza virus-like particles engineered by protein transfer with tumor-associated antigens induces protective antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaina M; Vartabedian, Vincent F; Kim, Min-Chul; He, Sara; Kang, Sang-Moo; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2015-06-01

    Delivery of antigen in particulate form using either synthetic or natural particles induces stronger immunity than soluble forms of the antigen. Among naturally occurring particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) have been genetically engineered to express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and have shown to induce strong TAA-specific immune responses due to their nano-particulate size and ability to bind and activate antigen-presenting cells. In this report, we demonstrate that influenza VLPs can be modified by a protein transfer technology to express TAAs for induction of effective antitumor immune responses. We converted the breast cancer HER-2 antigen to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form and incorporated GPI-HER-2 onto VLPs by a rapid protein transfer process. Expression levels on VLPs depended on the GPI-HER-2 concentration added during protein transfer. Vaccination of mice with protein transferred GPI-HER-2-VLPs induced a strong Th1 and Th2-type anti-HER-2 antibody response and protected mice against a HER-2-expressing tumor challenge. The Soluble form of GPI-HER-2 induced only a weak Th2 response under similar conditions. These results suggest that influenza VLPs can be enriched with TAAs by protein transfer to develop effective VLP-based subunit vaccines against cancer without chemical or genetic modifications and thus preserve the immune stimulating properties of VLPs for easier production of antigen-specific therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  2. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Lessons from Responses to Tumor-Associated Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Westdorp, Harm; Sköld, Annette E.; Snijer, Berit A.; Franik, Sebastian; Mulder, Sasja F.; Major, Pierre P.; Foley, Ronan; Gerritsen, Winald R.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men. In recent years, novel therapeutic options for PCa have been developed and studied extensively in clinical trials. Sipuleucel-T is the first cell-based immunotherapeutic vaccine for treatment of cancer. This vaccine consists of autologous mononuclear cells stimulated and loaded with an immunostimulatory fusion protein containing the prostate tumor antigen prostate acid posphatase. The choice of antigen might be key for the efficiency of cell-based immunotherapy. Depending on the treatment strategy, target antigens should be immunogenic, abundantly expressed by tumor cells, and preferably functionally important for the tumor to prevent loss of antigen expression. Autoimmune responses have been reported against several antigens expressed in the prostate, indicating that PCa is a suitable target for immunotherapy. In this review, we will discuss PCa antigens that exhibit immunogenic features and/or have been targeted in immunotherapeutic settings with promising results, and we highlight the hurdles and opportunities for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24834066

  3. Profiling human serum antibodies with a carbohydrate antigen microarray

    PubMed Central

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; McShane, Lisa M.; Dodd, Lori; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen arrays (glycan arrays) have been recently developed for the high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate macromolecule interactions. When profiling serum, information about experimental variability, inter-individual biological variability, and intra-individual temporal variability is critical. In this report, we describe the characterization of a carbohydrate antigen array and assay for profiling human serum. Through optimization of assay conditions and development of a normalization strategy, we obtain highly reproducible results with a within-experiment coefficient of variation (CV) of 10.8% and an overall CV (across multiple batches of slides and days) of 28.5%. We also report antibody profiles for 48 human subjects and evaluate for the first time the effects of age, race, sex, geographic location, and blood type on antibody profiles for a large set of carbohydrate antigens. We found significant dependence on age and blood type of antibody levels for a variety of carbohydrates. Finally, we conducted a longitudinal study with a separate group of 7 serum donors to evaluate the variation in anti-carbohydrate antibody levels within an individual over a period ranging from 3 to 13 weeks and found that, for nearly all antigens on our array, antibody levels are generally stable over this period. The results presented here provide the most comprehensive evaluation of experimental and biological variation reported to date for a glycan array and have significant implications for studies involving human serum profiling. PMID:19624168

  4. Development of a Monoclonal Antibody against a Tumor-Associated Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W. W.; Bressler, J. P.; Tiffany-Castiglioni, E.; de Vellis, J.

    1982-02-01

    A monoclonal antibody-producing hybrid cell line was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with C6 glioma cells. This antibody binds to a specific cell-surface antigen that is present on C6 rat glioma cells, transformed astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and a human glioma cell line but is absent on a normal glial cell line, fibroblasts, and primary cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The antigen also appears on tumor tissue of transformed oligodendrocytes but not on normal brain tissue.

  5. Multidrug-resistance proteins are weak tumor associated antigens for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a clinically, highly relevant phenomenon. Under chemotherapy many tumors show an increasing resistance towards the applied substance(s) and to a certain extent also towards other agents. An important molecular cause of this phenomenon is an increased expression of transporter proteins. The functional relationship between high expression levels and chemotherapy resistance makes these MDR and MRP (MDR related protein) proteins to interesting therapeutic targets. We here wanted to systematically analyze, whether these proteins are tumor specific antigens which could be targeted immunologically. Results Using the reverse immunology approach, 30 HLA-A2.1 restricted MDR and MRP derived peptides (MDP) were selected. Stimulated T cell lines grew well and mainly contained activated CD8+ cells. Peptide specificity and HLA-A2.1 restriction were proven in IFN-γ-ELISpot analyses and in cytotoxicity tests against MDP loaded target cells for a total of twelve peptides derived from MDR-1, MDR-3, MRP-1, MRP-2, MRP-3 and MRP-5. Of note, two of these epitopes are shared between MDR-1 and MDR-3 as well as MRP-2 and MRP-3. However, comparably weak cytotoxic activities were additionally observed against HLA-A2.1+ tumor cells even after upregulation of MDR protein expression by in vitro chemotherapy. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that human T cells can be sensitised towards MDPs and hence, there is no absolute immunological tolerance. However, our data also hint towards rather low endogenous tumor cell processing and presentation of MDPs in the context of HLA-A2.1 molecules. Consequently, we conclude that MDR and MRP proteins must be considered as weak tumor specific antigens-at least for colorectal carcinoma. Their direct contribution to therapy-failure implies however, that it is worth to further pursue this approach. PMID:21740599

  6. Murine responses to recombinant MVA versus ALVAC vaccines against tumor-associated antigens, gp100 and 5T4.

    PubMed

    Hanwell, David G; McNeil, Bryan; Visan, Lucian; Rodrigues, Lauren; Dunn, Pamela; Shewen, Patricia E; Macallum, Grace E; Turner, Patricia V; Vogel, Thorsten U

    2013-05-01

    Virally vectored cancer vaccines comprise a new form of immunotherapy that aim to generate anti-tumor immune responses with potential for tumor clearance and enhanced patient survival. Here, we compared 2 replication-deficient poxviruses modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and ALVAC(2) in their ability to induce antigen expression and immunogenicity of the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) 5T4 and gp100. To facilitate the comparison, recombinant MVA-gp100M and ALVAC(2)-5T4 were constructed to complement existing ALVAC(2)-gp100M and MVA-5T4 vectors. Recombinant TAA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis. 5T4 expression was approximately equal for both viruses, whereas ALVAC-derived gp100 was quickly degraded, at a time point when MVA-derived gp100 was still stable and expressed at high levels. Human leukocyte antigen-A2 transgenic mice were vaccinated with recombinant viruses and the CD8 T-cell responses elicited against each TAA were monitored by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot. No 5T4 peptide responses were detected using splenocytes from mice vaccinated with either vector, whereas vaccination with MVA elicited a significantly higher gp100-specific response than ALVAC(2) at 10 PFU (P<0.001). In CD-1 mice, each vector elicited similar 5T4 antibody responses, whereas MVA was more potent and induced gp100 antibody responses at a lower immunization dose than ALVAC (P<0.001). In this study, immunogenicity varied depending on the viral vector used and reflected vector-associated differences in in vitro TAA expression and stability. These findings suggest that novel vector-transgene combinations must be assessed individually when designing vaccines, and that stability of vector-encoded proteins produced in vitro may be useful as a predictor for in vitro immunogenicity.

  7. Classification of 27 Tumor-Associated Antigens by Histochemical Analysis of 36 Freshly Resected Lung Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Gene; Sugiura, Mototaka; Hattori, Yoshinobu; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we identified 29 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and isolated 488 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically bind to one of the 29 TAAs. In the present study, we performed histochemical analysis of 36 freshly resected lung cancer tissues by using 60 mAbs against 27 TAAs. Comparison of the staining patterns of tumor cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and normal pulmonary alveolus cells and interalveolar septum allowed us to determine the type and location of cells that express target molecules, as well as the degree of expression. The patterns were classified into 7 categories. While multiple Abs were used against certain TAAs, the differences observed among them should be derived from differences in the binding activity and/or the epitope. Thus, such data indicate the versatility of respective clones as anti-cancer drugs. Although the information obtained was limited to the lung and bronchial tube, bronchial epithelial cells represent normal growing cells, and therefore, the data are informative. The results indicate that 9 of the 27 TAAs are suitable targets for therapeutic Abs. These 9 Ags include EGFR, HER2, TfR, and integrin α6β4. Based on our findings, a pharmaceutical company has started to develop anti-cancer drugs by using Abs to TfR and integrin α6β4. HGFR, PTP-LAR, CD147, CDCP1, and integrin αvβ3 are also appropriate targets for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27834817

  8. Cancer immunotherapy using novel tumor-associated antigenic peptides identified by genome-wide cDNA microarray analyses.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yasuharu; Tomita, Yusuke; Yuno, Akira; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Shinohara, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    Recent genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in comprehensive tumor types coupled with isolation of cancer tissues by laser-microbeam microdissection have revealed ideal tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are frequently overexpressed in various cancers including head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) and lung cancer, but not in most normal tissues except for testis, placenta, and fetal organs. Preclinical studies using HLA-transgenic mice and human T cells in vitro showed that TAA-derived CTL-epitope short peptides (SPs) are highly immunogenic and induce HLA-A2 or -A24-restricted CTLs. Based on the accumulated evidence, we carried out a phase II clinical trial of the TAA-SP vaccine in advanced 37 HNSCC patients. This study showed a significant induction of TAA-specific CTLs in the majority of patients without serious adverse effects. Importantly, clinical responses including a complete response were observed in this study. Another phase II clinical trial of therapeutic TAA-SP vaccine, designed to evaluate the ability of prevention of recurrence, is ongoing in HNSCC patients who have received curative operations. Further studies in human preclinical studies and in vivo studies using HLA class I transgenic mice showed TAA-derived long peptides (TAA-LPs) have the capacity to induce not only promiscuous HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T helper type 1 cells but also tumor-specific CTLs through a cross-presentation mechanism. Moreover, we observed an augmentation of TAA-LP-specific T helper type 1 cell responses and tumor antigen-spreading in HNSCC patients vaccinated with TAA-SPs. This accumulated evidence suggests that therapeutic TAA-SPs and LPs vaccines may provide a promising cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Functional balance between T cell chimeric receptor density and tumor associated antigen density: CTL mediated cytolysis and lymphokine production.

    PubMed

    Weijtens, M E; Hart, E H; Bolhuis, R L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically engineered expression of tumor-specific single chain antibody chimeric receptors (ch-Rec) on human T lymphocytes endow these cells with the parental monoclonal antibody (mAb) dictated tumor specificity and may be useful for clinical immuno-genetherapy. Therefore it was of importance to assess how the densities of tumor-specific receptors and tumor associated antigens (TAA), respectively, affect primary human T lymphocyte functions in relation to target cell susceptibilities to lysis. We therefore studied the functional balance between ch-Rec densities on human T lymphocytes and TAA on tumor cells. The gene construct encoding a ch-Rec derived from (1) a renal carcinoma cell (RCC) specific mouse mAb (G250), and (2) the human signal transducing Fc(epsilon)RI gamma-chain was used. To obtain ch-RecHIGH-POS and ch-RecLOW-POS T lymphocytes, two distinct retroviral vectors were used to introduce the gene constructs into primary human T lymphocytes. Levels of ch-Rec-redirected T lymphocyte mediated tumor cell lysis, as well as lymphokine production were determined using RCC lines as target/stimulator cells, which express either no or increasing densities of the TAA. A functional and dynamic balance between ch-Rec densities on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) on the one hand and TAA densities on RCCs on the other, was found. In short, ch-RecHIGH-POS CTLs are triggered by TAAHIGH-POS as well as TAALOW-POS RCCs to lyse tumor cells and produce (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) lymphokine. In contrast, ch-RecLOW-POS T lymphocytes are only triggered for cytolysis and lymphokine production by relatively TAAHIGH-POS RCCs. In conclusion, (1) the activation of T lymphocyte responses is co-determined by the expression levels of the ch-Rec on T lymphocytes and the TAA on tumor cells and (2) at relatively high T lymphocyte ch-Rec expression levels the CTLs lyse tumor cells with a wide range of TAA densities. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 35-42.

  10. Spatial separation of the processing and MHC class I loading compartments for cross-presentation of the tumor-associated antigen HER2/neu by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Baleeiro, Renato B; Rietscher, René; Diedrich, Andrea; Czaplewska, Justyna A; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Scherließ, Regina; Hanefeld, Andrea; Gottschaldt, Michael; Walden, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Cross-presentation is the process by which professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) (B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages) present endocytosed antigens (Ags) via MHC-I to CD8(+) T cells. This process is crucial for induction of adaptive immune responses against tumors and infected cells. The pathways and cellular compartments involved in cross-presentation are unresolved and controversial. Among the cells with cross-presenting capacity, DCs are the most efficient, which was proposed to depend on prevention of endosomal acidification to block degradation of the epitopes. Contrary to this view, we show in this report that some cargoes induce strong endosomal acidification following uptake by human DCs, while others not. Moreover, processing of the tumor-associated antigen HER2/neu delivered in nanoparticles (NP) for cross-presentation of the epitope HER2/neu369-377 on HLA-A2 depended on endosomal acidification and cathepsin activity as well as proteasomes, and newly synthesized HLA class I. However, the HLA-A*0201/HER2/neu369-377 complexes were not found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) nor in endolysosomes but in hitherto not described vesicles. The data thus indicate spatial separation of antigen processing and loading of MHC-I for cross-presentation: antigen processing occurs in the uptake compartment and the cytosol whereas MHC-I loading with peptide takes place in a distinct subcellular compartment. The findings further elucidate the cellular pathways involved in the cross-presentation of a full-length, clinically relevant tumor-associated antigen by human DCs, and the impact of the vaccine formulation on antigen processing and CD8(+) T cell induction.

  11. Specificity for the tumor-associated self-antigen WT1 drives the development of fully functional memory T cells in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pospori, Constandina; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Voisine, Cecile; Perro, Mario; King, Judith; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Flutter, Barry; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Stauss, Hans J; Morris, Emma C

    2011-06-23

    Recently, vaccines against the Wilms Tumor antigen 1 (WT1) have been tested in cancer patients. However, it is currently not known whether physiologic levels of WT1 expression in stem and progenitor cells of normal tissue result in the deletion or tolerance induction of WT1-specific T cells. Here, we used an human leukocyte antigen-transgenic murine model to study the fate of human leukocyte antigen class-I restricted, WT1-specific T cells in the thymus and in the periphery. Thymocytes expressing a WT1-specific T-cell receptor derived from high avidity human CD8 T cells were positively selected into the single-positive CD8 population. In the periphery, T cells specific for the WT1 antigen differentiated into CD44-high memory phenotype cells, whereas T cells specific for a non-self-viral antigen retained a CD44(low) naive phenotype. Only the WT1-specific T cells, but not the virus-specific T cells, displayed rapid antigen-specific effector function without prior vaccination. Despite long-term persistence of WT1-specific memory T cells, the animals did not develop autoimmunity, and the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was unimpaired. This is the first demonstration that specificity for a tumor-associated self-antigen may drive differentiation of functionally competent memory T cells.

  12. Archaeosome Adjuvant Overcomes Tolerance to Tumor-Associated Melanoma Antigens Inducing Protective CD8+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Deschatelets, Lise; Stark, Felicity C.; Gurnani, Komal; Sprott, G. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Vesicles comprised of the ether glycerolipids of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii (archaeosomes) are potent adjuvants for evoking CD8+ T cell responses. We therefore explored the ability of archaeosomes to overcome immunologic tolerance to self-antigens. Priming and boosting of mice with archaeosome-antigen evoked comparable CD8+ T cell response and tumor protection to an alternate boosting strategy utilizing live bacterial vectors for antigen delivery. Vaccination with melanoma antigenic peptides TRP181-189 and Gp10025-33 delivered in archaeosomes resulted in IFN-γ producing antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with strong cytolytic capability and protection against subcutaneous B16 melanoma. Targeting responses against multiple antigens afforded prolonged median survival against melanoma challenge. Entrapment of multiple peptides within the same vesicle or admixed formulations were both effective at evoking CD8+ T cells against each antigen. Melanoma-antigen archaeosome formulations also afforded therapeutic protection against established B16 tumors when combined with depletion of T-regulatory cells. Overall, we demonstrate that archaeosome adjuvants constitute an effective choice for formulating cancer vaccines. PMID:21318177

  13. HCA519/TPX2: a potential T-cell tumor-associated antigen for human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Ahmed M; Hoa, Neil T; Ge, Lisheng; Agrawal, Anshu; Dacosta-Iyer, Maria; Lambrecht, Nils; Ouyang, Yi; Cornforth, Andrew N; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy for human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is slowly making progress towards treating these fatal cancers. The identification of new antigens can improve this approach. We describe a possible new antigen, hepatocellular carcinoma‐associated antigen‐519/targeting protein for Xklp‐2 (HCA519/TPX2), for HCC that might be beneficial for T‐cell specific HCC immunotherapy. Methods HCC was studied for the expression for 15 tumor‐associated antigens considered useful for immunotherapy within three HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5), lymphocytes, non‐cancerous livers, and clinical HCC. The expression of tumor antigenic precursor proteins (TAPPs) messenger RNA was first screened by reverse transcriptase quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. Results Four antigens (alpha fetoprotein, aspartyl/asparaginyl β­hydroxylase, glypican­3 and HCA519/TPX2) proved to be the best expressed TAPPs within the HCC specimens by molecular analyses. HCA519/TPX2 was detected by intracellular cell flow cytometry within HCC cell lines by using a specific antibody towards this TAPP. This antibody also detected the protein within primary HCCs. We synthesized two HCA519/TPX2 peptides (HCA519464–472 and HCA519351–359) which can bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‐A*0201. Dendritic cells pulsed with these peptides stimulated cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs). These killer T‐cells lysed HLA‐A*0201+ T2 cells exogenously loaded with the correct specific peptide. The CTLs killed HepG2 (HLA‐A2+ and HCA519+), but not the Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines, which are HCA519+ but HLA‐A2‐negative. In silico analysis reveals that HCA519/TPX2 has the inherent ability to bind to a very wide variety of HLA antigens. Conclusion HCA519/TPX2 is a viable immunotarget that should be further investigated within HCC patients. PMID:24966688

  14. Cancer Vaccines and Carbohydrate Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Lum, Michelle; Vijay, Geraldine; Jain, Miten; Almogren, Adel; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) result from the aberrant glycosylation that is seen with transformation to a tumor cell. The carbohydrate antigens that have been found to be tumor-associated include the mucin related Tn, Sialyl Tn, and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigens, the blood group Lewis related LewisY, Sialyl LewisX and Sialyl LewisA, and LewisX, (also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1, SSEA-1), the glycosphingolipids Globo H and stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3), the sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, the gangliosides GD2, GD3, GM2, fucosyl GM1, and Neu5GcGM3, and polysialic acid. Recent developments have furthered our understanding of the T-independent type II response that is seen in response to carbohydrate antigens. The selection of a vaccine target antigen is based on not only the presence of the antigen in a variety of tumor tissues but also on the role this antigen plays in tumor growth and metastasis. These roles for TACAs are being elucidated. Newly acquired knowledge in understanding the T-independent immune response and in understanding the key roles that carbohydrates play in metastasis are being applied in attempts to develop an effective vaccine response to TACAs. The role of each of the above mentioned carbohydrate antigens in cancer growth and metastasis and vaccine attempts using these antigens will be described. PMID:21964054

  15. Carbohydrate-Mediated Targeting of Antigen to Dendritic Cells Leads to Enhanced Presentation of Antigen to T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Eddie W.; Ratner, Daniel M.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Hacohen, Nir

    2009-01-01

    The unique therapeutic value of dendritic cells (DCs) for the treatment of allergy, autoimmunity and transplant rejection is predicated upon our ability to selectively deliver antigens, drugs or nucleic acids to DCs in vivo. Here we describe a method for delivering whole protein antigens to DCs based on carbohydrate-mediated targeting of DC-expressed lectins. A series of synthetic carbohydrates was chemically-coupled to a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and each conjugate was evaluated for its ability to increase the efficiency of antigen presentation by murine DCs to OVA-specific T cells (CD4+ and CD8+). In vitro data are presented that demonstrate that carbohydrate modification of OVA leads to a 50-fold enhancement of presentation of antigenic peptide to CD4+ T cells. A tenfold enhancement is observed for CD8+ T cells; this indicates that the targeted lectin(s) can mediate cross-presentation of antigens on MHC class I. Our data indicate that the observed enhancements in antigen presentation are unique to OVA that is conjugated to complex oligosaccharides, such as a high-mannose nonasaccharide, but not to monosaccharides. Taken together, our data suggest that a DC targeting strategy that is based upon carbohydrate-lectin interactions is a promising approach for enhancing antigen presentation via class I and class II molecules. PMID:18186095

  16. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  18. Targeting TARP, a novel breast and prostate tumor-associated antigen, with T cell receptor-like human recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Epel, Malka; Carmi, Irit; Soueid-Baumgarten, Sharon; Oh, Sang Kon; Bera, Tapan; Pastan, Ira; Berzofsky, Jay; Reiter, Yoram

    2008-06-01

    MHC class I molecules are important components of immune surveillance. There are no available methods to directly visualize and determine the quantity and distribution of MHC/peptide complexes on individual cells or to detect such complexes on antigen-presenting cells in tissues. MHC-restricted recombinant antibodies with the same specificity of T cell receptors (TCR) may become a valuable tool to address these questions. They may also serve as valuable targeting molecules that mimic the specificity of cytotoxic T cells. We isolated by phage display a panel of human recombinant Fab antibodies with peptide-specific, MHC-restricted TCR-like reactivity directed toward HLA-A2-restricted T cell epitopes derived from a novel antigen termed TCRgamma alternative reading frame protein (TARP) which is expressed on prostate and breast cancer cells. We have characterized one of these recombinant antibodies and demonstrated its capacity to directly detect specific HLA-A2/TARP T cell epitopes on antigen-presenting cells that have complexes formed by naturally occurring active intracellular processing of the antigen, as well as on the surface of tumor cells. Moreover, by genetic fusion we armed the TCR-like antibody with a potent toxin and demonstrated that it can serve as a targeting moiety killing tumor cells in a peptide-specific, MHC-restricted manner similar to cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  19. The tumor-associated antigen RHAMM (HMMR/CD168) is expressed by monocyte-derived dendritic cells and presented to T cells

    PubMed Central

    Willemen, Yannick; Van den Bergh, Johan M.J.; Bonte, Sarah M.; Anguille, Sébastien; Heirman, Carlo; Stein, Barbara M.H.; Goossens, Herman; Kerre, Tessa; Thielemans, Kris; Peeters, Marc; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F.I.

    2016-01-01

    We formerly demonstrated that vaccination with Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1)-loaded autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) can be a well-tolerated effective treatment in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here, we investigated whether we could introduce the receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR/CD168), another clinically relevant tumor-associated antigen, into these mo-DCs through mRNA electroporation and elicit RHAMM-specific immune responses. While RHAMM mRNA electroporation significantly increased RHAMM protein expression by mo-DCs, our data indicate that classical mo-DCs already express and present RHAMM at sufficient levels to activate RHAMM-specific T cells, regardless of electroporation. Moreover, we found that RHAMM-specific T cells are present at vaccination sites in AML patients. Our findings implicate that we and others who are using classical mo-DCs for cancer immunotherapy are already vaccinating against RHAMM. PMID:27659531

  20. Allogeneic nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation in metastatic colon cancer: tumor-specific T cells directed to a tumor-associated antigen are generated in vivo during GVHD.

    PubMed

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Cignetti, Alessandro; Capaldi, Antonio; Vitaggio, Katiuscia; Vallario, Antonella; Ricchiardi, Alberto; Sperti, Elisa; Ferraris, Renato; Gatti, Marco; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Geuna, Massimo; Fizzotti, Marco; Sangiolo, Dario; Sottile, Antonino; De Rosa, Giovanni; Bucci, Anna Rosa; Lambertenghi-Deliliers, Giorgio; Benedetti, Edoardo; Nash, Richard; Aglietta, Massimo

    2006-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate safety and activity of nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to determine whether a T-cell response to a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) was induced. Fifteen patients with metastatic CRC underwent HCT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. All patients engrafted with a median donor T-cell chimerism of 72% at day +56. Eight patients experienced grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Despite progressive disease before HCT, partial remission and disease stabilization longer than 90 days were observed in 1 and 3 patients, respectively. Induction of TAA-specific T cells was evaluated with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific HLA-A(*)0201 pentamer in 6 patients with CRC. CEA-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected in 3 of 3 patients concomitant with GHVD onset, but not in 3 of 3 patients without GVHD. They were also not detected in 9 of 9 control patients with GVHD who received transplants for diagnoses other than CRC. Antitumor activity of CEA-specific T cells was also validated in vitro. In one patient, the induction of CEA-specific T cells was associated with a decrease of serum CEA levels and a partial response. Thus, graft-versus-host reactions associated with allogeneic HCT can trigger the generation of T cells specific for CEA, and this may be associated with a clinical response.

  1. The interaction between Siglec-15 and tumor-associated sialyl-Tn antigen enhances TGF-β secretion from monocytes/macrophages through the DAP12-Syk pathway.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Rina; Ohtsubo, Kazuaki; Takamatsu, Shinji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Angata, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that Siglec-15, a member of the Siglec family of glycan-recognition proteins, is expressed on a subset of macrophages and preferentially recognizes the sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen, a tumor-associated glycan structure. In this study, we report on the biological significance of the Siglec-15-mediated interaction between monocytes/macrophages and cancer cells. Siglec-15 is expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in various human tumor tissues. We further demonstrated that its expression is substantially elevated in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced M2-like macrophages, which produced more transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to sTn-positive cells than to negative cells. We designed a co-culture model of THP-1 (human monocytic leukemia) cells and H157 (human lung carcinoma) cells mimicking the interaction between monocytes/macrophages and cancer cells that recapitulated the enhanced TGF-β production in Siglec-15 expressing THP-1 cells by the cellular interaction with sTn expressing H157 cells. The enhanced TGF-β production required a direct interaction between the two cell lines through sialic acids. Siglec-15 associates with adaptor protein DNAX activation protein of 12 kDa (DAP12) at the binding determinant Lys(274) in the transmembrane domain and transduces a signal to spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). The enhanced TGF-β secretion was significantly attenuated by Syk inhibitor treatment of THP-1 cells or by substitution of the Siglec-15 Lys(274) to Ala, which disrupts the molecular interaction between Siglec15 and DAP12. These findings indicate that Siglec-15 recognizes the tumoral sTn antigen and transduces a signal for enhanced TGF-β secretion in TAMs and further suggest that Siglec-15 on macrophages may contribute to tumor progression by the TGF-β-mediated modulation of intratumoral microenvironments.

  2. Multivalent immunity targeting tumor-associated antigens by intra-lymph node DNA-prime, peptide-boost vaccination.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Qiu, Z; Wong, R; Tam, V L; Tam, B L; Joea, D K; Quach, A; Liu, X; Pold, M; Malyankar, U M; Bot, A

    2011-01-01

    Active immunotherapy of cancer has yet to yield effective therapies in the clinic. To evaluate the translatability of DNA-based vaccines we analyzed the profile of T-cell immunity by plasmid vaccination in a murine model, using transcriptome microarray analysis and flow cytometry. DNA vaccination resulted in specific T cells expressing low levels of co-inhibitory molecules (most notably PD-1), strikingly different from the expression profile elicited by peptide immunization. In addition, the T-cell response primed through this dual-antigen-expressing plasmid (MART-1/Melan-A and tyrosinase) translated into a substantial proliferation capacity and functional conversion to antitumor effector cells after tyrosinase and MART-1/Melan-A peptide analog boost. Furthermore, peptide boost rescued the immune response against the subdominant tyrosinase epitope. This immunization approach could be adapted to elicit potent immunity against multiple tumor antigens, resulting in a broader immune response that was more effective in targeting human tumor cells. Finally, this study sheds light on a novel mechanism of immune homeostasis through synchronous regulation of co-inhibitory molecules on T cells, highly relevant to heterologous prime boost approaches involving DNA vaccines as priming agents.

  3. A multi-antigen vaccine in combination with an immunotoxin targeting tumor-associated fibroblast for treating murine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinxu; Hu, Biliang; Li, Si; Zhang, Chupei; Liu, Yarong; Wang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutically effective cancer vaccine must generate potent antitumor immune responses and be able to overcome tolerance mechanisms mediated by the progressing tumor itself. Previous studies showed that glycoprotein 100 (gp100), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) are promising immunogens for melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, we administered these three melanoma-associated antigens via lentiviral vectors (termed LV-3Ag) and found that this multi-antigen vaccine strategy markedly increased functional T-cell infiltration into tumors and generated protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. We also engineered a novel immunotoxin, αFAP-PE38, capable of targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing fibroblasts within the tumor stroma. When combined with αFAP-PE38, LV-3Ag exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor effects on tumor growth in an established B16 melanoma model. The mechanism of action underlying this combination treatment likely modulates the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and, consequently, activates cytotoxic CD8+ T cells capable of specifically recognizing and destroying tumor cells. Taken together, these results provide a strong rationale for combining an immunotoxin with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27119119

  4. Evaluation of a novel ELISA for the tumor-associated antigen CA 72–4 in patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buderath, Paul; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Aktas, Bahriye; Rasch, Jens; Kimmig, Rainer; Zeller, Thomas; Heubner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cancer antigen 72–4 (CA 72–4) is an established tumor marker in ovarian cancer. We evaluated a new solid-phase ELISA (DRG TM-CA 72–4 ELISA). Materials & methods: Repeated measures of test samples and controls were performed to evaluate reliability and reproducibility. Afterward, we performed analyses on the sera of 150 patients with primarily diagnosed ovarian cancer. Results were compared with those of the Cobas CA 72–4 kit. Results were correlated with clinical patient data. Results: Results of the DRG TM-CA 72–4 ELISA were reproducible with acceptable deviations within measures, and the measured CA 72–4 serum concentrations were well in accordance with the references. High concentrations were significantly associated with grading, tumor stage and tumor residuals after surgery. PMID:28116127

  5. Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    Starches; Simple sugars; Sugars; Complex carbohydrates; Diet - carbohydrates; Simple carbohydrates ... forms of carbohydrates to function properly. Sugars and starches are broken down by the body into glucose ( ...

  6. The multi-epitope approach for immunotherapy for cancer: identification of several CTL epitopes from various tumor-associated antigens expressed on solid epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, I; Hudson, S J; Tsai, V; Southwood, S; Takesako, K; Appella, E; Sette, A; Celis, E

    1998-01-01

    One approach to development of specific cancer immunotherapy relies on the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAA). Induction of TAA-specific CTL could be used towards the eradication of established tumors, or to prevent their dissemination or recurrence after primary treatment. The present study identifies a set of CTL epitopes from TAA frequently found on solid epithelial tumors such as breast, lung and gastro-intestinal tumors. Specifically, HLA-A2.1 binding peptides from the MAGE2, MAGE3, HER-2/neu and CEA antigens were tested for their capacity to elicit in vitro anti-tumor CTL using lymphocytes from normal volunteers and autologous dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells. A total of 6 new epitopes (MAGE2[10(157)], MAGE3[9(112)], CEA[9(691)], CEA[9(24)], HER2[9(435)] and HER2[9(5)]) were identified which were capable of specifically recognizing tumor cell lines lines expressing HLA-A2.1 and the corresponding TAA. In one case (CEA[9(24)]), induction of vigorous anti-tumor CTL responses required epitope engineering to increase HLA-A2.1 binding affinity. Finally, most of the newly identified epitopes (5 out of 6) were found to be highly crossreactive with other common HLA alleles of the A2 supertype (A2.2, A2.3, A2.6 and A6802), thus demonstrating their potential in providing broad and non-ethnically biased population coverage. The results are discussed in the context of the development of multi-epitope-based therapies with broad applicability for patients suffering from commonly found tumors.

  7. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics. PMID:26343966

  8. Cloning of the murine counterpart of the tumor-associated antigen H-L6: Epitope mapping of the human and murine L6 antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.P.; Farr, A.G.; Marken, J.S. |

    1995-10-03

    The murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) L6 was raised against human lung carcinoma cells and found to recognize an antigen which is highly expressed on lung, breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas. Promising results in phase 1 clinical studies with this antibody or its chimerized counterpart suggest the antigen recognized by mAb L6 (H-L6) is an attractive target for monoclonal antibody-based cancer therapy. Further development of L6 as an anti-tumor-targeting agent would benefit from the development of a murine model. However, initial attempts to develop such a model were hampered by our inability to generate antibodies against the murine homologue of the L6 antigen, M-L6. Here we describe the preparation of the mAb 12A8, which was raised against murine thymic epithelial cells, the tissue distribution of the murine antigen recognized by 12A8, the cloning of a cDNA encoding the 12A8 target antigen, and the demonstration that this antigen is M-L6. Using H-L6/M-L6 chimeric proteins, we show that the region of the M-L6 protein recognized by mAb 12A8 corresponds to the region of H-L6 recognized by mAb L6. There are five amino acid differences in the regions of the H-L6 and M-L6 proteins recognized by L6 and 12A8, respectively. We further mapped the protein epitope recognized by L6 by individually exchanging each of these residues in H-L6 with the corresponding residue found in M-L6. Substitution of the single H-L6 residue Leu122 with Ser resulted in the H-L6 mutant HL6-L122S which failed to bind L6. The HL6-L122S mutant also failed to bind 12A8. Substituting residue Ser122 in M-L6 with Leu did not prevent 12A8 binding and did not result in L6 binding. The availability of mAb 12A8 and the finding that it recognizes the same region of M-L6 that is recognized by L6 on H-L6 might allow the development of a murine tumor model in which the L6 antigen can be further evaluated as a therapeutic target. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  9. An optimized predictor panel for colorectal cancer diagnosis based on the combination of tumor-associated antigens obtained from protein and phage microarrays.

    PubMed

    Barderas, Rodrigo; Babel, Ingrid; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Moreno, Víctor; Suárez, Adolfo; Bonilla, Felix; Villar-Vázquez, Roi; Capellá, Gabriel; Casal, J Ignacio

    2012-08-03

    Humoral response in cancer patients appears early in cancer progression and can be used for diagnosis, including early detection. By using human recombinant protein and T7 phage microarrays displaying colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific peptides, we previously selected 6 phages and 6 human recombinant proteins as tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with high diagnostic value. After completing validation in biological samples, TAAs were classified according to their correlation, redundancy in reactivity patterns and multiplex diagnostic capabilities. For predictor model optimization, TAAs were reanalyzed with a new set of samples. A combination of three phages displaying peptides homologous to GRN, NHSL1 and SREBF2 and four proteins PIM1, MAPKAPK3, FGFR4 and ACVR2B, achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 94%, with a sensitivity of 89.1% and specificity of 90.0%, to correctly predict the presence of cancer. For early colorectal cancer stages, the AUC was 90%, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 82.6%. In summary, we have defined an optimized predictor panel, combining TAAs from different sources, with highly improved accuracy and diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics.

  10. Spontaneous peripheral T-cell responses toward the tumor-associated antigen cyclin D1 in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dannenmann, Stefanie R; Hermanns, Thomas; Bransi, Ali; Matter, Claudia; von Boehmer, Lotta; Stevanovic, Stefan; Schraml, Peter; Moch, Holger; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous group of kidney cancers with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) as the major subgroup. To expand the number of clinically relevant tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that can be targeted by immunotherapy, we analyzed samples from 23 patients with primary ccRCC for the expression and immunogenicity of various TAAs. We found high-frequency expression of MAGE-A9 and NY-ESO-1 in 36% and 55% of samples, respectively, and overexpression of PRAME, RAGE-1, CA-IX, Cyclin D1, ADFP, C-MET, and RGS-5 in many of the tumor samples. We analyzed the blood of patients with HLA-A2(+) ccRCC for the presence of CD8(+) T cells specific for TAA-derived HLA-A2-restricted peptides and found spontaneous responses to cyclin D1 in 5 of 6 patients with Cyclin D1-positive tumors. Cyclin D1-specific CD8(+) T cells secreted TNF-α, IFN-γ, and interleukin-2 (IL-2), and degranulated, indicating the presence of polyfunctional tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in the blood of these patients with ccRCC. The high frequency (43%) of Cyclin D1 overexpression and the presence of functional cyclin D1-specific T cells in 83% of these patients with ccRCC suggest that cyclin D1 may be a target for immunotherapeutic strategies.

  11. The translation elongation factor eEF2 is a novel tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in various types of cancers

    PubMed Central

    OJI, YUSUKE; TATSUMI, NAOYA; FUKUDA, MARI; NAKATSUKA, SHIN-ICHI; AOYAGI, SAYAKA; HIRATA, ERIKA; NANCHI, ISAMU; FUJIKI, FUMIHIRO; NAKAJIMA, HIROKO; YAMAMOTO, YUMIKO; SHIBATA, SYOHEI; NAKAMURA, MICHIYO; HASEGAWA, KANA; TAKAGI, SAYAKA; FUKUDA, IKUYO; HOSHIKAWA, TOMOKO; MURAKAMI, YUI; MORI, MASAHIDE; INOUE, MASAYOSHI; NAKA, TETSUJI; TOMONAGA, TAKESHI; SHIMIZU, YOSHIFUMI; NAKAGAWA, MASASHI; HASEGAWA, JUNICHI; NEZU, RIICHIRO; INOHARA, HIDENORI; IZUMOTO, SHUICHI; NONOMURA, NORIO; YOSHIMINE, TOSHIKI; OKUMURA, MEINOSHIN; MORII, EIICHI; MAEDA, HAJIME; NISHIDA, SUMIYUKI; HOSEN, NAOKI; TSUBOI, AKIHIRO; OKA, YOSHIHIRO; SUGIYAMA, HARUO

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer immunotherapy could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, to identify novel tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), the proteins expressed in a panel of cancer cells were serologically screened by immunoblot analysis and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) was identified as an antigen that was recognized by IgG autoantibody in sera from a group of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) or colon cancer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that serum eEF2 IgG Ab levels were significantly higher in colorectal and gastric cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that the eEF2 protein was overexpressed in the majority of lung, esophageal, pancreatic, breast and prostate cancers, HNSCC, glioblastoma multiforme and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Knockdown of eEF2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited the growth in four eEF2-expressing cell lines, PC14 lung cancer, PCI6 pancreatic cancer, HT1080 fibrosarcoma and A172 glioblastoma cells, but not in eEF2-undetectable MCF7 cells. Furthermore, eEF2-derived 9-mer peptides, EF786 (eEF2 786–794 aa) and EF292 (eEF2 292–300 aa), elicited cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an HLA-A*24:02- and an HLA-A*02:01-positive healthy donor, respectively, in an HLA-A-restricted manner. These results indicated that the eEF2 gene is overexpressed in the majority of several types of cancers and plays an oncogenic role in cancer cell growth. Moreover, the eEF2 gene product is immunogenic and a promising target molecule of cancer immunotherapy for several types of cancers. PMID:24589652

  12. Hidden IgG Antibodies to the Tumor-Associated Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen in Gastric Cancer Patients: Lectin Reactivity, Avidity, and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Kurtenkov, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Natural antibodies to the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF) are related to tumor immunosurveillance and cancer patients' survival. Hidden IgG antibodies (HAbs) to TF, their lectin reactivity, avidity, and clinical relevance were studied. HAbs were present in cancer patients and controls. A decreased level of IgG HAbs was detected in cancer. The HAbs level positively correlated with the sialospecific SNA lectin binding in purified total IgG (tIgG) in donors and cancer patients, indicating that HAbs are higher sialylated. The avidity of anti-TF IgG in tIgG samples was lower in cancer patients (P = 0.025) while no difference in the avidity of free anti-TF IgG was established. A negative correlation between the avidity of anti-TF IgG in tIgG and SNA binding in both groups was observed (P < 0.0001). The HAbs level negatively correlated with the anti-TF IgG avidity in tIgG only in donors (P = 0.003). Changes in the level of HAbs and Abs avidity showed a rather good stage- and gender-dependent diagnostic accuracy. Cancer patients with a lower anti-TF IgG avidity in tIgG showed a benefit in survival. Thus the TF-specific HAbs represent a particular subset of anti-TF IgG that differ from free serum anti-TF IgG in SNA reactivity, avidity, diagnostic potential, and relation to survival. PMID:28316982

  13. Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates (say: kar-boh-HEYE-drayts) are the body's main source of energy. They are sometimes called "carbs" for short. If ...

  14. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  15. A general strategy to optimize immunogenicity of HLA-B*0702 restricted cryptic peptides from tumor associated antigens: Design of universal neo-antigen like tumor vaccines for HLA-B*0702 positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Gallou, Catherine; Rougeot, Aude; Graff-Dubois, Stéphanie; Kosmatopoulos, Kostas; Menez-Jamet, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) are the privileged targets of almost all the cancer vaccines tested to date. Unfortunately all these vaccines failed to show a clinical efficacy. The main reason for this failure is the immune tolerance to TAAs that are self-proteins expressed by normal and cancer cells. Self-tolerance to TAAs is directed against their dominant rather than against their cryptic epitopes. The best way to overcome self-tolerance to TAAs would therefore be to target their cryptic epitopes. However, because of their low HLA-I affinity, cryptic peptides are non-immunogenic and cannot be used to stimulate an antitumor immune response unless their immunogenicity has been previously enhanced. In this paper we describe a general approach to enhance immunogenicity of almost all the HLA-B*0702 restricted cryptic peptides derived from TAAs. It consists in substituting residues at position 1 or 9 of low HLA-B*0702 affinity cryptic peptides by an Alanine or a Leucine respectively. These substitutions increase affinity of peptides for HLA-B*0702. These optimized cryptic peptides are strongly immunogenic and very importantly CTL they stimulate recognize their native counterparts. TAAs derived optimized cryptic peptides can be considered as universal antitumor vaccine since they escape self-tolerance, are immunogenic and are not patient specific. PMID:27506946

  16. Some immunogenic acid biochemical properties of tumor-associated transplantation antigens (TATA) obtained in soluble form or solubilized from two methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas, Meth A and CI-4.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M J; Law, L W

    1981-06-15

    The subcellular distribution of the tumor-associated transplantation antigens (TATAs) of two highly immunogenic methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas, Meth A and CI-4, were compared. Most of the TATA of CI-4 was found in the soluble fraction (cytosol) of the cell while the TATA from Meth A was variably distributed between the membrane and cytosol. The soluble fraction TATAs from both tumors were very immunogenic and their strong immunity could not be influenced by administering antigen in a variety of protocols that altered the immune response in other systems. The soluble fraction and membrane-associated TATAs from both tumors could be specifically bound to liposomes in reconstitution experiments and the antigenicity of all of the TATAs was significantly enhanced when they were incorporated into these artificial membranes.

  17. Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  18. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  19. Inhibitory effects of thymus-independent type 2 antigens on MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation: comparative analysis of carbohydrate structures and the antigen presenting cell.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, M; Carrasco-Marín, E; Alvarez-Domínguez, C; Outschoorn, I M; Leyva-Cobián, F

    1997-02-25

    The role of thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens (polysaccharides) on the MHC-II-restricted processing of protein antigens was studied in vitro. In general, antigen presentation is inhibited when both peritoneal and splenic macrophages (M phi) as well as Küpffer cells (KC) are preincubated with acidic polysaccharides or branched dextrans. However, the inhibitory effect of neutral polysaccharides was minimal when KC were used as antigen presenting cells (APC). Morphological evaluation of the uptake of fluoresceinated polysaccharides clearly correlates with this selective and differential interference. Polysaccharides do not block MHC-I-restricted antigen presentation. Some chemical characteristics shared by different saccharides seem to be specially related to their potential inhibitory abilities: (i) those where two anomeric carbon atoms of two interlinked sugars and (ii) those containing several sulfate groups per disaccharide repeating unit. No polysaccharide being inhibitory in M phi abrogated antigen processing in other APC: lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells, B lymphoma cells, or dendritic cells (DC). Using radiolabeled polysaccharides it was observed that DC and B cells incorporated less radioactivity as a function of time than M phi. Morphological evaluation of these different APC incubated for extended periods of time with inhibitory concentrations of polysaccharides revealed intense cytoplasmic vacuolization in M phi but not in B cells or DC. The large majority of M phi lysosomes containing polysaccharides fail to fuse with incoming endocytic vesicles and delivery of fluid-phase tracers was reduced, suggesting that indigestible carbohydrates reduced the fusion of these loaded lysosomes with endosomes containing recently internalized tracers. It is suggested that the main causes of this antigen presentation blockade are (i) the chemical characteristics of certain carbohydrates and whether the specific enzymatic machinery for their intracellular

  20. Induction of an antitumor response using dendritic cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding the HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitopes of tumor-associated antigens in culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Sergey Vital'evich; Shevchenko, Julia Alexandrovna; Kurilin, Vasilii Vasil'evich; Khantakova, Julia Nikolaevna; Lopatnikova, Julia Anatol'evna; Gavrilova, Elena Vasil'evna; Maksyutov, Rinat Amirovich; Bakulina, Anastasiya Yur'evna; Sidorov, Sergey Vasil'evich; Khristin, Alexander Alexandrovich; Maksyutov, Amir Zakievich

    2016-02-01

    Advances in oncoimmunology related to the definition of the basic mechanisms of the formation of antitumor immune response, as well as the opening of tumor-associated antigens recognized by immune cells, allowed to start developing ways to influence the effector cells of the immune system to generate effective antitumor cytotoxic response. We investigated the possibility to stimulate an antitumor response in a culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients by dendritic cells transfected with HLA-A*02:01-restricted DNA constructs. We isolated dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes and delivered our constructs to these cells by magnetic transfection. Additionally, a series of experiments with loading of dendritic cells with autologous tumor cell lysate antigens was conducted. We have shown that dendritic cells transfected with the HLA-A*02:01-restricted DNA constructs are effective in inducing an antitumor response in a culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients. Dendritic cells transfected with DNA constructor dendritic cells loaded with lysate antigens revealed a comparable stimulated cytotoxic response of mononuclear cells to these two ways of antigen delivery. We conclude that using DNA constructs in conjunction with patient stratification by HLA type allows the application of transfected DCs as an effective method to stimulate antitumor immunity in vitro.

  1. Intramuscular myxoma associated with an increased carbohydrate antigen 19.9 level in a woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor. The lack of specific symptoms and widely used laboratory tests makes the diagnosis quite difficult. We present a case of an Intramuscular myxoma associated with an increased carbohydrate antigen 19.9 level. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any reported cases of an association of Intramuscular myxoma with tumor markers in the literature. Case presentation A 45-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our department for resection of a mass in her left groin area, discovered incidentally on a triplex ultrasonography of her lower extremities. The diagnosis of Intramuscular myxoma was confirmed on histopathology after the complete surgical excision of the tumor. On laboratory examination, the serum level of carbohydrate antigen 19.9 was found to be elevated, but it returned to normal six months after resection of the mass. Conclusion Carbohydrate antigen 19.9 is a tumor marker that increases in a variety of malignant and benign conditions. After the exclusion of all other possible reasons for carbohydrate antigen 19.9 elevation, we assumed a possible connection of carbohydrate antigen 19.9 elevation and Intramuscular myxoma, an issue that requires needs further investigation. PMID:21569608

  2. GTL001 and bivalent CyaA-based therapeutic vaccine strategies against human papillomavirus and other tumor-associated antigens induce effector and memory T-cell responses that inhibit tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Esquerré, Michaël; Momot, Marie; Goubier, Anne; Gonindard, Christophe; Leung-Theung-Long, Stéphane; Misseri, Yolande; Bissery, Marie-Christine

    2017-03-13

    GTL001 is a bivalent therapeutic vaccine containing human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and HPV18 E7 proteins inserted in the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase (CyaA) vector intended to prevent cervical cancer in HPV-infected women with normal cervical cytology or mild abnormalities. To be effective, therapeutic cervical cancer vaccines should induce both a T cell-mediated effector response against HPV-infected cells and a robust CD8(+) T-cell memory response to prevent potential later infection. We examined the ability of GTL001 and related bivalent CyaA-based vaccines to induce, in parallel, effector and memory CD8(+) T-cell responses to both vaccine antigens. Intradermal vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with GTL001 adjuvanted with a TLR3 agonist (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) or a TLR7 agonist (topical 5% imiquimod cream) induced strong HPV16 E7-specific T-cell responses capable of eradicating HPV16 E7-expressing tumors. Tumor-free mice also had antigen-specific memory T-cell responses that protected them against a subsequent challenge with HPV18 E7-expressing tumor cells. In addition, vaccination with bivalent vaccines containing CyaA-HPV16 E7 and CyaA fused to a tumor-associated antigen (melanoma-specific antigen A3, MAGEA3) or to a non-viral, non-tumor antigen (ovalbumin) eradicated HPV16 E7-expressing tumors and protected against a later challenge with MAGEA3- and ovalbumin-expressing tumor cells, respectively. These results show that CyaA-based bivalent vaccines such as GTL001 can induce both therapeutic and prophylactic anti-tumor T-cell responses. The CyaA platform can be adapted to different antigens and adjuvants, and therefore may be useful for developing other therapeutic vaccines.

  3. Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Cocinero, Emilio J; Çarçabal, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although carbohydrates represent one of the most important families of biomolecules, they remain under-studied in comparison to the other biomolecular families (peptides, nucleobases). Beyond their best-known function of energy source in living systems, they act as mediator of molecular recognition processes, carrying molecular information in the so-called "sugar code," just to name one of their countless functions. Owing to their high conformational flexibility, they encode extremely rich information conveyed via the non-covalent hydrogen bonds within the carbohydrate and with other biomolecular assemblies, such as peptide subunits of proteins. Over the last decade there has been tremendous progress in the study of the conformational preferences of neutral oligosaccharides, and of the interactions between carbohydrates and various molecular partners (water, aromatic models, and peptide models), using vibrational spectroscopy as a sensitive probe. In parallel, other spectroscopic techniques have recently become available to the study of carbohydrates in the gas phase (microwave spectroscopy, IRMPD on charged species).

  4. Recognition of the Thomsen-Friedenreich Pancarcinoma Carbohydrate Antigen by a Lamprey Variable Lymphocyte Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Yang, Xinbo; Siddiqui, Maqbool A.; Hong, Xia; Barchi, Joseph J.; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2013-01-01

    Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) are leucine-rich repeat proteins that mediate adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates. VLRs were recently shown to recognize glycans, such as the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TFα; Galβ1–3GalNAcα), with a selectivity rivaling or exceeding that of lectins and antibodies. To understand the basis for TFα recognition by one such VLR (VLRB.aGPA.23), we measured thermodynamic parameters for the binding interaction and determined the structure of the VLRB.aGPA.23-TFα complex to 2.2 Å resolution. In the structure, four tryptophan residues form a tight hydrophobic cage encasing the TFα disaccharide that completely excludes buried water molecules. This cage together with hydrogen bonding of sugar hydroxyls to polar side chains explains the exquisite selectivity of VLRB.aGPA.23. The topology of the glycan-binding site of VLRB.aGPA.23 differs markedly from those of lectins or antibodies, which typically consist of long, convex grooves for accommodating the oligosaccharide. Instead, the TFα disaccharide is sandwiched between a variable loop and the concave surface of the VLR formed by the β-strands of the leucine-rich repeat modules. Longer oligosaccharides are predicted to extend perpendicularly across the β-strands, requiring them to bend to match the concavity of the VLR solenoid. PMID:23782692

  5. Carbohydrate Sequence of the Prostate Cancer-associated Antigen F77 Assigned by a Mucin O-Glycome Designer Array*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Yibing; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Palma, Angelina S.; Kozak, Radoslaw P.; Childs, Robert A.; Nonaka, Motohiro; Li, Zhen; Siegel, Don L.; Hanfland, Peter; Peehl, Donna M.; Chai, Wengang; Greene, Mark I.; Feizi, Ten

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody F77 was previously raised against human prostate cancer cells and has been shown to recognize a carbohydrate antigen, but the carbohydrate sequence of the antigen was elusive. Here, we make multifaceted approaches to characterize F77 antigen, including binding analyses with the glycolipid extract of the prostate cancer cell line PC3, microarrays with sequence-defined glycan probes, and designer arrays from the O-glycome of an antigen-positive mucin, in conjunction with mass spectrometry. Our results reveal F77 antigen to be expressed on blood group H on a 6-linked branch of a poly-N-acetyllactosamine backbone. We show that mAb F77 can also bind to blood group A and B analogs but with lower intensities. We propose that the close association of F77 antigen with prostate cancers is a consequence of increased blood group H expression together with up-regulated branching enzymes. This is in contrast to other epithelial cancers that have up-regulated branching enzymes but diminished expression of H antigen. With knowledge of the structure and prevalence of F77 antigen in prostate cancer, the way is open to explore rationally its application as a biomarker to detect F77-positive circulating prostate cancer-derived glycoproteins and tumor cells. PMID:24753245

  6. The glycosphingolipid P1 is an ovarian cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen involved in migration

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, F; Anugraham, M; Pochechueva, T; Tse, B W C; Alam, S; Guertler, R; Bovin, N V; Fedier, A; Hacker, N F; Huflejt, M E; Packer, N; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, V A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The level of plasma-derived naturally circulating anti-glycan antibodies (AGA) to P1 trisaccharide has previously been shown to significantly discriminate between ovarian cancer patients and healthy women. Here we aim to identify the Ig class that causes this discrimination, to identify on cancer cells the corresponding P1 antigen recognised by circulating anti-P1 antibodies and to shed light into the possible function of this glycosphingolipid. Methods: An independent Australian cohort was assessed for the presence of anti-P1 IgG and IgM class antibodies using suspension array. Monoclonal and human derived anti-glycan antibodies were verified using three independent glycan-based immunoassays and flow cytometry-based inhibition assay. The P1 antigen was detected by LC-MS/MS and flow cytometry. FACS-sorted cell lines were studied on the cellular migration by colorimetric assay and real-time measurement using xCELLigence system. Results: Here we show in a second independent cohort (n=155) that the discrimination of cancer patients is mediated by the IgM class of anti-P1 antibodies (P=0.0002). The presence of corresponding antigen P1 and structurally related epitopes in fresh tissue specimens and cultured cancer cells is demonstrated. We further link the antibody and antigen (P1) by showing that human naturally circulating and affinity-purified anti-P1 IgM isolated from patients ascites can bind to naturally expressed P1 on the cell surface of ovarian cancer cells. Cell-sorted IGROV1 was used to obtain two study subpopulations (P1-high, 66.1% and P1-low, 33.3%) and observed that cells expressing high P1-levels migrate significantly faster than those with low P1-levels. Conclusions: This is the first report showing that P1 antigen, known to be expressed on erythrocytes only, is also present on ovarian cancer cells. This suggests that P1 is a novel tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen recognised by the immune system in patients and may have a role in cell

  7. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst with high intra-cystic carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Weidenfeld, Jonathan; Bradichevsky, Tania; Weitzman, Ella; Rimon, Uri; Inbar, Yael; Amitai, Michal; Bar-Zachai, Barak; Eshkenazy, Roni; Ariche, Arie; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    A ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a rare foregut developmental malformation usually diagnosed in adulthood. Five percent of reported cases of CHFC transform into squamous cell carcinoma. We report the presentation, evaluation, and surgical management of a symptomatic 45-year-old male found to have a 6.2 cm CHFC. Contrast tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated columnar, ciliated epithelium consistent with the histologic diagnosis of CHFC. The intracystic levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were extremely high (978118 U/mL and 973 μg/L, respectively). Histologically, the wall of the cyst showed characteristic pseudopapillae lined with a ciliated stratified columnar epithelium, underlying smooth muscle, an outer fibrous layer and no atypia. Immunohistochemistry for CA19-9 and CEA was positive. This is the first case report of a CHFC in which levels of CA 19-9 and CEA were measured. Our findings suggest that a large sized multilocular cyst and elevated cyst CA19-9 and CEA levels do not exclude a CHFC from consideration in the diagnosis. CHFCs should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Accurate diagnosis of a CHFC is necessary given its potential for malignant transformation, and surgical excision is recommended.

  8. Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica and Moraxella catarrhalis share cross-reactive carbohydrate antigens.

    PubMed

    Braun, Jan M; Beuth, Josef; Blackwell, C Caroline; Giersen, Sonja; Higgins, Paul G; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Unverhau, Heike; Weir, Donald M

    2004-02-17

    Carriage of commensal bacteria species is associated with the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease, with lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) of meningococci being one of the main virulence factors associated with severity of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal reference strains and isolates from the commensal species Neisseria lactamica and Moraxella catarrhalis were assessed for the presence of cross-reactive glycoconjugate antigens. Binding of human blood group antibodies of the P and Ii system to meningococcal immunotype reference strains were in accordance with the presence of known LOS carbohydrate structures. Binding studies with meningococcal immunotyping antibodies and blood group phenotyping antibodies to N. lactamica strains from different European countries showed, that a greater number of isolates obtained from native Greek and Scottish adults and children bound anti-meningococcal L(3, 7, 9) immunotyping (P < 0.001), pK (P = 0.035) and paragloboside (P < 0.001) blood group typing antibodies compared to isolates obtained from children of Russian immigrants in Greece. A greater number of M. catarrhalis strains isolated from children in Scotland bound anti-L(3, 7, 9) antibodies (38.2%) compared to strains isolated from adults (22.2%) (P = 0.017). These findings provide evidence that blood group like glycoconjugate antigens found on the commensal species N. lactamica and M. catarrhalis might be involved in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal endotoxins during childhood, and might be exploited as anti-meningococcal vaccine candidates.

  9. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 predicts fratricide amongst T cell receptor transgenic CD8+ T cells directed against tumor-associated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Andreas; Thiede, Melanie; Blaeschke, Franziska; Richter, Günther H.S.; Gerke, Julia S.; Baldauf, Michaela C.; Grünewald, Thomas G.P.; Busch, Dirk H.; Burdach, Stefan; Thiel, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Aim Autologous as well as allogeneic CD8+ T cells transduced with tumor antigen specific T cell receptors (TCR) may cause significant tumor lysis upon adoptive transfer. Besides unpredictable life-threatening off-target effects, these TCRs may unexpectedly commit fratricide. We hypothesized lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1, CD107a) to be a marker for fratricide in TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells. Methods We identified HLA-A*02:01/peptide-restricted T cells directed against ADRB3295. After TCR identification, we generated HLA-A*02:01/peptide restricted TCR transgenic T cells by retroviral transduction and tested T cell expansion rates as well as A*02:01/peptide recognition and ES killing in ELISpot and xCELLigence assays. Expansion arrest was analyzed via Annexin and CD107a staining. Results were compared to CHM1319-TCR transgenic T cells. Results Beta-3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) as well as chondromodulin-1 (CHM1) are over-expressed in Ewing Sarcoma (ES) but not on T cells. TCR transgenic T cells demonstrated HLA-A*02:01/ADRB3295 mediated ES recognition and killing in ELISpot and xCELLigence assays. 24h after TCR transduction, CD107a expression correlated with low expansion rates due to apoptosis of ADRB3 specific T cells in contrast to CHM1 specific transgenic T cells. Amino-acid exchange scans clearly indicated the cross-reactive potential of HLA-A*02:01/ADRB3295- and HLA-A*02:01/CHM1319-TCR transgenic T cells. Comparison of peptide motive binding affinities revealed extended fratricide among ADRB3295 specific TCR transgenic T cells in contrast to CHM1319. Conclusion Amino-acid exchange scans alone predict TCR cross-reactivity with little specificity and thus require additional assessment of potentially cross-reactive HLA-A*02:01 binding candidates. CD107a positivity is a marker for fratricide of CD8+ TCR transgenic T cells. PMID:27447745

  10. The Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Antigens of Selected Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, Evgeny L.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. Marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. Among these biologically active molecules, the carbohydrate antigens, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, O-antigens) found in cell walls of Gram-negative marine bacteria, show great potential as candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock due to their low virulence. The structural diversity of LPSs is thought to be a reflection of the ability for these bacteria to adapt to an array of habitats, protecting the cell from being compromised by exposure to harsh environmental stress factors. Over the last few years, the variety of structures of core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been discovered. In this review, we discuss the most recently encountered structures that have been identified from bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Idiomarina, Microbulbifer, Pseudoalteromonas, Plesiomonas and Shewanella of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum; Sulfitobacter and Loktanella of the Alphaproteobactera phylum and to the genera Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Flexibacter of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention is paid to the particular chemical features of the LPSs, such as the monosaccharide type, non-sugar substituents and phosphate groups, together with some of the typifying traits of LPSs obtained from marine bacteria. A possible correlation is then made between such features and the environmental adaptations undertaken by marine bacteria. PMID:22073003

  11. High expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen in the tumor-associated neo-vasculature is associated with worse prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Michael C; Laimer, Johannes; Chaux, Alcides; Schäfer, Georg; Obrist, Peter; Brunner, Andrea; Kronberger, Irmgard E; Laimer, Klaus; Gurel, Bora; Koller, Johann-Benedikt; Seifarth, Christof; Zelger, Bettina; Klocker, Helmut; Rasse, Michael; Doppler, Wolfgang; Bander, Neil H

    2012-08-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein expressed in prostate cancer as well as in the neo-vasculature of nonprostatic solid tumors. Here, we determined the expression pattern of PSMA in the vasculature of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using a previously validated antibody, PSMA staining distribution and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression status was evaluated in a cohort of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (n=96) using immunohistochemistry and was correlated with clinicopathological features as well as outcome. Twenty-four (25%) cases showed no detectable PSMA staining, 48 (50%) demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for PSMA in less than 50% of microvessels and 24 (25%) cases showed strong endothelial PSMA expression in more than 50% of tumor-associated microvessels. High endothelial PSMA expression was associated with greatly reduced survival (18.2 vs 77.3 months; P=0.0001) and maintained prognostic significance after adjusting for grade and stage in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=2.19, P=0.007). Furthermore, we observed a strong association between endothelial PSMA and cancer cell-specific COX2 expression. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for the prognostic significance of endothelial PSMA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and, suggest a potential interaction between arachidonic acid metabolites and endothelial PSMA expression in the tumor neo-vasculature.

  12. In Vitro Assessment of the Expression and T Cell Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigens BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 in Uterine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vanderstraeten, Anke; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Everaert, Tina; Van Bree, Rieta; Verbist, Godelieve; Luyten, Cathérine; Amant, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Background: While immunotherapy moved to the forefront of treatment of various cancers, it remains underexplored for uterine cancer. This might be due to the small patient population with advanced endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. Data about immunotherapeutic targets are scarce in endometrial carcinoma and lacking in uterine sarcoma. Methods: Expression of five tumor-associated antigens (TAA) (BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17) was validated in uterine tumor samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TAA immunogenicity was analyzed by determining spontaneous T cell responses towards overlapping peptide pools covering the whole TAA in patient blood. Results: At mRNA level, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 were overexpressed in a minority of patients and BORIS was moderately overexpressed (26% in endometrial carcinoma and 62% in uterine sarcoma). hTERT was overexpressed in the vast majority of tumors. On protein level, MUC1 was upregulated in primary, recurrent and metastatic EMCAR and in metastatic US tumors. hTERT protein was highly expressed in both normal and malignant tissue. Spontaneous TAA-specific T cell responses were detected in a minority of patients, except for hTERT to which T cell responses occurred more frequently. Conclusions: These data point to MUC1 and hTERT as most suitable targets based on expression levels and T cell immunogenicity for use in immunotherapeutic regimens. PMID:27618037

  13. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 for differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Si-Biao; Qin, Shan-Yu; Chen, Wen; Luo, Wei; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the utility of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) for differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: We searched the literature for studies reporting the sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy measures of serum CA19-9 levels for differentiating pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Pooled analysis was performed using random-effects models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Study quality was assessed using Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy and Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy tools. RESULTS: A total of 34 studies involving 3125 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 2061 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. Pooled analysis of the ability of CA19-9 level to differentiate pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis showed the following effect estimates: sensitivity, 0.81 (95%CI: 0.80-0.83); specificity, 0.81 (95%CI: 0.79-0.82); positive likelihood ratio, 4.08 (95%CI: 3.39-4.91); negative likelihood ratio, 0.24 (95%CI: 0.21-0.28); and diagnostic odds ratio, 19.31 (95%CI: 14.40-25.90). The area under the ROC curve was 0.88. No significant publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: Elevated CA19-9 by itself is insufficient for differentiating pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, however, it increases suspicion of pancreatic carcinoma and may complement other clinical findings to improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25892884

  14. Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a--its pathophysiological significance and induction mechanism in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Kannagi, Reiji

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a (CA19-9) is the most frequently applied serum tumor marker for diagnosis of cancers in the digestive organs. Recent progress disclosed the presence of a normal counterpart of the determinant, namely disialyl Lewis a, which is predominantly expressed in non-malignant epithelial cells of the digestive organs, while sialyl Lewis a is preferentially expressed in cancers. The disialyl Lewis a determinant carries one extra sialic residue attached through a 2 --> 6 linkage to the GlcNAc moiety compared to cancer-associated sialyl Lewis a, which carries only one 2 --> 3 linked sialic acid residue (monosialyl Lewis a). Disialyl Lewis a in normal epithelial cells serves as a ligand for immunosuppressive receptors such as sialic acid binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglec-7) and -9 expressed on resident monocytes/macrophages and maintains immunological homeostasis of mucosal membranes in digestive organs. Epigenetic silencing of a gene for a 2 --> 6 sialyl-transferase in the early stages of carcinogenesis results in an impairment of 2 --> 6 sialylation, leading to incomplete synthesis and accumulation of sialyl Lewis a, which lacks the 2 --> 6 linked sialic acid residue, in cancer cells. Simultaneous determination of serum levels of sialyl- and disialyl Lewis a, and calculation of the monosialyl/disialyl Lewis a ratio provide information useful for excluding a false-positive serum diagnosis, and also for averting the undesired influence of the Lewis blood group of patients on serum antigen levels. During the course of cancer progression in locally advanced cancers, tumor hypoxia induces transcription of several glycogenes involved in sialyl Lewis a synthesis. Expression of the determinant, consequently, is further accelerated in more malignant hypoxia-resistant cancer cell clones, which become predominant clones in advanced stage cancers and frequently develop hematogenous metastasis. Sialyl Lewis a, as well as its positional

  15. Prognostic Value of the Interaction between Galectin-3 and Antigen Carbohydrate 125 in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Julio; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Sandino, Justo; Mainar, Luis; Palau, Patricia; Santas, Enrique; Villanueva, Maria Pilar; Núñez, Eduardo; Bodí, Vicent; Chorro, Francisco J.; Miñana, Gema; Sanchis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aims Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) have emerged as robust prognostic biomarkers in heart failure. Experimental data have also suggested a potential molecular interaction between CA125 and Gal-3; however, the biological and clinical relevance of this interaction is still uncertain. We sought to evaluate, in patients admitted for acute heart failure, the association between plasma Gal-3 with all-cause mortality and the risk for rehospitalizations among high and low levels of CA125. Methods and Results We included 264 consecutive patients admitted for acute heart failure to the Cardiology Department in a third-level center. Both biomarkers were measured on admission. Negative binomial and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect of the interaction between Gal-3 and CA125 (dichotomized by its median) with hospital readmission and all-cause mortality, respectively. During a median follow-up of 2 years (IQR = 1-2.8), 108 (40.9%) patients deaths and 365 rehospitalizations in 171 (69.5%) patients were registered. In a multivariable setting, the effect of Gal-3 on mortality and rehospitalization was differentially mediated by CA125 (p = 0.007 and p<0.001, respectively). Indeed, in patients with CA125 above median (>67 U/ml), values across the continuum of Gal-3 showed a positive and almost linear relationship with either the risk of death or rehospitalization. Conversely, when CA125 was below median (≤67 U/ml), Gal-3 lacked any prognostic effect on both endpoints. Conclusion In patients with acute heart failure, Gal-3 was strongly associated with higher risk of long-term mortality and repeated rehospitalizations, but only in those patients exhibiting higher values of CA125 (above 67 U/ml). PMID:25875367

  16. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. IMPORTANCE Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new

  17. Invasive breast cancer in Argentine women: association between risk and prognostic factors with antigens of a peptidic and carbohydrate nature

    PubMed Central

    Demichelis, Sandra O; Isla-Larrain, Marina T; Cermignani, Luciano; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, María Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Objective In breast cancer, several tumor markers have been identified. The marker most extensively associated with breast cancer is MUC1. The objective of the study was to analyze prognostic and risk factors in relation to tumor markers in order to clarify breast cancer biology. A total of 349 primary tumor samples and lymph nodes from breast cancer patients were studied. Risk and prognostic factors were considered. An immunohistochemical approach was applied and an extensive statistical analysis was performed, including frequency analysis and analysis of variance. Correlation among variables was performed with principal component analysis. Results All the antigens showed an increased expression according to tumor size increment; moreover, sialyl Lewis x expression showed a significant increase in relation to disease stage, whereas Tn and TF presented a positive tendency. Vascular invasion was related to sialyl Lewis x expression and number of metastatic lymph nodes. Taking into account risk factors, when a patient had at least one child, Lewis antigens diminished their expression. In relation to breastfeeding, sialyl Lewis x expression diminished, although its apical expression increased. Conclusion Associations between MUC1 and carbohydrate antigens and risk and prognostic factors show the complexity of the cellular biological behavior that these antigens modulate in breast cancer. PMID:24367185

  18. Investigating the immunodominance of carbohydrate antigens in a bivalent unimolecular glycoconjugate vaccine against serogroup A and C meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Roberto; Nilo, Alberto; Harfouche, Carole; Brogioni, Barbara; Pecetta, Simone; Brogioni, Giulia; Balducci, Evita; Pinto, Vittoria; Filippini, Sara; Mori, Elena; Tontini, Marta; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Costantino, Paolo; Berti, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Multicomponent constructs, obtained by coupling different glycans to the carrier protein, have been proposed as a way to co-deliver multiple surface carbohydrates targeting different strains of one pathogen and reduce the number of biomolecules in the formulation of multivalent vaccines. To assess the feasibility of this approach for anti-microbial vaccines and investigate the potential immunodominance of one carbohydrate antigen over the others in these constructs, we designed a bivalent unimolecular vaccine against serogroup A (MenA) and C (MenC) meningococci, with the two different oligomers conjugated to same molecule of carrier protein (CRM197). The immune response elicited in mice by the bivalent MenAC construct was compared with the ones induced by the monovalent MenA and MenC vaccines and their combinations. After the second dose, the bivalent construct induced good levels of anti-MenA and anti-MenC antibodies with respect to the controls. However, the murine sera from the MenAC construct exhibited good anti-MenC bactericidal activity, and very low anti-MenA functionality when compared to the monovalent controls. This result was explained with the diverse relative avidities against MenA and MenC polysaccharides, which were measured in the generated sera. The immunodominant effect of the MenC antigen was fully overcome following the third immunization, when sera endowed with higher avidity and excellent bactericidal activity against both MenA and MenC expressing strains were elicited. Construction of multicomponent glycoconjugate vaccines against microbial pathogens is a feasible approach, but particular attention should be devoted to study and overcome possible occurrence of immune interference among the carbohydrates.

  19. Role of Urinary and Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 as a Biomarker in Diagnosis of Adult Giant Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher Singh; Vyas, Nachiket; Yadav, Suresh; Sathian, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common cause of adult Giant Hydronephrosis (GH) is congenital Uretero-Pelvic Junction (UPJ) obstruction. Conventional imaging modalities, like Intravenous Urography (IVU) and Computed Tomography Urography (CTU) and radionuclide renal scan can be fallacious. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a useful tumour marker for gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer. Only a few studies and case reports have shown raised serum levels due to benign hydronephrosis and GH. Aim To investigate the prognostic role of urine and serum CA19-9 in the diagnosis and follow-up of adult GH due to UPJ obstruction. Materials and Methods The present hospital based observational study was conducted on 24 adult patients (Group 1) with unilateral GH due to UPJ obstruction. Twenty four healthy adults were included as control (Group 2). Serum and voided urine samples were collected to evaluate Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 in each group. During surgery, urine from the affected pelvis was collected to determine CA19-9 level. Patients were followed up after surgery at 3 and 9 months with serum and voided urine samples for CA19-9 level. Results Preoperative Serum and voided urine CA19-9 were significantly greater in Group1 than in controls, which significantly correlated inversely with preoperative percentage renal function and glomerular filtration rate. Postoperative improvement in renal function significantly correlated inversely with serum and voided urine CA19-9 at 3 and 9 months. Conclusion Voided urine CA19-9 can be a non-invasive clinical marker in adult GH due to UPJ obstruction. The clinical implications of these data for diagnosis and follow-up of these patients are significant. Our findings suggest, significant decrease in urinary Ca19-9 level during follow-up is predictive of excellent surgical outcome and resolution of renal damage. PMID:27790508

  20. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and /sup 125/I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000.

  1. Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The goal of this prospective study was to determine (a) concentrations of the carbohydrate biomarkers Thomsen Friedenreich (TF) antigen and its precursor, Tn antigen, in nipple discharge (ND) collected from women requiring biopsy because of a suspicious breast lesion; and (b) if concentration levels predicted pathologic diagnosis. Methods Adult women requiring biopsy to exclude breast cancer were enrolled and ND obtained. The samples from 124 women were analyzed using an anti-TF and anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies in direct immunoassay. Results The highest median concentration in ND for TF and Tn was in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). TF was higher in women with 1) cancer (DCIS or invasive) vs. either no cancer (atypia or benign pathology, p = .048), or benign pathology (p = .018); and 2) abnormal (atypia or cancer) versus benign pathology (p = .016); and was more predictive of atypia or cancer in post- compared to premenopausal women. Tn was not predictive of disease. High TF concentration and age were independent predictors of disease, correctly classifying either cancer or abnormal vs. benign pathology 83% of the time in postmenopausal women. Conclusions TF concentrations in ND were higher in women with precancer and cancer compared to women with benign disease, and TF was an independent predictor of breast atypia and cancer. TF may prove useful in early breast cancer detection. PMID:20920311

  2. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Nishat, Sharmeen; Andreana, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs), isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses. PMID:27213458

  3. A new human cholangiocellular carcinoma cell line (HuCC-T1) producing carbohydrate antigen 19/9 in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Miyagiwa, M; Ichida, T; Tokiwa, T; Sato, J; Sasaki, H

    1989-06-01

    A human cholangiocellular carcinoma cell line, HuCC-T1, was established in vitro from the malignant cells of ascites of a 56-yr-old patient. Histologic findings of the primary liver tumor revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tumor cells from the ascites have been cultured with RPMI 1640 medium containing 0.2% lactalbumin hydrolysate and the cultured cells grew as monolayers with a population doubling time of 74 h during exponential growth at Passage 25. They had an epithelial-like morphology and were positive for mucine staining. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surface and poorly developed organelles in the cytoplasm. The HuCC-T1 cell was tumorigenic in nude mice. The number of chromosomes in HuCC-T1 ranged from 61 to 80. These human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells in serum-free medium secreted several tumor markers, including carbohydrate antigen 19/9, carbohydrate antigen 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen. The carbohydrate antigen 19/9 secretion level of HuCC-T1 cells cultured in RPMI 1640 medium with 1% fetal bovine serum was sixfold higher than that with 0.2% lactalbumin hydrolysate. These findings suggest that HuCC-T1 will provide useful information to clarify the mechanism of tumor marker secretion and tumor cell growth in the human cholangiocellular carcinoma.

  4. Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shaobo; Hu, Ya; Gao, Xiang; Liao, Quan; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Background Using serum carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA 19–9) in discriminating between benign and malignant pancreatic disease remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum CA 19–9 in predicting malignant pancreatic cystic lesions. Methods Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE and EMBASE prior to March 2016. Studies were assessed for quality using the Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy, 2nd version (QUADAS-2). Pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. Summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curves and the area under curve (AUC) were performed. Results A total of thirteen studies including 1437 patients were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.47(95% CI: 0.35–0.59), and 0.88(95% CI: 0.86–0.91), respectively, and the AUC was 0.87(95% CI, 0.84–0.90). Meta-regression analysis showed that sample size, region and reference standards were not the main sources of heterogeneity. Conclusions Serum CA 19–9 has satisfying pooled specificity while poor pooled sensitivity for discriminating benign from malignant PCNs. It deserves to be widely used as complementary to other clinical diagnostic methods. PMID:27835676

  5. Carbohydrate-mimetic peptides for pan anti-tumor responses.

    PubMed

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate-peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells.

  6. The immunodominant outer membrane antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is located in the serotype-specific high-molecular-mass carbohydrate moiety of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Page, R C; Sims, T J; Engel, L D; Moncla, B J; Bainbridge, B; Stray, J; Darveau, R P

    1991-01-01

    Most patients with juvenile periodontitis manifest serum antibodies, sometimes at very high titers, to antigens of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, but the antigens inducing the immune response have been only partly characterized. We separated A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b cells into protein, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and soluble polysaccharide fractions and characterized them. Coomassie blue- and silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels were used to detect protein and LPS components, and gas-liquid chromatography was used to determine their carbohydrate and fatty acid composition. Western blots, dot blots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition with high-titer sera from juvenile periodontitis patients revealed which components were highest in antibody binding activity. These results showed that the major portion of the immunoglobulin G binding activity resides in the purified mannan-free LPS, with lesser amounts in the total protein fraction. Using Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, we separated LPS into high-molecular-mass components with high carbohydrate contents by gas-liquid chromatography and a low-molecular-mass component consisting mainly of lipid A and the inner core sugar heptulose. The results of quantitative dot blot assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition show that the serotype-specific antibody binding activity is highly concentrated in the high-molecular-mass carbohydrate-rich LPS fraction and is almost completely absent in the low-molecular-weight lipid-rich fraction. Our observations contrast with previous reports that the predominant serotype antigen of A. actinomycetemcomitans resides in a mannan-rich polysaccharide isolated from spent culture medium. These observations support the conclusion that the immunodominant antigen of the outer membrane is the O antigen of the LPS. Images PMID:1716610

  7. Predictive Value of Carcinoembryonic and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Related to Some Clinical, Endoscopic and Histological Colorectal Cancer Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljević, Tomica; Stojanović, Dragoš; Gluvić, Zoran; Dugalić, Predrag; Ilić, Ivan; Vidaković, Radosav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important oncological and public health problem worldwide, including Serbia. Unfortunately, half of the patients are recognized in an advanced stage of the disease, therefore, early detection through specific tumor biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), is the only way to cope with CRC expansion. Methods Our cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of some clinical, endoscopic and histological characteristics of CRC on CEA and CA 19-9 serum levels, to determine whether these biomarkers could be related to CRC detection. The study included 372 participants: 181 suffered from CRC and 191 participants were controls. Endoscopic and histological examinations were used for CRC diagnosis, while additional ultrasound and abdominal computerised tomography imaging were used for staging the disease. Measurement of CEA and CA 19-9 was performed after CRC confirmation. Results Age, gender, tumor localization, macro-morphological and histological characteristics did not influence biomarkers serum levels. Both were significantly higher (p<0.01) in patients with Dukes D stage of CRC compared with controls. Sensitivity (76.8%) and specificity (76.6%) of CEA alone were higher than for CA 19-9, but with no statistical significance. Furthermore, sensitivity of CEA alone in the Dukes A/B group was similar to the entire CRC patient group. Conclusions Although not recommended as a screening method for the general population, elevated values of each biomarker indicate further diagnostic procedures and their simultaneous testing can improve the diagnostic sensitivity in early detection of CRC, as shown by the united analysis (AUC 0.842). PMID:28356884

  8. Antigenic cross-reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni and peanut: a role for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and implications for the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Igetei, Joseph E; El-Faham, Marwa; Liddell, Susan; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The antigenic reactivity of constituents of Schistosoma mansoni and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was investigated to determine whether identical antigenic epitopes possessed by both organisms provided a possible explanation for the negative correlation between chronic schistosome infection and atopy to allergens. Aqueous extracts of peanuts were probed in Western immunoblots with rabbit IgG antibodies raised against the egg, cercarial and adult worm stages of S. mansoni. Several molecules in the peanut extract were antigenically reactive with antibodies from the various rabbit anti-schistosome sera. A pair of cross-reactive peanut molecules at ~30 000-33 000 molecular weight was purified and both proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the peanut allergen Ara h 1. Anti-S. mansoni soluble egg antigen antibodies that were eluted off the peanut molecules reacted with two S. mansoni egg antigens identified by mass spectrometry as IPSE/α-1 and κ-5. Alignments of the amino acid sequences of Ara h 1 and either IPSE/α-1 or κ-5 revealed a low level of peptide sequence identity. Incubation of nitrocellulose paper carrying electrophoresed peanut molecules, six constituents of other allergic plants and S. mansoni egg antigens in a mild solution of sodium metaperiodate before probing with antibodies, inhibited most of the cross-reactivities. The results are consistent with the antigenic cross-reactive epitopes of S. mansoni egg antigens, peanut and other allergic plants being cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). These findings are novel and an explanation based on 'blocking antibodies' could provide an insight for the inverse relationship observed between schistosome infection and allergies.

  9. Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate–peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:25071769

  10. Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs)

    PubMed Central

    Doenhoff, Michael J.; El-Faham, Marwa; Liddell, Susan; Fuller, Heidi R.; Stanley, Ronald G.; Schramm, Gabriele; Igetei, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    IgG antibodies produced by rabbits immunized against S. mansoni antigens cross-reacted with aqueous soluble constituents of a variety of allergens. The antibody cross-reactivity was largely sensitive to degradation by treatment of the target antigens with sodium meta-periodate, suggesting the cross-reactivity was due to carbohydrate determinants that were common to both the schistosome and the allergens (CCDs). The reaction between the rabbit antibodies and a 43 kDa molecule in a rubber latex extract was analysed further: tandem mass spectrometry identified the latex molecule as allergen Hev b 7. Rabbit anti-schistosome IgG antibodies purified by acid-elution from solid-phase latex Hev b 7 reacted with the S. mansoni egg antigens IPSE/alpha-1 and kappa-5 and cercarial antigens SPO-1 and a fatty acid-binding protein. Moreover, purified anti-S. mansoni egg, latex cross-reactive antibodies reacted with antigenic constituents of some fruits, a result of potential relevance to the latex-fruit syndrome of allergic reactions. We propose that IgG anti-schistosome antibodies that cross-react with allergens may be able to block IgE-induced allergic reactions and thus provide a possible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:27467385

  11. Regioselective monodeprotection of peracetylated carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Filice, Marco; Guisan, Jose M; Terreni, Marco; Palomo, Jose M

    2012-10-01

    This protocol describes the regioselective deprotection of single hydroxyls in peracetylated monosaccharides and disaccharides by enzymatic or chemoenzymatic strategies. The introduction of a one-pot enzymatic step by using immobilized biocatalysts obviates the requirement to carry out tedious workups and time-consuming purifications. By using this straightforward protocol, different per-O-acetylated glycopyranosides (mono- or disaccharides, 1-substituted or glycals) can be transformed into a whole set of differentially monodeprotected 1-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 4-alcohols and 6-alcohols in high yields. These tailor-made glycosyl acceptors can then be used for stereoselective glycosylation for oligosaccharide and glycoderivative synthesis. They have been successfully used as building blocks to synthesize tailor-made di- and trisaccharides involved in the structure of lacto-N-neo-tetraose and precursors of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen T and the antitumoral drug peracetylated β-naphtyl-lactosamine. We are able to prepare a purified monoprotected carbohydrate in between 1 and 4 d. With this protocol, the small library of monodeprotected products can be synthesized in 1-2 weeks.

  12. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  13. Immunization of fucose-containing polysaccharides from Reishi mushroom induces antibodies to tumor-associated Globo H-series epitopes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shih-Fen; Liang, Chi-Hui; Ho, Ming-Yi; Hsu, Tsui-Ling; Tsai, Tsung-I; Hsieh, Yves S-Y; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Li, Shiou-Ting; Cheng, Yang-Yu; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lin, Zong-Yan; Yang, Wen-Bin; Ren, Chien-Tai; Lin, Kuo-I; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Hung; Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2013-08-20

    Carbohydrate-based vaccines have shown therapeutic efficacy for infectious disease and cancer. The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) containing complex polysaccharides has been used as antitumor supplement, but the mechanism of immune response has rarely been studied. Here, we show that the mice immunized with a l-fucose (Fuc)-enriched Reishi polysaccharide fraction (designated as FMS) induce antibodies against murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells, with increased antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and reduced production of tumor-associated inflammatory mediators (in particular, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). The mice showed a significant increase in the peritoneal B1 B-cell population, suggesting FMS-mediated anti-glycan IgM production. Furthermore, the glycan microarray analysis of FMS-induced antisera displayed a high specificity toward tumor-associated glycans, with the antigenic structure located in the nonreducing termini (i.e., Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAc-R, where Gal, GalNAc, and R represent, respectively, D-galactose, D-N-acetyl galactosamine, and reducing end), typically found in Globo H and related tumor antigens. The composition of FMS contains mainly the backbone of 1,4-mannan and 1,6-α-galactan and through the Fucα1-2Gal, Fucα1-3/4Man, Fucα1-4Xyl, and Fucα1-2Fuc linkages (where Man and Xyl represent d-mannose and d-xylose, respectively), underlying the molecular basis of the FMS-induced IgM antibodies against tumor-specific glycans.

  14. Delayed radiation-induced inflammation accompanying a marked carbohydrate antigen 19-9 elevation in a patient with resected pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Cardinal, Jon S.; Jacobson, Geraldine M.

    2016-01-01

    Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a useful tumor marker for pancreatic cancer, it can also become elevated from a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Herein we describe an unusual presentation of elevated CA 19-9 in an asymptomatic patient who had previously undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for resected early stage pancreatic cancer. The rise in CA 19-9 might be due to delayed radiation-induced inflammation related to previous intra-abdominal radiation therapy with or without radiation recall induced by gemcitabine. After treatment with corticosteroids the CA 19-9 level decreased to normal, and the patient has not developed any evidence of recurrent cancer to date. PMID:27306770

  15. Tumor-Associated Lymphatic Vessels Upregulate PDL1 to Inhibit T-Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Lothar C.; Ikenberg, Kristian; Cetintas, Timur; Kapaklikaya, Kübra; Hutmacher, Cornelia; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels (LVs) play multiple roles during tumor progression, including promotion of metastasis and regulation of antitumor immune responses by delivering antigen from the tumor bed to draining lymph nodes (LNs). Under steady-state conditions, LN resident lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have been found to maintain peripheral tolerance by directly inhibiting autoreactive T-cells. Similarly, tumor-associated lymphatic endothelium has been suggested to reduce antitumor T-cell responses, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect have not been clarified. Using two distinct experimental tumor models, we found that tumor-associated LVs gain expression of the T-cell inhibitory molecule PDL1, similar to LN resident LECs, whereas tumor-associated blood vessels downregulate PDL1. The observed lymphatic upregulation of PDL1 was likely due to IFN-g released by stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we found that blocking PDL1 results in increased T-cell stimulation by antigen-presenting LECs in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that peripheral, tumor-associated lymphatic endothelium contributes to T-cell inhibition, by a mechanism similar to peripheral tolerance maintenance described for LN resident LECs. These findings may have clinical implications for cancer therapy, as lymphatic expression of PDL1 could represent a new biomarker to select patients for immunotherapy with PD1 or PDL1 inhibitors. PMID:28217128

  16. Tumor-Associated Lymphatic Vessels Upregulate PDL1 to Inhibit T-Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Ikenberg, Kristian; Cetintas, Timur; Kapaklikaya, Kübra; Hutmacher, Cornelia; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels (LVs) play multiple roles during tumor progression, including promotion of metastasis and regulation of antitumor immune responses by delivering antigen from the tumor bed to draining lymph nodes (LNs). Under steady-state conditions, LN resident lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have been found to maintain peripheral tolerance by directly inhibiting autoreactive T-cells. Similarly, tumor-associated lymphatic endothelium has been suggested to reduce antitumor T-cell responses, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect have not been clarified. Using two distinct experimental tumor models, we found that tumor-associated LVs gain expression of the T-cell inhibitory molecule PDL1, similar to LN resident LECs, whereas tumor-associated blood vessels downregulate PDL1. The observed lymphatic upregulation of PDL1 was likely due to IFN-g released by stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we found that blocking PDL1 results in increased T-cell stimulation by antigen-presenting LECs in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that peripheral, tumor-associated lymphatic endothelium contributes to T-cell inhibition, by a mechanism similar to peripheral tolerance maintenance described for LN resident LECs. These findings may have clinical implications for cancer therapy, as lymphatic expression of PDL1 could represent a new biomarker to select patients for immunotherapy with PD1 or PDL1 inhibitors.

  17. Evaluating strategies to enhance the anti-tumor immune response to a carbohydrate mimetic peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Jousheghany, Fariba; Artaud, Cecile; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Carbohydrate mimetic peptides of tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are T-cell-dependent antigens and, therefore, immunization with these surrogates is predicted to overcome the low immunogenicity of carbohydrate antigens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that among the potential immune cells involved, peptide immunization led to an increase in T-cell populations. While peptide mimetics may also function as TLR binding ligands, we did not observe evidence of involvement of NK cells. Examining tumor challenged animals, we observed that peptide immunization and not tumor cells rendered IL-12 responsiveness to T-cells, as T-cells from peptide-immunized mice produced IFN-gamma upon stimulation with IL-12. Cyclophosphamide administration enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the vaccine, which was achieved by enhancing T-cell responses with no effect on NK cell population. Prophylactic immunization of mice with a DNA construct encoding carbohydrate mimetic peptides indicated a specific role for the mimotope vaccine in anti-tumor immune responses. These data suggest a role for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells induced by mimotopes of TACA in protective immunity against tumor cells.

  18. The Lewis-Y carbohydrate antigen is expressed by many human tumors and can serve as a target for genetically redirected T cells despite the presence of soluble antigen in serum.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Jennifer A; Murray, William K; Trivett, Melanie; Haynes, Nicole M; Solomon, Benjamin; Mileshkin, Linda; Ball, David; Michael, Michael; Burman, Angela; Mayura-Guru, Preethi; Trapani, Joseph A; Peinert, Stefan; Hönemann, Dirk; Miles Prince, H; Scott, Andrew M; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the suitability of the Lewis-Y carbohydrate antigen as a target for immunotherapy using genetically redirected T cells. Using the 3S193 monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, Lewis-Y was found to be expressed on a range of tumors including 42% squamous cell lung carcinoma, 80% lung adenocarcinoma, 25% ovarian carcinoma, and 25% colorectal adenocarcinoma. Expression levels varied from low to intense on between 1% and 90% of tumor cells. Lewis- was also found in soluble form in sera from both normal donors and cancer patients using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels in patients was often less than 1 ng/mL, similar to normal donors, but approximately 30% of patients had soluble Lewis-Y levels exceeding 1 ng/mL and up to 9 ng/mL. Lewis-Y-specific human T cells were generated by genetic modification with a chimeric receptor encoding a single-chain humanized antibody linked to the T-cell signaling molecules, T-cell receptor-zeta, and CD28. T cells responded against the Lewis-Y antigen by cytokine secretion and cytolysis in response to tumor cells. Importantly, the T-cell response was not inhibited by patient serum containing soluble Lewis-Y. This study demonstrates that Lewis-Y is expressed on a large number of tumors and Lewis-Y-specific T cells can retain antitumor function in the presence of patient serum, indicating that this antigen is a suitable target for this form of therapy.

  19. Microarrays with Varying Carbohydrate Density Reveal Distinct Subpopulations of Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; Li, Qian; Farnsworth, David; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Antigen arrays have become important tools for profiling complex mixtures of proteins such as serum antibodies. These arrays can be used to better understand immune responses, discover new biomarkers, and guide the development of vaccines. Nevertheless, they are not perfect and improved array designs would enhance the information derived from this technology. In this study, we describe and evaluate a strategy for varying antigen density on an array and then use the array to study binding of lectins, monoclonal antibodies, and serum antibodies. To vary density, neoglycoproteins containing differing amounts of carbohydrate were synthesized and used to make a carbohydrate microarray with variations in both structure and density. We demonstrate that this method provides variations in density on the array surface within a range that is relevant for biological recognition events. The array was used to evaluate density dependent binding properties of three lectins (Vicia villosa lectin B4, Helix pomatia agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin) and three monoclonal antibodies (HBTn-1, B1.1, and Bric111) that bind the tumor-associated Tn antigen. In addition, serum antibodies were profiled from 30 healthy donors. The results show that variations in antigen density are required to detect the full spectrum of antibodies that bind a particular antigen and can be used to reveal differences in antibody populations between individuals that are not detectable using a single antigen density. PMID:19366269

  20. Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with concurrent plasmacytoid and micropapillary differentiations: A report of two cases with an emphasis on serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9.

    PubMed

    Makise, Naohiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Takeshima, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    We report two cases of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). In both, histological examination of a transurethral resection specimen of the bladder tumor revealed UC with plasmacytoid and micropapillary differentiations. In Case 1, residual plasmacytoid UC deeply invaded the extravesical fat tissue of the radical cystectomy specimen, and metastatic carcinoma was found in almost all the dissected lymph nodes. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died 25 months postdiagnosis. Elevated serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) returned to near normal levels after radical cystectomy, but they increased shortly before death. In Case 2, no residual carcinoma was found in the radical cystectomy specimen or lymph nodes. Postoperative serum CA19-9 was maintained at normal levels, and the patient remains alive without recurrence or metastasis. Although plasmacytoid and micropapillary UC are known aggressive variants of UC, plasmacytoid UC may be more aggressive. Serum CA19-9 could serve as a useful biomarker to monitor progression of plasmacytoid UC.

  1. Serological characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer by using a combination of carbohydrate antigen 19-9, globulin, eosinophils and hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianlian; Ke, Yini; Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a special type of chronic pancreatitis, which may be misdiagnosed as pancreatic carcinoma. This study aims to verify new biomarkers for AIP and propose a serological pattern to differentiate AIP from pancreatic adenocarcinoma with routinely performed tests. In this study, data of serum samples were collected and compared between 25 patients with AIP and 100 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression was performed to evaluate the diagnostic effect of serum parameters in differentiating AIP from pancreatic carcinoma alone or in combination. Among several serum markers observed in the two groups, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (Ca19-9), globulin, eosinophils and hemoglobin were selected as the independent markers. Serum levels of Globulin, Eosinophil percentage in AIP group were significantly higher than in pancreatic cancer group (P<0.05), while hemoglobin and tumor marker CA19-9 levels were lower (P <0.05). The combination of these markers identified patients with AIP with 92% sensitivity and 79% specificity, which indicated relatively high diagnostic value. Elevated serum eosinophils, globulin, together with decreased hemoglobin level can be used as a preoperative indicator for AIP and can help to initiate diagnosis of AIP in time.

  2. Novel redox species polyaniline derivative-Au/Pt as sensing platform for label-free electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 199.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyuan; Shan, Jiao; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-03-10

    A novel electrochemical redox-active nanocomposite was synthesized by a one-pot method using N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylediamine as monomer, and HAuCl4 and K2PtCl4 as co-oxidizing agents. The as-prepared poly(N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylediamine)-Au/Pt exhibited admirable electrochemical redox activity at 0.15 V, excellent H2O2 electrocatalytic ability and favorable electron transfer ability. Based on these, the evaluation of the composite as sensing substrate for label-free electrochemical immunosensing to the sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 199 was described. This technique proved to be a prospective detection tool with a wide liner range from 0.001 U mL(-1) to 40 U mL(-1), and a low detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-4) U mL(-1) (S/N = 3). In addition, this method was used for the analysis of human serum sample, and good agreement was obtained between the values and those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, implying the potential application in clinical research. Importantly, the strategy of the present substrate could be extended to other polymer-based nanocomposites such as polypyrrole derivatives or polythiophene derivatives, and this could be of great significance for the electrochemical immunoassay.

  3. Serological characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer by using a combination of carbohydrate antigen 19-9, globulin, eosinophils and hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a special type of chronic pancreatitis, which may be misdiagnosed as pancreatic carcinoma. This study aims to verify new biomarkers for AIP and propose a serological pattern to differentiate AIP from pancreatic adenocarcinoma with routinely performed tests. In this study, data of serum samples were collected and compared between 25 patients with AIP and 100 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression was performed to evaluate the diagnostic effect of serum parameters in differentiating AIP from pancreatic carcinoma alone or in combination. Among several serum markers observed in the two groups, carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (Ca19-9), globulin, eosinophils and hemoglobin were selected as the independent markers. Serum levels of Globulin, Eosinophil percentage in AIP group were significantly higher than in pancreatic cancer group (P<0.05), while hemoglobin and tumor marker CA19-9 levels were lower (P <0.05). The combination of these markers identified patients with AIP with 92% sensitivity and 79% specificity, which indicated relatively high diagnostic value. Elevated serum eosinophils, globulin, together with decreased hemoglobin level can be used as a preoperative indicator for AIP and can help to initiate diagnosis of AIP in time. PMID:28369140

  4. Recent Development in Carbohydrate-Based Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongwu; Wang, Qianli

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are important molecular markers on the cancer cell surface, useful for the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines or cancer immunotherapies. However, due to their poor immunogenicity and/or immunotolerance, most TACAs fail to induce T cell-mediated immunity that is critical for cancer therapy. This review summarizes the recent effort to overcome this problem via constructing TACA conjugates with improved immunogenicity, such as by covalently coupling TACAs to proper carrier molecules to form clustered or multi-epitopic conjugate vaccines, coupling TACAs to a T cell peptide epitope and/or an immunostimulant epitope to form fully synthetic multi-component glycoconjugate vaccines, and developing vaccines based on chemically modified TACAs, which is combined with metabolic engineering of cancer cells. PMID:19766052

  5. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay.

  6. Silver-functionalized g-C3N4 nanohybrids as signal-transduction tags for electrochemical immunoassay of human carbohydrate antigen 19-9.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Li; Qi, Qing-An

    2016-07-21

    A simple and feasible electrochemical immunosensing platform was developed for highly efficient screening of a disease-related protein (human carbohydrate antigen 19-9, CA 19-9 used in this case) using silver-functionalized g-C3N4 nanosheets (Ag/g-C3N4) as signal-transduction tags. Initially, Ag/g-C3N4 nanohybrids were synthesized by combining thermal polymerization of the melamine precursor with the photo-assisted reduction method. Thereafter, the as-synthesized Ag/g-C3N4 nanohybrids were utilized for the labeling of the anti-CA 19-9 detection antibody by using a typical carbodiimide coupling method. The assay was carried out on a capture antibody-modified glassy carbon electrode in a sandwich-type detection mode. The detectable signal mainly derived from the voltammetric characteristics of the immobilized nanosilver particles on the g-C3N4 nanosheets within the applied potentials. Under the optimal conditions, the voltammetric peak currents increased with the increasing amount of target CA 19-9, and exhibited a wide linear range from 5.0 mU mL(-1) to 50 U mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.2 mU mL(-1). Our strategy also displayed good reproducibility, precision and specificity. The results of the analysis of clinical serum specimens were in good accordance with the results obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The newly developed immunosensing system is promising for enzyme-free and cost-effective analysis of low-abundance proteins.

  7. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled Lateral Flow Strips for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Gastric Cancer Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinyu; Wang, Kan; Lu, Wenting; Qin, Weijian; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is an important biomarker associated closely with diagnosis and prognosis of early gastric cancer. How to realize quick, sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of CA72-4 in clinical specimens has become a great requirement. Herein, we reported a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow test strip combined with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based reader was developed for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CA72-4. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CA72-4 were employed. One of them was coated as a test line, while another mAb was labeled with quantum dots and coated onto conjugate pad. The goat anti-mouse IgG was immobilized as a control line. After sample was added, a sandwich structure was formed with CA72-4 and these two mAbs. The fluorescent signal from quantum dots (QD)-labeled mAb in sandwich structure was related to the amount of detected CA72-4. A CCD-based reader was used to realize quantitative detection of CA72-4. Results showed that developed QD-labeled lateral flow strips to detect CA72-4 biomarker with the sensitivity of 2 IU/mL and 10 min detection time. One hundred sera samples from clinical patients with gastric cancer and healthy people were used to confirm specificity of this strip method; results showed that established strip method own 100 % reproducibility and 100 % specificity compared with Roche electrochemiluminescence assay results. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for detection of CA72-4 could realize rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of clinical samples and could own great potential in clinical translation in near future.

  8. Nanoparticle-based sandwich electrochemical immunoassay for carbohydrate antigen 125 with signal enhancement using enzyme-coated nanometer-sized enzyme-doped silica beads.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dianping; Su, Biling; Tang, Juan; Ren, Jingjing; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-15

    A novel nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) as a model was designed to couple with a microfluidic strategy using anti-CA125-functionalized magnetic beads as immunosensing probes. To construct the immunoassay, thionine-horseradish peroxidase conjugation (TH-HRP) was initially doped into nanosilica particles using the reverse micelle method, and then HRP-labeled anti-CA125 antibodies (HRP-anti-CA125) were bound onto the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, which were used as recognition elements. Different from conventional nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays, the recognition elements of the immunoassay simultaneously contained electron mediator and enzyme labels and simplified the electrochemical measurement process. The sandwich-type immunoassay format was used for the online formation of the immunocomplex in an incubation cell and captured in the detection cell with an external magnet. The electrochemical signals derived from the carried HRP toward the reduction of H(2)O(2) using the doped thionine as electron mediator. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide working range from 0.1 to 450 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.1 U/mL CA125. The precision, reproducibility, and stability of the immunoassay were acceptable. The assay was evaluated for clinical serum samples, receiving in excellent accordance with results obtained from the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Concluding, the nanoparticle-based assay format provides a promising approach in clinical application and thus represents a versatile detection method.

  9. Pretreatment Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Level Indicates Tumor Response, Early Distant Metastasis, Overall Survival, and Therapeutic Selection in Localized and Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Tae; Lee, Woo Jin; Woo, Sang Myung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae; Moon, Sung Ho; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sang Soo; Hong, Eun Kyung; Kim, Dae Yong; Park, Joong-Won

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The use of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer has been disputed because of high probability of distant metastasis. Thus, we analyzed the effect of clinical parameters on tumor response, early distant metastasis within 3 months (DM{sup 3m}), and overall survival to identify an indicator for selecting patients who would benefit from CRT. Methods and Materials: This study retrospectively analyzed the data from 84 patients with localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer who underwent CRT between August 2002 and October 2009. Sex, age, tumor size, histological differentiation, N classification, pre- and post-treatment carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level, and CA 19-9 percent decrease were analyzed to identify risk factors associated with tumor response, DM{sup 3m}, and overall survival. Results: For all 84 patients, the median survival time was 12.5 months (range, 2-31.9 months), objective response (complete response or partial response) to CRT was observed in 28 patients (33.3%), and DM{sup 3m} occurred in 24 patients (28.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment CA 19-9 level ({<=}400 vs. >400 U/ml) was significantly associated with tumor response (45.1% vs. 15.2%), DM{sup 3m} (19.6% vs. 42.4%), and median overall survival time (15.1 vs. 9.7 months) (p < 0.05 for all three parameters). Conclusion: For patients with localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer, pretreatment CA 19-9 level could be helpful in predicting tumor response, DM{sup 3m}, and overall survival and identifying patients who will benefit from CRT.

  10. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. PMID:24213131

  11. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. PMID:26966341

  12. Tumor Associated Macrophages in Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleva, Olga V.; Samoilova, Daria V.; Shitova, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are an important element of tumor stroma. They originate from blood monocytes attracted by chemokines and cytokines produced by tumor cells and, being instructed by tumor microenvironment, develop into potent tumor-supporting cell population. TAMs were demonstrated to directly stimulate tumor cell proliferation and to promote angiogenesis. Further TAMs provide for efficient immune escape by producing immunosuppressive cytokines and facilitate tumor dissemination by producing extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), numerous studies were performed for elucidation of the role of TAM in tumor progression. Using pan-macrophages marker CD68 and type 2 macrophage (M2) markers CD163 and CD206, it was demonstrated that increased density of TAMs is associated with poor survival of patients. Although most of the studies are focused on M2 population in RCC, several markers rather typical for type 1 macrophages (M1) were also characterized. Macrophages isolated from RCC tumors were shown to produce proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL2. It can be concluded that RCC is an excellent example of a tumor with hybrid phenotype of TAMs that share both M1 and M2 properties. Moreover, TAMs seem to be an attractive therapeutic target as well. Further investigations are needed for identification of RCC-specific TAM markers with high predictive capacity and/or suitable for therapeutic targeting. PMID:27807511

  13. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from surgery to abstention or therapeutic radiation with curative-like outcomes. Parathyroid tissue and parathyroid adenoma can also be found in close association with the vagus nerve in intra or paravagal situations. Vagal parathyroid adenoma can be identified with preoperative imaging or suspected intraoperatively by experienced surgeons. Vagal parathyroid adenomas located in the neck or superior mediastinum can be removed via initial cervicotomy, while those located in the aortopulmonary window require a thoracic approach. This review particularly emphasizes the embryology, molecular genetics, and modern imaging of these tumors.

  14. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    PubMed Central

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from surgery to abstention or therapeutic radiation with curative-like outcomes. Parathyroid tissue and parathyroid adenoma can also be found in close association with the vagus nerve in intra or paravagal situations. Vagal parathyroid adenoma can be identified with preoperative imaging or suspected intraoperatively by experienced surgeons. Vagal parathyroid adenomas located in the neck or superior mediastinum can be removed via initial cervicotomy, while those located in the aorto-pulmonary window require a thoracic approach. This review particularly emphasizes the embryology, molecular genetics, and modern imaging of these tumors. PMID:27406876

  15. Selectin ligands and tumor-associated carbohydrate structures: specificities of alpha 2,3-sialyltransferases in the assembly of 3'-sialyl-6-sialyl/sulfo Lewis a and x, 3'-sialyl-6'-sulfo Lewis x, and 3'-sialyl-6-sialyl/sulfo blood group T-hapten.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L

    1995-03-07

    The sequence in the assembly of the functional unit of selectin ligands containing sulfate, sialic acid, and fucose and also tumor-associated O-glycan structures was studied by examining the specificities of alpha 2,3-sialyltransferases (ST). The first enzyme, porcine liver ST, was 57, 37, and 79% active (Km: 0.105, 0.420, and 0.200 mM), respectively, toward 6-sulfo, 6-sialyl, or 6-O-methyl derivatives of the Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- unit; C-3 or C-6 substitution on Gal abolished sialylation. An acrylamide copolymer (MW approximately 40,000) containing approximately 40 T-haptens and asialo Cowper's gland mucin (MW approximately 200,000) containing approximately 48 T-haptens was 5-fold more active as an acceptor as compared to Gal beta 1, 3GalNAc alpha-O-Al on a molecular weight basis. The second enzyme, a cloned alpha-2,3-ST specific for lactose-based structure, was 70, 102, and 108% active (Km: 0.500, 0.210, and 0.330 mM), respectively, toward 6-sialyl, 6-sulfo, or 6-O-methyl derivatives of the Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta- unit; C-3 and C-6 substitution on Gal abolished sialylation. Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta- and its 6-sulfo derivative were approximately 20% active; the Lewis a structure, Gal beta 1,3- (Fuc alpha 1,4)GlcNAc beta-, was not an acceptor. The acrylamide copolymers containing approximately 40 units of Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta-, Gal beta 1,3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-, or fetuin triantennary asialo or bovine IgG diantennary glycopeptides were respectively 5.9-, 5.4-, 0.7-, and 0.1-fold as active. A transfer of 7-9 mol of NeuAc per mole of the above copolymers was catalyzed by this ST, the sialyl linkage being susceptible to alpha 2,3-specific sialidase. A partially purified Colo 205 Lewis type (alpha 1, 3/4) fucosyltransferase catalyzed the formation of 3'-sialyl-6-sulfo Lewis a from [9-3H]NeuAc alpha 2, 3Gal beta 1, 3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-O-Allyl and copolymer containing [9-3H]NeuAc alpha 2, 3Gal beta 1, 3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta- units, using GDP[14C]Fuc as fucosyl

  16. Clustered Carbohydrates in Synthetic Vaccines†

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Are there general rules to achieve efficient immunization against carbohydrate antigens? Thanks to technological advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry we entered in a new era in which the rational design of carbohydrate vaccines has become an achievable goal. Aim of this Tutorial Review is to present the most recent achievements in the field of semi and fully synthetic carbohydrate vaccines against viruses, bacteria and cancer. It is also pointed out that the understanding of the chemical and biochemical processes related to immunization allows the modern chemist to rationally design carbohydrate vaccines with improved efficiency. PMID:23250562

  17. Carbohydrate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  18. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  19. Chemical biology approaches to designing defined carbohydrate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Anish, Chakkumkal; Schumann, Benjamin; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Seeberger, Peter H

    2014-01-16

    Carbohydrate antigens have shown promise as important targets for developing effective vaccines and pathogen detection strategies. Modifying purified microbial glycans through synthetic routes or completely synthesizing antigenic motifs are attractive options to advance carbohydrate vaccine development. However, limited knowledge on structure-property correlates hampers the discovery of immunoprotective carbohydrate epitopes. Recent advancements in tools for glycan modification, high-throughput screening of biological samples, and 3D structural analysis may facilitate antigen discovery process. This review focuses on advances that accelerate carbohydrate-based vaccine development and various technologies that are driving these efforts. Herein we provide a critical overview of approaches and resources available for rational design of better carbohydrate antigens. Structurally defined and fully synthetic oligosaccharides, designed based on molecular understanding of antigen-antibody interactions, offer a promising alternative for developing future carbohydrate vaccines.

  20. Clostridium difficile carbohydrates: glucan in spores, PSII common antigen in cells, immunogenicity of PSII in swine and synthesis of a dual C. difficile-ETEC conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Lisa; Boncheff, Alexander G; Ma, Zuchao; Chen, Yu-Han; Wakeford, Terra; Friendship, Robert M; Rosseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott; Chu, Michele; Mallozzi, Michael; Vedantam, Gayatri; Monteiro, Mario A

    2012-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is responsible for severe diarrhea in humans that may cause death. Spores are the infectious form of C. difficile, which germinate into toxin-producing vegetative cells in response to bile acids. Recently, we discovered that C. difficile cells possess three complex polysaccharides (PSs), named PSI, PSII, and PSIII, in which PSI was only associated with a hypervirulent ribotype 027 strain, PSII was hypothesized to be a common antigen, and PSIII was a water-insoluble polymer. Here, we show that (i) C. difficile spores contain, at least in part, a D-glucan, (ii) PSI is not a ribotype 027-unique antigen, (iii) common antigen PSII may in part be present as a low molecular weight lipoteichoic acid, (iv) selective hydrolysis of PSII yields single PSII repeat units, (v) the glycosyl diester-phosphate linkage affords high flexibility to PSII, and (vi) that PSII is immunogenic in sows. Also, with the intent of creating a dual anti-diarrheal vaccine against C. difficile and enterotoxin Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections in humans, we describe the conjugation of PSII to the ETEC-associated LTB enterotoxin.

  1. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are 3 major types of carbohydrates: Sugars Starches Fiber Sugars are found naturally in some foods ... syrups, such as those added to canned fruit Starches are found naturally in foods. Your body breaks ...

  2. Novel glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic inhibitors affect tumor-associated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Koketsu, Mamoru; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential players in several steps of tumor-associated angiogenesis. As co-receptors for several pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and FGF, HSPGs regulate receptor-ligand interactions and play a vital role in signal transduction. Previously, we have employed an enzymatic strategy to show the importance of cell surface HSPGs in endothelial tube formation in vitro. We have recently found several fluoro-xylosides that can selectively inhibit proteoglycan synthesis in endothelial cells. The current study demonstrates that these fluoro-xylosides are effective inhibitors of endothelial tube formation in vitro using a matrigel based assay to simulate tumor-associated angiogenesis. These first generation scaffolds offer a promising stepping-stone to the discovery of more potent fluoro-xylosides that can effectively neutralize tumor growth. PMID:21094131

  3. Combining synthetic carbohydrate vaccines with cancer cell glycoengineering for effective cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Gong, Xi; Wang, Qianli; Li, Jie; Hu, Honggang; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Junping; Guo, Zhongwu

    2012-11-01

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are useful targets for the development of cancer vaccines or immunotherapies. However, a major obstacle in this application of TACAs is their poor immunogenicity. To overcome the problem, a new immunotherapeutic strategy combining synthetic vaccines made of artificial TACA derivatives and metabolic glycoengineering of cancer cells to express the artificial TACA derivatives was explored. Using a murine leukemia model FBL3 with GM3 antigen as the target, it was shown that artificial GM3 N-phenylacetyl derivative (GM3NPhAc) elicited robust antigen-specific T cell-dependent immunity and that N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNPhAc) as the biosynthetic precursor of GM3NPhAc selectively glycoengineered cancer cells to express GM3NPhAc both in vitro and in vivo. It was also demonstrated that GM3NPhAc-specific antisera and antibodies mediated strong cytotoxicity to ManNPhAc-treated FBL3 cell. Furthermore, vaccination with a conjugate vaccine made of GM3NPhAc followed by ManNPhAc treatment could significantly suppress tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mouse. These results have proved the feasibility of the new cancer immunotherapeutic strategy, as well as its efficacy to cure cancer, which is of general significance.

  4. Healthy carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods include dietary fiber consisting of health-promoting carbohydrates. We have produced novel prebiotics from orange peel and observed that they extend the shelf life of probiotic bacteria in synbiotics. Some pectic-oligosaccharides and xyloglucan-oligosaccharides also have anti-adhesi...

  5. The interaction of anticancer therapies with tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are essential components of the inflammatory microenvironment of tumors. Conventional treatment modalities (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), targeted drugs, antiangiogenic agents, and immunotherapy, including checkpoint blockade, all profoundly influence or depend on the function of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can have dual influences on TAMs in that a misdirected macrophage-orchestrated tissue repair response can result in chemoresistance, but in other circumstances, TAMs are essential for effective therapy. A better understanding of the interaction of anticancer therapies with innate immunity, and TAMs in particular, may pave the way to better patient selection and innovative combinations of conventional approaches with immunotherapy. PMID:25753580

  6. Learning about Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Carbohydrates A A ... of energy for the body. Two Types of Carbohydrates There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  7. Learning about Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Carbohydrates Print A ... of energy for the body. Two Types of Carbohydrates There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  8. Control of tumor-associated macrophage alternative activation by MIF

    PubMed Central

    Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Putty, Kalyani; Rendon, Beatriz E.; Lamont, Gwyneth J.; Faughn, Jonathan D.; Satoskar, Abhay; Lasnik, Amanda; Eaton, John W.; Mitchell, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor stromal alternatively activated macrophages are important determinants of anti-tumor T lymphocyte responses, intratumoral neovascularization and metastatic dissemination. Our recent efforts to investigate the mechanism of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in antagonizing anti-melanoma immune responses reveal that macrophage-derived MIF participates in macrophage alternative activation in melanoma-bearing mice. Both peripheral and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from melanoma bearing MIF-deficient mice display elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic gene products compared to macrophages from tumor bearing MIF wildtype mice. Moreover, TAMs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) from MIF-deficient mice exhibit reduced T lymphocyte immunosuppressive activities than do those from their wildtype littermates. Corresponding with reduced tumor immunosuppression and neoangiogenic potential by TAMs, MIF-deficiency confers protection against transplantable subcutaneous melanoma outgrowth and melanoma lung metastatic colonization. Finally, we report for the first time that our previously discovered MIF small molecule antagonist, 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP), recapitulates MIF-deficiency in vitro and in vivo and attenuates tumor polarized macrophage alternative activation, immunosuppression, neoangiogenesis and melanoma tumor outgrowth. These studies describe an important functional contribution by MIF to tumor-associated macrophage alternative activation and provide justification for immunotherapeutic targeting of MIF in melanoma patients. PMID:23390297

  9. Carbohydrate vaccines as immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Slovin, Susan F; Keding, Stacy J; Ragupathi, Govind

    2005-08-01

    Carbohydrates have established themselves as the most clinically relevant antigens of those tested and subsequently developed for vaccines against infectious diseases. However, in cancer patients, many of the defined carbohydrate antigens are really altered 'self' antigens and for unclear reasons, the body does not react to them immunologically. Although these self antigens have been found to be potentially suitable targets for immune recognition and killing, the development of vaccines for cancer treatment is actually more challenging compared with those for infectious diseases mainly because of the difficulty associated with breaking the body's immunological tolerance to the antigen. These antigens lack the inherent immunogenicity associated with bacterial antigens and, therefore, methods to enhance immunological recognition and induction of immunity in vivo are under investigation. These include defining the appropriate tumour-associated antigen, successfully synthesizing the antigen to mimic the original molecule, inducing an immune response, and subsequently enhancing the immunological reactivity so that all components can work together. This has been successfully accomplished with several glycolipid and glycoprotein antigens using carriers such as keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) together with a saponin adjuvant, QS-21. Not only can high titre IgM and IgG antibodies be induced, which are specific for the antigen used for immunization, but the antibodies can mediate complement lysis. The approaches for synthesis, conjugation, clinical administration and immunological potential are discussed.

  10. Carbohydrates and T cells: a sweet twosome.

    PubMed

    Avci, Fikri Y; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-04-01

    Carbohydrates as T cell-activating antigens have been generating significant interest. For many years, carbohydrates were thought of as T-independent antigens, however, more recent research had demonstrated that mono- or oligosaccharides glycosidically linked to peptides can be recognized by T cells. T cell recognition of these glycopeptides depends on the structure of both peptide and glycan portions of the antigen. Subsequently, it was discovered that natural killer T cells recognized glycolipids when presented by the antigen presenting molecule CD1d. A transformative insight into glycan-recognition by T cells occurred when zwitterionic polysaccharides were discovered to bind to and be presented by MHCII to CD4+ T cells. Based on this latter observation, the role that carbohydrate epitopes generated from glycoconjugate vaccines had in activating helper T cells was explored and it was found that these epitopes are presented to specific carbohydrate recognizing T cells through a unique mechanism. Here we review the key interactions between carbohydrate antigens and the adaptive immune system at the molecular, cellular and systems levels exploring the significant biological implications in health and disease.

  11. Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Vectors Fully Retargeted to Tumor-Associated Antigens.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroaki; Hamada, Hirofumi; Nakano, Kenji; Kwon, Heechung; Tahara, Hideaki; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2017-02-05

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel therapeutic modality for malignant diseases that exploits selective viral replication in cancer cells. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a promising agent for oncolytic virotherapy due to its broad cell tropism and the identification of mutations that favor its replication in tumor over normal cells. However, these attenuating mutations also tend to limit the potency of current oncolytic HSV vectors that have entered clinical studies. As an alternative, vector retargeting to novel entry receptors has the potential to achieve tumor specificity at the stage of virus entry, eliminating the need for replication-attenuating mutations. Here we summarize the molecular mechanism of HSV entry and recent advances in the development of fully retargeted HSV vectors for oncolytic virotherapy. Retargeted HSV vectors offer an attractive platform for the creation of a new generation of oncolytic HSV with improved efficacy and specificity.

  12. GBP-5 splicing variants: New guanylate-binding proteins with tumor-associated expression and antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Fellenberg, Friederike; Hartmann, Tanja B; Dummer, Reinhard; Usener, Dirk; Schadendorf, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    We have identified a new gene, gbp-5, with high homology to the guanylate binding proteins (GBP) belonging to the GTPase superfamily including the ras gene. gbp-5 is transcribed at least into three splicing variants (gbp-5a, -5b, and -5ta) leading to two different proteins (GBP-5a/b, GBP-5ta). GBP-5ta is C-terminally truncated by 97aa and has therefore lost its isoprenylation site. Although RT-PCR results indicated expression of GBP-5 members in selected normal tissues, western blotting using two newly generated antibodies revealed that expression of both proteins is restricted to peripheral blood monocytes with GBP-5ta at lower levels. In contrast, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) tumor tissues (seven of seven) were positive solely for GBP-5ta, and four of four CTCL cell lines expressed both proteins. Eight of nine melanoma cell lines expressed GBP-5a/b and four of nine additionally low levels of GBP-5ta. SEREX retesting using CTCL sera indicated a higher immunogenicity for GBP-5ta (nine of 16) than for GBP-5a/b (two of 11). Treatment of CTCL cell lines with interferon-gamma did not alter protein expression of GBP-5ta or GBP-5a/b. The restricted expression pattern of both GBP-5ta and GBP-5a/b and the pivotal role of many known members of the GTP-binding proteins in proliferation and differentiation suggest possible cancer-related functions of gbp-5.

  13. Novel Tumor-Associated Antigen for Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutics | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute on Aging's Laboratory of Immunology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize the use of SPANX-B-based therapeutic approaches to combat cancers.

  14. Identification of Widely Applicable Tumor-Associated Antigens for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Denhardt’s solution, 5 dextran sulfate, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 400 Ag/ml denatured salmon sperm DNA. The 50- Al hybridization...400 lg ⁄ ml denatured salmon sperm DNA. The 50-ll hybridization solution contain- ing 1 ng ⁄ ll probe (sense or antisense) was then applied to each...estrogen receptor-mediated transcription and alteration in the phosphory- lation state of the rat uterine estrogen receptor by estrogen, cyclic adenosine

  15. Construction of scFv derived from a tumor-associated monoclonal antibody having tumoricidal activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Sandee, Duanpen; Puthong, Songchan; Laohathai, Kingkarn

    2005-04-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab-HepTAA43), classified as an anti-tumor-associated antigen, was raised by immunizing BALB/c mice with the Thai human hepatocellular carcinoma S102 (HCC-S102) cell line cells using hybridoma techniques. The Mab-HepTAA43 reacted with and markedly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines as well as a tumor mass in an animal model. Human hepatoma transplanted into nude mice did not show metastasis after 20 injections amounting to a total of about 4 mg of the Mab over 1-month period. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) molecule derived from the Mab was constructed by phage display method. DNA sequence analysis of the active variable regions of both heavy- and light-chains of the cDNA clone was subsequently performed. The scFv43 molecule contains a V(L) kappa type and a unique V(H) sequence having 88% amino acid homology to that of Mab-MAK B raised against tumor-associated antigen. Immunohistochemical staining on frozen sections of paired hepatoma (NCI-I) and normal liver tissue from the same individual showed that both scFv43 and Mab-HepTAA43 antibodies reacted with hepatoma but not with normal liver tissue. The results suggest that scFv43 may be useful in the immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  17. Tumor-associated macrophages: effectors of angiogenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Hughes, Russell; Lewis, Claire E

    2009-08-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a prominent inflammatory cell population in many tumor types residing in both perivascular and avascular, hypoxic regions of these tissues. Analysis of TAMs in human tumor biopsies has shown that they express a variety of tumor-promoting factors and evidence from transgenic murine tumor models has provided unequivocal evidence for the importance of these cells in driving angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, immunosuppression, and metastasis. This review will summarize the mechanisms by which monocytes are recruited into tumors, their myriad, tumor-promoting functions within tumors, and the influence of the tumor microenvironment in driving these activities. We also discuss recent attempts to both target/destroy TAMs and exploit them as delivery vehicles for anti-cancer gene therapy.

  18. Tumor-associated macrophages: implications in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petty, Amy J; Yang, Yiping

    2017-03-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), representing most of the leukocyte population in solid tumors, demonstrate great phenotypic heterogeneity and diverse functional capabilities under the influence of the local tumor microenvironment. These anti-inflammatory and protumorigenic macrophages modulate the local microenvironment to facilitate tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we examine the origin of TAMs and the complex regulatory networks within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the polarization of TAMs toward a protumoral phenotype. More extensively, we evaluate the mechanisms by which TAMs mediate angiogenesis, metastasis, chemotherapeutic resistance and immune evasion. Lastly, we will highlight novel interventional strategies targeting TAMs in preclinical studies and in early clinical trials that have significant potential in improving efficacy of current chemotherapeutic and/or immunotherapeutic approaches.

  19. FOXO3 programs tumor-associated DCs to become tolerogenic in human and murine prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Stephanie K.; Zhu, Ziqiang; Riboldi, Elena; Shafer-Weaver, Kim A.; Stagliano, Katherine E.R.; Sklavos, Martha M.; Ambs, Stefan; Yagita, Hideo; Hurwitz, Arthur A.

    2011-01-01

    The limited success of cancer immunotherapy is often attributed to the loss of antigen-specific T cell function in situ. However, the mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. In this study, we describe a population of tumor-associated DCs (TADCs) in both human and mouse prostate cancer that tolerizes and induces suppressive activity in tumor-specific T cells. In tumors from human prostate cancer patients and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, TADCs expressed elevated levels of FOXO3 and Foxo3, respectively, which correlated with expression of suppressive genes that negatively regulate T cell function. Silencing FOXO3 and Foxo3 with siRNAs abrogated the ability of human and mouse TADCs, respectively, to tolerize and induce suppressive activity by T cells. Silencing Foxo3 in mouse TADCs was also associated with diminished expression of tolerogenic mediators, such as indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, arginase, and TGF-β, and upregulated expression of costimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, transfer of tumor-specific CD4+ Th cells into TRAMP mice abrogated TADC tolerogenicity, which was associated with reduced Foxo3 expression. These findings demonstrate that FOXO3 may play a critical role in mediating TADC-induced immune suppression. Moreover, our results identify what we believe to be a novel target for preventing CTL tolerance and enhancing immune responses to cancer by modulating the immunosuppressive activity of TADCs found in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21436588

  20. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates are sugars. ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism NOTE: This is ...

  1. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control ... called starchy vegetables because they are high in starch. These vegetables have more carbohydrates per serving than ...

  2. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Schipper, Matthew; Zalupski, Mark M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Abrams, Ross; Francis, Isaac R.; Khan, Gazala; Leslie, William; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ≤90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression

  3. CDDO-Me Redirects Activation of Breast Tumor Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Michael S.; Shipman, Emilie P.; Kim, Hyunjung; Liby, Karen T.; Pioli, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages can account for up to 50% of the tumor mass in breast cancer patients and high TAM density is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Because TAMs enhance tumor growth, development, and metastatic potential, redirection of TAM activation may have significant therapeutic benefit. Our studies in primary human macrophages and murine breast TAMs suggest that the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) reprograms the activation profile of TAMs from tumor-promoting to tumor-inhibiting. We show that CDDO-Me treatment inhibits expression of IL-10 and VEGF in stimulated human M2 macrophages and TAMs but increases expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Surface expression of CD206 and CD163, which are characteristic of M2 activation, is significantly attenuated by CDDO-Me. In contrast, CDDO-Me up-regulates surface expression of HLA-DR and CD80, which are markers of M1 activation, and importantly potentiates macrophage activation of autologous T cells but inhibits endothelial cell vascularization. These results show for the first time that CDDO-Me redirects activation of M2 macrophages and TAMs from immune-suppressive to immune-stimulatory, and implicate a role for CDDO-Me as an immunotherapeutic in the treatment of breast and potentially other types of cancer. PMID:26918785

  4. Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Konstantin; Foss, Robert D; Franks, Teri J; DePeralta-Venturina, Mariza; Travis, William D

    2005-03-01

    We report 6 cases of low-grade pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma displaying a striking lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. All six tumors had a typical pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma presentation as a polypoid endobronchial mass involving the proximal bronchi. The patients were 3 females and 3 males with a mean age of 33 years (range, 5-61 years). Half of the patients were asymptomatic, while half experienced mild symptoms of pneumonia, asthma-like symptoms, or hemoptysis. No tumor-related deaths were observed, with a mean follow-up of 51 months. The tumor size ranged from 2.1 to 3.4 cm (mean, 2.9 cm). The tumors characteristically displayed an elaborate tubulocystic epithelial component composed of intermediate, epidermoid, and mucus-producing cells, and variable numbers of clear cells, multinucleated giant cells, columnar cells, and oncocytic cells. The tumors' lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with occasional Russell bodies was sufficiently intense to raise concern of a low-grade lymphoma. All tested tumors were immunoreactive with CK7 while nonreactive with TTF-1 and CK20. Recognition of this histologic variant is important for a correct diagnosis of low-grade pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate is similar to that previously described in salivary glands as tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation.

  5. In Vivo Flow Cytometry of Circulating Tumor-Associated Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Kore, Rajshekhar A.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) demonstrated the potential as prognostic markers of metastatic development. However, the incurable metastasis can already be developed at the time of initial diagnosis with the existing CTC assays. Alternatively, tumor-associated particles (CTPs) including exosomes can be a more valuable prognostic marker because they can be released from the primary tumor long before CTCs and in larger amount. However, little progress has been made in high sensitivity detection of CTPs, especially in vivo. We show here that in vivo integrated photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence flow cytometry (PAFFC) platform can provide the detection of melanoma and breast-cancer-associated single CTPs with endogenously expressed melanin and genetically engineered proteins or exogenous dyes as PA and fluorescent contrast agents. The two-beam, time-of-light PAFFC can measure the sizes of CTCs and CTPs and identify bulk and rolling CTCs and CTC clusters, with no influence on blood flow instability. This technique revealed a higher concentration of CTPs than CTCs at an early cancer stage. Because a single tumor cell can release many CTPs and in vivo PAFFC can examine the whole blood volume, PAFFC diagnostic platform has the potential to dramatically improve (up to 105-fold) the sensitivity of cancer diagnosis. PMID:27965916

  6. Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI

  7. Dexamethasone alleviates tumor-associated brain damage and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Rauh, Manfred; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc-; SLC7a11) and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G) resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage.

  8. Dexamethasone Alleviates Tumor-Associated Brain Damage and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Rauh, Manfred; Buchfelder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc−; SLC7a11) and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G) resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage. PMID:24714627

  9. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  10. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  11. Regulatory T cells in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures suppress anti-tumor T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nikhil S.; Akama-Garren, Elliot H.; Lu, Yisi; Lee, Da-Yae; Chang, Gregory P.; Li, Amy; DuPage, Michel; Tammela, Tuomas; Kerper, Natanya R.; Farago, Anna F.; Robbins, Rebecca; Crowley, Denise M.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Infiltration of regulatory T (Treg) cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses. However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically-engineered mouse lung adenocarcinoma model and found Treg cells suppress anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TA-TLS). TA-TLS have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. TLS in this model were spatially associated with >90% of tumors and facilitated interactions between T cells and tumor-antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Costimulatory ligand expression by DCs and T cell proliferation rates increased in TA-TLS upon Treg cell depletion, leading to tumor destruction. Thus, we propose Treg cells in TA-TLS can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells may provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients. PMID:26341400

  12. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Teens > Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... Los carbohidratos y la diabetes Carbs and Blood Sugar Keeping your blood sugar levels on track means ...

  13. Tumor associated CD8+ T-cell tolerance induced by bone marrow derived immature myeloid cells1

    PubMed Central

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    T-cell tolerance is a critical element of tumor escape. However, the mechanism of tumor-associated T-cell tolerance remains unresolved. Using an experimental system employing the adoptive transfer of transgenic T cells into naïve recipients, we found that the population of Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells (ImC) from tumor-bearing mice was able to induce CD8+ T-cell tolerance. These ImC accumulate in large numbers in spleens, lymph nodes, and tumor tissues of tumor-bearing mice and are comprised of precursors of myeloid cells. Neither ImC from control mice nor progeny of tumor-derived ImC including tumor-derived CD11c+ DCs were able to render T cells non-responsive. ImC are able to take-up soluble protein in vivo, process it, and present antigenic epitopes on their surface and induce antigen-specific T-cell anergy. Thus, this is a first demonstration that in tumor-bearing mice CD8+ T-cell tolerance is induced primarily by ImC that may have direct implications for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16177103

  14. T-cell receptors: tugging on the anchor for a tighter hold on the tumor-associated peptide.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Julian

    2015-02-01

    Although it has been shown that human tumor-associated, HLA anchor residue modified "heteroclitic" peptides may induce stronger immune responses than wild-type peptides in cancer vaccine trials, it has also been shown that some T cells primed with these heteroclitic peptides subsequently fail to recognize the natural, tumor-expressed peptide efficiently. This may provide a molecular reason for why clinical trials of these peptides have been thus far unsuccessful. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Madura et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 584-591] highlight a novel twist on T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of HLA-peptide complexes. Tumor-associated peptides often lack canonical anchor residues, which can be substituted for the optimal residue to improve their antigenicity. T-cell cross-reactivity between the natural and modified (heteroclitic) peptides is essential for this approach to work and depends on whether the anchor residue substitution influences peptide conformation. The Melan-A/MART-126-35 peptide epitope is an example where T cells can make this distinction, with the natural peptide stimulating higher affinity CD8(+) T cells than the heteroclitic peptide, despite the heteroclitic peptide's more stable association with HLA-A2. The molecular basis for peptide discrimination is identified through the structure of the TCR bound to the natural peptide; TCR engagement of the natural peptide "lifts" its amino-terminus partly away from the HLA peptide binding groove, forming a higher affinity interface with the TCR than is formed with the anchor residue "optimized" heteroclitic peptide, which cannot be "pulled" from the HLA groove.

  15. Tumor antigens as related to pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, T M; Holyoke, E D; Douglass, H O

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented suggesting the presence of pancreas tumor-associated antigens. Slow progress has been made during the past few years in the identification of pancreatic tumor antigens that may be of clinical usefulness and it seems unlikely that many of the practical problems now being faced in identification and isolation of these antigens and in development of a specific, sensitive assay will be solved by conventional immunochemical approaches. The study of antigen and/or antibody purified from immune complexes in the host and the application of leukocyte adherence inhibition techniques to immunodiagnosis of pancreatic cancer are among the new approaches that may provide effective alternatives in the study of pancreatic tumor antigens.

  16. Engagement of the Mannose Receptor by Tumoral Mucins Activates an Immune Suppressive Phenotype in Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Allavena, P.; Chieppa, M.; Bianchi, G.; Solinas, G.; Fabbri, M.; Laskarin, G.; Mantovani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) are abundantly present in the stroma of solid tumors and modulate several important biological processes, such as neoangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and suppression of adaptive immune responses. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) constitute a large family of transmembrane carbohydrate-binding receptors that recognize pathogens as well as endogenous glycoproteins. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that some CLRs can inhibit the immune response. In this study we investigated TAM-associated molecules potentially involved in their immune suppressive activity. We found that TAMs isolated from human ovarian carcinoma samples predominantly express the CLRs Dectin-1, MDL-1, MGL, DCIR, and most abundantly the Mannose Receptor (MR). Components of carcinomatous ascites and purified tumoral mucins (CA125 and TAG-72) bound the MR and induced its internalization. MR engagement by tumoral mucins and by an agonist anti-MR antibody modulated cytokine production by TAM toward an immune-suppressive profile: increase of IL-10, absence of IL-12, and decrease of the Th1-attracting chemokine CCL3. This study highlights that tumoral mucin-mediated ligation of the MR on infiltrating TAM may contribute to their immune suppressive phenotype. PMID:21331365

  17. A fully synthetic glycopeptide antitumor vaccine based on multiple antigen presentation on a hyperbranched polymer.

    PubMed

    Glaffig, Markus; Palitzsch, Björn; Hartmann, Sebastian; Schüll, Christoph; Nuhn, Lutz; Gerlitzki, Bastian; Schmitt, Edgar; Frey, Holger; Kunz, Horst

    2014-04-07

    For antitumor vaccines both the selected tumor-associated antigen, as well as the mode of its presentation, affect the immune response. According to the principle of multiple antigen presentation, a tumor-associated MUC1 glycopeptide combined with the immunostimulating T-cell epitope P2 from tetanus toxoid was coupled to a multi-functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerol by "click chemistry". This globular polymeric carrier has a flexible dendrimer-like structure, which allows optimal antigen presentation to the immune system. The resulting fully synthetic vaccine induced strong immune responses in mice and IgG antibodies recognizing human breast-cancer cells.

  18. A novel cancer immunotherapy based on the combination of a synthetic carbohydrate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine and glycoengineered cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shichong; Wang, Qianli; Li, Yinghua; Hu, Zhenlin; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Immune tolerance to tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) has severely restricted the usefulness of most TACAs. To overcome this problem, we selected a sialylated trisaccharide TACA, GM3, as a target antigen, and tested a new immunotherapeutic strategy by combining metabolic bioengineering with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We engineered cancer cells to express an artificial structure, N-phenylacetyl-D-neuraminic acid, in place of the natural N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid of GM3 by using N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNPhAc) as a biosynthetic precursor. Next, we selectively targeted the bioengineered cancer cells by vaccination with DCs pulsed with the GM3 N-phenylacetyl derivative. Vaccination with GM3NPhAc-KLH-loaded DCs elicited robust GM3NPhAc-specific T cell-dependent immunity. The results showed that this strategy could significantly inhibit FBL3 tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice; B16F10 lung metastases could also be reduced. These findings lay out a new strategy for overcoming immune tolerance to TACAs, such as GM3, for the development of effective tumor immunotherapies. PMID:25760071

  19. A novel cancer immunotherapy based on the combination of a synthetic carbohydrate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine and glycoengineered cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Li, Jie; Yu, Shichong; Wang, Qianli; Li, Yinghua; Hu, Zhenlin; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu; Zhang, Junping

    2015-03-10

    Immune tolerance to tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) has severely restricted the usefulness of most TACAs. To overcome this problem, we selected a sialylated trisaccharide TACA, GM3, as a target antigen, and tested a new immunotherapeutic strategy by combining metabolic bioengineering with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We engineered cancer cells to express an artificial structure, N-phenylacetyl-D-neuraminic acid, in place of the natural N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid of GM3 by using N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNPhAc) as a biosynthetic precursor. Next, we selectively targeted the bioengineered cancer cells by vaccination with DCs pulsed with the GM3 N-phenylacetyl derivative. Vaccination with GM3NPhAc-KLH-loaded DCs elicited robust GM3NPhAc-specific T cell-dependent immunity. The results showed that this strategy could significantly inhibit FBL3 tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice; B16F10 lung metastases could also be reduced. These findings lay out a new strategy for overcoming immune tolerance to TACAs, such as GM3, for the development of effective tumor immunotherapies.

  20. Mimotope vaccine efficacy gets a "boost" from native tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Jonathan D; Slansky, Jill E

    2013-04-01

    Tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-targeting mimotope peptides exert more prominent immunostimulatory functions than unmodified TAAs, with the caveat that some T-cell clones exhibit a relatively low affinity for TAAs. Combining mimotope-based vaccines with native TAAs in a prime-boost setting significantly improves antitumor immunity.

  1. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  2. Regulation of NK-cell function by mucins via antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Laskarin, G; Redzovic, A; Medancic, S Srsen; Rukavina, D

    2010-12-01

    Decidual antigen-presenting cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and CD14(+) macrophages, as mediators of the first encounter with fetal antigens, appear to be critically involved in the initiation of primary immune response by regulating innate- and adaptive immunity. Interleukin-15, produced by them, permits the proliferation and differentiation of CD3(-)CD16(-)CD94(+)NKG2A(+)CD56(+bright) decidual NK cells that identify trophoblast cells. These cells are able to kill them after Th1 cytokine overstimulation and by increasing the release of preformed cytotoxic mediators. Thus, the local microenvironment is a potent modulator of antigen-presenting cell functions. Tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) and mucine 1 (MUC-1) are glycoproteins secreted by uterine epithelial cells. Our hypothesis is that TAG-72 and MUC-1 are the natural ligands for carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of endocytic mannose receptor (MR or CD206) and DC-specific ICAM non-integrin (DC-SIGN or CD209) expressed on decidual CD14(+) macrophages and CD1a(+) DCs. They might be able to condition antigen-presenting cells to produce distinct profiles of cyto/chemokines with consequential reduction in NK-cell numbers and cytotoxic potential leading to insufficient control over trophoblast growth. This hypothesis could explain the disappearance of MUC-1 beneath the attached embryo during the process of successful implantation when tight regulation of trophoblast invasion is needed. As IL-15 is the earliest and the most important factor in NK-cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, we expected primarily an increase of IL-15 expression in antigen-presenting cells concomitant with the disappearance of mucins and the enhancement in NK cells numbers and of cytotoxic potential after their close contact with early pregnancy decidual antigen-presenting cells. If our hypothesis is correct, it would contribute to the understanding of the role of mucins in the redirection of immune response

  3. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  4. Tumor-associated CD8+ T cell tolerance induced by bone marrow-derived immature myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2005-10-01

    T cell tolerance is a critical element of tumor escape. However, the mechanism of tumor-associated T cell tolerance remains unresolved. Using an experimental system utilizing the adoptive transfer of transgenic T cells into naive recipients, we found that the population of Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells (ImC) from tumor-bearing mice was able to induce CD8+ T cell tolerance. These ImC accumulate in large numbers in spleens, lymph nodes, and tumor tissues of tumor-bearing mice and are comprised of precursors of myeloid cells. Neither ImC from control mice nor progeny of tumor-derived ImC, including tumor-derived CD11c+ dendritic cells, were able to render T cells nonresponsive. ImC are able to take up soluble protein in vivo, process it, and present antigenic epitopes on their surface and induce Ag-specific T cell anergy. Thus, this is a first demonstration that in tumor-bearing mice CD8+ T cell tolerance is induced primarily by ImC that may have direct implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Tumor-associated macrophages mediate immunosuppression in the renal cancer microenvironment by activating the 15-lipoxygenase-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Daurkin, Irina; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Stoffs, Taryn; Perrin, George Q; Algood, Chester; Gilbert, Scott M; Rosser, Charles J; Su, Li-Ming; Vieweg, Johannes; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2011-10-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common human kidney cancer, is frequently infiltrated with tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) that can promote malignant progression. Here, we show that TAMs isolated from human RCC produce substantial amounts of the proinflammatory chemokine CCL2 and immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, in addition to enhanced eicosanoid production via an activated 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX2) pathway. TAMs isolated from RCC tumors had a high 15-LOX2 expression and secreted substantial amounts of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, its major bioactive lipid product. Inhibition of lipoxygenase activity significantly reduced production of CCL2 and IL-10 by RCC TAMs. In addition, TAMs isolated from RCC were capable of inducing in T lymphocytes, the pivotal T regulatory cell transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and the inhibitory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) coreceptor. However, this TAM-mediated induction of FOXP3 and CTLA-4 in T cells was independent of lipoxygenase and could not be reversed by inhibiting lipoxygenase activity. Collectively, our results show that TAMs, often present in RCCs, display enhanced 15-LOX2 activity that contributes to RCC-related inflammation, immunosuppression, and malignant progression. Furthermore, we show that TAMs mediate the development of immune tolerance through both 15-LOX2-dependent and 15-LOX2-independent pathways. We propose that manipulating LOX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in the tumor microenvironment could offer new strategies to block cancer-related inflammation and immune escape in patients with RCC.

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis Comparing Tumor-Associated Neutrophils with Granulocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Normal Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fridlender, Zvi G.; Sun, Jing; Mishalian, Inbal; Singhal, Sunil; Cheng, Guanjun; Kapoor, Veena; Horng, Wenhwai; Fridlender, Gil; Bayuh, Rachel; Worthen, G. Scott; Albelda, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of myeloid cells in supporting cancer growth is well established. Most work has focused on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that accumulate in tumor-bearing animals, but tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) are also known to be capable of augmenting tumor growth. However, little is known about their evolution, phenotype, and relationship to naïve neutrophils (NN) and to the granulocytic fraction of MDSC (G-MDSC). In the current study, a transcriptomics approach was used in mice to compare these cell types. Our data show that the three populations of neutrophils are significantly different in their mRNA profiles with NN and G-MDSC being more closely related to each other than to TAN. Structural genes and genes related to cell-cytotoxicity (i.e. respiratory burst) were significantly down-regulated in TAN. In contrast, many immune-related genes and pathways, including genes related to the antigen presenting complex (e.g. all six MHC-II complex genes), and cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-1-α/β), were up-regulated in G-MDSC, and further up-regulated in TAN. Thirteen of the 25 chemokines tested were markedly up-regulated in TAN compared to NN, including striking up-regulation of chemoattractants for T/B-cells, neutrophils and macrophages. This study characterizes different populations of neutrophils related to cancer, pointing out the major differences between TAN and the other neutrophil populations. PMID:22348096

  7. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  8. Immunogenicity of self tumor associated proteins is enhanced through protein truncation

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Tim; Shim, Kevin G; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Zaidi, Shane; Maria Diaz, Rosa; Pulido, Jose; Thompson, Jill; Rajani, Karishma R; Evgin, Laura; Ilett, Elizabeth; Pandha, Hardev; Harrington, Kevin; Selby, Peter; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We showed previously that therapy with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) expressing tumor-associated proteins eradicates established tumors. We show here that when cellular cDNA were cloned into VSV which retained their own poly-A signal, viral species emerged in culture which had deleted the cellular poly-A signal and also contained a truncated form of the protein coding sequence. Typically, the truncation occurred such that a Tyrosine-encoding codon was converted into a STOP codon. We believe that the truncation of tumor-associated proteins expressed from VSV in this way occurred to preserve the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently. Truncated cDNA expressed from VSV were significantly more effective than full length cDNA in treating established tumors. Moreover, tumor therapy with truncated cDNA was completely abolished by depletion of CD4+ T cells, whereas therapy with full length cDNA was CD8+ T cell dependent. These data show that the type/potency of antitumor immune responses against self-tumor-associated proteins can be manipulated in vivo through the nature of the self protein (full length or truncated). Therefore, in addition to generation of neoantigens through sequence mutation, immunological tolerance against self-tumor-associated proteins can be broken through manipulation of protein integrity, allowing for rational design of better self-immunogens for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27933315

  9. Inhibition of mouse B16 melanoma by sodium butyrate correlated to tumor associated macrophages differentiation suppression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fen; Mou, Yun-Zhu; Xiang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As one member of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) family, Sodium butyrate (NaB) was found out that could be used as a differentiation inducer of much cancer cell. But its effects on tumor microenvironment cells are not well recognized. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of NaB on B16 melanoma and analysis its relevant mechanism. Methods: We observed the effect of sodium butyrate on B16 melanoma in vivo and in vitro. MTT method was performed to detect cell apoptosis rate after treatment. Tumor associated macrophage infiltration condition was detected by flow cytometry. Western-blotting and immunohistochemical method were used to detect the expression of tumor associated macrophage cytokines. Results: A certain concentration of sodium butyrate could effectively inhibit B16 melanoma growth in vivo and in vitro, and this inhibition effects related to the suppression of tumor associated macrophage differentiation. At the same time we observed the relevant macrophage factors were down-regulated compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium butyrate could effectively inhibit B16 melanoma growth through suppressing tumor associated macrophage proliferation and reduce relevant pro-tumor macrophage factors expression, which may help to promote the clinical study of melanoma epigenetic therapy. PMID:26064327

  10. The Role of Tumor Associated Macrophage in Recurrent Growth of Tumor Stem Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Sica . Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes. Trends Immunol. 23: 549-555...2002 3. Alberto Mantovani, Paola Allavena1, Antonio Sica and Frances Balkwill. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature. 454: 436-444, 2008 4. Karin E. de

  11. Psychobiological effects of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Spring, B; Chiodo, J; Harden, M; Bourgeois, M J; Mason, J D; Lutherer, L

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied whether the fatiguing effects of eating lunch are greater for carbohydrate-rich meals than for other meals, and related the time course of behavioral change to plasma glucose, insulin, and amino acids. On different occasions, in counterbalanced order, normal women (N = 7) fasted overnight, ate a standard breakfast, and at lunch either continued to fast or ate a high-carbohydrate, low-protein meal; a hedonically similar meal containing both carbohydrate and protein; or a high-protein, low-carbohydrate meal. Meals were isocaloric and equated for fat content. Only the carbohydrate meal significantly increased fatigue, which could not be attributed to hypoglycemia because plasma glucose remained elevated. Fatigue began approximately, when the carbohydrate meal elevated the plasma tryptophan ratio but ended even though the ratio remained elevated. Fatigue after a high-carbohydrate lunch could not be explained by reactive hypoglycemia or sweet taste, and could partially be explained by the hypothesis that fatigue parallels an elevation of the tryptophan ratio.

  12. Low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Last, Allen R; Wilson, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential health consequences of low-carbohydrate diets. Published long-term data are lacking. Short-term studies comparing traditional low-fat diets with low-carbohydrate diets found lower triglyceride levels, higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, similar low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and lower A1C levels in persons on low-carbohydrate diets. These diets induce greater weight loss at three and six months than traditional low-fat diets; however, by one year there is no significant difference in maintained weight loss. Weight loss is directly related to calorie content and the ability to maintain caloric restriction; the proportions of nutrients in the diet are irrelevant. Low-carbohydrate diets had lower dropout rates than low-fat diets in several studies, possibly because of the high protein content and low glycemic index, which can be appetite suppressing. Data indicate that low-carbohydrate diets are a safe, reasonable alternative to low-fat diets for weight loss. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of these and other approaches to weight loss.

  13. Lewis Y Antigen as a Target for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    that peptide mimotopes of adenocarcinomac associated carbohydrate forms that include Lewis Y may function4as a breast cancer vaccine , 3.) established the...the feasibility of peptide mimotopes and design requirements for their use as potential vaccine surrogates for carbohydrate antigens in future vaccine ...understanding mechanisms associated with the utility of peptide mimotopes for vaccine efficacy, priming with mimicking peptides might establish beneficial

  14. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Serum Based on Antibody Labeled Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Capture Probes and Graphene/CdTe Quantum Dot Bionanoconjugates as Signal Amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ning; Zhou, Jing; Xiong, Ping; Li, Tianhua; Jiang, Shan; Cao, Yuting; Jiang, Qianli

    2013-01-01

    The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4) for enriching CA 19-9 were synthesized by immobilizing the CA 19-9’s first antibody (CA 19-9 Ab1) on magnetic nanoparticles (dextran-Fe3O4). Secondly, the signal probes (CA 19-9 Ab2/CdTe-G), which can emit an ECL signal, were formed by attaching the secondary CA 19-9 antibody (CA 19-9 Ab2) to the surface of the CdTe-G. Thirdly, the above two probes were used for conjugating with a serial of CA 19-9 concentrations. Graphene can immobilize dozens of CdTe QDs on their surface, which can emit stronger ECL intensity than CdTe QDs. Based on the amplified signal, ultrasensitive antigen detection can be realized. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal depended linearly on the logarithm of CA 19-9 concentration from 0.005 to 100 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 0.002 pg/mL. Finally, five samples of human serum were tested, and the results were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence assay (TRFA). The novel immunoassay provides a stable, specific and highly sensitive immunoassay protocol for tumor marker detection at very low levels, which can be applied in early diagnosis of tumor. PMID:23685872

  15. Carbohydrates: functionality in foods.

    PubMed

    Chinachoti, P

    1995-04-01

    Many functional requirements are met by the use of simple and complex carbohydrates in food. Carbohydrates offer a wide range of rheological and other properties, including solubility, cryoprotection, sweetening effect, hygroscopicity, crystallization inhibition, flavor encapsulation, and coating ability. These properties are based on chemical structure and interactions with other molecules through hydrogen bonding, ionic effect, and the formation of complexes with lipids and proteins. The ability to understand these properties directly affects the development of food products and processes. Thus, the functionality of carbohydrates in foods integrates precise knowledge of chemical structure and behavior with practical applications in the development and preparation of foods.

  16. Radiolocalization of bovine lymphosarcoma cells in athymic mice, using a monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Aida, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Ito, K.; Onuma, M.; Fujimori, F.; Fujimoto, Y.; Izawa, H.

    1987-08-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibody c 143 was purified and F(ab')2 fragments were generated by pepsin digestion and then radiolabeled with /sup 125/I. The /sup 125/I-labeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments were injected into athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. The fragments became preferentially localized in tumor tissues, but not in normal tissues, as determined by differential counting of tissue radioactivity. The fragments became localized specifically in those tumors that were reactive with c 143 in vitro, but did not become localized in unrelated tumors. Localization of labeled F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody of the same isotype directed against Taka virus (a variant of Newcastle disease virus) was not observed in athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. Tumors were detectable by radioimmunoscintigraphy, using radiolabeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments, without background subtraction, and by use of silver-grain scattering in light microscopic autoradiography.

  17. 78 FR 11895 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of MUC-1 Tumor Associated Antigens as Cancer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ..., Gastric Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Liver Cancer, Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Prostate Cancer and Pancreatic..., gastric cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer and...

  18. Reduction of spontaneous metastases through induction of carbohydrate cross-reactive apoptotic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Hennings, Leah; Carcel-Trullols, Jaime; Shaaf, Saeid; Korourian, Soheila; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The selective targeting of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags by the induction of serum Abs that trigger apoptosis of tumor cells as a means to reduce circulating tumor cells and micrometastases would be an advantage in cancer vaccine development. Some plant lectins like Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I and wheat germ agglutinin mediate the apoptosis of tumor cells. We investigated the possibility of using these lectins as templates to select peptide mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags as immunogens to generate cross-reactive Abs capable of mediating apoptosis of tumor cells. In this study, we show that immunization with a mimotope selected based on its reactivity with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I and wheat germ agglutinin induced serum IgM Abs in mice that mediated the apoptosis of murine 4T1 and human MCF7 cell lines in vitro, paralleling the apoptotic activity of the lectins. Vaccine-induced anti-carbohydrate Abs reduced the outgrowth of micrometastases in the 4T1 spontaneous tumor model, significantly increasing survival time of tumor-bearing animals. This finding parallels suggestions that carbohydrate-reactive IgM with apoptotic activity may have merit in the adjuvant setting if the right carbohydrate-associated targets are identified.

  19. Telomere profiles and tumor-associated macrophages with different immune signatures affect prognosis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hung, Noelyn A; Eiholzer, Ramona A; Kirs, Stenar; Zhou, Jean; Ward-Hartstonge, Kirsten; Wiles, Anna K; Frampton, Chris M; Taha, Ahmad; Royds, Janice A; Slatter, Tania L

    2016-03-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer and likely to be targeted in future treatments. In glioblastoma established methods of identifying telomerase and alternative lengthening of telomeres leave a significant proportion of tumors with no defined telomere maintenance mechanism. This study investigated the composition of these tumors using RNA-Seq. Glioblastomas with an indeterminate telomere maintenance mechanism had an increased immune signature compared with alternative lengthening of telomeres and telomerase-positive tumors. Immunohistochemistry for CD163 confirmed that the majority (80%) of tumors with an indeterminate telomere maintenance mechanism had a high presence of tumor-associated macrophages. The RNA-Seq and immunostaining data separated tumors with no defined telomere maintenance mechanism into three subgroups: alternative lengthening of telomeres like tumors with a high presence of tumor-associated macrophages and telomerase like tumors with a high presence of tumor-associated macrophages. The third subgroup had no increase in tumor-associated macrophages and may represent a distinct category. The presence of tumor-associated macrophages conferred a worse prognosis with reduced patient survival times (alternative lengthening of telomeres with and without macrophages P=0.0004, and telomerase with and without macrophages P=0.013). The immune signatures obtained from RNA-Seq were significantly different between telomere maintenance mechanisms. Alternative lengthening of telomeres like tumors with macrophages had increased expression of interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT1-3). Telomerase-positive tumors with macrophages had increased expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), CXCL12 and sushi-repeat containing protein x-linked 2 (SRPX2). Telomerase-positive tumors with macrophages were also associated with a reduced frequency of total/near total resections (44% vs >76% for all other subtypes

  20. Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the impact of various factors on the "charring reaction" of a carbohydrate with concentrated sulfuric acid including the type of sugar, the degree of fineness of the sugar crystals, and the amount of water added. (JRH)

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  2. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  3. Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrates are the major dietary sources of energy for humans. While most dietary carbohydrates are derived from multiple botanical sources, lactose and trehalose are the only animal-derived carbohydrates. Digestion of starch, the carbohydrate most abundantly consumed by humans, depends on the c...

  4. Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Sherwin; Liu, Chi-Feng; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.

  5. Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Sherwin; Liu, Chi-Feng; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides. PMID:26167490

  6. [Frequent allelic losses in tumor-associated stromal cells and tumor epitelium of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kekeeva, T V; Popova, O P; Shegaĭ, P V; Zavalishina, L E; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zaletaev, D V; Nemtsova, M V

    2008-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Accumulation of genetic alterations is typical not only for cancer epithelial cells but tumor-associated fibroblasts as well. Tumor epithelia, tumor-associated stroma from prostatectomy specimens of patients with prostate cancer and cells from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and adjacent stroma from males with PIN were isolated by using laser capture microdissection. Microsatellite allelotyping was evaluated using 4 highly polymorphic markers for chromosomal regions 8p22, 16q23-24 and 13q14. Incidences of alterations (loss of heterozygosity or allelic imbalance) were 48% for region 8p22, 72% for 16q23 and 37% for 13q14. The LOH frequencies in tumor-associated stroma cells were very similar. Alterations at chromosome 13q were significantly associated with advanced tumor stage, whereas AI at 16q was also associated with high Gleason score and lymph node metastasis. We find some incidences of allelic imbalance in premalignant lesions in epithelial (16-27%) and stromal (7-22%) components. Our results show that the frequencies of genetic aberrations are as high in stromal cells as in tumor cells.

  7. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption.

  8. New mouse xenograft model modulated by tumor-associated fibroblasts for human multi-drug resistance in cancer

    PubMed Central

    MA, YAN; LIN, ZHIQIANG; FALLON, JOHN K.; ZHAO, QIANG; LIU, DAN; WANG, YONGJUN; LIU, FENG

    2015-01-01

    We developed an MDR tumor model that is modulated by tumor-associated fibroblasts. Studies on proliferation of tumor cell lines including paclitaxel-sensitive and resistant cell lines were performed. The expressions of P-gp and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antigen were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Quantitative P-gp analyses of different cell lines were accomplished by nanoUPLC-MS/MS. Tumor cell colony formation assay and established xenograft model was used to investigate the relationship between P-gp expression, fibroblast levels and tumorigenesis. The mouse xenograft model was developed after co-inoculation with MDR tumor cells and NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. There was no correlation between tumorigenesis in vivo and the growth rate of cells in vitro. The proliferation among different cell lines had no significant differences, but the P-gp expression and tumor growth in the xenograft model were fairly different. P-gp determination and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining clarified the relationship between P-gp expression, fibroblast levels and tumorigenesis. It was more difficult for tumor cells with higher P-gp levels to recruit fibroblasts in vivo, resulting in lower tumorigenesis due to the lack of structural and chemical support during tumor progression. In the established paclitaxel-resistant mouse xenograft model, no obvious antitumor effect was observed after Taxol treatment, but a significant decrease in tumor size for the group treated with gemcitabine sensitive to the model. The results show that the added fibroblasts do not disturb the applicability of the model in MDR. Therefore, this mouse xenograft MDR model could serve as an effective tool for MDR research. PMID:26352907

  9. Glycan arrays containing synthetic Clostridium difficile lipoteichoic acid oligomers as tools toward a carbohydrate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher E; Broecker, Felix; Eller, Steffen; Oberli, Matthias A; Anish, Chakkumkal; Pereira, Claney L; Seeberger, Peter H

    2013-08-18

    Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of severe nosocomial infections. Cell-surface carbohydrate antigens are promising vaccine candidates. Here we report the first total synthesis of oligomers of the lipoteichoic acid antigen repeating unit. Synthetic glycan microarrays revealed anti-glycan antibodies in the blood of patients that help to define epitopes for vaccine development.

  10. Organic chemistry and immunochemical strategies in the design of potent carbohydrate-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Roy, René; Shiao, Tze Chieh

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of carbohydrate antigens processing and uptakes involved in the adaptive immune system is highlighted. To counter balance the poor immunogenicity and T-cell independent characteristics of carbohydrate antigens, chemists have developed original hybrid molecules aimed at targeting specific competent immune cell receptors. Amongst several potential vaccine candidates dedicated against diseases, this short report will focused on those most advance and state of the art organic chemistry involved therein. One case has led to the first example of a commercial vaccine entirely prepared from a synthetic carbohydrate antigen against infections caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Haemophilus influenza type b responsible for pneumonia and acute bacterial meningitis in infants. Other commendable examples will illustrate the immunochemical strategies engaged in the development of anticancer carbohydrate-based vaccines.

  11. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology that would benefit from a greater understanding of the role of carbohydrate relations. PMID:26479502

  12. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology that would benefit from a greater understanding of the role of carbohydrate relations.

  13. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  14. Exosome-driven transfer of tumor-associated Pioneer Translation Products (TA-PTPs) for the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Duvallet, Emilie; Boulpicante, Mathilde; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Prado Martins, Rodrigo; Baconnais, Sonia; Manoury, Bénédicte; Fahraeus, Robin; Apcher, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellular immune reactions against non-self-epitopes require activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells via cross-presentation of MHC class I-restricted peptides by professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs), with the consequent detection and elimination of cells expressing the same antigens via the endogenous (direct) pathway. The source of peptides for the endogenous pathway is constituted of alternative mRNA translation products; however, it is still unclear which source of peptides is used for cross-presentation. Furthermore, the presentation of non-canonical translation products, produced during a non-conventional translation event, on class I molecules of tumor cells has been reported but how these peptides are generated, presented to pAPCs, and their capacity to stimulate CD8+ T cells is still not known. Here, we report that pioneer translation peptides (PTPs) derived from intron or exon pre-mRNAs can serve as tumor-associated antigens (TA-PTPs) and are delivered from the producing tumor cells to pAPCs via exosomes where they are processed by the cytosolic pathway. Injection of TA-PTPs and tumor-derived exosomes efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell proliferation and prevent tumor growth in mice. Our results show that TA-PTPs represent an efficient source of antigenic peptides for CD8+ T cell activation and that full-length proteins are not required for cross-presentation. These findings can have interesting implications for generating tolerance and for designing vectors to generate vaccines. PMID:27757298

  15. Understanding carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions by means of glyconanotechnology.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Jesus M; Penadés, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction is a reliable and versatile mechanism for cell adhesion and recognition. Glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters at the cell membrane are mainly involved in this interaction. To investigate carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction an integrated strategy (Glyconanotechnology) was developed. This strategy includes polyvalent tools (gold glyconanoparticles) mimicking GSL clustering at the cell membrane as well as analytical techniques such as AFM, TEM, and SPR to evaluate the interactions. The results obtained by means of this strategy and current status are presented.

  16. Peptide mimotopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis carbohydrate immunodeterminants

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cell-surface saccharides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear to be crucial factors in tuberculosis pathogenicity and could be useful antigens in tuberculosis immunodiagnosis. In the present study, we report the successful antigenic and immunogenic mimicry of mannose-containing cell-wall compounds of M. tuberculosis by dodecamer peptides identified by phage-display technology. Using a rabbit antiserum raised against M. tuberculosis cell-surface saccharides as a target for biopanning, peptides with three different consensus sequences were identified. Phage-displayed and chemically synthesized peptides bound to the anticarbohydrate antiserum. Rabbit antibodies elicited against the peptide QEPLMGTVPIRAGGGS recognize the mannosylated M. tuberculosis cell-wall antigens arabinomannan and lipoarabinomannan, and the glycosylated recombinant protein alanine/proline-rich antigen. Furthermore, antibodies were also able to react with mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not with phosphatidylinositol dimannosides or arabinogalactan from mycobacteria. These results suggest that the immunogenic peptide mimics oligomannosidic epitopes. Interestingly, this report provides evidence that, in contrast with previously known carbohydrate mimotopes, no aromatic residues are necessary in a peptide sequence for mimicking unusual glycoconjugates synthesized by mycobacteria. The possible usefulness of the identified peptide mimotopes as surrogate reagents for immunodiagnosis and for the study of functional roles of the native non-peptide epitopes is discussed. PMID:15560754

  17. T Cells as Antigen Carriers for Anti-tumor Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Traversari, Catia; Russo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the physiologic processing and presenting machinery of dendritic cells (DCs) by in vivo loading of tumor-associated antigens may improve the immunogenic potential and clinical efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines. The approach developed by our group was based on the clinical observation that some patients treated with the infusion of donor lymphocytes transduced to express the HSV-TK suicide gene for relapse of hematologic malignancies, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, developed a T cell-mediated immune response specifically directed against the HSV-TK gene product.We demonstrated that lymphocytes genetically modified to express HSV-TK as well as self/tumor antigens, acting as antigen carriers, efficiently target DCs in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. The infusion of TRP-2-transduced lymphocytes induced the establishment of protective immunity and long-term memory in tumor-bearing mice by cross-presentation of the antigen mediated by the CD11c(+)CD8a(+) DCs subset. A similar approach was applied in a clinical setting. Ten patients affected by MAGE-3(+) metastatic melanoma were treated with autologous lymphocytes retrovirally transduced to express the MAGE-3 tumor antigen. In three patients, the treatment led to the increase of MAGE-3 specific CD8+ and CD4+ effectors and the development of long-term memory, which ultimately correlated with a favorable clinical outcome. Transduced lymphocytes represent an efficient way for in vivo loading of tumor-associated antigens of DCs.

  18. Distinctive role of activated tumor-associated macrophages in photosensitizer accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd

    1995-05-01

    Cells dissociated from tumors (carcinomas and sarcomas) growing subcutaneously in mice that have been administered Photofrin or other photosensitizers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Monoclonal antibodies were used for identification of major cellular populations contained in these tumors. The results demonstrate that a subpopulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is unique among tumor cell populations in that it excels in the accumulation of very high levels of photosensitizers. These macrophages showed an increased expression of interleukin 2 receptor, which is indicative of their activated state. since macrophages were reported to concentrate in the periphery of human neoplasms, it is suggested that activates TAMs are the determinants of tumor-localized photosensitizer fluorescence.

  19. Targeting of metastasis-promoting tumor-associated fibroblasts and modulation of pancreatic tumor-associated stroma with a carboxymethylcellulose-docetaxel nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Ernsting, Mark J; Hoang, Bryan; Lohse, Ines; Undzys, Elijus; Cao, Pinjiang; Do, Trevor; Gill, Bethany; Pintilie, Melania; Hedley, David; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2015-05-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are characterized by the desmoplastic reaction, a dense fibrous stroma that has been shown to be supportive of tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, and has been associated with resistance to chemotherapy and reduced patient survival. Here, we investigated targeted depletion of stroma for pancreatic cancer therapy via taxane nanoparticles. Cellax-DTX polymer is a conjugate of docetaxel (DTX), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and acetylated carboxymethylcellulose, a construct which condenses into well-defined 120nm particles in an aqueous solution, and is suitable for intravenous injection. We examined Cellax-DTX treatment effects in highly stromal primary patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts and in a metastatic PAN02 mouse model of pancreatic cancer, focusing on specific cellular interactions in the stroma, pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. Greater than 90% of Cellax-DTX particles accumulate in smooth muscle actin (SMA) positive cancer-associated fibroblasts which results in long-term depletion of this stromal cell population, an effect not observed with Nab-paclitaxel (Nab-PTX). The reduction in stromal density leads to a >10-fold increase in tumor perfusion, reduced tumor weight and a reduction in metastasis. Consentingly, Cellax-DTX treatment increased survival when compared to treatment with gemcitabine or Nab-PTX in a metastatic PAN02 mouse model. Cellax-DTX nanoparticles interact with the tumor-associated stroma, selectively interacting with and depleting SMA positive cells and macrophage, effects of which are associated with significant changes in tumor progression and metastasis.

  20. Human CTLs to wild-type and enhanced epitopes of a novel prostate and breast tumor-associated protein, TARP, lyse human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, SangKon; Terabe, Masaki; Pendleton, C David; Bhattacharyya, Anu; Bera, Tapan K; Epel, Malka; Reiter, Yoram; Phillips, John; Linehan, W Marston; Kasten-Sportes, Claude; Pastan, Ira; Berzofsky, Jay A

    2004-04-01

    Vaccine therapy for prostate and breast cancer may have potential for treating these major causes of death in males and females, respectively. Critical to the development of tumor-specific vaccines is finding and characterizing novel antigens to be recognized by CD8(+) T cells. To define new CD8(+) T-cell tumor antigens, we determined two wild-type HLA-A2 epitopes from a recently found tumor-associated protein, TARP (T-cell receptor gamma alternate reading frame protein), expressed in prostate and breast cancer cells. We were also able to engineer epitope-enhanced peptides by sequence modifications. Both wild-type and enhanced epitopes induced peptide-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in A2K(b) transgenic mice. In vitro restimulation of human CD8(+) T cells from a prostate cancer patient resulted in CD8(+) T cells reactive to the peptide epitopes that could lyse HLA-A2(+) human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) expressing TARP. Epitope-specific human CD8(+) T cells were also enumerated in patients' peripheral blood by tetramer staining. Our data suggest that HLA-A2-binding TARP epitopes and enhanced epitopes discovered in this study could be incorporated into a potential vaccine for both breast and prostate cancer.

  1. Carbohydrates for training and competition.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Wong, Stephen H S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    An athlete's carbohydrate intake can be judged by whether total daily intake and the timing of consumption in relation to exercise maintain adequate carbohydrate substrate for the muscle and central nervous system ("high carbohydrate availability") or whether carbohydrate fuel sources are limiting for the daily exercise programme ("low carbohydrate availability"). Carbohydrate availability is increased by consuming carbohydrate in the hours or days prior to the session, intake during exercise, and refuelling during recovery between sessions. This is important for the competition setting or for high-intensity training where optimal performance is desired. Carbohydrate intake during exercise should be scaled according to the characteristics of the event. During sustained high-intensity sports lasting ~1 h, small amounts of carbohydrate, including even mouth-rinsing, enhance performance via central nervous system effects. While 30-60 g · h(-1) is an appropriate target for sports of longer duration, events >2.5 h may benefit from higher intakes of up to 90 g · h(-1). Products containing special blends of different carbohydrates may maximize absorption of carbohydrate at such high rates. In real life, athletes undertake training sessions with varying carbohydrate availability. Whether implementing additional "train-low" strategies to increase the training adaptation leads to enhanced performance in well-trained individuals is unclear.

  2. A newly generated functional antibody identifies Tn antigen as a novel determinant in the cancer cell–lymphatic endothelium interaction

    PubMed Central

    Danussi, Carla; Coslovi, Anna; Campa, Cristiana; Mucignat, Maria T; Spessotto, Paola; Uggeri, Fulvio; Paoletti, Sergio; Colombatti, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Malignant transformation of epithelial cells is frequently associated with the alteration of glycosylation pathways. Tn is a common tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen present in 90% of human carcinomas and its expression correlates with metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Despite its relevance, the functional role of Tn in tumor biology has not been firmly established probably for the lack of appropriate experimental tools. Our aims were to produce highly reactive monoclonal antibodies against Tn making use of synthetically produced Tn and to test their usefulness for in vivo imaging as well as to define their potential functional activity in tumor cell spread. We immunized mice with Tn clustered on cationized BSA and screened the positive hybridomas with Tn-biotinylated alginate. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay and immunofluorescence assays revealed that the most reactive anti-Tn IgM mAb (2154F12A4) selectively recognized Tn on the MCF7 breast cancer cell line since its binding to the cell membrane was completely abolished by preincubation with purified Tn. Importantly, QDot 800-conjugated mAb injected in MCF7-tumor bearing mice specifically bound to primary tumor lesions as well as to metastases in lymph nodes. In addition, this mAb was able to inhibit cancer cell adhesion to lymphatic endothelium suggesting a novel involvement of Tn in the lymphatic dissemination of cancer cells and hypothesizing future applications in inhibiting lymphatic metastases. PMID:19528665

  3. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  4. The prognostic relevance of tumor associated macrophages in advanced stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jakovic, Ljubomir R; Mihaljevic, Biljana S; Perunicic Jovanovic, Maja D; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Andjelic, Bosko M; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Z

    2011-10-01

    Although the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been improved, distinguishing reliable prognostic biomarkers could better stratify patients for more effective treatment. We analyzed the prognostic relevance of CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) by immunohistochemical analysis at diagnosis and standard clinical parameters in 52 ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine)-treated patients with advanced stage classical HL (cHL). Patients with >25% CD68+ TAMs compared to those with ≤25% had worse 5-year overall survival (45% vs. 77%, log-rank p = 0.019) and showed a trend toward shorter 5-year event-free survival (51% vs. 71%, log-rank p = 0.19). Additionally, no significant correlation with selected clinical features was found. Significantly shorter 5-year overall survival was associated with International Prognostic Score (IPS) >2, bulky disease, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (log-rank test, p = 0.003, p = 0.049, p = 0.007, respectively). In multivariate analysis, increased CD68+TAMs, IPS >2, and bulky disease were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival (Cox multivariate model, p = 0.006, p = 0.007, p = 0.013, respectively). Tumor-associated macrophages represent a potential prognostic biomarker which could contribute to better risk stratification of patients with cHL.

  5. Clinical implication of tumor-associated and immunological parameters in melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab.

    PubMed

    Damuzzo, V; Solito, S; Pinton, L; Carrozzo, E; Valpione, S; Pigozzo, J; Arboretti Giancristofaro, R; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Mandruzzato, S

    2016-01-01

    Ipilimumab, the first immune-checkpoint inhibitor extending overall survival (OS) in metastatic melanoma patients, has a survival benefit only in a proportion of patients and the development of reliable predictive biomarkers is still an unmet need. To meet this request, we used a multivariate statistical approach to test whether myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) or other tumor-associated and immunological parameters may serve as predictive or prognostic biomarkers in melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab. By using a standardized approach to determine the circulating levels of four MDSC subsets, we observed a significant expansion of three MDSC subsets at baseline, as compared to controls and, upon treatment, that high levels of CD14(+)/IL4Rα(+) MDSCs were an independent prognostic factor of reduced OS. On the contrary, longer OS was associated to low levels of the proinflammatory proteins IL-6 and CRP and tumor-associated factors S100B and LDH both at baseline and after treatment. Increasing number of total T cells and especially of PD-1(+)/CD4(+) T cells were associated with better prognosis, and upregulation of PD-1(+) expression on CD4(+) T cells upon treatment was associated with lower toxicity. As several parameters were associated to OS, we included these factors in a multivariate survival model, and we identified IL-6 and ECOG PS as independent biomarkers associated with improved OS, whereas high levels of LDH and CD14(+)/IL4Rα(+) MDSCs were negative independent markers of reduced OS.

  6. Universal Breast Cancer Antigens as Targets Linking Early Detection and Therapeutic Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    the presence of carcinoma. We further hypothesize that immunologic responses can be elicited in advanced breast cancer patients using vaccines...trial. Immunologic responses were assessed and the optimal dose level was chosen and an additional four patients were treated at that dose...which to assess presence of tumor- associated antigens and therefore the potential for preventative vaccination. Evidence of immunologic response to

  7. Novel chemotactic-antigen DNA vaccine against cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuren; Zhang, Youhui

    2008-04-01

    Dendritic cells play a pivotal role in immune induction. Dendritic cells perform antigen uptake, processing and presentation to T cells only when they are matured and in the functional state. In the development of a vaccine, it is of utmost importance to consider how to make dendritic cells' functions immunologically adequate. In this paper, we report the development of a series of antitumor DNA vaccines with similar structural framework, in which a gene encoding tumor-associated antigenic peptide is ligated upstream to the gene coding secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and downstream to the gene encoding the Fc portion of IgG (named chemotactic-antigen DNA vaccine [CADV]). CCR7(+) T, B, natural killer and dendritic cells can be attracted by secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine, and Fc facilitates antigen uptake via Fc receptors expressed on dendritic cells. In a series of experiments in mice vaccinated by CADV with such tumor-associated antigenic specificities as HPV-16 E7, PSA-PSM-PAP, HER-2/neu, p53 and hTERT, CADV can attract immune cells to the vaccine inoculation site, remarkably inhibit tumor growth and extend survival time in tumor-bearing mice. The antitumor effect is more efficacious than that in mice treated with SLC-Ag or Ag-Fc hybrid gene. Tumor-associated antigenic-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be induced by in vitro experiment in a human system. When combined with measures blocking the negative immune feedback circuits, the therapeutic effect of the vaccine can be further enhanced. Large-scale production of CADV is possible for clinical application.

  8. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  9. Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification is a common phenomenon in nature. Many carbohydrate modifications such as some epimerization, O-acetylation, O-sulfation, O-methylation, N-deacetylation, and N-sulfation, take place after the formation of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide backbones. These modifications can be categorized as carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications (PGMs). Carbohydrate PGMs further extend the complexity of the structures and the synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They also increase the capacity of the biological information that can be controlled by finely tuning the structures of carbohydrates. Developing efficient methods to obtain structurally defined naturally occurring oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates with carbohydrate PGMs is essential for understanding the biological significance of carbohydrate PGMs. Combine with high-throughput screening methods, synthetic carbohydrates with PGMs are invaluable probes in structure-activity relationship studies. We illustrate here several classes of carbohydrates with PGMs and their applications. Recent progress in chemical, enzymatic, and chemoenzymatic syntheses of these carbohydrates and their derivatives are also presented. PMID:17340000

  10. Immunostimulatory early phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages does not predict tumor growth outcome in an HLA-DR mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Riabov, Vladimir; Kim, David; Chhina, Surmeet; Alexander, Richard B; Klyushnenkova, Elena N

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were shown to support the progression of many solid tumors. However, anti-tumor properties of TAM were also reported in several types of cancer. Here, we investigated the phenotype and functions of TAM in two transgenic mouse models of prostate cancer that display striking differences in tumor growth outcome. Mice expressing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a self-antigen specifically in prostate (PSAtg mice) rejected PSA-expressing transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) tumors. However, the introduction of HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2b) transgene presenting PSA-derived peptides in a MHC class II-restricted manner exacerbated the growth of TRAMP-PSA tumors in DR2bxPSA F 1 mice. Despite the difference in tumor growth outcome, tumors in both strains were equally and intensively infiltrated by macrophages on the first week after tumor challenge. TAM exhibited mixed M1/M2 polarization and simultaneously produced pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IL1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines. TAM from both mouse strains demonstrated antigen-presenting potential and pronounced immunostimulatory activity. Moreover, they equally induced apoptosis of tumor cells. In vivo depletion of macrophages in DR2bxPSA F 1 but not PSAtg mice aggravated tumor growth suggesting that macrophages more strongly contribute to anti-tumor immunity when specific presentation of PSA to CD4+ T cells is possible. In summary, we conclude that in the early stages of tumor progression, the phenotype and functional properties of TAM did not predict tumor growth outcome in two transgenic prostate cancer models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that during the initial stage of prostate cancer development, TAM have the potential to activate T cell immunity and mediate anti-tumor effects.

  11. Gender-Specific Transfusion Affects Tumor-Associated Neutrophil: Macrophage Ratios in Murine Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Douglas D.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A.; Lee, Joon H.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to decreased survival for pancreas cancer. Noting clinical data associating female blood products with increased morbidity, our lab has demonstrated that transfusion of female blood augments metastatic events compared to male blood in an immunocompetent murine pancreatic cancer model. It has been suggested that tumor-associated macrophages correlate with tumor progression by promoting angiogenesis. More recently, tumor-associated neutrophils have been implicated in aggressive tumor behavior. We hypothesize that differences in gender-specific transfusion-mediated pancreatic cancer progression are due to microenvironmental changes within the tumor. To test this hypothesis, we examined tumor-associated neutrophils and macrophage ratios in male and female mice with pancreatic cancer receiving blood transfusion from male or female donors. Methods C57/BL6 mice, age 7–9 weeks, underwent splenic inoculation with 2.5×105 PanO2 murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Mice were transfused on post-op day 7 with 1 ml/kg supernatant from day 42 male or female packed red cells. Necropsy was performed at 5 weeks or earlier for clinical deterioration, and tumors harvested. Frozen sections (5 μm) were stained for neutrophils and macrophages by immunofluorescence. Data were analyzed using ANOVA; p≤0.05 was used to determine significance; N≥3 per group. Results Clinically, male mice had greater morbidity and mortality than female mice when receiving female blood products, with roughened hair coat, development of ascites and death due to bowel obstruction. In evaluating the tumor microenvironment from mice receiving female blood products, male mice were noted to have a greater neutrophil to macrophage ratio than female mice, 0.176±0.028 vs. 0.073±0.012, p=0.03. When examining neutrophil to macrophage ratio in mice receiving male blood products, no difference was noted (p=0.48). Conclusions Male mice with pancreas

  12. Tecemotide: An antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  13. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens.

  14. Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Transfection with human fucosyltransferase III induced expression of FH6- and CSLEX-reactive sLex epitopes with no effects on P-selectin binding. Monoclonal...test this issue, a broader array of cell surface sLex epitopes was needed. Therefore, we transfected 4T1 cells with human fucosyltransferase III (FUTIJI...Reactivity of P-selectin with selected cation of a type H core structure by cl,2- fucosyltransferase or variants remained similar to the levels detected in

  15. [Primary retroperitoneal carcinoid tumor associated with multiple endcrine neoplasia (men) type 1: a case report].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Syuji; Numakura, Kazuyuki; Satoyoshi, Kiyofumi; Saito, Mitsuru; Horikawa, Yohei; Takayama, Koichiro; Nara, Taketoshi; Kanda, Sohei; Miura, Yoshiko; Maita, Shinya; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Obara, Takashi; Kumazawa, Teruaki; Narita, Shintaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Satoh, Shigeru; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2011-11-01

    We report an extremely rare case of a 69-year-old man having a retroperitoneal carcinoid tumor associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1. The patient whose son and daughter were previously diagnosed with MEN type 1 was admitted to the Department of Endocrinology at our hospital for evaluation of this disorder. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography revealed a parathyroid and retroperitoneal tumor (43 mm x 34 mm). The patient did not consent to surgical management of the tumor; however three years later, a follow-up CT revealed tumor enlargement (55 mm x 50 mm). We were unable to rule out a malignancy, and subsequently resected the tumor. A pathological diagnosis of retroperitoneal carcinoid was made. No local recurrence or metastasis have been observed for 21 months.

  16. Targeted delivery of nano-PTX to the brain tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Lei; Tao, Youhua; Payne, Gregory; Do, Linh; Thomas, Tima; Rodriguez, Juan; Dou, Huanyu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles containing mixed lipid monolayer shell, biodegradable polymer core and rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) peptide as brain targeting ligand, were developed for brain targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to treat malignant glioma. RVG conjugated PTX loaded NPs (RVG-PTX-NPs) had the desirable size (~140 nm), narrow size distribution and spherical shape. RVG-PTX-NPs showed poor uptake by neurons and selective targeting to the brain tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) with controlled release and tumor specific toxicity. In vivo studies revealed that RVG-PTX-NPs were significant to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and had specific targeting to the brain. Most importantly, RVG-PTX-NPs showed effectiveness for anti-glioma therapy on human glioma of mice model. We concluded that RVG-PTX-NPs provided an effective approach for brain-TAMs targeted delivery for the treatment of glioma. PMID:28036254

  17. Tumor-associated macrophages (not tumor cells) are the determinants of photosensitizer tumor localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd

    1995-03-01

    The distribution of Photofrin and several other photosensitizers among major cellular populations contained in solid mouse tumors was examined using flow cytometry. Seven tumor models were included in the analysis: sarcomas EMT6, KHT, RIF, FsaR and FsaN, Lewis lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII. In all these tumors, the highest photosensitizer levels were found in a subpopulation of tumor associated macrophages consisting of activated cells (as suggested by their increased size, granularity, and the number of interleukin 2 receptors). There was no evidence of selective photosensitizer accumulation in malignant tumor cells. Results consistent with these observations were also obtained with the carcinogen induced squamous cell carcinoma growing in hamster cheek pouch.

  18. Ghost cell odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma--report of two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Hogge, Maritzabel; Velez, Ines; Kaltman, Steven; Movahed, Reza; Yeh, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The ghost cell odontogenic tumor (GCOT) is a neoplastic/cystic lesion with a diverse histopathological and clinical behavior It was formerly known as calcified odontogenic cyst, but in 2005 the World Health Organization categorized this lesion as an odontogenic, benign tumor rather than a cyst; nominating this neoplasm as calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. A later comprehensive classification named it ghost cell odontogenic tumor because the most remarkable histopathologic characteristic is the presence of a mass of ghost cells embedded in the epithelium. We report two cases of a rare variant of a ghost cell odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma; to our knowledge, one is the youngest patient (four month old) reported in the English literature.

  19. Induction of Apoptosis in Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells and Therapy of Orthotopic Human Pancreatic Carcinoma in Nude Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Kenji; Kim, Sun-Jin; Thaker, Premal; Yazici, Sertac; Nam, Do-Hyun; He, Junqin; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Chiao, Paul J; Sclabas, Guido M; Abbruzzese, James L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Although gemcitabine has been accepted as the first-line chemotherapeutic reagent for advanced pancreatic cancer, improvement of response rate and survival is not sufficient and patients often develop resistance. We hypothesized that the inhibition of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, combined with gemcitabine, would overcome the resistance to gemcitabine in orthotopic pancreatic tumor animal model. L3.6pl, human pancreatic cancer cells growing in the pancreas, and tumor-associated endothelial cells in microorgan environment highly expressed phosphorylated EGFR, VEGFR, and Akt, which regulates antiapoptotic mechanism. Oral administration of AEE788 (dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor against EGFR and VEGFR) inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR, and Akt on tumor-associated endothelial cells as well as tumor cells. Although intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gemcitabine showed limited inhibitory effect on tumor growth, combination with AEE788 and gemcitabine produced nearly 95% inhibition of tumor growth in parallel with a high level of apoptosis on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, and decreased microvascular density and proliferation rate. Collectively, these data indicate that dual inhibition of phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR, in combination with gemcitabine, produces apoptosis of tumor-associated endothelial cells and significantly suppresses human pancreatic cancer in nude mice. PMID:16026649

  20. Tumor-associated macrophages induce capillary morphogenesis of lymphatic endothelial cells derived from human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, Yukie; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Kumamoto, Kanako; Tokumoto, Mao; Sakimura, Chie; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kimura, Kenjiro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-08-01

    Tumor lymphangiogenesis is a major prognostic indicator of gastric cancer. Tumor-induced inflammation has been shown to attract tumor-associated macrophages that affect lymphangiogenesis. However, detailed mechanisms of macrophage-induced lymphangiogenesis have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) derived from lymph nodes (LNs) of human gastric cancer. Lymphatic endothelial cells were directly or indirectly cocultured with macrophages from healthy human blood, with or without the supernatant of the gastric cancer cell line, OCUM-12. We analyzed the effect of cancer pretreated macrophages and of macrophages from metastatic LNs of gastric cancer on LECs. We observed morphological changes of LECs in coculture and assessed the gene expression of possible lymphangiogenic molecules of macrophages and LECs after contact coculture, and of cancer pretreated macrophages, by quantitative RT-PCR. Specimens of metastatic LN of gastric cancer were immunofluorescently stained. We found that tubulogenesis of LECs was observed only in the contact coculture model. OCUM-12 cells promoted macrophage-induced tubulogenesis of LECs. Relative gene expression of MMP and adhesion molecules was significantly upregulated in both capillary-forming LECs and cocultured macrophages. Cancer pretreated macrophages upregulated lymphangiogenic factors including inflammatory cytokines, MMPs, adhesion molecules, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C. Blocking of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and macrophage activation suppressed tubulogenesis of LECs. Immunohistochemistry showed macrophages localized around lymphatic vessels. Our results suggested that interaction between LECs and macrophages may be an important initial step of tumor lymphangiogenesis developing LN metastasis. Understanding of its mechanisms could be useful for future therapeutics of gastric cancer.

  1. Heat capacity changes in carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Chavelas, Eneas A; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    Carbohydrates are crucial for living cells, playing myriads of functional roles that range from being structural or energy-storage devices to molecular labels that, through non-covalent interaction with proteins, impart exquisite selectivity in processes such as molecular trafficking and cellular recognition. The molecular bases that govern the recognition between carbohydrates and proteins have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, we have obtained a surface-area-based model for the formation heat capacity of protein-carbohydrate complexes, which includes separate terms for the contributions of the two molecular types. The carbohydrate model, which was calibrated using carbohydrate dissolution data, indicates that the heat capacity contribution of a given group surface depends on its position in the saccharide molecule, a picture that is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies showing that the high abundance of hydroxy groups in carbohydrates yields particular solvation properties. This model was used to estimate the carbohydrate's contribution in the formation of a protein-carbohydrate complex, which in turn was used to obtain the heat capacity change associated with the protein's binding site. The model is able to account for protein-carbohydrate complexes that cannot be explained using a previous model that only considered the overall contribution of polar and apolar groups, while allowing a more detailed dissection of the elementary contributions that give rise to the formation heat capacity effects of these adducts.

  2. Noncaloric Benefits of Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Noncaloric benefits of carbohydrates are due to the presence of dietary fibers, which are a heterogeneous group of natural food sources and form an important component of a healthy diet. They differ in physiochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability and viscosity. They have a wide range of physiological effects resulting in gastrointestinal and systemic benefits. These include appetite, satiety, bowel transit time and function, production of short-chain fatty acids and certain vitamins, and effects on gut microbiota, immunity and inflammation, as well as mineral absorption. They also help to control the glycemic status and serum lipid levels, resulting in reduced incidence rates of atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective.

  4. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature.

  5. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  6. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  7. Purification and characterization of the major antigen WI-1 from Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts and immunological comparison with A antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B S; Jones, J M

    1994-01-01

    The lack of well-defined antigens from Blastomyces dermatitidis has hampered the ability to reliably diagnose human infection and study the immunobiology of blastomycosis. We recently discovered a novel surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeasts, designated WI-1, and demonstrated it to be a key antigenic target of humoral and cellular responses during infection. In the present article, we purified and characterized WI-1 and compared it immunologically with the only Blastomyces antigen commercially available, A antigen. WI-1 was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography over a DEAE-cellulose column. It eluted from the column at a point on the salt gradient corresponding to 460 to 490 mM NaCl, reflecting its acidic pI of approximately equal to 5.2. Purified WI-1 had a molecular mass of 120 kDa and contained a large amount of cysteine (85 residues) and aromatic amino acids but undetectable carbohydrate. In contrast, A antigen had a molecular mass of 135 kDa and contained 37% carbohydrate. Immunological comparison of the two antigens showed that, when radiolabeled, WI-1 was more reactive with anti-Blastomyces antisera than A antigen but did not cross-react with anti-Histoplasma antisera. Proteinase digestion of WI-1 eliminated its recognition by anti-WI-1 and anti-Blastomyces antisera. Proteinase treatment of A antigen had no effect on its recognition by anti-Blastomyces or anti-Histoplasma antisera, but periodate treatment abolished recognition by anti-Histoplasma antisera, indicating that the cross-reactive determinant(s) of A antigen is displayed on the accompanying carbohydrate. In further studies, anti-WI-1 antiserum reacted with A antigen and, conversely, anti-A antiserum and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacted with WI-1, indicating a shared determinant on the two antigens. A recombinant 25-amino-acid repeat, recently cloned from WI-1 and found to be the major target of antibody recognition of WI-1, reacted strongly with anti-A antiserum and MAbs. In MAb

  8. Tumor Expression of CD200 Inhibits IL-10 Production by Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells and Prevents Tumor Immune Evasion of CTL Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixin; Liu, Jin-Qing; Talebian, Fatemeh; El-Omrani, Hani Y.; Khattabi, Mazin; Yu, Li; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2010-01-01

    CD200 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that functions through interaction with the CD200 receptor (CD200R) on myeloid lineage cells to regulate myeloid cell functions. Expression of CD200 has been implicated in multiple types of human cancer, however the impact of tumor expression of CD200 on tumor immunity remains poorly understood. To evaluate this issue, we generated CD200-positive mouse plasmacytoma J558 and mastocytoma P815 cells. We found that established CD200-positive tumors were often completely rejected by adoptively transferred CTL without tumor recurrence; in contrast, CD200-negative tumors were initially rejected by adoptively transferred CTL but the majority of tumors recurred. Tumor expression of CD200 significantly inhibited suppressive activity and IL-10 production by tumor-associated myeloid cells (TAMC), and as a result, more CTL accumulated in the tumor and exhibited a greater capacity to produce IFN-γ in CD200-positive tumors than in CD200-negative tumors. Neutralization of IL-10 significantly inhibited the suppressor activity of TAMC, and IL-10-deficiency allowed TAMC to kill cancer cells and their antigenic variants, which prevented tumor recurrence during CTL therapy. Thus, tumor expression of CD200 prevents tumor recurrence via inhibiting IL-10 production by TAMC. PMID:20662098

  9. Preferential Tim-3 expression on Treg and CD8(+) T cells, supported by tumor-associated macrophages, is associated with worse prognosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinying; Yue, Rongxi; Tang, Jiahong; Si, Haige; Shen, Liqun; Guo, Changsheng; Zhang, Lixin; Han, Huaizhong; Song, Haihan K; Zhao, Pengfei; Wang, Ning; Song, Zongchang; Guo, Chunliang

    2016-01-01

    While infection with H. pylori is a strong risk factor for gastric cancer, most H. pylori-colonized individuals, even those with the high-risk CagA(+)VacA(+) strain, remain asymptomatic over their lifetime. We hypothesized that the discordant outcomes were due to differences in the host immune responses. Previously, Tim-3-mediated immune modulation was observed in H. pylori-challenged mice. In this study, we compared Tim-3-related responses in CagA(+)VacA(+) H. pylori-infected asymptomatic individuals and H. pylori-associated gastric adenocarcinoma patients. We showed that compared to H. pylori-uninfected individuals, both H. pylori-infected asymptomatic and gastric cancer patients upregulated Tim-3 overall. However, the Tim-3 upregulation was enriched on Th1 cells in asymptomatic patients and on Treg and CD8(+) T cells in gastric cancer patients, with respective differences in T cell subset functions. In gastric cancer patients, high Tim-3 expression on Treg and CD8(+) T cells, but not on Th1 cells, was associated with worse prognosis. H. pylori-antigen presentation by tumor-associated macrophages upregulated Tim-3 expression more effectively than by blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. The upregulation of Tim-3 in vitro depended on the concentration of H. pylori antigen but not on whether the cells were from asymptomatic or cancer patients. These data suggest that the discrepancy in Tim-3 upregulation in asymptomatic and cancer subjects is induced by cancer but not the other way around. Once gastric cancer is developed, Tim-3 expression is associated with worse prognosis.

  10. Stereochemical Control in Carbohydrate Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Rhys; Northcote, Peter T.; Harvey, Joanne E.; Dangerfield, Emma M.; Stocker, Bridget L.

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates, in the form of glycoconjugates, have recently been shown to control a wide range of cellular processes. Accordingly, students interested in the study of organic chemistry and biomedical sciences should be exposed to carbohydrate chemistry. To this end, we have developed a sequence of experiments that leads the student from the…

  11. The actin crosslinking protein palladin modulates force generation and mechanosensitivity of tumor associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Azatov, Mikheil; Goicoechea, Silvia M.; Otey, Carol A.; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Cells organize actin filaments into higher-order structures by regulating the composition, distribution and concentration of actin crosslinkers. Palladin is an actin crosslinker found in the lamellar actin network and stress fibers, which are critical for mechanosensing of the environment. Palladin also serves as a molecular scaffold for α-actinin, another key actin crosslinker. By virtue of its close interactions with actomyosin structures in the cell, palladin may play an important role in cell mechanics. However, the role of palladin in cellular force generation and mechanosensing has not been studied. Here, we investigate the role of palladin in regulating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton and cellular force generation in response to alterations in substrate stiffness. Traction force microscopy revealed that tumor-associated fibroblasts generate larger forces on substrates of increased stiffness. Contrary to expectations, knocking down palladin increased the forces generated by cells and inhibited their ability to sense substrate stiffness for very stiff gels. This was accompanied by significant differences in actin organization, adhesion dynamics and altered myosin organization in palladin knock-down cells. Our results suggest that actin crosslinkers such as palladin and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant behavior as in cancer metastasis. PMID:27353427

  12. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy. PMID:25125485

  13. Biodistribution and in Vivo Activities of Tumor-Associated Macrophage-Targeting Nanoparticles Incorporated with Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are increasingly considered a viable target for tumor imaging and therapy. Previously, we reported that innovative surface-functionalization of nanoparticles may help target them to TAMs. In this report, using poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporated with doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-NPs), we studied the effect of surface-modification of the nanoparticles with mannose and/or acid-sensitive sheddable polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the biodistribution of DOX and the uptake of DOX by TAMs in tumor-bearing mice. We demonstrated that surface-modification of the DOX-NPs with both mannose and acid-sensitive sheddable PEG significantly increased the accumulation of DOX in tumors, enhanced the uptake of the DOX by TAMs, but decreased the distribution of DOX in mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), such as liver. We also confirmed that the acid-sensitive sheddable PEGylated, mannose-modified DOX-nanoparticles (DOX-AS-M-NPs) targeted TAMs because depletion of TAMs in tumor-bearing mice significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in tumor tissues. Furthermore, in a B16-F10 tumor-bearing mouse model, we showed that the DOX-AS-M-NPs were significantly more effective than free DOX in controlling tumor growth but had only minimum effect on the macrophage population in mouse liver and spleen. The AS-M-NPs are promising in targeting cytotoxic or macrophage-modulating agents into tumors to improve tumor therapy. PMID:25314115

  14. Inflammation and Cancer: Extra- and Intracellular Determinants of Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Tumor Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Vizler, Csaba; Kitajka, Klara; Puskas, Laszlo G.

    2017-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer-related inflammation is the recruitment of monocyte-macrophage lineage cells to the tumor microenvironment. These tumor infiltrating myeloid cells are educated by the tumor milieu, rich in cancer cells and stroma components, to exert functions such as promotion of tumor growth, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and cancer cell dissemination. Our review highlights the ontogenetic diversity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and describes their main phenotypic markers. We cover fundamental molecular players in the tumor microenvironment including extra- (CCL2, CSF-1, CXCL12, IL-4, IL-13, semaphorins, WNT5A, and WNT7B) and intracellular signals. We discuss how these factors converge on intracellular determinants (STAT3, STAT6, STAT1, NF-κB, RORC1, and HIF-1α) of cell functions and drive the recruitment and polarization of TAMs. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate macrophage polarization key miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-155, miR-125a, miR-511, and miR-223) are also discussed in the context of the inflammatory myeloid tumor compartment. Accumulating evidence suggests that high TAM infiltration correlates with disease progression and overall poor survival of cancer patients. Identification of molecular targets to develop new therapeutic interventions targeting these harmful tumor infiltrating myeloid cells is emerging nowadays. PMID:28197019

  15. STAT1 signaling regulates tumor-associated macrophage-mediated T cell deletion.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2005-04-15

    It is well established that tumor progression is associated with the accumulation of myeloid suppressive cells, which in mice include Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells and F4/80+ macrophages. The paradox is that with the exception of terminal stages of the disease or chemotherapy treatment, tumor-bearing mice or cancer patients do not display a profound systemic immune suppression. We therefore raised the question as to whether myeloid cell-mediated T cell suppression is controlled at a local level at the site of the tumor. We have demonstrated that after adoptive transfer to tumor-bearing recipients, Gr-1+ (immature myeloid cells) freshly isolated from spleens of tumor-bearing mice become F4/80+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). These TAM, but not F4/80+ macrophages or Gr-1+ cells freshly isolated from spleens of tumor-bearing or naive mice were able to inhibit T cell-mediated immune response in vitro via induction of T cell apoptosis. Arginase and NO were both responsible for the apoptotic mechanism, and were seen only in TAM, but not in freshly isolated Gr1+ cells. Using the analysis of STAT activity in combination with STAT knockout mice, we have determined that STAT1, but not STAT3 or STAT6, was responsible for TAM-suppressive activity.

  16. TGF-β-inducible microRNA-183 silences tumor-associated natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Sarah S; Zhou, Jun-Min; Gilvary, Danielle L; Eksioglu, Erika A; Chen, Xianghong; Cress, W Douglas; Haura, Eric B; Schabath, Matthew B; Coppola, Domenico; Wei, Sheng; Djeu, Julie Y

    2014-03-18

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β), enriched in the tumor microenvironment and broadly immunosuppressive, inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function by yet-unknown mechanisms. Here we show that TGF-β-treated human NK cells exhibit reduced tumor cytolysis and abrogated perforin polarization to the immune synapse. This result was accompanied by loss of surface expression of activating killer Ig-like receptor 2DS4 and NKp44, despite intact cytoplasmic stores of these receptors. Instead, TGF-β depleted DNAX activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12), which is critical for surface NK receptor stabilization and downstream signal transduction. Mechanistic analysis revealed that TGF-β induced microRNA (miR)-183 to repress DAP12 transcription/translation. This pathway was confirmed with luciferase reporter constructs bearing the DAP12 3' untranslated region as well as in human NK cells by use of sense and antisense miR-183. Moreover, we documented reduced DAP12 expression in tumor-associated NK cells in lung cancer patients, illustrating this pathway to be consistently perturbed in the human tumor microenvironment.

  17. Tumor Associated Tissue Eosinophilia in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Histo-Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Priya; Patel, Anil; Md, Shylaja; Hallur, Jayadeva; Gujjar, Pavan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Tumor associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) is believed to play a significant role in biological behavior of the carcinoma. Eosinophils are involved in immune reaction. Various studies have been carried out regarding their role in tumor progression or regulation. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), eosinophils are associated with favourable or unfavourable prognosis and hence their role is yet unclear. To compare the tissue eosinophils in OSCC and normal tissue and to correlate the expression of TATE in different grades of OSCC. Method Study comprised 30 cases, 6 normal and 24 histopathologically diagnosed with OSCC. 4 micron thick sections were stained using 1% congo red solution. The sections were examined under high power (×40) and 10 consecutive microscopic fields were studied. The average number of eosinophils were statistically analysed. Results The tabulated results showed that the median value of tissue eosinophils, increased in OSCC compared to normal mucosa. Analysis on different grades of carcinoma showed a higher TATE in Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as compared to other grades. Conclusion The higher eosinophil count in OSCC compare to normal tissue might have a role in stromal invasion and infiltration. TATE can be used as an indicator of favourable prognosis in OSCC. PMID:28223881

  18. Tumor-Associated CSF MicroRNAs for the Prediction and Evaluation of CNS Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a readily reachable body fluid that is reflective of the underlying pathological state of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence it has been targeted for biomarker discovery for a variety of neurological disorders. CSF is also the major route for seeding metastases of CNS malignancies and its analysis could be informative for diagnosis and risk stratification of brain cancers. Recently, modern high-throughput, microRNAs (miRNAs) measuring technology has enabled sensitive detection of distinct miRNAs that are bio-chemicallystable in the CSF and can distinguish between different types of CNS cancers. Owing to the fact that a CSF specimen can be obtained with relative ease, analysis of CSF miRNAs could be a promising contribution to clinical practice. In this review, we examine the current scientific knowledge on tumor associated CSF miRNAs that could guide diagnosis of different brain cancer types, or could be helpful in predicting disease progression and therapy response. Finally, we highlight their potential applications clinically as biomarkers and discuss limitations. PMID:26690130

  19. Update on a tumor-associated NADH oxidase in gastric cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Yi-Hui; Yuan, Tein-Ming; Chen, Shi-Wen; Chueh, Pin-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common human malignancies, and its prevalence has been shown to be well-correlated with cancer-related deaths worldwide. Regrettably, the poor prognosis of this disease is mainly due to its late diagnosis at advanced stages after the cancer has already metastasized. Recent research has emphasized the identification of cancer biomarkers in the hope of diagnosing cancer early and designing targeted therapies to reverse cancer progression. One member of a family of growth-related nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH or hydroquinone) oxidases is tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX; ENOX2). Unlike its counterpart CNOX (ENOX1), identified in normal rat liver plasma membranes and shown to be stimulated by growth factors and hormones, tNOX activity purified from rat hepatoma cells is constitutively active. Its activity is detectable in the sera of cancer patients but not in those of healthy volunteers, suggesting its clinical relevance. Interestingly, tNOX expression was shown to be present in an array of cancer cell lines. More importantly, inhibition of tNOX was well correlated with reduced cancer cell growth and induction of apoptosis. RNA interference targeting tNOX expression in cancer cells effectively restored non-cancerous phenotypes, further supporting the vital role of tNOX in cancer cells. Here, we review the regulatory role of tNOX in gastric cancer cell growth. PMID:26973386

  20. Tumor-associated fibroblasts predominantly come from local and not circulating precursors

    PubMed Central

    Arina, Ainhoa; Idel, Christian; Hyjek, Elizabeth M.; Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Wang, Ying; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Schreiber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are common cell types in cancer stroma and lay down collagen required for survival and growth of cancer cells. Although some cancer therapy strategies target tumor fibroblasts, their origin remains controversial. Multiple publications suggest circulating mesenchymal precursors as a source of tumor-associated fibroblasts. However, we show by three independent approaches that tumor fibroblasts derive primarily from local, sessile precursors. First, transplantable tumors developing in a mouse expressing green fluorescent reporter protein (EGFP) under control of the type I collagen (Col-I) promoter (COL-EGFP) had green stroma, whereas we could not find COL-EGFP+ cells in tumors developing in the parabiotic partner lacking the fluorescent reporter. Lack of incorporation of COL-EGFP+ cells from the circulation into tumors was confirmed in parabiotic pairs of COL-EGFP mice and transgenic mice developing autochthonous intestinal adenomas. Second, transplantable tumors developing in chimeric mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells from COL-EGFP mice very rarely showed stromal fibroblasts expressing EGFP. Finally, cancer cells injected under full-thickness COL-EGFP skin grafts transplanted in nonreporter mice developed into tumors containing green stromal cells. Using multicolor in vivo confocal microscopy, we found that Col-I–expressing fibroblasts constituted approximately one-third of the stromal mass and formed a continuous sheet wrapping the tumor vessels. In summary, tumors form their fibroblastic stroma predominantly from precursors present in the local tumor microenvironment, whereas the contribution of bone marrow-derived circulating precursors is rare. PMID:27317748

  1. Huaier extract suppresses breast cancer via regulating tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaming; Qi, Wenwen; Song, Xiaojin; Lv, Shangge; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages in tumor microenvironment are mostly M2-polarized - and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here, we examined the regulatory effects of Huaier extract on TAMs using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our data demonstrated that Huaier extract could inhibit the infiltration of macrophages into tumor microenvironment in a dose-dependent manner. By performing RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and phagocytosis assay, we were able to find that Huaier extract could regulate the polarization of macrophages, with decreased M2-polarization and increased phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, we identified that Huaier extract could suppress macrophages-induced angiogenesis by using HUVEC migration assay, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane assay. Additionally, western blotting showed decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and VEGF with the use of Huaier extract. Finally, we found that Huaier extract could inhibit M2-macrophages infiltration and angiogenesis through treating 4T1 tumor bearing mice with Huaier extract. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of Huaier extract which inhibited angiogenesis by targeting TAMs. These findings provided that Huaier was a promising drug for clinical treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26831282

  2. Tumor-associated macrophages drive spheroid formation during early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Tan, Shu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Bellone, Stefania; Xu, Xiaocao; Zhang, Haifeng; Santin, Alessandro D.; Lou, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can influence ovarian cancer growth, migration, and metastasis, but the detailed mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis remain unclear. Here, we have shown a strong correlation between TAM-associated spheroids and the clinical pathology of ovarian cancer. Further, we have determined that TAMs promote spheroid formation and tumor growth at early stages of transcoelomic metastasis in an established mouse model for epithelial ovarian cancer. M2 macrophage–like TAMs were localized in the center of spheroids and secreted EGF, which upregulated αMβ2 integrin on TAMs and ICAM-1 on tumor cells to promote association between tumor cells and TAM. Moreover, EGF secreted by TAMs activated EGFR on tumor cells, which in turn upregulated VEGF/VEGFR signaling in surrounding tumor cells to support tumor cell proliferation and migration. Pharmacological blockade of EGFR or antibody neutralization of ICAM-1 in TAMs blunted spheroid formation and ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. These findings suggest that EGF secreted from TAMs plays a critical role in promoting early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer. As transcoelomic metastasis is also associated with many other cancers, such as pancreatic and colon cancers, our findings uncover a mechanism for TAM-mediated spheroid formation and provide a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer and other transcoelomic metastatic cancers. PMID:27721235

  3. TIPE2 regulates tumor-associated macrophages in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an essential role in the immunology, growth, invasion, and metastases of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation and regulation of TAMs by SCC are not completely understood. Here, in a Transwell co-culture system, we found that SCC cells induced polarization of macrophages to a M2 phenotype, evident by expression of surface markers CD163, CD206, and CD301, as well as reduction of cellular iNOS levels and augmentation of cellular arginase levels. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) was induced in macrophages by co-culturing with SCC cells. Depletion of TIPE2 in macrophages abolished the effects of co-cultured SCC cells on phenotypic modification of macrophages. Furthermore, patients with SCC were divided into two groups based on TIPE2 levels in TAMs at the time of tumor resection. We found that patients with high-TIPE2 TAMs had an overall poor 5-year survival. Together, our data suggest a previously unappreciated role of TIPE2 in the crosstalk between skin SCC and TAMs and highlight TIPE2 as a promising novel target for skin SCC treatment.

  4. Tumor-associated neutrophils stimulate T cell responses in early-stage human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy B.; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik S.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Stephen, Tom Li; Ranganathan, Anjana; Deshpande, Charuhas; Akimova, Tatiana; Vachani, Anil; Litzky, Leslie; Hancock, Wayne W.; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Feldman, Michael; Albelda, Steven M.; Singhal, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Infiltrating inflammatory cells are highly prevalent within the tumor microenvironment and mediate many processes associated with tumor progression; however, the contribution of specific populations remains unclear. For example, the nature and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the cancer microenvironment is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to provide a phenotypic and functional characterization of TANs in surgically resected lung cancer patients. We found that TANs constituted 5%–25% of cells isolated from the digested human lung tumors. Compared with blood neutrophils, TANs displayed an activated phenotype (CD62LloCD54hi) with a distinct repertoire of chemokine receptors that included CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, and CXCR4. TANs produced substantial quantities of the proinflammatory factors MCP-1, IL-8, MIP-1α, and IL-6, as well as the antiinflammatory IL-1R antagonist. Functionally, both TANs and neutrophils isolated from distant nonmalignant lung tissue were able to stimulate T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release. Cross-talk between TANs and activated T cells led to substantial upregulation of CD54, CD86, OX40L, and 4-1BBL costimulatory molecules on the neutrophil surface, which bolstered T cell proliferation in a positive-feedback loop. Together our results demonstrate that in the earliest stages of lung cancer, TANs are not immunosuppressive, but rather stimulate T cell responses. PMID:25384214

  5. Characterization of Truncated Tumor-Associated NADH Oxidase (ttNOX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel J.; Malone, Christine C.; Burk, Melissa; Moore, Blake P.; Achari, Aniruddha; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial, plant and animal cells possess novel surface proteins that exhibit both NADH oxidation (NOX) or hydroquinone and protein disulfide-thiol interchange. These enzymatic activities alternate to yield oscillating patterns wjth period lengths of approximately 24 minutes. The catalytic period of NOX proteins are temperature compensated and gravity responsive. We report the cloning, expression and characterization of truncated tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ttNOX), in which the membrane spanning region has been deleted. The cDNA (originated from HeLa cells) was cloned into pET-34b and pET-14b (Novagen) vectors for E. coli expression. Optimized expression and purification protocols yielded greater than 300mg per liter of culture with greater than 95% purity. Circular dichroism data was collected from a 2.7mg/ml solution in a 0.1mm cuvette with variable scanning using an Olis RSM CD spectrophotometer. The ellipticity values were scanned from 190 to 260nm. The spectra recorded have characteristics for alpha proteins with band maxima at 216nm and a possible shoulder at 212nm at 12OC and 250 C. Protein crystal screens are in progress and, to date, only small crystals have been observed. The regular periodic oscillatory change in the ttNOX protein is indicative of a possible time-keeping functional role. A single protein possessing alternating catalytic activities, with a potential biological clock function, is unprecedented and structural determination is paramount to understanding this role.

  6. Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition by tumor-associated macrophages in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Yao, Hongmei; Song, Ge; Liao, Xia; Xian, Yao; Li, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    It should be urgently better understood of the mechanism that contributes cancer aggressiveness. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role in tumor progression and metastasis formation by invasion, resistance to cell death and senescence, resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy, immune surveillance, immunosuppression and inflammation, confers stem cell properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key orchestrators and a set of macrophages in tumor microenvironment. They are major players in the connection between inflammation and cancer. TAMs could promote proliferation, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, stimulate tumor angiogenesis, and inhibit anti-tumor immune response mediated by T cell followed by promoting tumor progression. Recently, studies showed that TAMs played critical role in the regulation of EMT in cancer, although the underlying mechanism of TAMs-mediated acquisition of EMT has been largely unclear. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of TAMs in the regulation of EMT during tumorigenesis and summarize the recent ongoing experimental and pre-clinical TAMs targeted studies. PMID:26692918

  7. Isatin-pyrazole benzenesulfonamide hybrids potently inhibit tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Tanc, Muhammet; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-10-20

    New series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives incorporating pyrazole and isatin moieties were prepared using celecoxib as lead molecule. Biological evaluation of the target compounds was performed against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) and more precisely against the human isoforms hCA I, II (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated enzymes). Most of the tested compounds efficiently inhibited hCA I, II and IX, with KIs of 2.5-102 nM, being more effective than the reference drug acetazolamide. Compounds 11e, 11f, 16e and 16f were found to inhibit hCA XII with Ki of 3.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 7.2 nM, respectively. Compounds 11e and 16e, with 5-NO2 substitution on the isatin ring, were found to be selective inhibitors of hCA IX and hCA XII. Docking studies revealed that the NO2 group of both compounds participate in interactions with Asp132 within the hCA IX active site, and with residues Lys67 and Asp130 in hCA XII, respectively.

  8. Macrophage Polarization: Anti-cancer Strategies to Target Tumor-associated Macrophage in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Zhang, Jieqiong; Liang, Guikai; Ding, Ling; He, Qiaojun; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-20

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant inflammatory cells and orchestrate different stages of breast cancer development. TAMs participate in the tumor angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, invasion, immunosuppression, metastasis, and chemoresistance in breast cancer. Several clinical studies indicate the association between the high influx of TAMs in tumor with poor prognosis in hepatocellular, ovarian, cervical, and breast cancer. Previously developed hypotheses have proposed that TAMs participate in antitumor responses of the body, while recently many clinical and experimental studies have revealed that TAMs in tumor microenvironment predominantly resemble with M2-like polarized macrophages and produce a high amount of anti-inflammatory factors which are directly responsible for the development of tumor. Various studies have shown that TAMs in tumor either enhance or antagonize the anti-tumor efficacy of cytotoxic agents, antibodies-targeting cancer cells, and therapeutic agents depending on the nature of treatment. Thereby, multiple roles of TAMs suggests that it is very important to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target TAMs in breast tumor. In this review, we have discussed the functional role of TAMs in breast cancer and summarized available recent advances potential therapeutic strategies that effectively target to TAMs cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. MUC-1 Tumor Antigen Agonist Epitopes for Enhancing T-cell Responses to Human Tumors | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at NIH have identified 7 new agonist epitopes of the MUC-1 tumor associated antigen. Compared to their native epitope counterparts, peptides reflecting these agonist epitopes have been shown to enhance the generation of human tumor cells, which in turn have a greater ability to kill human tumor cells endogenously expressing the native MUC-1 epitope.

  10. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  11. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald; Pagoto, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. Objectives . To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Methods Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m=27.64, SD=2.59) women (ages 18–45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate:protein ≥ 6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better. Results Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria following the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage, but no differential effect on vigor. Conclusion For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight. PMID:18273603

  12. Characterization of tumor-associated B-cell subsets in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gryschok, Luise; Malcher, Joke; Wennhold, Kerstin; Garcia-Marquez, Maria; Herbold, Till; Neuhaus, Laura S.; Becker, Hans J.; Fiedler, Anne; Scherwitz, Pascal; Koslowsky, Thomas; Hake, Roland; Stippel, Dirk L.; Hölscher, Arnulf H.; Eidt, Sebastian; Hallek, Michael; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A precise understanding of the mechanisms by which human immune cell subsets affect tumor biology will be critical for successful treatment of cancer using immunotherapeutic approaches. Recent evidence suggests that B cells can both promote and inhibit the development and progression of tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of the B-cell infiltrates in colorectal cancers (CRC) in order to gain further insight into the role of B cells in CRC. Experimental Design: In this study we characterized B-cell subsets in primary tumors (n=38), metastases (n=6) and blood (n=46) of 51 patients with a diagnosis of CRC and blood of 10 healthy controls. B-cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry. Results: Peripheral blood of CRC patients contained a higher percentage of memory B cells than that of age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, the percentage of B cells within tumors was higher than that in the peripheral blood of CRC patients while metastases were typically devoid of tumor-infiltrating B cells. Tumor-associated B cells were enriched for activated and terminally differentiated B cells. Relevant proportions of regulatory B cells could only be detected in advanced cancer and metastases. Conclusion: B cells constitute a significant proportion of the immune infiltrate in CRC. The B-cell infiltrate of primary CRC is characterized by an accumulation of terminally differentiated memory B cells or plasma cells suggestive of a specific immune response against the tumor. However advanced tumors and metastases are also infiltrated by a considerable number of regulatory B cells. PMID:25026291

  13. A novel photodynamic therapy targeting cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Noriyuki; Kataoka, Hiromi; Yano, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Moriwaki, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Haruo; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Yoshinori; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Takahashi, Satoru; Joh, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in cancer stroma play important roles for cancer cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastases. We synthesized a novel photosensitizer, mannose-conjugated chlorin (M-chlorin), designed to bind mannose receptors highly expressed on TAMs. We evaluated the newly available photodynamic therapy (PDT) with M-chlorin against gastric and colon cancer. We evaluated PDT with M-chlorin for in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in cancer cells compared with chlorin alone and glucose-conjugated chlorin (G-chlorin). The subcellular localization of M-chlorin was observed by confocal microscopy, and the M-chlorin PDT effects against TAMs including THP-1-induced M2-polarized macrophages were evaluated. Anticancer effects were also investigated in an allograft model where cytotoxic effects against TAMs in the cancer cell stroma were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. M-chlorin PDT strongly induced cell death in cancer cells to almost the same extent as G-chlorin PDT by inducing apoptosis. M-chlorin was incorporated into cancer cells where it localized mainly in lysosomes and endoplasmic reticula. M-chlorin PDT revealed strong cytotoxicity for M2 macrophages induced from THP-1 cell lines, and it induced stronger cytotoxicity than G-chlorin PDT in the allograft model through killing both cancer cells and TAMs in the cancer stroma. The M-chlorin PDT produced strong cytotoxicity against cancer tissue by inducing apoptosis of both cancer cells and TAMs in the cancer stroma. This novel PDT thus stands as a new candidate for very effective, next-generation PDT.

  14. Metastasis Suppressors Regulate the Tumor Microenvironment by Blocking Recruitment of Prometastatic Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, Casey; Rabe, Daniel; Bainer, Russell; Sankarasharma, Devipriya; Chada, Kiran; Krausz, Thomas; Gilad, Yoav; Becker, Lev; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2015-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients have the highest risk of recurrence and metastasis. Because they cannot be treated with targeted therapies, and many do not respond to chemotherapy, they represent a clinically underserved group. TNBC is characterized by reduced expression of metastasis suppressors such as Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP), which inhibits tumor invasiveness. Mechanisms by which metastasis suppressors alter tumor cells are well characterized; however, their ability to regulate the tumor microenvironment and the importance of such regulation to metastasis suppression are incompletely understood. Here, we use species-specific RNA sequencing to show that RKIP expression in tumors markedly reduces the number and metastatic potential of infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). TAMs isolated from nonmetastatic RKIP(+) tumors, relative to metastatic RKIP(-) tumors, exhibit a reduced ability to drive tumor cell invasion and decreased secretion of prometastatic factors, including PRGN, and shed TNFR2. RKIP regulates TAM recruitment by blocking HMGA2, resulting in reduced expression of numerous macrophage chemotactic factors, including CCL5. CCL5 overexpression in RKIP(+) tumors restores recruitment of prometastatic TAMs and intravasation, whereas treatment with the CCL5 receptor antagonist Maraviroc reduces TAM infiltration. These results highlight the importance of RKIP as a regulator of TAM recruitment through chemokines such as CCL5. The clinical significance of these interactions is underscored by our demonstration that a signature comprised of RKIP signaling and prometastatic TAM factors strikingly separates TNBC patients based on survival outcome. Collectively, our findings identify TAMs as a previously unsuspected mechanism by which the metastasis-suppressor RKIP regulates tumor invasiveness, and further suggest that TNBC patients with decreased RKIP activity and increased TAM infiltration may respond to macrophage

  15. MR Imaging of Tumor Associated Macrophages with Clinically-Applicable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Golovko, Daniel; Ruffell, Brian; DeNardo, David G.; Castaneda, Rosalinda; Ansari, Celina; Rao, Jianghong; Tikhomirov, Grigory A.; Wendland, Mike; Corot, Claire; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in breast cancer correlates strongly with poor outcome. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable, non-invasive diagnostic assay for selective targeting and visualization of TAMs in breast cancer, based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinically applicable iron oxide nanoparticles. Experimental Design F4/80-negative mammary carcinoma cells and F4/80-positive TAMs were incubated with iron oxide nanoparticles and were compared regarding MR signal changes and iron uptake. MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice harboring mammary carcinomas underwent nanoparticle-enhanced MR up to 1 hour (h) and at 24 h post injection (p.i.). The tumor enhancement on MR images was correlated with the presence and location of TAMs and nanoparticles on confocal microscopy. Results In vitro studies revealed that iron oxide nanoparticles are preferentially phagocytosed by TAMs, but not by malignant tumor cells. In vivo, all tumors demonstrated an initial contrast agent perfusion on immediate postcontrast MR images with gradual transendothelial leakage into the tumor interstitium. At 24 h p.i., all tumors demonstrated a persistent signal decline on MR scans. TAM-depletion via αCSF1 mAb lead to significant inhibition of tumor nanoparticle enhancement. Detection of iron using DAB-enhanced Prussian Blue staining, and immunodetection of CD68 localized iron oxide nanoparticles to TAMs, indicating that the MR signal effects on delayed MR images were largely due to TAM-mediated uptake of contrast agent. Conclusion These data indicate that tumor-enhancement with clinically applicable iron oxide nanoparticles may serve as a new biomarker for long-term prognosis, related treatment decisions and the evaluation of new immune-targeted therapies. PMID:21791632

  16. Correlation of tumor-associated macrophages and clinicopathological factors in Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose Despite high long-term survival rates in patients with Wilms tumor, there is a need to develop better prognostic biomarkers in order to maximize cure while avoiding treatment-associated morbidities. Tumor-associated macrophages have been recently associated with poorer prognosis and increased disease progression in a number of adult cancers. We investigated the relationship between macrophages and clinicopathological fators in this pediatric solid tumor. Methods Tissue microarray sections of 124 Wilms tumor cases obtained from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network were stained with CD68, a macrophage marker using standard immunohistochemical techniques and quantified using digital image processing techniques. Macrophage densities were correlated by tumor stage, and survival analyses were conducted with available clinical data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 25 additional Wilms tumor cases obtained from the tumor bank at Columbia University Medical Center and correlated with presence of tumor microvascular invasion. Results Mean macrophage count densities in stage IV tumors were significantly greater than densities in stage I and III tumors (p=.021, .036). Although the overall and disease-free survival did not differ between high and low macrophage presence groups across all stages, increased macrophage presence was associated with decreased disease-free survival in patients with stage II tumors (p=0.035). Increased macrophage presence may have also correlated with decreased disease-free survival in stage IV patients, but the sample size was too small to allow detection of this difference with significance (p=0.575). Increased macrophage presence was associated with tumor microvascular invasion (p=0.0004). Conclusion Our results suggest that macrophage recruitment may be associated with disease progression in Wilms tumor. Quantitation of macrophage presence may therefore be a useful adjunct in refining staging algorithms for patients with

  17. CCL18 from tumor-associated macrophages promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Chen, Yong-Song; Yao, Yan-Dan; Chen, Jing-Qi; Chen, Jia-Ning; Huang, Song-Yin; Zeng, Yun-Jie; Yao, He-Rui; Zeng, Si-Hai; Fu, Yong-Shui; Song, Er-Wei

    2015-10-27

    The infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is associated with extensive angiogenesis, which contributes to a poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, anti-angiogenic therapy with VEGF-specific monotherapy has been unsuccessful in treating breast cancer, and the molecular mechanisms associated with chemoresistance remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether CCL18, a chemokine produced by TAMs, can stimulate angiogenesis in breast cancer, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Double immunohistochemical staining for CCL18 and CD34/CD31/vWF was performed in 80 breast cancer samples to study the correlation between CCL18+ TAMs and microvascular density (MVD). Cocultures of TAMs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to model the inflammatory microenvironment, and CCL18-induced angiogenesis was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that CCL18+ TAM infiltration positively associated with MVD in breast cancer samples, which was correlated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. We confirmed, both in vitro and in vivo, that CCL18 and VEGF synergistically promoted endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Conversely, blocking CCL18 or VEGF with neutralizing antibodies synergistically inhibited the promigratory effects of TAMs. Silencing PITPNM3, a putative CCL18 receptor, on the surface of HUVECs abrogated CCL18-mediated promigration and the enhancement of HUVEC tube formation, independently of VEGFR signaling. Moreover, CCL18 exposure induced the endothelial-mesenchymal transformation and activated ERK and Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling in HUVECs, thereby contributing to its pro-angiogenic effects. In conclusion, our findings suggest that CCL18 released from TAMs promotes angiogenesis and tumor progression in breast cancer; thus, CCL18 may serve as a novel target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  18. Significance of interstitial tumor-associated macrophages in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing-Sheng; Pei, Bao-Xiang; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Lu-Chang; Zhang, Guang-Jing; Liu, Ji-Kuan; Cui, Hong-Wei; Pan, Fen; Zhang, Zhen-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Stepwise progression from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) to lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) was proposed by various scholars. Interstitial tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and various potential chemokines involved in the progression from AIS/MIA to LPA were hypothesized. In the present study, immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescent double staining was used to detect the expression of the TAMs marker cluster of differentiation (CD) 68, tumor-derived colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, E-cadherin and Snail in lung adenocarcinoma specimens, including AIS/MIA, LPA and other types. It was observed that infiltrating TAMs were negatively associated with the prognosis of patients, and that the infiltration degree of interstitial TAMs was higher in LPA than that in AIS/MIA. In addition, E-cadherin, Snail and MMP-2 expression were significantly correlated with the infiltration degree of TAMs. Survival analysis revealed that co-expression of CD68, CSF-1 and IL-6 was an independent prognostic factor. Stratified analysis demonstrated that, in AIS/MIA patients, there was a statistically significant difference between the number of TAMs (TAMs ≤25 and TAMs >25) in the CD68+CSF-1+IL-6+ group compared with other groups (including CD68+CSF-1-IL-6-, CD68+CSF-1+IL-6-, CD68+CSF-1-IL-6+ and CD68- groups). By contrast, in patients with TAMs >25 and in patients with positive CD68, CSF-1 and IL-6 expression, the survival rates were not significantly different between AIS/MIA and LPA. These results suggested that co-expression of TAMs marker CD68, CSF-1 and IL-6 may be a valuable independent prognostic predictor in lung adenocarcinoma. TAMs may facilitate AIS/MIA progression to LPA, which may be closely associated with the induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:28101209

  19. Decarbonylation and dehydrogenation of carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Mark A.; Klaeren, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Carbohydrates, especially aldose or ketose sugars, including those whose carbonyl group is masked by hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal formation, are decarbonylated by heating the feed carbohydrate together with a transition metal complex in a suitable solvent. Also, primary alcohols, including sugar alditols are simultaneously dehydrogenated and decarbonylated by heating a mixture of rhodium and ruthenium complexes and the alcohol and optionally a hydrogen acceptor in an acceptable solvent. Such defarbonylation and/or dehydrogenation of sugars provides a convenient procedure for the synthesis of certain carbohydrates and may provide a means for the conversion of biomass into useful products.

  20. Applications of a catch and release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay for carbohydrate library screening.

    PubMed

    El-Hawiet, Amr; Shoemaker, Glen K; Daneshfar, Rambod; Kitova, Elena N; Klassen, John S

    2012-01-03

    Applications of a catch and release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay for screening carbohydrate libraries against target proteins are described. Direct ESI-MS measurements were performed on solutions containing a target protein (a single chain antibody, an antigen binding fragment, or a fragment of a bacterial toxin) and a library of carbohydrates containing multiple specific ligands with affinities in the 10(3) to 10(6) M(-1) range. Ligands with moderate affinity (10(4) to 10(6) M(-1)) were successfully detected from mixtures containing >200 carbohydrates (at concentrations as low as 0.25 μM each). Additionally, the absolute affinities were estimated from the abundance of free and ligand-bound protein ions determined from the ESI mass spectrum. Multiple low affinity ligands (~10(3) M(-1)) were successfully detected in mixtures containing >20 carbohydrates (at concentrations of ~10 μM each). However, identification of specific interactions required the use of the reference protein method to correct the mass spectrum for the occurrence of nonspecific carbohydrate-protein binding during the ESI process. The release of the carbohydrate ligands, as ions, was successfully demonstrated using collision-induced dissociation performed on the deprotonated ions of the protein-carbohydrate complexes. The use of ion mobility separation, performed on deprotonated carbohydrate ions following their release from the complex, allowed for the positive identification of isomeric ligands.

  1. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... than others. Whole-grain foods, vegetables, candy, and soda all have carbohydrates. But fruits, vegetables, and whole- ... generally healthier than sugary foods like candy and soda because they provide fiber , vitamins, and other nutrients. ...

  2. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... two main forms of carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Types of sugars include fructose (sugar found in ... sugar found in milk and yogurt). Types of starches include vegetables like potatoes, corn, and peas; grains, ...

  3. Computer aided selection of candidate vaccine antigens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Immunoinformatics is an emergent branch of informatics science that long ago pullulated from the tree of knowledge that is bioinformatics. It is a discipline which applies informatic techniques to problems of the immune system. To a great extent, immunoinformatics is typified by epitope prediction methods. It has found disappointingly limited use in the design and discovery of new vaccines, which is an area where proper computational support is generally lacking. Most extant vaccines are not based around isolated epitopes but rather correspond to chemically-treated or attenuated whole pathogens or correspond to individual proteins extract from whole pathogens or correspond to complex carbohydrate. In this chapter we attempt to review what progress there has been in an as-yet-underexplored area of immunoinformatics: the computational discovery of whole protein antigens. The effective development of antigen prediction methods would significantly reduce the laboratory resource required to identify pathogenic proteins as candidate subunit vaccines. We begin our review by placing antigen prediction firmly into context, exploring the role of reverse vaccinology in the design and discovery of vaccines. We also highlight several competing yet ultimately complementary methodological approaches: sub-cellular location prediction, identifying antigens using sequence similarity, and the use of sophisticated statistical approaches for predicting the probability of antigen characteristics. We end by exploring how a systems immunomics approach to the prediction of immunogenicity would prove helpful in the prediction of antigens. PMID:21067543

  4. Carbohydrate moieties as vaccine candidates: targeting the sweet spot in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher E; Cobb, Brian A; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Paulson, James C; Schreiber, John R

    2012-06-22

    Advances in the use of carbohydrates as vaccine candidates for the prevention of infectious and malignant diseases was the topic for a meeting in Rockville, MD, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases involving a diverse group of scientists. Participants included research scientists and clinicians from academia and industry, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health and US Food and Drug Administration. This workshop was the third in a series of meetings designed to address issues relating to the immune response to carbohydrate antigens and how this information is used in the development of vaccines. Participants also identified roadblocks, research opportunities and resource needs. The meeting was organized into sessions that focused on recent advances in the immune response to microbial and cancer carbohydrate antigens, glycomics, novel vaccine approaches, novel adjuvants and delivery systems.

  5. The polar high molecular weight fraction of the Agaricus blazei Murill extract, AndoSan™, reduces the activity of the tumor-associated protease, legumain, in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Berven, Lise; Karppinen, Pernille; Hetland, Geir; Samuelsen, Anne Berit C

    2015-04-01

    AndoSan™ is an extract of Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM; 82.4%), Hericium erinaceum (14.7%), and Grifola frondosa (2.9%). The main ingredient of AndoSan, AbM, is rich in different forms of β-glucans. Since these exhibit potent antitumor activity and have immunomodulatory effects, the stimulatory effect of AndoSan on the production of different cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte growth factors has predominantly been attributed to β-glucans. AndoSan has been claimed to consist of 90% carbohydrate, of which 2.8% is β-glucans, but in this study, we show that the carbohydrate content is only 2% of the dry weight, corresponding to 0.09% β-glucan per mL of AndoSan. Fractionation of AndoSan, followed by carbohydrate analysis and HPLC analysis revealed that most of the glucose was concentrated in the polar high molecular weight fraction of AndoSan (ethanol insoluble water extract [EIWE]-A) and that this extract was able to significantly inhibit the activity of the tumor-associated protease, legumain, in RAW 264.7 cells. Legumain is synthesized as a zymogen and undergoes pH-dependent autoactivation of the proform to reach an enzymatically active form. In this study, we demonstrate that both the polar and nonpolar AndoSan fractions are able to inhibit the autoactivation of prolegumain, and that the polar fractions of AndoSan are the most potent inhibitors of the active form of the enzyme.

  6. Tumor associated endothelial expression of B7-H3 predicts survival in ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xingxing; Sullivan, Peggy S; Soslow, Robert A; Waitz, Rebecca; Reuter, Victor E; Wilton, Andrew; Thaler, Howard T; Arul, Manonmani; Slovin, Susan F; Wei, Joyce; Spriggs, David R; Dupont, Jakob; Allison, James P

    2010-01-01

    B7-H3 and B7x are members of the B7 family of immune regulatory ligands that are thought to attenuate peripheral immune responses through co-inhibition. Previous studies have correlated their overexpression with poor prognosis and decreased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in various carcinomas including uterine endometrioid carcinomas, and mounting evidence supports an immuno-inhibitory role in ovarian cancer prognosis. We sought to examine the expression of B7-H3 and B7x in 103 ovarian borderline tumors and carcinomas and study associations with clinical outcome. Using immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis on tumor specimens, we found that 93 and 100% of these ovarian tumors express B7-H3 and B7x, respectively, with expression found predominantly on cell membranes and in cytoplasm. In contrast, only scattered B7-H3- and B7x-positive cells were detected in non-neoplastic ovarian tissues. B7-H3 was also expressed in the endothelium of tumor-associated vasculature in 44% of patients, including 78% of patients with high-stage tumors (FIGO stages III and IV), nearly all of which were high-grade serous carcinomas, and 26% of patients with low-stage tumors (FIGO stages I and II; P<0.001), including borderline tumors. Analysis of cumulative survival time and recurrence incidence revealed that carcinomas with B7-H3-positive tumor vasculature were associated with a significantly shorter survival time (P=0.02) and a higher incidence of recurrence (P=0.03). The association between B7-H3-positive tumor vasculature and poor clinical outcome remained significant even when the analysis was limited to the high-stage subgroup. These results show that ovarian borderline tumors and carcinomas aberrantly express B7-H3 and B7x, and that B7-H3-positive tumor vasculature is associated with high-grade serous histological subtype, increased recurrence and reduced survival. B7-H3 expression in tumor vasculature may be a reflection of tumor aggressiveness and has diagnostic and

  7. Development of IgG responses to mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, C; Costello, A M; Rook, G A; Stanford, J L

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies link mycobacterial and human heat shock protein antigens with autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the development of antibody responses to these antigens in children. IgG responses to mycobacterial antigens were studied in children living in the UK (an environment low in mycobacteria) who had not received BCG vaccination. Age curves of IgG response to sonicates from different species of mycobacteria were similar suggesting that the greater part of the developing IgG response is to the common antigens shared by all mycobacteria. The major part of the IgG response was to carbohydrate antigens: lipoarabinomannan is a mycobacterial cell wall carbohydrate and was confirmed as a major immunodominant antigen. Infants showed a marked early response to the mycobacterial 65 kilodalton (kDa) and 70 kDa heat shock proteins, but not to the human 65 kDa heat shock protein. The early IgG response to heat shock proteins may reflect cross reactivity to proteins released by a wide variety of bacteria (possibly from breakdown in the gut) or recognition of other immunodominant antigens with high levels of cross reactivity to self. PMID:8285775

  8. Cancer Immunotherapy Utilized Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound as Antigen Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yusuke; Otake, Shota; Suzuki, Ryo; Otake, Shota; Nishiie, Norihito; Hirata, Keiichi; Taira, Yuichiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    In dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer immunotherapy, it is important to present the epitope peptide derived from tumor associated antigens (TAAs) on MHC class I in order to induce tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, MHC class I molecules generally present the epitope peptides derived from endogenous antigens for DCs but not exogenous ones such as TAAs. Recently, we developed the novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) encapsulating perfluoropropane nanobubbles. In this study, we attempted to establish the novel antigen delivery system to induce MHC class I presentation using the combination of ultrasound and Bubble liposomes. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen, the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound exposure for the DC could induce MHC class I presentation. In addition, the viability of DCs was more than 80%. These results suggest that Bubble liposomes might be a novel ultrasound enhanced antigen delivery tool in DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Carbohydrate specificity of the recognition of diverse glycolipids by natural killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Zajonc, Dirk M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2009-07-01

    Most T lymphocytes recognize peptide antigens bound to or presented by molecules encoded in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules is related to the MHC-encoded molecules, but CD1 proteins present lipid antigens, mostly glycolipids. Here we review T-lymphocyte recognition of glycolipids, with particular emphasis on the subpopulation known as natural killer T (NKT) cells. NKT cells influence many immune responses, they have a T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) that is restricted in diversity, and they share properties with cells of the innate immune system. NKT cells recognize antigens presented by CD1d with hexose sugars in alpha-linkage to lipids, although other, related antigens are known. The hydrophobic alkyl chains are buried in the CD1d groove, with the carbohydrate exposed for TCR recognition, together with the surface of the CD1d molecule. Therefore, understanding the biochemical basis for antigen recognition by NKT cells requires an understanding of how the trimolecular complex of CD1d, glycolipid, and the TCR is formed, which is in part a problem of carbohydrate recognition by the TCR. Recent investigations from our laboratories as well as studies from other groups have provided important information on the structural basis for NKT-cell specificity.

  10. Polyethylenimine-based siRNA nanocomplexes reprogram tumor-associated dendritic cells via TLR5 to elicit therapeutic antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R.; Engle, Xavier; Scarlett, Uciane K.; Martinez, Diana; Barber, Amorette; Elgueta, Raul; Wang, Li; Nesbeth, Yolanda; Durant, Yvon; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Sentman, Charles L.; Kedl, Ross; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    The success of clinically relevant immunotherapies requires reversing tumor-induced immunosuppression. Here we demonstrated that linear polyethylenimine-based (PEI-based) nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA were preferentially and avidly engulfed by regulatory DCs expressing CD11c and programmed cell death 1–ligand 1 (PD-L1) at ovarian cancer locations in mice. PEI-siRNA uptake transformed these DCs from immunosuppressive cells to efficient antigen-presenting cells that activated tumor-reactive lymphocytes and exerted direct tumoricidal activity, both in vivo and in situ. PEI triggered robust and selective TLR5 activation in vitro and elicited the production of hallmark TLR5-inducible cytokines in WT mice, but not in Tlr5–/– littermates. Thus, PEI is a TLR5 agonist that, to our knowledge, was not previously recognized. In addition, PEI-complexed nontargeting siRNA oligonucleotides stimulated TLR3 and TLR7. The nonspecific activation of multiple TLRs (specifically, TLR5 and TLR7) reversed the tolerogenic phenotype of human and mouse ovarian tumor–associated DCs. In ovarian carcinoma–bearing mice, this induced T cell–mediated tumor regression and prolonged survival in a manner dependent upon myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88; i.e., independent of TLR3). Furthermore, gene-specific siRNA-PEI nanocomplexes that silenced immunosuppressive molecules on mouse tumor-associated DCs elicited discernibly superior antitumor immunity and enhanced therapeutic effects compared with nontargeting siRNA-PEI nanocomplexes. Our results demonstrate that the intrinsic TLR5 and TLR7 stimulation of siRNA-PEI nanoparticles synergizes with the gene-specific silencing activity of siRNA to transform tumor-infiltrating regulatory DCs into DCs capable of promoting therapeutic antitumor immunity. PMID:19620771

  11. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2011-08-01

    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans.

  12. An immuno-enzymatic assay for herpes simplex virus tumour associated antigen in gynecological oncology.

    PubMed

    Magli, G; Scimone, C; Flaminio, G; D'Alessandro, G; Mascolo, A; Magli, R; Saladino, I

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied the HSV-TAA (Herpes Simplex Virus Tumor Associated Antigen) in patients affected by female genitale tract tumors, using the immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). They found a positive frequence of 65% in sera of patients affected by uterine cervical carcinoma and of the 80% in sera of patients affected by vulvar carcinoma. The authors suggest that this enzymatic method has a real value and propose its use in the early diagnosis of the female genital tract neoplasms.

  13. Carbohydrate chemistry in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Galan, M Carmen; Benito-Alifonso, David; Watt, Gregory M

    2011-05-21

    The multitude of roles that carbohydrates and their glyco-conjugates play in biological processes has stimulated great interest in determining the nature of their interactions in both normal and diseased states. Manipulating such interactions will provide leads for drug discovery. Of the major classes of biomolecule, carbohydrates are the most structurally diverse. This hetereogeneity makes isolation of pure samples, and in sufficient amounts, from biological sources extremely difficult. Chemical synthesis offers the advantage of producing pure and structurally defined oligosaccharides for biological investigations. Although the complex nature of carbohydrates means that this is challenging, recent advances in the field have facilitated access to these molecules. The synthesis and isolation of oligosaccharides combined with progress in glycoarray technology have aided the identification of new carbohydrate-binding drug targets. This review aims to provide an overview of the latest advancements in carbohydrate chemistry and the role of these complex molecules in drug discovery, focusing particularly on synthetic methodologies, glycosaminoglycans, glycoprotein synthesis and vaccine development over the last few years.

  14. [Expression of CD10 in tumor-associated fibroblast of cancerized or recurrent colorectal adenomas].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiangjiang; Zhu, Yin; Li, Changshui; Li, Yinya; Nie, Qianqian; Zhu, Ziling; Deng, Hong

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD10 in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) in colorectal adenomas and its relation to cancerization and recurrence of adenoma. Methods: Tissue samples of low-grade adenoma (n=50), high-grade adenoma (n=50) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=50) were collected, and tissue samples at the distal margin of corresponding colorectal lesions were taken as controls. The expression of CD10 in the stromal TAFs, and the expressions of β-catenin, Ki-67, p53 and CyclinD1 in tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry (Envision). The correlation of CD10 expression in stromal TAFs with the expressions of β-catenin, Ki-67, p53 and CyclinD1 in tumor cells was analyzed by Spearmen. One hundred samples of low-grade colorectal adenoma were collected, including 57 non-recurrent cases and 43 recurrent cases (16 cases of recurrent adenoma and 27 cases of recurrent adenocarcinoma); the expression of stromal TAF CD10 were determined and compared among groups. Results: There was no TAF in normal colorectal mucosa. The expression rates of TAF CD10 in low-grade adenoma, high-grade adenoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma were 22%, 50% and 78%, respectively (all P<0.05). The expression of Ki-67 and β-catenin in low-grade adenoma, high-grade adenoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma was on a rising trend (all P<0.01). The expression of CyclinD1 in high-grade adenoma was higher than that in colorectal adenocarcinoma and low-grade adenoma (all P>0.05). The expression of p53 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and high-grade adenoma was higher than that in low grade adenoma (all P<0.01). The expression of TAF CD10 was correlated with the expression of p53, Ki-67 and β-catenin-nucleus(r=0.264、0.307、0.320, all P<0.01),but not correlated with CyclinD1 and β-catenin-membrane (r=0.012、-0.073, all P>0.05). The TAF CD10 level was significantly higher in low-grade adenoma with recurrence than that in those without recurrence (P<0.05).The expression of CD10 in

  15. Interaction of sugar stabilized silver nanoparticles with the T-antigen specific lectin, jacalin from Artocarpus integrifolia.

    PubMed

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Mohammed, Ansari Sulthan; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2015-06-15

    The advances in nanomedicine demonstrate the anticancer properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and considered as an alternative to the available chemotherapeutic agents. Owing to the preferential interaction of Artocarpus integrifolia lectin (jacalin) with Galβ1-3GalNAcα (a chemically well-defined tumor associated antigen), a study was undertaken to understand the interaction mechanism of AgNPs with jacalin in presence of specific sugar, galactose. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis revealed that the AgNPs binding significantly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of jacalin through a static quenching mechanism, and a non-radiative energy transfer occurred within the molecules. Association constants obtained from the interaction of different sugar-stabilized AgNPs with jacalin are in the order of 10(4)M(-1), this is in the same range as those obtained for the interaction of lectin with carbohydrate and hydrophobic ligand. Each subunit of the tetrameric jacalin binds one AgNPs, and the stoichiometry was unaffected by the presence of the specific sugar, galactose. Hemagglutination assay shows that sugar stabilized AgNPs interacts to jacalin at a site that is different from the saccharide-binding site. Analysis of the FTIR spectra of jacalin indicates that the binding of AgNPs does not alter the secondary structure of jacalin. More importantly, AgNPs exists in nano form even after interacting with the lectin. These results suggest that the development of lectin-AgNPs conjugate would be possible for diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  16. Interaction of sugar stabilized silver nanoparticles with the T-antigen specific lectin, jacalin from Artocarpus integrifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Mohammed, Ansari Sulthan; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2015-06-01

    The advances in nanomedicine demonstrate the anticancer properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and considered as an alternative to the available chemotherapeutic agents. Owing to the preferential interaction of Artocarpus integrifolia lectin (jacalin) with Galβ1-3GalNAcα (a chemically well-defined tumor associated antigen), a study was undertaken to understand the interaction mechanism of AgNPs with jacalin in presence of specific sugar, galactose. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis revealed that the AgNPs binding significantly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of jacalin through a static quenching mechanism, and a non-radiative energy transfer occurred within the molecules. Association constants obtained from the interaction of different sugar-stabilized AgNPs with jacalin are in the order of 104 M-1, this is in the same range as those obtained for the interaction of lectin with carbohydrate and hydrophobic ligand. Each subunit of the tetrameric jacalin binds one AgNPs, and the stoichiometry was unaffected by the presence of the specific sugar, galactose. Hemagglutination assay shows that sugar stabilized AgNPs interacts to jacalin at a site that is different from the saccharide-binding site. Analysis of the FTIR spectra of jacalin indicates that the binding of AgNPs does not alter the secondary structure of jacalin. More importantly, AgNPs exists in nano form even after interacting with the lectin. These results suggest that the development of lectin-AgNPs conjugate would be possible for diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  17. New carbohydrate-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Callstrom, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    We have prepared a series of new carbohydrate-based materials based on the use of carbohydrates as a template for the introduction of functionality to polymeric materials with complete regio- and stereochemical control. The synthesis of these new materials by the use of chemical and enzymatic methods allows for the rational design of new materials based on the properties of the monomeric subunit. These materials have potential applications that range from their use in enhanced oil recovery to biodegradable plastics to biological applications including targeted drug delivery and enzyme stabilization.

  18. Challenges with nonfiber carbohydrate methods.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B

    2003-12-01

    Nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) encompass a compositionally and nutritionally diverse group exclusive of those carbohydrates found in NDF. Their content in feeds has often been described as a single value estimated by difference as 100% of dry matter minus the percentages of CP, NDF (adjusted for CP in NDF), ether extract, and ash. A calculated value was used because of difficulties with assays for individual NFC, but it does not differentiate among nutritionally distinct NFC. Errors in NFC estimation can arise from not accounting for CP in NDF and when multipliers other than 6.25 are appropriate to estimate CP. Analyses that begin to distinguish among NFC are those for starch, soluble fiber (non-NDF, nonstarch polysaccharides), and low molecular weight carbohydrates (mono- and oligosaccharides). Many starch analyses quantify alpha-glucans through specific hydrolysis of alpha-(1 --> 4) and alpha-(1 --> 6) linkages in the glucan, and measurement of released glucose. Incomplete gelatinization and hydrolysis will lead to underestimation of starch content. Starch values are inflated by enzyme preparations that hydrolyze carbohydrates other than alpha-glucan, measurement of all released monosaccharides without specificity for glucose, and failure to exclude free glucose present in the unhydrolyzed sample. Soluble fiber analyses err in a fashion similar to NFC if estimation of CP requires multipliers other than 6.25, or if contaminants such as CP and starch have not been properly accounted. Depolymerization and incomplete precipitation can also decrease soluble fiber estimates. The low molecular weight carbohydrates have been defined as carbohydrates soluble in 78 to 80% ethanol, which separates them from polysaccharides. They can be measured in extracts using broad-spectrum colorimetric assays (phenol-sulfuric acid assay or reducing sugar analysis of acid hydrolyzed samples) or chromatographic methods. Limitations of the colorimetric assays include lack of differentiation

  19. Pasteurella haemolytica antigens associated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, D A; Simons, K R; Confer, A W; Panciera, R J; Clinkenbeard, K D

    1989-01-01

    Antigens associated with whole Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A serotype 1, a capsular carbohydrate-protein extract of the organism, and P. haemolytica leukotoxin were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antigens of the electrophoresed preparations were detected by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with sera from cattle which were either nonvaccinated or vaccinated with live or killed P. haemolytica vaccines and had variable degrees of resistance to experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis. Distinct, easily recognizable antigens of these preparations were identified, and the antibody responses to these antigens were quantified by densitometry. To determine their importance to disease resistance, we then compared antibody responses with experimental lesion scores. Antibody reactivity to surface antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and present in two or more of the preparations were detected at 86, 66, 51, 49, 34, 31, and 16 kilodaltons (kDa). Of these, antibody responses to antigens at 86, 49, and 31 kDa appeared most important based on their concentration and significance levels. Antibody reactivity to leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and common with important surface antigens were detected at 86, 66, and 49 kDa. Antibody responses to unique leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance were present at 92 and 58 kDa. Images PMID:2917783

  20. In vitro induction of specific CD8+ T lymphocytes by tumor-associated antigenic peptides in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Wataru; Hayashida, Jun-nosuke; Moriyama, Masahumi; Kitamura, Ryoji; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamada, Akira; Itoh, Kyogo; Nakamura, Seiji

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify candidate peptides for peptide-based specific immunotherapy of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Thirteen peptides were examined for in vitro induction of peptide-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte (CD8(+)TL) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 patients with oral SCC. A correlation between the induction ability of CD8(+)TL and in vivo immune response of host was carried out immunohistochemically in 23 patients. Peptide-specific activities of CD8(+)TL for at least one peptide were detectable in 21/35 patients (60.0%). The potent peptides were SART-1(690) in 9/35 (25.7%), SART-2(93), and ART4(75) in 7/35 (20.0%), respectively. In the 9 patients with SART-1(690)-specific activity, the whole of activities was significantly inducible for more number of other peptides compared to that in 26 patients without the activity (P=0.035). Cellular responses in 7 patients with SART-1(690)-specific activity were significantly stronger than those in 16 patients without the activity (P=0.027). Furthermore, the number of CD3(+) T cells around the SCC was also significantly different between the 2 groups of patients (P=0.041). In conclusion, SART-1(690), SART-2(93), and ART4(75) could be applicable as peptide-based specific immunotherapies for the majority of patients with oral SCC.

  1. Bispecific antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens and neutralizing complement regulators increase the efficacy of antibody-based immunotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Macor, P; Secco, E; Mezzaroba, N; Zorzet, S; Durigutto, P; Gaiotto, T; De Maso, L; Biffi, S; Garrovo, C; Capolla, S; Tripodo, C; Gattei, V; Marzari, R; Tedesco, F; Sblattero, D

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of antibody-based immunotherapy is due to the activation of apoptosis, the engagement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). We developed a novel strategy to enhance CDC using bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) that neutralize the C-regulators CD55 and CD59 to enhance C-mediated functions. Two bsAbs (MB20/55 and MB20/59) were designed to recognize CD20 on one side. The other side neutralizes CD55 or CD59. Analysis of CDC revealed that bsAbs could kill 4-25 times more cells than anti-CD20 recombinant antibody in cell lines or cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacokinetics of the bsAbs was evaluated in a human-SCID model of Burkitt lymphoma. The distribution profile of bsAbs mimics the data obtained by studying the pharmacokinetics of anti-CD20 antibodies, showing a peak in the tumor mass 3-4 days after injection. The treatment with bsAbs completely prevented the development of human/SCID lymphoma. The tumor growth was blocked by the activation of the C cascade and by the recruitment of macrophages, polymorphonuclear and natural killer cells. This strategy can easily be applied to the other anti-tumor C-fixing antibodies currently used in the clinic or tested in preclinical studies using the same vector with the appropriate modifications.

  2. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Low-digestible carbohydrates in practice.

    PubMed

    Grabitske, Hollie A; Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    Low-digestible carbohydrates are carbohydrates that are incompletely or not absorbed in the small intestine but are at least partly fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. Fiber, resistant starch, and sugar alcohols are types of low-digestible carbohydrates. Given potential health benefits (including a reduced caloric content, reduced or no effect on blood glucose levels, non-cariogenic effect), the prevalence of low-digestible carbohydrates in processed foods is increasing. Low-digestible carbohydrate fermentation in the gut causes gastrointestinal effects, especially at higher intakes. We review the wide range of low-digestible carbohydrates in food products, offer advice on identifying low-digestible carbohydrates in foods and beverages, and make suggestions for intakes of low-digestible carbohydrates.

  4. Neuroendocrine-like cells -derived CXCL10 and CXCL11 induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophage leading to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Xu, He-Yang; Wang, Jie; Chu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that neuroendocrine differentiation in colorectal cancer is one of the important factors leading to worse prognosis. In this study, we apply immunohistochemical staining, Western-blot, RT-PCR and ELISA to investigate the underlying mechanism that how the neuroendocrine differentiation to affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer. The interaction of colorectal cancer cells, neuroendocrine-like cells and tumor-associated macrophages in colorectal cancer progress is also investigated. By analyzing 82 cases of colorectal cancer patients treated in our institution, we found that colorectal adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation had increasing number of tumor-associated macrophages and worse prognosis. Further evaluation of cytology showed that neuroendocrine cells have the ability to recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate the tumor tissue, and the tumor-associated macrophages enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of the colon cancer cells. Moreover, we confirmed that CXCL10 and CXCL11 are the key chemokines in neuroendocrine-like cells and they promote the chemotaxis activity of tumor-associated macrophages. The secretion of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by neuroendocrine-like cells can recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate in tumor tissues. The latter enhances the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cell and lead to poor prognosis. PMID:27034164

  5. Targeting cancer testis antigens for biomarkers and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer: Current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anil; Jagadish, Nirmala; Saini, Shikha; Gupta, Namita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks third among the estimated cancer cases and cancer related mortalities in United States in 2014. Early detection and efficient therapy remains a significant clinical challenge for this disease. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel tumor associated molecules to target for biomarker development and immunotherapy. In this regard, cancer testis antigens have emerged as a potential targets for developing novel clinical biomarkers and immunotherapy for various malignancies. These germ cell specific proteins exhibit aberrant expression in cancer cells and contribute in tumorigenesis. Owing to their unique expression profile and immunogenicity in cancer patients, cancer testis antigens are clinically referred as the most promising tumor associated antigens. Several cancer testis antigens have been studied in colorectal cancer but none of them could be used in clinical practice. This review is an attempt to address the promising cancer testis antigens in colorectal cancer and their possible clinical implications as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets with particular focus on challenges and future interventions. PMID:26691579

  6. HLA class II antigen presentation by prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Younger, A R; Amria, S; Jeffrey, W A; Mahdy, A E M; Goldstein, O G; Norris, J S; Haque, A

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the predominant immune escape mechanism of malignant prostate tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA class II pathway of immune recognition. Here, we show for the first time that prostate cancer cells express HLA class II proteins that are recognized by CD4+ T cells. Prostate tumor cells transduced with class II molecules efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens/peptides to CD4+ T cells. This data suggests that malignant prostate tumors can be targeted via the HLA class II pathway, and that class II-positive tumors could be employed for direct antigen presentation, and CD4+ T-cell mediated tumor immunotherapy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2008) 11, 334-341; doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4501021; published online 16 October 2007.

  7. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Augments Antigen-Specific PD-1-Mediated Anti-Tumor Immune Responses via Cross-Presentation of Tumor Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Andrew B.; Nirschl, Christopher J.; Kochel, Christina M.; Nirschl, Thomas R.; Francisca, Brian J.; Velarde, Esteban; Deweese, Theodore L.; Drake, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    The immune-modulating effects of radiation therapy have gained considerable interest recently and there have been multiple reports of synergy between radiation and immunotherapy. However, additional pre-clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the antigen-specific nature of radiation-induced immune responses and elucidate potential mechanisms of synergy with immunotherapy. Here we demonstrate the ability of stereotactic radiotherapy to induce endogenous antigen-specific immune responses when combined with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP), image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy delivered to B16-OVA melanoma or 4T1-HA breast carcinoma tumors resulted in the development of antigen-specific T and B cell-mediated immune responses. These immune-stimulating effects of radiotherapy were significantly increased when combined with either anti-PD-1 therapy or regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion, resulting in improved local tumor control. Phenotypic analyses of antigen-specific CD8 T cells revealed that radiotherapy increased the percentage of antigen-experienced T cells and effector memory T cells. Mechanistically we found that radiotherapy up-regulates tumor-associated antigen-MHC complexes, enhances antigen cross-presentation in the draining lymph node, and increased T-cell infiltration into tumors. These findings demonstrate the ability of radiotherapy to prime an endogenous antigen-specific immune response and provide additional mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with PD-1 blockade in the clinic. PMID:25527358

  8. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Haley L; Tripathi, Satyendra C; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R; St John, Lisa S; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M; Roth, Jack A; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L; Heymach, John V; Swisher, Stephen G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2017-03-02

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these reinvigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAMs were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTLs from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTLs specific for serine proteases-induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(4); 1-11. ©2017 AACR.

  9. Measurement of tumor-associated mutations in the nasal mucosa of rats exposed to varying doses of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxue; Bermudez, Edilberto; McKinzie, Page B; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Parsons, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential induction of tumor-associated mutations in formaldehyde-exposed rat nasal mucosa using a sensitive method, allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR (ACB-PCR). Levels of p53 codon 271 CGT to CAT and K-Ras codon 12 GGT to GAT mutations were quantified in nasal mucosa of rats exposed to formaldehyde. In addition, nasal mucosa cell proliferation was monitored because regenerative cell proliferation is considered a key event in formaldehyde-induced carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats (6-7 weeks old, 5 rats/group) were exposed to 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, and 15 ppm formaldehyde for 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). ACB-PCR was used to determine levels of p53 and K-Ras mutations. Although two of five untreated rats had measureable spontaneous p53 mutant fractions (MFs), most nasal mucosa samples had p53 MFs below 10(-5). All K-Ras MF measurements were below 10(-5). No dose-related increases in p53 or K-Ras MF were observed, even though significant increases in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation demonstrated induced cell proliferation in the 10 and 15 ppm formaldehyde-treatment groups. Therefore, induction of tumor-associated p53 mutation likely occurs after several other key events in formaldehyde-induced carcinogenesis.

  10. Tumor-Associated Monocytes/Macrophages Impair NK-Cell Function via TGFβ1 in Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Teng, Yong-Sheng; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Mao, Fang-Yuan; Lv, Yi-Pin; Cheng, Ping; Li, Wen-Hua; Chen, Na; Duan, Mubing; Chen, Weisan; Guo, Gang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Zhuang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a major component of the host antitumor immune response in human cancer. However, the nature, functional regulation, and clinical relevance of NK cells in gastric cancer remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the percentages of NK cells in tumors were significantly decreased, and low percentages of tumor-infiltrating NK cells were positively correlated with poor survival and disease progression. Although the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells was shown to be not different between tumor and nontumor tissues, NK cells in tumors had impaired effector functions, characterized by decreased IFNγ, TNFα, and Ki-67 expression. We found that tumor-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were physically close to NK cells, and their percentages negatively correlated with IFNγ(+) and TNFα(+) NK-cell percentages. Ex vivo study showed that isolated tumor-associated monocytes/macrophages could impair NK-cell expression of IFNγ, TNFα, and Ki-67. Blockade of TGFβ1 attenuated such monocytes/macrophages-mediated impairment of NK-cell function. Our data suggest that human NK-cell function was impaired by tumor-associated monocytes/macrophages, and that restoring NK-cell function may be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent tumor immune escape in gastric cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(3); 248-56. ©2017 AACR.

  11. Carbohydrates as enantioinduction components in stereoselective catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate derivatives are readily available chiral molecules, yet they are infrequently employed as enantioinduction components in stereoselective catalysis. In this review, synthetic approaches to carbohydrate-based ligands and catalysts are outlined, along with example applications in enantioselective catalysis. A wide range of carbohydrate-based functionality is covered, and key trends and future opportunities are identified. PMID:27064817

  12. Evidence for glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchoring of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Tomavo, S.; Schwarz, R.T.; Dubremetz, J.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The four major surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (P43, P35, P30, and P22) were made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). These antigens were biosynthetically labeled with {sup 3}H-fatty acids, ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine, and ({sup 3}H)carbohydrates. Treatment of {sup 3}H-fatty-acid-labeled parasite lysates with PI-PLC removed the radioactive label from these antigens. A cross-reacting determinant was exposed on these antigens after PI-PLC treatment.

  13. Evidence for glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchoring of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Tomavo, S; Schwarz, R T; Dubremetz, J F

    1989-01-01

    The four major surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (P43, P35, P30, and P22) were made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). These antigens were biosynthetically labeled with 3H-fatty acids, [3H]ethanolamine, and [3H]carbohydrates. Treatment of 3H-fatty-acid-labeled parasite lysates with PI-PLC removed the radioactive label from these antigens. A cross-reacting determinant was exposed on these antigens after PI-PLC treatment. Images PMID:2531282

  14. Bacterial surface antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies used to detect beer spoilage pediococci.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Ingledew, W M; Lee, S Y; Ziola, B

    1999-08-01

    Fourteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that react with surface antigens of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms, including P. damnosus, P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici, and unspeciated isolates. Immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) of protease- and neuraminidase-treated surface antigen extracts, carbohydrate competition EIAs, and cardiolipin EIAs were used to characterize the bacterial antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment or surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. In most cases, the Mabs bind to Pediococcus surface antigens that appear to be covalently bound cell wall polymers resistant to alteration or removal from the bacterial surface. These bacterial surface antigen reactive Mabs show good potential for rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay detection of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms.

  15. Disorders of carbohydrate digestion and absorption.

    PubMed

    Heitlinger, L A; Lebenthal, E

    1988-04-01

    The carbohydrate malabsorptive syndromes are frequently seen by pediatricians. The congenital deficiency states are quite rare, but adult type hypolactasia and lactose intolerance following rotavirus infection are recognized with increasing frequency by primary care physicians. Therapy for these disorders involves identification of the offending carbohydrate, removal of the carbohydrate from the diet, and exclusion of other entities that may result in carbohydrate malabsorption but not respond to its removal from the diet. Prognosis for both the primary and secondary carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes is excellent. Compliance with diets for those pediatric patients who will require lifelong therapy remains problematic.

  16. Carbohydrates in peptide and protein design.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Knud J; Brask, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Monosaccharides and amino acids are fundamental building blocks in the assembly of nature's polymers. They have different structural aspects and, to a significant extent, different functional groups. Oligomerization gives rise to oligosaccharides and peptides, respectively. While carbohydrates and peptides can be found conjoined in nature, e.g., in glycopeptides, the aim of this review is the radical redesign of peptide structures using carbohydrates, particularly monosaccharides and cyclic oligosaccharides, to produce novel peptides, peptidomimetics, and abiotic proteins. These hybrid molecules, chimeras, have properties arising largely from the combination of structural characteristics of carbohydrates with the functional group diversity of peptides. This field includes de novo designed synthetic glycopeptides, sugar (carbohydrate) amino acids, carbohydrate scaffolds for nonpeptidal peptidomimetics of cyclic peptides, cyclodextrin functionalized peptides, and carboproteins, i.e., carbohydrate-based proteinmimetics. These successful applications demonstrate the general utility of carbohydrates in peptide and protein architecture.

  17. Serodiagnosis of American trypanosomosis by using nonpathogenic trypanosomatid antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Monteón, V M; Guzmán-Rojas, L; Negrete-García, C; Rosales-Encina, J L; Lopez, P A

    1997-01-01

    Crithidia luciliae, a nonpathogenic trypanosomatid, could provide a good alternative source of antigen for serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity when 91 human serum samples from Chagas' disease patients and 127 human serum samples from people suffering from toxoplasmosis (21 samples), leishmaniasis (32 samples), systemic rheumatic diseases (33 samples), and heart diseases (41 samples) were tested simultaneously with Trypanosoma cruzi and C. luciliae crude extracts. By Western blotting, an immunodominant band (30 kDa) was recognized by chagasic sera on the C. luciliae crude extract; specificity reached 97% with respect to this protein band. The carbohydrate moieties were not antigenic. PMID:9399545

  18. Preparation and evaluation of unimolecular pentavalent and hexavalent antigenic constructs targeting prostate and breast cancer: a synthetic route to anticancer vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Ragupathi, Govind; Koide, Fusataka; Livingston, Philip O; Cho, Young Shin; Endo, Atsushi; Wan, Qian; Spassova, Maria K; Keding, Stacy J; Allen, Jennifer; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Wilson, Rebecca M; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2006-03-01

    Several novel, fully synthetic, carbohydrate-based antitumor vaccines have been assembled. Each construct consists of multiple cancer-related antigens displayed on a single polypeptide backbone. Recent advances in synthetic methodology have allowed for the incorporation of a complex oligosaccharide terminating in a sialic acid residue (i.e., GM2) as one of the carbohydrate antigens. Details of the vaccine synthesis as well as the results of preliminary immunological investigations are described herein.

  19. Phenotypic and functional analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with tumor-associated lymphocytes from ascitic fluid and peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santin, A D; Hermonat, P L; Ravaggi, A; Bellone, S; Roman, J J; Smith, C V; Pecorelli, S; Radominska-Pandya, A; Cannon, M J; Parham, G P

    2001-01-01

    To investigate and compare the phenotype and function of lymphocytes collected from patients harboring advanced ovarian cancer, leukocytes from peripheral blood (n = 18), ascitic fluid (n = 13) and tumor tissues (n = 13) were evaluated for the relative proportions of lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD56 and the early (CD25) and late (HLA-DR) activation markers on CD3+ T cells. The ability to synthesize type 1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and a type 2 cytokine (IL-4) was assessed by flow cytometry. In all patients, T cells (CD3+) were the major leukocyte population detected in each tissue, with CD4+ T cells being dominant in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) but not in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) (CD4:CD8 ratios: 3.0 vs. 2.0 vs. 1.0, respectively). CD19+ lymphocytes (B cells) and CD56+ lymphocytes (NK cells) were significantly higher in PBL compared to TAL and TIL (p < 0.05). TAL and TIL had a higher proportion of T cells expressing the late activation marker HLA-DR compared to PBL. In contrast, no significant differences were detected in PBL, TAL and TIL in the expression of the early activation marker CD25. Type 1 cytokines were the dominant type produced by in vitro stimulated T cells for each population, with a greater proportion of IFN-gamma+ T cells in TAL and TIL compared to PBL (p < 0.01), and a higher proportion of IL-2+ T cells in PBL compared with TAL and TIL (p < 0.05). Low percentages of IL-4+ T cells (i.e. Th2) were detected in each tissue. Taken together, these data demonstrate the recruitment and accumulation of high concentrations of antigen-experienced T lymphocytes in TAL and TIL compared to PBL. However, low surface expression of IL-2 receptor (i.e. CD25), as well as depressed intracellular IL-2 production in chronically stimulated TAL and TIL suggests that the impaired antitumor function commonly detected in these lymphocyte populations may be secondary to an acquired

  20. CD45 Phosphatase Inhibits STAT3 Transcription Factor Activity in Myeloid Cells and Promotes Tumor-Associated Macrophage Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinit; Cheng, Pingyan; Condamine, Thomas; Mony, Sridevi; Languino, Lucia R; McCaffrey, Judith C; Hockstein, Neil; Guarino, Michael; Masters, Gregory; Penman, Emily; Denstman, Fred; Xu, Xiaowei; Altieri, Dario C; Du, Hong; Yan, Cong; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2016-02-16

    Recruitment of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and differentiation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major factors contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. We demonstrated that differentiation of TAMs in tumor site from monocytic precursors was controlled by downregulation of the activity of the transcription factor STAT3. Decreased STAT3 activity was caused by hypoxia and affected all myeloid cells but was not observed in tumor cells. Upregulation of CD45 tyrosine phosphatase activity in MDSCs exposed to hypoxia in tumor site was responsible for downregulation of STAT3. This effect was mediated by the disruption of CD45 protein dimerization regulated by sialic acid. Thus, STAT3 has a unique function in the tumor environment in controlling the differentiation of MDSC into TAM, and its regulatory pathway could be a potential target for therapy.

  1. Chemotherapy-Induced IL34 Enhances Immunosuppression by Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Mediates Survival of Chemoresistant Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Muhammad; Wada, Haruka; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Abe, Hirotake; Han, Nanumi; Putra, Wira Eka; Endo, Daisuke; Watari, Hidemichi; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kaga, Kichizo; Miyagi, Yohei; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Takano, Atsushi; Daigo, Yataro; Seino, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-10-15

    The ability of tumor cells to escape immune destruction and their acquired resistance to chemotherapy are major obstacles to effective cancer therapy. Although immune checkpoint therapies such as anti-PD-1 address these issues in part, clinical responses remain limited to a subpopulation of patients. In this report, we identified IL34 produced by cancer cells as a driver of chemoresistance. In particular, we found that IL34 modulated the functions of tumor-associated macrophages to enhance local immunosuppression and to promote the survival of chemoresistant cancer cells by activating AKT signaling. Targeting IL34 in chemoresistant tumors resulted in a remarkable inhibition of tumor growth when accompanied with chemotherapy. Our results define a pathogenic role for IL34 in mediating immunosuppression and chemoresistance and identify it as a tractable target for anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6030-42. ©2016 AACR.

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor-associated macrophages promotes metastatic potential of breast cancer cells through Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Qiu, Zhu; Huang, Jing; Li, Yunhai; Huang, Hongyan; Xiang, Tingxiu; Wan, Jingyuan; Hui, Tianli; Lin, Yong; Li, Hongzhong; Ren, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote cancer development and progression by releasing various cytokines and chemokines. Previously, we have found that the number of COX-2+ TAMs was associated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. However, the mechanism remains enigmatic. In this study, we show that COX-2 in breast TAMs enhances the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. COX-2 in TAMs induces MMP-9 expression and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells. In addition, COX-2/PGE2 induces IL-6 release in macrophages. Furthermore, we find that the activation of Akt pathway in cancer cells is crucial for the pro-metastatic effect of COX-2+ TAMs by regulating MMP-9 and EMT. These findings indicate that TAMs facilitate breast cancer cell metastasis through COX-2-mediated intercellular communication. PMID:27994517

  3. Targeting tumor-associated macrophages in an experimental glioma model with a recombinant immunotoxin to folate receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku; Tanaka, Masashi; Tsuneyoshi, Yasuhiro; Xu, Baohui; Michie, Sara A; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori; Matsuyama, Takami

    2009-10-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in glioblastomas and a high degree of macrophage infiltration is associated with a poor prognosis for glioblastoma patients. However, it is unclear whether TAMs in glioblastomas promote tumor growth. In this study, we found that folate receptor beta (FR beta) was expressed on macrophages in human glioblastomas and a rat C6 glioma implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. To target FR beta-expressing TAMs, we produced a recombinant immunotoxin consisting of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain Fv portions of an anti-mouse FR beta monoclonal antibody and Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Injection of the immunotoxin into C6 glioma xenografts in nude mice significantly depleted TAMs and reduced tumor growth. The immunotoxin targeting FR beta-expressing macrophages will provide a therapeutic tool for human glioblastomas.

  4. Kinetic and docking studies of cytosolic/tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II and IX with some hydroxylic compounds.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Korkmaz, Neslihan; Işık, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; Astley, Demet; Ekinci, Deniz; Salmas, Ramin E; Senturk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    A series of hydroxylic compounds (1-10, NK-154 and NK-168) have been assayed for the inhibition of three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes, the cytosolic isozymes I, II and tumor-associated isozyme IX. The investigated compounds showed inhibition constants in the range of 0.068-4003, 0.012-9.9 and 0.025-115 μm at the hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX enzymes, respectively. In order to investigate the binding mechanisms of these inhibitors, in silico studies were also applied. Molecular docking scores of the studied compounds are calculated using scoring algorithms, namely Glide/induced fit docking. The inhibitory potencies of the novel compounds were analyzed at the human isoforms hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX as targets and the KI values were calculated.

  5. Direct contacts with colon cancer cells regulate the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into tumor associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanan; Li, Zongwei; Yang, Peng; Newton, Ian P; Ren, Hua; Zhang, Lichao; Wu, Haili; Li, Zhuoyu

    2014-08-15

    Tumor-stroma interactions are referred to as essential events in tumor progression. There has been growing attention that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can travel to tumor stroma, where they differentiate into tumor-associated fibroblast (TAF)-like cells, a predominant tumor-promoting stromal cell. However, little is definitively known about the contributors for this transition. Here, using an in vitro direct co-culture model of colon cancer cells and BMSCs, we identify that colon cancer cells can induce adjoining BMSCs to exhibit the typical characteristic of TAFs, with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Importantly, the present data also reveals that activated Notch signaling mediates transformation of BMSCs to TAFs through the downstream TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

  6. Tumor-associated mesenchymal stem-like cells provide extracellular signaling cue for invasiveness of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki-Chun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, In-Gyu; Kim, Min-Jung; Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu; Lee, Su-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is abundant in tumor microenvironment and closely associated with invasiveness of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. However, the cellular mechanism underlying HA-rich microenvironment in GBM remains unexplored. Here, we show that tumor-associated mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs) contribute to abundance of hyaluronic acid (HA) in tumor microenvironment through HA synthase-2 (HAS2) induction, and thereby enhances invasiveness of GBM cells. In an autocrine manner, C5a secreted by tMSLCs activated ERK MAPK for HAS2 induction in tMSLCs. Importantly, HA acted as a signaling ligand of its cognate receptor RHAMM for intracellular signaling activation underlying invasiveness of GBM cells. Taken together, our study suggests that tMSLCs contribute to HA-rich proinvasive ECM microenvironment in GBM. PMID:27903965

  7. Targeting tumor-associated immune suppression with selective protein kinase A type I (PKAI) inhibitors may enhance cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muzammal; Shah, Zahir; Abbas, Nasir; Javeed, Aqeel; Mukhtar, Muhammad Mahmood; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in last few years, the cancer immunotherapy has not yet improved disease-free because of the tumor-associated immune suppression being a major barrier. Novel trends to enhance cancer immunotherapy aims at harnessing the therapeutic manipulation of signaling pathways mediating the tumor-associated immune suppression, with the general aims of: (a) reversing the tumor immune suppression; (b) enhancing the innate and adaptive components of anti-tumor immunosurveillance, and (c) protecting immune cells from the suppressive effects of T regulatory cells (Tregs) and the tumor-derived immunoinhibitory mediators. A particular striking example in this context is the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A type I (PKAI) pathway. Oncogenic cAMP/PKAI signaling has long been implicated in the initiation and progression of several human cancers. Emerging data indicate that cAMP/PKAI signaling also contributes to tumor- and Tregs-derived suppression of innate and adaptive arms of anti-tumor immunosurveillance. Therapeutically, selective PKAI inhibitors have been developed which have shown promising anti-cancer activity in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Rp-8-Br-cAMPS is a selective PKAI antagonist that is widely used as a biochemical tool in signal transduction research. Collateral data indicate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS has shown immune-rescuing potential in terms of enhancing the innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity, as well as protecting adaptive T cells from the suppressive effects of Tregs. Therefore, this proposal specifically implicates that combining selective PKAI antagonists/inhibitors with cancer immunotherapy may have multifaceted benefits, such as rescuing the endogenous anti-tumor immunity, enhancing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, and direct anti-cancer effects.

  8. Tumor Associated Stromal Cells Play a Critical Role on the Outcome of the Oncolytic Efficacy of Conditionally Replicative Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, M. Verónica; Viale, Diego L.; Cafferata, Eduardo G. A.; Bravo, Alicia I.; Carbone, Cecilia; Gould, David; Chernajovsky, Yuti; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of conditionally replicative oncolytic adenoviruses (CRAd) is still limited by the inefficient infection of the tumor mass. Since tumor growth is essentially the result of a continuous cross-talk between malignant and tumor-associated stromal cells, targeting both cell compartments may profoundly influence viral efficacy. Therefore, we developed SPARC promoter-based CRAds since the SPARC gene is expressed both in malignant cells and in tumor-associated stromal cells. These CRAds, expressing or not the Herpes Simplex thymidine kinase gene (Ad-F512 and Ad(I)-F512-TK, respectively) exerted a lytic effect on a panel of human melanoma cells expressing SPARC; but they were completely attenuated in normal cells of different origins, including fresh melanocytes, regardless of whether cells expressed or not SPARC. Interestingly, both CRAds displayed cytotoxic activity on SPARC positive-transformed human microendothelial HMEC-1 cells and WI-38 fetal fibroblasts. Both CRAds were therapeutically effective on SPARC positive-human melanoma tumors growing in nude mice but exhibited restricted efficacy in the presence of co-administered HMEC-1 or WI-38 cells. Conversely, co-administration of HMEC-1 cells enhanced the oncolytic efficacy of Ad(I)-F512-TK on SPARC-negative MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, conditioned media produced by stromal cells pre-infected with the CRAds enhanced the in vitro viral oncolytic activity on pancreatic cancer cells, but not on melanoma cells. The whole data indicate that stromal cells might play an important role on the outcome of the oncolytic efficacy of conditionally replicative adenoviruses. PMID:19337591

  9. T cell tolerance and activation to a transgene-encoded tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, A; McCormick, D; Scott, D; Yeoman, H; Chandler, P; Mellor, A; Dyson, J

    1996-05-01

    Much has been learned in recent years concerning the nature of tumor antigens recognized by T cells. To apply this knowledge clinically, the nature of the host response to individual and multiple tumor antigens has to be characterized. This will help to define the efficacy of immune surveillance and the immune status of the host following exposure to tumor antigens expressed on pre-neoplastic tissue. To approach these questions, we have developed a transgenic mouse which expresses the tumor-specific antigen P91A. The single amino acid substitution in P91A results in the expression of a new MHC class I (H-2Ld)-binding peptide. In transgenic tissue, the H-2Ld/P91A complex is expressed in isolation from other tumor-associated antigens, allowing definition of the immune response to a single defined tumor antigen, a situation closely analogous to events during tumorigenesis. We show that CD8+ T cell immune surveillance of P91A is ineffective without the introduction of a helper determinant operating through stimulation of CD4+ T cells. Recognition of the isolated P91A tumor antigen on normal tissue by CD8+ T cells is a tolerogenic process. Induction of T cell tolerance suggests tumor antigen-T cell interactions occurring during tumorigenesis may elicit T cell tolerance and hence confound some immunotherapeutic approaches.

  10. Intracellular delivery of tumor antigenic peptides in biodegradable-polymer adjuvant for enhancing cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Ma, W

    2014-01-01

    Tumor antigenic peptides therapeutics is a promising field for cancer immunotherapy; advantages include convenient synthesis and modification of antigenic peptides, as well as little toxicity associated with its administration. Vaccination of the peptides derived from tumor-associated antigen (TAA) was specifically designed for T cells in the context of MHC molecules. In the past decades, tumor antigenic peptides have been examined in clinic but numbered success has been obtained because of the stability of peptide and delivery approaches, consequently leading to an inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in cancer patients. Thus, the appropriate and efficient peptide vaccine carrier systems still continue to be a major obstacle. However, both sipuleucel-T vaccine and anti-CTLA-4 antibody have been approved by FDA for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer and melanoma, respectively. PLGA has been recently used as the adjuvant to elicit enhanced immune responses while delivering tumor antigenic peptides. Intracellular delivery of the peptides derived from TAA into DCs would prolong antigen presentation of APC to T cells. This article aims to describe a new delivery method regarding tumor antigenic peptides and rationales of DCs-based vaccination.

  11. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  12. Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in certain vegetables, such as potatoes, beans, peas, and corn. They are also found in breads, ... Foods high in fiber include fruits, vegetables, beans, peas, nuts, seeds, and whole-grain foods (such as ...

  13. Calix[4]arene decorated with four Tn antigen glycomimetic units and P3CS immunoadjuvant: synthesis, characterization, and anticancer immunological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Corrada; Consoli, Grazia M L; Galante, Eva; Bousquet, Ennio; Pappalardo, Maria; Spadaro, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    A novel anticancer vaccine candidate built on a nonpeptidic scaffold has been synthesized. Four S-Tn tumor-associated glycomimetic antigens have been clustered onto a calix[4]arene scaffold bearing an immunoadjuvant moiety (P3CS). The immunogenicity of the synthetic construct has been investigated by immunization of mice in vivo. ELISA assay has evidenced that the tetravalent construct stimulates a higher production of anti-Tn antigen IgG antibodies when compared to an analogous monovalent compound. This result is ascribable to an antigen cluster effect and makes the reported vaccine candidate a good mimic of the natural motifs present on the mucine surface.

  14. Non-tumor-Associated Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Encephalitis in Chinese Girls With Positive Anti-thyroid Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenjuan; Fu, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Hui; Jing, Lijun; Lu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Jia, Yanjie

    2015-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a new category of autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. The disease was first described in 2007, and it predominantly affects young women with or without ovarian teratomas. Most patients typically present with seizures, a decreased consciousness level, dyskinesia, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies in non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis was first described in 2010. Additionally, anti-thyroid antibodies were found in teratoma-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report the cases of 3 Chinese girls with non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with positive anti-thyroid antibodies. We followed up the details of their titers and suggest that anti-thyroid antibodies were an indicator of autoimmune predisposition in the development of non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

  15. JL1, a novel differentiation antigen of human cortical thymocyte

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Expression of a novel thymocyte differentiation antigen, JL1, defined by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) developed against human thymocytes showed a specificity for stage II double positive (CD4+CD8+) human cortical thymocytes. This antigen was not expressed at detectable levels on medullary thymocytes, mature peripheral leukocytes, bone marrow cells or on other types of tissues elsewhere in the human body. Immunohistologic analysis revealed that JL1 had a clear pattern of distribution on cortical thymocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I- labeled cell lysates from human thymocytes and Molt-4 leukemic cell line with anti-JL1 mAb yielded a 120-130-kD single chain glycoprotein. When immunoprecipitation of cell lysate was done after endoglycosidase F treatment, JL1 antigen was still detected by antibody but the band showed a reduction in apparent molecular mass of approximately 5 kD. This suggests that, although JL1 molecule contains carbohydrate group, this does not form a critical part of the antigenic determinant for anti-JL1 antibody. JL1 antigen appears to be the first double positive, stage-specific differentiation antigen of human thymocyte reported so far. This antigen would be a useful marker for lymphoblastic malignancy of stage II thymocyte origin and it may be involved in the thymocyte education process. PMID:8376947

  16. Prediction of carbohydrate binding sites on protein surfaces with 3-dimensional probability density distributions of interacting atoms.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Keng-Chang; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Yang, Ei-Wen; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Peng, Hung-Pin; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chen, Jun-Bo; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    prediction MCC was 0.49. Independent tests on anti-carbohydrate antibodies showed that the carbohydrate antigen binding sites were predicted with comparable accuracy. These results demonstrate that the predictors are among the best in carbohydrate binding site predictions to date.

  17. Surface characterization of carbohydrate microarrays.

    PubMed

    Scurr, David J; Horlacher, Tim; Oberli, Matthias A; Werz, Daniel B; Kroeck, Lenz; Bufali, Simone; Seeberger, Peter H; Shard, Alexander G; Alexander, Morgan R

    2010-11-16

    Carbohydrate microarrays are essential tools to determine the biological function of glycans. Here, we analyze a glycan array by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to gain a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of the individual spots and to improve carbohydrate microarray quality. The carbohydrate microarray is prepared by piezo printing of thiol-terminated sugars onto a maleimide functionalized glass slide. The hyperspectral ToF-SIMS imaging data are analyzed by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to discern secondary ions from regions of the array containing saccharide, linker, salts from the printing buffer, and the background linker chemistry. Analysis of secondary ions from the linker common to all of the sugar molecules employed reveals a relatively uniform distribution of the sugars within the spots formed from solutions with saccharide concentration of 0.4 mM and less, whereas a doughnut shape is often formed at higher-concentration solutions. A detailed analysis of individual spots reveals that in the larger spots the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) salts are heterogeneously distributed, apparently resulting in saccharide concentrated at the rim of the spots. A model of spot formation from the evaporating sessile drop is proposed to explain these observations. Saccharide spot diameters increase with saccharide concentration due to a reduction in surface tension of the saccharide solution compared to PBS. The multivariate analytical partial least squares (PLS) technique identifies ions from the sugars that in the complex ToF-SIMS spectra correlate with the binding of galectin proteins.

  18. Benefits and hazards of dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Connor, William E; Duell, P Barton; Connor, Sonja L

    2005-11-01

    Since the dawn of civilization, carbohydrate has comprised the largest source of energy in the diet for most populations. The source of the carbohydrate has been from plants in the form of complex carbohydrate high in fiber. Only in affluent cultures has sugar contributed so much of the total energy. When carbohydrate is consumed as a major component of a plant-based diet, a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet is associated with low plasma levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less coronary heart disease, less diabetes, and less obesity. Very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets may provide short-term solutions but do not lead to a long-term solution for most people.

  19. Applications of synthetic carbohydrates to chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Lepenies, Bernd; Yin, Jian; Seeberger, Peter H

    2010-06-01

    Access to synthetic carbohydrates is an urgent need for the development of carbohydrate-based drugs, vaccines, adjuvants as well as novel drug delivery systems. Besides traditional synthesis in solution, synthetic carbohydrates have been generated by chemoenzymatic methods as well as automated solid-phase synthesis. Synthetic oligosaccharides have proven to be useful for identifying ligands of carbohydrate-binding proteins such as C-type lectins and siglecs using glycan arrays. Furthermore, glyconanoparticles and glycodendrimers have been used for specific targeting of lectins of the immune system such as selectins, DC-SIGN, and CD22. This review focuses on how diverse carbohydrate structures can be synthetically derived and highlights the benefit of synthetic carbohydrates for glycobiology.

  20. New fabrication and applications of carbohydrate arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Chen, Xin; Xiao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are used as high-throughput screening platforms to study the carbohydrate-mediated recognition events for glycobiology. The polysaccharide arrays are easy to fabricate by non-covalently or covalently immobilizing polysaccharides onto array surfaces because polysaccharides have hydrophobic interactions. Oligosaccharides must be derived and covalently or non-covalently immobilized onto array surfaces to fabricate oligosaccharide arrays because they have hydrophilic interactions. At the moment, carbohydrate arrays are mainly used to study the carbohydrate-protein interactions and carbohydrate-binding lectins or antibodies, which are possible to be applied to clinics and diagnoses. This review mainly summed up the new fabrication strategies of carbohydrate arrays and their applications in recent four years.

  1. Dietary Plans for Carbohydrate Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    NUTS - CASHEWS -OIL ROASTED 6.00 TBSPS 48.8 GMS Nutrient Values Kcalories 4071 Kcal Carbohydrate 574.3 Gm Protein 168.1 Gm Fat 125.4 Gm Protein: 16...ENR 2.00 ITEMS 28.00 Gm (5%) ORANGE JUICE-CAN 1.00 CUP 24.50 Gm (4%) SOUP-VEGETABLE-CAN-LOW SOD 1.50 CUPS 21.60 Gm (4%) NUTS - CASHEWS -OIL ROASTED 6.00...LOW SOD 8 POUNDS 4 KILOS Beverages FRUIT PUNCH DRINK-CAN 5 POUNDS 2 KILOS (3 QUARTS) Nuts & Seeds NUTS - CASHEWS -OIL ROASTED 1 POUND 488 GRAMS Fats & Oils

  2. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    PubMed

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  3. Regioselective azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates and applications thereof.

    PubMed

    L, Mallikharjuna Rao; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Taneja, Subhash Chandra

    2012-12-07

    Azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) has been achieved in high yields under Mitsunobu conditions. The azidation of carbohydrates is effected at 0 °C essentially only at the primary alcoholic position in mono, di- and triols in protected/unprotected glycosides, whereas the remaining secondary hydroxyl groups got silylated. Surprisingly, no azidation of the secondary hydroxyls was observed in all the carbohydrate substrates. Applications of the methodology for the synthesis of amino sugars, triazoles and azasugars are reported.

  4. Tumor-associated macrophages subvert T-cell function and correlate with reduced survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dannenmann, Stefanie Regine; Thielicke, Julia; Stöckli, Martina; Matter, Claudia; von Boehmer, Lotta; Cecconi, Virginia; Hermanns, Thomas; Hefermehl, Lukas; Schraml, Peter; Moch, Holger; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    Although malignant cells can be recognized and controlled by the immune system, in patients with clinically apparent cancer immunosurveillance has failed. To better understand local immunoregulatory processes that impact on cancer progression, we correlated intratumoral immunological profiles with the survival of patients affected by primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A retrospective analysis of 54 primary ccRCC samples for 31 different immune response-related transcripts, revealed a negative correlation of CD68 (a marker of tumor-associated macrophages, TAMs) and FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T cells, Tregs) with survival. The subsequent analysis of 12 TAM-related transcripts revealed an association between the genes coding for CD163, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and fibronectin 1 (FN1), all of which have been linked to the M2 TAM phenotype, with reduced survival and increased tumor stage, whereas the opposite was the case for the M1-associated gene coding for inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS). The M2 signature of (CD68+) TAMs was found to correlate with CD163 expression, as determined in prospectively collected fresh ccRCC tissue samples. Upon co-culture with autologous tumor cells, CD11b+ cells isolated from paired blood samples expressed CD163 and other M2-associated proteins, suggesting that the malignant cells promote the accumulation of M2 TAMs. Furthermore, the tumor-associated milieu as well as isolated TAMs induced the skewing of autologous, blood-derived CD4+ T cells toward a more immunosuppressive phenotype, as shown by decreased production of effector cytokines, increased production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and enhanced expression of the co-inhibitory molecules programmed death 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3). Taken together, our data suggest that ccRCC progressively attracts macrophages and induces their skewing into M2 TAMs, in turn subverting tumor-infiltrating T cells such that immunoregulatory

  5. Tumor-associated macrophages subvert T-cell function and correlate with reduced survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dannenmann, Stefanie Regine; Thielicke, Julia; Stöckli, Martina; Matter, Claudia; von Boehmer, Lotta; Cecconi, Virginia; Hermanns, Thomas; Hefermehl, Lukas; Schraml, Peter; Moch, Holger; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-03-01

    Although malignant cells can be recognized and controlled by the immune system, in patients with clinically apparent cancer immunosurveillance has failed. To better understand local immunoregulatory processes that impact on cancer progression, we correlated intratumoral immunological profiles with the survival of patients affected by primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A retrospective analysis of 54 primary ccRCC samples for 31 different immune response-related transcripts, revealed a negative correlation of CD68 (a marker of tumor-associated macrophages, TAMs) and FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T cells, Tregs) with survival. The subsequent analysis of 12 TAM-related transcripts revealed an association between the genes coding for CD163, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and fibronectin 1 (FN1), all of which have been linked to the M2 TAM phenotype, with reduced survival and increased tumor stage, whereas the opposite was the case for the M1-associated gene coding for inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS). The M2 signature of (CD68(+)) TAMs was found to correlate with CD163 expression, as determined in prospectively collected fresh ccRCC tissue samples. Upon co-culture with autologous tumor cells, CD11b(+) cells isolated from paired blood samples expressed CD163 and other M2-associated proteins, suggesting that the malignant cells promote the accumulation of M2 TAMs. Furthermore, the tumor-associated milieu as well as isolated TAMs induced the skewing of autologous, blood-derived CD4(+) T cells toward a more immunosuppressive phenotype, as shown by decreased production of effector cytokines, increased production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and enhanced expression of the co-inhibitory molecules programmed death 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3). Taken together, our data suggest that ccRCC progressively attracts macrophages and induces their skewing into M2 TAMs, in turn subverting tumor-infiltrating T cells such that

  6. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  7. Unmasking targets of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity through high-throughput antigen profiling

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Sebastiano; Muhitch, Jason B

    2017-01-01

    More than three decades of evidence has established that antitumor immune responses, initially shown with IL-2 treatment, can result in complete, durable eradication of malignant disease in metastatic patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that immune checkpoint blockade as well as cellular therapies, including dendritic cell activation of T cells and adoptive T cell transfer, can induce long-lasting responses. To elicit cytolysis of tumor cells, effector T cells rely on tumor expression of target antigens. However, the antigens targeted during antitumor responses are largely unknown. Technological advancements and availability of sequencing data have paved the way for more efficient screening and validation of tumor-associated antigens and neoantigens derived from non-synonymous mutations targeted by T cells under baseline conditions and in the context of immunotherapy. PMID:27010105

  8. Common Ewing sarcoma-associated antigens fail to induce natural T cell responses in both patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Altvater, Bianca; Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Theimann, Nadine; Ahlmann, Martina; Farwick, Nicole; Chen, Christiane; Pscherer, Sibylle; Neumann, Ilka; Mrachatz, Gabriele; Hansmeier, Anna; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Juergens, Heribert; Rossig, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Disseminated or relapsed Ewing sarcoma (EwS) has remained fatal in the majority of patients. A promising approach to preventing relapse after conventional therapy is to establish tumor antigen-specific immune control. Efficient and specific T cell memory against the tumor depends on the expansion of rare T cells with native specificity against target antigens overexpressed by the tumor. Candidate antigens in EwS include six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-1 (STEAP1), and the human cancer/testis antigens X-antigen family member 1 (XAGE1) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). Here, we screened normal donors and EwS patients for the presence of circulating T cells reactive with overlapping peptide libraries of these antigens by IFN-γ Elispot analysis. The majority of 22 healthy donors lacked detectable memory T cell responses against STEAP1, XAGE1 and PRAME. Moreover, ex vivo detection of T cells specific for these antigens in both blood and bone marrow were limited to a minority of EwS patients and required nonspecific T cell prestimulation. Cytotoxic T cells specific for the tumor-associated antigens were efficiently and reliably generated by in vitro priming using professional antigen-presenting cells and optimized cytokine stimulation; however, these T cells failed to interact with native antigen processed by target cells and with EwS cells expressing the antigen. We conclude that EwS-associated antigens fail to induce efficient T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antitumor immune responses even under optimized conditions. Strategies based on TCR engineering could provide a more effective means to manipulating T cell immunity toward targeted elimination of tumor cells.

  9. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Molecular Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Together with Serum Markers of Tumor-Associated Nuclear Change and Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    ultrasound molecular imaging agents enhances signal intensity and detection of OVCA’ was examined in specific aim 1 described in Year-1 report...improved the detection of OVCA at early stage. This improvement in OVCA detectability was due to the enhanced ultrasound imaging signal intensity ...Molecular Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Together with Serum Markers of Tumor-Associated Nuclear Change and Angiogenesis PRINCIPAL

  10. Tumor-associated mutant p53 promotes cancer cell survival upon glutamine deprivation through p21 induction.

    PubMed

    Tran, T Q; Lowman, X H; Reid, M A; Mendez-Dorantes, C; Pan, M; Yang, Y; Kong, M

    2017-04-06

    Cancer cells depend on glutamine to sustain their increased proliferation and manage oxidative stress, yet glutamine is often depleted at tumor sites owing to excessive cellular consumption and poor vascularization. We have previously reported that p53 protein, although a well-known tumor suppressor, can contribute to cancer cell survival and adaptation to low-glutamine conditions. However, the TP53 gene is frequently mutated in tumors, and the role of mutant p53 (mutp53) in response to metabolic stress remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that tumor-associated mutp53 promotes cancer cell survival upon glutamine deprivation both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, cancer cells expressing mutp53 proteins are more resistant to glutamine deprivation than cells with wild-type p53. Depletion of endogenous mutp53 protein in human lymphoma cells leads to cell sensitivity to glutamine withdrawal, whereas expression of mutp53 in p53 null cells results in resistance to glutamine deprivation. Furthermore, we found that mutp53 proteins hyper-transactivate p53-target gene CDKN1A upon glutamine deprivation, thus triggering cell cycle arrest and promoting cell survival. Together, our results reveal an unidentified mechanism by which mutp53 confers oncogenic functions by promoting cancer cell adaptation to metabolic stress.

  11. GATA3 expression correlates with poor prognosis and tumor-associated macrophage infiltration in peripheral T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunping; Zhong, Dingrong; Luo, Yufeng; Zhou, Daobin

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined the prognostic value of two T-cell-specific transcription factors, GATA3 and T-bet, in PTCL, uncovered the pathogenesis of PTCL, and investigated new PTCL therapeutic targets. Samples from 109 PTCL patients were examined for expression of GATA3, T-bet and CD68. High GATA3 expression correlated with poor survival in PTCL patients and with tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration, as indicated by the presence of CD68-positive cells. Multivariate analysis further confirmed that high GATA3 expression and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores higher than 2 were independent predictors of patient survival. Using lentiviral transfection to induce stable GATA3 knockdown in a PTCL cell line, we observed that GATA-3 knockdown in Hut78 cells decreased levels of IL4, IL5, IL13 and VEGF mRNA and reduced the number of co-cultured U937 cells that differentiated towards the M2 phenotype. These results suggest that high GATA3 expression is a predictor of a poor prognosis in PTCL, and that T lymphoma cells promote M2-type macrophage differentiation through a GATA3-dependent mechanism. PMID:27589565

  12. Tumor-associated macrophages favor C26 murine colon carcinoma cell proliferation in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Luput, Lavinia; Licarete, Emilia; Sesarman, Alina; Laura, Patras; Alupei, Marius Costel; Banciu, Manuela

    2017-02-17

    The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of colon carcinoma is still controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the TAM‑driven processes that may affect colon cancer cell proliferation. To achieve this purpose, murine macrophages were co-cultured with C26 murine colon carcinoma cells at a cell density ratio that approximates physiological conditions for colon carcinoma development in vivo. In this respect, the effects of TAM-mediated angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress on the proliferative capacity of C26 murine colon carcinoma cells were studied. To gain insight into the TAM-driven oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase, the main pro-oxidant enzyme in macrophages, was inhibited. Our data revealed that the stimulatory effects of TAMs on C26 cell proliferation may be related mainly to their pro-oxidant actions exerted by NADPH oxidase activity, which maintains the redox status and the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of TAMs on tumor cells were found to create a favorable microenvironment for C26 colon carcinoma development and progression. In conclusion, our data confirmed the protumor role of TAMs in the development of colon carcinoma in an oxidative stress-dependent manner that potentiates the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. These data may offer valuable information for future tumor-targeted therapies based on TAM 're-education' strategies.

  13. Depot delivery of dexamethasone and cediranib for the treatment of brain tumor associated edema in an intracranial rat glioma model.

    PubMed

    Ong, Qunya; Hochberg, Fred H; Cima, Michael J

    2015-11-10

    Treatments of brain tumor associated edema with systemically delivered dexamethasone, the standard of care, and cediranib, a novel anti-edema agent, are associated with systemic toxicities in brain tumor patients. A tunable, reservoir-based drug delivery device was developed to investigate the effects of delivering dexamethasone and cediranib locally in the brain in an intracranial 9L gliosarcoma rat model. Reproducible, sustained releases of both dexamethasone and solid dispersion of cediranib in polyvinylpyrrolidone (AZD/PVP) from these devices were achieved. The water-soluble AZD/PVP, which exhibited similar bioactivity as cediranib, was developed to enhance the release of cediranib from the device. Local and systemic administration of both dexamethasone and cediranib was equally efficacious in alleviating edema but had no effect on tumor growth. Edema reduction led to modest but significant improvement in survival. Local delivery of dexamethasone prevented dexamethasone-induced weight loss, an adverse effect seen in animals treated with systemic dexamethasone. Local deliveries of dexamethasone and cediranib via these devices used only 2.36% and 0.21% of the systemic doses respectively, but achieved similar efficacy as systemic drug deliveries without the side effects associated with systemic administration. Other therapeutic agents targeting brain tumor can be delivered locally in the brain to provide similar improved treatment outcomes.

  14. Prognostic value of lymphocyte/monocyte ratio in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: correlation with International Prognostic Score and tumor associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jakovic, Ljubomir R; Mihaljevic, Biljana S; Andjelic, Bosko M; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Perunicic Jovanovic, Maja D; Babic, Dragan D; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Z

    2016-08-01

    We studied the prognostic significance of the absolute lymphocyte/monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC), its contribution to the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Score (IPS), and evaluated if ALC/AMC could serve as a proxy for the frequency of CD68 + tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in 101 patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified best cut-off values of 2.0 for ALC/AMC and 25% for CD68 + TAM. Patients with ALC/AMC < 2, IPS > 2 and > 25% CD68 + TAM had an inferior overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Spearman's test also uncovered a significant correlation between the ALC/AMC and TAM. Multivariate analysis identified ALC/AMC < 2, IPS > 2 and > 25% CD68 + TAM as poor prognostic factors of OS and EFS. After evaluating ALC/AMC and IPS, we stratified patients into three progressively-worse-outcome groups (low-risk: 0 risk factors; intermediate: 1 risk factor; high: 2 risk factors). Our study encourages the combination of ALC/AMC with IPS, for refining risk prediction in advanced HL patients.

  15. A think tank of TINK/TANKs: tumor-infiltrating/tumor-associated natural killer cells in tumor progression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonino; Ferlazzo, Guido; Albini, Adriana; Noonan, Douglas M

    2014-08-01

    Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes are often induced by the cancer microenvironment to display a protumor, proangiogenic phenotype. This "polarization" has been described for several myeloid cells, in particular macrophages. Natural killer (NK) cells represent another population of innate immune cells able to infiltrate tumors. The role of NK in tumor progression and angiogenesis has not yet been fully investigated. Several studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating NK (here referred to as "TINKs") and tumor-associated NK (altered peripheral NK cells, which here we call "TANKs") are compromised in their ability to lysew tumor cells. Recent data have suggested that they are potentially protumorigenic and can also acquire a proangiogenic phenotype. Here we review the properties of TINKs and TANKs and compare their activities to that of NK cells endowed with a physiological proangiogenic phenotype, in particular decidual NK cells. We speculate on the potential origins of TINKs and TANKs and on the immune signals involved in their differentiation and polarization. The TINK and TANK phenotype has broad implications in the immune response to tumors, ranging from a deficient control of cancer and cancer stem cells to an altered crosstalk with other relevant players of the immune response, such as dendritic cells, to induction of cancer angiogenesis. With this recently acquired knowledge that has not yet been put into perspective, we point out new potential avenues for therapeutic intervention involving NK cells as a target or an ally in oncology.

  16. Phenotype and function of tumor-associated neutrophils and their subsets in early-stage human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy B

    2017-03-10

    Neutrophils accumulate in many types of human and murine tumors and represent a significant portion of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells. Our current understanding of the role of neutrophils in tumor development has depended primarily on murine models of cancer. However, there are crucial species differences in the evolution of tumors, genetic diversity, immune and inflammatory responses, and intrinsic biology of neutrophils that might have a profound impact on the tumor development and function of neutrophils in mouse versus human tumors. To date, the majority of experimental approaches to study neutrophils in cancer patients have been limited to the examination of circulating blood neutrophils. The phenotype and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in humans, particularly in the early stages of tumor development, have not been extensively investigated. Thus, the long-term goal of our work has been to characterize human TANs and determine their specific role in tumor development. Here, we summarize our findings on human TANs obtained from human early stage lung cancer patients. We will describe the phenotypes of different TAN subsets identified in early stage lung tumors, as well as their functional dialog with T cells.

  17. Interferon-gamma reverses the immunosuppressive and protumoral properties and prevents the generation of human tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duluc, Dorothée; Corvaisier, Murielle; Blanchard, Simon; Catala, Laurent; Descamps, Philippe; Gamelin, Erick; Ponsoda, Stéphane; Delneste, Yves; Hebbar, Mohamed; Jeannin, Pascale

    2009-07-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are M2d-polarized cells (IL-10(high), IL-12(low), ILT3(high), CD86(low)) that accumulate in tumor microenvironment. TAM inhibit antitumor T lymphocyte generation and function, contribute to tumor tolerance and are trophic for tumors. In this study, we investigated whether some immunological factors may reverse TAM immunosuppressive properties. Among 32 cytokines, we have identified IFNgamma on its ability to switch immunosuppressive TAM into immunostimulatory cells. Upon IFNgamma exposure, TAM purified from ovarian cancer ascites recover a M1 phenotype (IL-10(low), IL-12(high)), express high levels of CD86 and low levels of ILT3, enhance the proliferation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and potentiate the cytotoxic properties of a MelanA-specific CD8(+) T cell clone. IFNgamma-treated TAM also secreted reduced levels of mediators promoting suppressive T cell accumulation (CCL18) and trophic for tumors (VEGF and MMP9). As TAM derive from the local differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes, we investigated whether IFNgamma may also affect TAM generation. In the presence of ovarian ascites, IFNgamma skewed monocyte differentiation from TAM-like cells to M1-polarized immunostimulatory macrophages. Together, these data show that IFNgamma overcomes TAM-induced immunosuppression by preventing TAM generation and functions. These data highlight that IFNgamma used locally at the tumor site could potentiate the efficacy of antitumor immunotherapies based on the generation of effector T cells.

  18. RNA Sequencing of Tumor-Associated Microglia Reveals Ccl5 as a Stromal Chemokine Critical for Neurofibromatosis-1 Glioma Growth.

    PubMed

    Solga, Anne C; Pong, Winnie W; Kim, Keun-Young; Cimino, Patrick J; Toonen, Joseph A; Walker, Jason; Wylie, Todd; Magrini, Vincent; Griffith, Malachi; Griffith, Obi L; Ly, Amy; Ellisman, Mark H; Mardis, Elaine R; Gutmann, David H

    2015-10-01

    Solid cancers develop within a supportive microenvironment that promotes tumor formation and growth through the elaboration of mitogens and chemokines. Within these tumors, monocytes (macrophages and microglia) represent rich sources of these stromal factors. Leveraging a genetically engineered mouse model of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) low-grade brain tumor (optic glioma), we have previously demonstrated that microglia are essential for glioma formation and maintenance. To identify potential tumor-associated microglial factors that support glioma growth (gliomagens), we initiated a comprehensive large-scale discovery effort using optimized RNA-sequencing methods focused specifically on glioma-associated microglia. Candidate microglial gliomagens were prioritized to identify potential secreted or membrane-bound proteins, which were next validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction as well as by RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization following minocycline-mediated microglial inactivation in vivo. Using these selection criteria, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (Ccl5) was identified as a chemokine highly expressed in genetically engineered Nf1 mouse optic gliomas relative to nonneoplastic optic nerves. As a candidate gliomagen, recombinant Ccl5 increased Nf1-deficient optic nerve astrocyte growth in vitro. Importantly, consistent with its critical role in maintaining tumor growth, treatment with Ccl5 neutralizing antibodies reduced Nf1 mouse optic glioma growth and improved retinal dysfunction in vivo. Collectively, these findings establish Ccl5 as an important microglial growth factor for low-grade glioma maintenance relevant to the development of future stroma-targeted brain tumor therapies.

  19. CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages correlated with poor prognosis and cancer stem cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, Ke-Fei; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Cong-Fa; Ma, Si-Rui; Wang, Yu-Fan; Wang, Wei-Ming; Zhao, Zhi-Li; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the progression and prognostication of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of TAM markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of TAM markers and pathological features in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 16 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia, and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. We observed that the protein expression of the TAM markers CD68 and CD163 as well as the cancer stem cell (CSC) markers ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 increased successively from the normal oral mucosa to OSCC. The expressions of CD68 and CD163 were significantly associated with lymph node status, and SOX2 was significantly correlated with pathological grade and lymph node status, whereas ALDH1 was correlated with tumor stage. Furthermore, CD68 was significantly correlated with CD163, SOX2, and ALDH1 (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that OSCC patients overexpressing CD163 had significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.05). TAM markers are associated with cancer stem cell marker and OSCC overall survival, suggesting their potential prognostic value in OSCC.

  20. Functions of miR-146a and miR-222 in Tumor-associated Macrophages in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanshuang; Zhao, Lianmei; Shi, Bianhua; Ma, Sisi; Xu, Zhenbiao; Ge, Yehua; Liu, Yanxin; Zheng, Dexian; Shi, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play critical roles in promoting tumor progression and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TAM regulation remain to be further investigated and may make significant contributions to cancer treatment. Mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as important regulators of gene expression that function by repressing specific target genes mainly at the post-transcriptional level. However, systematic studies of the functions and mechanisms of miRNAs in TAMs in tumor tissues are rare. In this study, miR-146a and miR-222 were shown to be significantly decreased in TAMs associated with the up-regulated NF-κB p50 subunit. miR-146a promoted the expression of some M2 macrophage phenotype molecules, and miR-146a antagomir transfected RAW264.7 monocyte-macrophage cells inhibited 4T1 tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, overexpression of miR-222 inhibited TAM chemotaxis, and miR-222 in TAMs inhibited 4T1 tumor growth by targeting CXCL12 and inhibiting CXCR4. These data revealed that miRNAs influence breast tumor growth by promoting the M2 type polarization or regulating the recruitment of TAMs. These observations suggest that endogenous miRNAs may exert an important role in controlling the polarization and function of TAMs in breast cancer. PMID:26689540

  1. Functional TRAIL receptors in monocytes and tumor-associated macrophages: A possible targeting pathway in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Manuela; Buracchi, Chiara; Pasqualini, Fabio; Bergomas, Francesca; Pesce, Samantha; Sironi, Marina; Grizzi, Fabio; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Despite the accepted dogma that TRAIL kills only tumor cells and spares normal ones, we show in this study that mononuclear phagocytes are susceptible to recombinant TRAIL via caspase-dependent apoptosis. Human resting monocytes and in vitro-differentiated macrophages expressed substantial levels of the functional TRAIL receptors (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2), while neutrophils and lymphocytes mostly expressed the non-signaling decoy receptor (TRAIL-R3). Accordingly, exclusively monocytes and macrophages activated caspase-8 and underwent apoptosis upon recombinant TRAIL treatment. TRAIL-Rs were up-regulated by anti-inflammatory agents (IL-10, glucocorticoids) and by natural compounds (Apigenin, Quercetin, Palmitate) and their treatment resulted in increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In mice, the only signaling TRAIL-R (DR5) was preferentially expressed by blood monocytes rather than neutrophils or lymphocytes. In both mice and humans, Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAM) expressed functional TRAIL-R, while resident macrophages in normal tissues did not. As a proof of principle, we treated mice bearing a murine TRAIL-resistant fibrosarcoma with recombinant TRAIL. We observed significant decrease of circulating monocytes and infiltrating TAM, as well as reduced tumor growth and lower metastasis formation. Overall, these findings demonstrate that human and murine monocytes/macrophages are, among leukocytes, uniquely susceptible to TRAIL-mediated killing. This differential susceptibility to TRAIL could be exploited to selectively target macrophages in tumors. PMID:27191500

  2. New Mechanisms of Tumor-Associated Macrophages on Promoting Tumor Progression: Recent Research Advances and Potential Targets for Tumor Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Shulin; Hou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The majority of basic and clinical studies have shown a protumor function of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which represent a large proportion of matrix cells. TAMs promote tumorigenesis, and their number is related to the malignancy degree and poor prognosis of many kinds of tumors. Macrophage plasticity makes it possible to change the tumor microenvironment and remodel antitumor immunity during cancer immunotherapy. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed the effects of TAMs on the tumor microenvironment, for example, via promotion of tumor growth and tumorigenesis and through an increase in the number of cancer stem cells or via facilitation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis. Investigators also proposed tumor-immunological treatments targeting TAMs by inhibiting TAM recruitment and differentiation, by regulating TAM polarization, and by blocking factors and pathways associated with the protumor function of TAMs. This comprehensive review presents recent research on TAMs in relation to prediction of poor outcomes, remodeling of the tumor immune microenvironment, and immunological targeted therapies. PMID:27975071

  3. A Think Tank of TINK/TANKs: Tumor-Infiltrating/Tumor-Associated Natural Killer Cells in Tumor Progression and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Antonino; Ferlazzo, Guido; Albini, Adriana; Noonan, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes are often induced by the cancer microenvironment to display a protumor, proangiogenic phenotype. This “polarization” has been described for several myeloid cells, in particular macrophages. Natural killer (NK) cells represent another population of innate immune cells able to infiltrate tumors. The role of NK in tumor progression and angiogenesis has not yet been fully investigated. Several studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating NK (here referred to as “TINKs”) and tumor-associated NK (altered peripheral NK cells, which here we call “TANKs”) are compromised in their ability to lysew tumor cells. Recent data have suggested that they are potentially protumorigenic and can also acquire a proangiogenic phenotype. Here we review the properties of TINKs and TANKs and compare their activities to that of NK cells endowed with a physiological proangiogenic phenotype, in particular decidual NK cells. We speculate on the potential origins of TINKs and TANKs and on the immune signals involved in their differentiation and polarization. The TINK and TANK phenotype has broad implications in the immune response to tumors, ranging from a deficient control of cancer and cancer stem cells to an altered crosstalk with other relevant players of the immune response, such as dendritic cells, to induction of cancer angiogenesis. With this recently acquired knowledge that has not yet been put into perspective, we point out new potential avenues for therapeutic intervention involving NK cells as a target or an ally in oncology. PMID:25178695

  4. Review of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Furuya, M; Nagashima, Y; Gotohda, H; Kawakami, F; Moritani, S; Ota, S; Hora, M; Michal, M; Hes, O; Nakatani, Y

    2014-06-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by clinical features of skin lesions, pulmonary lesions and renal tumor. The gene responsible for this syndrome is located on chromosome 17p11.2 and designated as FLCN. In this article, we review renal tumors associated with BHDS with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Renal tumors often occur multifocally or bilaterally in the imaging analyses or gross examination. Histological examination of renal tumors includes a variety of subtypes such as hybrid oncocytic tumor, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), oncocytoma, clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. The histologic discordance in multiple tumors seems to be characteristic of this syndrome. Oncocytosis is observed histologically in about half of the cases. Several investigations have elucidated that folliculin may be involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway recently. Renal tumors composed of clear cells may behave in an aggressive fashion. However, renal tumors including hybrid oncocytic tumor, chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma behave mostly in an indolent fashion.

  5. Quantifying tumor associated macrophages in breast cancer: a comparison of iron and fluorine-based MRI cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Ashley V.; Gaudet, Jeffrey M.; Foster, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with tumor growth and metastasis. MRI can detect TAMs labeled with iron oxide (USPIO) or perfluorocarbon (PFC) agents. This study compared these two cell tracking approaches for imaging TAMs in vivo. 4T1 tumors were imaged with MRI at 4 days or 3 weeks post cell implantation after intravenous (i.v.) administration of either USPIO or PFC. Signal loss was detected within tumors at both time points post USPIO. Images acquired at 4 days demonstrated signal loss encompassing the entire tumor and around the periphery at 3 weeks. Number of black voxels suggested higher numbers of TAMs in the tumor at the later time point. After PFC administration, Fluorine-19 (19F) signal was detected in a similar spatial distribution as signal loss post USPIO. 19F signal quantification revealed that the number of 19F spins was not significantly different at the two time points, suggesting a similar number of TAMs were present in tumors but accumulated in different regions. 19F signal was higher centrally in tumors at 4 days and heterogenous around the periphery at 3 weeks. This study revealed that 19F-based cell tracking methods better represent TAM density and provides additional information not achievable with iron-based methods. PMID:28176853

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using CD68 Marker: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bagul, Neeta; Roy, Souparna; Ganjre, Anjali; Meher, Aishwarya; Singh, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in India. Clear evidence regarding inflammation being an etiological factor of cancer was found only in the last few decades. A major inflammatory component in the tumor tissue is Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs). The CD68 antibody is a marker for staining TAMs. Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the macrophage count in healthy oral mucosa and OSCC and comparing TAMs in different histopathological grades of OSCC immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods Thirty archival specimens of OSCC patients and 10 healthy biopsy samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was done using a CD68 marker. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Comparing CD68 expression in various study groups showed a significant difference (p=0.000). The pair-wise analysis showed different grades of OSCC, which differed significantly for CD68 expression from the normal oral mucosa. Conclusion The most significant cells present in tumor stroma are TAMs, which remain in close proximity to neoplastic cells and interact with them via several chemical mediators, which may serve to increase the invasiveness of the malignant epithelium. Dense infiltration of TAMs adjacent to tumor cells and islands vividly implies their role in tumor progression. PMID:27190959

  7. Epithelial ovarian cancer-secreted exosomal miR-222-3p induces polarization of tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiang; Wu, Quanfeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Qinyi; Wang, Xinjing; Jiang, Lu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-07-12

    Cancer secreted exosomal miRNAs are emerging as mediators between tumor-stoma crosstalk. Here, we show epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)-derived exosomes activated macrophages to a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-like phenotype with SOCS3/STAT3 pathway involvement, which could facilitate the progression of cancer. MiR-222-3p was enrichment in exosomes released from EOC cells and it could be transferred to macrophages. Overexpression of miR-222-3p in macrophages induced polarization of the M2 phenotype. Luciferase assay verified miR-222-3p targeted SOCS3 genes and expression of SOCS3 was decreased after transfection with a miR-222-3p mimic. Down-regulation of SOCS3 correlated with an increased expression of STAT3 activation. MiR-222-3p could be detected in the exosomes from serum and its levels were related to EOC. These observations propose tumor-derived exosomal miR-222-3p is an effective regulator in the polarization of tumor-promoting M2 macrophages and may be a biomarker of EOC.

  8. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized.

  9. Carbohydrates as synthetic tools in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Mike M K

    2007-01-01

    While amino acids, terpenes and alkaloids have found broad application as tools in stereoselective organic synthesis, carbohydrates have only lately been recognised as versatile starting materials for chiral auxiliaries, reagents, ligands and organocatalysts. The structural diversity of carbohydrates and the high density of functional groups offer a wide variety of opportunities for derivatization and tailoring of synthetic tools to a specific problem.

  10. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Petersen, G R

    1985-07-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrates profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  11. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  12. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  14. Suppression of hamster lymphocyte reactivity to simian virus 40 tumor surface antigens by spleen cells from pregnant hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Weppner, W.A.; Adkinson, L.R.; Coggin, J.H.Jr

    1980-09-01

    SV40-transformed tumor cells in hamsters have been found to have cell surface antigens cross-reactive with antigens temporally expressed on fetal tissues. Using a lymphocyte transformation assay, spleen cells from pregnant hamsters were found to be incapable of responding to preparations of either hamster fetal tissue or SV40-transformed cells. However, a suppressor component can be demonstrated in spleen cell populations of both primi-and multiparous hamsters during pregnancy that is capable of reducing the response of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40 tumor-associated antigens. The degree of suppression is proportional to the ratio of responder cells to spleen cells from pregnant animals. These results suggest there is a subpopulation of spleen cells involved in immunoregulation during pregnancy that has the ability to suppress the reactivity of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40-associated oncofetal antigens.

  15. Industrial applications of marine carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Aisverya, S; Nithya, R; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials have been used increasingly in various fields, such as drug delivery, imaging, and tissue engineering. The main reason justifying the widespread use of biomaterials relies on its valuable and low-cost source of new drugs. Current research goals are focused on identifying more potent and specific compounds with antitumor, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant, and antiviral activities. The increasing knowledge of structural analysis and chemical modifications enables the use of these marine carbohydrates in a newer way for the human welfare. This chapter focuses on the recent developments related to industrial and biomedical applications using chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan derivatives and reports the main advances published over the last 10-15 years.

  16. The importance of dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Hudson, Geoffrey J; Englyst, Hans N; Dewey, Peter; James, W Philip T

    2002-12-01

    Forty years ago carbohydrates (CHO) were regarded as a simple energy source whereas they are now recognized as important food components. The human diet contains a wide range of CHO, the vast majority of which are of plant origin. Modern techniques based on chemical classification of dietary CHO replaced the traditional "by difference" measurement. They provide a logical basis for grouping into categories of specific nutritional importance. The physiological effects of dietary CHO are highly dependent on the rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine and fermentation in the large intestine, interactions which promote human health. Current knowledge of the fate of dietary CHO means that the potentially undesirable properties of many modern foods could be altered by using processing techniques that yield foods with more intact plant cell wall structures. Such products would more closely resemble the foods in the pre-agriculture diet with respect to the rate of digestion and absorption of CHO in the small intestine. The potentially detrimental physiological consequences of eating sugars and starch that are rapidly digested and absorbed in the small intestine suggest that, as fibre, the form, as well as the amount of starch should be considered. Increasing consumer awareness of the relationship between diet and health has led to demands for more widespread nutrition labelling. The entry "carbohydrate" is required in most countries, and the value is usually obtained "by difference" and used in the calculation of energy content. However, the value provides no nutritional information per se. Food labels should provide values that aid consumers in selecting a healthy diet.

  17. Unique carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions are required for high affinity binding between FcgammaRIII and antibodies lacking core fucose.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Claudia; Grau, Sandra; Jäger, Christiane; Sondermann, Peter; Brünker, Peter; Waldhauer, Inja; Hennig, Michael; Ruf, Armin; Rufer, Arne Christian; Stihle, Martine; Umaña, Pablo; Benz, Jörg

    2011-08-02

    Antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a key immune effector mechanism, relies on the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to Fcγ receptors expressed on immune cells. Antibodies lacking core fucosylation show a large increase in affinity for FcγRIIIa leading to an improved receptor-mediated effector function. Although afucosylated IgGs exist naturally, a next generation of recombinant therapeutic, glycoenginereed antibodies is currently being developed to exploit this finding. In this study, the crystal structures of a glycosylated Fcγ receptor complexed with either afucosylated or fucosylated Fc were determined allowing a detailed, molecular understanding of the regulatory role of Fc-oligosaccharide core fucosylation in improving ADCC. The structures reveal a unique type of interface consisting of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions between glycans of the receptor and the afucosylated Fc. In contrast, in the complex structure with fucosylated Fc, these contacts are weakened or nonexistent, explaining the decreased affinity for the receptor. These findings allow us to understand the higher efficacy of therapeutic antibodies lacking the core fucose and also suggest a unique mechanism by which the immune system can regulate antibody-mediated effector functions.

  18. The induction of antigen-specific CTL by in situ Ad-REIC gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Y; Watanabe, M; Eikawa, S; Yamazaki, C; Sadahira, T; Hirata, T; Araki, M; Ebara, S; Nasu, Y; Udono, H; Kumon, H

    2016-05-01

    An adenovirus vector carrying the human Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cell (REIC)/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) mediates simultaneous induction of cancer-selective apoptosis and augmentation of anticancer immunity. In our preclinical and clinical studies, in situ Ad-REIC gene therapy showed remarkable direct and indirect antitumor effects to realize therapeutic cancer vaccines. We herein aimed to confirm the induction of tumor-associated antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by Ad-REIC. Using an ovalbumin (OVA), a tumor-associated antigen, expressing E.G7 tumor-bearing mouse model, we investigated the induction and expansion of OVA-specific CTLs responsible for indirect, systemic effects of Ad-REIC. The intratumoral administration of Ad-REIC mediated clear antitumor effects with the accumulation of OVA-specific CTLs in the tumor tissues and spleen. The CD86-positive dendritic cells (DCs) were upregulated in the tumor draining lymph nodes of Ad-REIC-treated mice. In a dual tumor-bearing mouse model in the left and right back, Ad-REIC injection in one side significantly suppressed the tumor growth on both sides and significant infiltration of OVA-specific CTLs into non-injected tumor was also detected. Consequently, in situ Ad-REIC gene therapy is expected to realize a new-generation cancer vaccine via anticancer immune activation with DC and tumor antigen-specific CTL expansion.

  19. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  20. Isolation of carbohydrate-metabolizing, extremely halophilic bacteria.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    Four previously unrecognized strains of extremely halophilic bacteria that utilize carbohydrates have been isolated. Gas production proved an unreliable index of carbohydrate metabolism; therefore, carbohydrate utilization was measured by determining acid formation and sugar disappearance during growth. By these procedures, carbohydrate utilization was readily detected. The results suggest that carbohydrate dissimilation by extremely halophilic bacteria may be more common than previously thought and that the apparent rarity of carbohydrate-metabolizing halophiles may be an artifact of the isolation procedures used.

  1. Antigen injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  2. Combinatorial Targeting of Prostate Carcinoma Cells and Tumor Associated Pericytes with Antibody-Based Immunotherapy and Metronomic Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    4 ( CSPG4 ). This antigen has a restricted distribution in normal tissues, but has high expression in malignant lesions with limited inter-and intra...mesothelioma, melanoma and sarcoma. Relevant to this proposal AN-2 and CSPG4 are expressed in mouse and human prostate cancer cell lines, respectively...Fig. 1). Furthermore AN-2 and CSPG4 expression is upregulated on activated pericytes in the tumor microenvironment (Fig.2). As to the function of

  3. Identification of tumor-associated autoantigens for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer in serum using high density protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Babel, Ingrid; Barderas, Rodrigo; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta; Casal, J Ignacio

    2009-10-01

    There is a mounting evidence of the existence of autoantibodies associated to cancer progression. Antibodies are the target of choice for serum screening because of their stability and suitability for sensitive immunoassays. By using commercial protein microarrays containing 8000 human proteins, we examined 20 sera from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and healthy subjects to identify autoantibody patterns and associated antigens. Forty-three proteins were differentially recognized by tumoral and reference sera (p value <0.04) in the protein microarrays. Five immunoreactive antigens, PIM1, MAPKAPK3, STK4, SRC, and FGFR4, showed the highest prevalence in cancer samples, whereas ACVR2B was more abundant in normal sera. Three of them, PIM1, MAPKAPK3, and ACVR2B, were used for further validation. A significant increase in the expression level of these antigens on CRC cell lines and colonic mucosa was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. A diagnostic ELISA based on the combination of MAPKAPK3 and ACVR2B proteins yielded specificity and sensitivity values of 73.9 and 83.3% (area under the curve, 0.85), respectively, for CRC discrimination after using an independent sample set containing 94 sera representative of different stages of progression and control subjects. In summary, these studies confirmed the presence of specific autoantibodies for CRC and revealed new individual markers of disease (PIM1, MAPKAPK3, and ACVR2B) with the potential to diagnose CRC with higher specificity and sensitivity than previously reported serum biomarkers.

  4. Structural Basis for the Presentation of Tumor-Associated MHC Class II-Restricted Phosphopeptides to CD4+ T Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Depontieu, F; Sidney, J; Salay, T; Engelhard, V; Hunt, D; Sette, A; Topalian, S; Mariuzza, R

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulated protein phosphorylation is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Transformation can generate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound phosphopeptides that are differentially displayed on tumor cells for specific recognition by T cells. To understand how phosphorylation alters the antigenic identity of self-peptides and how MHC class II molecules present phosphopeptides for CD4{sup +} T-cell recognition, we determined the crystal structure of a phosphopeptide derived from melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1 (pMART-1), selectively expressed by human melanomas, in complex with HLA-DR1. The structure revealed that the phosphate moiety attached to the serine residue at position P5 of pMART-1 is available for direct interactions with T-cell receptor (TCR) and that the peptide N-terminus adopts an unusual conformation orienting it toward TCR. This structure, combined with measurements of peptide affinity for HLA-DR1 and of peptide-MHC recognition by pMART-1-specific T cells, suggests that TCR recognition is focused on the N-terminal portion of pMART-1. This recognition mode appears to be distinct from that of foreign antigen complexes but is remarkably reminiscent of the way autoreactive TCRs engage self- or altered self-peptides, consistent with the tolerogenic nature of tumor-host immune interactions.

  5. Carbohydrate Polymers for Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sizovs, Antons; McLendon, Patrick M.; Srinivasachari, Sathya

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates have been investigated and developed as delivery vehicles for shuttling nucleic acids into cells. In this review, we present the state of the art in carbohydrate-based polymeric vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, with the focus on the recent successes in preclinical models, both in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric scaffolds based on the natural polysaccharides chitosan, hyaluronan, pullulan, dextran, and schizophyllan each have unique properties and potential for modification, and these results are discussed with the focus on facile synthetic routes and favorable performance in biological systems. Many of these carbohydrates have been used to develop alternative types of biomaterials for nucleic acid delivery to typical polyplexes, and these novel materials are discussed. Also presented are polymeric vehicles that incorporate copolymerized carbohydrates into polymer backbones based on polyethylenimine and polylysine and their effect on transfection and biocompatibility. Unique scaffolds, such as clusters and polymers based on cyclodextrin (CD), are also discussed, with the focus on recent successes in vivo and in the clinic. These results are presented with the emphasis on the role of carbohydrate and charge on transfection. Use of carbohydrates as molecular recognition ligands for cell-type specific delivery is also briefly reviewed. We contend that carbohydrates have contributed significantly to progress in the field of non-viral DNA delivery, and these new discoveries are impactful for developing new vehicles and materials for treatment of human disease. PMID:21504102

  6. Safety of low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Crowe, T C

    2005-08-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have re-emerged into the public spotlight and are enjoying a high degree of popularity as people search for a solution to the population's ever-expanding waistline. The current evidence though indicates that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted diets on long-term weight loss and maintenance. Furthermore, a higher rate of adverse side-effects can be attributed to low-carbohydrate dieting approaches. Short-term efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets has been demonstrated for some lipid parameters of cardiovascular risk and measures of glucose control and insulin sensitivity, but no studies have ascertained if these effects represent a change in primary outcome measures. Low-carbohydrate diets are likely effective and not harmful in the short term and may have therapeutic benefits for weight-related chronic diseases although weight loss on such a program should be undertaken under medical supervision. While new commercial incarnations of the low-carbohydrate diet are now addressing overall dietary adequacy by encouraging plenty of high-fibre vegetables, fruit, low-glycaemic-index carbohydrates and healthier fat sources, this is not the message that reaches the entire public nor is it the type of diet adopted by many people outside of the world of a well-designed clinical trial. Health effects of long-term ad hoc restriction of inherently beneficial food groups without a concomitant reduction in body weight remains unanswered.

  7. Tumor-associated macrophages infiltrate plasmacytomas and can serve as cell carriers for oncolytic measles virotherapy of disseminated myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kah-Whye; Dogan, Ahmet; Vrana, Julie; Liu, Chunsheng; Ong, Hooi T.; Kumar, Shaji; Dispenzieri, Angela; Dietz, Allan B.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In multiple myeloma, some of the neoplastic plasma cells are diffusely dispersed among the normal bone marrow cells (bone marrow resident), whereas others are located in discrete, well-vascularized solid tumors (plasmacytomas) that may originate in bone or soft tissue. Interactions between bone marrow-resident myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are important determinants of myeloma pathogenesis. However, little is known of the factors sustaining myeloma growth and cell viability at the centers of expanding plasmacytomas, where there are no BMSCs. Histologic sections of 22 plasmacytomas from myeloma patients were examined after immunostaining. Abundant CD68+, CD163+, S100-negative macrophage infiltrates were identified in all tumors, accompanied by scattered collections of CD3+ T lymphocytes. The CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) accounted for 2– 12% of nucleated cells and were evenly distributed through the parenchyma. The TAM generally had dendritic morphology, and each dendrite was in close contact with multiple plasma cells. In some cases, the TAM were strikingly clustered around CD34+ blood vessels. To determine whether cells of the monocytic lineage might be exploitable as carriers for delivery of therapeutic agents to plasmacytomas, primary human CD14+ cells were infected with oncolytic measles virus and administered intravenously to mice bearing KAS6/1 human myeloma xenografts. The cell carriers localized to KAS6/1 tumors, where they transferred MV infection to myeloma cells and prolonged the survival of mice bearing disseminated human myeloma disease. Thus, TAM are a universal stromal component of the plasmacytomas of myeloma patients and may offer a promising new target for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:19507209

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transition to Tumor-Associated Fibroblasts Contributes to Fibrovascular Network Expansion and Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, A. Kate; Watson, Keri; Klopp, Ann; Hall, Brett; Andreeff, Michael; Marini, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background Tumor associated fibroblasts (TAF), are essential for tumor progression providing both a functional and structural supportive environment. TAF, known as activated fibroblasts, have an established biological impact on tumorigenesis as matrix synthesizing or matrix degrading cells, contractile cells, and even blood vessel associated cells. The production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix-degrading enzymes, and immunomodulatory mechanisms by these cells augment tumor progression by providing a suitable environment. There are several suggested origins of the TAF including tissue-resident, circulating, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transitioned cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide evidence that TAF are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that acquire a TAF phenotype following exposure to or systemic recruitment into adenocarcinoma xenograft models including breast, pancreatic, and ovarian. We define the MSC derived TAF in a xenograft ovarian carcinoma model by the immunohistochemical presence of 1) fibroblast specific protein and fibroblast activated protein; 2) markers phenotypically associated with aggressiveness, including tenascin-c, thrombospondin-1, and stromelysin-1; 3) production of pro-tumorigenic growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-6; and 4) factors indicative of vascularization, including alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We demonstrate that under long-term tumor conditioning in vitro, MSC express TAF–like proteins. Additionally, human MSC but not murine MSC stimulated tumor growth primarily through the paracrine production of secreted IL6. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest the dependence of in vitro Skov-3 tumor cell proliferation is due to the presence of tumor-stimulated MSC secreted IL6. The subsequent TAF phenotype arises from the MSC which ultimately promotes tumor growth through the contribution of

  9. The novel focal adhesion gene kindlin-2 promotes the invasion of gastric cancer cells mediated by tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanlong; Ye, Yingjiang; Kauttu, Tuuli; Seppänen, Hanna; Vainionpää, Sanna; Wang, Shan; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli

    2013-02-01

    Kindlin-2 is a novel focal adhesion gene mediating the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in linking chronic inflammation to cancer progression. Both kindlin-2 and TAMs have been found to promote the invasion of gastric cancer cells in our previous studies. However, the correlation between kindlin-2 and TAMs remains unclear. Real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate kindlin-2 expression in the AGS, NCI and Hs-746T gastric cancer cell lines co-cultured with TAMs under normal or hypoxic conditions. IL8, IL10, IL11, IL17b, IL18, IL22 and IL24 expressions were measured by real-time RT-PCR in the gastric cancer lines with varying levels of kindlin-2 expression, as well as after downregulation of kindlin-2 mRNA expression by the siRNA method. We found that kindlin-2 was upregulated in all three gastric cancer cell lines when co-cultured with TAMs under normal conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, the induction of kindlin-2 expression induced by macrophages was significantly downregulated in the Hs-746T cell line. IL8, IL11, IL17b, IL22 and IL24 expression was significantly higher in gastric cell lines with high kindlin-2 expression. Downregulation of kindlin-2 mRNA decreased IL10, IL11, IL17b, IL22 and IL24 expression but IL8 and IL18 expression was upregulated. Therefore, the novel focal adhesion gene kindlin-2 may play an important role in promoting the invasion of gastric cancer cells mediated by TAMs through regulating interleukin expression.

  10. Autocrine induction of invasion and metastasis by tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gouyer, V; Fontaine, D; Dumont, P; de Wever, O; Fontayne-Devaud, H; Leteurtre, E; Truant, S; Delacour, D; Drobecq, H; Kerckaert, J-P; de Launoit, Y; Bracke, M; Gespach, C; Desseyn, J-L; Huet, G

    2008-07-03

    From the conditioned medium of the human colon carcinoma cells, HT-29 5M21 (CM-5M21), expressing a spontaneous invasive phenotype, tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) was identified and characterized by proteomics, cDNA microarray approaches and functional analyses. Both CM-5M21 and recombinant TATI, but not the K18Y-TATI mutant at the protease inhibitor site, trigger collagen type I invasion by several human adenoma and carcinoma cells of the colon and breast, through phosphoinositide-3-kinase, protein kinase C and Rho-GTPases/Rho kinase-dependent pathways. Conversely, the proinvasive action of TATI in parental HT29 cells was alleviated by the TATI antibody PSKAN2 and the K18Y-TATI mutant. Stable expression of K18Y-TATI in HT-29 5M21 cells downregulated tumor growth, angiogenesis and the expression of several metastasis-related genes, including CSPG4 (13.8-fold), BMP-7 (9.7-fold), the BMP antagonist CHORDIN (5.2-fold), IGFBP-2 and IGF2 (9.6- and 4.6-fold). Accordingly, ectopic expression of KY-TATI inhibited the development of lung metastases from HT-29 5M21 tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. These findings identify TATI as an autocrine transforming factor potentially involved in early and late events of colon cancer progression, including local invasion of the primary tumor and its metastatic spread. Targeting TATI, its molecular partners and effectors may bring novel therapeutic applications for high-grade human solid tumors in the digestive and urogenital systems.

  11. The Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Zhang, Junyan; Luo, Jiazi; Lu, Chunyang; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huimian

    2017-01-01

    Objective Comprehensive studies have investigated the prognostic and clinicopathological value of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in gastric cancer patients, yet results remain controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify this issue. Methods PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify eligible studies. We extracted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to estimate the effect sizes. In addition, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were also conducted. Results A total of 19 studies involving 2242 patients were included. High generalised TAMs density was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95). Subgroup analysis revealed that CD68+ TAMs had no significant effect on OS (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00–1.91). High M1 TAMs density was correlated with better OS (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32–0.65). By contrast, high density of M2 TAMs was correlated with a poor prognosis for OS (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.25–1.75). Furthermore, high M2 TAMs density was correlated with larger tumor size, diffuse Lauren type, poor histologic differentiation, deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. Conclusions Overall, this meta-analysis reveal that although CD68+ TAMs infiltration has the neutral prognostic effects on OS, the M1/M2 polarization of TAMs are predicative factor of prognosis in gastric cancer patients. PMID:28081243

  12. Plasminogen kringle 5-engineered glioma cells block migration of tumor-associated macrophages and suppress tumor vascularization and progression.

    PubMed

    Perri, Sabrina R; Nalbantoglu, Josephine; Annabi, Borhane; Koty, Zafiro; Lejeune, Laurence; François, Moïra; Di Falco, Marcos R; Béliveau, Richard; Galipeau, Jacques

    2005-09-15

    Angiostatin, a well-characterized angiostatic agent, is a proteolytic cleavage product of human plasminogen encompassing the first four kringle structures. The fifth kringle domain (K5) of human plasminogen is distinct from angiostatin and has been shown, on its own, to act as a potent endothelial cell inhibitor. We propose that tumor-targeted K5 cDNA expression may act as an effective therapeutic intervention as part of a cancer gene therapy strategy. In this study, we provide evidence that eukaryotically expressed His-tagged human K5 cDNA (hK5His) is exported extracellularly and maintains predicted disulfide bridging conformation in solution. Functionally, hK5His protein produced by retrovirally engineered human U87MG glioma cells suppresses in vitro migration of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human macrophages. Subcutaneous implantation of Matrigel-embedded hK5His-producing glioma cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice reveals that hK5His induces a marked reduction in blood vessel formation and significantly suppresses the recruitment of tumor-infiltrating CD45+ Mac3+ Gr1- macrophages. Therapeutically, we show in a nude mouse orthotopic brain cancer model that tumor-targeted K5 expression is capable of effectively suppressing glioma growth and promotes significant long-term survival (>120 days) of test animals. These data suggest that plasminogen K5 acts as a novel two-pronged anticancer agent, mediating its inhibitory effect via its action on host-derived endothelial cells and tumor-associated macrophages, resulting in a potent, clinically relevant antitumor effect.

  13. hnRNP F directs formation of an exon 4 minus variant of tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Kane, Vanessa D; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2011-11-01

    HUVEC or mouse 3T3 cells infected with SV-40 generate within 3 to 5 days post-infection an ENOX2 species corresponding to the exon-4 minus splice variant of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2 or tNOX) expressed at the cancer cell surface. This study was to seek evidence for splicing factors that might direct formation of the exon 4 minus ENOX2 splice variant. To determine if silencing of ENOX2 exon 4 occurs because of motifs located in exon 4, transfections were performed on MCF-10A (mammary non-cancer), BT-20 (mammary cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells using a GFP minigene construct containing either a constitutively spliced exon (albumin exon 2) or the alternatively spliced ENOX2 exon 4 between the two GFP halves. Removal of exon 4 from the processed RNA of the GFP minigene construct occurred with HeLa and to a lesser extent with BT-20 but not in non-cancer MCF-10A cells. The Splicing Rainbow Program was used to identify all of the possible hnRNPs binding sites of exon 4 of ENOX2. There are 8 Exonic Splicing Silencers (ESSs) for hnRNP binding in the exon 4 sequences. Each of these sites were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis to test if any were responsible for the splicing skip. Results showed MutG75 ESS mutation changed the GFP expression which is a sign of splicing silence, while other mutations did not. As MutG75 changed the ESS binding site for hnRNP F, this result suggests that hnRNP F directs formation of the exon 4 minus variant of ENOX2.

  14. MFHAS1 promotes colorectal cancer progress by regulating polarization of tumor-associated macrophages via STAT6 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jing; Wang, Huihui; Weng, Meilin; Cheng, Qian; Wu, Qichao; Sun, Zhirong; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Minmin; Ren, Yu; Xu, Pingbo; Chen, Jiawei; Miao, Changhong

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1) is a predicted oncoprotein that demonstrates tumorigenic activity in vivo; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Macrophages are divided into the pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory/protumoral M2 subtypes. Tumor cells can induce M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to promote metastasis; but the underlying pathways require to be elucidated. In this study, we detected a positive association between MFHAS1 expression in TAMs and human colorectal cancer (CRC) TNM stage. Supernatant of CT26 murine CRC cells induced MFHAS1 expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Additionally, CT26 supernatant induced the M2 marker CD206 and activated the pro-M2 STAT6 and KLF4 signaling in control but not MFHAS1-silenced RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, supernatant of control, but not MFHAS1-silenced macrophages promoted CT26 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Compared with control macrophages, MFHAS1-silenced macrophages showed significantly reduced protumoral effects in vivo. Together, these results suggested that CRC cells induce M2 polarization of TAMs through MFHAS1 induction and subsequent STAT6 and KLF4 activation to promote CRC progress. Finally, similar to CT26 supernatant stimulation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activation by rosiglitazone induced M2 polarization of RAW264.7 macrophages through MFHAS1-dependent pathway. Our results highlight the role of MFHAS1 as a regulator of macrophages polarization and CRC progress. PMID:27783989

  15. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by photoimmunotherapy targeting tumor-associated macrophage in a sorafenib-resistant tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenran; Gao, Liquan; Cai, Yuehong; Liu, Hao; Gao, Duo; Lai, Jianhao; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play essential roles in tumor invasion and metastasis, and contribute to drug resistance. Clinical evidence suggests that TAM levels are correlated with local tumor relapse, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients. In this study, we synthesized a TAM-targeted probe (IRD-αCD206) by conjugating a monoclonal anti-CD206 antibody with a near-infrared phthalocyanine dye. We then investigated the potential application of the IRD-αCD206 probe to near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of tumors resistant to treatment with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Sorafenib treatment had no effect on tumor growth in a 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer, but induced M2 macrophage polarization in tumors. M2 macrophage recruitment by sorafenib-treated 4T1 tumors was noninvasively visualized by in vivo NIRF imaging of IRD-αCD206. Small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT and intratumoral microdistribution analysis indicated TAM-specific localization of the IRD-αCD206 probe in 4T1 tumors after several rounds of sorafenib treatment. Upon light irradiation, IRD-αCD206 suppressed the growth of sorafenib-resistant tumors. In vivo CT imaging and ex vivo histological analysis confirmed the inhibition of lung metastasis in mice by IRD-αCD206 PIT. These results demonstrate the utility of the IRD-αCD206 probe for TAM-targeted diagnostic imaging and treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional therapeutics.

  16. Biocompatible mannosylated endosomal-escape nanoparticles enhance selective delivery of short nucleotide sequences to tumor associated macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ryan A.; Barham, Whitney J.; Kumar, Bharat; Tikhomirov, Oleg; McFadden, Ian D.; Yull, Fiona E.; Giorgio, Todd D.

    2014-12-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) can modify the tumor microenvironment to create a pro-tumor niche. Manipulation of the TAM phenotype is a novel, potential therapeutic approach to engage anti-cancer immunity. siRNA is a molecular tool for knockdown of specific mRNAs that is tunable in both strength and duration. The use of siRNA to reprogram TAMs to adopt an immunogenic, anti-tumor phenotype is an attractive alternative to ablation of this cell population. One current difficulty with this approach is that TAMs are difficult to specifically target and transfect. We report here successful utilization of novel mannosylated polymer nanoparticles (MnNP) that are capable of escaping the endosomal compartment to deliver siRNA to TAMs in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with MnNP-siRNA complexes did not significantly decrease TAM cell membrane integrity in culture, nor did it create adverse kidney or liver function in mice, even at repeated doses of 5 mg kg-1. Furthermore, MnNP effectively delivers labeled nucleotides to TAMs in mice with primary mammary tumors. We also confirmed TAM targeting in the solid tumors disseminated throughout the peritoneum of ovarian tumor bearing mice following injection of fluorescently labeled MnNP-nucleotide complexes into the peritoneum. Finally, we show enhanced uptake of MnNP in lung metastasis associated macrophages compared to untargeted particles when using an intubation delivery method. In summary, we have shown that MnNP specifically and effectively deliver siRNA to TAMs in vivo.

  17. Development of Y-shaped peptide for constructing nanoparticle systems targeting tumor-associated macrophages in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lu; Gao, Yunxiang; Pierce, Ryan; Dai, Liming; Kim, Julian; Zhang, Mei

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) is increasingly being viewed as a target of great interest in tumor microenvironment due to its important role in the progression and metastasis of cancers. It has been shown that TAM indeed overexpresses unique surface marker legumain. In this study, we designed and synthesized a Y-shaped legumain-targeting peptide (Y-Leg) with functional groups allowing for further conjugation with imaging and therapeutic moieties (vide infra). The in vitro cell experiments using FITC-conjugated Y-Leg revealed its specific and selective interaction with M2-polarized macrophages (i.e., TAMs) with preference to M1 macrophages, and that the interaction was not interfered with by conjugating FITC to its functional group. Further, we constructed a nanotube system by grafting Y-Leg onto oxidized carbon nanotubes (OCNTs) loaded with paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The intravenous injection of the resultant Y-Leg-OCNT/Fe3O4 nanotubes to 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing mouse led to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of TAM-infiltrated tumor microenvironment, revealing the targeting specificity of Y-Leg-conjugated nanotubes in vivo. The Y shape of peptide and its functional groups containing amines and imidazole can protonate at different pHs, contributing to the in vitro and in vivo targeting specificity. This study represents the first development of novel peptide and peptide-grafted nanotube system targeting M2-polarized TAMs in vivo. The methodology developed in this study is applicable to the construction of various multifunctional nanoparticle systems for selectively targeting, imaging and manipulating of TAMs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers and inflammatory diseases identified with macrophage-infiltrated disease tissue.

  18. Overexpression of α2,3sialyl T-antigen in breast cancer determined by miniaturized glycosyltransferase assays and confirmed using tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shilpa A.; Bshara, Wiam; Morrison, Carl; Chandrasekaran, E. V.; Matta, Khushi L.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Glycan structure alterations during cancer regulate disease progression and represent clinical biomarkers. The study determined the degree to which changes in glycosyl transferase activities during cancer can be related to aberrant cell-surface tumor associated carbohydrate structures (TACA). To this end, changes in sialyltransferase (sialylT), fucosyltransferase (fucT) and galactosyltransferase (galT) activity were measured in normal and tumor tissue using a miniaturized enzyme activity assay and synthetic glycoconjugates bearing terminal LacNAc Type-I (Galβ1,3GlcNAc), LacNAc Type-II (Galβ1,4GlcNAc), and mucin core-1/Type-III (Galβ1,3GalNAc) structures. These data were related to TACA using tissue microarrays containing 115 breast and 26 colon cancer specimen. The results show that primary human breast and colon tumors, but not adjacent normal tissue, express elevated β1,3 galT and α2,3sialylT activity that can form α2,3sialylated Type-III glycans (Siaα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc). Prostate tumors did not exhibit such elevated enzymatic activities. α1,3/4fucT activity was higher in breast, but not colon tissue. The enzymology based prediction of enhanced α2,3sialylated Type-III structures in breast tumors was verified using histochemical analysis of tissue sections and tissue microarrays. Here, the binding of two markers that recognize Galβ1,3GalNAc (peanut lectin and mAb A78-G/A7) was elevated in breast tumor, but not normal control, only upon sialidase treatment. These antigens were also upregulated in colon tumors though to a lesser extent. α2,3sialylated Type-III expression correlated inversely with patient HER2 expression and breast metastatic potential. Overall, enzymology measurements of glycoT activity predict glycan structure changes during cancer. High expression of the α2,3sialylated T-antigen O-glycans occur in breast tumors. A transformation from linear core-1 glycan to other epitopes may accompany metastasis. PMID:25142811

  19. Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Sam; Koppen, Gudrun; Bracke, Marc; Schroijen, Carmen; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Bilau, Maaike; Baeyens, Willy; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nik

    2008-01-01

    Background This study intended to investigate whether residence in areas polluted by heavy industry, waste incineration, a high density of traffic and housing or intensive use of pesticides, could contribute to the high incidence of cancer observed in Flanders. Methods Subjects were 1583 residents aged 50–65 from 9 areas with different types of pollution. Cadmium, lead, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs and dioxin-like activity (Calux test) were measured in blood, and cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Effect biomarkers were prostate specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and p53 protein serum levels, number of micronuclei per 1000 binucleated peripheral blood cells, DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood cells and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in urine. Confounding factors were taken into account. Results Overall significant differences between areas were found for carcinoembryonic antigen, micronuclei, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and DNA damage. Compared to a rural area with mainly fruit production, effect biomarkers were often significantly elevated around waste incinerators, in the cities of Antwerp and Ghent, in industrial areas and also in other rural areas. Within an industrial area DNA strand break levels were almost three times higher close to industrial installations than 5 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations (p < 0.0001). Positive exposure-effect relationships were found for carcinoembryonic antigen (urinary cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene and blood lead), micronuclei (PCB118), DNA damage (PCB118) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene). Also, we found significant associations between values of PSA above the p90 and higher values of urinary cadmium, between values of p53 above the p90 and higher serum levels of p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene and marker PCBs (PCB 138, 153 and 180) and between serum levels of p,p'-DDE above the p90 and higher serum values of carcinoembryonic

  20. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  1. Carbohydrate functionalized carbon nanotubes and their applications.

    PubMed

    Gorityala, Bala Kishan; Ma, Jimei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Peng; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted tremendous attention in biomedical applications due to their molecular size and unique properties. This tutorial review summarizes the strategies to functionalize CNTs with bioactive carbohydrates, which improve their solubility, biocompatibility and biofunctionalities while preserving their desired properties. In addition, studies on the usage of carbohydrate functionalized CNTs to detect bacteria, to bind to specific lectins, to deliver glycomimetic drug molecules into cells and to probe cellular activities as biosensors are reviewed. Improvement in biocompatibility and introduction of bio-functionalities by integration of carbohydrate with CNTs are paving the way to glyconanotechnology and may provide new tools for glycobiological studies.

  2. High-throughput Synthesis of Carbohydrates and Functionalization of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Balaji; Pohl, Nicola L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Transdisciplinary approaches involving areas such as material design, nanotechnology, chemistry, and immunology have to be utilized to rationally design efficacious vaccines carriers. Nanoparticle-based platforms can prolong the persistence of vaccine antigens, which could improve vaccine immunogenicity1. Several biodegradable polymers have been studied as vaccine delivery vehicles1; in particular, polyanhydride particles have demonstrated the ability to provide sustained release of stable protein antigens and to activate antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses2-12. The molecular design of these vaccine carriers needs to integrate the rational selection of polymer properties as well as the incorporation of appropriate targeting agents. High throughput automated fabrication of targeting ligands and functionalized particles is a powerful tool that will enhance the ability to study a wide range of properties and will lead to the design of reproducible vaccine delivery devices. The addition of targeting ligands capable of being recognized by specific receptors on immune cells has been shown to modulate and tailor immune responses10,11,13 C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize carbohydrates present on the surface of pathogens. The stimulation of immune cells via CLRs allows for enhanced internalization of antigen and subsequent presentation for further T cell activation14,15. Therefore, carbohydrate molecules play an important role in the study of immune responses; however, the use of these biomolecules often suffers from the lack of availability of structurally well-defined and pure carbohydrates. An automation platform based on iterative solution-phase reactions can enable rapid and controlled synthesis of these synthetically challenging molecules using significantly lower building block quantities than traditional solid-phase methods16,17. Herein we report a protocol for the automated solution

  3. Conformational Dynamics of the Single Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen in Solution.

    PubMed

    Galochkina, Tatiana; Zlenko, Dmitry; Nesterenko, Alexey; Kovalenko, Ilya; Strakhovskaya, Marina; Averyanov, Alexander; Rubin, Andrey

    2016-09-19

    The O-antigen is the most variable and highly immunogenic part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule that covers the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and makes up the first line of cellular defense. To provide insight into the details of the O-antigen arrangement on the membrane surface, we simulated its behavior in solution by molecular dynamics. We developed the energetically favorable O-antigen conformation by analyzing free-energy distributions for its disaccharide fragments. Starting from this conformation, we simulated the behavior of the O-antigen chain on long timescales. Depending on the force field and temperature, the single molecule can undergo reversible or irreversible coil-to-globule transitions. The mechanism of these transitions is related either to the rotation of the carbohydrate residues around O-glycosidic bonds or to flips of the pyranose rings. We found that the presence of rhamnose in the O-antigen chain crucially increases its conformational mobility.

  4. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  5. Ubiquitinated Proteins Isolated From Tumor Cells Are Efficient Substrates for Antigen Cross-Presentation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangjie; Moudgil, Tarsem; Cui, Zhihua; Mou, Yongbin; Wang, Lixin; Fox, Bernard A; Hu, Hong-Ming

    2017-03-31

    We have previously shown that inhibition of the proteasome causes defective ribosomal products to be shunted into autophagosomes and subsequently released from tumor cells as defective ribosomal products in Blebs (DRibbles). These DRibbles serve as an excellent source of antigens for cross-priming of tumor-specific T cells. Here, we examine the role of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-proteins) in this pathway. Using purified Ub-proteins from tumor cells that express endogenous tumor-associated antigen or exogenous viral antigen, we tested the ability of these proteins to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses, by activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells generated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compared with total cell lysates, we found that purified Ub-proteins from both a gp100-specific melanoma cell line and from a lung cancer cell line expressing cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen produced a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in gp100- or pp65-specific T cells, respectively. In addition, Ub-proteins from an allogeneic tumor cell line could be used to stimulate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes isolated and expanded from non-small cell lung cancer patients. These results establish that Ub-proteins provide a relevant source of antigens for cross-priming of antitumor immune responses in a variety of settings, including endogenous melanoma and exogenous viral antigen presentation, as well as antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, ubiquitin can be used as an affinity tag to enrich for unknown tumor-specific antigens from tumor cell lysates to stimulate tumor-specific T cells ex vivo or to be used as vaccines to target short-lived proteins.

  6. Indium triflate catalyzed peracetylation of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bizier, Nicholas P; Atkins, Shannon R; Helland, Luke C; Colvin, Shane F; Twitchell, Joseph R; Cloninger, Mary J

    2008-07-21

    Peracetylation is a very common protection strategy that is widely implemented in carbohydrate synthesis. Here, a method for the peracetylation of carbohydrates using catalytic In(OTf)(3) in neat acetic anhydride is reported. In(OTf)(3) has low toxicity and is mild and water tolerant, and the reactions are high yielding and efficient. Details regarding the scope and mechanism of the reaction are briefly discussed.

  7. Partition coefficients of organic contaminants with carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsu-Wen; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Chiou, Cary T

    2010-07-15

    In view of the current lack of reliable partition coefficients for organic compounds with carbohydrates (K(ch)), carefully measured values with cellulose and starch, the two major forms of carbohydrates, are provided for a wide range of compounds: short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, halogenated benzenes, alkyl benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides. To ensure the accuracy of the K(ch) data, solute concentrations in both water and carbohydrate phases are measured by direct solvent extraction of the samples. For a given compound, the observed partition coefficient with cellulose (K(cl)) is virtually the same as that with starch (K(st)). This finding expedites the evaluation of organic contamination with different forms of carbohydrates. The presently determined K(ch) values of 13 PAHs are substantially lower (by 3-66 times) than the literature data; the latter are suspect as they were obtained with (i) presumably impure carbohydrate samples or (ii) indirectly measured equilibrium solute concentrations in carbohydrate and water phases. Although the K(ch) values are generally considerably lower than the respective K(ow) (octanol-water) or K(lipid) (lipid-water), accurate K(ch) data are duly required to accurately estimate the contamination of carbohydrates by organic compounds because of the abundance of carbohydrates over lipids in crops and plants. To overcome the current lack of reliable K(ch) data for organic compounds, a close correlation of log K(ch) with log K(ow) has been established for predicting the unavailable K(ch) data for low-polarity compounds.

  8. Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    The characterization of the 3D structure of oligosaccharides, their conjugates and analogs is particularly challenging for traditional experimental methods. Molecular simulation methods provide a basis for interpreting sparse experimental data and for independently predicting conformational and dynamic properties of glycans. Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in terms of applicability to natural glycans, carbohydrate-protein complexes and the emerging area of glycomimetic drugs. In addition, we discuss prospectives and new applications of carbohydrate modeling in drug discovery.

  9. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  10. Techniques for visualization of carbohydrate molecules.

    PubMed

    Kuttel, Michelle; Gain, James; Burger, Anton; Eborn, Ian

    2006-11-01

    Standard molecular visualizations, such as the classic ball-and-stick model, are not suitable for large, complex molecules because the overall molecular structure is obscured by the atomic detail. For proteins, the more abstract ribbon and cartoon representations are instead used to reveal large scale molecular conformation and connectivity. However, there is currently no accepted convention for simplifying oligo- and polysaccharide structures. We introduce two novel visualization algorithms for carbohydrates, incorporated into a visualization package, CarboHydra. Both algorithms highlight the sugar rings and backbone conformation of the carbohydrate chain, ignoring ring substituents. The first algorithm, termed PaperChain, emphasizes the type and conformation of the carbohydrate rings. The second, Twister, emphasizes the relative orientation of the rings. We further include two rendering enhancements to augment these visualizations: silhouettes edges and a translucent overlay of the ball-and-stick atomic representation. To demonstrate their utility, the algorithms and visualization enhancements are here applied to a variety of carbohydrate molecules. User evaluations indicate that they present a more useful view of carbohydrate structure than the standard ball-and-stick representation. The algorithms were found to be complementary, with PaperChain particularly effective for smaller carbohydrates and Twister useful at larger scales for highlighting the backbone twist of polysaccharides.

  11. PET Imaging of Tumor-Associated Macrophages with 89Zr-Labeled High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Tang, Jun; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Hogstad, Brandon; Merad, Miriam; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Mulder, Willem J.M.; Reiner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are increasingly investigated in cancer immunology and are considered a promising target for better and tailored treatment of malignant growth. Although TAMs also have high diagnostic and prognostic value, TAM imaging still remains largely unexplored. Here, we describe the development of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL)–facilitated TAM PET imaging in a breast cancer model. Methods Radiolabeled rHDL nanoparticles incorporating the long-lived positron-emitting nuclide 89Zr were developed using 2 different approaches. The nanoparticles were composed of phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in a 2.5:1 weight ratio. 89Zr was complexed with deferoxamine (also known as desferrioxamine B, desferoxamine B), conjugated either to a phospholipid or to apoA-I to generate 89Zr-PL-HDL and 89Zr-AI-HDL, respectively. In vivo evaluation was performed in an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer and included pharmacokinetic analysis, biodistribution studies, and PET imaging. Ex vivo histologic analysis of tumor tissues to assess regional distribution of 89Zr radioactivity was also performed. Fluorescent analogs of the radiolabeled agents were used to determine cell-targeting specificity using flow cytometry. Results The phospholipid- and apoA-I–labeled rHDL were produced at 79% ± 13% (n = 6) and 94% ± 6% (n = 6) radiochemical yield, respectively, with excellent radiochemical purity (>99%). Intravenous administration of both probes resulted in high tumor radioactivity accumulation (16.5 ± 2.8 and 8.6 ± 1.3 percentage injected dose per gram for apoA-I– and phospholipid-labeled rHDL, respectively) at 24 h after injection. Histologic analysis showed good colocalization of radioactivity with TAM-rich areas in tumor sections. Flow cytometry revealed high specificity of rHDL for TAMs, which had the highest uptake per cell (6.8-fold higher than tumor cells for both DiO@Zr-PL-HDL and DiO@Zr-AI-HDL) and accounted for 40.7% and

  12. Co-evolution of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor neo-vessels during cervical cancer invasion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuting; Yang, Yuehong; Fang, Min; Li, Xianglang; Yuan, Xiuxue; Yuan, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Considering the crucial significance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer development and progression, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in macrophages and angiogenesis during the cervical cancer (CC) progression process from chronic cervicitis to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades I–III (CIN I–III) to CC. This investigation included quantitative analysis and assessment of the spatial associations between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor neo-vessels. The conventional immunohistochemistry staining technique was used to detect cluster of differentiation (CD)68 and CD105 biomarker expression for TAMs and tumor neo-vessels, respectively. In addition, with the assistance of quantum dot (QD)-based two-component in situ imaging technology, the expression of the TAMs and tumor neo-vessels could be observed simultaneously. The quantitative analysis and co-evolution of the TAMs and tumor neo-vessels could then be processed. During the progression process from chronic cervicitis to cervical CIN I–III, and ultimately to invasive CC, the expression of the macrophages and neo-vessels in the tumor microenvironment increased synchronously. According to the quantitative analysis results, the median value of the TAM density was higher in the CC group (5,540.14) than in the CIN I–III group (2,502.17) and the chronic cervicitis group (1,403.31), with statistical significance in all three groups (P<0.001, for between-group comparisons). The number of neo-vessels was also much higher in the CC group (n=27) than in the CIN I–III group (n=17) or the chronic cervicitis group (n=6.5), with statistical significance in all three groups (P<0.001, for between-group comparisons). These findings demonstrated the great significance and close association of TAMs and tumor angiogenesis during CC development and progression. Thus, QDs-based in situ and simultaneous imaging of key cancer molecules may provide insights with regard to the biology of

  13. After insufficient radiofrequency ablation, tumor-associated endothelial cells exhibit enhanced angiogenesis and promote invasiveness of residual hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanism regarding rapid progression of residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been preliminarily discussed. However, most studies have mainly focused on RFA-induced changes in the tumor cells. The present study was designed to determine whether tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) could contribute to the invasiveness of HCC after insufficient RFA. Methods TAECs were isolated from fresh HCC tissue and characterized. Morphological changes were observed in TAECs after heat treatment for 10 min. TAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation after heat treatment for 10 min at 37°C (control group), and 42 and 47°C (insufficient RFA groups) were examined. The differences in TAECs interactions with HepG2-GFP or HCCLM3-GFP cells among the two insufficient RFA groups and control group were evaluated. The expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in TAECs was measured. The effects of TAECs on the invasiveness of HepG2-GFP or HCCLM3-GFP cells after insufficient RFA were analyzed. The IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and GRO-α concentrations in conditioned medium from TAECs were measured after insufficient RFA. The associated signaling pathways of Akt, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NF-κB were analyzed in TAECs after insufficient RFA. Results TAECs expressed the EC-specific markers and took up complexes of Dil-Ac-LDL. Relative to the control group, the proliferation of TAECs was significantly inhibited and their migration and tube formation were significantly enhanced in the insufficient RFA groups. Significantly more HepG2-GFP or HCCLM3-GFP cells adhered to TACEs in these groups than in the control group (all P<0.001), via up-regulated expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. TAECs promoted the invasiveness of HepG2-GFP or HCCLM3-GFP cells after insufficient RFA via the up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and GRO-α in conditioned medium (all P<0.05). Insufficient RFA enhanced the activities of Akt, ERK1/2 and NF

  14. Carbopeptides: carbohydrates as potential templates for de novo design of protein models.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K J; Barany, G

    2000-07-01

    De novo design of proteins has evolved into a powerful approach for studying the factors governing protein folding and stability. Among the families of structures frequently studied is the 'four-helix bundle' in which four alpha-helical peptide strands, linked by loops, form a hydrophobic core. Assembly of protein models on a template has been suggested as a way to reduce the entropy of folding. Here we describe the potential use of a carbohydrate as such a template. The monosaccharide D-galactose was per-O-acylated with (Nbeta-Fmoc-betaAla)2O to give a penta-substituted derivative, which was converted to the corresponding glycosyl bromide and used for the glycosylation of 4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid pentafluorophenyl ester (HMBA-OPfp). The beta-glycosidic carbohydrate template (Nbeta-Fmoc-3Ala)4-beta-D-Galp-(1-O)-MBA-OPfp thus obtained was coupled to a PAL-PEG-PS resin and simultaneously extended at the four arms to yield, after cleavage from the solid support, a carbopeptide with four identical peptide strands. Extension of this concept to, for example, synthesis of novel multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs) and synthesis of carbohydrate clusters can be easily envisioned. The ability to efficiently synthesize such structures sets the stage for further studies to test whether the carbohydrate templates do indeed nucleate folding.

  15. The Influences of Glycosylation on the Antigenicity, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Ebola Virus GP DNA Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-22

    Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Influences of Glycosylation on Antigenicity, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Ebola Virus GP DNA Vaccines ...carbohydrates. We measured the influences of GP glycosylation on antigenicity, immu- nogenicity, and protection by testing DNA vaccines comprised of GP...may protect against filovirus infection (6, 39). Con- sistent with this, B-cell-deficient mice vaccinated with EBOV-like particles were not protected

  16. Diagnostic Antigens of Leishmania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-31

    braziliensis (MHOM/BR/75/M2903), L. chagasi (MJOM/BR/82/BA-2,C 1), L. donovani (MHOMiEt/67iHU3), Leishmania guyanensis (MIHOMJBR/75/M4147), L. infantum (IPT-1...comparative test to a variety of other recombinant Leishmania antigens including L. chagasi hsp70, L. braziliensis hsp83/90, L. braziliensis eIF4A, L...34 4. AD CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-92-C-2082 EC•£ 2 j 994 ’i, L TITLE: DIAGNOSTIC ANTIGENS OF LEISHMANIA L PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven G. Reed, Ph.D

  17. Localization of carbohydrate determinants common to Biomphalaria glabrata as well as to sporocysts and miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Lehr, T; Beuerlein, K; Doenhoff, M J; Grevelding, C G; Geyer, R

    2008-07-01

    The presence of antigenic carbohydrate epitopes shared by Biomphalaria glabrata as well as by the sporocysts and miracidia representing snail-pathogenic larval stages of Schistosoma mansoni was assayed by immunohistochemical staining of paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues. To this end, both polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against soluble egg antigens (SEA) of S. mansoni and monoclonal antibodies recognizing the carbohydrate epitopes LDN [GalNAc(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-)], F-LDN [Fuc(alpha1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-)], LDN-F [GalNAc(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-)], LDN-DF [GalNAc(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-2)Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-)] and Lewis X [Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-)] were used. Intriguingly, anti-SEA serum as well as anti-F-LDN antibodies displayed significant binding in the foot region, anterior tissue and the hepatopancreas of uninfected snails, whereas the Lewis X epitope was only weakly detectable in the latter tissue. In contrast, increased binding of antibodies recognizing LDN, LDN-F and LDN-DF was observed in infected snail tissue, in particular in regions involved in sporocystogenesis, in addition to an enhanced binding of anti-SEA serum and antibodies reacting with F-LDN. A pronounced expression of most of these carbohydrate antigens was also observed at the surface of miracidia. Hence, the detection of shared carbohydrate determinants in uninfected snail tissue, sporocysts and miracidia may support the hypothesis of carbohydrate-based molecular mimicry as a survival strategy of S. mansoni.

  18. Structural basis for the unusual carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin towards galactose and mannose.

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Yves; Astoul, Corinne Houlès; Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the specificity of jacalin, the seed lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia), is not directed exclusively against the T-antigen disaccharide Galbeta1,3GalNAc, lactose and galactose, but also against mannose and oligomannosides. Biochemical analyses based on surface-plasmon-resonance measurements, combined with the X-ray-crystallographic determination of the structure of a jacalin-alpha-methyl-mannose complex at 2 A resolution, demonstrated clearly that jacalin is fully capable of binding mannose. Besides mannose, jacalin also interacts readily with glucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Structural analyses demonstrated that the relatively large size of the carbohydrate-binding site enables jacalin to accommodate monosaccharides with different hydroxyl conformations and provided unambiguous evidence that the beta-prism structure of jacalin is a sufficiently flexible structural scaffold to confer different carbohydrate-binding specificities to a single lectin. PMID:11988090

  19. Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Postma, P W; Lengeler, J W; Jacobson, G R

    1993-01-01

    Numerous gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria take up carbohydrates through the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). This system transports and phosphorylates carbohydrates at the expense of PEP and is the subject of this review. The PTS consists of two general proteins, enzyme I and HPr, and a number of carbohydrate-specific enzymes, the enzymes II. PTS proteins are phosphoproteins in which the phospho group is attached to either a histidine residue or, in a number of cases, a cysteine residue. After phosphorylation of enzyme I by PEP, the phospho group is transferred to HPr. The enzymes II are required for the transport of the carbohydrates across the membrane and the transfer of the phospho group from phospho-HPr to the carbohydrates. Biochemical, structural, and molecular genetic studies have shown that the various enzymes II have the same basic structure. Each enzyme II consists of domains for specific functions, e.g., binding of the carbohydrate or phosphorylation. Each enzyme II complex can consist of one to four different polypeptides. The enzymes II can be placed into at least four classes on the basis of sequence similarity. The genetics of the PTS is complex, and the expression of PTS proteins is intricately regulated because of the central roles of these proteins in nutrient acquisition. In addition to classical induction-repression mechanisms involving repressor and activator proteins, other types of regulation, such as antitermination, have been observed in some PTSs. Apart from their role in carbohydrate transport, PTS proteins are involved in chemotaxis toward PTS carbohydrates. Furthermore, the IIAGlc protein, part of the glucose-specific PTS, is a central regulatory protein which in its nonphosphorylated form can bind to and inhibit several non-PTS uptake systems and thus prevent entry of inducers. In its phosphorylated form, P-IIAGlc is involved in the activation of adenylate cyclase and thus in the

  20. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sandra J; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. PMID:15507161

  1. Carbohydrate markers of organism purity and growth environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Fox, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    Recent experience with Bacillus spore characterization has demonstrated that carbohydrate content can provide potentially vital bioforensic information. Like other metabolites, the carbohydrate profiles of samples reflect variations in cellular structures as well as presence of residual carbohydrates from the medium found as trace components. The presence and characteristics of residual carbohydrates, such as agar, represent strong indicators of culturing method. The methods to detect residual carbohydrates can be extended to other compounds used in processing and preservation of microbes in a dry form.

  2. Antibodies Raised Against Chlamydial Lipopolysaccharide Antigens Reveal Convergence in Germline Gene Usage and Differential Epitope Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Cory L; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Borisova, Svetlana N.; Brade, Lore; Kosma, Paul; Hirama, Tomoko; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Brade, Helmut; Evans, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore monoclonal antibody recognition carbohydrate antigens, several structures from two monoclonal antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes derived from chlamydial LPS have been solved to high resolution. With the exception of CDR H3, antibodies S54-10 and S73-2 are both derived from the same set of germline gene segments as the previously reported structures S25-2 and S45-18. Despite this similarity, the antibodies differ in specificity and the mechanism by which they recognize their cognate antigen. S54-10 uses an unrelated CDR H3 to recognize its antigen in a fashion analogous to S45-18; however, S73-2 recognizes the same antigen as S45-18 and S54-10 in a wholly unrelated manner. Together, these antibody-antigen structures provide snapshots into how the immune system uses the same set of inherited germline gene segments to generate multiple possible specificities that allow for differential recognition of epitopes, and how unrelated CDR H3 sequences can result in convergent binding of clinically-relevant bacterial antigens. PMID:20000757

  3. Hetero-organic thymus antigens.

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, L V; Gnezditskaya, E V

    1985-01-01

    The use of sera containing antibodies to tissue-specific antigens of highly specialized organs (skeletal muscles, heart, skin, excretory glands) enabled us to detect, by immunofluorescence, cells capable of synthesizing analogous antigens (i.e. hetero-organic thymus antigens) in human and animal thymus. Detection of hetero-organic antigens in the thymus is the basis for the hypothesis that natural immunological tolerance to tissue self antigens is formed within the thymus in the course of T-lymphocyte maturation, with thymus antigens taking part in the process.

  4. The consequences of the intracellular retention of pathogen-derived T-cell-independent antigens on protein presentation to T cells.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Cobián, F; Outschoorn, I M; Carrasco-Marín, E; Alvarez-Domínguez, C

    1997-10-01

    Intracellular pathogens can be considered as particulate antigens chemically composed of a complex mixture of T-cell-dependent antigens (TD) (peptides and proteins) and T-cell-independent antigens (TI) (glycolipids and complex polysaccharides). A large range of saccharides (from oligosaccharides to complex polysaccharides) derived from pathogenic microorganisms are being isolated and characterized. They are currently implicated in signaling systems and concomitant host-parasite relationships. However, there are not many structure-function relationships described for these pathogens. This is particularly true of polysaccharides. In this report we have reviewed the role of defined TI antigens in the processing and presentation of defined TD antigens to specific T cells by antigen-presenting cells (APC). We also considered the importance of some of the chemical characteristics shared by different carbohydrates implicated in the inhibition of antigen presentation. These findings are discussed in relation to the clear immunopathological consequences of long retention periods of complex carbohydrate molecules derived from intracellular parasites inside certain APC and the absence of antigen presentation impairment in physiological situations such as the removal of senescent or damaged red blood cells by splenic macrophages or intracellular accumulation of carbohydrates in colostrum and milk macrophages during lactation.

  5. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  6. Human liver nucleolar antigens.

    PubMed

    Busch, R K; Busch, H

    1981-10-01

    In an extension of previous studies on the antigens in rat liver nucleoli (R. K. Busch, R. C. Reddy, D. H. Henning, and H. Busch, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160, 185 (1979); R. K. Busch and H. Busch, Tumori 63, 347 (1977); F. M. Davis, R. K. Busch, L. C. Yeoman, and H. Busch, Cancer Res. 38, 1906 (1978), rabbit antibodies were elicited to human liver nucleoli isolated by the sucrose--Mg2+ method (10). Fluorescent nucleoli were found in liver cryostat sections treated with rabbit anti-human liver nucleolar antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies. In HeLa cells, fluorescence was distributed throughout the nucleus and in a nuclear network but was not localized to the nucleolus. In placental cryostat sections, an overall nuclear fluorescence was observed with some localization to nucleoli. Immunodiffusion analysis revealed two immunoprecipitin bands which appeared to be liver specific. Other immunoprecipitin bands were common to liver, placenta, and HeLa nuclear extracts. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed two liver-specific antigens, one migrating to the cathode and the other to the anode Other rockets exhibited identity to antigens of other nuclear extracts. These results demonstrate the presence of human liver nucleolar-specific antigens which were not found in the HeLa and placental cells.

  7. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells.

  8. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  9. [Reseach Advances on Cancer-Testis Antigens in Multiple Myeloma -Review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Rui; Yu, Li; Zhu, Hai-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are a class of tumor-associated antigens, which are mainly located in X chromosome. CTA restrictively expressed in normal testis, ovary, placenta and so on. Their expression in other normal tissues is much lower, even can not be detected. However, their expressions are aberrantly high in human cancers. Based on CTA encoding immunogenic proteins, they can be regulated by epigentics, CTA provides very attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple myeloma (MM) is incurable and has a low cureative rate and a high relapse rate. CTA have been detected in many MM cell lines and primary MM cells, they may be relaled to clinical prognosis. This reviews briefly summarized the research advances of CTA in the immune therapy of multiple myeloma, so as to provide a valuable therapeutic idea for myeloma.

  10. [Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified CAR-T/NK Cells to Treatment of Multiple Myeloma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ou, jian-Feng; Bai, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor(CAR) is a synthesized transmembrane protein, which redirects the modified cells through specific or associated antigen on tumor cells. CAR-modified T/NK cells, especially CAR-T cells, are a new tool of rapidly developing of adoptive immunotherapy of tumor in recent years, they give T/NK cells the targeting cytotoxic activity and can overcome the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and break the state of the host immune tolerance. CAR combines the single-chain antibody to tumor-associated antigen with T/NK cells' activated motifs, giving T/NK cells' tumor targeting activity, so enhancing their cytotoxic activity and lasting the vitality by gene transduction. In this article the CAR development, comparison of CAR-T and CAR-NK cells, surface markers on MM cells and use of CAR in MM, and CAR perspectives are summarized.

  11. Purification and characterization of the serotype c antigen from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, J J; Slots, J; Miyasaki, K; Linzer, R; Cohen, R; Levine, M; Genco, R J

    1984-01-01

    The serotype c antigen from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was purified with fractional ethanol precipitation of cell-free culture supernatant, sequential ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The preparation obtained demonstrated a single precipitin line in immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis when rabbit antisera to serotype c whole bacterial cells were used. No immunological reaction was detected with antisera to serotype c lipopolysaccharide, indicating that lipopolysaccharide was not present in the preparation. The serotype c antigen was composed of 95% carbohydrate, 2% protein, and 3.1% phosphate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the antigen obtained from growth in either complex or chemically defined media revealed that the carbohydrate constituent was composed of 84 to 90.1% mannose, 4.8 to 16% glucose, 1.9% N-acetylglucosamine, 1.4% fucose, and 0.2% galactose. The present data suggest that A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype c antigen is predominantly a mannose-containing carbohydrate suggestive of a mannan. Images PMID:6423542

  12. Multiphoton microscopy of antigen presenting cells in experimental cancer therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Simon C.; Papworth, Glenn D.; Spencer, Lori A.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Hackstein, Holger

    2002-06-01

    The absence of effective conventional therapy for most cancer patients justifies the application of novel, experimental approaches. One alternative to conventional cytotoxic agents is a more defined molecular approach for cancer immune treatment; promotion of the immune system specifically to target and eliminate tumor cells on the basis of expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAA). TAA could be presented to T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that generate a more efficient and effective anti-tumor immune response. In fact, it has been well documented that dendritic cells, the most immunologically potent APC, are capable of recognizing, processing and presenting TAA, in turn initiating a specific antitumor immune response. Results from several laboratories and clinical trials suggested significant but still limited efficacy of TAA-pulsed dendritic cells administered to tumor-bearing hosts. Following such delivery, it is fundamentally necessary to dynamically assess cell abundance within the microenvironment of the tumor in the presence of the appropriate therapeutic agent. Multiphoton microscopy was used to assess the trafficking of pulsed dendritic cells and other APC in skin, lymph nodes and brain of several animal tumor models, following different routes of administration.

  13. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  14. Carbohydrate sources in a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Gregory L.; Hedges, John I.

    1984-10-01

    Individual neutral sugars in sediments, sediment trap materials and major biological sources of a coastal marine environment (Dabob Bay, Washington State) were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography of equilibrated isomeric mixtures. Plankton, bacteria, and vascular plant tissues of different types yielded reproducible and biochemically consistent compositional patterns. These patterns, when expressed in simple parameters, allowed distinctions between marine and terrestrial carbohydrate sources as well as among the major different types of vascular plant tissues. Plankton and bacteria, due to their compositional diversity, were not further distinguishable by carbohydrate compositions alone. Carbohydrate compositions of Dabob Bay sediments and sediment trap materials, interpreted using source-indicator parameters, indicate a predominantly marine origin with increased relative input of terrestrially-derived carbohydrates in winter periods of low phytoplankton productivity. Both plankton and grasses are indicated as major carbohydrate sources during spring. Glucose yield enhancement factors, determined by comparative acid pretreatments, confirm the general predominance of α-cellulose-poor marine polysaccharides and increased levels of α-cellulose-rich vascular plant remains in winter sediment trap samples.

  15. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  16. Non-labeled QCM Biosensor for Bacterial Detection using Carbohydrate and Lectin Recognitions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhihong; Huang, Mingchuan; Xiao, Caide; Zhang, Yun; Zeng, Xiangqun; Wang, Peng G.

    2008-01-01

    High percentages of harmful microbes or their secreting toxins bind to specific carbohydrate sequences on human cells at the recognition and attachment sites. A number of studies also show that lectins react with specific structures of bacteria and fungi. In this report, we take advantage of the fact that a high percentage of microorganisms have both carbohydrate and lectin binding pockets at their surface. We demonstrate here for the first time that a carbohydrate non-labeled mass sensor in combination with lectin-bacterial O-antigen recognition can be used for detection of high molecular weight bacterial targets with remarkably high sensitivity and specificity. A functional mannose self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in combination with lectin Con A was used as molecular recognition elements for the detection of E. coli W1485 using Quartz Crytsal Microbalance (QCM) as a transducer. The multivalent binding of Concanavalin A (Con A) to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) surface O-antigen favors the strong adhesion of E. coli to mannose modified QCM surface by forming bridges between these two. As a result, the contact area between cell and QCM surface increases that leads to rigid and strong attachment. Therefore it enhances the binding between E. coli and the mannose. Our results show a significant improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate QCM biosensor with a experimental detection limit of a few hundred bacterial cells. The linear range is from 7.5 × 102 to 7.5 × 107 cells/mL that is four decade wider than the mannose alone QCM sensor. The change of damping resistances for E. coli adhesion experiments was no more than 1.4% suggesting that the bacterial attachment was rigid, rather than a viscoelastic behavior. Little non-specific binding was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and other proteins (Fetal Bovine serum, Erythrina cristagalli lectin). Our approach not only overcomes the challenges of applying QCM technology for bacterial detection but

  17. Vaccination with a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a tumor antigen breaks immune tolerance and elicits therapeutic antitumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Wansley, Elizabeth K.; Chakraborty, Mala; Hance, Kenneth W.; Bernstein, Michael B.; Boehm, Amanda L.; Guo, Zhimin; Quick, Deborah; Franzusoff, Alex; Greiner, John W.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a nonpathogenic yeast, has previously been used as a vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens, and tumor-associated antigens, and has been shown to reduce tumorburden in mice. Studies were designed to determine if vaccination of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic mice (where CEA is a self-antigen) with a recombinant S. cerevisiae construct expressing human CEA (yeast-CEA) elicits CEA-specific T-cell responses and antitumor activity. Experimental Design CEA-transgenic mice were vaccinated with yeast-CEA, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were assessed after one and multiple administrations or vaccinations at multiple sites per administration. Antitumor activity was determined by tumor growth and overall survival in both pulmonary metastasis and subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models. Results These studies demonstrate that recombinant yeast can break tolerance and that a) yeast-CEA constructs elicit both CEA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses; b) repeated yeast-CEA administration causes increased antigen-specific T-cell responses after each vaccination; c) vaccination with yeast-CEA at multiple sites induces a greater T-cell response than the same dose given at a single site; d) tumor-bearing mice vaccinated with yeast-CEA show a reduction in tumor burden and increased overall survival compared to mock-treated or control yeast-vaccinated mice in both pulmonary metastasis and subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models. Conclusions Vaccination with a heat-killed recombinant yeast expressing the tumor-associated antigen CEA induces CEA-specific immune responses, reduces tumor burden, and extends overall survival in CEA-transgenic mice. These studies thus form the rationale for the incorporation of recombinant yeast-CEA and other recombinant yeast constructs in cancer immunotherapy protocols. PMID:18594015

  18. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  19. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Quentin R.; Lindsay, Richard J.; Petridis, Loukas; Shen, Tongye

    2015-04-28

    Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (bio)molecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. Here, we focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  20. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Quentin R.; Lindsay, Richard J.; Petridis, Loukas; ...

    2015-04-28

    Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (bio)molecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. Here, we focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We reviewmore » the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.« less

  1. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This review summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications. PMID:23386333

  3. Oxygen solubility and permeability of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Whitcombe, Michael J; Parker, Roger; Ring, Stephen G

    2005-06-13

    The saturated oxygen concentration in a series of aqueous solutions of sorbitol (up to 35% w/w) and maltitol (up to 50% w/w) was measured using colorimetric reagent vials based on Rhodazine D. The results indicate that the solubility of oxygen in low-water carbohydrates is considerably lower than its solubility in pure water. It was concluded that the low-oxygen solubility is a major factor contributing to the barrier properties of low-water content carbohydrates used in the encapsulation of flavours, lipids, peptides and other oxidisable species.

  4. Fructose-derived carbohydrates from Alisma orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Yun; Gao, Hong; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Nine fructose-derived carbohydrates were obtained from the methanol extract from the rhizome of Alisma orientalis. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, their structures were determined to be alpha-D-fructofuranose (1), beta-D-fructofuranose (2), ethyl alpha-D-fructofuranoside (3), ethyl beta-D-fructofuranoside (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde (5), sucrose (6), raffinose (7), stachyose (8) and verbascose (9), along with two oligosaccharides of manninotriose (10) and verbascotetraose (11). Compounds 3, 4 and 7-11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. A hypothetical biosynthesis pathway among these isolated carbohydrates (1-11) was briefly introduced.

  5. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust, and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This chapter summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications.

  7. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle.

  8. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  9. Carbohydrate specificities of the murine DC-SIGN homologue mSIGNR1.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Estella A; Ludwig, Irene S; Appelmelk, Ben J; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2005-01-01

    C-type lectins are important receptors expressed by antigen presenting cells that are involved in cellular communications as well as in pathogen uptake. An important C-type lectin family is represented by DC-SIGN and its homologues in human and mouse. Here we have investigated the carbohydrate specificity of cellular mSIGNR1 and compared it with DC-SIGN and L-SIGN. mSIGNR1 has a similar specificity as human DC-SIGN for high mannose-containing ligands present on both cellular and pathogen ligands. However, the DC-SIGN molecules differ in their recognition of Lewis antigens; mSIGNR1 interacts not only with Le(x/y) and Le(a/b) antigens similar to DC-SIGN, but also with sialylated Lex, a ligand for selectins. The differential recognition of Lewis antigens suggests differences between mSIGNR1 and DC-SIGN in the recognition of cellular ligands and pathogens that express Lewis epitopes.

  10. Carbohydrate-Based Lactones: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Nuno M.; Rauter, Amélia P.; Queneau, Yves

    The synthesis and uses of different kinds of carbohydrate-based lactones are described. This group of compounds includes aldonolactones, other related monocyclic lactones and bicyclic systems. The latter can arise from uronic acids, carboxymethyl ethers or glycosides, or from C-branched sugars.

  11. Indicators of normal carbohydrate digestion in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More research is needed to determine the nutritional and clinical significance of the intermediate values of low but not deficient duodenal disaccharidase activities, but the Dahlqvist-method biopsy assay of activity serves as a gnomon of carbohydrate digestion, in the sense that Anaximander used a ...

  12. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Bifidobacteria: Human Symbiotic Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifidobacterium ssp. constitute up to 90% of microbial gut flora in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Carbohydrate metabolism in these bacteria is highly unusual. Data from four Bifidobacterium genomes indicates genes missing from glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the TCA cycle, in...

  13. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  14. Permethylation Linkage Analysis Techniques for Residual Carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permethylation analysis is the classic approach to establishing the position of glycosidic linkages between sugar residues. Typically, the carbohydrate is derivatized to form acid-stable methyl ethers, hydrolyzed, peracetylated, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The pos...

  15. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse.

  16. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  17. High Carbohydrate-Fiber Nutrition for Running and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battinelli, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The roles of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber in producing energy for health and exercise are discussed. Long-distance runners should have a high intake of complex carbohydrates and fiber. (PP)

  18. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbohydrates to processed foods in the form of starch or added sugar. Common sources of naturally occurring ... fructose), table sugar (sucrose) and milk sugar (lactose). Starch. Starch is a complex carbohydrate, meaning it is ...

  19. Immunogenic variants obtained by mutagenesis of mouse mastocytoma P815. V. H-2 associativity of variant-specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Van Snick, J; Maryanski, J; Van Pel, A; Parmiani, G; Boon, T

    1982-11-01

    By in vitro mutagenesis of mastocytoma P815, it is possible to obtain tumor cell variants that are rejected by syngeneic mice (tum-). Most of these variants carry new individual antigens and stimulate a specific cytolytic T cell (CTL) response in mixed leukocyte tumor cell culture (MLTC). The H-2 associativity of this response was examined for six different variants by measuring the inhibition of cell-mediated cytolysis by antibodies directed against products of the K or the D end of the H-2d complex. The lysis was either not inhibited (variants P91 and P116) or inhibited selectively by anti-Kd (variants P21, P32 and P198) or anti-Dd antibodies (variant P35). All these tum- variants expressed Kd and Dd antigens as measured by absorption of H-2 alloantisera. Long-term CTL clones can be obtained that are specific for individual tum- antigens. The pattern of H-2 associativity obtained with MLTC-derived CTL against four tum- variants was verified with CTL clones directed against the specific antigens of these variants. Concordant results were observed in all cases. In addition to CTL clones specific for tum- antigens, it is possible to isolate clones against a P815 tumor-associated antigen found on all P815 tum- variants. For these clones no clear associativity with either Kd or Dd products was found.

  20. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  1. Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Clapp, James F

    2002-02-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the primary maternal environmental factor that regulates feto-placental growth is substrate delivery to the placental site, which is the product of maternal substrate levels and the rate of placental-bed blood flow. Thus, maternal factors which change either substrate level or flow alter feto-placental growth rate. The best-studied substrate in human pregnancy is glucose, and there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels and size at birth. Altering the type of carbohydrate eaten (high- v. low-glycaemic sources) changes postprandial glucose and insulin responses in both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and a consistent change in the type of carbohydrate eaten during pregnancy influences both the rate of feto-placental growth and maternal weight gain. Eating primarily high-glycaemic carbohydrate results in feto-placental overgrowth and excessive maternal weight gain, while intake of low-glycaemic carbohydrate produces infants with birth weights between the 25th and the 50th percentile and normal maternal weight gain. The calculated difference in energy retention with similar total energy intakes is of the order of 80,000 kJ. Preliminary information from subsequent metabolic studies indicates that the mechanisms involved include changes in: daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. metabolic efficiency), substrate utilization (glucose oxidation v. lipid oxidation), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Thus, altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be a valuable tool in the management of pregnancies at risk for anomalous feto-placental growth and for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in the non-pregnant state.

  2. Crystal structures of three bicyclic carbohydrate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Schilde, Uwe; Kelling, Alexandra; Umbreen, Sumaira; Linker, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds, [(1R,3R,4R,5R,6S)-4,5-bis­(acet­yloxy)-7-oxo-2-oxabi­cyclo[4.2.0]octan-3-yl]methyl acetate, C14H18O8, (I), [(1S,4R,5S,6R)-5-acet­yloxy-7-hy­droxy­imino-2-oxobi­cyclo­[4.2.0]octan-4-yl acetate, C11H15NO6, (II), and [(3aR,5R,6R,7R,7aS)-6,7-bis­(acet­yloxy)-2-oxo­octa­hydro­pyrano[3,2-b]pyrrol-5-yl]methyl acetate, C14H19NO8, (III), are stable bicyclic carbohydrate derivatives. They can easily be synthesized in a few steps from commercially available glycals. As a result of the ring strain from the four-membered rings in (I) and (II), the conformations of the carbohydrates deviate strongly from the ideal chair form. Compound (II) occurs in the boat form. In the five-membered lactam (III), on the other hand, the carbohydrate adopts an almost ideal chair conformation. As a result of the distortion of the sugar rings, the configurations of the three bicyclic carbohydrate derivatives could not be determined from their NMR coupling constants. From our three crystal structure determinations, we were able to establish for the first time the absolute configurations of all new stereocenters of the carbohydrate rings. PMID:27980845

  3. HIV Antigens for Disease Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-27

    infectivity is severely diminished following binding of lentil lectins to mannose-containing carbohydrate moieties on the HIV-I viral envelope glycoprotein (18...carbohydrates around the CD4 binding region. To evaluate the effect of lentil lectin on free virus infectivity, the virus containing 105 cpm RT activity...virus equivalent was * •pretreated with lentil lectin (50 j.g/ml), or medium for 30 minutes at 370C. This pretreated virus was incubated with 4 x106

  4. [Abberant methylation of p16, HIC1, N33 and GSTP1 genes in tumor epitelium and tumor-associated stromal cells of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kekeeva, T V; Popova, O P; Shegaĭ, P V; Alekseev, B Ia; Adnreeva, Iu Iu; Zaletaev, D V; Nemtsova, M V

    2007-01-01

    The methylation status of four genes significant in prostate carcinogenesis p16, HIC1, N33 and GSTP1, were evaluated using quantitative methylationsensitive polymerase chain reaction. Tumor epithelia, tumor-associated stroma, normal epithelia, foci of PIN and benign prostate hyperplasia, and stroma adjacent to tumor tissues were isolated from whole-mount prostatectomy specimens of patients with localized prostate cancer by using laser capture microdissection. We found high levels of gene methylation in the tumor epithelium and tumor-associated stromal cells and some methylation in both hyperplastic epithelium and stromal cells in normal-appearing tissues located adjacent to tumors. Promoter methylation in the non-neoplastic cells of the prostate tumor microenvironment may play an important role in cancer development and progression. We examined the promoter methylation status of pl6, HIC1, N33 and GSTP1 in prostate biopsy fragments and prostate tissues after radical prostatectomy from patients with adenocarcinoma without laser capture microdissection. Methylation frequencies of all genes in tumor samples were considerably lower than frequencies in microdissected tumour samples (HIC1, 71 versus 89%; p16, 22 versus 78%; GSTP1, 32 versus 100%; N33, 20 versus 33%). The laser capture microdissection is required procedure in methylation studies taking into account multifocality and heterogenity of prostate cancer tissue.

  5. Active Immunization Using a Peptide Mimic of a Carbohydrate Tumor Antigen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    endothelial cells ( 3 ). The endothelial cells express a ligand known to bind TF-Ag called galectin - 3 ( 3 ). The data showed that the mimic inhibited the...0188), Washlngton, DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY I 2. REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED (Leave blank) March 2005 Annual Summary (23 Feb 04 - 22...2 Table of Contents ........................................................................... 3 Introduction

  6. Expanded metabolomics approach to profiling endogenous carbohydrates in the serum of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Li, Li; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We applied hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of serum from 58 women, including ovarian cancer patients, ovarian benign tumor patients, and healthy controls. All of these ovarian cancer and ovarian benign tumor patients have elevated cancer antigen 125, which makes them clinically difficult to differentiate the malignant from the benign. All of the 16 endogenous carbohydrates were quantitatively detected in the human sera, of which, eight endogenous carbohydrates were significantly different (P-value < 0.05) between the ovarian cancer and healthy control. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, arabitol was the most potentially specific biomarker for discriminating ovarian cancer from healthy control, having an area under the curve of 0.911. A panel of metabolite markers composed of maltose, maltotriose, raffinose, and mannitol was selected, which was able to discriminate the ovarian cancer from the benign ovarian tumor counterparts, with an area under concentration-time curve value of 0.832. Endogenous carbohydrates in the expanded metabolomics approach after the global metabolic profiling are characterized and are potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  7. Novel cancer antigens for personalized immunotherapies: latest evidence and clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T.; Kao, Chiao-Jung; DeGregorio, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical success of monoclonal antibody immune checkpoint modulators such as ipilimumab, which targets cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and the recently approved agents nivolumab and pembrolizumab, which target programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1), has stimulated renewed enthusiasm for anticancer immunotherapy, which was heralded by Science as ‘Breakthrough of the Year’ in 2013. As the potential of cancer immunotherapy has been recognized since the 1890s when William Coley showed that bacterial products could be beneficial in cancer patients, leveraging the immune system in the treatment of cancer is certainly not a new concept; however, earlier attempts to develop effective therapeutic vaccines and antibodies against solid tumors, for example, melanoma, frequently met with failure due in part to self-tolerance and the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Increased knowledge of the mechanisms through which cancer evades the immune system and the identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and negative immune checkpoint regulators have led to the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies targeting specific tumor antigens and immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4 and PD-1. This review first discusses the established targets of currently approved cancer immunotherapies and then focuses on investigational cancer antigens and their clinical potential. Because of the highly heterogeneous nature of tumors, effective anticancer immunotherapy-based treatment regimens will likely require a personalized combination of therapeutic vaccines, antibodies and chemotherapy that fit the specific biology of a patient’s disease. PMID:26753003

  8. Inducible expression of cancer-testis antigens in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heninger, Erika; Krueger, Timothy E.G.; Thiede, Stephanie M.; Sperger, Jamie M.; Byers, Brianna L.; Kircher, Madison R.; Kosoff, David; Yang, Bing; Jarrard, David F.; McNeel, Douglas G.; Lang, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Immune tolerance to self-antigens can limit robust anti-tumor immune responses in the use of tumor vaccines. Expression of novel tumor associated antigens can improve immune recognition and lysis of tumor cells. The cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family of proteins has been hypothesized to be an ideal class of antigens due to tumor-restricted expression, a subset of which have been found to induce antibody responses in patients with prostate disease. We demonstrate that CTA expression is highly inducible in five different Prostate Cancer (PC) cell lines using a hypomethylating agent 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5AZA) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589. These CTAs include NY-ESO1, multiple members of the MAGE and SSX families and NY-SAR35. A subset of CTAs is synergistically induced by the combination of 5AZA and LBH589. We developed an ex vivo organ culture using human PC biopsies for ex vivo drug treatments to evaluate these agents in clinical samples. These assays found significant induction of SSX2 in 9/9 distinct patient samples and NY-SAR35 in 7/9 samples. Further, we identify expression of SSX2 in circulating tumor cells (CTC) from patients with advanced PC. These results indicate that epigenetic modifying agents can induce expression of a broad range of neoantigens in human PC and may serve as a useful adjunctive therapy with novel tumor vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27769045

  9. Optimized tumor cryptic peptides: the basis for universal neo-antigen-like tumor vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Menez-Jamet, Jeanne; Gallou, Catherine; Rougeot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    The very impressive clinical results recently obtained in cancer patients treated with immune response checkpoint inhibitors boosted the interest in immunotherapy as a therapeutic choice in cancer treatment. However, these inhibitors require a pre-existing tumor specific immune response and the presence of tumor infiltrating T cells to be efficient. This immune response can be triggered by cancer vaccines. One of the main issues in tumor vaccination is the choice of the right antigen to target. All vaccines tested to date targeted tumor associated antigens (TAA) that are self-antigens and failed to show a clinical efficacy because of the immune self-tolerance to TAA. A new class of tumor antigens has recently been described, the neo-antigens that are created by point mutations of tumor expressing proteins and are recognized by the immune system as non-self. Neo-antigens exhibit two main properties: they are not involved in the immune self-tolerance process and are immunogenic. However, the majority of the neo-antigens are patient specific and their use as cancer vaccines requires their previous identification in each patient individualy that can be done only in highly specialized research centers. It is therefore evident that neo-antigens cannot be used for patient vaccination worldwide. This raises the question of whether we can find neo-antigen like vaccines, which would not be patient specific. In this review we show that optimized cryptic peptides from TAA are neo-antigen like peptides. Optimized cryptic peptides are recognized by the immune system as non-self because they target self-cryptic peptides that escape self-tolerance; in addition they are strongly immunogenic because their sequence is modified in order to enhance their affinity for the HLA molecule. The first vaccine based on the optimized cryptic peptide approach, Vx-001, which targets the widely expressed tumor antigen telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), has completed a large phase I clinical

  10. Development and Validation of a High Throughput System for Discovery of Antigens for Autoantibody Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Isabel K.; Allen, Jared; Murray, Andrea; Parsy-Kowalska, Celine B.; Healey, Graham F.; Chapman, Caroline J.; Sewell, Herbert F.; Robertson, John F. R.

    2012-01-01

    An assay employing a panel of tumor-associated antigens has been validated and is available commercially (EarlyCDT®-Lung) to aid the early detection of lung cancer by measurement of serum autoantibodies. The high throughput (HTP) strategy described herein was pursued to identify new antigens to add to the EarlyCDT-Lung panel and to assist in the development of new panels for other cancers. Two ligation-independent cloning vectors were designed and synthesized, producing fusion proteins suitable for the autoantibody ELISA. We developed an abridged HTP version of the validated autoantibody ELISA, determining that results reflected the performance of the EarlyCDT assay, by comparing results on both formats. Once validated this HTP ELISA was utilized to screen multiple fusion proteins prepared on small-scale, by a HTP expression screen. We determined whether the assay performance for these HTP protein batches was an accurate reflection of the performance of R&D or commercial batches. A HTP discovery platform for the identification and optimal production of tumor- associated antigens which detects autoantibodies has been developed and validated. The most favorable conditions for the exposure of immunogenic epitopes were assessed to produce discriminatory proteins for use in a commercial ELISA. This process is rapid and cost-effective compared to standard cloning and screening technologies and enables rapid advancement in the field of autoantibody assay discovery. This approach will significantly reduce timescale and costs for developing similar panels of autoantibody assays for the detection of other cancer types with the ultimate aim of improved overall survival due to early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22815807

  11. Immune recognition of protein antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Laver, W.G.; Air, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 33 papers. Some of the titles are: Antigenic Structure of Influenze Virus Hemagglutinin; Germ-line and Somatic Diversity in the Antibody Response to the Influenza Virus A/PR/8/34 Hemagglutinin; Recognition of Cloned Influenza A Virus Gene Products by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes; Antigenic Structure of the Influenza Virus N2 Neuraminidase; and The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Antigenic Variation in Gonococcal Pillin.

  12. O-antigens of bacteria of the genus providencia: structure, serology, genetics, and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, O G; Rozalski, A; Liu, B; Knirel, Y A

    2013-07-01

    The genus Providencia consists of eight species of opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria that can cause enteric diseases and urinary tract infections. The existing combined serological classification scheme of three species, P. alcalifaciens, P. stuartii, and P. rustigianii, is based on the specificity of O-antigens (O-polysaccharides) and comprises 63 O-serogroups. Differences between serogroups are related to polymorphism at a specific genome locus, the O-antigen gene cluster, responsible for O-antigen biosynthesis. This review presents data on structures of 36 O-antigens of Providencia, many of which contain unusual monosaccharides and non-carbohydrate components. The structural data correlate with the immunospecificity of the O-antigens and enable substantiation on a molecular level of serological relationships within the genus Providencia and between strains of Providencia and bacteria of the genera Proteus, Escherichia, and Salmonella. Peculiar features of the O-antigen gene cluster organization in 10 Providencia serogroups and biosynthetic pathways of nucleotide precursors of specific monosaccharide components of the O-antigens also are discussed.

  13. Antigens protected functional red blood cells by the membrane grafting of compact hyperbranched polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran

    2013-01-02

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is vital for the treatment of a number of acute and chronic medical problems such as thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia. Due to the presence of multitude of antigens on the RBC surface (~308 known antigens), patients in the chronic blood transfusion therapy develop alloantibodies due to the miss match of minor antigens on transfused RBCs. Grafting of hydrophilic polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) forms an exclusion layer on RBC membrane that prevents the interaction of antibodies with surface antigens without affecting the passage of small molecules such as oxygen, glucose, and ions. At present no method is available for the generation of universal red blood donor cells in part because of the daunting challenge presented by the presence of large number of antigens (protein and carbohydrate based) on the RBC surface and the development of such methods will significantly improve transfusion safety, and dramatically improve the availability and use of RBCs. In this report, the experiments that are used to develop antigen protected functional RBCs by the membrane grafting of HPG and their characterization are presented. HPGs are highly biocompatible compact polymers, and are expected to be located within the cell glycocalyx that surrounds the lipid membrane and mask RBC surface antigens.

  14. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme).

  15. Carbohydrate and the regulation of blood glucose and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wolever, Thomas M S

    2003-05-01

    Classifying the glycemic responses of carbohydrate foods using the glycemic index (GI) requires standardized methodology for valid results. Dietary carbohydrates influence metabolism by at least four mechanisms: nature of the monosaccharides absorbed, amount of carbohydrate consumed, rate of absorption, and colonic fermentation. Reducing glycemic responses by reducing carbohydrate intake increases postprandial serum free-fatty acids (FFA) and does not improve overall glycemic control in diabetic subjects. By contrast, low-GI diets reduce serum FFA and improve glycemic control. Thus, current evidence supports FAO/WHO recommendations to maintain a high-carbohydrate diet and choose low-GI starchy foods.

  16. Single molecule study of heterotypic interactions between mucins possessing the Tn cancer antigen

    PubMed Central

    Haugstad, Kristin E; Stokke, Bjørn T; Brewer, C Fred; Gerken, Thomas A; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are linear, heavily O-glycosylated proteins with physiological roles that include cell signaling, cell adhesion, inflammation, immune response and tumorgenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often differ from normal mucins by presenting truncated carbohydrate chains. Characterization of the binding properties of mucins with truncated carbohydrate side chains could thus prove relevant for understanding their role in cancer mechanisms such as metastasis and recognition by the immune system. In this work, heterotypic interactions of model mucins that possess the Tn (GalNAcαThr/Ser) and T (Galβ1–3GalNAcαThr/Ser) cancer antigens derived from porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) were studied using atomic force microscopy. PSM possessing only the Tn antigen (Tn-PSM) was found to bind to PSM analogs possessing a combination of T, Tn and STn antigens as well as biosynthetic analogs of the core 1 blood group A tetrasaccharide (GalNAcα1–3[Fucα1–2] Galβ1–3GalNAcαSer/Thr). The rupture forces for the heterotypic interactions ranged from 18– to 31 pN at a force-loading rate of ∼0.5 nN/s. The thermally averaged distance from the bound complex to the transition state (xβ) was estimated to be in the range 0.37–0.87 nm for the first barrier of the Bell Evans analysis and within 0.34–0.64 nm based on a lifetime analysis. These findings reveal that the binding strength and energy landscape for heterotypic interactions of Tn-PSM with the above mucins, resemble homotypic interactions of Tn-PSM. This suggests common carbohydrate epitope interactions for the Tn cancer antigen with the above mucin analogs, a finding that may be important to the role of the Tn antigen in cancer cells. PMID:25527429

  17. Carbohydrate engineered cells for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Yarema, Kevin J

    2010-06-15

    Carbohydrates are integral components of the stem cell niche on several levels; proteoglycans are a major constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding a cell, glycosoaminoglycans (GAGs) help link cells to the ECM and the neighboring cells, and small but informationally-rich oligosaccharides provide a "sugar code" that identifies each cell and provides it with unique functions. This article samples roles that glycans play in development and then describes how metabolic glycoengineering - a technique where monosaccharide analogs are introduced into the metabolic pathways of a cell and are biosynthetically incorporated into the glycocalyx - is overcoming many of the long-standing barriers to manipulating carbohydrates in living cells and tissues and is becoming an intriguing new tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  18. Carbohydrate Engineered Cells for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jian; Yarema, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are integral components of the stem cell niche on several levels; proteoglycans are a major constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding a cell, glycosoaminoglycans (GAGs) help link cells to the ECM and the neighboring cells, and small but informationally-rich oligosaccharides provide a “sugar code” that identifies each cell and provides it with unique functions. This article samples roles that glycans play in development and then describes how metabolic glycoengineering – a technique where monosaccharide analogs are introduced into the metabolic pathways of a cell and are biosynthetically incorporated into the glycocalyx – is overcoming many of the long-standing barriers to manipulating carbohydrates in living cells and tissues and is becoming an intriguing new tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20117158

  19. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water.

  20. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials derived from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2010-02-01

    A tremendous growth in the field of carbon nanomaterials has led to the emergence of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, mesoporous carbon and more recently graphene. Some of these materials have found applications in electronics, sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, composites, and so forth. The high temperatures and hydrocarbon precursors involved in their synthesis usually yield highly inert graphitic surfaces. As some of the applications require functionalization of their inert graphitic surface with groups like -COOH, -OH, and -NH(2), treatment of these materials in oxidizing agents and concentrated acids become inevitable. More recent works have involved using precursors like carbohydrates to produce carbon nanostructures rich in functional groups in a single-step under hydrothermal conditions. These carbon nanostructures have already found many applications in composites, drug delivery, materials synthesis, and Li ion batteries. The review aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the application of carbohydrate derived carbon nanostructures and also provide an outlook of their future prospects.

  1. Distinct galactofuranose antigens in the cell wall and culture supernatants as a means to differentiate Fusarium from Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Annegret; Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Ensinger, Christian; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Ebel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Detection of carbohydrate antigens is an important means for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. For diagnosis of systemic Aspergillus infections, galactomannan is commonly used, the core antigenic structure of which consists of chains of several galactofuranose moieties. In this study, we provide evidence that Fusarium produces at least two distinct galactofuranose antigens: Smaller amounts of galactomannan and larger quantities of a novel antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody AB135-8. In A. fumigatus, only minor amounts of the AB135-8 antigen are found in supernatants and in the apical regions of hyphae. A galactofuranose-deficient A. fumigatus mutant lacks the AB135-8 antigen, which strongly suggests that galactofuranose is an essential constituent of this antigen. Using a combination of AB135-8 and a galactomannan-specific antibody, we were able to unambiguously differentiate A. fumigatus and Fusarium hyphae in immunohistology. Moreover, since Fusarium releases the AB135-8 antigen, it appears to be a promising target antigen for a serological detection of Fusarium infections.

  2. Small-Molecule Carbohydrate-Based Immunostimulants.

    PubMed

    Marzabadi, Cecilia H; Franck, Richard W

    2017-02-03

    In this review, we discuss small-molecule, carbohydrate-based immunostimulants that target Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and cluster of differentiation 1D (CD1d) receptors. The design and use of these molecules in immunotherapy as well as results from their use in clinical trials are described. How these molecules work and their utilization as vaccine adjuvants are also discussed. Future applications and extensions for the use of these analogues as therapeutic agents will be outlined.

  3. Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Lorna

    This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains

  4. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  5. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures.

  6. A quick look at biochemistry: carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dashty, Monireh

    2013-10-01

    In mammals, there are different metabolic pathways in cells that break down fuel molecules to transfer their energy into high energy compounds such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH2). This process is called cellular respiration. In carbohydrate metabolism, the breakdown starts from digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract and is followed by absorption of carbohydrate components by the enterocytes in the form of monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are transferred to cells for aerobic and anaerobic respiration via glycolysis, citric acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway to be used in the starvation state. In the normal state, the skeletal muscle and liver cells store monosaccharides in the form of glycogen. In the obesity state, the extra glucose is converted to triglycerides via lipogenesis and is stored in the lipid droplets of adipocytes. In the lipotoxicity state, the lipid droplets of other tissues such as the liver, skeletal muscle and pancreatic beta cells also accumulate triacylglycerol. This event is the axis of the pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In this paper a summary of the metabolism of carbohydrates is presented in a way that researchers can follow the biochemical processes easily.

  7. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives  To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods  Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results  Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions  The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health. PMID:27413410

  8. Extraction and analysis of soluble carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Maness, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Soluble sugars are a universal component of most living organisms and a fundamental building block in biosynthetic processes. It is no wonder that both qualitative and quantitative changes in carbohydrates often accompany plant's responses to stress. Depending on the speed of onset of stress, plant tissues can exhibit rapid and very site-specific shifts in their soluble carbohydrate pool - rapid and precise tissue collection and stabilization are necessary if analytical results are to truly represent the sugar composition at the instant of harvest. Since soluble carbohydrates are, by definition, soluble in the cell's aqueous environment, they may be analyzed directly from liquids obtained from plants or they may require extraction from the plant matrix. During extraction and prior to analysis, steps should be taken to avoid change in form or quantity of sugars by endogenous active enzyme conversion or by contaminating microbial growth. Many procedures for soluble sugar analysis exist; the choice of the most appropriate analytical protocol is ultimately dictated by the depth of information required to substantiate findings for a particular purpose.

  9. Host-Adaptation of Francisella tularensis Alters the Bacterium's Surface-Carbohydrates to Hinder Effectors of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zarrella, Tiffany M.; Singh, Anju; Bitsaktsis, Constantine; Rahman, Tabassum; Sahay, Bikash; Feustel, Paul J.; Gosselin, Edmund J.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Background The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a structure while other groups report that no capsule could be identified. Previously we reported in vitro culture conditions for this bacterium which, in contrast to typical methods, yielded a bacterial phenotype that mimics that of the bacterium's mammalian, extracellular phase. Methods/Findings SDS-PAGE and carbohydrate analysis of differentially-cultivated F. tularensis LVS revealed that bacteria displaying the host-adapted phenotype produce both longer polymers of LPS O-antigen (OAg) and additional HMW carbohydrates/glycoproteins that are reduced/absent in non-host-adapted bacteria. Analysis of wildtype and OAg-mutant bacteria indicated that the induced changes in surface carbohydrates involved both OAg and non-OAg species. To assess the impact of these HMW carbohydrates on the access of outer membrane constituents to antibody we used differentially-cultivated bacteria in vitro to immunoprecipitate antibodies directed against outer membrane moieties. We observed that the surface-carbohydrates induced during host–adaptation shield many outer membrane antigens from binding by antibody. Similar assays with normal mouse serum indicate that the induced HMW carbohydrates also impede complement deposition. Using an in vitro macrophage infection assay, we find that the bacterial HMW carbohydrate impedes TLR2-dependent, pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. Lastly we show that upon host-adaptation, the human-virulent strain, F. tularensis SchuS4 also induces capsule production with the effect of reducing macrophage-activation and accelerating tularemia pathogenesis in mice. Conclusion F. tularensis undergoes

  10. Novel antigen delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria; Berardinis, Piergiuseppe De

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the “E2 scaffold” of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology called cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  12. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen A A A What's in this article? ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) bacteria ...

  13. Tumor-associated Endo180 requires stromal-derived LOX to promote metastatic prostate cancer cell migration on human ECM surfaces.

    PubMed

    Caley, Matthew P; King, Helen; Shah, Neel; Wang, Kai; Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Waxman, Jonathan; Sturge, Justin

    2016-02-01

    The diverse composition and structure of extracellular matrix (ECM) interfaces encountered by tumor cells at secondary tissue sites can influence metastatic progression. Extensive in vitro and in vivo data has confirmed that metastasizing tumor cells can adopt different migratory modes in response to their microenvironment. Here we present a model that uses human stromal cell-derived matrices to demonstrate that plasticity in tumor cell movement is controlled by the tumor-associated collagen receptor Endo180 (CD280, CLEC13E, KIAA0709, MRC2, TEM9, uPARAP) and the crosslinking of collagen fibers by stromal-derived lysyl oxidase (LOX). Human osteoblast-derived and fibroblast-derived ECM supported a rounded 'amoeboid-like' mode of cell migration and enhanced Endo180 expression in three prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, VCaP, DU145). Genetic silencing of Endo180 reverted PC3 cells from their rounded mode of migration towards a bipolar 'mesenchymal-like' mode of migration and blocked their translocation on human fibroblast-derived and osteoblast-derived matrices. The concomitant decrease in PC3 cell migration and increase in Endo180 expression induced by stromal LOX inhibition indicates that the Endo180-dependent rounded mode of prostate cancer cell migration requires ECM crosslinking. In conclusion, this study introduces a realistic in vitro model for the study of metastatic prostate cancer cell plasticity and pinpoints the cooperation between tumor-associated Endo180 and the stiff microenvironment imposed by stromal-derived LOX as a potential target for limiting metastatic progression in prostate cancer.

  14. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  15. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Baker, L; Krugman, S

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bond adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure. Images PMID:6956871

  16. A Genetically Engineered Adenovirus Vector Targeted to CD40 Mediates Transduction of Canine Dendritic Cells and Promotes Antigen-Specific Immune Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Erin E.; Nakayama, Masaharu; Smith, Bruce F.; Bird, R. Curtis; Muminova, Zhanat; Strong, Theresa; Timares, Laura; Korokhov, Nikolay; O'Neill, Ann Marie; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Glasgow, Joel N.; Tani, Kenzaburo; Curiel, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Targeting viral vectors encoding tumor-associated antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo is likely to enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapeutic cancer vaccines. We have previously shown that genetic modification of adenovirus (Ad) 5 to incorporate CD40 ligand (CD40L) rather than native fiber allows selective transduction and activation of DCs in vitro. Here, we examine the capacity of this targeted vector to induce immune responses to the tumor antigen CEA in a stringent in vivo canine model. CD40-targeted Ad5 transduced canine DCs via the CD40-CD40L pathway in vitro, and following vaccination of healthy dogs, CD40-targeted Ad5 induced strong anti-CEA cellular and humoral responses. These data validate the canine model for future translational studies and suggest targeting of Ad5 vectors to CD40 for in vivo delivery of tumor antigens to DCs is a feasible approach for successful cancer therapy. PMID:19786146

  17. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Targeting by Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells: Bridging the Gap from Preclinical Modeling to Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Rotiroti, Maria Caterina; Arcangeli, Silvia; Casucci, Monica; Perriello, Vincenzo; Bondanza, Attilio; Biondi, Andrea; Tettamanti, Sarah; Biagi, Ettore

    2017-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still represents an unmet clinical need for adult and pediatric high-risk patients, thus demanding advanced and personalized therapies. In this regard, different targeted immunotherapeutic approaches are available, ranging from naked monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to conjugated and multifunctional mAbs (i.e., BiTEs and DARTs). Recently, researchers have focused their attention on novel techniques of genetic manipulation specifically to redirect cytotoxic T cells endowed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) toward selected tumor associated antigens. So far, CAR T cells targeting the CD19 antigen expressed by B-cell origin hematological cancers have gained impressive clinical results, leading to the possibility of translating the CAR platform to treat other hematological malignancies such as AML. However, one of the main concerns in the field of AML CAR immunotherapy is the identification of an ideal target cell surface antigen, being highly expressed on tumor cells but minimally present on healthy tissues, together with the design of an anti-AML CAR appropriately balancing efficacy and safety profiles. The current review focuses mainly on AML target antigens and the related immunotherapeutic approaches developed so far, deeply dissecting methods of CAR T cell safety improvements, when designing novel CARs approaching human studies.

  18. A universal strategy for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer through use of a novel T-cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Katarzyna; Lanitis, Evripidis; Poussin, Mathilde; Lynn, Rachel C; Gavin, Brian P; Kelderman, Sander; Yu, Jason; Scholler, Nathalie; Powell, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Adoptive immunotherapies composed of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) offer an attractive strategy for treatment of human cancer. However, CARs have a fixed antigen specificity such that only one tumor-associated antigen (TAA) can be targeted, limiting the efficacy that can be achieved because of heterogeneous TAA expression. For this reason, a more generalized and effective application of CAR therapy would benefit from the capability to produce large panels of CARs against many known TAAs. In this study, we show a novel strategy to extend the recognition specificity potential of a bioengineered lymphocyte population, allowing flexible approaches to redirect T cells against various TAAs. Our strategy employs a biotin-binding immune receptor (BBIR) composed of an extracellular-modified avidin linked to an intracellular T-cell signaling domain. BBIR T cells recognized and bound exclusively to cancer cells pretargeted with specific biotinylated molecules. The versatility afforded by BBIRs permitted sequential or simultaneous targeting of a combination of distinct antigens. Together, our findings show that a platform of universal T-cell specificity can significantly extend conventional CAR approaches, permitting the tailored generation of T cells of unlimited antigen specificity for improving the effectiveness of adoptive T-cell immunotherapies for cancer.

  19. The long underestimated carbonyl function of carbohydrates – an organocatalyzed shot into carbohydrate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mahrwald, R

    2015-09-21

    The aggressive and strong development of organocatalysis provides several protocols for the convenient utilization of the carbonyl function of unprotected carbohydrates in C-C-bond formation processes. These amine-catalyzed mechanisms enable multiple cascade-protocols for the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate-derived compound classes. Several, only slightly different protocols, have been developed for the application of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the stereoselective chain-elongation of unprotected carbohydrates and the synthesis of highly functionalized C-glycosides of defined configuration. In addition, C-glycosides can also be accessed by amine-catalyzed reactions with methyl ketones. By a one-pot cascade reaction of isocyanides with unprotected aldoses and amino acids access to defined configured glycopeptide mimetics is achieved. Depending on the reaction conditions different origins to control the installation of configuration during the bond-formation process were observed.

  20. Immunoaffinity isolation and partial characterization of the Coccidioides immitis antigen detected by the tube precipitin and immunodiffusion-tube precipitin tests.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, B L; Pappagianis, D

    1989-01-01

    The antigen participating in the tube precipitin (TP) serologic test for coccidioidomycosis was isolated from mycelial-phase antigen (coccidioidin) by immunoaffinity and characterized by various analytical procedures. This was accomplished by first preparing the antigen-antibody precipitate by using antigen and human serum positive for TP (immunoglobulin M) antibody and then liberating the antigen by digestion with pronase. This protease destroyed the antibody and left the antigen intact as indicated by immunodiffusion-TP. The coccidioidal antigen was isolated from the proteolytic digest by using size exclusion chromatography. DEAE chromatography of this antigen yielded two fractions with immunodiffusion-TP reactivity which had average molecular sizes of 225 and 140 kilodaltons, respectively. The presence of carbohydrate and amino acids indicated that the antigen(s) is a glycopeptide. Compositional analysis showed that one fraction contained 3-O-methylmannose, mannose, and glucose in a ratio of 8:1.2:1, whereas the second fraction contained 3-O-methylmannose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a ratio of 1:1:1:1. The amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, threonine, aspartic acid plus asparagine, and glutamic acid plus glutamine constituted 60 to 70% of the amino acids in both glycopeptides. Neither antigen could be detected entering the gel in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Lectin affinity provided evidence of a high-mannose asparagine-linked glycopeptide in the first peak and an asparagine-linked glycopeptide with a biantennary complex-type structure in the second peak. Images PMID:2504775

  1. A platform to screen for C-type lectin receptor-binding carbohydrates and their potential for cell-specific targeting and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Maglinao, Maha; Eriksson, Magdalena; Schlegel, Mark K; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Johannssen, Timo; Götze, Sebastian; Seeberger, Peter H; Lepenies, Bernd

    2014-02-10

    Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in innate immunity represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures on pathogens and self-antigens. The primary interaction of an antigen-presenting cell and a pathogen shapes the following immune response. Therefore, the identification of CLR ligands that can either enhance or modulate the immune response is of interest. We have developed a screening platform based on glycan arrays to identify immune modulatory carbohydrate ligands of CLRs. A comprehensive library of CLRs was expressed by fusing the extracellular part of each respective CLR, the part containing the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 molecules. CLR-Fc fusion proteins display the CRD in a dimeric form, are properly glycosylated, and can be detected by a secondary antibody with a conjugated fluorophore. Thus, they are valuable tools for high-throughput screening. We were able to identify novel carbohydrate binders of CLRs using the glycan array technology. These CLR-binding carbohydrates were then covalently attached to the model antigen ovalbumin. The ovalbumin neoglycoconjugates were used in a dendritic cell/T cell co-culture assay to stimulate transgenic T cells in vitro. In addition, mice were immunized with these conjugates to analyze the immune modulatory properties of the CLR ligands in vivo. The CLR ligands induced an increased Th1 cytokine production in vitro and modulated the humoral response in vivo. The platform described here allows for the identification of CLR ligands, as well as the evaluation of each ligand's cell-specific targeting and immune modulatory properties.

  2. Carbohydrate-protein interactions and their biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-04-01

    Carbohydrate recognition is clearly present throughout nature, playing a major role in the initial attachment of one biological entity to another. The important question is whether these prevalent interactions could provide a real suitable alternative to the use of antibodies or nucleic acid for detection and identification. Currently, examples of carbohydrates being employed in biological detection systems are limited. The challenges of using carbohydrate recognition for detection mainly come from the weak affinity of carbohydrate-protein interactions, the lack of versatile carbohydrate scaffolds with well-defined structures, and the less developed high-information-content, real-time, and label-free assay technology. In this review, we focus on discussing the characteristics of carbohydrate-protein interactions in nature and the methods for carbohydrate immobilization based on surface coupling chemistry in terms of their general applicability for developing carbohydrate- and lectin-based label-free sensors. Furthermore, examples of innovative design of multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions for sensor applications are given. We limit our review to show the feasibility of carbohydrate and lectin as recognition elements for label-free sensor development in several representative cases to formulate a flexible platform for their use as recognition elements for real-world biosensor applications.

  3. NMR structure analysis of uniformly 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Carolina; Kovacs, Helena; Widmalm, Göran

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a set of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, some of them commonly used in the study of (13)C-labeled proteins and/or nucleic acids, is applied for the structure determination of uniformly (13)C-enriched carbohydrates. Two model substances were employed: one compound of low molecular weight [(UL-(13)C)-sucrose, 342 Da] and one compound of medium molecular weight ((13)C-enriched O-antigenic polysaccharide isolated from Escherichia coli O142, ~10 kDa). The first step in this approach involves the assignment of the carbon resonances in each monosaccharide spin system using the anomeric carbon signal as the starting point. The (13)C resonances are traced using (13)C-(13)C correlations from homonuclear experiments, such as (H)CC-CT-COSY, (H)CC-NOESY, CC-CT-TOCSY and/or virtually decoupled (H)CC-TOCSY. Based on the assignment of the (13)C resonances, the (1)H chemical shifts are derived in a straightforward manner using one-bond (1)H-(13)C correlations from heteronuclear experiments (HC-CT-HSQC). In order to avoid the (1) J CC splitting of the (13)C resonances and to improve the resolution, either constant-time (CT) in the indirect dimension or virtual decoupling in the direct dimension were used. The monosaccharide sequence and linkage positions in oligosaccharides were determined using either (13)C or (1)H detected experiments, namely CC-CT-COSY, band-selective (H)CC-TOCSY, HC-CT-HSQC-NOESY or long-range HC-CT-HSQC. However, due to the short T2 relaxation time associated with larger polysaccharides, the sequential information in the O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O142 could only be elucidated using the (1)H-detected experiments. Exchanging protons of hydroxyl groups and N-acetyl amides in the (13)C-enriched polysaccharide were assigned by using HC-H2BC spectra. The assignment of the N-acetyl groups with (15)N at natural abundance was completed by using HN-SOFAST-HMQC, HNCA, HNCO and (13)C-detected (H)CACO spectra.

  4. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker

    2014-05-01

    There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise.

  5. Reconstituted B cell receptor signaling reveals carbohydrate-dependent mode of activation

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Rina F.; Patel, Jinal; Weaver, Grant C.; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Wheatley, Adam K.; Yassine, Hadi M.; Costello, Catherine E.; Chandler, Kevin B.; McTamney, Patrick. M.; Nabel, Gary J.; McDermott, Adrian B.; Mascola, John R.; Carr, Steven A.; Lingwood, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Activation of immune cells (but not B cells) with lectins is widely known. We used the structurally defined interaction between influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and its cell surface receptor sialic acid (SA) to identify a B cell receptor (BCR) activation modality that proceeded through non-cognate interactions with antigen. Using a new approach to reconstitute antigen-receptor interactions in a human reporter B cell line, we found that sequence-defined BCRs from the human germline repertoire could be triggered by both complementarity to influenza HA and a separate mode of signaling that relied on multivalent ligation of BCR sialyl-oligosaccharide. The latter suggested a new mechanism for priming naïve B cell responses and manifested as the induction of SA-dependent pan-activation by peripheral blood B cells. BCR crosslinking in the absence of complementarity is a superantigen effect induced by some microbial products to subvert production of antigen-specific immune responses. B cell superantigen activity through affinity for BCR carbohydrate is discussed. PMID:27796362

  6. Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

  7. Demonstration of a surface antigen of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by use of immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, F; Robreau, G; Talbot, F; Malcoste, R

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, prepared against whole cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, recognized a surface antigen extracted by heat treatment or by hot phenol-water treatment. This antigen, after analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, has been shown to present a regularly-spaced ladder pattern similar to those shown by the lipopolysaccharide of many gram-negative bacteria. The proteinase K has been shown to have no effect on the recognition of this epitope by the monoclonal antibody. On the contrary, the inhibition of the antigen reactivity to the monoclonal antibody after a mild periodate oxidation suggests the involvement of a carbohydrate moiety in the epitope. Moreover, the SDS-PAGE analysis of phenol-water extracts has shown an additional compound, detected by silver staining but not recognized by the monoclonal antibody.

  8. Differences in carcinoembryonic antigen levels between colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunlong; Xuan, Weibo; Chen, Chunlin; Chen, Zhe; Yang, Ziyi; Zuo, Yunfei; Ren, Shuangyi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of the serum tumor biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with carcinoma of the colon and rectum in different clinical stages. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer worldwide and previous studies have reported rapidly updated therapeutic regimes. While the majority of studies focus on CRC as a single entity, certain studies distinguish colon cancer (CC) from rectal cancer (RC), as there is a hypothesis stating that CC and RC are two naturally different entities. CEA is reported to be an important tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in CRC, which is routinely detected as a significant indicator of CRC. Our study aimed to identify potential differences in the expression of CEA between CC and RC, which may, to some degree, reflect the natural differences between the two. We investigated 240 CRC cases between July, 2010 and December, 2012 from The First and Second Affiliated Hospitals of Dalian Medical University, including 117 CC and 123 RC patients with tumors classified by Duke's staging as A-D. The serum CEA level was measured preoperatively by radioimmunoassays as a routinely used auxiliary indicator. The expression of CEA differed between CC and RC, with the former exhibiting variation among the four stages, whereas no variation was observed in RC. In addition, there were differences between CC and RC regarding the CEA level in stage C and D. Furthermore, the CEA level in stage C of CC was significantly lower compared to that in any other stage. In conclusion, the intrinsic distribution of the CEA level between CC and RC suggests that CC and RC may be two naturally different entities; the significantly low CEA level in stage C of CC indicates that stage C may be crucial in the evolution of CC.

  9. Antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Prucca, Cesar G; Lujan, Hugo D

    2009-12-01

    Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation, both in vitro and within the intestines of infected individuals. Variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) cover the entire surface of the trophozoites and are the main antigens recognized by the host. Only 1 of about 200 VSP genes encoded by the Giardia genome is expressed on the surface of individual Giardia cells at any time; however, VSP antigen switching occurs spontaneously. In the recent year, significant advances in the knowledge of the antigen switching process have been achieved, which strongly suggests that antigenic variation in Giardia is regulated at the post-transcriptional level by a mechanism similar to RNA interference (RNAi). Several enzymes of the RNAi pathway are directly involved in VSP mRNA silencing and/or translational repression. Although several questions remain regarding how individual VSP antigens are selected for expression on the parasite surface, it is clear that an epigenetic mechanism is involved. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of this fascinating mechanism, analyse conflicting information regarding the structure of VSPs as it relates to the host's immune response, and highlight the major issues that need to be resolved to fully understand antigenic variation in this important pathogen.

  10. Serospecific antigens of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S; Iyer, S; Johnson, W; Montgomery, R

    1986-01-01

    Serospecific antigens isolated by EDTA extraction from four serogroups of Legionella pneumophila were analyzed for their chemical composition, molecular heterogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunological properties. The antigens were shown to be lipopolysaccharides and to differ from the lipopolysaccharides of other gram-negative bacteria. The serospecific antigens contained rhamnose, mannose, glucosamine, and two unidentified sugars together with 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, phosphate, and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition was predominantly branched-chain acids with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxymyristic acid. The antigens contain periodate-sensitive groups; mannosyl residues were completely cleaved by periodate oxidation. Hydrolysis of the total lipopolysaccharide by acetic acid resulted in the separation of a lipid A-like material that cross-reacted with the antiserum to lipid A from Salmonella minnesota but did not comigrate with it on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. None of the four antigens contained heptose. All of the antigen preparations showed endotoxicity when tested by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The results of this study indicate that the serogroup-specific antigens of L. pneumophila are lipopolysaccharides containing an unusual lipid A and core structure and different from those of other gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:3017918

  11. K99 surface antigen of Escherichia coli: antigenic characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, R E

    1978-01-01

    K99 prepared by acid precipitation hemagglutinated guinea pig erythrocytes, whereas K99 prepared by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex did not. K99 purified by either procedure hemagglutinated horse erythrocytes. K99 prepared by acid precipitation contained a second antigen not presnet in the K99 prepared by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex. This antigen could be detected by immunoprecipitation with some, but not all, sera prepared against K99-positive Escherichia coli strains. It was assumed that this second antigen is not K99 and is responsible for the guinea pig erythrocyte hemagglutination reaction. Furthermore, the second antigen has an isoelectric point of 4.2, which has been reported by Morris and co-workers to be the isoelectric point of K99. Images PMID:83300

  12. [Malabsorption of carbohydrates in children (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; Escobar, H; Polanco, I; Codoceo, R; Vitoria, J C

    1975-01-01

    Physiological bases of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are reviewed, as a preliminary step, in order to draw a general scheme of its patholophysiology. Clasification of different types of carbohydrate malabsorption is presented. Various exploration methods are discussed in terms of autors' own experiences. Relationship between a sugar screening test, faecal lactic acid contents and a simplified lactose tolerance test, is described in detail. Systematic diagnoses of these diseases are established. Different clinical pictures are reviewed. It is not yet well defined if a starch malabsorption can be caused by either a primary or secondary duodenal amylase deficiency. The clinical forms of congenital sucrose-isomaltose intolerance may be more attenuated than its classical form; incertain cases, secondary sucrose intolerance may also be present due to mucosa anatomic lesions. Maltose malabsorption has no clinical implications. As compared to other alpha-glycosidades, the trehalase activity has been not more affected by not using trehalose in feeding. Primary congenital lactase deficiency is not frequent, whereas secondary forms as much more usual and appear, in primary malabsorption syndromes and in the coeliac disease, very often along with clinical tolerance to lactose. In Spain, lactose nonabsorbers in 16.5% for adults 11.2% for adolescents and 18.3% for children, meaning, that it is being favored by environmental factors in the latter. The unspecified sugar malabsorption during the child's first year is still the most frequent cause of carbohydrate intolerance in children and, although certain progress has been achieved in its diagnosis and therapy, its pathogenic mechanism is not satisfactorily known yet.

  13. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  14. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  15. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  16. Antigen-receptor gene-modified T cells for treatment of glioma.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Immunological effector cells and molecules have been shown to access intracranial tumor sites despite the existence of blood brain barrier (BBB) or immunosuppressive mechanisms associated with brain tumors. Recent progress in T-cell biology and tumor immunology made possible to develop strategies of tumor-associated antigen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches such as vaccination with defined antigens and adoptive T-cell therapy with antigen-specific T cells including gene-modified T cells for the treatment of patients with brain tumors. An array of recent reports on the trials of active and passive immunotherapy for patients with brain tumors have documented safety and some preliminary clinical efficacy, although the ultimate judgment for clinical benefits awaits rigorous evaluation in trials of later phases. Nevertheless, treatment with lymphocytes that are engineered to express tumor-specific receptor genes is a promising immunotherapy against glioma, based on the significant efficacy reported in the trials for patients with other types of malignancy. Overcoming the relative difficulty to apply immunotherapeutic approach to intracranial region, current advances in the understanding of human tumor immunology and the gene-therapy methodology will address the development of effective immunotherapy of brain tumors.

  17. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells: a novel therapy for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengnan; Li, Anping; Liu, Qian; Li, Tengfei; Yuan, Xun; Han, Xinwei; Wu, Kongming

    2017-03-29

    The chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a newly developed adoptive antitumor treatment. Theoretically, CAR-T cells can specifically localize and eliminate tumor cells by interacting with the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) expressing on tumor cell surface. Current studies demonstrated that various TAAs could act as target antigens for CAR-T cells, for instance, the type III variant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) was considered as an ideal target for its aberrant expression on the cell surface of several tumor types. CAR-T cell therapy has achieved gratifying breakthrough in hematological malignancies and promising outcome in solid tumor as showed in various clinical trials. The third generation of CAR-T demonstrates increased antitumor cytotoxicity and persistence through modification of CAR structure. In this review, we summarized the preclinical and clinical progress of CAR-T cells targeting EGFR, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and mesothelin (MSLN), as well as the challenges for CAR-T cell therapy.

  18. Structure-function relations of carbohydrates by neoglycolipid arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang-Liang; Huang, Hua-Liang; Zhang, Hou-Cheng; Wang, Peng-George

    2006-06-01

    The work presented herein is a new noncovalent glycoarray assembly method for microplates created by simply mixing together a carbohydrate and a tetradecylamine. alpha-D-Mannopyranoside, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and alpha-D-galactopyranoside were utilized in model studies and product formations were detected by lectin binding. The method can be extended to study the steric hindrance effect of carbohydrate-protein interactions, namely the structure-function relations of carbohydrates.

  19. Chemical and biological properties of extracellular slime produced by Staphylococcus aureus grown in high-carbohydrate, high-salt medium.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Reiter, B

    1976-01-01

    Slime material produced by three strains of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the high-carbohydrate, high-salt modified 110 medium contained ribitol teichoic acid and, in two of the three strains, a basic protein reacting with antisera to S. aureus whole cells and cell walls. The basic protein differed chemically and serologically from cell wall mucopeptide and protein A. Substances resembling the capsular antigen of the Smith diffuse strain of S. aureus were not detected, nor were any other uronic acid-containing components. When cell walls, slime material, and teichoic acid were injected intradermally into cows, only cell walls produced a skin reaction. Images PMID:1270128

  20. Carbohydrate Recognition by Boronolectins, Small Molecules, and Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Cheng, Yunfeng; Reid, Suazette; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrates are known to mediate a large number of biological and pathological events. Small and macromolecules capable of carbohydrate recognition have great potentials as research tools, diagnostics, vectors for targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents, and therapeutic agents. However, this potential is far from being realized. One key issue is the difficulty in the development of “binders” capable of specific recognition of carbohydrates of biological relevance. This review discusses systematically the general approaches that are available in developing carbohydrate sensors and “binders/receptors,” and their applications. The focus is on discoveries during the last five years. PMID:19291708