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Sample records for antihydrogen formation dynamics

  1. Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    Antihydrogen production in a neutral atom trap formed by an octupole-based magnetic field minimum is demonstrated using field-ionization of weakly bound anti-atoms. Using our unique annihilation imaging detector, we correlate antihydrogen detection by imaging and by field-ionization for the first time. We further establish how field-ionization causes radial redistribution of the antiprotons during antihydrogen formation and use this effect for the first simultaneous measurements of strongly and weakly bound antihydrogen atoms. Distinguishing between these provides critical information needed in the process of optimizing for trappable antihydrogen. These observations are of crucial importance to the ultimate goal of performing CPT tests involving antihydrogen, which likely depends upon trapping the anti-atom.

  2. Formation of low-energy antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; ATHENA Collaboration

    1999-03-01

    Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. The author describes plans to trap antiprotons and positrons in a combined Penning trap and to form a significant number of cold antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen.

  3. Antihydrogen formation in laser-assisted positron-antiproton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Min; Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhou, Zi-Fang; Chen, Ji; Liu, Yao-Yang

    1998-09-01

    Antihydrogen formation in the laser-assisted positron-antiproton (nonrelativistic) radiative recombination is investigated. The state of incident positron is given by the Coulomb-Volkov wave function. The perturbative dressed wave function of the atom is obtained in the soft-photon approximation. Our calculation shows that for a geometry of laser polarization parallel to the incident direction, the formation cross section of antihydrogen is greatly reduced. Especially at high impact energy, the reduction is remarkable.

  4. Formation of Antihydrogen Rydberg atoms in strong magnetic field traps

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.

    2008-08-08

    It is shown that several features of antihydrogen production in nested Penning traps can be described with accurate and efficient Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that cold deeply-bound Rydberg states of antihydrogen (H-bar) are produced in three-body capture in the ATRAP experiments and an additional formation mechanism -Rydberg charge transfer-, particular to the nested Penning trap geometry, is responsible for the observed fast (hot) H-bar atoms. Detailed description of the numerical propagation technique for following extreme close encounters is given. An analytic derivation of the power law behavior of the field ionization spectrum is provided.

  5. Formation Of A Cold Antihydrogen Beam in AEGIS For Gravity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Testera, G.; Carraro, C.; Lagomarsino, V.; Manuzio, G.; Zavatarelli, S.; Belov, A. S.; Gninenko, S. N.; Matveev, V. A.; Bonomi, G.; Fontana, A.; Rotondi, A.; Zenoni, A.; Boscolo, I.; Brambilla, N.; Castelli, F.; Cialdi, S.; Formaro, L.; Gervasini, A.; Giammarchi, M. G.; Vairo, A.

    2008-08-08

    The formation of the antihydrogen beam in the AEGIS experiment through the use of inhomogeneous electric fields is discussed and simulation results including the geometry of the apparatus and realistic hypothesis about the antihydrogen initial conditions are shown. The resulting velocity distribution matches the requirements of the gravity experiment. In particular it is shown that the inhomogeneous electric fields provide radial cooling of the beam during the acceleration.

  6. Antihydrogen formation by autoresonant excitation of antiproton plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, William Alan; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bowe, P. D.; Carpenter, P. T.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S. F.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Werf, D. P. van der; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    In efforts to trap antihydrogen, a key problem is the vast disparity between the neutral trap energy scale (˜ 50 \\upmueV), and the energy scales associated with plasma confinement and space charge ( 1 eV). In order to merge charged particle species for direct recombination, the larger energy scale must be overcome in a manner that minimizes the initial antihydrogen kinetic energy. This issue motivated the development of a novel injection technique utilizing the inherent nonlinear nature of particle oscillations in our traps. We demonstrated controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm or tenuous plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination. The nature of this injection overcomes some of the difficulties associated with matching the energies of the charged species used to produce antihydrogen.

  7. Antihydrogen formation by autoresonant excitation of antiproton plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, William Alan; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bowe, P. D.; Carpenter, P. T.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S. F.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Werf, D. P. van der; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In efforts to trap antihydrogen, a key problem is the vast disparity between the neutral trap energy scale (˜ 50 \\upmueV), and the energy scales associated with plasma confinement and space charge ( 1 eV). In order to merge charged particle species for direct recombination, the larger energy scale must be overcome in a manner that minimizes the initial antihydrogen kinetic energy. This issue motivated the development of a novel injection technique utilizing the inherent nonlinear nature of particle oscillations in our traps. We demonstrated controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm or tenuous plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination. The nature of this injection overcomes some of the difficulties associated with matching the energies of the charged species used to produce antihydrogen.

  8. Antihydrogen formation in collisions of positronium with antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humberston, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Antihydrogen, consisting of a positron orbiting around an antiproton, is the simplest few body system consisting entirely of antimatter and as such is of considerable importance in providing additional tests of the validity of charge conjugation invariance. In addition, the nature of the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter might more readily be investigated for an electrically neutral system than one which is charged. Before such studies can be undertaken the antihydrogen must, of course, be produced by attachment of a positron to an antipositron. Several production mechanisms have been proposed, the two most favored of which are radiative capture (spontaneous or stimulated) and charge exchange in positronium-antiproton collisions. The cross section for radiative capture is very much less than that for charge exchange, so that it might be thought that the latter process is greatly to be preferred. Various calculations of the cross section for the charge exchange process are briefly reviewed.

  9. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  10. Antiparticle plasmas for antihydrogen trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, M.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2012-05-01

    Over the last decades it has become routine to form beams of positrons and antiprotons and to use them to produce trapped samples of both species for a variety of purposes. Positrons can be captured efficiently, for instance using a buffer-gas system, and in such quantities to form dense, single component plasmas useful for antihydrogen formation. The latter is possible using developments of techniques for dynamically capturing and then cooling antiprotons ejected from the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN. The antiprotons can then be manipulated by cloud compression and evaporative cooling to form tailored plasmas. We will review recent advances that have allowed antihydrogen atoms to be confined for the first time in a shallow magnetic minimum neutral atom trap superimposed upon the region in which the antiparticles are held and mixed. A new mixing technique has been developed to help achieve this using autoresonant excitation of the centreofmass longitudinal motion of an antiproton cloud. This allows efficient antihydrogen formation without imparting excess energy to the antiprotons and helps enhance the probability of trapping the anti-atom.

  11. Trapped antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, E.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kemp, S. L.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif el Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ˜1 T (˜0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be `born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released—the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  12. Trapped antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, E.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kemp, S. L.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif el Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ˜1 T (˜0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be `born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released—the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  13. Antihydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzini, Evandro Lodi; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola

    2008-08-08

    Antihydrogen production in ATHENA is analyzed more carefully. The most important peculiarities of the different experimental situations are discussed. The protonium production via the first matter-antimatter chemical reaction is commented too.

  14. Trapped antihydrogen.

    PubMed

    Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; el Nasr, S Seif; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-12-02

    Antimatter was first predicted in 1931, by Dirac. Work with high-energy antiparticles is now commonplace, and anti-electrons are used regularly in the medical technique of positron emission tomography scanning. Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, has been produced at low energies at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) since 2002. Antihydrogen is of interest for use in a precision test of nature's fundamental symmetries. The charge conjugation/parity/time reversal (CPT) theorem, a crucial part of the foundation of the standard model of elementary particles and interactions, demands that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Given the current experimental precision of measurements on the hydrogen atom (about two parts in 10(14) for the frequency of the 1s-to-2s transition), subjecting antihydrogen to rigorous spectroscopic examination would constitute a compelling, model-independent test of CPT. Antihydrogen could also be used to study the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. However, so far experiments have produced antihydrogen that is not confined, precluding detailed study of its structure. Here we demonstrate trapping of antihydrogen atoms. From the interaction of about 10(7) antiprotons and 7 × 10(8) positrons, we observed 38 annihilation events consistent with the controlled release of trapped antihydrogen from our magnetic trap; the measured background is 1.4 ± 1.4 events. This result opens the door to precision measurements on anti-atoms, which can soon be subjected to the same techniques as developed for hydrogen.

  15. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, M.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Van Der Werf, D. P.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed. Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed.

  16. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant

  17. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant

  18. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L. V.; Andresen, G.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2008-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  19. Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M. C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Cesar, C. L.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2011-12-01

    ALPHA is an experiment at CERN, whose ultimate goal is to perform a precise test of CPT symmetry with trapped antihydrogen atoms. After reviewing the motivations, we discuss our recent progress toward the initial goal of stable trapping of antihydrogen, with some emphasis on particle detection techniques.

  20. The Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, N.; Andresen, G.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-03-01

    ALPHA is a new experiment at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The short term goal of ALPHA is trapping of cold antihydrogen, with the long term goal of conducting precise spectroscopic comparisons of hydrogen and antihydrogen. Here we present the current status of ALPHA and the physics considerations and results leading to its design as well as recent progress towards trapping.

  1. Physics with antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, W. A.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.

    2014-12-01

    Performing measurements of the properties of antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, and comparing the results with those for ordinary hydrogen, has long been seen as a route to test some of the fundamental principles of physics. There has been much experimental progress in this direction in recent years, and antihydrogen is now routinely created and trapped and a range of exciting measurements probing the foundations of modern physics are planned or underway. In this contribution we review the techniques developed to facilitate the capture and manipulation of positrons and antiprotons, along with procedures to bring them together to create antihydrogen. Once formed, the antihydrogen has been detected by its destruction via annihilation or field ionization, and aspects of the methodologies involved are summarized. Magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been employed to allow some of the antihydrogen created to be held for considerable periods. We describe such devices, and their implementation, along with the cusp magnetic trap used to produce the first evidence for a low-energy beam of antihydrogen. The experiments performed to date on antihydrogen are discussed, including the first observation of a resonant quantum transition and the analyses that have yielded a limit on the electrical neutrality of the anti-atom and placed crude bounds on its gravitational behaviour. Our review concludes with an outlook, including the new ELENA extension to the antiproton decelerator facility at CERN, together with summaries of how we envisage the major threads of antihydrogen physics will progress in the coming years.

  2. Physics with antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, W. A.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Performing measurements of the properties of antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, and comparing the results with those for ordinary hydrogen, has long been seen as a route to test some of the fundamental principles of physics. There has been much experimental progress in this direction in recent years, and antihydrogen is now routinely created and trapped and a range of exciting measurements probing the foundations of modern physics are planned or underway. In this contribution we review the techniques developed to facilitate the capture and manipulation of positrons and antiprotons, along with procedures to bring them together to create antihydrogen. Once formed, the antihydrogen has been detected by its destruction via annihilation or field ionization, and aspects of the methodologies involved are summarized. Magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been employed to allow some of the antihydrogen created to be held for considerable periods. We describe such devices, and their implementation, along with the cusp magnetic trap used to produce the first evidence for a low-energy beam of antihydrogen. The experiments performed to date on antihydrogen are discussed, including the first observation of a resonant quantum transition and the analyses that have yielded a limit on the electrical neutrality of the anti-atom and placed crude bounds on its gravitational behaviour. Our review concludes with an outlook, including the new ELENA extension to the antiproton decelerator facility at CERN, together with summaries of how we envisage the major threads of antihydrogen physics will progress in the coming years.

  3. Search for trapped antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ∼30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10 7 antiprotons with 1.3×10 positrons to produce 6×10 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consistent with the release of trapped antihydrogen. The cosmic ray background, estimated to contribute 0.14 counts, is incompatible with this observation at a significance of 5.6 sigma. Extensive simulations predict that an alternative source of annihilations, the escape of mirror-trapped antiprotons, is highly unlikely, though this possibility has not yet been ruled out experimentally.

  4. Antihydrogen studies in ALPHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, N.; ALPHA Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The ALPHA experiment studies antihydrogen as a means to investigate the symmetry of matter and antimatter. Spectroscopic studies of the anti-atom hold the promise of the most precise direct comparisons of matter and antimatter possible. ALPHA was the first to trap antihydrogen in a magnetic trap, allowing the first ever detection of atomic transitions in an anti-atom. More recently, through stochastic heating, we have also been able to put a new limit on the charge neutrality of antihydrogen. ALPHA is currently preparing to perform the first laser-spectroscopy of antihydrogen, hoping to excite the 2s state using a two-photon transition from the 1s state. We discuss the recent results as well as the key developments that led to these successes and discuss how we are preparing to perform the first laser-spectroscopy. We will also discuss plans to use our novel technique for gravitational tests on antihydrogen for a direct measurement of the sign of the gravitational force on antihydrogen.

  5. Antihydrogen on tap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Plentiful quantities of antihydrogen, the bound state system of the antiparticles the positron and the antiproton, have recently been made under very controlled conditions in experiments at the European Laboratory of Particle Physics (CERN) near Geneva. In this article I describe how that was done, and why.

  6. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Escallier, J.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Isaac, C. A.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Marone, A.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Parker, B.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seddon, D.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  7. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

    1998-01-01

    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

  8. ANTIHYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND PRECISION SPECTROSCOPY WITH ATHENA/AD-1

    SciTech Connect

    M. HOLZSCHEITER; C. AMSLER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    CPT invariance is a fundamental property of quantum field theories in flat space-time. Principal consequences include the predictions that particles and their antiparticles have equal masses and lifetimes, and equal and opposite electric charges and magnetic moments. It also follows that the fine structure, hyperfine structure, and Lamb shifts of matter and antimatter bound systems should be identical. It is proposed to generate new stringent tests of CPT using precision spectroscopy on antihydrogen atoms. An experiment to produce antihydrogen at rest has been approved for running at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. We describe the fundamental features of this experiment and the experimental approach to the first phase of the program, the formation and identification of low energy antihydrogen.

  9. Measuring the antihydrogen Lamb shift with a relativistic antihydrogen beam

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, G.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mandelkern, M.; Schultz, J.; Takei, G.; Zioulas, G.; Christian, D.C.; Munger, C.T.

    1998-06-01

    We propose an experiment to measure the Lamb shift and fine structure (the intervals 2s{sub 1/2}{minus}2p{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 1/2}{minus}2p{sub 3/2}) in antihydrogen. A sample of 10000 antihydrogen atoms at a momentum of 8.85GeV/c suffices to measure the Lamb shift to 5{percent} and the fine structure to 1{percent}. Atomic collisions excite antihydrogen atoms to states with n=2; field ionization in a Lorentz-transformed laboratory magnetic field then prepares a particular n=2 state, and is used again to analyze that state after it is allowed to oscillate in a region of zero field. This experiment is feasible at Fermilab. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trapped Antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani Ashkezari, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Theory predicts that, under CPTfootnotetextCharge conjugation, Parity inversion, and Time reversal. symmetry, the laws of physics make no distinction between matter and anti-matter. We have every reason to believe that equal amounts of both were produced in the early universe, following the Big Bang. However, our observable universe is overwhelmingly made up of matter. ALPHA is an international project located at CERN and involves ˜30 physicists from 15 different institutions. The primary goal of the collaboration is to investigate this gaping discrepancy between theoretical expectations and reality by precise comparison of matter and anti-matter, in particular hydrogen and antihydrogen. A critical milestone was reported in November 2010, the first-ever stable and reproducible magnetic confinement of neutral antihydrogen atoms. Shortly after, in June 2011, ALPHA announced the long-time (1000 s) trapping of antihydrogen, opening the door to precision spectroscopy. In March 2012, the first proof-of-principle spectroscopic measurement performed on trapped antihydrogen atoms using microwave radiationfootnotetextC. Amole, et al., (ALPHA collaboration), Nature 483, 439 (2012).. Detailed aspects of this measurement is presented in this talk.

  11. GBAR. Gravitational behavior of antihydrogen at rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debu, Pascal

    2012-12-01

    The GBAR project aims to perform the first test of the Equivalence Principle with antimatter by measuring the free fall of ultra-cold antihydrogen atoms. The objective is to measure the gravitational acceleration to better than a percent in a first stage, with a long term perspective to reach a much higher precision using gravitational quantum states of antihydrogen. The production of 20 μK atoms proceeds via sympathetic cooling of overline{H^+} ions by Be + ions. overline{H^+} ions are produced via a two-step process, involving the interaction of bursts of 107 slow antiprotons from the AD (or ELENA upgrade) at CERN with a dense positronium cloud. In order to produce enough positronium, it is necessary to realize an intense source of slow positrons, a few 108 per second. This is done with a small electron linear accelerator. A few 1010 positrons are accumulated every cycle in a Penning-Malmberg trap before they are ejected onto a positron-to-positronium converter. The overall scheme of the experiment is described and the status of the installation of the prototype positron source at Saclay is shown. The accumulation scheme of positrons is given, and positronium formation results are presented. The estimated performance and efficiency of the various steps of the experiment are given.

  12. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  13. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  14. Collaborative Research: Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Plasma Physics of Antihydrogen Generation and Trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2013-03-29

    Ever since Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter in 1928, it has excited our collective imagination. Seventy-four years later, two collaborations at CERN, ATHENA and ATRAP, created the first slow antihydrogen. This was a stunning achievement, but the most important antimatter experiments require trapped, not just slow, antihydrogen. The velocity, magnetic moment, and internal energy and state of the antihydrogen depend strongly on how it is formed. To trap antihydrogen, physicists face two broad challenges: (1) Understanding the behavior of the positron and antiprotons plasmas from which the antihydrogen is synthesized; and (2) Understanding the atomic processes by which positrons and antiprotons recombine. Recombination lies on the boundary between atomic and plasma physics, and cannot be studied properly without employing tools from both fields. The proposed collaborative research campaign will address both of these challenges. The collaboration members have unique experience in the relevant fields of experimental and theoretical non-neutral plasma physics, numerical modeling, nonlinear dynamics and atomic physics. This expertise is not found elsewhere amongst antihydrogen researchers. The collaboration members have strong ties already, and seek to formalize them with this proposal. Three of the four PIs are members of the ALPHA collaboration, an international collaboration formed by most of the principal members of the ATHENA collaboration.

  15. Reactive collisions of atomic antihydrogen with the H2 and H2+ molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, James S.

    2006-09-01

    The fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method is used to determine the protonium (Pn) formation and total destruction cross sections for collisions of antihydrogen (\\bar{H}) with the H2 molecule and the H2+ molecular ion at collision energies above 0.1 au in the centre-of-mass system. The cross sections and initial quantum numbers are compared with the analogous cross sections for \\bar{H}+H, \\barp+H, \\barp+H_2 and \\barp+H_2^+ previously calculated. Like the \\barp projectile, the protonium-formation cross sections for the \\bar{H} projectile are much larger and extend to higher energies with the molecular targets than with the atomic target. The possibility is considered that a relatively long-lived state of the \\bar{H}H molecule may be formed in rearrangement scattering of \\bar{H}+H_2 at low energies.

  16. Single particle motion and gravitational measurements in magnetostatic antihydrogen traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmoginov, Andrey; Wurtele, Jonathan; Fajans, Joel; Charman, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Recent progress in antihydrogen trapping [1-3] marks the beginning of physics measurements on neutral antimatter. One of the goals of such experiments is the observation of gravitational interaction of antimatter with matter. New methods for such measurements have been proposed, based on the statistical analysis of the temporal and spatial pattern of antihydrogen annihilations during slow (compared to bounce times) shutdowns of the mirror and octupole magnets that comprise the magnetic trap. These techniques require a thorough understanding of nonlinear dynamics of antihydrogen in magnetic traps. We apply a Hamiltonian perturbation theory to this system, analyze phase space dynamics and classify single particle orbits. The role of the stochasticity, and the Arnold diffusion accompanying it, on the accuracy of gravitational measurements is discussed. The analytical results are verified numerically, different approaches to slow particle release are compared, and implications for laser-cooling are discussed. [4pt] [1] G. B. Andresen and ALPHA Collaboration, Nature 468, 673 (2010). [2] G. B. Andresen and ALPHA Collaboration, Nature Physics 7, 558 (2011). [3] C. Amole and ALPHA Collaboration, Nature 483, 439 (2012).

  17. Reactive collisions of atomic antihydrogen with H, He+ and He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, James S.

    2006-03-01

    The fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method is used to determine the rearrangement and destruction cross sections for collisions of antihydrogen (\\bar{H}) with H, He+ and He at collision energies above 0.1 au. The results for the H and He+ targets satisfactorily merge with previous calculations done for lower collision energies. Despite the absence of a critical distance, the destruction cross section for collisions of \\bar{H} with He, previously uncalculated, is found to be comparable with the destruction cross sections for \\bar{H} collisions with H and He+. All three cross sections are shown to be given quite reasonably by simple classical orbiting formulae at energies that are very low but still high enough for L > 0 partial waves to be dominant. The cross sections for formation of the antiprotonic atoms (Pn or \\barpHe ) and their initial quantum numbers with the \\bar{H} projectile are found to be significantly different from the analogous cross sections for \\barp projectiles.

  18. Confinement of antihydrogen for 1,000 seconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpha Collaboration; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kemp, S. L.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Atoms made of a particle and an antiparticle are unstable, usually surviving less than a microsecond. Antihydrogen, made entirely of antiparticles, is believed to be stable, and it is this longevity that holds the promise of precision studies of matter-antimatter symmetry. We have recently demonstrated trapping of antihydrogen atoms by releasing them after a confinement time of 172ms. A critical question for future studies is: how long can anti-atoms be trapped? Here, we report the observation of anti-atom confinement for 1,000s, extending our earlier results by nearly four orders of magnitude. Our calculations indicate that most of the trapped anti-atoms reach the ground state. Further, we report the first measurement of the energy distribution of trapped antihydrogen, which, coupled with detailed comparisons with simulations, provides a key tool for the systematic investigation of trapping dynamics. These advances open up a range of experimental possibilities, including precision studies of charge-parity-time reversal symmetry and cooling to temperatures where gravitational effects could become apparent.

  19. Towards antihydrogen trapping and spectroscopy at ALPHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, E.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopy of antihydrogen has the potential to yield high-precision tests of the CPT theorem and shed light on the matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe. The ALPHA antihydrogen trap at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator aims to prepare a sample of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole-based Ioffe trap and to measure the frequency of several atomic transitions. We describe our techniques to directly measure the antiproton temperature and a new technique to cool them to below 10 K. We also show how our unique position-sensitive annihilation detector provides us with a highly sensitive method of identifying antiproton annihilations and effectively rejecting the cosmic-ray background.

  20. Antihydrogen production and precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The study of CPT invariance with the highest achievable precision in all particle sectors is of fundamental importance for physics. Equally important is the question of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. In recent years, impressive progress has been achieved in capturing antiprotons in specially designed Penning traps, in cooling them to energies of a few milli-electron volts, and in storing them for hours in a small volume of space. Positrons have been accumulated in large numbers in similar traps, and low energy positron or positronium beams have been generated. Finally, steady progress has been made in trapping and cooling neutral atoms. Thus the ingredients to form antihydrogen at rest are at hand. Once antihydrogen atoms have been captured at low energy, spectroscopic methods can be applied to interrogate their atomic structure with extremely high precision and compare it to its normal matter counterpart, the hydrogen atom. Especially the 1S-2S transition, with a lifetime of the excited state of 122 msec and thereby a natural linewidth of 5 parts in 10{sup 16}, offers in principle the possibility to directly compare matter and antimatter properties at a level of 1 part in 10{sup 16}.

  1. Physics: Optical transition seen in antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of antimatter systems might cast light on why the Universe is dominated by matter. The observation of a transition in an antihydrogen atom heralds the next wave of high-precision antimatter studies. See Letter p.506

  2. Experimental and computational study of the injection of antiprotons into a positron plasma for antihydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Shields, C. R.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A.; Friedland, L.

    2013-04-01

    One of the goals of synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen is to study the validity of charge-parity-time symmetry through precision spectroscopy on the anti-atoms, but the trapping yield achieved in recent experiments must be significantly improved before this can be realized. Antihydrogen atoms are commonly produced by mixing antiprotons and positrons stored in a nested Penning-Malmberg trap, which was achieved in ALPHA by an autoresonant excitation of the antiprotons, injecting them into the positron plasma. In this work, a hybrid numerical model is developed to simulate antiproton and positron dynamics during the mixing process. The simulation is benchmarked against other numerical and analytic models, as well as experimental measurements. The autoresonant injection scheme and an alternative scheme are compared numerically over a range of plasma parameters which can be reached in current and upcoming antihydrogen experiments, and the latter scheme is seen to offer significant improvement in trapping yield as the number of available antiprotons increases.

  3. Collisional and Radiative Relaxation of Antihydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2007-11-01

    Antihydrogen is produced in high-magnetic-field Penning traps by introducing antiprotons into a pure-positron plasma at cryogenic temperature T.ootnotetextG. Gabrielse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213401 (2002).^,ootnotetextM. Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). In the experimental regime, three-body recombination forms highly-excited atoms which exhibit classical guiding-center drift orbits.ootnotetextM.E. Glinsky and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1279 (1991).^,ootnotetextF. Robicheaux and J.D. Hanson, Phys. Rev. A 69, 010701 (2004). Using energy transition rates obtained from a Monte-Carlo simulation, we track the collisional evolution of a distribution of atoms from binding energies near T to Uc= e^2 (B^2/mec^2)^1/3, where atom dynamics is chaotic. While the flux through the kinetic bottleneck (U = 4 T) is proportional to T-9/2, data suggest that the flux at Uc (at a fixed time) does not scale strongly with T or magnetic field B. At Uc, radiation begins to take over as the principle energy-loss mechanism. Evolution due to radiation is tracked for a typical collisionally-evolved energy distribution to show that a small number of low-angular-momentum atoms radiate to the ground state rapidly, while others drop into slowly-radiating, circular orbits at intermediate energies.

  4. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  5. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.

    2008-05-23

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  6. Dynamics of interfacial pattern formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Jacob, E.; Goldenfeld, N.; Langer, J. S.; Schon, G.

    1983-01-01

    A phenomenological model of dendritic solidification incorporating interfacial kinetics, crystalline anisotropy, and a local approximation for the dynamics of the thermal diffusion field is proposed. The preliminary results are in qualitative agreement with natural dendrite-like pattern formation.

  7. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  8. Rearrangement and annihilation in antihydrogen-atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsell, Svante

    2008-08-08

    I review some results for annihilation and rearrangement processes in low-energy antihydrogen-hydrogen and antihydrogen-helium scattering. For the strong nuclear force results using a {delta}-function potential are compared to a scattering length approach. It is found that the {delta}-function potential does not give correct annihilation cross sections in the case of antihydrogen-helium scattering. Problem associated with the use of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for rearrangement calculations are reviewed.

  9. Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M. C.; Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lai, W.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wasilenko, L.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  10. Dynamic Chemical Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations have just achieved the ability to reproduce the properties of galaxies with the precision that was previously only reserved for semi-analytical models. These simulations are invaluable in determining how galaxies process gas into stars over a Hubble time; however the state of the art resolves an L* halo with on the order of 10^5 resolution elements in volumes extending ~100 Mpc on a side. Our proposal applies the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) simulation code to cosmological renormalization zooms to resolve an L* halo with up to 10^8 resolution elements, which is required to reproduce observations probing the baryonic cycle of accretion, feedback, and gas recycling that are likely central regulators of galaxy growth. Our unique approach directly models the chemical observables of facilities including Hubble and Chandra, using our newly developed Eagle-Network following the time-dependent ionization, chemistry, and cooling of 157 ionic and molecular species. This proposal focuses on understanding the physics in the circumgalactic medium (CGM), including i) the dynamics of the baryon content of L* halos, ii) the probes of the metal census of Milky Way-like galaxies, and iii) the origin of the galaxy bimodality of star-forming and quenched galaxies. We challenge standard models that assume equilibrium with a uniform extra-galactic ionization background by exploring time-dependent radiative transfer from fluctuating active galactic nuclei. Our approach aims to identify major problems with standard interpretations of data from NASA observatories, and seeks to understand the diverse physics ranging from atomic processes setting how gas cools in the intergalactic medium to the rate and duty cycles of supermassive black hole growth at the centers of galaxies. Now is the time to confront the dynamics at the intersection of the CGM and galaxies using cutting-edge theoretical tools to gain insight on the

  11. Synthesis of Cold Antihydrogen in a Cusp Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Kanai, Y.; Mohri, A.; Kuroda, N.; Kim, C. H.; Torii, H. A.; Fujii, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Michishio, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Higaki, H.; Corradini, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2010-12-10

    We report here the first successful synthesis of cold antihydrogen atoms employing a cusp trap, which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and a stack of multiple ring electrodes. This success opens a new path to make a stringent test of the CPT symmetry via high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms.

  12. s-wave elastic scattering of antihydrogen off atomic alkali-metal targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A. S.

    2006-03-15

    We have investigated the s-wave elastic scattering of antihydrogen atoms off atomic alkali-metal targets (Li, Na, K, and Rb) at thermal energies (10{sup -16}-10{sup -4} a.u.) using an atomic orbital expansion technique. The elastic cross sections of these systems at thermal energies are found to be very high compared to H-H and H-He systems. The theoretical models employed in this study are so chosen to consider long-range forces dynamically in the calculation. The mechanism of cooling suggests that Li may be considered to be a good candidate as a buffer gas for enhanced cooling of antihydrogen atoms to ultracold temperature.

  13. Reactive collisions of atomic antihydrogen with H, He^+, He, H2^+, and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, James S.

    2006-05-01

    The fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method has been used to determine the rearrangement and destruction cross sections for collisions of antihydrogen (H) with H, He^+, He, H2^+, and H2 at collision energies above 0.1 au. The results for the H and He^+ targets satisfactorily merge with previous calculations done for lower collision energies. There are no previous calculations for the other targets. Despite the absence of a critical distance, the destruction cross section for collisions of H with He is found to be comparable with the destruction cross sections for H collisions with H and He^+, for which there are critical distances. The three atomic cross sections are shown to be given quite reasonably by simple classical orbiting formulas at energies that are very low but still high enough for L>0 partial waves to be dominant. The cross sections for formation of the antiprotonic atoms (Pn or pHe) and their initial quantum numbers are found to be significantly different from the analogous cross sections for p projectiles. The cross sections for the molecular targets are significantly larger.

  14. De-Excitation of High-Rydberg Antihydrogen in a Strongly Magnetized Pure Positron Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E. M.

    2005-10-01

    The rate at which highly excited atoms relax to deeper binding is found with classical theories and simulations. This rate relates to antihydrogen formation experiments where such atoms are formed in pure-positron, Penning trap plasmas.ootnotetextG.Gabrielse, N.S. Bowden, P. Oxley, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213401 (2002); M. Amoretti, C. Amsler, G. Bonomi, et al., Nature (London) 419, 456 (2002). The analysis concerns atoms that have passed the kinetic bottleneck at binding energy ɛ 4kT.ootnotetextM.E. Glinsky and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1279 (1991). Energy loss caused by collisions between atoms and plasma positrons is calculated in two ways: For close collisions, a molecular dynamics simulation gives the energy loss; for large-impact parameter collisions, theoretical expressions based on Fokker-Planck theory are employed.ootnotetextEric M. Bass and Daniel H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1240 (2004). For a finite magnetic field, the energy loss rate scales as 1/ɛ, just as for infinite field,^2 but with a larger coefficient. A statistical description of energy loss by radiation and Stark mixing will also be discussed.

  15. Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Alves, B. X. R.; Baker, C. J.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carruth, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Cohen, S.; Collister, R.; Eriksson, S.; Evans, A.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Ishida, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Jones, S. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Mathers, M.; Maxwell, D.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Michan, J. M.; Momose, T.; Munich, J. J.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sameed, M.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Stracka, S.; Stutter, G.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, J. E.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    The observation of hyperfine structure in atomic hydrogen by Rabi and co-workers and the measurement of the zero-field ground-state splitting at the level of seven parts in 1013 are important achievements of mid-twentieth-century physics. The work that led to these achievements also provided the first evidence for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, inspired Schwinger’s relativistic theory of quantum electrodynamics and gave rise to the hydrogen maser, which is a critical component of modern navigation, geo-positioning and very-long-baseline interferometry systems. Research at the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN by the ALPHA collaboration extends these enquiries into the antimatter sector. Recently, tools have been developed that enable studies of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen—the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. The goal of such studies is to search for any differences that might exist between this archetypal pair of atoms, and thereby to test the fundamental principles on which quantum field theory is constructed. Magnetic trapping of antihydrogen atoms provides a means of studying them by combining electromagnetic interaction with detection techniques that are unique to antimatter. Here we report the results of a microwave spectroscopy experiment in which we probe the response of antihydrogen over a controlled range of frequencies. The data reveal clear and distinct signatures of two allowed transitions, from which we obtain a direct, magnetic-field-independent measurement of the hyperfine splitting. From a set of trials involving 194 detected atoms, we determine a splitting of 1,420.4 ± 0.5 megahertz, consistent with expectations for atomic hydrogen at the level of four parts in 104. This observation of the detailed behaviour of a quantum transition in an atom of antihydrogen exemplifies tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge-parity-time in antimatter, and the techniques developed here will enable more-precise such tests.

  16. The Dynamics of Latifundia Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhuāngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia. PMID:24376597

  17. Characteristic coupling time between axial and transverse energy modes for anti-hydrogen in magnetostatic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Mike; Fajans, Joel

    2016-10-01

    For upcoming ALPHA collaboration laser spectroscopy and gravity experiments, the nature of the chaotic trajectories of individual antihydrogen atoms trapped in the octupole Ioffe magnetic trap is of importance. Of particular interest for experimental design is the coupling time between the axial and transverse modes of energy for the antihydrogen atoms. Using Monte Carlo simulations of semiclassical dynamics of antihydrogen trajectories, we quantify this characteristic coupling time between axial and transverse modes of energy. There appear to be two classes of trajectories: for orbits whose axial energy is higher than 10% of the total energy, the axial energy varies chaotically on the order of 1-10 seconds, whereas for orbits whose axial energy is around 10% of the total energy, the axial energy remains nearly constant on the order of 1000 seconds or longer. Furthermore, we search through parameter -space to find parameters of the magnetic trap that minimize and maximize this characteristic coupling time. This work was supported by the UC Berkeley Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, the Berkeley Research Computing program, the Department of Energy contract DE-FG02-06ER54904, and the National Science Foundation Grant 1500538-PHY.

  18. Mantle dynamics following supercontinent formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Philip J.

    This thesis presents mantle convection numerical simulations of supercontinent formation. Approximately 300 million years ago, through the large-scale subduction of oceanic sea floor, continental material amalgamated to form the supercontinent Pangea. For 100 million years after its formation, Pangea remained relatively stationary, and subduction of oceanic material featured on its margins. The present-day location of the continents is due to the rifting apart of Pangea, with supercontinent dispersal being characterized by increased volcanic activity linked to the generation of deep mantle plumes. The work presented here investigates the thermal evolution of mantle dynamics (e.g., mantle temperatures and sub-continental plumes) following the formation of a supercontinent. Specifically, continental insulation and continental margin subduction are analyzed. Continental material, as compared to oceanic material, inhibits heat flow from the mantle. Previous numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a stationary supercontinent would elevate sub-continental mantle temperatures due to the effect of continental insulation, leading to the break-up of the continent. By modelling a vigorously convecting mantle that features thermally and mechanically distinct continental and oceanic plates, this study shows the effect of continental insulation on the mantle to be minimal. However, the formation of a supercontinent results in sub-continental plume formation due to the re-positioning of subduction zones to the margins of the continent. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that continental insulation is not a significant factor in producing sub-supercontinent plumes but that subduction patterns control the location and timing of upwelling formation. A theme throughout the thesis is an inquiry into why geodynamic studies would produce different results. Mantle viscosity, Rayleigh number, continental size, continental insulation, and oceanic plate boundary evolution are

  19. Cold antihydrogen: a new frontier in fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Niels

    2010-08-13

    The year 2002 heralded a breakthrough in antimatter research when the first low energy antihydrogen atoms were produced. Antimatter has inspired both science and fiction writers for many years, but detailed studies have until now eluded science. Antimatter is notoriously difficult to study as it does not readily occur in nature, even though our current understanding of the laws of physics have us expecting that it should make up half of the universe. The pursuit of cold antihydrogen is driven by a desire to solve this profound mystery. This paper will motivate the current effort to make cold antihydrogen, explain how antihydrogen is currently made, and how and why we are attempting to trap it. It will also discuss what kind of measurements are planned to gain new insights into the unexplained asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the universe.

  20. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Andresen, G. B.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  1. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Andresen, G. B.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  2. Dynamics of heteromolecular filament formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dear, Alexander J.; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2016-11-01

    The self-assembly of molecular building blocks into linear filaments is a common form of self-organization in nature and underlies the formation of supra-molecular polymers in a variety of contexts, including in both functional and aberrant biology. To date, attention has focused mainly on homomolecular assembly phenomena; however, it has recently become apparent that heteromolecular assemblies can be common, and, for instance, pathological protein filaments such as amyloid aggregates form in vivo in environments supporting copolymerization. Here, we present a general kinetic scheme for heteromolecular filament formation and derive closed-form analytical expressions that describe the dynamics of such systems. Our results reveal the existence of a demixing transition time controlled by the relative rates of depletion of the different aggregating species, after which predominantly homomolecular polymers are formed even when the initial solution is heteromolecular. Furthermore, these results may be applied to the analysis of experimental kinetic data on the aggregation of mixtures of proteins, to determine which fundamental reaction steps occur between unlike proteins, and to provide accurate estimates of their rate constants.

  3. Quantum ballistic experiment on antihydrogen fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. Yu; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Dufour, G.; Reynaud, S.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an approach to measuring gravitational mass of antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) based on interferometry of time distribution of free-fall events of antiatoms. Our method consists of preparing a coherent superposition of quantum states of \\bar{{{H}}} localized near a material surface in the gravitational field of the Earth, and then observing the time distribution of annihilation events after the free-fall of the initially prepared superposition from a given height to a detector plate. We show that the time distribution of interest is mapped to a precisely predictable velocity distribution of the initial wave packet. This approach is combined with production of a coherent superposition of gravitational states by inducing a resonant transition using an oscillating gradient magnetic field. We show that the relative accuracy of measuring the \\bar{{{H}}} atom gravitational mass can be achieved with this approach is 10-4, with 103 antiatoms settled in lowest gravitational states.

  4. Kinetic Theory for Antihydrogen Recombination Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowell, Ronald; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-12-01

    Guiding-center kinetic theory has been developed for antihydrogen recombination experiments, which are conducted with magnetic fields of 3 - 5 T; temperatures of 4 - 10 K; positron densities of 107 - 108 cm-3; and antiproton densities of 104 - 2 × 107 cm-3. Collision operators provide the leading-order correction to weak-coupling theory as the coupling parameter increases. Six collision operators — three Landau analogs and three Balescu-Guernsey-Lenard analogs — are found for particles of unlike charges. One operator is the multiple-species generalization of Dubin's and O'Neil's operator. A stability analysis is performed for counter-streaming positrons and antiprotons occupying a cylindrical region coaxial with an outer conducting cylinder in a constant, axial magnetic field. The finite transverse geometry of the system is included, leading to to a three-dimensional Penrose criterion, which is applied to drifting Maxwellian distributions to obtain the regime of stability as a function of the species' temperature ratio, density ratio and relative mean velocity. Collisional corrections are considered. Terms resulting from collisions between particles of the same species cancel under general assumptions satisfied by both O'Neil's operator and Dubin's and O'Neil's operator. The multiple-species generalization of Dubin's and O'Neil's operator is used for unlike-species collisions to find a collisionally corrected dispersion relation, which is applied to a detailed study of stability properties.

  5. Kinetic Theory for Antihydrogen Recombination Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowell, Ronald; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-10-01

    Guiding-center kinetic theory has been developed for antihydrogen recombination experiments, which are conducted with magnetic fields of 3 - 5 T; temperatures of 4 - 15 K; positron densities of 8 x 10^6 - 3 x 10^8 cm-3; and antiproton densities of 10^4 - 4 x 10^6 cm-3. Collision operators provide the leading-order correction to weak-coupling theory as the coupling parameter increases. Novel collision operators - Landau analogs and Balescu-Guernsey-Lenard analogs - are found for particles of unlike charges. One operator is the multiple-species generalization of Dubin's and O'Neil's operator. A stability analysis is performed for counter-streaming positrons and antiprotons occupying a cylindrical region coaxial with an outer conducting cylinder in a constant, axial, magnetic field. The finite transverse geometry of the system is included, leading to a three-dimensional Penrose criterion, which is applied to drifting Maxwellian distributions to obtain the regime of stability as a function of the species' temperature ratio, density ratio and relative mean velocity. Collisional corrections are considered. Terms resulting from collisions between particles of the same species cancel under general assumptions satisfied by both O'Neil's operator and Dubin's and O'Neil's operator. The multiple-species generalization of Dubin's and O'Neil's operator is found and used for unlike-species collisions to obtain a collisionally corrected dispersion relation, which is applied to a detailed study of stability.

  6. Possible mechanism for enhancing the trapping and cooling of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesar, C. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Zagury, N.

    2009-10-01

    We propose a usage of microwave radiation in a magnetic trap for improving the cooling and trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms which are initially produced in high magnetic moment states. Inducing transitions toward lower magnetic moments near the turning points of the atom in the trap, followed by spontaneous emission, should enhance the number of trappable atoms. We present results of simulations based on a typical experimental condition of the antihydrogen experiments at CERN. This technique should also be applicable to other trapped high magnetic moment Rydberg atoms.

  7. Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, R.; Amoretti, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bowe, P. D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macrì, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Mitchard, D.; Montagna, P.; Posada, L. G. C.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; van der Werf, D. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zurlo, N.

    2007-07-01

    An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5⩽α≲80 ) and densities (1.5×108⩽n≲7×109cm-3) within a short duration (25s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.

  8. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Hayano, R. S.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  9. Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Funakoshi, R.; Hayano, R. S.; Amoretti, M.; Macri, M.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Madsen, N.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Lagomarsino, V.; Manuzio, G.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Joergensen, L. V.; Mitchard, D.; Werf, D. P. van der; Doser, M.

    2007-07-15

    An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5{<=}{alpha} < or approx. 80) and densities (1.5x10{sup 8}{<=}n < or approx. 7x10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) within a short duration (25 s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.

  10. Dynamics of rock varnish formation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of rock varnish from the southwestern United States suggest that the Mn-phase in rock varnish has neither the chemistry nor the crystal structure of birnessite. Rather, the Mn-rich phase is non-crystalline and contains Ba, Ca, Fe, Al, and P. Unknowns concerning the formation of this non-crystalline Mn phase must be resolved before researchers are able to define chemical parameters of rock varnish formation based upon conditions of formation of the Mn phase. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Characterization of a transmission positron/positronium converter for antihydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, T.; Bonomi, G.; Brusa, R. S.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Kellerbauer, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Povolo, L.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Resch, L.; Rienäcker, B.; Robert, J.; Røhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.; Andersen, S. L.; Chevallier, J.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Lyckegaard, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work a characterization study of forward emission from a thin, meso-structured silica positron/positronium (Ps) converter following implantation of positrons in light of possible antihydrogen production is presented. The target consisted of a ∼1 μm thick ultraporous silica film e-gun evaporated onto a 20 nm carbon foil. The Ps formation and emission was studied via Single Shot Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy measurements after implantation of pulses with 3 - 4 ·107 positrons and 10 ns temporal width. The forward emission of implanted positrons and secondary electrons was investigated with a micro-channel plate - phosphor screen assembly, connected either to a CCD camera for imaging of the impinging particles, or to a fast photomultiplier tube to extract information about their time of flight. The maximum Ps formation fraction was estimated to be ∼10%. At least 10% of the positrons implanted with an energy of 3.3 keV are forward-emitted with a scattering angle smaller than 50° and maximum kinetic energy of 1.2 keV. At least 0.1-0.2 secondary electrons per implanted positron were also found to be forward-emitted with a kinetic energy of a few eV. The possible application of this kind of positron/positronium converter for antihydrogen production is discussed.

  12. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  13. An experimental limit on the charge of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Vendeiro, Z.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    The properties of antihydrogen are expected to be identical to those of hydrogen, and any differences would constitute a profound challenge to the fundamental theories of physics. The most commonly discussed antiatom-based tests of these theories are searches for antihydrogen-hydrogen spectral differences (tests of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance) or gravitational differences (tests of the weak equivalence principle). Here we, the ALPHA Collaboration, report a different and somewhat unusual test of CPT and of quantum anomaly cancellation. A retrospective analysis of the influence of electric fields on antihydrogen atoms released from the ALPHA trap finds a mean axial deflection of 4.1±3.4 mm for an average axial electric field of 0.51 V mm-1. Combined with extensive numerical modelling, this measurement leads to a bound on the charge Qe of antihydrogen of Q=(-1.3±1.1±0.4) × 10-8. Here, e is the unit charge, and the errors are from statistics and systematic effects.

  14. The GBAR experiment: gravitational behaviour of antihydrogen at rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, P.; Sacquin, Y.

    2012-09-01

    The recently recommended experiment GBAR is foreseen to run at CERN at the AD/ELENA antiproton source. It aims at performing the first measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter by observing the free-fall of antihydrogen atoms. This requires creating anti-atoms at an unprecedented low energy. The different steps of the experiment and their present status are reviewed.

  15. An experimental limit on the charge of antihydrogen.

    PubMed

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Tharp, T D; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Vendeiro, Z; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I; Charman, A E

    2014-06-03

    The properties of antihydrogen are expected to be identical to those of hydrogen, and any differences would constitute a profound challenge to the fundamental theories of physics. The most commonly discussed antiatom-based tests of these theories are searches for antihydrogen-hydrogen spectral differences (tests of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance) or gravitational differences (tests of the weak equivalence principle). Here we, the ALPHA Collaboration, report a different and somewhat unusual test of CPT and of quantum anomaly cancellation. A retrospective analysis of the influence of electric fields on antihydrogen atoms released from the ALPHA trap finds a mean axial deflection of 4.1 ± 3.4 mm for an average axial electric field of 0.51 V mm(-1). Combined with extensive numerical modelling, this measurement leads to a bound on the charge Qe of antihydrogen of Q=(-1.3 ± 1.1 ± 0.4) × 10(-8). Here, e is the unit charge, and the errors are from statistics and systematic effects.

  16. Antimatter Advances Include Trapped Antihydrogen in Its Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richerme, Phil

    2012-06-01

    Three recent advances in antimatter physics show significant progress towards precision tests of fundamental symmetries. The first and primary focus of this talk is ATRAP's observation of five simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms per trial, confined for long enough to ensure that they are in their ground state.ootnotetextG. Gabrielse et al. (ATRAP Collaboration). Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113002 (2012). Large numbers of simultaneously trapped atoms are crucial if laser cooling and spectroscopy of antihydrogen at high levels of precision are to be achieved. Fundamental to this result is the careful control and characterization of the geometry and temperature of the large-number antiproton and positron plasmas from which antihydrogen is formed, along with enhanced event detection and cosmic ray background rejection techniques. A second advance, by the ALPHA collaboration, is a demonstration that smaller numbers of simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms can be ejected from a magnetic trap when microwaves flip the spin of the atoms.ootnotetextC. Amole et al. (ALPHA Collaboration). Nature 483, 439 (2012). A third advance is a direct measurement of the proton magnetic moment to 2.5 parts per million using a technique that can be directly applied to an antiprotonootnotetextJ. DiSciacca and G. Gabrielse. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153001 (2012). to improve the precision with which the antiproton magnetic moment is measured by a factor of 1000.

  17. An experimental limit on the charge of antihydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Vendeiro, Z.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The properties of antihydrogen are expected to be identical to those of hydrogen, and any differences would constitute a profound challenge to the fundamental theories of physics. The most commonly discussed antiatom-based tests of these theories are searches for antihydrogen-hydrogen spectral differences (tests of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance) or gravitational differences (tests of the weak equivalence principle). Here we, the ALPHA Collaboration, report a different and somewhat unusual test of CPT and of quantum anomaly cancellation. A retrospective analysis of the influence of electric fields on antihydrogen atoms released from the ALPHA trap finds a mean axial deflection of 4.1±3.4 mm for an average axial electric field of 0.51 V mm−1. Combined with extensive numerical modelling, this measurement leads to a bound on the charge Qe of antihydrogen of Q=(−1.3±1.1±0.4) × 10−8. Here, e is the unit charge, and the errors are from statistics and systematic effects. PMID:24892800

  18. The dynamics of city formation*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Venables, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

  19. Experimental and computational study of autoresonant injection of antiprotons into positron plasma in antihydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Chukman; Wurtele, Jonathan; Fajans, Joel; Friedland, Lazar; Bertsche, William

    2012-10-01

    The injection of antiprotons into positron plasma during antihydrogen synthesis in ALPHA is simulated numerically and compared with experimental measurements. The antiprotons and positrons are initially confined in adjacent axial potential wells in a nested Penning-Malmberg trap. The antiproton plasma is excited autoresonantly and partially injected into the adjacent positron plasma, creating antihydrogen. The excitation and injection process is modeled numerically with a hybrid code in which the antiproton plasma responds to the autoresonant drive fully dynamically, and the positrons respond quasi-statically. The strong axial magnetic field suppresses radial transport on the timescales of interest. The antiproton plasma is thus assumed to consist of concentric cylindrical tubes within which antiprotons move only in the axial direction, and the evolution of the phase space distributions in each tube obeys a one-dimensional Vlasov equation. The antiproton self-field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation in two-dimensions, thereby coupling the tubes. Alternative injection schemes and the effect of varying antiproton number and temperature are also examined.

  20. Quantum pattern formation dynamics of photoinduced nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Kunio; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2008-06-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum pattern formation processes in molecular crystals which is concomitant with photoinduced nucleation. Since the nucleation process in coherent regime is driven by the nonadiabatic transition in each molecule followed by the propagation of phonons, it is necessary to take into account the quantum nature of both electrons and phonons in order to pursue the dynamics of the system. Therefore, we employ a model of localized electrons coupled with a quantized phonon mode and solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically. We found that there is a minimal size of clusters of excited molecules which triggers the photoinduced nucleation process; i.e., nucleation does not take place unless sufficient photoexcitation energy is concentrated within a narrow area of the system. We show that this result means that the spatial distribution of photoexcited molecules plays an important role in the nonlinearity of the dynamics and also in the optical properties observed in experiments. We calculate the conversion ratio, the rate of cluster formation, and correlation functions to reveal the dynamical properties of the pattern formation process; the initial dynamics of the photoinduced structural change is discussed from the viewpoint of pattern formation.

  1. Dynamic models of lateritic bauxite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, V. V.; Bogatyrev, B. A.

    2012-09-01

    2D dynamic models of bauxite formation in the weathering mantle covering denudation areas drained by river systems are discussed. The role of relief-forming factors (tectonic uplift, river erosion and denudation of drainage divides), the interrelation of hydrogeological and lithologic structure of the bauxitebearing weathering mantle, and the dynamics of zoning formation above and below groundwater level are described in the models. Creative and destructive epochs of lateritic bauxite formation differing in tectonic regime are distinguished. During the creative epochs, lateritic weathering develops against a background of decreasing denudation and an increase in areas of bauxite formation. The destructive epochs are characterized by intense denudation, cutting down the areas of lateritic bauxite formation and eventually leading to the complete removal of the weathering mantle. Different morphogenetic types and varieties of bauxite-bearing weathering mantles develop during creative and destructive epochs. The morphology of the weathering mantle sections at the deposits of Cenozoic lateritic bauxite in the present-day tropical zone of the Earth corresponds to the destructive epoch, which is characterized by declining areas of lateritic bauxite formation and will end with complete denudation of lateritic bauxite.

  2. The Production and Study of Cold Antiprotons and Antihydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    H laser cooling and spectroscopy, decided to first pursue producing more cold H atoms from much larger and colder p and e+ plasmas . ALPHA instead...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0239 THE PRODUCTION AND STUDY OF COLD ANTIPROTONS AND ANTIHYDROGEN Gerald Gabrielse HARVARD COLLEGE PRESIDENT & FELLOWS OF...DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Production and Study of Cold p and H 1 Overview and Statement of Objectives 3 2 Project

  3. Parametric Study of Radiative Cooling of Solid Antihydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    RADIATIVE COOLING OF SOLID ANTIHYDROGEN THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air...University 5 In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering Accc-sion For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB...knowledge of things academic and otherwise. 0 Abstract - .. . / ’A computer model of a cryogenic system for storing solid antimatter is used to explore the

  4. Antihydrogen Production within a Penning-Ioffe Trap (ATRAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessels, E. A.

    2008-05-01

    Slow antihydrogen atoms are produced in a Penning trap that is located within a quadrupole Ioffe trap. 5-MeV antiprotons provided by the CERN Antiproton Decelerator are slowed in a Be degrader and captured in the Penning trap where they are further cooled by collisions with cold trapped photoelectrons produced using a 20-mJ excimer laser pulse. Positrons from a Na-22 source are cooled with gas molecules and are trapped in a separate Penning trap and then transferred through a small aperture into the 1-T field of the main Penning trap where they are also cooled by electrons. Typically, 60 million positrons and 0.5 million antiprotons are collected within 15 minutes. Antihydrogen is formed as the positrons and antiprotons are mixed in a slowly-ramped nested well, and is detected by Stark-field ionization. The Ioffe trap, intended to ultimately confine extremely cold, ground-state H atoms, results in divergent magnetic fields, and we demonstrate that antihydrogen can be formed by combining its constituents in these fields. In fact, the number of detected antihydrogen atoms increases when the 400-mK Ioffe trap is turned on. This work is done by the ATRAP collaboration: G. Gabrielse (spokesperson), P. Larochelle, D. Le Sage, B. Levitt, W.S. Kolthammer, R. McConnell, P. Richerme, J. Wrubel, A. Speck, M.C. George, D. Grzonka, W. Oelert, T. Sefzick, Z. Zhang, A. Carew, D. Comeau, E.A. Hessels, C.H. Storry, M. Weel and J. Walz.

  5. Antihydrogen Production within a Penning-Ioffe Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Speck, A.; George, M. C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Carew, A.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.

    2008-03-21

    Slow antihydrogen (H) is produced within a Penning trap that is located within a quadrupole Ioffe trap, the latter intended to ultimately confine extremely cold, ground-state H atoms. Observed H atoms in this configuration resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap. The number of detected H atoms actually increases when a 400 mK Ioffe trap is turned on.

  6. On the temperature of antihydrogen formed in magnetic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Bronin, S. Y.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.

    2016-11-01

    Kinetic processes taking place after injection of antiprotons in cold positron cloud are discussed. Mixture of antiparticles is considered as low temperature non neutral weakly coupled plasma. Simple estimations of energy of antihydrogen atoms that may be formed due to three body recombination in the system are made. Dependence of atom energy on initial particles temperatures and influence of strong confining magnetic field are discussed.

  7. Quenching of antihydrogen gravitational states by surface charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. Yu; Kupriyanova, E. A.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Reynaud, S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of the quenching of antihydrogen quantum states near the surface of a material in the Earth's gravitational field by local charges randomly distributed along a mirror surface. The quenching reduces the probability of quantum reflection because of the additional atom-charge interaction, and thus the nonadiabatic transitions to excited gravitational states. Our approach is suitable when accounting for quenching caused by any kind of additional interaction with a characteristic range much smaller than the typical gravitational state wavelength.

  8. CPT tests with antihydrogen and antiprotonic helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-09-01

    Recent progress of the CPT tests with antihydrogen and antiprotonic helium atoms by the ASACUSA collaboration at CERN's antiproton decelerator will be presented. The antiprotonic helium atom (antiproton+electron+helium nucleus) is a serendipitously discovered metastable three-body system, whose energy levels can now be studied by laser spectroscopy techniques to a relative precision of ~10-9. By comparing these precise experimental results with the result of three-body QED calculation, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined to a relative precision of 1 . 2 ×10-9 . While this can be used as a precise test of the CPT symmetry, CODATA instead assumed the CPT, and combined our results with the proton-to-electron mass ratio measured by the Penning trap method in their adjustment of the fundamental physical constants. In addition to the laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium, ASACUSA collaboration also aims at measuring the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using the (anti)-atomic beam method. Extraction of antihydrogen atoms from a ``cusp'' trap has so far been demonstrated. Both of these experiments will benefit from the completing of a new antiproton decelerator-cooler ring called ELENA, which is under construction at CERN.

  9. Trapping of antiprotons -- a first step on the way to antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1993-07-01

    A first step towards producing and effectively utilizing antihydrogen atoms consists of trapping antiprotons. The immediate next step must then be to control, i.e. trap the produced antihydrogen. The current state of the art in trapping antiprotons and positrons is reviewed, and the challenges in trapping the resulting neutral particles are discussed.

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Production of antihydrogen at reduced magnetic field for anti-atom trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Deutsch, A.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Gomberoff, K.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated production of antihydrogen in a 1 T solenoidal magnetic field. This field strength is significantly smaller than that used in the first generation experiments ATHENA (3 T) and ATRAP (5 T). The motivation for using a smaller magnetic field is to facilitate trapping of antihydrogen atoms in a neutral atom trap surrounding the production region. We report the results of measurements with the Antihydrogen Laser PHysics Apparatus (ALPHA) device, which can capture and cool antiprotons at 3 T, and then mix the antiprotons with positrons at 1 T. We infer antihydrogen production from the time structure of antiproton annihilations during mixing, using mixing with heated positrons as the null experiment, as demonstrated in ATHENA. Implications for antihydrogen trapping are discussed.

  11. Dynamics of planetesimal formation and planetary accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the dynamical processes by which condensed matter in the solar nebula accumulates into planets. The basic processes are: (1) gravitational instability; (2) conversion of the radial gradient of orbital motion into random motion between planetesimals; and (3) collisions, which damp the random motion and result in aggregation and/or fragmentation of planetesimals. Each of these processes is defined analytically, and models, based on these results, of planetary growth, axial rotation rates, and formation of satellite systems are formulated.

  12. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  13. Spacecraft formation flying: Dynamics, control and navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfriend, Kyle Terry; Vadali, Srinivas Rao; Gurfil, Pini; How, Jonathan; Breger, Louis S.

    2009-12-01

    Space agencies are now realizing that much of what has previously been achieved using hugely complex and costly single platform projects - large unmanned and manned satellites (including the present International Space Station) - can be replaced by a number of smaller satellites networked together. The key challenge of this approach, namely ensuring the proper formation flying of multiple craft, is the topic of this second volume in Elsevier's Astrodynamics Series, Spacecraft Formation Flying: Dynamics, control and navigation. In this unique text, authors Alfriend et al. provide a coherent discussion of spacecraft relative motion, both in the unperturbed and perturbed settings, explain the main control approaches for regulating relative satellite dynamics, using both impulsive and continuous maneuvers, and present the main constituents required for relative navigation. The early chapters provide a foundation upon which later discussions are built, making this a complete, standalone offering. Intended for graduate students, professors and academic researchers in the fields of aerospace and mechanical engineering, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics, Spacecraft Formation Flying is a technical yet accessible, forward-thinking guide to this critical area of astrodynamics.

  14. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2015-08-01

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  15. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  16. Settlement formation. Part I: a dynamic theory.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, W; Munz, M

    1990-01-01

    "The dynamic process of settlement formation is a fundamental issue in regional science. Our proposed model integrates the economic and migratory sectors in terms of endogenous variables in order to describe the evolution of continuous population distributions as a self-organising process.... The purpose...is to show that under strongly idealised conditions, a population consisting of different subpopulations with different economic activities will evolve into a differentiated population pattern. Each member of the subpopulations has the possibility to migrate between locations stimulated by rational economic reasons. This idea, which seems almost self-evident on the level of qualitative argumentation, [will] be cast into a mathematically self-contained quantitative dynamic model."

  17. Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, D. M.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2013-03-01

    We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.

  18. Pore Scale Dynamics of Microemulsion Formation.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Evren; Broens, Marc; Armstrong, Ryan T

    2016-07-19

    Experiments in various porous media have shown that multiple parameters come into play when an oleic phase is displaced by an aqueous solution of surfactant. In general, the displacement efficiency is improved when the fluids become quasi-miscible. Understanding the phase behavior oil/water/surfactant systems is important because microemulsion has the ability to generate ultralow interfacial tension (<10(-2) mN m(-1)) that is required for miscibility to occur. Many studies focus on microemulsion formation and the resulting properties under equilibrium conditions. However, the majority of applications where microemulsion is present also involve flow, which has received relatively less attention. It is commonly assumed that the characteristics of an oil/water/surfactant system under flowing conditions are identical to the one under equilibrium conditions. Here, we show that this is not necessarily the case. We studied the equilibrium phase behavior of a model system consisting of n-decane and an aqueous solution of olefin sulfonate surfactant, which has practical applications for enhanced oil recovery. The salt content of the aqueous solution was varied to provide a range of different microemulsion compositions and oil-water interfacial tensions. We then performed microfluidic flow experiments to study the dynamic in situ formation of microemulsion by coinjecting bulk fluids of n-decane and surfactant solution into a T-junction capillary geometry. A solvatochromatic fluorescent dye was used to obtain spatially resolved compositional information. In this way, we visualized the microemulsion formation and the flow of it along with the excess phases. A complex interaction between the flow patterns and the microemulsion properties was observed. The formation of microemulsion influenced the flow regimes, and the flow regimes affected the characteristics of the microemulsion formation. In particular, at low flow rates, slug flow was observed, which had profound

  19. Dynamical Models of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; O'brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Quinn, Thomas; Graps, Amara L.

    2011-02-01

    We review the problem of the formation of terrestrial planets, with particular emphasis on the interaction of dynamical and geochemical models. The lifetime of gas around stars in the process of formation is limited to a few million years based on astronomical observations, while isotopic dating of meteorites and the Earth-Moon system suggest that perhaps 50-100 million years were required for the assembly of the Earth. Therefore, much of the growth of the terrestrial planets in our own system is presumed to have taken place under largely gas-free conditions, and the physics of terrestrial planet formation is dominated by gravitational interactions and collisions. The earliest phase of terrestrial-planet formation involve the growth of km-sized or larger planetesimals from dust grains, followed by the accumulations of these planetesimals into ∼100 lunar- to Mars-mass bodies that are initially gravitationally isolated from one-another in a swarm of smaller planetesimals, but eventually grow to the point of significantly perturbing one-another. The mutual perturbations between the embryos, combined with gravitational stirring by Jupiter, lead to orbital crossings and collisions that drive the growth to Earth-sized planets on a timescale of 107-108 years. Numerical treatment of this process has focussed on the use of symplectic integrators which can rapidy integrate the thousands of gravitationally-interacting bodies necessary to accurately model planetary growth. While the general nature of the terrestrial planets-their sizes and orbital parameters-seem to be broadly reproduced by the models, there are still some outstanding dynamical issues. One of these is the presence of an embryo-sized body, Mars, in our system in place of the more massive objects that simulations tend to yield. Another is the effect such impacts have on the geochemistry of the growing planets; re-equilibration of isotopic ratios of major elements during giant impacts (for example) must be

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics of Banded Iron Formation Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xu, H.; Merino, E.

    2010-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) carry important information on the early evolution of the Earth. The actual mechanisms for their formation remain controversial. We have shown that the passage from predominant occurrence of BIFs in the Archaean-Early Proterozoic to their absence thereafter may have reflected compositional changes in the oceanic crust. Fe-Si-rich geologic fluids can be generated only from Al-poor oceanic crust through hydrothermal leaching by seawater. Al enrichment in the oceanic crust after ~ 1.7 Ga ago tends to prevent BIF formation. We have further shown that periodic precipitation of iron and silica minerals in alternating bands can be induced by positive feedbacks among relevant chemical reactions as a Fe-Si-rich hydrothermal fluid mixes with ambient seawater. Complexation of dissolved Fe(II) with silicic acid plays a crucial role in the self-organized process. Small-scale (< 1 cm) BIF bandings are thus attributed to the internal dynamics of the chemical system, rather than to an outside force such as surface temperature variations. In this presentation, we provide a detailed stability analysis of the model we developed to clarify the physical and chemical conditions for oscillatory precipitation of BIFs.

  1. Aspects of 1S-2S spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Madsen, N.; Robicheaux, F.

    2017-09-01

    Antihydrogen atoms are now routinely trapped in small numbers. One of the purposes of this effort is to make precision comparisons of the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen and antihydrogen as a precision test of the CPT theorem. We investigate, through calculations and simulations, various methods by which the 1S-2S transition may be probed with only a few trapped atoms. We consider the known constraints from typical experimental geometries, detection methods, sample temperatures, laser light sources etc and we identify a viable path towards a measurement of this transition at the 10‑11 level in a realistic scenario. We also identify ways in which such a first measurement could be improved upon as a function of projected changes and improvements in antihydrogen synthesis and trapping. These calculations recently guided the first observation of the 1S-2S transition in trapped antihydrogen.

  2. Solid-state continuous Lyman-alpha source for laser-cooling of antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, Jochen; Beyer, Thomas; Kolbe, Daniel; Markert, Frank; Muellers, Andreas; Scheid, Martin

    2008-08-08

    Cooling antihydrogen atoms is important for future experiments both to test the fundamental CPT symmetry by high-resolution laser spectroscopy and also to measure the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Laser-cooling of antihydrogen can be done on the strong 1 S-2 P transition at the wavelength of Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm). Ongoing work to set up a solid-state continuous-wave laser source at Lyman-alpha is described.

  3. Progress towards antihydrogen production by the reaction of cold antiprotons with positronium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, M.; Laricchia, G.; Deutch, B.I.

    1995-03-01

    An experiment aimed at producing antihydrogen atoms by the reaction of cold antiprotons stored in a Penning trap with injected ground state positronium atoms is described. The apparatus developed in an attempt to observe the charge conjugate reaction using proton projectiles is discussed. Technically feasible upgrades to this apparatus are identified which may allow, in conjunction with the PS200 trap, antihydrogen production at LEAR.

  4. In-beam measurement of the hydrogen hyperfine splitting and prospects for antihydrogen spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diermaier, M.; Jepsen, C. B.; Kolbinger, B.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M. C.; Zmeskal, J.; Widmann, E.

    2017-06-01

    Antihydrogen, the lightest atom consisting purely of antimatter, is an ideal laboratory to study the CPT symmetry by comparison with hydrogen. With respect to absolute precision, transitions within the ground-state hyperfine structure (GS-HFS) are most appealing by virtue of their small energy separation. ASACUSA proposed employing a beam of cold antihydrogen atoms in a Rabi-type experiment, to determine the GS-HFS in a field-free region. Here we present a measurement of the zero-field hydrogen GS-HFS using the spectroscopy apparatus of ASACUSA's antihydrogen experiment. The measured value of νHF=1,420,405,748.4(3.4) (1.6) Hz with a relative precision of 2.7 × 10-9 constitutes the most precise determination of this quantity in a beam and verifies the developed spectroscopy methods for the antihydrogen HFS experiment to the p.p.b. level. Together with the recently presented observation of antihydrogen atoms 2.7 m downstream of the production region, the prerequisites for a measurement with antihydrogen are now available within the ASACUSA collaboration.

  5. Electron plasmas as a diagnostic tool for hyperfine spectroscopy of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, T.; Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2013-03-01

    Long term magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms has recently been demonstrated by the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, opening the door to a range of experimental possibilities. Of particular interest is a measurement of the antihydrogen spectrum. A precise comparison of the spectrum of antihydrogen with that of hydrogen would be an excellent test of CPT symmetry. One prime candidate for precision CPT tests is the ground-state hyperfine transition; measured in hydrogen to a precision of nearly one part in 1012. Effective execution of such an experiment with trapped antihydrogen requires precise knowledge of the magnetic environment. Here we present a solution that uses an electron plasma confined in the antihydrogen trapping region. The cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma is probed with microwaves at the cyclotron frequency and the subsequent heating of the electron plasma is measured through the plasma quadrupole mode frequency. Using this method, the minimum magnetic field of the neutral trap can be determined to within 4 parts in 104. This technique was used extensively in the recent demonstration of resonant interaction with the hyperfine levels of trapped antihydrogen atoms.

  6. Towards the production of an ultra cold antihydrogen beam with the AEGIS apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, James William

    The AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen. In the first phase of the experiment, a gravity measurement with 1% precision will be performed by passing a beam of ultra cold antihydrogen atoms through a classical Moiré deflectometer coupled to a position sensitive detector. The key requirements for this measurement are the production of ultra cold (T˜100 mK) Rydberg state antihydrogen and the subsequent Stark acceleration of these atoms. The aim is to produce Rydberg state antihydrogen by means of the charge exchange reaction between ultra cold antiprotons (T˜100 mK) and Rydberg state positronium. This paper will present details of the developments necessary for the successful production of the ultra cold antihydrogen beam, with emphasis on the detector that is required for the development of these techniques. Issues covered will include the detection of antihydrogen production and temperature, as well as detection of the effects of Stark acceleration.

  7. Towards the production of an ultra cold antihydrogen beam with the AEGIS apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, James William

    2012-12-01

    The AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen. In the first phase of the experiment, a gravity measurement with 1% precision will be performed by passing a beam of ultra cold antihydrogen atoms through a classical Moiré deflectometer coupled to a position sensitive detector. The key requirements for this measurement are the production of ultra cold (T˜100 mK) Rydberg state antihydrogen and the subsequent Stark acceleration of these atoms. The aim is to produce Rydberg state antihydrogen by means of the charge exchange reaction between ultra cold antiprotons (T˜100 mK) and Rydberg state positronium. This paper will present details of the developments necessary for the successful production of the ultra cold antihydrogen beam, with emphasis on the detector that is required for the development of these techniques. Issues covered will include the detection of antihydrogen production and temperature, as well as detection of the effects of Stark acceleration.

  8. Dynamic Structures around Star Formation Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minho

    1995-01-01

    Star formation is a dynamic and complex activity. In this thesis, we will study characteristic activities in star formation regions: protostellar collapse, bipolar outflow, and large scale rotation. In Chapter 1, we study a protostellar collapse in a low-mass star formation region. A dark cloud core, B335, is modeled as an inside-out collapse. The radiative transfer code uses the Monte Carlo method. Line profiles for several transitions of CS and rm H_2CO are computed and they agreed with the observations very well. In Chapter 2, we investigate kinematic structures in a high-mass star formation region. Monoceros R2 dense core region was observed with molecular lines. We suggest that the main part can be explained as a parsec scale toroid around the H scII region with its symmetry axis parallel to the CO outflow and the magnetic field. The Omega~ r^{-1} rotation profile indicates that rotation alone cannot support the dense core. We modeled the toroid with a 2-dimensional radiative transfer code. Our simple model can reproduce the intensities and profiles of observed CS transitions very well. In Chapter 3, extremely high velocity (EHV) wings are studied with CO lines. The results of our survey suggest that EHV wings are common around infrared sources of moderate to high luminosity in dense regions. Line ratios imply that the EHV gas is usually optically thin and warm. Characteristic velocities range from 20 to 40 km rm s^ {-1}, yielding timescales of 1600-4200 yr. Since most sources in this study are producing some ionizing photons, these short timescales suggest that neutral winds coexist with ionizing photons. We examined two possible sources for the extremely high velocity CO emission: a neutral stellar wind; and swept-up or entrained molecular gas. Neither can be ruled out. In Chapter 4, molecular outflows associated with GL 2591 and W28 A2 were studied with the (C scI) line. Upper limits are set on the (C scI) emission in the EHV line wings. These limits are

  9. Kinetic theory for antihydrogen recombination schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowell, Ronald Honeycutt

    exceptionally useful in 'molecular' dynamics simulations. The dynamical response of any guiding-center plasma to a charged particle of any non-relativistic velocity is found for the first time at all spatial points. In contrast, Oberman's result [Interactions Onde Electromagnetique-Plasma, edited by F. Troyon et al., 40 (1970)] applies very far from a non-relativistic super-thermal particle in a thermally equilibrated ion-electron plasma without a magnetic field.

  10. Compact cryogenic system with mechanical cryocoolers for antihydrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Mohri, A; Kanai, Y; Enomoto, Y; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a compact cryogenic system which cools a vacuum chamber housing multi-ring trap electrodes (MRTs) of an antihydrogen synthesis trap using mechanical cryocoolers to achieve background pressure less than 10(-12) Torr. The vacuum chamber and the cryocoolers are thermally connected by copper strips of 99.9999% in purity. All components are installed within a diametric gap between the MRT of phi108 mm and a magnet bore of phi160 mm. An adjusting mechanism is prepared to align the MRT axis to the magnet axis. The vacuum chamber was successfully cooled down to 4.0 K after 14 h of cooling with heat load of 0.8 W.

  11. Nanoscale pore formation dynamics during aluminum anodization.

    PubMed

    Thamida, Sunil Kumar; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2002-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of nanoscale pore formation during anodization reveals its fundamental instability mechanism to be a field focusing phenomenon when perturbations on the minima of the two oxide interfaces are in phase. Lateral leakage of the layer potential at high wave number introduces a layer tension effect that balances the previous destabilizing effect to produce a long-wave instability and a selected pore separation that scales linearly with respect to voltage. At pH higher than 1.77, pores do not form due to a very thick barrier layer. A weakly nonlinear theory based on long-wave expansion of double free surface problem yields two coupled interface evolution equations that can be reduced to one without altering the dispersion relationship by assuming an equal and in-phase amplitude for the two interfaces. This interface evolution equation faithfully reproduces the initial pore ordering and their dynamics. A hodograph transformation technique is then used to determine the interior dimension of the well-developed pores in two dimensions. The ratio of pore diameter to pore separation is found to be a factor independent of voltage but varies with the pH of the electrolyte. Both the predicted pH range where pores are formed and the predicted pore dimensions are favorably compared to experimental data. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Kurchaninov, L.; Jonsell, S.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilate. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antiproton and antihydrogen trajectories in this magnetic geometry, and reconstruct the antihydrogen energy distribution from the measured annihilation time history.

  13. Antihydrogen synthesis in a double-CUSP trap towards test of the CPT-symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radics, B.; Ishikawa, S.; Kuroda, N.; Murtagh, D. J.; Nagata, Y.; Tajima, M.; Van Gorp, S.; Abo, Y.; Dupre, P.; Higashi, Y.; Kaga, C.; Leali, M.; Mascagna, V.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.; Breuker, H.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Rizzini, E. Lodi; Matsuda, Y.; Ulmer, S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the ASACUSA-CUSP experiment at CERN is to produce a cold, polarised antihydrogen beam and perform a high precision measurement of the ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the antihydrogen atom and compare it with that of the hydrogen atom using the same spectroscopic beam line. Towards this goal a significant step was successfully accomplished: synthesised antihydrogen atoms have been produced in a CUSP magnetic configuration and detected at the end of our spectrometer beam line in 2012 [1]. During a long shut down at CERN the ASACUSA-CUSP experiment had been renewed by introducing a new double-CUSP magnetic configuration and a new semi-cylindrical tracking detector (AMT) [2], and by improving the transport feature of low energy antiproton beams. The new tracking detector monitors the antihydrogen synthesis during the mixing cycle of antiprotons and positrons. In this work the latest results and improvements of the antihydrogen synthesis will be presented including highlights from the last beam time.

  14. Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5%; worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime. PMID:23653197

  15. Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpha Collaboration; Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.

    2013-04-01

    Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5% worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime.

  16. Experimental limit on the ratio of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan; Charman, Andrew; Zhmoginov, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    Physicists have long wondered if the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. While there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist, i.e., that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. By searching for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap, we have determined that we can reject ratios of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen greater than about 100 at a statistical significance level of 5%. A similar search places somewhat lower limits on a negative gravitational mass, i.e., on antigravity.

  17. Temporally Controlled Modulation of Antihydrogen Production and the Temperature Scaling of Antiproton-Positron Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M. C.; Amoretti, M.; Amsler, C.; Bonomi, G.; Bouchta, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Mitchard, D.; Montagna, P.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; van der Werf, D. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate temporally controlled modulation of cold antihydrogen production by periodic RF heating of a positron plasma during antiproton-positron mixing in a Penning trap. Our observations have established a pulsed source of atomic antimatter, with a rise time of about 1 s, and a pulse length ranging from 3 to 100 s. Time-sensitive antihydrogen detection and positron plasma diagnostics, both capabilities of the ATHENA apparatus, allowed detailed studies of the pulsing behavior, which in turn gave information on the dependence of the antihydrogen production process on the positron temperature T. Our data are consistent with power law scaling T-1.1±0.5 for the production rate in the high temperature regime from ˜100meV up to 1.5 eV. This is not in accord with the behavior accepted for conventional three-body recombination.

  18. Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen.

    PubMed

    Charman, A E; Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I

    2013-01-01

    Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5%; worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime.

  19. An experimental test of the weak equivalence principle for antihydrogen at the future FLAIR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaum, Klaus; Raizen, Mark G.; Quint, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    We present new experimental ideas to investigate the gravitational interaction of antihydrogen. The experiment can first be performed in an off-line mirror measurement on hydrogen atoms, as a testing ground for our methods, before the implementation with antihydrogen atoms. A beam of hydrogen atoms is formed by launching a cold beam of protons through a cloud of trapped electrons in a nested Penning trap arrangement. In the next step, the atoms are stopped in a series of pulsed electromagnetic coils — so-called atomic coilgun. The stopped atoms are confined in a magnetic quadrupole trap and cooled by single-photon laser cooling. We intend to employ the method of Raman interferometry to study the gravitational interaction of atomic hydrogen — and later on antihydrogen at the FLAIR facility — with high sensitivity.

  20. An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Carruth, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Charman, A E; Eriksson, S; Evans, L T; Evetts, N; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Ishida, A; Jones, S A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Maxwell, D; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Michan, J M; Momose, T; Munich, J J; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R L; Sameed, M; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Tharp, T D; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I

    2016-01-21

    Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of |Q| < 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known to be no greater than about 10(-21)e for a diverse range of species including H2, He and SF6. Charge-parity-time symmetry and quantum anomaly cancellation demand that the charge of antihydrogen be similarly small. Thus, our measurement constitutes an improved limit and a test of fundamental aspects of the Standard Model. If we assume charge superposition and use the best measured value of the antiproton charge, then we can place a new limit on the positron charge anomaly (the relative difference between the positron and elementary charge) of about one part per billion (one standard deviation), a 25-fold reduction compared to the current best measurement.

  1. An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carruth, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Charman, A. E.; Eriksson, S.; Evans, L. T.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Ishida, A.; Jones, S. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Maxwell, D.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Michan, J. M.; Momose, T.; Munich, J. J.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sameed, M.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms- of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of |Q| < 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known to be no greater than about 10-21e for a diverse range of species including H2, He and SF6. Charge-parity-time symmetry and quantum anomaly cancellation demand that the charge of antihydrogen be similarly small. Thus, our measurement constitutes an improved limit and a test of fundamental aspects of the Standard Model. If we assume charge superposition and use the best measured value of the antiproton charge, then we can place a new limit on the positron charge anomaly (the relative difference between the positron and elementary charge) of about one part per billion (one standard deviation), a 25-fold reduction compared to the current best measurement.

  2. Antihydrogen Relaxation from High-n to Ground State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2006-10-01

    We explore the rate at which magnetized, high-n Rydberg pairs formed in antihydrogen experiments relax to deep binding. While the theoretical three-body recombination rate scales favorably with low temperature (νTBRnb^3 (n v b^2 ) T-9/2), pairs form with binding energies ɛ near the (low) thermal level. Such atoms have classical drift orbits with negligible radiation. Collisions propel a cascade to deeper binding, but theory and simulation show an atom is unlikely to reach a radiating regime before it escapes the trap. However, simulations show that the energy-loss rate does not decrease as rapidly with increasing ɛ as previously expected. We also discuss the mean magnetic moment of guiding-center atoms, and energy loss from adiation at deep binding, based on the classical Larmour formula and a presumption of stochastic orbits. G. Gabrielse, N.S. Bowden, P. Oxley, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213401 (2002) M. Amoretti, C. Amsler, G. Bonomi, et al., Nature (London) 419, 456 (2002). ME. Glinsky and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1279 (1991). R. Robicheaux and J.D. Hanson, Phys. Rev. A 69, 010701 (2004). E.M. Bass and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1240 (2004).

  3. Collisional and dynamical processes in moon and planet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.; Hartmann, W. K.; Spaute, D.

    1987-01-01

    Research on a variety of dynamical processes relevant to the formation of planets, satellites and ring systems is discussed. The main focus is on studies of accretionary formation of early protoplanets using a numerical model, structures and evolution of ring systems and individual bodies within planetary rings, and theories of lunar origin.

  4. Brownian dynamics simulations of amelogenin microribbons formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Perez Lopez, Anthony; Liu, Ya; Chakrabarti, Amit; Gunton, James

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in chemical particle synthesis have emphasized the fundamental role of surface colloidal heterogeneities and their detailed chemical composition, which is particularly significant for an important subclass of colloidal systems, namely, proteins. Recently, the process of self-assembly of amelogenin monomers with a hydrophobic/hydrophilic bipolar nature into ordered ribbon structures has been studied experimentally. In this work, we study this dynamical process by means of a Brownian dynamic simulation of a simple model which represents the bipolar character of the globular amelogenin molecule and the hydrophilic C-terminal tail. We monitor the kinetics of self-assembly through a study of the structure factor. We also calculate the phase diagram of the model using Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulation and thermodynamic perturbation theory. This work is supported by grants from the NSF and Mathers Foundation.

  5. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  6. Towards measuring the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen - a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerzopf, C.; Capon, A. A.; Diermaier, M.; Dupré, P.; Higashi, Y.; Kaga, C.; Kolbinger, B.; Leali, M.; Lehner, S.; Rizzini, E. Lodi; Malbrunot, C.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Murtagh, D. J.; Nagata, Y.; Radics, B.; Simon, M. C.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, M.; Ulmer, S.; Vamosi, S.; Gorp, S. van; Zmeskal, J.; Breuker, H.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Kuroda, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Venturelli, L.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report the successful commissioning and testing of a dedicated field-ioniser chamber for measuring principal quantum number distributions in antihydrogen as part of the ASACUSA hyperfine spectroscopy apparatus. The new chamber is combined with a beam normalisation detector that consists of plastic scintillators and a retractable passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector.

  7. Formation and Dynamics of Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of more than a dozen transiting circumbinary planets provides new constraints on the planet formation and migration processes in circumbinary disks and also raises a number of puzzles. I will discuss several recent works related to circumbinary planets and disks. (1) New long-duration hydro simulations of circumbinary disks (R.Miranda, D.Lai and D.Munoz 2016). The simulations reveal that the inner circumbinary disk may develop appreciable eccentricity and precesseses coherently -- these features are bound to have a strong impact on planet-disk interaction. (2) The disruption of planetary orbits through evection resonances with an external companion (W.Xu and D.Lai 2016a). This may help explain the lack of transiting planets around very compact stellar binaries (D.Munoz and D.Lai 2015). (3) The stability of mean-motion resonance capture as planets migrate inwards in a circumbinary disk. This relates to the pile-up of planets near the stability limit as observed in the sample of transiting circumbinary planets (W.Xu and D.Lai 2016b).

  8. Gas dynamic simulations of galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a simulation modeling the formation of a group of galaxies in a 'standard' cold, dark matter universe with delta = 1, h sub 0 = 50 km/(s(Mpc)), baryon fraction omega sub b = 0.1 and spectrum normalization sigma sub 8 = 0.6 (bias parameter b = 1.7). Initial conditions are generated within a periodic box with comoving length 16 Mpc in a manner constrained to produce a small cluster of total mass approximately 10 exp 14 solar mass. Two sets of 643 particles are used to model the dark matter and baryon fluids. Each gas particle represents 1.08 x 10 exp -8 solar mass, implying an L* galaxy is resolved by approximately 1000 particles. The system is evolved self-consistently in three dimensions using the combined N-body/hydrodynamic scheme P3MSPH up to a final redshift z = 1. Evolving to the present is prohibited by the fact that the mean density in the simulated volume is above critical and the entire volume would be going nonlinear beyond this point, We are currently analyzing another run with somewhat poorer mass resolution which was evolved to the present.

  9. Nebkha flow dynamics and shadow dune formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Smyth, Thomas A. G.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, wind flow is simulated via CFD over five 'nebkha' dune forms that range in shape from a cone, to a hemisphere (approximately) and to a dome in order to examine the structure of the wake zone formed downwind and the effect on the leeward flow separation zone and shadow dune formation. Dune height was fixed at 0.5 m while the nebkha diameter increased in 0.25 m increments from 0.5 m to 1.5 m and aspect ratio (h/D) from 1.0 to 0.3. The mean flow comprises an upwind region of reduced velocity which expands as nebkha width increases, high velocity marginal wings, and paired counter-rotating reversing vortices leeward of the nebkha. The point at which flow separation occurs moves further downwind as the nebkha diameter increases. The core regions of the reversing vortices are situated further downwind behind the smaller nebkha than in the case of the larger nebkha. These factors in combination allow for higher velocity perturbations (TKE) and narrower wake behind the smaller nebkha, and the suppression of downwind wake development in the case of the increasingly larger nebkha. Shadow dune length increases as nebkha width increases for lower incident velocity flow and is barely affected by nebkha width at higher flows. The extent of the leeward separation or wake zone, and hence shadow dune length, more strongly varies as a function of wind velocity.

  10. Solar prominences: formation, force balance, internal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Chen, P.; Blokland, J. W. S.

    2013-01-01

    Prominences represent fascinating large-scale, cool and dense structures, suspended in the hot and tenuous solar corona above magnetic neutral lines. Starting from magnetohydrostatic force balance arguments, their differing magnetic topology distinguishes Kippenhahn-Schlüter (1957) versus Kuperus-Raadu (1974) types. In both, the concave-upward parts of magnetic field lines or ‘dips’ host and support prominence material via the magnetic tension force against gravity. We highlight recent insights into prominence physics, where we start from modern magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium computations, allowing to mimic flux-rope embedded multi-layer prominence configurations of Kuperus-Raadu type. These can be analysed for linear stability, and by quantifying the eigenfrequencies of flux-surface localized modes, charting out the continuous parts of the MHD spectrum, we pave the way for more detailed prominence seismology. Perhaps the most elusive aspect of prominence physics is their sudden formation, and we demonstrate recent achievements in both rigid field, and fully multi-dimensional simulation efforts. The link with the thermal instability of optically thin radiative plasmas is clarified, and we show the first evaporation-condensation model study where we can demonstrate how the formed prominence stays in a force balanced state, which can be compared to the original Kippenhahn-Schlüter type magnetohydrostatic model.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of unicycles in leader-follower formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Siming; Halder, Abhishek; Kalmár-Nagy, Tamás

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a dynamical systems analysis is presented for characterizing the motion of a group of unicycles in leader-follower formation. The equilibrium formations are characterized along with their local stability analysis. It is demonstrated that with the variation in control gain, the collective dynamics might undergo Andronov-Hopf and Fold-Hopf bifurcations. The vigor of quasi-periodicity in the regime of Andronov-Hopf bifurcation and heteroclinic bursts between quasi-periodic and chaotic behavior in the regime of Fold-Hopf bifurcation increases with the number of unicycles. Numerical simulations also suggest the occurrence of global bifurcations involving the destruction of heteroclinic orbit.

  12. Dynamic tubulation of mitochondria drives mitochondrial network formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Du, Wanqing; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Mingli; Feng, Peiyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yichen; Mi, Na; Zhu, Yueyao; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Senyan; Zhang, Zerui; Sun, Yujie; Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria form networks. Formation of mitochondrial networks is important for maintaining mitochondrial DNA integrity and interchanging mitochondrial material, whereas disruption of the mitochondrial network affects mitochondrial functions. According to the current view, mitochondrial networks are formed by fusion of individual mitochondria. Here, we report a new mechanism for formation of mitochondrial networks through KIF5B-mediated dynamic tubulation of mitochondria. We found that KIF5B pulls thin, highly dynamic tubules out of mitochondria. Fusion of these dynamic tubules, which is mediated by mitofusins, gives rise to the mitochondrial network. We further demonstrated that dynamic tubulation and fusion is sufficient for mitochondrial network formation, by reconstituting mitochondrial networks in vitro using purified fusion-competent mitochondria, recombinant KIF5B, and polymerized microtubules. Interestingly, KIF5B only controls network formation in the peripheral zone of the cell, indicating that the mitochondrial network is divided into subzones, which may be constructed by different mechanisms. Our data not only uncover an essential mechanism for mitochondrial network formation, but also reveal that different parts of the mitochondrial network are formed by different mechanisms.

  13. Dynamic tubulation of mitochondria drives mitochondrial network formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Du, Wanqing; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Mingli; Feng, Peiyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yichen; Mi, Na; Zhu, Yueyao; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Senyan; Zhang, Zerui; Sun, Yujie; Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria form networks. Formation of mitochondrial networks is important for maintaining mitochondrial DNA integrity and interchanging mitochondrial material, whereas disruption of the mitochondrial network affects mitochondrial functions. According to the current view, mitochondrial networks are formed by fusion of individual mitochondria. Here, we report a new mechanism for formation of mitochondrial networks through KIF5B-mediated dynamic tubulation of mitochondria. We found that KIF5B pulls thin, highly dynamic tubules out of mitochondria. Fusion of these dynamic tubules, which is mediated by mitofusins, gives rise to the mitochondrial network. We further demonstrated that dynamic tubulation and fusion is sufficient for mitochondrial network formation, by reconstituting mitochondrial networks in vitro using purified fusion-competent mitochondria, recombinant KIF5B, and polymerized microtubules. Interestingly, KIF5B only controls network formation in the peripheral zone of the cell, indicating that the mitochondrial network is divided into subzones, which may be constructed by different mechanisms. Our data not only uncover an essential mechanism for mitochondrial network formation, but also reveal that different parts of the mitochondrial network are formed by different mechanisms. PMID:26206315

  14. Molecular dynamical modelling of endohedral fullerenes formation in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. S.; Kovaleva, E. A.; Lubkova, T. A.; Popov, Z. I.; Kuzubov, A. A.; Visotin, M. A.; Irle, S.

    2016-02-01

    The initial stages of fullerene and endohedral metallofullerene (EMF) synthesis in carbon-helium plasma at 1500 K and 2500 K have been simulated with quantum chemical molecular dynamics (MD) based on density-functional tight-binding (DFTB). The cases of formation of large (>100 atoms) sp2-carbon clusters with scandium atoms inside were observed. These clusters are considered as precursors of fullerenes or EMFs, and thus it is shown that formation of EMFs can be explained within the framework of "shrinking hot giant" mechanism. Also, the dependence of formation rates on plasma parameters, including temperature, buffer gas and metal atoms concentrations, has been studied.

  15. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  16. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; ...

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation andmore » dynamics in these systems.« less

  17. Dynamic Phases, Pinning, and Pattern Formation for Driven Dislocation Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems. PMID:25613839

  18. Dynamical Formation and Merger of Binary Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy began with Advanced LIGO's 2015 discovery of GWs from coalescing black hole (BH) binaries. GW astronomy holds great promise for testing general relativity, but also for investigating open astrophysical questions not amenable to traditional electromagnetic observations. One such question concerns the origin of stellar mass BH binaries in the universe: do these form primarily from evolution of isolated binaries of massive stars, or do they form through more exotic dynamical channels? The best studied dynamical formation channel involves multibody interactions of BHs and stars in dense globular cluster environments, but many other dynamical scenarios have recently been proposed, ranging from the Kozai effect in hierarchical triple systems to BH binary formation in the outskirts of Toomre-unstable accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes. The BH binaries formed through these processes will have different distributions of observable parameters (e.g. mass ratios, spins) than BH binaries formed through the evolution of isolated binary stars. In my talk I will overview these and other dynamical formation scenarios, and summarize the key observational tests that will enable Advanced LIGO or other future detectors to determine what formation pathway creates the majority of binary BHs in the universe. NCS thanks NASA, which has funded his work through Einstein postdoctoral grant PF5-160145.

  19. Dynamical formation of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jongsuk; Vesperini, Enrico; Belloni, Diogo; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-01-01

    The formation and evolution of X-ray sources in globular clusters is likely to be affected by the cluster internal dynamics and the stellar interactions in the cluster dense environment. Several observational studies have revealed a correlation between the number of X-ray sources and the stellar encounter rate, and provided evidence of the role of dynamics in the formation of X-ray binaries. We have performed a survey of Monte Carlo simulations aimed at exploring the connection between the dynamics and formation of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and the origin of the observed correlation between the number of these objects, Ncv, and the stellar encounter rate, Γ. The results of our simulations show a correlation between Ncv and Γ, as found in observational data, illustrate the essential role played by the dynamics, and shed light on the dynamical history behind this correlation. CVs in our simulations are more centrally concentrated than single stars with masses close to those of turn-off stars, although this trend is stronger for CVs formed from primordial binaries undergoing exchange encounters, which include a population of more massive CVs absent in the group of CVs formed from binaries not suffering any component exchange.

  20. Memory formation: from network structure to neural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Sarah; Wang, Jane X; Hetrick, Vaughn L; Berke, Joshua D; Zochowski, Michal

    2010-05-13

    Understanding the neural correlates of brain function is an extremely challenging task, since any cognitive process is distributed over a complex and evolving network of neurons that comprise the brain. In order to quantify observed changes in neuronal dynamics during hippocampal memory formation, we present metrics designed to detect directional interactions and the formation of functional neuronal ensembles. We apply these metrics to both experimental and model-derived data in an attempt to link anatomical network changes with observed changes in neuronal dynamics during hippocampal memory formation processes. We show that the developed model provides a consistent explanation of the anatomical network modifications that underlie the activity changes observed in the experimental data.

  1. Brownian dynamics simulation of fission yeast mitotic spindle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmaier, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The mitotic spindle segregates chromosomes during mitosis. The dynamics that establish bipolar spindle formation are not well understood. We have developed a computational model of fission-yeast mitotic spindle formation using Brownian dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Our model includes rigid, dynamic microtubules, a spherical nuclear envelope, spindle pole bodies anchored in the nuclear envelope, and crosslinkers and crosslinking motor proteins. Crosslinkers and crosslinking motor proteins attach and detach in a grand canonical ensemble, and exert forces and torques on the attached microtubules. We have modeled increased affinity for crosslinking motor attachment to antiparallel microtubule pairs, and stabilization of microtubules in the interpolar bundle. We study parameters controlling the stability of the interpolar bundle and assembly of a bipolar spindle from initially adjacent spindle-pole bodies.

  2. Dynamics of drops – Formation, growth, oscillation, detachment, and coalescence.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, M; Taeibi Rahni, M; Javadi, A; Cronan, C L; Schano, K H; Faraji, S; Won, J Y; Ferri, J K; Krägel, J; Miller, R

    2015-08-01

    Single drops or bubbles are frequently used for the characterization of liquid-fluid interfaces. Their advantage is the small volume and the various protocols of their formation. Thus, several important methods are based on single drops and bubbles, such as capillary pressure and profile analysis tensiometry. However, these methods are often applied under dynamic conditions, although their principles are defined under equilibrium conditions. Thus, specific attention has to be paid when these methods are used beyond certain limits. In many cases, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have allowed researchers, to extend these limits and to gain important information on the interfacial dynamics. Examples discussed here are the capillary pressure tensiometry used for short time and profile analysis tensiometry for long time dynamic interfacial tension measurements, the oscillating drop methods for measuring dilational visco-elasticity. For measuring the coalescence of two drops the liquid dynamics of the subsequently formed liquid bridges have to be considered. In this paper, a thorough review of important experimental and computational findings, related to the dynamics of drops, including its formation, growth, oscillation, detachment, and coalescence is presented. Emphasis is however on some selected important developments. In addition, the paper tries to predict the main directions of advancement in interfacial research for the near future.

  3. Relative dynamics and motion control of nanosatellite formation flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin; Hiraki, Koju

    2016-04-01

    Orbit selection is a necessary factor in nanosatellite formation mission design/meanwhile, to keep the formation, it is necessary to consume fuel. Therefore, the best orbit design for nanosatellite formation flying should be one that requires the minimum fuel consumption. The purpose of this paper is to analyse orbit selection with respect to the minimum fuel consumption, to provide a convenient way to estimate the fuel consumption for keeping nanosatellite formation flying and to present a simplified method of formation control. The formation structure is disturbed by J2 gravitational perturbation and other perturbing accelerations such as atmospheric drag. First, Gauss' Variation Equations (GVE) are used to estimate the essential ΔV due to the J2 perturbation and atmospheric drag. The essential ΔV presents information on which orbit is good with respect to the minimum fuel consumption. Then, the linear equations which account for J2 gravitational perturbation of Schweighart-Sedwick are presented and used to estimate the fuel consumption to maintain the formation structure. Finally, the relative dynamics motion is presented as well as a simplified motion control of formation structure by using GVE.

  4. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2017-05-01

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  5. Extended MPEG Video Format for Efficient Dynamic Voltage Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Kwanhu; Bang, Sung-Yong; Chung, Eui-Young

    We present an extended MPEG video format for efficient Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS). DVS technique has been widely researched, but the execution time variation of a periodic task (i. e. MPEG decoding) is still a challenge to be tackled. Unlike previous works, we focus on the data (video stream) rather than the execution code to overcome such limitation. The proposed video format provides the decoding costs of frames to help the precise prediction of their execution times at client machines. The experimental results show that the extended format only increases the data size less than 1% by adding about 10bits representing the decoding cost of each frame. Also, a DVS technique adjusted for the proposed format achieves 90% of efficiency compared to the oracle case, while keeping the run time overhead of the technique negligible.

  6. On the production of the positive antihydrogen ion {{\\bar{H}}^{+}} via radiative attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, C. M.; Charlton, M.; Straton, Jack C.

    2014-11-01

    We provide an estimate of the cross section for the radiative attachment of a second positron into the (1{{S}2}{{ }1}{{S}e}) state of the {{\\bar{H}}+} ion using Ohmura and Ohmura’s (1960 Phys. Rev. 118 154) effective range theory and the principle of detailed balance. The {{\\bar{H}}+} ion can potentially be created using interactions of positrons with trapped antihydrogen, and our analysis includes a discussion in which estimates of production rates are given. Motivations to produce {{\\bar{H}}+} include its potential use as an intermediary to cool antihydrogen to ultra-cold (sub-mK) temperatures for a variety of studies, including spectroscopy and probing the gravitational interaction of the anti-atom.

  7. Narrowband solid state vuv coherent source for laser cooling of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michan, J. Mario; Polovy, Gene; Madison, Kirk W.; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Momose, Takamasa

    2015-11-01

    We describe the design and performance of a solid-state pulsed source of narrowband (< 100 MHz) Lyman- α radiation designed for the purpose of laser cooling magnetically trapped antihydrogen. Our source utilizes an injection seeded Ti:Sapphire amplifier cavity to generate intense radiation at 729.4 nm, which is then sent through a frequency doubling stage and a frequency tripling stage to generate 121.56 nm light. Although the pulse energy at 121.56 nm is currently limited to 12 nJ with a repetition rate of 10 Hz, we expect to obtain greater than 0.1 μJ per pulse at 10 Hz by further optimizing the alignment of the pulse amplifier and the efficiency of the frequency tripling stage. Such a power will be sufficient for cooling a trapped antihydrogen atom from 500 mK to 20mK.

  8. Energy Transfer Dynamics of Formate Decomposition on Cu(110).

    PubMed

    Quan, Jiamei; Kondo, Takahiro; Wang, Guichang; Nakamura, Junji

    2017-03-20

    Energy transfer dynamics of formate (HCOOa ) decomposition on a Cu(110) surface has been studied by measuring the angle-resolved intensity and translational energy distributions of CO2 emitted from the surface in a steady-state reaction of HCOOH and O2 . The angular distribution of CO2 shows a sharp collimation with the direction perpendicular to the surface, as represented by cos(n) θ (n=6). The mean translational energy of CO2 is measured to be as low as 100 meV and is independent of the surface temperature (Ts ). These results clearly indicate that the decomposition of formate is a thermal non-equilibrium process in which a large amount of energy released by the decomposition reaction of formate is transformed into the internal energies of CO2 molecules. The thermal non-equilibrium features observed in the dynamics of formate decomposition support the proposed Eley-Rideal (ER)-type mechanism for formate synthesis on copper catalysts.

  9. Closure of supporting cell scar formations requires dynamic actin mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hordichok, Andrew J; Steyger, Peter S

    2007-10-01

    In many vertebrate inner ear sensory epithelia, dying sensory hair cells are extruded, and the apices of surrounding supporting cells converge to re-seal the epithelial barrier between the electrochemically-distinct endolymph and perilymph. These cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Dynamic microtubular mechanisms have been proposed for hair cell extrusion; while contractile actomyosin-based mechanisms are required for cellular extrusion and closure in epithelial monolayers. The hypothesis that cytoskeletal mechanisms are required for hair cell extrusion and supporting cell scar formation was tested using bullfrog saccules incubated with gentamicin (6h), and allowed to recover (18h). Explants were then fixed, labeled for actin and cytokeratins, and viewed with confocal microscopy. To block dynamic cytoskeletal processes, disruption agents for microtubules (colchicine, paclitaxel) myosin (Y-27632, ML-9) or actin (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A) were added during treatment and recovery. Microtubule disruption agents had no effect on hair cell extrusion or supporting cell scar formation. Myosin disruption agents appeared to slow down scar formation but not hair cell extrusion. Actin disruption agents blocked scar formation, and largely prevented hair cell extrusion. These data suggest that actin-based cytoskeletal processes are required for hair cell extrusion and supporting cell scar formation in bullfrog saccules.

  10. Closure of supporting cell scar formations requires dynamic actin mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hordichok, Andrew J.; Steyger, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    In many vertebrate inner ear sensory epithelia, dying sensory hair cells are extruded, and the apices of surrounding supporting cells converge to re-seal the epithelial barrier between the electrochemically-distinct endolymph and perilymph. These cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Dynamic microtubular mechanisms have been proposed for hair cell extrusion; while contractile actomyosin-based mechanisms are required for cellular extrusion and closure in epithelial monolayers. The hypothesis that cytoskeletal mechanisms are required for hair cell extrusion and supporting cell scar formation was tested using bullfrog saccules incubated with gentamicin (6 hours), and allowed to recover (18 hours). Explants were then fixed, labeled for actin and cytokeratins, and viewed with confocal microscopy. To block dynamic cytoskeletal processes, disruption agents for microtubules (colchicine, paclitaxel) myosin (Y-27632, ML-9) or actin (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A) were added during treatment and recovery. Microtubule disruption agents had no effect on hair cell extrusion or supporting cell scar formation. Myosin disruption agents appeared to slow down scar formation but not hair cell extrusion. Actin disruption agents blocked scar formation, and largely prevented hair cell extrusion. These data suggest that actin-based cytoskeletal processes are required for hair cell extrusion and supporting cell scar formation in bullfrog saccules. PMID:17716843

  11. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2014-10-05

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics.

  12. Trion formation dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Akashay; Moody, Galan; Schaibley, John R.; ...

    2016-01-05

    Here, we report charged exciton (trion) formation dynamics in doped monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, specifically molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), using resonant two-color pump-probe spectroscopy. When resonantly pumping the exciton transition, trions are generated on a picosecond time scale through exciton-electron interaction. As the pump energy is tuned from the high energy to low energy side of the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance, the trion formation time increases by ~50%. This feature can be explained by the existence of both localized and delocalized excitons in a disordered potential and suggests the existence of an exciton mobility edge in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  13. Trion formation dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akashay; Moody, Galan; Schaibley, John R.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G.; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqun; Tran, Kha; Scott, Marie E.; Overbeck, Vincent; Berghauser, Gunnar; Seifert, Edward J.; Pleskot, Dennis; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Richter, Marten; Malic, Ermin

    2016-01-05

    Here, we report charged exciton (trion) formation dynamics in doped monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, specifically molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), using resonant two-color pump-probe spectroscopy. When resonantly pumping the exciton transition, trions are generated on a picosecond time scale through exciton-electron interaction. As the pump energy is tuned from the high energy to low energy side of the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance, the trion formation time increases by ~50%. This feature can be explained by the existence of both localized and delocalized excitons in a disordered potential and suggests the existence of an exciton mobility edge in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  14. Dynamics of multi-tethered pyramidal satellite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, D.; Andreev, K.; Boyko, P.; Ivanova, E.; Pritykin, D.; Sidorenko, V.; Tourneur, C.; Yarotsky, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the dynamics of a multi-tethered pyramidal satellite formation rotating about its axis of symmetry in the nominal mode. Whereas the combination of rotation and gravity-gradient forces is insufficient to maintain the mutual positions of satellites, they are assumed to be equipped with low-thrust rocket engines. We propose a control strategy that allows the stabilization of the nominal spin state and demonstrate the system's proper operation by numerically simulating its controlled motion. The discussed multi-tethered formations could be employed, for example, to provide co-location of several satellites at a slot in geostationary orbit.

  15. Granular dynamics simulations of two-dimensional heap formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, J.; Tüautzüautn, U.; Burnell, J.; Heyes, D. M.

    1997-03-01

    Granular dynamics simulations have been carried out of vertical feed two-dimensional heap formation by a freefall method using a more realistic granule interaction law than has been employed in previous studies to permit prolonged contacts between adjacent granules. Stable heaps are found to form only on a geometrically rough base comprised of discrete particles, and heap formation is only weakly sensitive to the value of the contact friction coefficient. The appearance of avalanches, the pressure distribution on the base, and the voidage distribution are sensitive to the analytic form of the elastic component of the normal interaction, with a soft-sphere r-36 potential giving more realistic behavior than an equivalent Hooke law interaction with the same apparent spring constant. The r-36 interaction gives more realistic assembly dynamics as it introduces medium range collective motion caused by particle roughness and shape found in typical granular materials, without having to model anisotropic particles.

  16. Formation and dynamical history of the beta Pictoris system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M.

    2014-09-01

    The structure of the beta Pic disk holds many clues to its formation and dynamical history. In particular there is strong evidence for sculpting by the beta Pic-b planet. For example, a warp in the disk at 80au is thought to be driven by the secular perturbations of that planet, and scattering of comets by beta Pic-b is thought to be the origin of the Falling Evaporating Bodies. A clump in the disk coincident with the warp, also at ~80au, provides clues to the outer planetary system which for now is poorly constrained. One possible origin for the clump is in trapping of comets into resonance with an outer planet currently at ~60au, with an alternative scenario being a giant impact between planetary embryos. This talk will consider the various disk structures and what they tell us about the formation and dynamical history of the beta Pictoris system.

  17. Gas phase dynamics of triplet formation in benzophenone.

    PubMed

    Spighi, Gloria; Gaveau, Marc-André; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Poisson, Lionel; Soep, Benoît

    2014-05-28

    Benzophenone is a prototype molecule for photochemistry in the triplet state through its high triplet yield and reactivity. We have investigated its dynamics of triplet formation under the isolated gas phase conditions via femtosecond and nanosecond time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. This represents the complete evolution from the excitation in S2 to the final decay of T1 to the ground state S0. We have found that the triplet formation can be described almost as a direct process in preparing T1, the lowest reacting triplet state, from the S1 state after S2 → S1 internal conversion. The molecule was also deposited by a pick-up technique on cold argon clusters providing a soft relaxation medium without evaporation of the molecule and the mechanism was identical. This cluster technique is a model for medium influenced electronic relaxation and provides a continuous transition from the isolated gas phase to the relaxation dynamics in solution.

  18. Collisional and dynamical processes in moon and planet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The collisional and dynamical processes in moon and planet formation are discussed. A hydrodynamic code of collision calculations, the orbital element changes due to gravitational scattering, a validation of the mass shifting algorithm, a theory of rotations, and the origin of asteroids are studied. A numerical model of planet growth is discussed and a methodology to evaluate the rate at which megaregolith increases its depth as a function of total accumulate number of impacts on an initially smooth, coherent surface is described.

  19. Dynamical scalar hair formation around a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkel, Robert; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Witek, Helvi

    2016-12-01

    Scalar fields coupled to the Gauss-Bonnet invariant evade the known no-hair theorems and have nontrivial configurations around black holes. We focus on a scalar field that couples linearly to the Gauss-Bonnet invariant and hence exhibits shift symmetry. We study its dynamical evolution and the formation of scalar hair in a Schwarzschild background. We show that the evolution eventually settles to the known static hairy solutions in the appropriate limit.

  20. Track-etched membrane: dynamics of pore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1994-02-01

    The dynamics of pore formation during etching of heavy ion (Ar 9+ - 4.5 MeV/amu) irradiated bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films is determined by a conductivity cell. This work presents the theoretical basis of this method and describes the experimental procedure. The obtained results allow the determination of the track ( Vt) and bulk ( Vg) etch rates, and an estimate of the damage zone diameter in PC before etching.

  1. Ice formation on kaolinite: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosso, Gabriele C.; Tribello, Gareth A.; Zen, Andrea; Pedevilla, Philipp; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-12-01

    The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as important technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even if state-of-the-art experimental techniques are used. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long time scales that characterize nucleation events. Here, we have investigated several aspects of molecular dynamics simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation considering as a prototypical ice nucleating material the clay mineral kaolinite, which is of relevance in atmospheric science. We show via seeded molecular dynamics simulations that ice nucleation on the hydroxylated (001) face of kaolinite proceeds exclusively via the formation of the hexagonal ice polytype. The critical nucleus size is two times smaller than that obtained for homogeneous nucleation at the same supercooling. Previous findings suggested that the flexibility of the kaolinite surface can alter the time scale for ice nucleation within molecular dynamics simulations. However, we here demonstrate that equally flexible (or non flexible) kaolinite surfaces can lead to very different outcomes in terms of ice formation, according to whether or not the surface relaxation of the clay is taken into account. We show that very small structural changes upon relaxation dramatically alter the ability of kaolinite to provide a template for the formation of a hexagonal overlayer of water molecules at the water-kaolinite interface, and that this relaxation therefore determines the nucleation ability of this mineral.

  2. An experimental study of dynamics of drop formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Basaran, O.A.

    1995-06-01

    A liquid being ejected from a nozzle emanates from it as discrete, uniformly sized drops when the flow rate is sufficiently low. In this paper, an experimental study is presented of the dynamics of a viscous liquid drop that is being formed directly at the tip of a vertical tube into ambient air. The evolution in time of the drop shape and volume is monitored with a time resolution of 1/12 to 1 ms. Following the detachment of the previous drop, the profile of the new growing drop at first changes from spherical to pear-shaped. As time advances, the throat of the pear-shaped drop takes on the appearance of a liquid thread that connects the bottom portion of the drop that is about to detach to the rest of the liquid that is pendant from the tube. The focus here is on probing the effects of physical and geometric parameters on the universal features of drop formation, paying special attention to the development, extension, and breakup of the liquid thread and the satellite drops that are formed subsequent to its breakup. The role of surfactants in modifying the dynamics of drop formation is also studied. The effects of finite inertial, capillary, viscous, and gravitational forces are all accounted for to classify drastically different formation dynamics and to elucidate the fate of satellite drops following thread rupture.

  3. O the Dynamics of the Formation of Multiple Tropical Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Ferreira Rosana

    A nonlinear shallow water model on the sphere is used to study the early stages of tropical cyclone genesis, namely, the formation of tropical disturbances. Two particular cases in which one or more tropical disturbances are produced are studied: the ITCZ breakdown and the formation of disturbances that lead to twin tropical cyclones. The ITCZ breakdown is seen to be a plausible mechanism for the formation of tropical disturbances. This mechanism also offers an explanation for the observations of easterly waves outside the Atlantic basin. In the Eastern Pacific, in particular, the time and space clustering of tropical cyclone genesis lend support to the hypothesis that the ITCZ breakdown plays a role in their formation. Tropical cyclone twins are observed exclusively in the Indian Ocean and in the West Pacific near the dateline. They are believed to form in association with super cloud clusters that straddle the equator in those regions. Shallow water model results presented herein corroborate this hypothesis. The existence of preferred regions for their formation is proposed to be associated with the life cycle and movement of their parent super cloud clusters. The shallow water model proved to be a useful simple tool for investigating barotropic dynamical aspects of the formation of tropical cyclone disturbances.

  4. X-pinch dynamics: Neck formation and implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Fedunin, A. V.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2014-10-15

    We propose a model that describes the neck formation and implosion in an X-pinch. The process is simulated to go in two stages. The first stage is neck formation. This stage begins with an electrical explosion of the wires forming the X-pinch, and at the end of the stage, a micropinch (neck) is formed in the region where the wires are crossed. The second stage is neck implosion. The implosion is accompanied by outflow of matter from the neck region, resulting in the formation of a “hot spot”. Analytical estimates obtained in the study under consideration indicate that these stages are approximately equal in duration. Having analyzed the neck implosion dynamics, we have verified a scaling which makes it possible to explain the observed dependences of the time of occurrence of an x-ray pulse on the X-pinch current and mass.

  5. A Dynamical Study of the Formation of Peculiar Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, T. K.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Un estudlo de la formaci6n de diferentes tipos de galaxias peculiares (interactuantes) es conducido en base de la dina'mioa de la colisi6n lievando a su formaci6n usando la aproximaci6n impulsiva. Los resultados indican la existencia de una relaci6n caracteristica en base del camblo de la energia interna durante la colisi6n, cual determina el tipo de la galaxia peculiar formado. La relacion es analisada y valores criticos del camblo de Ia energia interna, ilevando a la interacci6n entre galaxias de varias intensidades y la formaci6n consecuente de varios tipos de sistemas peculiares es discutido. ABSTRACT. A study of the formation of different types of peculiar (interacting) galaxies is conducted based on the dynamics of the collision leading to their formation, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate the existance of a characteristic relationship, based on the internal energy changes during the collision, governing the type of peculiar galaxy formed. The relationship is analysed and critical values of internal energy changes, leading to galaxy interaction of varying intensities and consequent formation of different types of peculiar galaxies is discussed. Key words: GALAXIES-DYNAMICS -- GALAXIES-FORMATION

  6. Progress Toward a Format Standard for Flight Dynamics Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    In the beginning, there was FORTRAN, and it was... not so good. But it was universal, and all flight simulator equations of motion were coded with it. Then came ACSL, C, Ada, C++, C#, Java, FORTRAN-90, Matlab/Simulink, and a number of other programming languages. Since the halcyon punch card days of 1968, models of aircraft flight dynamics have proliferated in training devices, desktop engineering and development computers, and control design textbooks. With the rise of industry teaming and increased reliance on simulation for procurement decisions, aircraft and missile simulation models are created, updated, and exchanged with increasing frequency. However, there is no real lingua franca to facilitate the exchange of models from one simulation user to another. The current state-of-the-art is such that several staff-months if not staff-years are required to 'rehost' each release of a flight dynamics model from one simulation environment to another one. If a standard data package or exchange format were to be universally adopted, the cost and time of sharing and updating aerodynamics, control laws, mass and inertia, and other flight dynamic components of the equations of motion of an aircraft or spacecraft simulation could be drastically reduced. A 2002 paper estimated over $ 6 million in savings could be realized for one military aircraft type alone. This paper describes the efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) to develop a standard flight dynamic model exchange standard based on XML and HDF-5 data formats.

  7. Dynamics and pattern formation in a cancer network with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qianqian; Shen, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion is ubiquitous inside cells, and it is capable of inducing spontaneous pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems on a spatially homogeneous domain. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a diffusive cancer network regulated by microRNA and obtain the condition that the network undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and a Turing pattern bifurcation. In addition, we also develop the amplitude equation of the network model by using Taylor series expansion, multi-scaling and further expansion in powers of a small parameter. As a result of these analyses, we obtain the explicit condition on how the dynamics of the diffusive cancer network evolve. These results reveal that this system has rich dynamics, such as spotted stripe and hexagon patterns. The bifurcation diagram helps us understand the biological mechanism in the cancer network. Finally, numerical simulations confirm our analytical results.

  8. Dynamical Formation of Black Hole Binaries in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Kremer, Kyle; Rodriguez, Carl

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical predictions for black holes in field populations of binary stars are extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution, leading, for example, to predicted merger rates for binary black holes that span several orders of magnitude. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. We will present an overview of recent theoretical work on the dynamical formation of black hole binaries based on realistic N-body simulations of globular clusters. By calibrating theoretical models against observed properties of globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could eventually be detected by Advanced LIGO at a rate of at least ~ 100 per year, potentially dominating the overall detection rate of gravitational wave sources. Dynamical processes in globular clusters can also form very naturally the black hole X-ray binaries that have been tentatively identified recently in many Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters.

  9. Dynamics of electron transfer and exciton formation at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The combination of inorganic semiconductors with organic molecules to hybrid systems promises superior functionality of the interface compared to optoelectronic properties of the single materials. We have investigated the electron dynamics of the ZnO(10-10) surface and the influence of hydrogen and several organic molecules on the electronic structure using time-resolved two-photon-photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy. Hydrogen termination leads to the formation a metallic ZnO surface, whereas e.g. by pyridine adsorption a substantial work function reduction up to 2.9 eV is achieved, which can be useful controlling the energy level alignment at inorganic/organic interfaces. Furthermore, we directly monitor the hot electron relaxation in the ZnO conduction band and the formation of an excitonic state at the surface within a few ps, which decays mediated a thermal activated process on a 100 ps timescale. In a second set of experiments we have studied the dynamics of photoinduced electron transfer and solvation processes at the water ice-metal interface and the effect of co-adsorbed alkali ions (Na, K, Cs). Time-resolved 2PPE provides direct access to elementary processes like electron injection and the subsequent solvation dynamics which competes with the electron transfer back to the Cu(111) substrate. In particular, we study the electronic structure changes and ultrafast dynamics for the bulid-up of a solvation shell (up to about 6 water molecules) around individual alkali atoms at the metal surface. For ice mulitlayers doped with alkali ions we observe the formation of longlived electron alkali-water complexes.

  10. On the high inclination KBOs common dynamical formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Brasil, Pedro Ivo I.; Gomes, Rodney S.; Nesvorny, David

    2014-11-01

    The Kuiper belt is a dynamically intriguing region. Different "classes" of objects can be defined, according to their orbital properties. These are: the classic belt (with the subclasses of cold & hot objects), resonant objects, scattered disk and extended scattered disk. In this work, we seek to investigate possible common origins, during the orbital conformation of the giant planets, for the formation of classes of objects with moderate or high inclination. Interesting results were obtained for the hot objects of the Kuiper belt and the objects belonging to the extended scattered disk. The general mechanism found for the formation of these objects can be summarized as: (i) scattering phase due to the interaction with the giant planets, during the LHB; (ii) capture into mean motion resonances (MMR) with Neptune; (iii) capture into Kozai resonance/mode; (iv) escape FROM both resonances into a mode known as "hibernation mode", in which the object has low eccentricity and high inclination; (v) fossilization in an orbit outside the resonant semi-major axis due to residual migration of Neptune. The results show good consistency between known objects with the model of dynamical formation.

  11. A natural experiment of social network formation and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tuan Q.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

    2015-01-01

    Social networks affect many aspects of life, including the spread of diseases, the diffusion of information, the workers' productivity, and consumers' behavior. Little is known, however, about how these networks form and change. Estimating causal effects and mechanisms that drive social network formation and dynamics is challenging because of the complexity of engineering social relations in a controlled environment, endogeneity between network structure and individual characteristics, and the lack of time-resolved data about individuals' behavior. We leverage data from a sample of 1.5 million college students on Facebook, who wrote more than 630 million messages and 590 million posts over 4 years, to design a long-term natural experiment of friendship formation and social dynamics in the aftermath of a natural disaster. The analysis shows that affected individuals are more likely to strengthen interactions, while maintaining the same number of friends as unaffected individuals. Our findings suggest that the formation of social relationships may serve as a coping mechanism to deal with high-stress situations and build resilience in communities. PMID:25964337

  12. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Heitzig, J.; Kornek, U.; Schöll, E.; Kurths, J.

    2015-08-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation (“coalitions”) on an acquaintance network. We include both the network’s influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects.

  13. A natural experiment of social network formation and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tuan Q; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2015-05-26

    Social networks affect many aspects of life, including the spread of diseases, the diffusion of information, the workers' productivity, and consumers' behavior. Little is known, however, about how these networks form and change. Estimating causal effects and mechanisms that drive social network formation and dynamics is challenging because of the complexity of engineering social relations in a controlled environment, endogeneity between network structure and individual characteristics, and the lack of time-resolved data about individuals' behavior. We leverage data from a sample of 1.5 million college students on Facebook, who wrote more than 630 million messages and 590 million posts over 4 years, to design a long-term natural experiment of friendship formation and social dynamics in the aftermath of a natural disaster. The analysis shows that affected individuals are more likely to strengthen interactions, while maintaining the same number of friends as unaffected individuals. Our findings suggest that the formation of social relationships may serve as a coping mechanism to deal with high-stress situations and build resilience in communities.

  14. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Auer, S.; Heitzig, J.; Kornek, U.; Schöll, E.; Kurths, J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation (“coalitions”) on an acquaintance network. We include both the network’s influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects. PMID:26303622

  15. Dynamics of Research Team Formation in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Caihong; Wan, Yuzi; Chen, Yu

    Most organizations encourage the formation of teams to accomplish complicated tasks, and vice verse, effective teams could bring lots benefits and profits for organizations. Network structure plays an important role in forming teams. In this paper, we specifically study the dynamics of team formation in large research communities in which knowledge of individuals plays an important role on team performance and individual utility. An agent-based model is proposed, in which heterogeneous agents from research communities are described and empirically tested. Each agent has a knowledge endowment and a preference for both income and leisure. Agents provide a variable input (‘effort’) and their knowledge endowments to production. They could learn from others in their team and those who are not in their team but have private connections in community to adjust their own knowledge endowment. They are allowed to join other teams or work alone when it is welfare maximizing to do so. Various simulation experiments are conducted to examine the impacts of network topology, knowledge diffusion among community network, and team output sharing mechanisms on the dynamics of team formation.

  16. Cloud-particle galactic gas dynamics and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic gas dynamics, spiral structure, and star formation are discussed in relation to N-body computational studies based on a cloud-particle model of the interstellar medium. On the small scale, the interstellar medium is seen as cloud-dominated and supernova-perturbed. It is noted that the cloud-particle model simulates cloud-cloud collisions, the formation of stellar associations, and supernova explosions as dominant local processes. On the large scale, in response to a spiral galactic gravitational field, global density waves and galactic shocks develop having large-scale characteristics similar to those found in continuum gas dynamical studies. Both the system of gas clouds and the system of young stellar associations forming from the clouds figure in the global spiral structure. However, with the attributes of neither assuming a continuum of gas (as in continuum gas dynamical studies) or requiring a prescribed equation of state (such as the isothermal condition), the cloud-particle picture retains much of the detail lost in earlier work. By detail is meant the small-scale features and structures so important in understanding the local, turbulent state of the interstellar medium as well as the degree of raggedness often seen to be superposed on the global spiral structure.

  17. Concept formation: 'object' attributes dynamically inhibited from conscious awareness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan; Bossomaier, Terry; Mitchell, D John

    2004-03-01

    We advance a dominant neural strategy for facilitating conceptual thought. Concepts are groupings of "object" attributes. Once the brain learns such critical groupings, the "object" attributes are inhibited from conscious awareness. We see the whole, not the parts. The details are inhibited when the concept network is activated, ie. the inhibition is dynamic and can be switched on and off. Autism is suggested to be the state of retarded concept formation. Our model predicts the possibility of accessing nonconscious information by artificially disinhibiting (turning off) the inhibiting networks associated with concept formation, using transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS). For example, this opens the door for the restoration of perfect pitch, for recalling detail, for acquiring accent-free second languages beyond puberty, and even for enhancing creativity. The model further shows how unusual autistic savant skills as well as certain psychopathologies can be due respectively to privileged or inadvertent access to information that is normally inhibited from conscious awareness.

  18. Brownian dynamics simulation of sickle hemoglobin bundle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Gunton, James; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2010-03-01

    The physical properties of biopolymer fibers, such as their stability and degree of aggregation, are implicated in many diseases, including sickle cell anemia. The natural chirality of protofilaments plays a crucial role in the formation of sickle hemoglobin fiber which leads to the permanent blockage of microvessels. We use Brownian dynamics to investigate the kinetics of fiber aggregation. The geometrical helical structure and chirality of the filaments are modeled by anisotropic patch-like interactions. We present the kinetics of fiber formation and study the possibility of a finite critical fiber bundle size. We compare our results with various experimental and theoretical results. This work is supported by grants from the NSF and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Foundation.

  19. Dynamic formation of oriented patches in chondrocyte cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Grote, Marcus J; Palumberi, Viviana; Wagner, Barbara; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    Growth factors have a significant impact not only on the growth dynamics but also on the phenotype of chondrocytes (Barbero et al. in J. Cell. Phys. 204:830-838, 2005). In particular, as chondrocytes approach confluence, the cells tend to align and form coherent patches. Starting from a mathematical model for fibroblast populations at equilibrium (Mogilner et al. in Physica D 89:346-367, 1996), a dynamic continuum model with logistic growth is developed. Both linear stability analysis and numerical solutions of the time-dependent nonlinear integro-partial differential equation are used to identify the key parameters that lead to pattern formation in the model. The numerical results are compared quantitatively to experimental data by extracting statistical information on orientation, density and patch size through Gabor filters.

  20. Percolation, Morphogenesis, and Burgers Dynamics in Blood Vessels Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, A.; Ambrosi, D.; Coniglio, A.; de Candia, A.; di Talia, S.; Giraudo, E.; Serini, G.; Preziosi, L.; Bussolino, F.

    2003-03-01

    Experiments of in vitro formation of blood vessels show that cells randomly spread on a gel matrix autonomously organize to form a connected vascular network. We propose a simple model which reproduces many features of the biological system. We show that both the model and the real system exhibit a fractal behavior at small scales, due to the process of migration and dynamical aggregation, followed at large scale by a random percolation behavior due to the coalescence of aggregates. The results are in good agreement with the analysis performed on the experimental data.

  1. Dynamic formation and magnetic support of loop or arcade prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhoven, Gerard; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of model dynamic simulations of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of a confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of a normal polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex.

  2. Photoionization dynamics of pure helium droplets: exciton formation vs autoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, Oleg; Gessner, Oliver; Buennermann, Oliver; Wang, Chia; Leone, Steve; Neumark, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    ^4He droplets possess unique properties. In addition to fundamental quantum effects of superfluidity the droplets show ability to efficiently pick-up foreign atoms, molecules and complexes, which is used in a number of matrix isolation spectroscopies in energy domain. Complementary to these studies, novel time-domain experiments will be presented emphasizing dynamics of photoionization of pure helium droplets. The experiments follow up on a recent observation of ultraslow (E<1 meV) photoelectrons emitted from droplets upon ionization by synchrotron radiation. The dynamics of photoionization is studied by exciting droplets with a pulsed VUV radiation generated using the high-order harmonic generation technique. The droplets subsequently interact with an IR pulse, which probes transient electronic states before droplet autoionization. Femtosecond and picosecond relaxation dynamics and competition between droplet ionization and formation of a long-lived excited state are observed. Probe pulse leads to droplet ``re-excitation'' and production of even more ultraslow electrons. The results will be extended to doped droplets anticipating indirect dopant ionization dynamics.

  3. Explaining formation of Astronomical Jets using Dynamic Universe Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical jets are observed from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such jet is explained using SITA simulations of Dynamic Universe Model. For this purpose the path traced by a test neutron is calculated and depicted using a set up of one densemass of the mass equivalent to mass of Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. Five different kinds of theoretical simulations gave positive results The path travelled by this test neutron was found to be an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center. This is another result from Dynamic Universe Model. It solves new problems like a. Variable Mass Rocket Trajectory Problem b. Explaining Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations c. Astronomical jets observed from Milkyway Center d. Prediction of Blue shifted Galaxies e. Explaining Pioneer Anomaly f. Prediction of New Horizons satellite trajectory etc. Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step

  4. Dynamic Membrane Formation in Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Bioreactors: Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic membrane (DM) formation in dynamic membrane bioreactors plays an important role in achieving efficient solid-liquid separation. In order to study the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to DM formation in anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) processes, EPS extraction from and re-addition to bulk sludge were carried out in short-term filtration tests. DM formation behaviors could be well simulated by cake filtration model, and sludge with EPS re-addition showed the highest resistance coefficient, followed by sludge after EPS extraction. The DM layers exhibited a higher resistance and a lower porosity for the sludge sample after EPS extraction and for the sludge with EPS re-addition. Particle size of sludge flocs decreased after EPS extraction, and changed little with EPS re-addition, which was confirmed by interaction energy analysis. Further investigations by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and batch tests suggested that the removal of in-situ EPS stimulated release of soluble EPS, and re-added EPS were present as soluble EPS rather than bound EPS, which thus improved the formation of DM. The present work revealed the role of EPS in anaerobic DM formation, and could facilitate the operation of AnDMBR processes. PMID:26436551

  5. Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets

    PubMed Central

    Das, Siddhartha; Kumar, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently reported that in presence of low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) transport, preformed bacterial biofilms, several hours after their formation, may degenerate in form of filamentous structures, known as streamers. In this work, we explain that such streamers form as the highly viscous liquid states of the intrinsically viscoelastic biofilms. Such “viscous liquid” state can be hypothesized by noting that the time of appearance of the streamers is substantially larger than the viscoelastic relaxation time scale of the biofilms, and this appearance is explained by the inability of a viscous liquid to withstand external shear. Further, by identifying the post formation dynamics of the streamers as that of a viscous liquid jet in a surrounding flow field, we can interpret several unexplained issues associated with the post-formation dynamics of streamers, such as the clogging of the flow passage or the exponential time growth of streamer dimensions. Overall our manuscript provides a biophysical basis for understanding the evolution of biofilm streamers in creeping flows. PMID:25410423

  6. Molecular dynamics study of the primary ferrofluid aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanygin, B. M.; Kovalenko, V. F.; Petrychuk, M. V.; Dzyan, S. A.

    2012-11-01

    Investigations of the phase transitions and self-organization in the magnetic aggregates are of the fundamental and applied interest. The long-range ordering structures described in the Tománek's systematization (M. Yoon, and D. Tománek, 2010 [1]) are not yet obtained in the direct molecular dynamics simulations. The resulted structures usually are the linear chains or circles, or, else, amorphous (liquid) formations. In the present work, it was shown, that the thermodynamically equilibrium primary ferrofluid aggregate has either the long-range ordered or liquid phase. Due to the unknown steric layer force and other model idealizations, the clear experimental verification of the real equilibrium phase is still required. The predicted long-range ordered (crystallized) phase produces the faceting shape of the primary ferrofluid aggregate, which can be recognized experimentally. The medical (antiviral) application of the crystallized aggregates has been suggested. Dynamic formation of all observed ferrofluid nanostructures conforms to the Tománek's systematization.

  7. Spontaneous formation of polyglutamine nanotubes with molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

    2010-04-01

    Expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) beyond the pathogenic threshold (35-40 Gln) is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, several forms of spinocerebellar ataxias and spinobulbar muscular atrophy. To determine the structure of polyglutamine aggregates we perform replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations coupled with the optimized potential for effective peptide forcefield. Using a range of temperatures from 250 to 700 K, we study the aggregation kinetics of the polyglutamine monomer and dimer with chain lengths from 30 to 50 residues. All monomers show a similar structural change at the same temperature from α-helical structure to random coil, without indication of any significant β-strand. For dimers, by contrast, starting from random structures, we observe spontaneous formation of antiparallel β-sheets and triangular and circular β-helical structures for polyglutamine with 40 residues in a 400 ns 50 temperature replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation (total integrated time 20 μs). This ˜32 Å diameter structure reorganizes further into a tight antiparallel double-stranded ˜22 Å nanotube with 22 residues per turn close to Perutz' model for amyloid fibers as water-filled nanotubes. This diversity of structures suggests the existence of polymorphism for polyglutamine with possibly different pathways leading to the formation of toxic oligomers and to fibrils.

  8. Stellar Dynamical Processes in Massive Star and Star Cluster Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan; Eyer, L.

    2009-01-01

    We study how high precision astrometric measurements by SIM and GAIA of stars involved in dynamical ejection events from star clusters can constrain theories of massive star and star cluster formation. We focus on the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). First, we investigate the scientific potential associated with an accurate measurement of the distance and proper motion of Theta 1 Ori C, which is the most massive star in the cluster and was recently involved (about 4000 years ago) in the ejection of a B star: the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) star. The motion of the BN star has taken it close to a massive protostar, known as source I, where it appears to have influenced the accretion and outflow activity, most likely by a tidal interaction with the accretion disk. An accurate proper motion measurement of Theta 1 Ori C will constrain BN's initial motion, allowing us to search for deflections caused by the gravitational potential of the massive protostar. Second, we search the Hipparcos catalog for candidate runaway stars, i.e. that have been dynamically ejected from the cluster over the course of the last several Myr. SIM and GAIA observations of these stars will be needed to confirm their origin from the ONC. The results of this study will constrain the star cluster formation timescale and the statistics of the population of ejected stars. JCT acknowledges support from from NSF CAREER grant AST-0645412 and a grant from NASA for SIM Science Studies.

  9. Formation and field-driven dynamics of nematic spheroids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2017-07-19

    Unlike the canonical application of liquid crystals (LCs), LC displays, emerging technologies based on LC materials are increasingly leveraging the presence of nanoscale defects. The inherent nanoscale characteristics of LC defects present both significant opportunities as well as barriers for the application of this fascinating class of materials. Simulation-based approaches to the study of the effects of confinement and interface anchoring conditions on LC domains has resulted in significant progress over the past decade, where simulations are now able to access experimentally-relevant length scales while simultaneously capturing nanoscale defect structures. In this work, continuum simulations were performed in order to study the dynamics of micron-scale nematic LC spheroids of varying shape. Nematic spheroids are one of the simplest inherently defect-containing LC structures and are relevant to polymer-dispersed LC-based "smart" window technology. Simulation results include nematic phase formation and external field-switching dynamics of nematic spheroids ranging in shape from oblate to prolate. Results include both qualitative and quantitative insight into the complex coupling of nanoscale defect dynamics and structure transitions to micron-scale reorientation. Dynamic mechanisms are presented and related to structural transitions in LC defects present in the nematic domain. Domain-averaged metrics including order parameters and response times are determined for a range of experimentally-accessible electric field strengths. These results have both fundamental and technological relevance, in that increased understanding of LC dynamics in the presence of defects is a key barrier to continued advancement in the field.

  10. Dynamic Pattern Formation in Electron-Beam-Induced Etching [Emergent formation of dynamic topographic patterns in electron beam induced etching

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Aiden A.; Bahm, Alan; Bishop, James; ...

    2015-12-15

    Here, we report highly ordered topographic patterns that form on the surface of diamond, span multiple length scales, and have a symmetry controlled by the precursor gas species used in electron-beam-induced etching (EBIE). The pattern formation dynamics reveals an etch rate anisotropy and an electron energy transfer pathway that is overlooked by existing EBIE models. Therefore, we, modify established theory such that it explains our results and remains universally applicable to EBIE. Furthermore, the patterns can be exploited in controlled wetting, optical structuring, and other emerging applications that require nano- and microscale surface texturing of a wide band-gap material.

  11. Dynamics of biofilm formation during anaerobic digestion of organic waste.

    PubMed

    Langer, Susanne; Schropp, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Othman, Maazuza; Kazda, Marian

    2014-10-01

    Biofilm-based reactors are effectively used for wastewater treatment but are not common in biogas production. This study investigated biofilm dynamics on biofilm carriers incubated in batch biogas reactors at high and low organic loading rates for sludge from meat industry dissolved air flotation units. Biofilm formation and dynamics were studied using various microscopic techniques. Resulting micrographs were analysed for total cell numbers, thickness of biofilms, biofilm-covered surface area, and the area covered by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Cell numbers within biofilms (10(11) cells ml(-1)) were up to one order of magnitude higher compared to the numbers of cells in the fluid reactor content. Further, biofilm formation and structure mainly correlated with the numbers of microorganisms present in the fluid reactor content and the organic loading. At high organic loading (45 kg VS m(-3)), the thickness of the continuous biofilm layer ranged from 5 to 160 μm with an average of 51 μm and a median of 26 μm. Conversely, at lower organic loading (15 kg VS m(-3)), only microcolonies were detectable. Those microcolonies increased in their frequency of occurrence during ongoing fermentation. Independently from the organic loading rate, biofilms were embedded completely in EPS within seven days. The maturation and maintenance of biofilms changed during the batch fermentation due to decreasing substrate availability. Concomitant, detachment of microorganisms within biofilms was observed simultaneously with the decrease of biogas formation. This study demonstrates that biofilms of high cell densities can enhance digestion of organic waste and have positive effects on biogas production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. E-mail: emartinez@cida.ve

    2011-06-20

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that {approx}50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar {Omega}{sub p}, while three (33%) do not.

  13. Observation of the 1S-2S transition in trapped antihydrogen.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M; Alves, B X R; Baker, C J; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Carruth, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Cohen, S; Collister, R; Eriksson, S; Evans, A; Evetts, N; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Ishida, A; Johnson, M A; Jones, S A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Mathers, M; Maxwell, D; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Michan, J M; Momose, T; Munich, J J; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R L; Sameed, M; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; Stutter, G; So, C; Tharp, T D; Thompson, J E; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2017-01-26

    The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics over the past 200 years. Historical examples of its importance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman and others, the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S-2S transition by Hänsch to a precision of a few parts in 10(15). Recent technological advances have allowed us to focus on antihydrogen-the antimatter equivalent of hydrogen. The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today's Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates the study of antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter. In particular, the CPT (charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal) theorem, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Here we report the observation of the 1S-2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen. We determine that the frequency of the transition, which is driven by two photons from a laser at 243 nanometres, is consistent with that expected for hydrogen in the same environment. This laser excitation of a quantum state of an atom of antimatter represents the most precise measurement performed on an anti-atom. Our result is consistent with CPT invariance at a relative precision of about 2 × 10(-10).

  14. Star Formation and Dynamics in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapelli, Michela; Gualandris, Alessia

    The centre of our Galaxy is one of the most studied and yet enigmatic places in the Universe. At a distance of about 8 kpc from our Sun, the Galactic centre (GC) is the ideal environment to study the extreme processes that take place in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Despite the hostile environment, several tens of early-type stars populate the central parsec of our Galaxy. A fraction of them lie in a thin ring with mild eccentricity and inner radius ˜ 0.04 pc, while the S-stars, i.e. the ˜ 30 stars closest to the SMBH ( lesssim 0.04 pc), have randomly oriented and highly eccentric orbits. The formation of such early-type stars has been a puzzle for a long time: molecular clouds should be tidally disrupted by the SMBH before they can fragment into stars. We review the main scenarios proposed to explain the formation and the dynamical evolution of the early-type stars in the GC. In particular, we discuss the most popular in situ scenarios (accretion disc fragmentation and molecular cloud disruption) and migration scenarios (star cluster inspiral and Hills mechanism). We focus on the most pressing challenges that must be faced to shed light on the process of star formation in the vicinity of a SMBH.

  15. Nanovoid Formation and Dynamics in He+-Implanted Nanocrystalline Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Bruno; Frabboni, Stefano; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Tonini, Rita; Ottaviani, Giampiero; Narducci, Dario

    2014-10-01

    Helium implantation in single crystal silicon is known to lead, after a proper thermal treatment, to the formation of voids with diameters ranging between 10 nm and 30 nm. Formation of voids is governed by the coalescence of vacancies created by implantation, initially trapping helium atoms. At high temperatures (), helium leaves the nanobubbles and outdiffuses, while the now empty voids grow in size and eventually change their shape to form tetrakaidecahedra (Wulff construction). In this communication, we report how He+ implantation in heavily boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon shows a completely different dynamics. Annealing at leads to the formation of large voids, located around grain boundaries, along with a large number of nanovoids with an average diameter of 2-4 nm and an estimated density of distributed throughout the grains. Annealing at higher temperature (up to ) also induces a decrease of the void size with a change in their density, finally accounting to . The high temperature annealing also causes vacancy evaporation down to a depth of 80-100 nm from the outer surface. The possibility of obtaining a stable, uniform distribution of nanometer-sized voids is of major relevance as a novel tool for phonon and electron engineering in thermoelectric materials.

  16. The dynamics of radiation formation in a FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ognivenko, V.

    1995-12-31

    The dynamics of stimulated radiation formation from spontaneous emission of the relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic helical undulator is investigated theoretically. The total radiation field of the electron beam has been calculated by summating the spontaneous undulator radiation fields of its individual electrons. The nonlinear dynamics of pointed electrons motion in the total radiation field and the self-amplification of this radiation are considered for the finite length of the electron beam. We analyzed the linear and nonlinear regimes for the one dimensional model. In the linear regime, the longitudinal displacements of electrons relative to their equilibrium trajectories in the undulator have been obtained anallyticatly as functions of entry time, the beam length and axial position of electrons in the undulator. The dependence of the efficiency on the beam length is established. We determined the mechanisms of axial beam bunching in the case of the intense electron beam, where the average distance between electrons in the beam reference frame is smaller than the undulator radiation wavelength, and in the limit case of ultra-short wavelength radiation, where the number of particles over the wavelength is not very large. The one-dimensional numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamics of the beam electron motion in the undulator magnetic field and the total radiation field is carried out for the finite beam length. The expression obtained by the analytical methods well agrees with the numerical simulation.

  17. Low-energy scattering of antihydrogen by helium and molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Armour, E. A. G.; Todd, A. C.; Liu, Y.; Gregory, M. R.; Jonsell, S.; Plummer, M.

    2008-08-08

    In this paper, we describe in detail calculations that we have carried out of cross sections for rearrangement processes in very low-energy helium+antihydrogen (H-bar) scattering that result in He{sup +}p-bar+Ps or Hep-bar+e{sup +} or {alpha}p-bar+Ps{sup -}. The interaction between the leptons is taken into account very accurately. Results are presented for all three processes. A description is also given of a preliminary calculation of elastic and antiproton annihilation cross sections for very low-energy H{sub 2}+H-bar scattering.

  18. Pulsed Sisyphus scheme for laser cooling of atomic (anti)hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Saijun; Brown, Roger C; Phillips, William D; Porto, J V

    2011-05-27

    We propose a laser cooling technique in which atoms are selectively excited to a dressed metastable state whose light shift and decay rate are spatially correlated for Sisyphus cooling. The case of cooling magnetically trapped (anti)hydrogen with the 1S-2S-3P transitions by using pulsed ultraviolet and continuous-wave visible lasers is numerically simulated. We find a number of appealing features including rapid three-dimensional cooling from ∼1 K to recoil-limited, millikelvin temperatures, as well as suppressed spin-flip loss and manageable photoionization loss. © 2011 American Physical Society

  19. PSEUDOBULGE FORMATION AS A DYNAMICAL RATHER THAN A SECULAR PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio; Carollo, Marcella; Madau, Piero

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the formation and evolution of the pseudobulge in 'Eris', a high-resolution N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamic cosmological simulation that successfully reproduces a Milky-Way-like massive late-type spiral in an cold dark matter universe. At the present epoch, Eris has a virial mass M{sub vir} {approx_equal} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, a photometric stellar mass M{sub *} = 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, a bulge-to-total ratio B/T = 0.26, and a weak nuclear bar. We find that the bulk of the pseudobulge forms quickly at high redshift via a combination of non-axisymmetric disk instabilities and tidal interactions or mergers, both occurring on dynamical timescales, not through slow secular processes at lower redshift. Its subsequent evolution is not strictly secular either, and is closely intertwined with the evolution of the stellar bar. In fact, the structure that we recognize as a pseudobulge today evolved from a stellar bar that formed at high redshift due to tidal interactions with satellites, was destroyed by minor mergers at z {approx} 3, re-formed shortly after, and weakened again following a steady gas inflow at z {approx}< 1. The gradual dissolution of the bar ensued at z {approx} 1 and continues until the present without increasing the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner regions. In this scenario, the pseudobulge is not a separate component from the inner disk in terms of formation path; rather, it is the first step in the inside-out formation of the baryonic disk, in agreement with the fact that pseudobulges of massive spiral galaxies typically have a dominant old stellar population. If our simulations do indeed reproduce the formation mechanisms of massive spirals, then the progenitors of late-type galaxies should have strong bars and small photometric pseudobulges at high redshift.

  20. Pseudobulge Formation as a Dynamical Rather than a Secular Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio; Carollo, Marcella; Madau, Piero

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of the pseudobulge in "Eris," a high-resolution N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamic cosmological simulation that successfully reproduces a Milky-Way-like massive late-type spiral in an cold dark matter universe. At the present epoch, Eris has a virial mass M vir ~= 8 × 1011 M ⊙, a photometric stellar mass M * = 3.2 × 1010 M ⊙, a bulge-to-total ratio B/T = 0.26, and a weak nuclear bar. We find that the bulk of the pseudobulge forms quickly at high redshift via a combination of non-axisymmetric disk instabilities and tidal interactions or mergers, both occurring on dynamical timescales, not through slow secular processes at lower redshift. Its subsequent evolution is not strictly secular either, and is closely intertwined with the evolution of the stellar bar. In fact, the structure that we recognize as a pseudobulge today evolved from a stellar bar that formed at high redshift due to tidal interactions with satellites, was destroyed by minor mergers at z ~ 3, re-formed shortly after, and weakened again following a steady gas inflow at z <~ 1. The gradual dissolution of the bar ensued at z ~ 1 and continues until the present without increasing the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner regions. In this scenario, the pseudobulge is not a separate component from the inner disk in terms of formation path; rather, it is the first step in the inside-out formation of the baryonic disk, in agreement with the fact that pseudobulges of massive spiral galaxies typically have a dominant old stellar population. If our simulations do indeed reproduce the formation mechanisms of massive spirals, then the progenitors of late-type galaxies should have strong bars and small photometric pseudobulges at high redshift.

  1. Mixing dynamics and pattern formation around flow stagnation points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We study the mixing of two reactive fluids in the presence of convective instabilities. Such system is characterized by the formation of unique porosity patterns and mixing dynamics linked to the evolution of vortices and stagnation points. Around them, the fluid-fluid interface is stretched and compressed, which enhances mixing and triggers chemical reactions, and the system can be analyzed using fluid deformation model. We consider velocity fields generated by a double gyre synthetic velocity field and Rayleigh-Bénard and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The different flow structures can be visualized by the strain rate and the finite time Lyapunov exponents. We show that the mixing enhancement given by the scalar dissipation rate is controlled by the equilibrium between interface compression and diffusion, which depends on the velocity field configuration. Furthermore, we establish a quantitative relation between the mixing rate and the evolution of the potential energy of the fluid when convection is driven by density instabilities.

  2. In Situ Formation and Dynamical Evolution of Hot Jupiter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter H.; Laughlin, Gregory P.

    2016-10-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods shorter than ˜10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances, only to subsequently experience long-range inward migration. Here, we offer the contrasting view that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population formed in situ via the core-accretion process. We show that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated by super-Earth-type planets, comprising 10-20 Earth masses of refractory material. An in situ formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional low-mass planets with periods shorter than ˜100 days. Our calculations further demonstrate that dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems’ lifetimes should increase the inclinations of such companions, rendering transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  3. Current Sheet Formation and Reconnection Dynamics in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    Current sheet formation is a necessary consequence of the evolution of the multi-polar magnetic field topologies that are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. We present a very high-resolution study of 3D MHD current sheet formation and the resulting reconnection dynamics in an environment appropriate for the corona. The initial field consists of a translationally invariant, potential field with a null-point topology (i.e., 4-flux systems) and a low-beta plasma. A finite-extent, 3D Syrovatskii-type current sheet forms as a result of stressing of this system by a uniform, incompressible flow applied at the line-tied photospheric boundary. The system is assumed to be ideal, except for the presence of numerical resistivity. The fully 3-D evolution is calculated with very high resolution (9x and 10x refinement across the full extent of the current sheet) using the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS). The initial evolution of this computationally-intensive simulation results in a current sheet with a nearly 30-to-1 aspect ratio, a significant fraction of the system characteristic length, that unexpectedly appears to be stable. In addition, up to this point in the evolution any magnetic reconnection that we observe is of the slow Sweet-Parker type. We expect, however, that as we continue stressing the field, the current sheet will become unstable and develop explosive dynamics. We discuss the implications of our results on coronal structure and activity, such as heating and eruptions. This work has been supported, in part, by the NASA HTP and SR&T programs.

  4. Dynamical complexity in the perception-based network formation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Moon, Eunyoung

    2016-12-01

    Many link formation mechanisms for the evolution of social networks have been successful to reproduce various empirical findings in social networks. However, they have largely ignored the fact that individuals make decisions on whether to create links to other individuals based on cost and benefit of linking, and the fact that individuals may use perception of the network in their decision making. In this paper, we study the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation. Here each individual has her own perception of the actual network, and uses it to decide whether to create a link to another individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. As for initial actual networks, we consider both homogeneous and heterogeneous cases. The homogeneous initial actual network is modeled by Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, while we take a star network for the heterogeneous case. In any cases, individual perceptions of the actual network are modeled by ER random networks with controllable linking probability. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. As the number of jumps is the consequence of the dynamical complexity, we discuss the effect of initial conditions on the number of jumps to find that the dynamical complexity strongly depends on how much individuals initially overestimate or underestimate the link density of the actual network. For the heterogeneous case, the role of the highly connected individual as an information spreader is also discussed.

  5. Phase separation like dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guannan; Thutupalli, Shashi; Wigbers, Manon; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Collective motion exists in many living organisms as an advantageous strategy to help the entire group with predation, forage, and survival. However, the principles of self-organization underlying such collective motions remain unclear. During various developmental stages of the soil-dwelling bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, different types of collective motions are observed. In particular, when starved, M. xanthus cells eventually aggregate together to form 3-dimensional structures (fruiting bodies), inside which cells sporulate in response to the stress. We study the fruiting body formation process as an out of equilibrium phase separation process. As local cell density increases, the dynamics of the aggregation M. xanthus cells switch from a spatio-temporally random process, resembling nucleation and growth, to an emergent pattern formation process similar to a spinodal decomposition. By employing high-resolution microscopy and a video analysis system, we are able to track the motion of single cells within motile collective groups, while separately tuning local cell density, cell velocity and reversal frequency, probing the multi-dimensional phase space of M. xanthus development.

  6. Dynamic observation of cone formation on Cu by ion sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1988-06-01

    Cone formation on Cu due to ion sputtering was observed dynamically in a scanning electron microscope with a 16-mm movie camera without interrupting the sputtering process. 3-keV argon ions were used for sputtering at an ambient temperature. Cones formed in a polycrystalline sample of Cu for both cases with and without a molybdenum seeding material (after Wehner), while no cones were found for a single crystal Cu(111) surface even with the seeding material. The use of the seeding material resulted in sharp edge (cliff) between the sputtered region and unsputtered region shadowed by the seeding material. Further simultaneous sputtering of the both areas by removing the seeding material formed another cones at the cliff and the sputtered atoms from the cliff sputtered the cones formerly formed just below the cliff. Then quick recess of the latter cones was observed. This revealed that not only incident ions but also the sputtered atoms take a significant role in the cone formation. Slip-like morphological changes due to ion bombardment of the seeding material were also observed.

  7. The Modified Dynamics is Conducive to Galactic Warp Formation.

    PubMed

    Brada; Milgrom

    2000-03-01

    There is an effect in the modified dynamics that is conducive to the formation of warps. Because of the nonlinearity of the theory, the internal dynamics of a galaxy is affected by a perturber over and above possible tidal effects. For example, a relatively distant and light companion or the mean influence of a parent cluster, with negligible tidal effects, could still produce a significant warp in the outer part of a galactic disk. We present results of numerical calculations for simplified models that show, for instance, that a satellite with the (baryonic) mass and distance of the Magellanic Clouds can distort the axisymmetric field of the Milky Way enough to produce a warp of the magnitude (and position) observed. Details of the warp geometry remain to be explained; we use a static configuration that can produce only warps with a straight line of nodes. In more realistic simulations, one must reckon with the motion of the perturbing body, which sometimes occurs on timescales not much longer than the response time of the disk.

  8. Complex formation dynamics in a single-molecule electronic device

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Huimin; Li, Wengang; Chen, Jiewei; He, Gen; Li, Longhua; Olson, Mark A.; Sue, Andrew C.-H.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule electronic devices offer unique opportunities to investigate the properties of individual molecules that are not accessible in conventional ensemble experiments. However, these investigations remain challenging because they require (i) highly precise device fabrication to incorporate single molecules and (ii) sufficient time resolution to be able to make fast molecular dynamic measurements. We demonstrate a graphene-molecule single-molecule junction that is capable of probing the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of a host-guest complex. By covalently integrating a conjugated molecular wire with a pendent crown ether into graphene point contacts, we can transduce the physical [2]pseudorotaxane (de)formation processes between the electron-rich crown ether and a dicationic guest into real-time electrical signals. The conductance of the single-molecule junction reveals two-level fluctuations that are highly dependent on temperature and solvent environments, affording a nondestructive means of quantitatively determining the binding and rate constants, as well as the activation energies, for host-guest complexes. The thermodynamic processes reveal the host-guest binding to be enthalpy-driven and are consistent with conventional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments. This electronic device opens up a new route to developing single-molecule dynamics investigations with microsecond resolution for a broad range of chemical and biochemical applications. PMID:28138528

  9. Kinetic and dynamic control for magmatic sulfide deposit formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits form by the saturation and separation of sulfide liquid from silicate liquid due to immiscibility. As a silicate melt cools and fractionates under reducing conditions, S concentration increases and S solubility decreases. Hence, at some point, S may become supersaturated, and sulfide melt droplets would nucleate and grow. The droplets would sink through silicate melt due to higher density of the sulfide melt, and accumulate at the bottom of the magma body, possibly with other crystallizing and settling dense minerals such as olivine and chromite. The sulfide layer, if preserved, constitutes the sulfide deposits. Hence, the critical condition for magmatic sulfide deposit formation is for the droplets to settle enough distance to and accumulate at the bottom of a magma body. Otherwise, sulfide droplets would be dispersed in the rock and would not form ores. Because the settling velocity is related to the size of the droplets, the growth kinetics and settling dynamics therefore control the formation of such deposits. In this report, a parametric study of sulfide droplet growth and settling as a magma body cools is carried out using our convective growth and settling models. Single stage exponential cooling with a given time scale is adopted. Because no reliable nucleation theory is available, nucleation is roughly treated by assuming one single nucleation event leading to N critical nuclei once the degree of supersaturation reaches x (both N and x are parameters to be varied). Crystal fractionation that can alter melt composition and viscosity is ignored. Growth starts from the critical nucleus radius. Sulfide droplets are assumed to behave as rigid spheres similar to bubbles. A settling distance of 1 km is assigned as the critical condition for the formation of a sulfide ore deposit. The final result is expressed as the initial S concentration necessary for settling this distance. If cooling time scale is 1000 yr, N = 10000 per cubic meter

  10. Producing the positive antihydrogen ion {\\bar{{\\rm{H}}}}^{+} via radiative attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, C. M.; Pak, K. Y.; Straton, Jack C.

    2016-04-01

    We provide an estimate of the cross section for the radiative attachment of a second positron into the (1 {{{s}}}2 {}1{{{S}}}e) state of the {\\bar{{{H}}}}+ ion that uses a 200-term two-positron wave function composed of explicitly correlated exponentials. This is done by analytically integrating the six-dimensional, three body photoionization integrals that enter into this result (and those utilizing, the alternative, Hylleraas wave functions) and applying the principle of detailed balance. Finally, we obtain the rate coefficient {α }{RA} for attaching a second positron to antihydrogen as a function of temperature via a numerical integral that is a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of the product of positron velocity and cross section. Our motivation in studying the production of {\\bar{{{H}}}}+ lies in its potential use as an intermediate stage in the cooling of antihydrogen to ultra-cold (sub-mK) temperatures for spectroscopic studies and probing the gravitational interaction of the anti-atom. Estimates of the reaction rates are given for positron temperatures T e in the range from 50 K to 5 K.

  11. Dynamics of Alliance Formation and the Egalitarian Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Duenez-Guzman, Edgar A.; Vose, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Arguably the most influential force in human history is the formation of social coalitions and alliances (i.e., long-lasting coalitions) and their impact on individual power. Understanding the dynamics of alliance formation and its consequences for biological, social, and cultural evolution is a formidable theoretical challenge. In most great ape species, coalitions occur at individual and group levels and among both kin and non-kin. Nonetheless, ape societies remain essentially hierarchical, and coalitions rarely weaken social inequality. In contrast, human hunter-gatherers show a remarkable tendency to egalitarianism, and human coalitions and alliances occur not only among individuals and groups, but also among groups of groups. These observations suggest that the evolutionary dynamics of human coalitions can only be understood in the context of social networks and cognitive evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of networks of allies resulting from within-group competition for status or mates between individuals utilizing dyadic information. The model shows that alliances often emerge in a phase transition-like fashion if the group size, awareness, aggressiveness, and persuasiveness of individuals are large and the decay rate of individual affinities is small. With cultural inheritance of social networks, a single leveling alliance including all group members can emerge in several generations. Conclusions/Significance We propose a simple and flexible theoretical approach for studying the dynamics of alliance emergence applicable where game-theoretic methods are not practical. Our approach is both scalable and expandable. It is scalable in that it can be generalized to larger groups, or groups of groups. It is expandable in that it allows for inclusion of additional factors such as behavioral, genetic, social, and cultural features. Our results suggest that a rapid transition from a

  12. On the Dynamics of Hurricane Secondary Eyewall Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Dr.; Brunet, Dr.; Yau, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the fact that asymmetries in hurricanes, such as spiral rainbands, polygonal eyewalls and mesovortices, have long been observed in radar imagery, many aspects of their dynamics still remain unsolved, particularly in the formation of the secondary eyewall. The underlying associated dynamical processes need to be better understood to advance the science of hurricane intensity forecasting. To fill this gap, a simple 2D barotropic "dry" model and the high-resolution PSU-NCAR non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) are used to study hurricane asymmetries. The Empirical Mormal Modes (ENM) and the newly developed Space-Time Empirical Normal Modes (ST-ENM) techniques, together with the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux calculations, are used to isolate wave modes from the model datasets to investigate their impact on the changes in the structure and intensity of the simulated hurricanes. From the ENM diagnostics of the 2D simulations, it is shown that when asymmetric disturbances are placed outside a strong vortex ring with a large vorticity skirt they relax to form concentric rings of enhanced vorticity that contain a secondary wind maximum. The role of internal dynamics on Concentric Eyewall Genesis (CEG) is further evaluated using the full physics MM5 simulation. The leading modes of the ST-ENM diagnostics exhibit mainly characteristics of vortex Rossby waves (VRWs) and their contribution to the EP flux divergence induced two regions of maximum tangential wind acceleration; one inside the primary eyewall which accounts for eyewall contraction and the other outside the primary eyewall which explains the development of the secondary eyewall. A signal of maximum eddy angular momentum propagating outwards to the critical radius of the mode suggests a redistribution of angular momentum and potential vorticity re-arrangement around that area. The fact that the critical radius for some of the leading modes is close to the location where the secondary eyewall eventually develops

  13. Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML): an open format for representing quantitative biological dynamics data

    PubMed Central

    Kyoda, Koji; Tohsato, Yukako; Ho, Kenneth H. L.; Onami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Recent progress in live-cell imaging and modeling techniques has resulted in generation of a large amount of quantitative data (from experimental measurements and computer simulations) on spatiotemporal dynamics of biological objects such as molecules, cells and organisms. Although many research groups have independently dedicated their efforts to developing software tools for visualizing and analyzing these data, these tools are often not compatible with each other because of different data formats. Results: We developed an open unified format, Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML; current version: 0.2), which provides a basic framework for representing quantitative biological dynamics data for objects ranging from molecules to cells to organisms. BDML is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Its advantages are machine and human readability and extensibility. BDML will improve the efficiency of development and evaluation of software tools for data visualization and analysis. Availability and implementation: A specification and a schema file for BDML are freely available online at http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/bdml/. Contact: sonami@riken.jp Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25414366

  14. Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML): an open format for representing quantitative biological dynamics data.

    PubMed

    Kyoda, Koji; Tohsato, Yukako; Ho, Kenneth H L; Onami, Shuichi

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in live-cell imaging and modeling techniques has resulted in generation of a large amount of quantitative data (from experimental measurements and computer simulations) on spatiotemporal dynamics of biological objects such as molecules, cells and organisms. Although many research groups have independently dedicated their efforts to developing software tools for visualizing and analyzing these data, these tools are often not compatible with each other because of different data formats. We developed an open unified format, Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML; current version: 0.2), which provides a basic framework for representing quantitative biological dynamics data for objects ranging from molecules to cells to organisms. BDML is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Its advantages are machine and human readability and extensibility. BDML will improve the efficiency of development and evaluation of software tools for data visualization and analysis. A specification and a schema file for BDML are freely available online at http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/bdml/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Star Formation and Cloud Dynamics in the Galactic Bar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker

    The Inner Galaxy (IG) that is the Galactic Bar Region (GBR) and the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) including the Galactic Center (GC) are, despite being the sites of dramatic processes and unique sources, still only incompletely understood. Detailed new datasets from the Herschel Space Observatory can be systematically combined with older archival material to enable a new and more complete analysis of the region, its large-scale dynamics, its unusual giant molecular clouds, and the likely influences of its bar and its supermassive black hole. Such a study is both timely and important: the region has affected the structure and evolution of the galaxy; its individual sources are opportunities to examine star formation (for example) under extreme conditions; the processes feeding the CMZ and, subsequently, its black hole are important; and not least, it is a nearby template for the inner regions of other galaxies. The Herschel Space Observatory has provided us with exciting new datasets including full FIR photometric maps and highand low-resolution far-infrared/submillimeter spectra of key sources and lines of the locations of dynamical importance. All these datasets are publicly available from the Herschel Science Archive. Our experienced team has already developed preliminary models, and we propose a thorough investigation to combine the Herschel datasets with Spitzer and WISE datasets. We will supplement them with ground-based observations in cases when it will improve the results. We will then analyze the data and use the results to refine the models and improve our understanding of this key region. Our specific goal is to characterize and model the 3 giant high-velocity molecular cloud clumps in the Galaxy Bar Region (GBR) in detail and to combine the conclusions to produce an improved model of the IG. We have seven tasks: (1) identify all smaller scale gas and dust cores using archival Herschel FIR photometric observations and obtain their physical characteristics

  16. Violent Relaxation, Dynamical Instabilities and the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, L. A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN: El problema de la formaci6n de galaxias elfpticas por medjo de colapso gravitacional sin disipaci6n de energfa es estudiado usando un gran numero de simulaciones numericas. Se muestra que este tipo de colapsos, partiendo de condiciones iniciales frfas donde la energfa cinetica inicial representa s6lo un 5%, 0 , de a potencial inicial, produce sistemas relajados de forma triaxial muy similares a las galaxias elfpticas reales en sus formas y perfiles de densidad en proyecci6i . La forina triaxial resulta de la acci6n de una inestabilidad dinamica que aparece en sistemas 'inicos dominados por movimientos radiales, mientras que el perfil de densidad final Cs debido al llamado relajamiento violento que tiende a producir una distribuci6n en espacio fase unica. Estos dos fen6menos tienden a borrar los detalles particulares sobre las condiciones iniciales y dan lugar a una evoluci6n convergente hacia sistemas realistas, esto innecesario el uso de condiciones iniciales especiales (excepto por Ia condici6i de que estas deben ser frfas). Las condiciones iniciales frfas producen los movimientos radiales y fluctuaciones de la energfa potencial requeridos por ambos fen6menos. ABSTRACT: The problem of formation of elliptical galaxies via dissipationless collapse is studied using a large set of numerical simulations. It is shown that dissipationless collapses from cold initial conditions, where the total initial kinetic energy is less than 5% ofthe initial potential energy, lead to relaxed triaxial systems ery similar to real elliptical galaxies ii projected shape and density profiles. The triaxial shape is due to the of a dynamical instability that appears on systems dominated by radial orbits, while final density profile is due to violent relaxation that tends to produce a unique distribution iii space. These two phenomena erase memory of the initial prodtice a convergent evolution toward realistic systems, thus making unnecessary use o[special initial conditions (other

  17. Formation and dynamics of hazardous convective weather events in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabukh, Vera; Malytska, Liudmyla; Bazalieieva, Iuliana

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation change observed from the middle of the 70s of the twentieth century in the Northern Hemisphere resulted in changes of weather events formation conditions in different regions. The degree of influence of various factors on the formation of weather events also has changed. This eventually led to an increase in number and intensity of weather events and their variations in time and space. Destructions and damages associated with these events have increased recently and the biggest damages are mainly results of complex convective weather events: showers, hail, squall. Therefore, one of the main tasks of climatology is to study the mechanisms of change repeatability and intensity of these events. The paper considers the conditions of formation of hazardous convective weather phenomena (strong showers, hail, squalls, tornadoes) in Ukraine and their spatial and temporal variability during 1981 - 2010. Research of convection processes was based on daily radiosonde data for the warm season (May-September 1981 - 2010s), reanalysis ERA-Interim ECMWF data for 1989 - 2010 years , daily observations at 187 meteorological stations in Ukraine, as well as observations of the natural phenomena in other regions (different from the meteorological stations). Indices of atmospheric instability, the magnitude of the Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), the moisture, the height of the condensation and equilibrium level was used to quantify the intensity of convection. The criteria for the intensity of convection for Ukrainian territory were refined on the basis of these data. Features of the development of convection for various hazardous convective weather events were investigated and identified the necessary conditions for the occurrence of showers, hail, tornadoes and squall in Ukraine. Spatio-temporal variability of convection intensity in Ukraine, its regional characteristics and dynamics for the past 30 year was analyzed. Significant tendency to an

  18. The dynamics of Bax channel formation: influence of ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Vidyaramanan; Walsh, Timothy; Chang, Kai-Ti; Colombini, Marco

    2012-08-08

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a complex multistep process. Studies of MOMP in vivo are limited by the stochastic variability of MOMP between cells and rapid completion of IMS protein release within single cells. In vitro models have provided useful insights into MOMP. We have investigated the dynamics of Bax-mediated MOMP in isolated mitochondria using ionic strength as a tool to control the rate of MOMP. We find that Bax can induce both transient permeabilization, detected by protein release, and more substantial long-lasting permeabilization, measured by the rate of oxidation of added cytochrome c. We found that higher ionic strength causes Bax to form small channels quickly but the expansion of these early channels is impeded. This inhibitory effect of ionic strength is independent of tBid. Channels formed under low ionic strength are not destabilized by raising the ionic strength. Increase in ionic strength also increases the ability of Bcl-xL to inhibit Bax-mediated MOMP. Ionic strength does not affect Bax insertion into mitochondria. Thus, ionic strength influences the assembly of Bax molecules already in membrane into channels. Ionic strength can be used as an effective biophysical tool to study Bax-mediated channel formation.

  19. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  20. Dynamic phase separation: from coarsening to turbulence via structure formation.

    PubMed

    Golovin, A A; Pismen, L M

    2004-09-01

    We investigate some new two-dimensional evolution models belonging to the class of convective Cahn-Hilliard models: (i) a local model with a scalar order parameter, (ii) a nonlocal model with a scalar order parameter, and (iii) a model with a vector order parameter. These models are applicable to phase-separating system where concentration gradients cause hydrodynamic motion due to buoyancy or Marangoni effect. The numerical study of the models shows transition from coarsening, typical of Cahn-Hilliard systems, to spatiotemporally irregular behavior (turbulence), typical of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, which is obtained in the limit of very strong driving. The transition occurs not in a straightforward way, but through the formation of spatial patterns that emerge for intermediate values of the driving intensity. As in driven one-dimensional models studied before, the mere presence of the driving force, however small, breaks the symmetry between the two separating phases, as well as increases the coarsening rate. With increasing driving, coarsening stops. The dynamics is generally irregular at strong driving, but exhibits specific structural features.

  1. Formation and Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William F.

    2015-08-01

    Asteroids are critical to our desire to unravel the origin of the Solar System because they supply unique, relatively pristine snapshots of the environment in which the Earth formed and evolved. This is due to the fact that, although the asteroids and Earth have followed very different evolutionary pathways, they all formed from the same set of physical processes and share a common ancestry. The asteroid belt presents a particular challenge to understanding terrestrial planet formation because of its small mass. Models of the protoplanetary disk suggest the region between 2-3 AU should contain roughly 3 Earth masses, while less than 0.001 of an Earth mass is actually found there.A long-standing explanation for the asteroid belt's small mass is that it is due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn. Some have suggested protoplanets grew there before they were dynamically removed from the asteroid belt by resonances with the gas giants. This left the asteroid belt dynamically excited (which is observed) and heavily depleted in mass. More recently, however, detailed models have shown that this process produces an asteroid belt that is inconsistent with observations.Two recent models propose new ways to match asteroid belt constraints. The first, the so-called ‘Grand Tack’ scenario, uses the results of hydrodynamic simulations to show that Jupiter (and Saturn) migrated both inward and outward across the asteroid belt while interacting with the protoplanetary gas disk. The Grand Tack not only reproduces the mass and mixture of spectral types in the asteroid belt, but it also truncates the planetesimal disk from which the terrestrial planets form, potentially explaining why Mars is less massive than Earth. In a second scenario, planetesimals that form directly from cm- to meter-sized objects, known as “pebbles”, are rapidly converted to 100 to 1000 km asteroid-like object that subsequently grow by accreting even more pebbles. Pebble accretion models

  2. A Scheme To Produce The Antihydrogen Ion H-bar{sup +} For Gravity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.; Liszkay, L.; Carty, M.; Curtoni, A.; Delferrierre, O.; Rey, J.-M.; Sauce, Y.; Boilot, J.-P.; Corbel, C.; Crivelli, P.; Etienne, M.; Walcarius, A.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.; Hassan, M.; Mohri, A.; Saitoh, H.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-08

    We propose to use the charge exchange reaction of antiprotons with positronium atoms in order to produce antihydrogen atoms, H-bar, and H-bar{sup +} ions. The ions can be cooled down to {mu}K temperatures and then ionized to recover an ultra slow neutral H-bar atom. Its acceleration is then measured by time of flight. Results on the conversion of slow positrons into positronium are presented. This is a first step towards the creation of a dense cloud of positronium atoms to be used as a target for the antiprotons. The source of positrons is based on a 6 MeV industrial electron linac with 0.2 mA average current to be installed in CEA-Saclay. Equipped with a tungsten target and a moderator, it is aimed at producing rates of order 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} slow positrons.

  3. Antihydrogen-hydrogen elastic scattering at thermal energies using an atomic-orbital technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab; Ghosh, A.S.

    2003-05-01

    In view of the recent interest in the trapping of antihydrogen atom H(bar sign), at very low temperatures, H-bar-H scattering has been investigated at low incident energies using a close-coupling model with the basis set H-bar(1s,2s,2p-bar)+H(1s,2s,2p-bar). The predicted s-wave elastic phase shifts, scattering length, and effective range are in a good agreement with the other recent predictions of Jonsell et al. and of Armour and Chamberlain. The results indicate that the atomic orbital expansion model is suitable to study the H-bar-H scattering at ultracold temperatures.

  4. Cooling by spontaneous decay of highly excited antihydrogen atoms in magnetic traps.

    PubMed

    Pohl, T; Sadeghpour, H R; Nagata, Y; Yamazaki, Y

    2006-11-24

    An efficient cooling mechanism of magnetically trapped, highly excited antihydrogen (H) atoms is presented. This cooling, in addition to the expected evaporative cooling, results in trapping of a large number of H atoms in the ground state. It is found that the final fraction of trapped atoms is insensitive to the initial distribution of H magnetic quantum numbers. Expressions are derived for the cooling efficiency, demonstrating that magnetic quadrupole (cusp) traps provide stronger cooling than higher order magnetic multipoles. The final temperature of H confined in a cusp trap is shown to depend as approximately 2.2T(n0)n(0)(-2/3) on the initial Rydberg level n0 and temperature T(n0).

  5. Theoretical motivation for gravitation experiments on ultra-low energy antiprotons and antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the generally accepted theories of gravity and quantum mechanics are fundamentally incompatible. Thus, when one tries to combine these theories, one must beware of physical pitfalls. Modern theories of quantum gravity are trying to overcome these problems. Any ideas must confront the present agreement with general relativity, but yet be free to wonder about not understood phenomena, such as the dark matter problem. This all has led some {open_quotes}intrepid{close_quotes} theorists to consider a new gravitational regime, that of antimatter. Even more {open_quotes}daring{close_quotes} experimentalists are attempting, or considering attempting, the measurement of the gravitational force on antimatter, including low-energy antiprotons and, perhaps most enticing, antihydrogen.

  6. Observation of the 1S-2S transition in trapped antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Alves, B. X. R.; Baker, C. J.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carruth, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Cohen, S.; Collister, R.; Eriksson, S.; Evans, A.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Ishida, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Jones, S. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Mathers, M.; Maxwell, D.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Michan, J. M.; Momose, T.; Munich, J. J.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sameed, M.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Stracka, S.; Stutter, G.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, J. E.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics over the past 200 years. Historical examples of its importance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman and others, the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S-2S transition by Hänsch to a precision of a few parts in 1015. Recent technological advances have allowed us to focus on antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of hydrogen. The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today’s Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates the study of antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter. In particular, the CPT (charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal) theorem, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Here we report the observation of the 1S-2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen. We determine that the frequency of the transition, which is driven by two photons from a laser at 243 nanometres, is consistent with that expected for hydrogen in the same environment. This laser excitation of a quantum state of an atom of antimatter represents the most precise measurement performed on an anti-atom. Our result is consistent with CPT invariance at a relative precision of about 2 × 10-10.

  7. Observation of the 1S–2S transition in trapped antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Alves, B. X. R.; Baker, C. J.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carruth, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Cohen, S.; Collister, R.; Eriksson, S.; Evans, A.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Ishida, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Jones, S. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Mathers, M.; Maxwell, D.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Michan, J. M.; Momose, T.; Munich, J. J.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sameed, M.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Stracka, S.; Stutter, G.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, J. E.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics over the past 200 years. Historical examples of its importance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman and others, the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S–2S transition by Hänsch to a precision of a few parts in 1015. Recent technological advances have allowed us to focus on antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of hydrogen. The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today’s Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates the study of antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter. In particular, the CPT (charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal) theorem, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Here we report the observation of the 1S–2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen. We determine that the frequency of the transition, which is driven by two photons from a laser at 243 nanometres, is consistent with that expected for hydrogen in the same environment. This laser excitation of a quantum state of an atom of antimatter represents the most precise measurement performed on an anti-atom. Our result is consistent with CPT invariance at a relative precision of about 2 × 10‑10.

  8. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muranaka, T.; Debu, P.; Dupré, P.; Liszkay, L.; Mansoulie, B.; Pérez, P.; Rey, J. M.; Ruiz, N.; Sacquin, Y.; Crivelli, P.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·1011 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  9. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  10. Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Ioana M; den Otter, Wouter K; Briels, Wim J

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  11. GVE-Based Dynamics and Control for Formation Flying Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breger, Louis; How, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space missions. This paper presents extensions to the equations of relative motion expressed in Keplerian orbital elements, including new initialization techniques for general formation configurations. A new linear time-varying form of the equations of relative motion is developed from Gauss Variational Equations and used in a model predictive controller. The linearizing assumptions for these equations are shown to be consistent with typical formation flying scenarios. Several linear, convex initialization techniques are presented, as well as a general, decentralized method for coordinating a tetrahedral formation using differential orbital elements. Control methods are validated using a commercial numerical propagator.

  12. Potential Vorticity Dynamics and Models of Zonal Flow Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Chun

    We describe the general theory of anisotropic flow formation in quasi two- dimensional turbulence from the perspective on the potential vorticity (PV) trans- port in real space. The aim is to calculate the vorticity or PV flux. In Chapter 2, the general structure of PV flux is deduced non-perturbatively using two relaxation models: the first is a mean field theory for the dynamics of minimum enstrophy relaxation based on the requirement that the mean flux of PV dissipates total po- tential enstrophy but conserves total fluid kinetic energy. The analyses show that the structure of PV flux has the form of a sum of a positive definite hyper-viscous and a negative or positive viscous flux of PV. Turbulence spreading is shown to be related to PV mixing via the link of turbulence energy flux to PV flux. In the relaxed state, the ratio of the PV gradient to zonal flow velocity is homogenized. This structure of the relaxed state is consistent with PV staircases. The homog- enized quantity sets a constraint on the amplitudes of PV and zonal flow in the relaxed state. The second relaxation model is derived from a joint reflection symmetry principle, which constrains the PV flux driven by the deviation from the self- organized state. The form of PV flux contains a nonlinear convective term in addition to viscous and hyper-viscous terms. The nonlinear convective term, how- ever, can be viewed as a generalized diffusion, on account of the gradient-dependent ballistic transport in avalanche-like systems. For both cases, the detailed transport coefficients can be calculated using perturbation theory in Chapter 3. For a broad turbulence spectrum, a modula- tional calculation of the PV flux gives both a negative viscosity and a positive hyper-viscosity. For a narrow turbulence spectrum, the result of a parametric in- stability analysis shows that PV transport is also convective. In both relaxation and perturbative analyses, it is shown that turbulent PV transport is sensitive to

  13. Oman metamorphic sole formation reveals early subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Plunder, Alexis; Ildefonse, Benoît; Yamato, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500m thick tectonic slices welded beneath most of the large-scale ophiolites. They typically show a steep inverted metamorphic structure where the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization increase upward (from 500±100°C at 0.5±0.2 GPa to 800±100°C at 1.0±0.2 GPa), with isograds subparallel to the contact with the overlying ophiolitic peridotite. The proportion of mafic rocks in metamorphic soles also increases from the bottom (meta-sediments rich) to the top (approaching the ophiolite peridotites). These soles are interpreted as the result of heat transfer from the incipient mantle wedge toward the nascent slab (associated with large-scale fluid transfer and possible shear heating) during the first My of intra-oceanic subduction (as indicated by radiometric ages). Metamorphic soles provide therefore major constraints on early subduction dynamics (i.e., thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology along the nascent slab interface). We present a detailed structural and petrological study of the metamorphic sole from 4 major cross-sections along the Oman ophiolite. We show precise pressure-temperature estimates obtained by pseudosection modelling and EBSD measurements performed on both the garnet-bearing and garnet-free high-grade sole. Results allow quantification of the micro-scale deformation and highlight differences in pressure-temperature-deformation conditions between the 4 different locations, showing that the inverted metamorphic gradient through the sole is not continuous in all locations. Based on these new constraints, we suggest a new tectonic-petrological model for the formation of metamorphic soles below ophiolites. This model involves the stacking of several homogeneous slivers of oceanic crust leading to the present-day structure of the sole. In this view, these thrusts are the result of rheological contrasts between the sole and the peridotite as the plate interface progressively cools down

  14. Annihilation detector for an in-beam spectroscopy apparatus to measure the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens; Capon, Aaron A.; Diermaier, Martin; Fleck, Markus; Kolbinger, Bernadette; Malbrunot, Chloé; Massiczek, Oswald; Simon, Martin C.; Vamosi, Stefan; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    The matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in the universe today still lacks a quantitative explanation. One possible mechanism that could contribute to the observed imbalance is a violation of the combined Charge-, Parity- and Time symmetries (CPT). A test of CPT symmetry using anti-atoms is being carried out by the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator using a low temperature beam of antihydrogen-the most simple atomic system built only of antiparticles. While hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, antihydrogen is produced in very small quantities in a laboratory framework. A detector for in-beam measurements of the ground state hyperfine structure of antihydrogen has to be able to detect very low signal rates within high background. To fulfil this challenging task, a two layer barrel hodoscope detector was developed. It is built of plastic scintillators with double sided readout via Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The SiPM readout is done using novel, compact and cost efficient electronics that incorporate power supply, amplifier and discriminator on a single board. This contribution will evaluate the performance of the new hodoscope detector.

  15. Effect of hydrophilic foamed copper on dynamic membrane formation in dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. T.; Liu, H. J.; Qian, X. Z.; Yang, H. H.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of hydrophilic membrane material on the formation of dynamic membrane (DM) was investigated, by using a membrane module combined with a hydrophilic modified foam copper with 0-10 mm of thickness, 300 μm of pore size and an activated carbon sponge with 10 mm of thickness. The appropriate thickness of the hydrophilic membrane was selected to treat the refining wastewater. Hydrophilic modification and membrane formation experiments showed that water molecules were easier to spread on the surface of the foam copper, which could reduce the accumulation of sludge layer on the surface of the membrane module and increase the effluent’s stability of the combined membrane module. Under experimental conditions, the proper thickness of the foam copper was 5 mm, the sludge layer thickness on the membrane surface was close to 0mm, and the effluent flux was stabled as 44 L/(m2ṡh), which was higher than that of the activated carbon sponge without using the hydrophilic foam copper, increased by 107%. Wastewater treatment results showed that the removal rate of COD in the DMBR system was 95.6%, and the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen was 98.5%.

  16. Dynamic Group Formation Based on a Natural Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedadra, Amina; Lafifi, Yacine; Zedadra, Ouarda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of learners grouping in collaborative learning systems. This grouping process is based on traces left by learners. The goal is the circular dynamic grouping to achieve collaborative projects. The proposed approach consists of two main algorithms: (1) the circular grouping algorithm and (2) the dynamic grouping…

  17. Dynamic Group Formation Based on a Natural Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedadra, Amina; Lafifi, Yacine; Zedadra, Ouarda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of learners grouping in collaborative learning systems. This grouping process is based on traces left by learners. The goal is the circular dynamic grouping to achieve collaborative projects. The proposed approach consists of two main algorithms: (1) the circular grouping algorithm and (2) the dynamic grouping…

  18. Research on framework for formation control of multiple underwater robots in a dynamic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xian-Song; Xu, Hong-Gen; Zhang, Ming-Jun

    2004-12-01

    In this paper a practical framework is proposed to keep formation control of multiple underwater robots in a dynamic environment. The approach is a viable solution to solve formation problem. The approach allows online planning of the formation paths using a Dijkstra’s search algorithm based on the current sensor data. The formation is allowed to be dynamically changed in order to avoid obstacles in the environment. A controller is designed to keep the robots in their planned trajectories. It is shown that the approach is effective and feasible by the simulation of computer.

  19. Gas Dynamics and the Formation of Galaxies and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Abraham (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Below we enclose a list of papers that were written during 1995/96. These papers focus on structure formation in the universe at high redshifts, and accomplish various aspects of the research goals of this grant.

  20. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  1. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation.

    PubMed

    Bordogna, Clelia M; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of laser-induced vapor bubble formation in water based on high speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-zeng; Guo, Wenqing; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen

    2013-08-01

    In clinical practice, laser ablation usually works under liquid environment such as water, blood or their mixture. Laser-induced vapor bubble or bubble formation and its consequent dynamics were believed to have important influence on tissue ablation. In the paper, the dynamic process of vapor bubble formation and consequently collapse induced by pulsed Ho:YAG laser in static water was investigated by using high-speed camera. The results showed that vapor channel / bubble can be produced with pulsed Ho:YAG laser, and the whole dynamic process of vapor bubble formation, pulsation and consequently collapse can be monitored by using high-speed camera. The dynamic characteristics of vapor bubble, such as pulsation period, the maximum depth and width were determined. The dependence of above dynamic parameters on incident radiant exposure was also presented. Based on which, the influence of vapor bubble on hard tissue ablation was discussed.

  3. Dynamical constraints on the formation and evolution of planetary bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, A. W.; Ward, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a number of inferences as to the origin of planetary bodies, taking into account the present dynamical state of the solar system and some of the limitations which apply to the considered conclusions. Attention is given to the dynamical processes, specifically those processes which may have influenced the orbital or rotational properties of the planets and satellites. Collisional processes are explored, taking into consideration orbital spacing, planetary rotation, and stochastic effects. In connection with a discussion of the evolution of rotational motion, spin state evolution is investigated along with spin axis precession and resonance variation, and the Cassini states. The evolution of planetary orbits is also studied. The subjects considered are related to tides, secular resonances, disk dynamics, and disk-satellite interactions.

  4. Dynamics and Gravitational Wave Signature of Collapsar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, C. D.; Reisswig, C.; Schnetter, E.; O'Connor, E.; Sperhake, U.; Löffler, F.; Diener, P.; Abdikamalov, E.; Hawke, I.; Burrows, A.

    2011-04-01

    We perform 3+1 general relativistic simulations of rotating core collapse in the context of the collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts. We employ a realistic progenitor, rotation based on results of stellar evolution calculations, and a simplified equation of state. Our simulations track self-consistently collapse, bounce, the postbounce phase, black hole formation, and the subsequent early hyperaccretion phase. We extract gravitational waves from the spacetime curvature and identify a unique gravitational wave signature associated with the early phase of collapsar formation.

  5. Dynamics and gravitational wave signature of collapsar formation.

    PubMed

    Ott, C D; Reisswig, C; Schnetter, E; O'Connor, E; Sperhake, U; Löffler, F; Diener, P; Abdikamalov, E; Hawke, I; Burrows, A

    2011-04-22

    We perform 3+1 general relativistic simulations of rotating core collapse in the context of the collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts. We employ a realistic progenitor, rotation based on results of stellar evolution calculations, and a simplified equation of state. Our simulations track self-consistently collapse, bounce, the postbounce phase, black hole formation, and the subsequent early hyperaccretion phase. We extract gravitational waves from the spacetime curvature and identify a unique gravitational wave signature associated with the early phase of collapsar formation.

  6. Core Formation Under Dynamic Conditions: Physical Processes and Geochemical Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushmer, T.; Gaetani, G.; Jones, J. H.; Sparks, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated liquid metal segregation from a solid silicate matrix under conditions of applied stress. Liquid moves in fractures and formation of fayalitic olivine from orthopyroxene by migrating Fe-Ni-S-O liquids is observed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. MODELING OF PARTICLE FORMATION AND DYNAMICS IN A FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model has been developed to predict the formation and growth of metallic particles in a flame incinerator system. Flow fields and temperature profiles in a cylindrical laminar jet flame have been used to determine the position and physical conditions of the species along the fl...

  8. MODELING OF PARTICLE FORMATION AND DYNAMICS IN A FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model has been developed to predict the formation and growth of metallic particles in a flame incinerator system. Flow fields and temperature profiles in a cylindrical laminar jet flame have been used to determine the position and physical conditions of the species along the fl...

  9. Exploring archetypal dynamics of pattern formation in cellular flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Emily

    2002-01-01

    The application of archetypal analysis to high-dimensional data arising from video-taped images is presented. Included in the analysis are intermittent regimes which have not been analyzed previously by other statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). A hybrid PCA/archetypes technique has been developed to overcome the difficulties of applying archetypes to data sets with points living in a space of dimension higher than about 500. The advantages of the method lie in the creation of patterns typical of the set as a whole, and an expression of the dynamics in terms of these patterns. Archetypes are particularly useful in identifying intermittent regimes, where low energy events that might be missed by a severe principal component truncation are none-the-less crucial to understanding the dynamics. They are part of a suite of data analysis techniques that can be used on dynamic data sets (such as FFT, PCA and other spectral decompositions). This hybrid method extends the application of archetypes to spatio-temporal dynamics in two-dimensional patterns.

  10. Flexible Virtual Structure Consideration in Dynamic Modeling of Mobile Robots Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, A. Essghaier; Beji, L.; Lerbet, J.; Abichou, A.

    2009-03-01

    In cooperative mobile robotics, we look for formation keeping and maintenance of a geometric configuration during movement. As a solution to these problems, the concept of a virtual structure is considered. Based on this idea, we have developed an efficient flexible virtual structure, describing the dynamic model of n vehicles in formation and where the whole formation is kept dependant. Notes that, for 2D and 3D space navigation, only a rigid virtual structure was proposed in the literature. Further, the problem was limited to a kinematic behavior of the structure. Hence, the flexible virtual structure in dynamic modeling of mobile robots formation presented in this paper, gives more capabilities to the formation to avoid obstacles in hostile environment while keeping formation and avoiding inter-agent collision.

  11. Dynamics of filament formation in a Kerr medium

    SciTech Connect

    Centurion, Martin; Pu Ye; Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2005-06-15

    We have studied the large-scale beam breakup and filamentation of femtosecond pulses in a Kerr medium. We have experimentally monitored the formation of stable light filaments, conical emission, and interactions between filaments. Three major stages lead to the formation of stable light filaments: First the beam breaks up into a pattern of connected lines (constellation), then filaments form on the constellations, and finally the filaments release a fraction of their energy through conical emission. We observed a phase transition to a faster filamentation rate at the onset of conical emission. We attribute this to the interaction of conical emissions with the constellation which creates additional filaments. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Opinion Formation and the Collective Dynamics of Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Moussaïd, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of collective opinion is a complex phenomenon that results from the combined effects of mass media exposure and social influence between individuals. The present work introduces a model of opinion formation specifically designed to address risk judgments, such as attitudes towards climate change, terrorist threats, or children vaccination. The model assumes that people collect risk information from the media environment and exchange them locally with other individuals. Even though individuals are initially exposed to the same sample of information, the model predicts the emergence of opinion polarization and clustering. In particular, numerical simulations highlight two crucial factors that determine the collective outcome: the propensity of individuals to search for independent information, and the strength of social influence. This work provides a quantitative framework to anticipate and manage how the public responds to a given risk, and could help understanding the systemic amplification of fears and worries, or the underestimation of real dangers. PMID:24386398

  13. Gas Dynamics and the Formation of Galaxies and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    1998-01-01

    This performance report lists papers that were written during 19978/98. These papers focus on structure formation in the universe at high redshifts, and accomplish various aspects of the research goals of this grant. Some of the papers included in this report are: 1) The First Stars and Quasars; 2) Direct Measurement of Cosmological Parameters from the Cosmic Deceleration of Extragalactic Objects; and 3) The Expected Rate of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows In Supernova Searches.

  14. Formation and evolution dynamics of bipolarons in conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Di, B; Meng, Y; Wang, Y D; Liu, X J; An, Z

    2011-02-10

    Combining the one-dimensional tight-binding Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model and the extended Hubbard model (EHM), we analyze the scattering and combination in conjugated polymers of two polarons with the same charges and parallel or antiparallel spins using a nonadiabatic evolution method. Results show that collisions between the two same charge polarons with parallel spin are essentially elastic due to strong Pauli repulsion, whereas the two same charge polarons with antiparallel spins can combine into a singlet bipolaronic state. The dynamics of bipolarons on two coupled polymer chains and at the interface of a polymer/polymer heterojunction are discussed in detail. This knowledge will serve to understand the dynamics of the system when many polarons are created in the system, e.g., by electroluminescence.

  15. Static and Dynamic Aspects of Black Silicon Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi Saab, David; Basset, Philippe; Pierotti, Matthew J.; Trawick, Matthew L.; Angelescu, Dan E.

    2014-12-01

    We present a combination of experimental data and modeling that explains some of the important characteristics of black silicon (BSi) developed in cryogenic reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, including static properties (dependence of resulting topography on process parameters) and dynamic aspects (evolution of topography with process time). We generate a phase diagram predicting the RIE parameter combinations giving rise to different BSi geometries and show that the topographic details of BSi explain the metamaterial characteristics that are responsible for its low reflectivity. In particular, the unique combination of needle and hole features of various heights and depths, which is captured by our model and confirmed by focused ion beam nanotomography, creates a uniquely smooth transition in refractive index. The model also correctly describes dynamical characteristics, such as the dependence of aspect ratio on process time, and the prediction of new etching fronts appearing at topographical saddle points during the incipient stages of BSi development—a phenomenon reported here for the first time.

  16. Dynamics of Aerial Tower Formation in Bacillus subtilis Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Naveen; Seminara, Agnese; Wilking, James; Brenner, Michael; Weitz, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Biofilms are highly-organized colonies of bacteria that form on surfaces. These colonies form sophisticated structures which make them robust and difficult to remove from environments such as catheters, where they pose serious infection problems. Previous work has shown that sub-mm sized aerial towers form on the surface of Bacillus subtilis colony biofilms. Spore-formation is located preferentially at the tops of these towers, known as fruiting bodies, which aid in the dispersal and propagation of the colony to new sites. The formation of towers is strongly affected by the quorum-sensing molecule surfactin and the cannibalism pathway of the bacteria. In the present work, we use confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the development of individual fruiting bodies, allowing us to visualize the time-dependent spatial distribution of matrix-forming and sporulating bacteria within the towers. With this information, we investigate the physical mechanisms, such as surface tension and polymer concentration gradients, that drive the formation of these structures.

  17. Dynamics of oligomer formation by denatured carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Dmitry A; Timchenko, Alexander A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Khristoforov, Vladimir S; Kihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumoto; Kutyshenko, Viktor P

    2008-05-01

    Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. Many proteins unrelated to amyloidoses also fibrillate at the appropriate conditions. These proteins serve as a model for studying the processes of protein misfolding, oligomerization and fibril formation. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation. The urea-induced unfolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase II, BCA II, is characterized by a combination of high-resolution NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that the formation of associates of protein molecules in complex with solvent (water and urea), APS, takes place in the presence of 4-6 M urea. The subsequent increase in urea concentration to 8 M is accompanied by a disruption of APS and leads to a complete unfolding of a protein molecule. Analysis of BCA II self-association in the presence of 4.2 M urea revealed that APS are relatively large mostly beta-structural blocks with the averaged molecular mass of 190-220 kDa. This work also demonstrates some novel NMR-based methodological approaches that provide useful information on protein self-association.

  18. The dynamics of continental extension and divergent margin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, D.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Continental breakup is a highly variable process. Differences occur in the relative timing and extent of volcanism, uplift, and graben formation as well as in the mode and amount of continental extension before breakup. The authors propose a model that reconciles this variability with the previously recognized tendency for breakup to occur along preexisting weak trends. Continental lithosphere is viewed as a composite material composed of two strong layers, one in the upper mantle and one in the middle crust. Finite element simulation indicates that extensional failure at weaknesses in the mantle causes concentrated extension in the mantle and diffuse extension in the crust. This leads to early melt segregation and volcanism, margin uplift during the late stages of the extension process, and relatively narrow symmetrical extended margins. In contrast, failure at weaknesses in the crustal strong zone causes focused extension in the crust and diffuse extension in the mantle. This produces initial graben formation, cooling in the lower crust and upper mantle, and broad asymmetrical extended margins. Volcanism only occurs late in the process. Failure at laterally offset weaknesses within both strong layers, perhaps the most common case, leads to a deformation pattern dominated by simple shear. Thus, differences in the prerift configuration of the continental lithosphere can control the overall style of continental breakup. They find that certain features of the evolution of the US Atlantic margin, particularly the formation of the hinge zone and the distribution and timing of extension may be better explained using these models.

  19. Dynamics of black hole formation: Evidence for nonextensivity

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, H.P. de; Soares, I. Damiao

    2005-06-15

    We study the dynamics of a bounded collapsing configuration emitting gravitational waves, whose exterior spacetime is described by the Robinson-Trautman metric. In this process mass is lost due to gravitational wave emission until the Schwarzschild black hole is formed. By performing a careful computation of the distribution of the mass fraction extracted by gravitational radiation, we have shown that it satisfies the distribution law of Tsallis nonextensive statistics, and this result is independent of the initial data considered.

  20. Positrons for Antihydrogen with ATRAP: efficient transfer of large positron numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storry, Cody; Comeau, Daniel; Dror, Asaf; Fitzakerley, Daniel; George, Matthew; Hessels, Eric; Weel, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    Positrons accumulated in a room-temperature buffer-gas-cooled positron accumulator are efficiently transferred into a superconducting solenoid which houses the ATRAP cryogenic Penning trap for antihydrogen research. The positrons are guided along a 9-meter-long magnetic guide which connects the central field lines of the 0.15-tesla field in the positron accumulator to central magnetic field lines of the superconducting solenoid. Seventy independently-controllable electromagnets are required to overcome the fringing field of the large-bore superconducting solenoid. The guide includes both a 15 degree upward bend and a 105 degree downward bend to account for the orthogonal orientation of the accumulator with respect to the cryogenic Penning trap. Low-energy positrons ejected from the accumulator follow the magnetic field lines within the guide and are transferred into the superconducting solenoid with nearly 100% efficiency. 7 meters of 5-cm-diameter stainless-steel tube, and a 20-mm-long, 1.5-mm-diameter cryogenic pumping restriction ensure that the 10-2 mbar pressure in the accumulator is well isolated from the extreme vacuum required in the Penning trap to allow long antimatter storage times.

  1. Construction and Operational Experience with a Superconducting Octupole Used to Trap Antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer P.; Escallier, J.; Marone, A.; Parker, B.

    2011-09-06

    A superconducting octupole magnet has seen extensive service as part of the ALPHA experiment at CERN. ALPHA has trapped antihydrogen, a crucial step towards performing precision measurements of anti-atoms. The octupole was made at the Direct Wind facility by the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnet was wound with a six-around-one NbTi cable about 1 mm in diameter. It is about 300 mm long, with a radius of 25 mm and a peak field at the conductor of 4.04 T. Specific features of the magnet, including a minimal amount of material in the coil and coil ends with low multipole content, were advantageous to its use in ALPHA. The magnet was operated for six months a year for five years. During this time it underwent about 900 thermal cycles (between 4K and 100K). A novel operational feature is that during the course of data-taking the magnet was repeatedly shut off from its 950 A operating current. The magnet quenches during the shutoff, with a decay constant of 9 ms. Over the course of the five years, the magnet was deliberately quenched many thousands of times. It still performs well.

  2. Formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam with additional deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, E. N. Koronovskii, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2013-11-15

    Results of numerical simulations and analysis of the formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam in a vircator with a magnetron injection gun as an electron source and with additional electron deceleration are presented. The ranges of control parameters where the squeezed state can form in such a system are revealed, and specific features of the system dynamics are analyzed. It is shown that the formation of a squeezed state of a nonrelativistic helical electron beam in a system with electron deceleration is accompanied by low-frequency longitudinal dynamics of the space charge.

  3. Spacecraft Formation Control and Estimation Via Improved Relative Motion Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-30

    AFRL /RVSV 3550 Aberdeen Ave, SE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV-PS-TR-2017-0052 12. DISTRIBUTION...unlimited. 62 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSV/Thomas A. Lovell 1 cy ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2017-0052 TR-2017-0052 SPACECRAFT FORMATION CONTROL AND

  4. Dynamics of formation of the Exclusion Zone near hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ninno, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    EZ water is unable to host solutes, what provides the root of the name Exclusion Zone, and its formation law points towards a diffusive process. These peculiarities have attracted the interest of scientists because it challenges all the theories which have tried to describe the structure of liquid water. The mixture of H-bond stable and H-bond distorted structures envisaged by very recent experimental findings, cannot account for the long-lived hexagonal configuration observed near the Nafion surface. A theoretical account for the phenomenology of H-bond is provided which looks able to explain many among the most striking feature of this water.

  5. Formation Learning Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles With Heterogeneous Nonlinear Uncertain Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Licht, Stephen; He, Haibo

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, a new concept of formation learning control is introduced to the field of formation control of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which specifies a joint objective of distributed formation tracking control and learning/identification of nonlinear uncertain AUV dynamics. A novel two-layer distributed formation learning control scheme is proposed, which consists of an upper-layer distributed adaptive observer and a lower-layer decentralized deterministic learning controller. This new formation learning control scheme advances existing techniques in three important ways: 1) the multi-AUV system under consideration has heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics; 2) the formation learning control protocol can be designed and implemented by each local AUV agent in a fully distributed fashion without using any global information; and 3) in addition to the formation control performance, the distributed control protocol is also capable of accurately identifying the AUVs' heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics and utilizing experiences to improve formation control performance. Extensive simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  6. Phase separation dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guannan; Bahar, Fatmagul; Patch, Adam; Thutupalli, Shashi; Yllanes, David; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Welch, Roy; Shaevitz, Joshua

    Many living systems take advantage of collective behavior for group survival. We use the soil-dwelling bacterium Myxococcus xanthus as a model to study out-of-equilibrium phase separation during fruiting body formation. M. xanthus cells have the ability to glide on solid surfaces and reverse their direction periodically. When starved, M. xanthus cells aggregate together and form structures called fruiting bodies, inside of which cells sporulate to survive stressful conditions. We show that at high cell density the formation of fruiting bodies is a phase separation process. From experimental data that combines single-cell tracking, population-scale imaging, mutants, and drug applications, we construct the phase diagram of M. xanthus in the space of Péclet number and cell density. When wild type cells are starved, we find that they actively increase their Péclet number by modulating gliding speed and reversal frequency which induces a phase separation from a gas-like state to an aggregated fruiting body state.

  7. Dynamics in dialysis process for liquid crystalline gel formation.

    PubMed

    Nobe, Masahiro; Dobashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takao

    2005-08-30

    The processes of gelation and liquid crystalline formation in the dialysis of Curdlan solution have been observed under crossed nicols, and the calcium concentration and pH of the inner solution were traced. The results showed that the gelation and the liquid crystalline formation occurred simultaneously to form liquid crystalline gel (LCG), but the birefringence of the LCG increased even after the gelation, suggesting further ordering of the Curdlan molecules. On the basis of the calcium ion diffusion, a simple theory for the time development of the thickness of the LCG layer was developed. The experimental and theoretical results agree very well until an amorphous gel (AG) ring appears. The whole process was expressed by a master curve by reducing time and distance data for different radius dialysis tubes by those at the final state; a scaling behavior with respect to the dialysis tube radius was found. The experimental analysis for the calcium concentrations and the pH indicates that forming Curdlan LCG with high ordering of Curdlan molecules consists of two steps: the diffusion of calcium ions inducing the ordering of Curdlan molecules and yielding cross-links simultaneously, and the local relaxation of the Curdlan molecules increasing the ordering degree further.

  8. Dynamics of polymer film formation during spin coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mouhamad, Y.; Clarke, N.; Jones, R. A. L.; Geoghegan, M.; Mokarian-Tabari, P.

    2014-09-28

    Standard models explaining the spin coating of polymer solutions generally fail to describe the early stages of film formation, when hydrodynamic forces control the solution behavior. Using in situ light scattering alongside theoretical and semi-empirical models, it is shown that inertial forces (which initially cause a vertical gradient in the radial solvent velocity within the film) play a significant role in the rate of thinning of the solution. The development of thickness as a function of time of a solute-free liquid (toluene) and a blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) cast from toluene were fitted to different models as a function of toluene partial pressure. In the case of the formation of the polymer blend film, a concentration-dependent (Huggins) viscosity formula was used to account for changes in viscosity during spin coating. A semi-empirical model is introduced, which permits calculation of the solvent evaporation rate and the temporal evolution of the solute volume fraction and solution viscosity.

  9. Formation of plant metabolic gene clusters within dynamic chromosomal regions

    PubMed Central

    Field, Ben; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Kemen, Ariane; Geisler, Katrin; Quesneville, Hadi; Osbourn, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    In bacteria, genes with related functions often are grouped together in operons and are cotranscribed as a single polycistronic mRNA. In eukaryotes, functionally related genes generally are scattered across the genome. Notable exceptions include gene clusters for catabolic pathways in yeast, synthesis of secondary metabolites in filamentous fungi, and the major histocompatibility complex in animals. Until quite recently it was thought that gene clusters in plants were restricted to tandem duplicates (for example, arrays of leucine-rich repeat disease-resistance genes). However, operon-like clusters of coregulated nonhomologous genes are an emerging theme in plant biology, where they may be involved in the synthesis of certain defense compounds. These clusters are unlikely to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer, and the mechanisms behind their formation are poorly understood. Previously in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) we identified an operon-like gene cluster that is required for the synthesis and modification of the triterpene thalianol. Here we characterize a second operon-like triterpene cluster (the marneral cluster) from A. thaliana, compare the features of these two clusters, and investigate the evolutionary events that have led to cluster formation. We conclude that common mechanisms are likely to underlie the assembly and control of operon-like gene clusters in plants. PMID:21876149

  10. Excess centrosomes perturb dynamic endothelial cell repolarization during blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Erich J.; Ferro, Luke S.; Yu, Zhixian; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel formation requires dynamic movements of endothelial cells (ECs) within sprouts. The cytoskeleton regulates migratory polarity, and centrosomes organize the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, it is not well understood how excess centrosomes, commonly found in tumor stromal cells, affect microtubule dynamics and interphase cell polarity. Here we find that ECs dynamically repolarize during sprouting angiogenesis, and excess centrosomes block repolarization and reduce migration and sprouting. ECs with excess centrosomes initially had more centrosome-derived microtubules but, paradoxically, fewer steady-state microtubules. ECs with excess centrosomes had elevated Rac1 activity, and repolarization was rescued by blockade of Rac1 or actomyosin blockers, consistent with Rac1 activity promoting cortical retrograde actin flow and actomyosin contractility, which precludes cortical microtubule engagement necessary for dynamic repolarization. Thus normal centrosome numbers are required for dynamic repolarization and migration of sprouting ECs that contribute to blood vessel formation. PMID:27099371

  11. Centralized Dynamics and Control of Novel Orbiting Formations of Tethered Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    acting as leader of the tethered formation. An application of this problem arises when a distributed sensor array formed by a chain of tethered data-gathering vehicles is being commanded to reconfigure from a remote location by the formation leader. Another application is in radar mapping where multiple free-flying vehicles synthesize multiple apertures with the main tethered vehicle for increased coverage. In this way, a centralized control architecture distributes the information flow among the members of the sensor array. Defining an orbiting formation as an ensemble of orbiting spacecraft performing a cooperative task, we point out that, until now, only spacecraft modeled as rigid bodies have been analyzed in the literature of orbiting formations and constellations. After the formation is in place, one may identify what is known as the virtual truss, i.e. the connection between the elements of the formation, which provides structural rigidity on account of the information flow between them. Our problem is different than conventional formation dynamics problems in that the presence of a tethered spacecraft within the formation demands an investigation of the dynamics coupling between spacecraft caused by tether viscoelasticity. The dynamics model takes into account the orbital and spacecraft dynamics of each vehicle. The control architecture features a separated spacecraft, which has visibility to the entire group of tethered vehicles. This vehicle is the leader of the formation, and ensures that the spacecraft on the tether remain connected and move according to a pre-specified program. The control system design consists of a proportional-derivative feedback plus acceleration feedforward. This ensures that modeling errors are compensated appropriately, and that the commanded slew is tracked accurately. The leader is also where the centralized estimator is located. This estimator continuously updates the state of the formation and estimates inter

  12. Dynamics of cluster formation in driven magnetic colloids dispersed on a monolayer.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Sebastian; Stark, Holger; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2013-05-15

    We report computer simulation results on the cluster formation of dipolar colloidal particles driven by a rotating external field in a quasi-two-dimensional setup. We focus on the interplay between permanent dipolar and hydrodynamic interactions and its influence on the dynamic behavior of the particles. This includes their individual as well as their collective motion. To investigate these characteristics, we employ Brownian dynamics simulations of a finite system with and without hydrodynamic interactions. Our results indicate that hydrodynamic interactions have a profound impact on the dynamic behavior of the clusters and the dynamics of the clustering process.

  13. Dynamic approaches of mixed species biofilm formation using modern technologies.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Kim; Linossier, Isabelle; Fay, Fabienne; Yong, Julius; Abd Wahid, Effendy; Hadjiev, Dimitre; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2012-07-01

    Bacteria and diatoms exist in sessile communities and develop as biofilm on all surfaces in aqueous environments. The interaction between these microorganisms in biofilm was investigated with a bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas sp. (strain 3J6) and two benthic diatoms Amphora coffeaeformis and Cylindrotheca closterium. Each biofilm was grown for 22 days. Images from the confocal microscopy show a difference of adhesion between Pseudoalteromonas 3J6 and diatoms. Indeed, a stronger adhesion is found with C. closterium suggesting cohabitation between Pseudoalteromonas 3J6 and C. closterium compared at an adaptation for bacteria and A. coffeaeformis. The cellular attachment and the growth evolution in biofilm formation depend on each species of diatoms in the biofilm. Behaviour of microalgae in presence of bacteria demonstrates the complexity of the marine biofilm.

  14. Microfluidic Studies of Biofilm Formation in Dynamic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jen; Stocker, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The advent of microscale technologies, such as microfluidics, has revolutionized many areas of biology yet has only recently begun to impact the field of bacterial biofilms. By enabling accurate control and manipulation of physical and chemical conditions, these new microscale approaches afford the ability to combine important features of natural and artificial microbial habitats, such as fluid flow and ephemeral nutrient sources, with an unprecedented level of flexibility and quantification. Here, we review selected case studies to exemplify this potential, discuss limitations, and suggest that this approach opens new vistas into biofilm research over traditional setups, allowing us to expand our understanding of the formation and consequences of biofilms in a broad range of environments and applications. PMID:27274032

  15. Social Influence and the Collective Dynamics of Opinion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Kämmer, Juliane E.; Analytis, Pantelis P.; Neth, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is the process by which individuals adapt their opinion, revise their beliefs, or change their behavior as a result of social interactions with other people. In our strongly interconnected society, social influence plays a prominent role in many self-organized phenomena such as herding in cultural markets, the spread of ideas and innovations, and the amplification of fears during epidemics. Yet, the mechanisms of opinion formation remain poorly understood, and existing physics-based models lack systematic empirical validation. Here, we report two controlled experiments showing how participants answering factual questions revise their initial judgments after being exposed to the opinion and confidence level of others. Based on the observation of 59 experimental subjects exposed to peer-opinion for 15 different items, we draw an influence map that describes the strength of peer influence during interactions. A simple process model derived from our observations demonstrates how opinions in a group of interacting people can converge or split over repeated interactions. In particular, we identify two major attractors of opinion: (i) the expert effect, induced by the presence of a highly confident individual in the group, and (ii) the majority effect, caused by the presence of a critical mass of laypeople sharing similar opinions. Additional simulations reveal the existence of a tipping point at which one attractor will dominate over the other, driving collective opinion in a given direction. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms of public opinion formation and managing conflicting situations in which self-confident and better informed minorities challenge the views of a large uninformed majority. PMID:24223805

  16. Social influence and the collective dynamics of opinion formation.

    PubMed

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Kämmer, Juliane E; Analytis, Pantelis P; Neth, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is the process by which individuals adapt their opinion, revise their beliefs, or change their behavior as a result of social interactions with other people. In our strongly interconnected society, social influence plays a prominent role in many self-organized phenomena such as herding in cultural markets, the spread of ideas and innovations, and the amplification of fears during epidemics. Yet, the mechanisms of opinion formation remain poorly understood, and existing physics-based models lack systematic empirical validation. Here, we report two controlled experiments showing how participants answering factual questions revise their initial judgments after being exposed to the opinion and confidence level of others. Based on the observation of 59 experimental subjects exposed to peer-opinion for 15 different items, we draw an influence map that describes the strength of peer influence during interactions. A simple process model derived from our observations demonstrates how opinions in a group of interacting people can converge or split over repeated interactions. In particular, we identify two major attractors of opinion: (i) the expert effect, induced by the presence of a highly confident individual in the group, and (ii) the majority effect, caused by the presence of a critical mass of laypeople sharing similar opinions. Additional simulations reveal the existence of a tipping point at which one attractor will dominate over the other, driving collective opinion in a given direction. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms of public opinion formation and managing conflicting situations in which self-confident and better informed minorities challenge the views of a large uninformed majority.

  17. Dynamics of altered surface layer formation on dissolving silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, Damien; Bernard, Sylvain; Rémusat, Laurent; Wild, Bastien; Guyot, François; Micha, Jean Sébastien; Rieutord, François; Magnin, Valérie; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The extrapolation of mineral dissolution kinetics experiments to geological timescales has frequently been challenged by the observation that mineral dissolution rates decrease with time. In the present study, we report a detailed investigation of the early stages of wollastonite dissolution kinetics, linking time-resolved measurements of wollastonite dissolution rate as a function of crystallographic orientation to the evolution of physicochemical properties (i.e., diffusivity, density, and thickness) of amorphous silica-rich layers (ASSLs) that developed on each surface. Batch dissolution experiments conducted at room temperature and at far-from-equilibrium conditions revealed that the initial (i.e., ASSL-free) dissolution rate of wollastonite (R(hkl)) based on Ca release observe the following trend: R(010) ≈R(100) >R(101) >R(001) . A gradual decrease of the dissolution rate of some faces by up to one order of magnitude resulted in a modification of this trend after two days: R(010) ≫R(100) ⩾R(101) ≈R(001) . In parallel, the diffusivity of ASSLs developed on each face was estimated based on the measurement of the concentration profile of a conservative tracer (methylene blue) across the ASSL using nanoSIMS. The apparent diffusion coefficients of methylene blue as a function of the crystallographic orientation (Dapp(hkl)) observe the following trend: Dapp(010) ⩾Dapp(100) >Dapp(101) ≫Dapp(001) , and decreases as a function of time for the (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces. Finally, the density of ASSL was estimated based on the modeling of X-ray reflectivity patterns acquired as a function of time. The density of ASSLs developed on the (0 1 0) faces remains low and constant, whereas it increases for the ASSLs developed on the (0 0 1) faces. On the whole, our results suggest that the impact of the formation of ASSLs on the wollastonite dissolution rate is anisotropic: while some crystal faces are weakly affected by the formation of non-passivating ASSLs (e

  18. Multiple star formation and the dynamical evolution of B335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.; Wilson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of a second high-velocity bipolar flow in the dark cloud B335 located in the diffuse envelope to the east of the core is reported. This flow has the same orientation as the first one. The visual extinction in the region between the redshifted and blueshifted lobes is less than or about 1 mag and is not coincident with a condensation. The flow is not associated with any known infrared source in the IRAS catalog. The new flow is about three times older than the first, and its energetics are somewhat smaller. The flows are aligned not only with each other but also with the long axis of the structure of B335 as outlined by CO maps, suggesting that magnetic fields have a role in guiding the flow. From the presence of multiple flows and the structure of the envelope, it is concluded that B335 is at the end of its starbearing life, rather than a young cloud beginning star formation, as previously supposed.

  19. Traction force dynamics predict gap formation in activated endothelium.

    PubMed

    Valent, Erik T; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-09-10

    In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, predicts the stimulus-induced formation of intercellular gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of excimer formation and decay in supercritical krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Holroyd, Richard A.; Cook, Andrew R.; Preses, Jack M.

    2009-12-14

    New infrared absorbing species are identified in the pulse radiolysis of supercritical Kr at high pressures. The species are believed to be excimers. Their formation and decay rates have been time resolved using the Laser Electron Accelerator Facility. An initial species, formed in less than 1 ns, absorbs at several wavelengths between 790 and 1300 nm; The decay of this species is initially fast, followed by a slower component; the decay rate increases with pressure. As this initial species decays a second excimer is formed absorbing at 830, 890, and 990 nm. The growth and decay rates of this excimer are also pressure dependent. A third excimer, absorbing between 1000 and 1200 nm grows at a rate similar to that of the decay of the second species. The decay rate of the third species is also pressure dependent; the lifetime increases from 9.4 ns at 109 bar to 49 ns at 15 bar. A kinetic mechanism is proposed that satisfactorily reproduces the experimental results. The first species is identified as a higher energy gerade triplet state excimer and the second as the singlet gerade state.

  1. The dynamics of secretion during sea urchin embryonic skeleton formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, Fred H.

    2008-05-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes.

  2. Dynamics versus structure: breaking the density degeneracy in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2014-12-01

    The initial density of individual star-forming regions (and by extension the birth environment of planetary systems) is difficult to constrain due to the `density degeneracy problem': an initially dense region expands faster than a more quiescent region due to two-body relaxation and so two regions with the same observed present-day density may have had very different initial densities. We constrain the initial densities of seven nearby star-forming regions by folding in information on their spatial structure from the {Q}-parameter and comparing the structure and present-day density to the results of N-body simulations. This in turn places strong constraints on the possible effects of dynamical interactions and radiation fields from massive stars on multiple systems and protoplanetary discs. We apply our method to constrain the initial binary population in each of these seven regions and show that the populations in only three - the Orion Nebula Cluster, ρ Oph, and Corona Australis - are consistent with having evolved from the Kroupa universal initial period distribution and a binary fraction of unity.

  3. Dynamical Formation and Stability of Helical Prominence Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2000-08-01

    We numerically simulated an initially bipolar magnetic field subjected to shear motions concentrated near and parallel to the photospheric polarity inversion line. The simulations yield three principal results: (1) For footpoint displacements comparable to the bipole's depth, the sheared core field acquires a dipped geometry that can support cool prominence material against gravity. This confirms previous force-free equilibrium models for forming dipped prominence fields by differential shear and extends them to much larger applied shears and time-dependent dynamics with dissipation. (2) At larger shears, we discover a new mechanism for forming the helical magnetic fields of prominences. It entails a two-step process of magnetic reconnection in the corona. First, flux in the sheared core reconnects with flux in the unsheared, restraining arcade, producing new pairs of interlinked field lines. Second, as these interlinked fields continue to be sheared, they are brought together and reconnect again, producing helical field threading and enveloping the body of the prominence. This mechanism can account for the twist that is often observed in both quiescent and erupting prominences. (3) Even for very large shears, the dipped, helical structure settles into an apparently stable equilibrium, despite the substantial amount of reconnection and twist in the magnetic field. We conclude that neither a kink instability of the helical core field, nor a tether-cutting instability of the restraining arcade, is operating in our low-lying model prominence. This concurs with both observations and a theoretical model for prominence stability.

  4. Fusion-Fission Dynamics of Super-Heavy Element Formation and Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, V.I.

    2004-04-12

    The paper is focused on reaction dynamics of super-heavy nucleus formation and decay at beam energies near the Coulomb barrier. The aim is to review the things we have learned from recent experiments on fusion-fission reactions leading to the formation of compound nuclei with Z {>=} 102 and from their extensive theoretical analysis. Main attention is paid to the dynamics of formation of very heavy compound nuclei taking place in strong competition with the process of fast fission (quasi-fission). The choice of collective degrees of freedom playing a principal role, finding the multi-dimensional driving potential and the corresponding dynamic equation regulating the whole process are discussed. Theoretical predictions are made for synthesis of SH nuclei up to Z=120 in the asymmetric 'hot' fusion reactions basing on use of the heavy transactinide targets.

  5. The fluid dynamics of xenocryst formation in mafic enclaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Paul; Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Katharine; Huppert, Herbert; Mader, Heidy

    2014-05-01

    Mafic enclaves produced by the mingling of felsic and mafic magmas commonly contain xenocrysts; crystals akin to those in the felsic host. These crystals are interpreted as having crossed the interface between the two magmas at some stage during the rock evolution. An understanding of the physical conditions that allow this exchange would give insight into the state of the system at the time of assimilation, providing information about the magmatic history of the rock. Using both numerical models and analogue experiments, the low Reynolds number gravitational settling of spheres on to fluid-fluid interfaces is studied as an analogue to this problem. Theoretical treatment suggests that whether or not a particle sinks or floats at an interface depends on four dimensionless parameters; Bond number, the viscosity ratio, a modified density ratio and the contact angle. Spheres are allowed to settle onto an interface for different values of the dimensionless groups and the behavioural regime boundaries are determined. Experimentally this consists of dropping spheres of varying radii and density onto an interface between two density stratified fluids (silicon oil and polyethylene glycol solution), both of which are lighter than the sphere. The spheres are sputter coated in gold to ensure a constant surface interaction. The numerical models are used to validate these results and apply them in geologic settings. Early results suggest that the presence of even a small interfacial tension between the two magmas is sufficient to inhibit the passage of crystals across interfaces in magmatic systems. An interesting feature of note in mafic enclaves is that the xenocrysts often occur in clusters. This can be compared with observations from the analogue experiments where 6mm nylon spheres were dropped onto the fluid interface. Although the spheres are light and small enough to individually be supported by the interface, the successive addition of spheres leads to the formation of

  6. Large-scale molecular-dynamics simulation of nanoscale hydrophobic interaction and nanobubble formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koishi, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2005-11-01

    We performed large-scale molecular-dynamics simulation of nanoscale hydrophobic interaction manifested by the formation of nanobubble between nanometer-sized hydrophobic clusters at constrained equilibrium. Particular attention is placed on the tendency of formation and stability of nanobubbles in between model nanoassemblies which are composed of hydrophobic clusters (or patches) embedded in a hydrophilic substrate. On the basis of physical behavior of nanobubble formation, we observed a change from short-range molecular hydrophobic interaction to midrange nanoscopic interaction when the length scale of hydrophobe approaches to about 1 nm. We investigated the behavior of nanobubble formation with several different patterns of nonpolar-site distribution on the nanoassemblies but always keeping a constant ratio of nonpolar to polar monomer sites. Dynamical properties of confined water molecules in between nanoassemblies are also calculated.

  7. Dynamics of the current filament formation and its steady-state characteristics in chalcogenide based PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoslovskiy, Nikita; Tsendin, Konstantin

    2017-03-01

    In the phase-change memory (PCM) crystallization occurs in the high-current filament which forms during switching to the conductive state. In the present paper we conduct a numerical modeling of the current filament formation dynamics in thin chalcogenide films using an electronic-thermal model based on negative-U centers tunnel ionization and Joule heating. The key role of inhomogeneities in the filament formation process is shown. Steady-state filament parameters were obtained from the analysis of the stationary heat conduction equation. The filament formation dynamics and the steady-state filament radius and temperature could be controlled by material parameters and contact resistance. Consequently it is possible to control the size of the region wherein crystallization occurs. A good agreement with numerous experimental data leads to the conclusion that thermal effects play a significant role in CGS conduction and high-current filament formation while switching.

  8. Particle Transport along Magnetic Null Lines as Sputter or Antihydrogen Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R. A.; Ordonez, C. A.

    Particle transport along null magnetic lines is investigated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations and described as a traveling wave and through diffusion equations. A magnetic null line is defined as a one-dimensional region where the magnetic field magnitude is zero. This region may take any shape in three-dimensional space. The field used in the simulations is generated by two infinite wires of negligible thickness carrying identical current and separated by a small distance. Thus, an infinite magnetic null line exists directly between the wires. The particle trajectories are simulated by solving the equations of motion for each simulated particle of a mono- energetic set. Each is considered individually, with all trajectories starting from the same position along the null line. Each trajectory is simulated until it reaches a specified distance from the initial point or a maximum time elapses. The simulation is repeated using a full set for multiple endpoints and maximum times for ten different amounts of current in the wires. Each current value is selected so that no particles can travel more than seven times the distance between the wires from the null line. The fraction of particles that reach the endpoint in a given time is calculated and used to describe particle transport parallel to the null line. The results are given in normalized, dimensionless units and their possible applications as an antihydrogen source and use in ultra-high purity sputter are discussed. The results are used to find the conditions necessary to obtain a steady and uniform particle flux suitable for ultra-high purity sputter, assuming that plasma is generated near the null line.

  9. Mechanisms underlying the initiation and dynamics of neuronal filopodia: from neurite formation to synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Filopodia are finger-like cellular protrusions found throughout the metazoan kingdom and perform fundamental cellular functions during development and cell migration. Neurons exhibit a wide variety of extremely complex morphologies. In the nervous system, filopodia underlie many major morphogenetic events. Filopodia have roles spanning the initiation and guidance of neuronal processes, axons and dendrites to the formation of synaptic connections. This chapter addresses the mechanisms of the formation and dynamics of neuronal filopodia. Some of the major lessons learned from the study of neuronal filopodia are (1) there are multiple mechanisms that can regulate filopodia in a context-dependent manner, (2) that filopodia are specialized subcellular domains, (3) that filopodia exhibit dynamic membrane recycling which also controls aspects of filopodial dynamics, (4) that neuronal filopodia contain machinery for the orchestration of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and (5) localized protein synthesis contributes to neuronal filopodial dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of multi-tethered satellite formations containing a parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro-Chong, Ary; Misra, Arun K.

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of certain multi-tethered satellite formations containing a parent (or central) body are examined in this paper. Some simplifications are made prior to the analysis: the satellites are point-masses, the tethers are massless and straight, and the motion of the parent body of the formations is prescribed. First, planar formations are investigated: these are termed "hub-and-spoke"—which comprises a parent body located at the center (hub) of the formation, from which stem tethers (spokes), each having a satellite at its end—and "closed-hub-and-spoke" (which has the same description but also has, in addition, tethers joining successive satellites). These formations are placed in the orbital plane, or in the Earth-facing plane normal to the orbit, and are given an initial spin rate about an axis orthogonal to their nominal plane. The ensuing motion is studied in order to ascertain the conditions under which the formations remain in dynamic stability. Later, the motion of three-dimensional configurations, whose initial spin vector is along the radial direction, is examined. These formations are deployed along the local vertical. They are a "closed-hub-and-spoke" formation, which is found to be unstable and a "double-pyramid" configuration, which is found to be stable.

  11. Characterization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein granules formation and dynamics in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Cristina; Martel, David; Coudert, Laetitia; Mellaoui, Samia; Mazroui, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Summary FMRP is an evolutionarily conserved protein that is highly expressed in neurons and its deficiency causes fragile X mental retardation syndrome. FMRP controls the translation of target mRNAs in part by promoting their dynamic transport in neuronal RNA granules. We have previously shown that high expression of mammalian FMRP induces formation of granules termed FMRP granules. These RNA granules are reminiscent of neuronal granules, of stress granules, as well as of the recently described in vitro-assembled granules. In contrast with mammalian FMRP, which has two paralog proteins, Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP) is encoded by a single gene that has no paralog. Using this genetically simple organism, we investigated formation and dynamics of FMRP granules. We found that increased expression of dFMRP in Drosophila cells induces the formation of dynamic dFMRP RNA granules. Mutagenesis studies identified the N-terminal protein–protein domain of dFMRP as a key determinant for FMRP granules formation. The RGG RNA binding motif of dFMRP is dispensable for dFMRP granules formation since its deletion does not prevent formation of those granules. Deletion of the RGG motif reduced, however, dFMRP trafficking between FMRP granules and the cytosol. Similarly, deletion of a large part of the KH RNA binding motif of dFMRP had no effect on formation of dFMRP-granules, but diminished the shuttling activity of dFMRP. Our results thus suggest that the mechanisms controlling formation of RNA granules and those promoting their dynamics are uncoupled. This study opens new avenues to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling FMRP trafficking with its associated mRNAs in and out of RNA granules. PMID:23336078

  12. Dynamic Star Formation in the Massive DR21 Filament

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, N.; Csengeri, T.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Simon, R.; Hennebelle, P.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-25

    The formation of massive stars is a highly complex process in which it is unclear whether the star-forming gas is in global gravitational collapse or an equilibrium state supported by turbulence and/or magnetic fields. By studying one of the most massive and dense star-forming regions in the Galaxy at a distance of less than 3 kpc, i.e. the filament containing the well-known sources DR21 and DR21(OH), we attempt to obtain observational evidence to help us to discriminate between these two views. We use molecular line data from our {sup 13}CO 1 {yields} 0, CS 2 {yields} 1, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 1 {yields} 0 survey of the Cygnus X region obtained with the FCRAO and CO, CS, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and H{sub 2}CO data obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. We observe a complex velocity field and velocity dispersion in the DR21 filament in which regions of the highest column-density, i.e., dense cores, have a lower velocity dispersion than the surrounding gas and velocity gradients that are not (only) due to rotation. Infall signatures in optically thick line profiles of HCO{sup +} and {sup 12}CO are observed along and across the whole DR21 filament. By modelling the observed spectra, we obtain a typical infall speed of {approx}0.6 km s{sup -1} and mass accretion rates of the order of a few 10{sup -3} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1} for the two main clumps constituting the filament. These massive clumps (4900 and 3300 M{sub {circle_dot}} at densities of around 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} within 1 pc diameter) are both gravitationally contracting. The more massive of the clumps, DR21(OH), is connected to a sub-filament, apparently 'falling' onto the clump. This filament runs parallel to the magnetic field. Conclusions. All observed kinematic features in the DR21 filament (velocity field, velocity dispersion, and infall), its filamentary morphology, and the existence of (a) sub-filament(s) can be explained if the DR21 filament was formed by the convergence of flows on large

  13. Polymer dynamics of DOC networks and gel formation in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Pedro; Santschi, Peter H.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean plays a major role in global biogeochemical carbon cycling; it holds an important reservoir of reduced organic carbon, mostly in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and processes about one-half of the total primary production of the planet. Dissolved molecules present between living and assimilable size extremes (˜1000 nm -1 nm), constitute the most abundant form of remnant biochemicals in the ocean, outweighing the total living biomass by a factor of roughly 200. Because DOC is the fundamental substrate for marine microorganisms, and is primarily composed by small refractory biopolymers, this prompted the idea that the ocean might function as a huge repository of recalcitrant carbon. The missing link that elucidates this paradox and explains how the rich and vast stock of DOC becomes available to bacteria was the discovery that DOC throughout the water column remains in reversible assembly/dispersion equilibrium forming porous microscopic gels (Chin et al., Nature 391, 568-572, 1998). This abiotic DOC-POM shunt yields a microgel pool containing ˜70 gigatons of carbon forming discrete patches of high nutrient concentration that can be readily colonized by microorganisms. The presence of this huge gel mass in seawater extending far into the dark ocean has ramifications that might well scale nonlinearly through the microbial loop to the World Ocean and global climate system and it is fundamentally changing how oceanographers think about processes linking the microbial loop and biological pump to the rest of the biosphere and the geosphere. Even if a small fraction of DOC remains self-assembled, marine scientists will have to revise the rationale of established aquatic paradigms ranging from trace metal chelation, size-reactivity relationships, the microbial loop, the biological pump, colloid pumping, and humification. A ubiquitous, reversible DOC assembly/dispersion process implies a dynamic "patchiness" spanning from the molecular to the micron

  14. Understanding Visual Map Formation through Vortex Dynamics of Spin Hamiltonian Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Won; Kim, Seunghwan

    2004-01-01

    The pattern formation in orientation and ocular dominance columns is one of the most investigated problems in the brain. From a known cortical structure, we build spinlike Hamiltonian models with long-range interactions of the Mexican hat type. These Hamiltonian models allow a coherent interpretation of the diverse phenomena in the visual map formation with the help of relaxation dynamics of spin systems. In particular, we explain various phenomena of self-organization in orientation and ocular dominance map formation including the pinwheel annihilation and its dependency on the columnar wave vector and boundary conditions.

  15. Plasma ion dynamics and beam formation in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Miracoli, R.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gambino, N.; Chikin, S.

    2010-02-15

    In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources it has been demonstrated that plasma heating may be improved by means of different microwave to plasma coupling mechanisms, including the ''frequency tuning'' and the ''two frequency heating''. These techniques affect evidently the electron dynamics, but the relationship with the ion dynamics has not been investigated in details up to now. Here we will try to outline these relations: through the study of ion dynamics we may try to understand how to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources brightness. A simple model of the ion confinement and beam formation will be presented, based on particle-in-cell and single particle simulations.

  16. Dust formation and dynamic in magnetized and non-magnetized microwave discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaras, Karim; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled

    2016-09-01

    Dusty plasmas studies are conducted for several decades to answer to various issues from microelectronic, nanotechnology, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion devices. These studies are usually conducted in RF discharges at low pressure in which the major physics concerning dust formation mechanisms and dynamic is now well known. In our case, we focus on dust formation and dynamic in (i) microwave plasma under typical pressure conditions of RF discharges (50 Pa) and (ii) in magnetized (ECR: Electron Cyclotron Resonance) microwave plasma under very low pressure condition (0.1 to 1 Pa). The aim of this study is not only for fundamental purpose but also for respond to some issues concerning dust in fusion devices. Thus, we investigate the dust formation mechanisms and dynamic using laser extinction method and laser light scattering imaging coupling with SEM imaging in hydrocarbon plasma and with PVD system with using tungsten target (according to fusion device). We observed that dust formation occurs even if the very low pressure conditions are generally not suitable for nucleation growth in gas phase (the influence of the magnetic field will be discussed). We will also discuss about the particular dust dynamic behavior in microwave discharge in comparison with RF discharge.

  17. Geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite-element program (GEODYN). Phase 1. Theoretical description

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, J.A.; Apostal, M.C.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Tinianow, M.A.; Wormley, D.N.

    1984-06-01

    The Theoretical Description for the GEODYN interactive finite-element computer program is presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit-Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates nonlinear, time-dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  18. The taccalonolides and paclitaxel cause distinct effects on microtubule dynamics and aster formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microtubule stabilizers suppress microtubule dynamics and, at the lowest antiproliferative concentrations, disrupt the function of mitotic spindles, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis. At slightly higher concentrations, these agents cause the formation of multiple mitotic asters with distinct morphologies elicited by different microtubule stabilizers. Results We tested the hypothesis that two classes of microtubule stabilizing drugs, the taxanes and the taccalonolides, cause the formation of distinct aster structures due, in part, to differential effects on microtubule dynamics. Paclitaxel and the taccalonolides suppressed the dynamics of microtubules formed from purified tubulin as well as in live cells. Both agents suppressed microtubule dynamic instability, with the taccalonolides having a more pronounced inhibition of microtubule catastrophe, suggesting that they stabilize the plus ends of microtubules more effectively than paclitaxel. Live cell microscopy was also used to evaluate the formation and resolution of asters after drug treatment. While each drug had similar effects on initial formation, substantial differences were observed in aster resolution. Paclitaxel-induced asters often coalesced over time resulting in fewer, larger asters whereas numerous compact asters persisted once they were formed in the presence of the taccalonolides. Conclusions We conclude that the increased resistance of microtubule plus ends to catastrophe may play a role in the observed inability of taccalonolide-induced asters to coalesce during mitosis, giving rise to the distinct morphologies observed after exposure to these agents. PMID:24576146

  19. Phase 1 user instruction manual. A geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite element program (GEODYN)

    SciTech Connect

    Tinianow, M.A.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Baird, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    User instructions for the GEODYN Interactive Finite Element Computer Program are presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit - Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates non-linear, time dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  20. Characterization of dynamic droplet impaction and deposit formation on leaf surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elucidation of droplet dynamic impaction and deposition formation on leaf surfaces would assist to optimize application strategies, improve biological control efficiency, and minimize pesticide waste. A custom-designed system consisting of two high-speed digital cameras and a uniform-size droplet ge...

  1. Fluorescence-Based Quasicontinuous and In Situ Monitoring of Biofilm Formation Dynamics in Natural Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichs, G.; Lachnit, T.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of biofilm formation helps to deepen our understanding of surface colonization in natural environments. While methods for screening biofilm formation in the laboratory are well established, studies in marine environments have so far been based upon destructive analysis of individual samples and provide only discontinuous snapshots of biofilm establishment. In order to explore the development of biofilm over time and under various biotic and abiotic conditions, we applied a recently developed optical biofilm sensor to quasicontinuously analyze marine biofilm dynamics in situ. Using this technique in combination with microscope-assisted imaging, we investigated biofilm formation from its beginning to mature multispecies biofilms. In contrast to laboratory studies on biofilm formation, a smooth transition from initial attachment to colony formation and exponential growth could not be observed in the marine environment. Instead, initial attachment was followed by an adaptation phase of low growth and homogeneously distributed solitary bacterial cells. Moreover, we observed a diurnal variation of biofilm signal intensity, suggesting a transient state of biofilm formation of bacteria. Overall, the biofilm formation dynamics could be modeled by three consecutive development stages attributed to initial bacterial attachment, bacterial growth, and attachment and growth of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. Additional experiments showed that the presence of seaweed considerably shortened the adaptation phase in comparison with that on control surfaces but yielded similar growth rates. The outlined examples highlight the advantages of a quasicontinuous in situ detection that enabled, for the first time, the exploration of the initial attachment phase and the diurnal variation during biofilm formation in natural ecosystems. PMID:24727266

  2. Fluorescence-based quasicontinuous and in situ monitoring of biofilm formation dynamics in natural marine environments.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Friedrichs, G; Lachnit, T

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of biofilm formation helps to deepen our understanding of surface colonization in natural environments. While methods for screening biofilm formation in the laboratory are well established, studies in marine environments have so far been based upon destructive analysis of individual samples and provide only discontinuous snapshots of biofilm establishment. In order to explore the development of biofilm over time and under various biotic and abiotic conditions, we applied a recently developed optical biofilm sensor to quasicontinuously analyze marine biofilm dynamics in situ. Using this technique in combination with microscope-assisted imaging, we investigated biofilm formation from its beginning to mature multispecies biofilms. In contrast to laboratory studies on biofilm formation, a smooth transition from initial attachment to colony formation and exponential growth could not be observed in the marine environment. Instead, initial attachment was followed by an adaptation phase of low growth and homogeneously distributed solitary bacterial cells. Moreover, we observed a diurnal variation of biofilm signal intensity, suggesting a transient state of biofilm formation of bacteria. Overall, the biofilm formation dynamics could be modeled by three consecutive development stages attributed to initial bacterial attachment, bacterial growth, and attachment and growth of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. Additional experiments showed that the presence of seaweed considerably shortened the adaptation phase in comparison with that on control surfaces but yielded similar growth rates. The outlined examples highlight the advantages of a quasicontinuous in situ detection that enabled, for the first time, the exploration of the initial attachment phase and the diurnal variation during biofilm formation in natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Water network dynamics at the critical moment of a peptide's beta-turn formation: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Karvounis, George; Nerukh, Dmitry; Glen, Robert C

    2004-09-08

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations for a single molecule of Leu-Enkephalin in aqueous solution have been used to study the role of the water network during the formation of beta-turns. We give a detailed account of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding, the water-peptide hydrogen bonding, and the orientation and residence times of water molecules focusing on the short critical periods of transition to the stable beta-turns. These studies suggest that, when intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the first and fourth residue of the beta-turn is not present, the disruption of the water network and the establishment of water bridges constitute decisive factors in the formation and stability of the beta-turn. Finally, we provide possible explanations and mechanisms for the formations of different kinds of beta-turns.

  4. Morphology-induced collective behaviors: dynamic pattern formation in water-floating elements.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kohei; Ngouabeu, Aubery Marchel Tientcheu; Miyashita, Shuhei; Göldi, Maurice; Füchslin, Rudolf Marcel; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems involving many interacting elements often organize into patterns. Two types of pattern formation can be distinguished, static and dynamic. Static pattern formation means that the resulting structure constitutes a thermodynamic equilibrium whose pattern formation can be understood in terms of the minimization of free energy, while dynamic pattern formation indicates that the system is permanently dissipating energy and not in equilibrium. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that the morphology of elements plays a significant role in dynamic pattern formation. We prepared three different shapes of elements (circles, squares, and triangles) floating in a water-filled container, in which each of the shapes has two types: active elements that were capable of self-agitation with vibration motors, and passive elements that were mere floating tiles. The system was purely decentralized: that is, elements interacted locally, and subsequently elicited global patterns in a process called self-organized segregation. We showed that, according to the morphology of the selected elements, a different type of segregation occurs. Also, we quantitatively characterized both the local interaction regime and the resulting global behavior for each type of segregation by means of information theoretic quantities, and showed the difference for each case in detail, while offering speculation on the mechanism causing this phenomenon.

  5. Morphology-Induced Collective Behaviors: Dynamic Pattern Formation in Water-Floating Elements

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kohei; Ngouabeu, Aubery Marchel Tientcheu; Miyashita, Shuhei; Göldi, Maurice; Füchslin, Rudolf Marcel; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems involving many interacting elements often organize into patterns. Two types of pattern formation can be distinguished, static and dynamic. Static pattern formation means that the resulting structure constitutes a thermodynamic equilibrium whose pattern formation can be understood in terms of the minimization of free energy, while dynamic pattern formation indicates that the system is permanently dissipating energy and not in equilibrium. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that the morphology of elements plays a significant role in dynamic pattern formation. We prepared three different shapes of elements (circles, squares, and triangles) floating in a water-filled container, in which each of the shapes has two types: active elements that were capable of self-agitation with vibration motors, and passive elements that were mere floating tiles. The system was purely decentralized: that is, elements interacted locally, and subsequently elicited global patterns in a process called self-organized segregation. We showed that, according to the morphology of the selected elements, a different type of segregation occurs. Also, we quantitatively characterized both the local interaction regime and the resulting global behavior for each type of segregation by means of information theoretic quantities, and showed the difference for each case in detail, while offering speculation on the mechanism causing this phenomenon. PMID:22715370

  6. Simultaneous Measurement of Amyloid Fibril Formation by Dynamic Light Scattering and Fluorescence Reveals Complex Aggregation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Aaron M.; Sourigues, Yannick; Kopito, Ron R.; Melki, Ronald; Quake, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus that combines dynamic light scattering and Thioflavin T fluorescence detection is used to simultaneously probe fibril formation in polyglutamine peptides, the aggregating subunit associated with Huntington's disease, in vitro. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder in a class of human pathologies that includes Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These pathologies are all related by the propensity of their associated protein or polypeptide to form insoluble, β-sheet rich, amyloid fibrils. Despite the wide range of amino acid sequence in the aggregation prone polypeptides associated with these diseases, the resulting amyloids display strikingly similar physical structure, an observation which suggests a physical basis for amyloid fibril formation. Thioflavin T fluorescence reports β-sheet fibril content while dynamic light scattering measures particle size distributions. The combined techniques allow elucidation of complex aggregation kinetics and are used to reveal multiple stages of amyloid fibril formation. PMID:23349924

  7. Asymptotic behavior of dynamical variables and naked singularity formation in spherically symmetric gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Hayato; Mitsuda, Eiji; Nambu, Yasusada; Tomimatsu, Akira

    2009-07-15

    In considering the gravitational collapse of matter, it is an important problem to clarify what kind of conditions leads to the formation of naked singularity. For this purpose, we apply the 1+3 orthonormal frame formalism introduced by Uggla et al. to the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid. This formalism allows us to construct an autonomous system of evolution and constraint equations for scale-invariant dynamical variables normalized by the volume expansion rate of the timelike orthonormal frame vector. We investigate the asymptotic evolution of such dynamical variables towards the formation of a central singularity and present a conjecture that the steep spatial gradient for the normalized density function is a characteristic of the naked singularity formation.

  8. Quick and inexpensive paraffin-embedding method for dynamic bone formation analyses

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Amy; Irwin, Regina; Miller, Josselyn; Horan, Daniel J.; Robling, Alexander G.; McCabe, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a straightforward method that uses paraffin-embedded bone for undemineralized thin sectioning, which is amenable to subsequent dynamic bone formation measurements. Bone has stiffer material properties than paraffin, and therefore has hereforto usually been embedded in plastic blocks, cured and sectioned with a tungsten carbide knife to obtain mineralized bone sections for dynamic bone formation measures. This process is expensive and requires special equipment, experienced personnel, and time for the plastic to penetrate the bone and cure. Our method utilizes a novel way to prepare mineralized bone that increases its compliance so that it can be embedded and easily section in paraffin blocks. The approach is simple, quick, and costs less than 10% of the price for plastic embedded bone sections. While not effective for static bone measures, this method allows dynamic bone analyses to be readily performed in laboratories worldwide which might not otherwise have access to traditional (plastic) equipment and expertise. PMID:28198415

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of helium cluster diffusion and bubble formation in bulk tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Chun; Shu, Xiaolin; Tao, Peng; Yu, Yi; Niu, Guo-Jiang; Xu, Yuping; Gao, Fei; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2014-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the diffusion behavior of helium (He) clusters in tungsten (W), because their diffusion properties provide basic knowledge in understanding the He bubble formation. The binding energy between He and He cluster is shown to be positive, and thus, He is easy to form bubbles by self-trapping. The mean squared displacements (MSDs) were employed to determine the diffusivities of He clusters with different sizes at different temperatures. The He bubble formation at different temperatures with 1% He was also investigated. It is revealed that the formation of He bubbles is strongly associated with the temperature and the diffusivities of the He clusters in W. The results demonstrate the initial stage of the He bubble formation and growth in W.

  10. Molecular dynamics in computational materials sciences: From the study of nanostructure formation to the design of fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irle, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    On overview is given over the use of approximate density functional theory as basis for performing direct molecular dynamics simulations on ground and excited states. In the case of nanostructure formation, we discuss the relationship between fullerene, nanotube, and graphene formation. In the case of fluorescent molecules, we elucidate the importance of excited state dynamics for fluorescent properties.

  11. The Role of Dynamics in the Formation of Cataclysmic Variables in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Hong, Jongsuk; Belloni, Diogo; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-01-01

    Internal dynamics and stellar interactions in the high-density environments of globular clusters are likely to play a key role in the formation and evolution of X-ray sources in these stellar systems.Observational evidence in support of the role dynamical interactions in the formation of X-ray sources comes from a number of observational studies showing that the number of X-ray sources in globular clusters is correlated with the cluster stellar encounter rate.We present here the results of a survey of Monte-Carlo simulations exploring the role of dynamics in the formation of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our simulations show a correlation between the number of CVs and the stellar encounter rate as found in observational studies and illustrate the dynamical path leading to this correlation.We also study the spatial distribution of CVs in clusters and find that they are more concentrated than single stars with masses close to those of turn-off stars at 12 Gyr. This trend is stronger for the population of CVs formed from primordial binaries undergoing exchange encounters.

  12. Robust optimization of a mathematical model to design a dynamic cell formation problem considering labor utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeinezhad, Moghadaseh; Kia, Reza; Shahnazari-Shahrezaei, Parisa

    2016-11-01

    Cell formation (CF) problem is one of the most important decision problems in designing a cellular manufacturing system includes grouping machines into machine cells and parts into part families. Several factors should be considered in a cell formation problem. In this work, robust optimization of a mathematical model of a dynamic cell formation problem integrating CF, production planning and worker assignment is implemented with uncertain scenario-based data. The robust approach is used to reduce the effects of fluctuations of the uncertain parameters with regards to all possible future scenarios. In this research, miscellaneous cost parameters of the cell formation and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty and a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed to formulate the related robust dynamic cell formation problem. The objective function seeks to minimize total costs including machine constant, machine procurement, machine relocation, machine operation, inter-cell and intra-cell movement, overtime, shifting labors between cells and inventory holding. Finally, a case study is carried out to display the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed model. The tradeoff between solution robustness and model robustness is also analyzed in the obtained results.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of organohalide perovskite precursors: solvent effects in the formation of perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sevillano, Juan José; Ahmad, Shahzada; Calero, Sofía; Anta, Juan A

    2015-09-21

    The stability and desirable crystal formation of organohalide perovskite semiconductors is of utmost relevance to ensure the success of perovskites in photovoltaic technology. Herein we have simulated the dynamics of ionic precursors toward the formation of embryonic organohalide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 units in the presence of solvent molecules using Molecular Dynamics. The calculations involved, a variable amount of Pb(2+), I(-), and CH3NH3(+) ionic precursors in water, pentane and a mixture of these two solvents. Suitable force fields for solvents and precursors have been tested and used to carry out the simulations. Radial distribution functions and mean square displacements confirm the formation of basic perovskite crystalline units in pure pentane - taken as a simple and archetypal organic solvent. In contrast, simulations in water confirm the stability of the solvated ionic precursors, which prevents their aggregation to form the perovskite compound. We have found that in the case of a water/pentane binary solvent, a relatively small amount of water did not hinder the perovskite formation. Thus, our findings suggest that the cause of the poor stability of perovskite films in the presence of moisture is a chemical reaction, rather than the polar nature of the solvents. Based on the results, a set of force-field parameters to study from first principles perovskite formation and stability, also in the solid phase, is proposed.

  14. Formation of carbon nanoscrolls from graphene sheet: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui; Yang, Houbo

    2016-12-01

    In recent year, carbon nanoscrolls have attracted intensive attention both in theory and experiments for their unique and excellent fundamental properties and the wide range of potential applications. In this paper, the fabrication of carbon nanoscrolls using graphene and carbon nanotubes has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) method. The formation mechanism of carbon nanoscrolls has been presented convincing explanations. Furthermore, the position and number of carbon nanotubes also influence the formation of carbon nanoscrolls. Our theoretical results will provide researchers a powerful guide and helpful assistance in designing better targeted programs in experiments.

  15. Nanostructure formation by dynamic densification and recrystallization of amorphous Ti-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counihan, P. J.; Crawford, A.; Thadhani, N. N.

    1998-07-01

    Dynamic densification was used to consolidate mechanically amorphized Ti-Si alloy powders, using a 3-capsule, plate-impact, gas-gun loading system at velocities of 300 and 500 m/s. The recovered amorphous compacts were subsequently annealed above the crystallization temperature. A single-phase nano-structured (50-90 nm) Ti5Si3 compound was produced, as revealed by TEM and XRD analysis. In this paper, the influence of dynamic densification on the crystallization behavior of amorphous Ti-Si, and the formation of nano-crystals will be discussed.

  16. Cryogenic Particle Accumulation In ATRAP And The First Antihydrogen Production Within A Magnetic Gradient Trap For Neutral Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Storry, C. H.; Carew, A.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E. A.; Weel, M.; George, M. C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; LeSage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Speck, A.; Markert, F.

    2008-08-08

    ATRAP has made many important improvements since CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) was restarted in 2006. These include substantial increases in the number of positrons (e{sup +}) and antiprotons (Pbars) used to make antihydrogen (Hbar) atoms, a new technique for loading electrons (e{sup -}) that are used to cool Pbars and e{sup +}, implementation of a completely new, larger and more robust apparatus in our second experimental zone and the inclusion of a quadrupole Ioffe trap intended to trap the coldest Hbar atoms produced. Using this new apparatus we have produced large numbers of Hbar atoms within a Penning trap that is located within this quadrupole Ioffe trap using a new technique which shows promise for producing even colder atoms. These observed Hbar atoms resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap.

  17. Complex Solitary Wave Dynamics, Pattern Formation, and Chaos in the Gain-Loss Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Justin; Carr, Lincoln; Wu, Mingzhong

    2014-03-01

    Complex solitary wave dynamics, pattern formation and chaos are numerically studied in the context of spin wave envelopes in magnetic thin film active feedback rings and analogous driven damped nonlinear physical systems. Distinct dynamical behaviors of the gain-loss nonlinear Schrödinger equation were numerically identified during a parameter space exploration utilizing over 180 000 core hours of simulation. Numerically identified dynamical behaviors include: spatially symmetric/asymmetric interactions of solitary wave peaks; dynamical pattern formation and recurrence, intermittency, steady state solutions and chaotically modulating bright soliton trains. Ten new dynamical behaviors, eight demonstrating long lifetimes, are predicted to be observable in experiments. Supported by NSF.

  18. Static and dynamic descriptions of bond breaking/formation: A complementary view?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Laurent; Adamo, Carlo

    2005-12-01

    Ab initio molecular-dynamic simulations using density-functional theory and the recent atom-centered density-matrix propagation (ADMP) method were used to study the bond breaking and formation for a case-study substitution nucleophilic bimolecular reaction, namely, the Walden inversion. Using the atoms-in-molecule approach, we have performed a detailed analysis to investigate intra- and intermolecular charge transfer along the ADMP trajectory. These results were compared to those obtained considering a static approach, such as the intrinsic reaction path. In particular, the topological properties computed along the dynamic trajectory well evidence a stronger electron exchange tending to spontaneously maximize the rising covalent interaction. Furthermore, their analysis suggests that the bond formation mechanism involves a reactive intermediate with a bonding interaction stronger than in the final product.

  19. The More the Tubular: Dynamic Bundling of Actin Filaments for Membrane Tube Formation.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, Julian; Geissler, Phillip L

    2016-07-01

    Tubular protrusions are a common feature of living cells, arising from polymerization of stiff protein filaments against a comparably soft membrane. Although this process involves many accessory proteins in cells, in vitro experiments indicate that similar tube-like structures can emerge without them, through spontaneous bundling of filaments mediated by the membrane. Using theory and simulation of physical models, we have elaborated how nonequilibrium fluctuations in growth kinetics and membrane shape can yield such protrusions. Enabled by a new grand canonical Monte Carlo method for membrane simulation, our work reveals a cascade of dynamical transitions from individually polymerizing filaments to highly cooperatively growing bundles as a dynamical bottleneck to tube formation. Filament network organization as well as adhesion points to the membrane, which bias filament bending and constrain membrane height fluctuations, screen the effective attractive interactions between filaments, significantly delaying bundling and tube formation.

  20. Terrestrial Planet Formation: Dynamical Shake-up and the Low Mass of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2017-05-01

    We consider a dynamical shake-up model to explain the low mass of Mars and the lack of planets in the asteroid belt. In our scenario, a secular resonance with Jupiter sweeps through the inner solar system as the solar nebula depletes, pitting resonant excitation against collisional damping in the Sun’s protoplanetary disk. We report the outcome of extensive numerical calculations of planet formation from planetesimals in the terrestrial zone, with and without dynamical shake-up. If the Sun’s gas disk within the terrestrial zone depletes in roughly a million years, then the sweeping resonance inhibits planet formation in the asteroid belt and substantially limits the size of Mars. This phenomenon likely occurs around other stars with long-period massive planets, suggesting that asteroid belt analogs are common.

  1. Self-organised formation of nanotubes from graphene ribbons. A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fülep, Dávid; Zsoldos, Ibolya; László, István

    2016-10-01

    The conditions for self-organised formations of carbon nanotubes from two parallel graphene ribbons were studied in a density functional adjusted tight binding molecular dynamics simulation. We have found that the seemingly trivial process is significantly limited by the thermal motion of the carbon atoms. There are further difficulties as well, primarily the unfavourable position of the atoms at the edges of the zigzag graphene ribbons. In repeated molecular dynamics runs we analysed the conditions of perfect coalescences, the influence of the substrate and the impact of the zigzag graphene ribbon positions. We have obtained that contrary to the abovementioned unfavourable conditions perfect nanotube production can be obtained using substrates. As the positioning of the substrate can be made with piezoelectric devices, this can significantly help the experimental realisation of the nanotube formation as well.

  2. Insights into H2 formation in space from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Casolo, Simone; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2013-04-23

    Hydrogen formation is a key process for the physics and the chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecular hydrogen is believed to form on the carbonaceous surface of dust grains, and several mechanisms have been invoked to explain its abundance in different regions of space, from cold interstellar clouds to warm photon-dominated regions. Here, we investigate direct (Eley-Rideal) recombination including lattice dynamics, surface corrugation, and competing H-dimers formation by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. We find that Eley-Rideal reaction dominates at energies relevant for the interstellar medium and alone may explain observations if the possibility of facile sticking at special sites (edges, point defects, etc.) on the surface of the dust grains is taken into account.

  3. Elastic fiber formation: a dynamic view of extracellular matrix assembly using timer reporters.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Rongish, Brenda J; Czirok, Andras; Zach, Julia; Little, Charles D; Davis, Elaine C; Knutsen, Russell H; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Levy, Marilyn A; Mecham, Robert P

    2006-04-01

    To study the dynamics of elastic fiber assembly, mammalian cells were transfected with a cDNA construct encoding bovine tropoelastin in frame with the Timer reporter. Timer is a derivative of the DsRed fluorescent protein that changes from green to red over time and, hence, can be used to distinguish new from old elastin. Using dynamic imaging microscopy, we found that the first step in elastic fiber formation is the appearance of small cell surface-associated elastin globules that increased in size with time (microassembly). The elastin globules are eventually transferred to pre-existing elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix where they coalesce into larger structures (macroassembly). Mechanical forces associated with cell movement help shape the forming, extracellular elastic fiber network. Time-lapse imaging combined with the use of Timer constructs provides unique tools for studying the temporal and spatial aspects of extracellular matrix formation by live cells.

  4. MYOSIN IIB REGULATES ACTIN DYNAMICS DURING SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY AND MEMORY FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Christopher S.; Gavin, Cristin F.; Rubio, Maria D.; Kramar, Eniko A.; Chen, Lulu Y.; Jia, Yousheng; Huganir, Richard L.; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Gall, Christine M.; Miller, Courtney A.; Lynch, Gary; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Presently, the mechanisms that trigger actin dynamics during these brain processes are poorly understood. In this study, we show that myosin II motor activity is downstream of LTP induction and is necessary for the emergence of specialized actin structures that stabilize an early phase of LTP. We also demonstrate that myosin II activity contributes importantly to an actin-dependent process that underlies memory consolidation. Pharmacological treatments that promote actin polymerization reversed the effects of a myosin II inhibitor on LTP and memory. We conclude that myosin II motors regulate plasticity by imparting mechanical forces onto the spine actin cytoskeleton in response to synaptic stimulation. These cytoskeletal forces trigger the emergence of actin structures that stabilize synaptic plasticity. Our studies provide a novel mechanical framework for understanding cytoskeletal dynamics associated with synaptic plasticity and memory formation. PMID:20797537

  5. He cluster dynamics in W in the presence of cluster induced formation of He traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smirnov, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical model describing spatiotemporal dynamics of He clusters in tungsten, which takes into account He trap generation associated with the growth of He clusters, is presented. Application of this model to the formation of the layer of nano-bubbles underneath of the surface of thick He irradiated sample, before surface morphology starts to change, gives very good agreement with currently available experimental data. The role of thermophoresis in a long-term evolution of nano-bubble containing structures is discussed.

  6. Exact formula of the distribution of Schmidt eigenvalues for dynamical formation of entanglement in quantum chaos.

    PubMed

    Kubotani, Hiroto; Adachi, Satoshi; Toda, Mikito

    2008-06-20

    The exact formula of the one-level distribution of the Schmidt eigenvalues is obtained for dynamical formation of entanglement in quantum chaos. The formula is based on the random matrix theory of the fixed-trace ensemble, and is derived using the theory of the holonomic system of differential equations. We confirm that the formula describes the universality of the distribution of the Schmidt eigenvalues in quantum chaos.

  7. Vague-to-Crisp Dynamics of Percept Formation Modeled as Operant (Selectionist) Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-04

    framework with cognitive processing and the intentional neurodynamic cycle. Vague-to-crisp dynamics of percept formation m Approved for public...13: Supplementary Note © 2013 . Published in Cognitive Neurodynamics , Vol. Ed. 0 8, (1) (2013), (, (1). DoD Components reserve a royalty-free...operant (selectionist) process Roman Ilin, J un Zhang, Leonid Perlovsky & Robert Kozma Cognitive Neurodynamics ISSN 1871 4080 Cogn Neurodyn

  8. From collisions to clusters: first steps of sulphuric acid nanocluster formation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2014-08-01

    The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first-principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton control. As a consequence, the clusters show very dynamic ion pair structure, which differs from both the static structure optimisation calculations and the equilibrium first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In some of the simulation runs, water mediates the proton transfer by acting as a proton bridge. In general, water is able to notably stabilise the formed clusters by allocating a fraction of the released clustering energy.

  9. Observational Evidence of Dynamic Star Formation Rate in Milky Way Giant Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Murray, Norman W.

    2016-12-01

    Star formation on galactic scales is known to be a slow process, but whether it is slow on smaller scales is uncertain. We cross-correlate 5469 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from a new all-sky catalog with 256 star-forming complexes (SFCs) to build a sample of 191 SFC-GMC complexes—collections of multiple clouds each matched to 191 SFCs. The total mass in stars harbored by these clouds is inferred from WMAP free-free fluxes. We measure the GMC mass, the virial parameter, the star formation efficiency ɛ and the star formation rate per freefall time ɛ ff. Both ɛ and ɛ ff range over 3-4 orders of magnitude. We find that 68.3% of the clouds fall within {σ }{logɛ }=0.79+/- 0.22 {dex} and {σ }{log{ɛ }{ff}}=0.91+/- 0.22 {dex} about the median. Compared to these observed scatters, a simple model with a time-independent ɛ ff that depends on the host GMC properties predicts {σ }{log{ɛ }{ff}}=0.12{--}0.24. Allowing for a time-variable ɛ ff, we can recover the large dispersion in the rate of star formation. This strongly suggests that star formation in the Milky Way is a dynamic process on GMC scales. We also show that the surface star formation rate profile of the Milky Way correlates well with the molecular gas surface density profile.

  10. On the dynamics of Liesegang-type pattern formation in a gaseous system

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Álvarez, Elizeth; Montoya, Fernando; Buhse, Thomas; Rios-Herrera, Wady; Torres-Guzmán, José; Rivera, Marco; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Liesegang pattern formations are widely spread in nature. In spite of a comparably simple experimental setup under laboratory conditions, a variety of spatio-temporal structures may arise. Presumably because of easier control of the experimental conditions, Liesegang pattern formation was mainly studied in gel systems during more than a century. Here we consider pattern formation in a gas phase, where beautiful but highly complex reaction-diffusion-convection dynamics are uncovered by means of a specific laser technique. A quantitative analysis reveals that two different, apparently independent processes, both highly correlated and synchronized across the extension of the reaction cloud, act on different time scales. Each of them imprints a different structure of salt precipitation at the tube walls. PMID:27025405

  11. A Simple Dynamical Model for Filament Formation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Filament formation in the solar corona is considered in the case of a slowly evolving force-free magnetic field. The strong-field approximation is used, which takes into account the magnetohydrodynamic equations of motion, induction, and compressibility. Methods for solving the relevant equations are presented and applied to filament modeling. A three-dimensional calculation is presented, which uses linear force-free magnetic fields. The boundary conditions are chosen to resemble the qualitative linkage model for the formation of filaments, suggested by Martens and Zwaan (2001). Consistent with this model, dense formations, reminiscent of filament pillars, are shown to appear in the corona above the region of converging and canceling magnetic bipoles. The results demonstrate the principal role of magnetic field in the dynamical processes of dense plasma accumulation and support in filaments. The model can be useful for clarifying the role of flux emergence in coronal mass ejection initiation.

  12. On the dynamics of Liesegang-type pattern formation in a gaseous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Álvarez, Elizeth; Montoya, Fernando; Buhse, Thomas; Rios-Herrera, Wady; Torres-Guzmán, José; Rivera, Marco; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-03-01

    Liesegang pattern formations are widely spread in nature. In spite of a comparably simple experimental setup under laboratory conditions, a variety of spatio-temporal structures may arise. Presumably because of easier control of the experimental conditions, Liesegang pattern formation was mainly studied in gel systems during more than a century. Here we consider pattern formation in a gas phase, where beautiful but highly complex reaction-diffusion-convection dynamics are uncovered by means of a specific laser technique. A quantitative analysis reveals that two different, apparently independent processes, both highly correlated and synchronized across the extension of the reaction cloud, act on different time scales. Each of them imprints a different structure of salt precipitation at the tube walls.

  13. Effect of bubble formation on the dissociation of methane hydrate in water: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Andoh, Yoshimichi; Okazaki, Susumu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2014-02-20

    We investigate the dissociation of methane hydrate in liquid water using molecular dynamics simulations. As dissociation of the hydrate proceeds, methane molecules are released into the aqueous phase and eventually they form bubbles. It is shown that this bubble formation, which causes change in the methane concentration in the aqueous phase, significantly affects the dissociation kinetics of methane hydrate. A large system size employed in this study makes it possible to analyze the effects of the change in the methane concentration and the formation of bubbles on the dissociation kinetics in detail. It is found that the dissociation rate decreases with time until the bubble formation and then it turns to increase. It is also demonstrated that methane hydrate can exist as a metastable superheated solid if there exists no bubble.

  14. Group impressions as dynamic configurations: the tensor product model of group impression formation and change.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Y; Woolcock, J; Kashima, E S

    2000-10-01

    Group impressions are dynamic configurations. The tensor product model (TPM), a connectionist model of memory and learning, is used to describe the process of group impression formation and change, emphasizing the structured and contextualized nature of group impressions and the dynamic evolution of group impressions over time. TPM is first shown to be consistent with algebraic models of social judgment (the weighted averaging model; N. Anderson, 1981) and exemplar-based social category learning (the context model; E. R. Smith & M. A. Zárate, 1992), providing a theoretical reduction of the algebraic models to the present connectionist framework. TPM is then shown to describe a common process that underlies both formation and change of group impressions despite the often-made assumption that they constitute different psychological processes. In particular, various time-dependent properties of both group impression formation (e.g., time variability, response dependency, and order effects in impression judgments) and change (e.g., stereotype change and group accentuation) are explained, demonstrating a hidden unity beneath the diverse array of empirical findings. Implications of the model for conceptualizing stereotype formation and change are discussed.

  15. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated. PMID:27385345

  16. Patterns formation in ferrofluids and solid dissolutions using stochastic models with dissipative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Marco A.; Fernández-Cervantes, Irving; Agustín-Serrano, Ricardo; Anzo, Andrés; Sampedro, Mercedes P.

    2016-08-01

    A functional with interactions short-range and long-range low coarse-grained approximation is proposed. This functional satisfies models with dissipative dynamics A, B and the stochastic Swift-Hohenberg equation. Furthermore, terms associated with multiplicative noise source are added in these models. These models are solved numerically using the method known as fast Fourier transform. Results of the spatio-temporal dynamic show similarity with respect to patterns behaviour in ferrofluids phases subject to external fields (magnetic, electric and temperature), as well as with the nucleation and growth phenomena present in some solid dissolutions. As a result of the multiplicative noise effect over the dynamic, some microstructures formed by changing solid phase and composed by binary alloys of Pb-Sn, Fe-C and Cu-Ni, as well as a NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic composite material. The model A for active-particles with a non-potential term in form of quadratic gradient explain the formation of nanostructured particles of silver phosphate. With these models is shown that the underlying mechanisms in the patterns formation in all these systems depends of: (a) dissipative dynamics; (b) the short-range and long-range interactions and (c) the appropiate combination of quadratic and multiplicative noise terms.

  17. Effect of solar dynamics parameters on the formation of substorm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhatov, N. A.; Vorob'ev, V. G.; Revunov, S. E.; Yagodkina, O. I.

    2017-05-01

    An algorithm for retrieving the AL index dynamics from the parameters of solar-wind plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has been developed. Along with other geoeffective parameters of the solar wind, an integral parameter in the form of the cumulative sum Σ[N* V 2] is used to determine the process of substorm formation. The algorithm is incorporated into a framework developed to retrieve the AL index of an Elman-type artificial neural network (ANN) containing an additional layer of neurons that provides an "internal memory" of the prehistory of the dynamical process to be retrieved. The ANN is trained on data of 70 eight-hour-long time intervals, including the periods of isolated magnetospheric substorms. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by numerical neural-network experiments on retrieving the dynamics of the AL index from the of solar wind and IMF parameters during substorms.

  18. The AEgIS experiment at CERN: measuring antihydrogen free-fall in earth’s gravitational field to test WEP with antimatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, R. S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, T.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Kellerbauer, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Rienaecker, B.; Røhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Strojek, I. M.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Vamosi, S.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.

    2017-01-01

    The AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is designed with the objective to test the weak equivalence principle with antimatter by studying the free fall of antihydrogen in the Earth’s gravitational field. A pulsed cold beam of antihydrogen will be produced by charge exchange between cold Ps excited in Rydberg state and cold antiprotons. Finally the free fall will be measured by a classical moiré deflectometer. The apparatus being assembled at the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN will be described, then the advancements of the experiment will be reported: positrons and antiprotons trapping measurements, Ps two-step excitation and a test-measurement of antiprotons deflection with a small scale moiré deflectometer.

  19. Dynamic sedimentation of Paleoproterozoic continental margin iron formation, Labrador Trough, Canada: Paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, P. K.; Anderson, S. L.; Hiatt, E. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Sokoman Formation (ca. 1.88 Ga) of the Labrador Trough, eastern Canada, is a ca. 100-m-thick succession of interbedded iron formation and fine-grained, terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks. Detailed examination of drill cores and outcrops indicates a dynamic paleoshelf where an oxygen-stratified water column, coastal upwelling of hydrothermally derived Fe and Si, as well as tide- and storm-generated currents controlled lithofacies character. Vertical and lateral facies stacking patterns record deposition through two relative sea-level cycles that produced seven distinct lithofacies comprising two unconformity-bounded sequences. Sequence 1 reflects deposition of hematitic peritidal iron formation as deep as the upper shoreface. Sequence 2 is truncated by later erosion and encompasses the change to deeper-water accumulation of magnetite and Fe silicate-rich iron formation. The character and lateral distribution of redox-sensitive facies indicate that iron formation accumulation was controlled as much by shelf hydraulics as oxygen levels. The development of a suboxic surface ocean is interpreted to reflect photosynthetic oxygen production from a combination of peritidal stromatolites and cyanobacterial phytoplankton that flourished in nutrient-rich, upwelled waters offshore. Deposition of other continental margin iron formations also occurred on Paleoproterozoic shelves that were favorably positioned for coastal upwelling. Variability between iron formations reflects intrinsic factors such as shelf profile, fluvial contribution, eolian input, evaporation rates, and coastal current systems, which influenced upwelling dynamics and the delivery of Fe, Si, and nutrients. Aridity onshore was a primary depositional control since it governed the transport and type of diluting terrigenous clastics as well as evaporative precipitation along the coastline. As in the Phanerozoic, unconformities, and transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces frame iron

  20. Quantifying Thermal Disorder in Metal–Organic Frameworks: Lattice Dynamics and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hybrid Formate Perovskites

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid organic–inorganic materials are mechanically soft, leading to large thermoelastic effects which can affect properties such as electronic structure and ferroelectric ordering. Here we use a combination of ab initio lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics to study the finite temperature behavior of the hydrazinium and guanidinium formate perovskites, [NH2NH3][Zn(CHO2)3] and [C(NH2)3][Zn(CHO2)3]. Thermal displacement parameters and ellipsoids computed from the phonons and from molecular dynamics trajectories are found to be in good agreement. The hydrazinium compound is ferroelectric at low temperatures, with a calculated spontaneous polarization of 2.6 μC cm–2, but the thermal movement of the cation leads to variations in the instantaneous polarization and eventually breakdown of the ferroelectric order. Contrary to this the guanidinium cation is found to be stationary at all temperatures; however, the movement of the cage atoms leads to variations in the electronic structure and a renormalization in the bandgap from 6.29 eV at 0 K to an average of 5.96 eV at 300 K. We conclude that accounting for temperature is necessary for quantitative modeling of the physical properties of metal–organic frameworks. PMID:28298951

  1. Cloud fluid models of gas dynamics and star formation in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struck-Marcell, Curtis; Scalo, John M.; Appleton, P. N.

    1987-01-01

    The large dynamic range of star formation in galaxies, and the apparently complex environmental influences involved in triggering or suppressing star formation, challenges the understanding. The key to this understanding may be the detailed study of simple physical models for the dominant nonlinear interactions in interstellar cloud systems. One such model is described, a generalized Oort model cloud fluid, and two simple applications of it are explored. The first of these is the relaxation of an isolated volume of cloud fluid following a disturbance. Though very idealized, this closed box study suggests a physical mechanism for starbursts, which is based on the approximate commensurability of massive cloud lifetimes and cloud collisional growth times. The second application is to the modeling of colliding ring galaxies. In this case, the driving processes operating on a dynamical timescale interact with the local cloud processes operating on the above timescale. The results is a variety of interesting nonequilibrium behaviors, including spatial variations of star formation that do not depend monotonically on gas density.

  2. Resolving the HONO formation mechanism in the ionosphere via ab initio molecular dynamic simulations

    PubMed Central

    He, Rongxing; Li, Lei; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Chongqin; Francisco, Joseph S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO+) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth’s surface. NO+ is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The dynamics of this reaction at the ionospheric temperature (200–220 K) and the associated mechanistic details are largely unknown. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and transition-state search, key structures of the water hydrates—tetrahydrate NO+(H2O)4 and pentahydrate NO+(H2O)5—are identified and shown to be responsible for HONO formation in the ionosphere. The critical tetrahydrate NO+(H2O)4 exhibits a chain-like structure through which all of the lowest-energy isomers must go. However, most lowest-energy isomers of pentahydrate NO+(H2O)5 can be converted to the HONO-containing product, encountering very low barriers, via a chain-like or a three-armed, star-like structure. Although these structures are not the global minima, at 220 K, most lowest-energy NO+(H2O)4 and NO+(H2O)5 isomers tend to channel through these highly populated isomers toward HONO formation. PMID:27071120

  3. Resolving the HONO formation mechanism in the ionosphere via ab initio molecular dynamic simulations.

    PubMed

    He, Rongxing; Li, Lei; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Chongqin; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-04-26

    Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO(+)) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth's surface. NO(+) is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The dynamics of this reaction at the ionospheric temperature (200-220 K) and the associated mechanistic details are largely unknown. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and transition-state search, key structures of the water hydrates-tetrahydrate NO(+)(H2O)4 and pentahydrate NO(+)(H2O)5-are identified and shown to be responsible for HONO formation in the ionosphere. The critical tetrahydrate NO(+)(H2O)4 exhibits a chain-like structure through which all of the lowest-energy isomers must go. However, most lowest-energy isomers of pentahydrate NO(+)(H2O)5 can be converted to the HONO-containing product, encountering very low barriers, via a chain-like or a three-armed, star-like structure. Although these structures are not the global minima, at 220 K, most lowest-energy NO(+)(H2O)4 and NO(+)(H2O)5 isomers tend to channel through these highly populated isomers toward HONO formation.

  4. F-actin localization dynamics during appressorium formation in Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Li; Shaw, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Appressoria are essential penetration structures for many phytopathogenic fungi. Here F-actin localization dynamics were documented during appressorium formation in vitro and in planta in Colletotrichum graminicola Four discernible stages of dynamic F-actin distribution occurring in a programmed order were documented from differentiation of appressoria to formation of penetration pores: (stage A) from germ tube enlargement to complete expansion of the appressorium; (stage S) septation occurs; (stage L) a long period of low F-actin activity; (stage P) the penetration pore forms. The F-actin subcellular localization corresponded to each stage. A distinct redistribution of actin cables occurred at the transition from stage A to stage S. The in planta assays revealed that F-actin also assembled in invasive hyphae and that actin cables might play an essential role for penetration-peg development. The F-actin localization distribution may be used as a subcellular marker to define the developmental stages during appressorium formation. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Chemo-Dynamical and Radiation Transfer Models to Understand the Early Stages of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B.; Pavlyuchenkov, Y.

    2017-06-01

    It is observation of emission (absorption) lines in molecular spectra (supplemented by infrared observations of dust) that shapes a phenomenological picture of star formation. In spite of great amount of observation data of numerous molecular species (at the moment there are known about 200 molecular species) the revealing nature of objects on the very early stages of star formation turned out to be not an easy task, since solving a typical astronomical inverse problem of determining the properties of an astronomical object from observations (spectrum) requires some additional information. We use evolutionary chemo-dynamical models of star formation (from starless cores to protoplanetary disks) as such an additional information. This allows us to understand the nature of object under study, i.e. estimate distributions of gas density, temperature, velocity, the abundances of individual chemical components, and the evolutionary status of the object. The brief review examines the progress in understanding evolution of young objects that is derived from observations of molecular spectra and our chemo-dynamical models. Also disclosed is a method for determining the validity of interpretation of the observed spectra of prestellar objects, protostars and protostellar disks. This method was used for number of such objects.

  6. Generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Kiessé, Tristan Senga; Hartmann, Felix P; Barbeito, Ignacio; Fournier, Meriem

    2013-04-01

    The intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an S-shaped curve. Here the classical view represented by the 'Gompertz function (GF) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized linear models (GLMs) and 'data-driven' generalized additive models (GAMs). These three approaches (GFs, GLMs, and GAMs) were used to describe seasonal changes in cell numbers in each of the xylem differentiation phases and to calculate the timing of cell development in three conifer species [Picea abies (L.), Pinus sylvestris L., and Abies alba Mill.]. GAMs outperformed GFs and GLMs in describing intra-annual wood formation dynamics, showing two left-skewed bell-shaped curves for division and enlargement, and a right-skewed bimodal curve for thickening. Cell residence times progressively decreased through the season for enlargement, whilst increasing late but rapidly for thickening. These patterns match changes in cell anatomical features within a tree ring, which allows the separation of earlywood and latewood into two distinct cell populations. A novel statistical approach is presented which renews our understanding of xylogenesis, a dynamic biological process in which the rate of cell production interplays with cell residence times in each developmental phase to create complex seasonal patterns.

  7. Dynamical stability of imaged planetary systems in formation: Application to HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Menou, Kristen; Rein, Hanno

    2015-08-01

    A recent ALMA image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses.We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This may present an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, a massive disk would also induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks.For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets' masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments. We will consider the implications for the HL Tau system, and discuss the exciting future of the planetary formation studies in the ALMA era.

  8. Kinetic Selectivity and Thermodynamic Features of Competitive Imine Formation in Dynamic Covalent Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kulchat, Sirinan; Chaur, Manuel N; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-16

    The kinetic and thermodynamic selectivities of imine formation have been investigated for several dynamic covalent libraries of aldehydes and amines. Two systems were examined, involving the reaction of different types of primary amino groups (aliphatic amines, alkoxy-amines, hydrazides and hydrazines) with two types of aldehydes, sulfobenzaldehyde and pyridoxal phosphate in aqueous solution at different pD (5.0, 8.5, 11.4) on one hand, 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde and salicylaldehyde in organic solvents on the other hand. The reactions were performed separately for given amine/aldehyde pairs as well as in competitive conditions between an aldehyde and a mixture of amines. In the latter case, the time evolution of the dynamic covalent libraries generated was followed, taking into consideration the operation of both kinetic and thermodynamic selectivities. The results showed that, in aqueous solution, the imine of the aliphatic amine was not stable, but oxime and hydrazone formed well in a pH dependent way. On the other hand, in organic solvents, the kinetic product was the imine derived from an aliphatic amine and the thermodynamic products were oxime and hydrazone. The insights gained from these experiments provide a basis for the implementation of imine formation in selective derivatization of mono-amines in mixtures as well as of polyfunctional compounds presenting different types of amino groups. They may in principle be extended to other dynamic covalent chemistry systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Propagation dynamics and X-pulse formation in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Valiulis, G.; Jukna, V.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; Clerici, M.; Rubino, E.; DiTrapani, P.

    2011-04-15

    This paper concerns the theoretical, numerical, and experimental study of the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) process under conditions of phase and group-velocity mismatch and aims to demonstrate the dimensionality transition of the SHG process caused by the change of the fundamental wave diameter. We show that SHG from a narrow fundamental beam leads to the spontaneous self-phase-matching process with, in addition, the appearance of angular dispersion for the off-axis frequency components generated. The angular dispersion sustains the formation of the short X pulse in the second harmonic (SH) and is recognized as three-dimensional (3D) dynamics. On the contrary, the large-diameter fundamental beam reduces the number of the degrees of freedom, does not allow the generation of the angular dispersion, and maintains the so-called one-dimensional (1D) SHG dynamics, where the self-phase-matching appears just for axial components and is accompanied by the shrinking of the SH temporal bandwidth, and sustains a long SH pulse formation. The transition from long SH pulse generation typical of the 1D dynamics to the short 3D X pulse is illustrated numerically and experimentally by changing the conditions from the self-defocusing to the self-focusing regime by simply tuning the phase mismatch. The numerical and experimental verification of the analytical results are also presented.

  10. Effect of Neck Formation on the Measurement of Dynamic Interfacial Tension in a Drop Volume Tensiometer

    PubMed

    Campanelli; Wang

    1997-06-15

    Dynamic interfacial tension values obtained by drop volume tensiometry will be affected under certain experimental conditions by the formation of a neck between the drop and the capillary tip. This phenomenon must be accounted for to obtain accurate values of interfacial tension. In this work, neck formation for a water-mineral oil system is studied under conditions where hydrodynamic effects can be neglected. A model originally developed for the determination of the surface tension of a suspended drop is modified for application to dynamic interfacial tensions of surfactant-containing liquids. The model relates apparent values of interfacial tension calculated from drops possessing necks to actual values. Experiments with Span 80 (sorbitan monooleate) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants in a mineral oil-water system are used to test the validity of the developed model. For the small tip diameter used, good agreement is obtained for Span 80 up to the critical micelle concentration, and for low concentrations of SDS, when the surfactant adsorption is diffusion-limited. In both cases, the neck diameter of the growing drop can be considered constant over the range of dynamic interfacial tensions tested.

  11. Dynamical Formation of Low-mass Merging Black Hole Binaries like GW151226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-02-01

    Using numerical models for star clusters spanning a wide range in ages and metallicities (Z) we study the masses of binary black holes (BBHs) produced dynamically and merging in the local universe (z ≲ 0.2). After taking into account cosmological constraints on star formation rate and metallicity evolution, which realistically relate merger delay times obtained from models with merger redshifts, we show here for the first time that while old, metal-poor globular clusters can naturally produce merging BBHs with heavier components, as observed in GW150914, lower-mass BBHs like GW151226 are easily formed dynamically in younger, higher-metallicity clusters. More specifically, we show that the mass of GW151226 is well within 1σ of the mass distribution obtained from our models for clusters with Z/Z⊙ ≳ 0.5. Indeed, dynamical formation of a system like GW151226 likely requires a cluster that is younger and has a higher metallicity than typical Galactic globular clusters. The LVT151012 system, if real, could have been created in any cluster with Z/Z⊙ ≲ 0.25. On the other hand, GW150914 is more massive (beyond 1σ) than typical BBHs from even the lowest-metallicity (Z/Z⊙ = 0.005) clusters we consider, but is within 2σ of the intrinsic mass distribution from our cluster models with Z/Z⊙ ≲ 0.05 of course, detection biases also push the observed distributions toward higher masses.

  12. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert; Michaelevski, Izhak

    2016-02-01

    trafficking, enhancement of metabolic activity, and Wnt signaling pathway during the steep phase of memory formation; and (3) cytoskeleton organization proteins. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates dynamic assembly and disassembly of protein-protein interaction networks depending on the stage of memory formation engrams. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    trafficking, enhancement of metabolic activity, and Wnt signaling pathway during the steep phase of memory formation; and (3) cytoskeleton organization proteins. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates dynamic assembly and disassembly of protein-protein interaction networks depending on the stage of memory formation engrams. PMID:26598641

  14. Characterization and Dynamics of Aggresome Formation by a Cytosolic Gfp-Chimera✪

    PubMed Central

    García-Mata, Rafael; Bebök, Zsuzsa; Sorscher, Eric J.; Sztul, Elizabeth S.

    1999-01-01

    Formation of a novel structure, the aggresome, has been proposed to represent a general cellular response to the presence of misfolded proteins (Johnston, J.A., C.L. Ward, and R.R. Kopito. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:1883–1898; Wigley, W.C., R.P. Fabunmi, M.G. Lee, C.R. Marino, S. Muallem, G.N. DeMartino, and P.J. Thomas. 1999. J. Cell Biol. 145:481–490). To test the generality of this finding and characterize aspects of aggresome composition and its formation, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a cytosolic protein chimera (GFP-250) in cells. Overexpression of GFP-250 caused formation of aggresomes and was paralleled by the redistribution of the intermediate filament protein vimentin as well as by the recruitment of the proteasome, and the Hsp70 and the chaperonin systems of chaperones. Interestingly, GFP-250 within the aggresome appeared not to be ubiquitinated. In vivo time-lapse analysis of aggresome dynamics showed that small aggregates form within the periphery of the cell and travel on microtubules to the MTOC region where they remain as distinct but closely apposed particulate structures. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which causes the dissociation of the dynactin complex, significantly inhibited the formation of aggresomes, suggesting that the minus-end–directed motor activities of cytoplasmic dynein are required for aggresome formation. Perinuclear aggresomes interfered with correct Golgi localization and disrupted the normal astral distribution of microtubules. However, ER-to-Golgi protein transport occurred normally in aggresome containing cells. Our results suggest that aggresomes can be formed by soluble, nonubiquitinated proteins as well as by integral transmembrane ubiquitinated ones, supporting the hypothesis that aggresome formation might be a general cellular response to the presence of misfolded proteins. PMID:10491388

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of bubble formation and cavitation in liquid metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Insepov, Z.; Hassanein, A.; Bazhirov, T. T.; Norman, G. E.; Stegailov, V. V.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Inst. for High Energy Densities of Joint Inst. for High Temperatures of RAS

    2007-11-01

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of nano-scale bubble formation in liquid metals such as Li and Pb were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at pressures typical for magnetic and inertial fusion. Two different approaches to bubble formation were developed. In one method, radial densities, pressures, surface tensions, and work functions of the cavities in supercooled liquid lithium were calculated and compared with the surface tension experimental data. The critical radius of a stable cavity in liquid lithium was found for the first time. In the second method, the cavities were created in the highly stretched region of the liquid phase diagram; and then the stability boundary and the cavitation rates were calculated in liquid lead. The pressure dependences of cavitation frequencies were obtained over the temperature range 700-2700 K in liquid Pb. The results of MD calculations for cavitation rate were compared with estimates of classical nucleation theory (CNT).

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Solvation and Kink Site Formation at the {001} Barite-Water Interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, Andrew G

    2009-09-01

    Solvation and kink site formation on step edges are known to be controlling parameters in crystal growth and dissolution. However, links from classical crystal growth models to specific reactions at the mineral-water interface have remained elusive. Molecular dynamics is used here to examine the water structure on barium surface sites and kink site formation enthalpies for material adsorbed to and removed from the step parallel to the [120] direction on the {001} barite-water interface. The bariums at the interface are shown to be coordinatively unsaturated with respect to water, and it is suggested that this is due to a steric hindrance from the nature of the interface. Kink site detachment energies that include hydration energies are endothermic for barium and exothermic for sulfate. The implications and problems of using these parameters in a crystal growth model are discussed.

  17. Discrete dynamic system oriented on the formation of prebiotic dipeptides from Rode's experiment.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This work attempts to rationalize the possible prebiotic profile of the first dipeptides of about 4 billion years ago based on a computational discrete dynamic system that uses the final yields of the dipeptides obtained in Rode's experiments of salt-induced peptide formation (Rode et al., 1999, Peptides 20: 773-786). The system built a prebiotic scenario that allowed us to observe that (i) the primordial peptide generation was strongly affected by the abundances of the amino acid monomers, (ii) small variations in the concentration of the monomers have almost no effect on the final distribution pattern of the dipeptides and (iii) the most plausible chemical reaction of prebiotic peptide bond formation can be linked to Rode's hypothesis of a salt-induced scenario. The results of our computational simulations were related to former simulations of the Miller, and Fox & Harada experiments on amino acid monomer and oligomer generation, respectively, offering additional information to our approach.

  18. Dynamic saturation optical microscopy: employing dark-state formation kinetics for resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Humpolíčková, Jana; Benda, Aleš; Macháň, Radek; Enderlein, Jörg; Hof, Martin

    2010-10-21

    Fluorescence microscopy has become one of the most rapidly developing observation techniques in the field of molecular biology, since its high sensitivity, contrast and labeling specificity together with being non-invasive fulfill the most important requirements of live cell imaging. The biggest limitation of the technique seems to be the spatial resolution which is, based on Abbe's diffraction law, restricted to some hundreds of nanometres. Recently, various approaches have been developed that overcome the limit imposed by the diffraction barrier and these methods currently lead the development in the field of fluorescence microscopy. In this contribution, we present dynamic saturation optical microscopy (DSOM)--a new technique that monitors the temporal decay of the excited singlet state due to a dark state formation. By mapping the intensity dependent decay kinetics, enhanced resolution images can be obtained. Generally, any dark state of fluorescent molecules can be employed in DSOM. Here, we focus our attention on triplet state formation.

  19. Kinetics of formation of bile salt micelles from coarse-grained Langevin dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Vila Verde, Ana; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-06-21

    We examine the mechanism of formation of micelles of dihydroxy bile salts using a coarse-grained, implicit solvent model and Langevin dynamics simulations. We find that bile salt micelles primarily form via addition and removal of monomers, similarly to surfactants with typical head-tail molecular structures, and not via a two-stage mechanism - involving formation of oligomers and their subsequent aggregation to form larger micelles - originally proposed for bile salts. The free energy barrier to removal of single bile monomers from micelles is ≈2kBT, much less than what has been observed for head-tail surfactants. Such a low barrier may be biologically relevant: it allows for rapid release of bile monomers into the intestine, possibly enabling the coverage of fat droplets by bile salt monomers and subsequent release of micelles containing fats and bile salts - a mechanism that is not possible for ionic head-tail surfactants of similar critical micellar concentrations.

  20. Spacecraft Formation Control: Managing Line-of-Sight Drift Based on the Dynamics of Relative Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Sammer. Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quest to improve space-based observational capability, an increasing number of investigators are proposing missions with precision formation flying architectures. Typical missions include the Micro- Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), Stellar Imager (SI), and the New Worlds Observer (NWO). Missions designed to explore targets in deep-space generally require holding a formation configuration fixed in inertial space during science observation. Analysis in this paper is specifically aimed at the NWO architecture, characterizing the natural drift of the line-of-sight and the separation range for two spacecraft operating in the vicinity of the Earth/Moon-Sun L(sub 2) libration point. Analysis employs a linear form of the relative dynamics associated with an n-body gravity field. The study is designed to identify favorable observation directions, characterized by minimal line-of-sight drift, along the mission timeline.

  1. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of crystal growth from melted silicon: Defect formation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, Manabu; Motooka, Teruaki

    1999-07-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations have been performed to simulate crystal growth from melted silicon (Si) and defect formation processes based on the ordinary Langevin equation employing the Tersoff interatomic potential. The findings of this investigation are as follows: (1) The [110] bonds at the solid-liquid interface induce the eclipsed configurations or hexagonal Si structures which stabilize microfacets composed of the {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} planes. (2) Defect formation during crystal growth processes is due to misorientations at the {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} interfaces which result in an elementary grown-in defect structure including five- and seven-member rings. (3) The elementary grown-in defect migrates in c-Si by bond-switching motions during further crystal pulling or annealing.

  3. Dynamics of positronium formation in positron-hydrogen collisions embedded in weakly coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nayek, Sujay; Ghoshal, Arijit

    2012-11-15

    Dynamics of positronium (Ps) formation in an arbitrary s-state from an arbitrary s-state of the hydrogen atom in weakly coupled plasma has been investigated within the framework of a distorted-wave theory. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by Debye-Huckel potentials. Using simple variational hydrogenic wave functions and arbitrary order derivatives of the general three-denominator Lewis integral partial-wave scattering amplitudes have been obtained in closed forms. These distorted-wave scattering amplitudes have been used to make a detailed study on differential and total cross sections. It has been found that screening of the interaction potentials has significant effect on the scattering dynamics. Some notable features of cross sections have also been revealed.

  4. Dynamics of positronium formation in positron-hydrogen collisions embedded in weakly coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayek, Sujay; Ghoshal, Arijit

    2012-11-01

    Dynamics of positronium (Ps) formation in an arbitrary s-state from an arbitrary s-state of the hydrogen atom in weakly coupled plasma has been investigated within the framework of a distorted-wave theory. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by Debye-Huckel potentials. Using simple variational hydrogenic wave functions and arbitrary order derivatives of the general three-denominator Lewis integral partial-wave scattering amplitudes have been obtained in closed forms. These distorted-wave scattering amplitudes have been used to make a detailed study on differential and total cross sections. It has been found that screening of the interaction potentials has significant effect on the scattering dynamics. Some notable features of cross sections have also been revealed.

  5. Dynamics of Hollow Atom Formation in Intense X-Ray Pulses Probed by Partial Covariance Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasinski, L. J.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Mucke, M.; Squibb, R. J.; Siano, M.; Eland, J. H. D.; Linusson, P.; v. d. Meulen, P.; Salén, P.; Thomas, R. D.; Larsson, M.; Foucar, L.; Ullrich, J.; Motomura, K.; Mondal, S.; Ueda, K.; Osipov, T.; Fang, L.; Murphy, B. F.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Schorb, S.; Messerschmidt, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Cryan, J. P.; Coffee, R. N.; Takahashi, O.; Wada, S.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.; Feifel, R.

    2013-08-01

    When exposed to ultraintense x-radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) the innermost electronic shell can efficiently be emptied, creating a transient hollow atom or molecule. Understanding the femtosecond dynamics of such systems is fundamental to achieving atomic resolution in flash diffraction imaging of noncrystallized complex biological samples. We demonstrate the capacity of a correlation method called “partial covariance mapping” to probe the electron dynamics of neon atoms exposed to intense 8 fs pulses of 1062 eV photons. A complete picture of ionization processes competing in hollow atom formation and decay is visualized with unprecedented ease and the map reveals hitherto unobserved nonlinear sequences of photoionization and Auger events. The technique is particularly well suited to the high counting rate inherent in FEL experiments.

  6. Ion Dynamics at Shocks: Ion Reflection and Beam Formation at Quasi-perpendicular Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard

    2005-08-01

    The physics of collisionless shocks is controlled by the ion dynamics. The generation of gyrating ions by reflection as well as the formation of field-aligned ion beams are essential parts of this dynamic. On the one hand reflection is most likely the first interaction of ions with the shock before they undergo the downstream thermalization process. On the other hand field-aligned ion beams, predominately found at the quasi-perpendicular bow shock, propagate into the distant foreshock region and may create wave activity. We revisit ion reflection, the source and basic production mechanism of field-aligned ion beams, by using multi-spacecraft measurements and contrast these observations with existing theories. Finally, we propose an alternative production mechanism.

  7. Grow with the Flow: A Dynamic Tale of Blood Clot Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiderman, Karin; Fogelson, Aaron

    2008-11-01

    The body heals injured blood vessels and prevents bleeding by clotting the blood. Clots are primarily made of blood-borne cells and a fibrous material that is assembled at the site of injury in flowing blood. Clot composition and structure change with local chemistry and fluid dynamics, which in turn alter the flow. To better understand this fluid-structure coupling, we have created a mathematical model to simulate the formation of a blood clot in a dynamic fluid environment. The growing clot is represented as a mixed porous medium whose permeability is dependent on the coagulation chemistry within it. The flow field resulting from a clot with specific calculated permeability and size can then be recovered by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an added friction term. We report on how this complex fluid-structure interaction affects the limiting factor(s) of blood clot growth.

  8. Formation and dynamics of partially non-wetting droplets in square microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Bibin M.; Cubaud, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally study the formation and evolution of partially non-wetting droplets in microchannels made of glass and silicon. Droplets are generated by focusing pure water in an external phase of silicone oil using square microchannels. To probe the influence of the capillary number on droplet behavior in confined geometries, the oil viscosity is varied over four decades. For each fluid pair, the critical speed associated with the dynamic wetting transition is experimentally determined using a contact angle goniometer equipped with a high-speed camera. We discuss a variety of wetting phenomena in microchannels. In particular, we focus on the droplet lubrication transition from low to large capillary numbers and we examine droplet velocity as a function of droplet length, flow rates, and dynamic wetting properties. This work is supported by NSF (CBET- 1150389).

  9. Theoretical models of gas dynamics and star formation in interacting ring galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1990-01-01

    A series of one and two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a ring wave in interstellar gas disks was completed. These calculations included nonlinear source terms to model the effects of interstellar interactions and star formation, as well as the spatial-temporal gas flow. Toomre's kinematical model was merged with the Arnold, Shandarin, and Zeldovich 'pancake' theory of caustics in galaxy formation. The resulting theory can describe almost all the structure in restricted three-body simulations of single-pass collisions, even with multi-component potentials. Off-center galactic collisions were studied to understand the dynamics involved. Multi-color optical and near-infrared observations of faint tidal features were performed in about two dozen interacting galaxies selected from the Arp atlas. This sample provided evidence for ongoing star formation in tidal structures, and even enhancements of star formation in some cases. The task of assembling the data for gas-rich, late-type galaxies, was undertaken to see if a more coherent picture of the gas distribution would emerge from the more complete data. Analytic solutions of the equations with subsonic flows to balance gas consumption for expulsion form a galactic fountain were also derived.

  10. Vortex formation and recirculation zones in left anterior descending artery stenoses: computational fluid dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katritsis, D. G.; Theodorakakos, A.; Pantos, I.; Andriotis, A.; Efstathopoulos, E. P.; Siontis, G.; Karcanias, N.; Redwood, S.; Gavaises, M.

    2010-03-01

    Flow patterns may affect the potential of thrombus formation following plaque rupture. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to assess hemodynamic conditions, and particularly flow recirculation and vortex formation in reconstructed arterial models associated with ST-elevation myocardial infraction (STEMI) or stable coronary stenosis (SCS) in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Results indicate that in the arterial models associated with STEMI, a 50% diameter stenosis immediately before or after a bifurcation creates a recirculation zone and vortex formation at the orifice of the bifurcation branch, for most of the cardiac cycle, thus allowing the creation of stagnating flow. These flow patterns are not seen in the SCS model with an identical stenosis. Post-stenotic recirculation in the presence of a 90% stenosis was evident at both the STEMI and SCS models. The presence of 90% diameter stenosis resulted in flow reduction in the LAD of 51.5% and 35.9% in the STEMI models and 37.6% in the SCS model, for a 10 mmHg pressure drop. CFD simulations in a reconstructed model of stenotic LAD segments indicate that specific anatomic characteristics create zones of vortices and flow recirculation that promote thrombus formation and potentially myocardial infarction.

  11. A numerical study on the dynamics of droplet formation in a microfluidic double T-junction.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ich-Long; Dang, Trung-Dung; Byon, Chan; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, droplet formations in microfluidic double T-junctions (MFDTD) are investigated based on a two-dimensional numerical model with volume of fluid method. Parametric ranges for generating alternating droplet formation (ADF) are identified. A physical background responsible for the ADF is suggested by analyzing the dynamical stability of flow system. Since the phase discrepancy between dispersed flows is mainly caused by non-symmetrical breaking of merging droplet, merging regime becomes the alternating regime at appropriate conditions. In addition, the effects of channel geometries on droplet formation are studied in terms of relative channel width. The predicted results show that the ADF region is shifted toward lower capillary numbers when channel width ratio is less than unity. The alternating droplet size increases with the increase of channel width ratio. When this ratio reaches unity, alternating droplets can be formed at very high water fraction (wf = 0.8). The droplet formation in MFDTD depends significantly on the viscosity ratio, and the droplet size in ADF decreases with the increase of the viscosity ratio. The understanding of underlying physics of the ADF phenomenon is useful for many applications, including nanoparticle synthesis with different concentrations, hydrogel bead generation, and cell transplantation in biomedical therapy.

  12. A numerical study on the dynamics of droplet formation in a microfluidic double T-junction

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Byon, Chan; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, droplet formations in microfluidic double T-junctions (MFDTD) are investigated based on a two-dimensional numerical model with volume of fluid method. Parametric ranges for generating alternating droplet formation (ADF) are identified. A physical background responsible for the ADF is suggested by analyzing the dynamical stability of flow system. Since the phase discrepancy between dispersed flows is mainly caused by non-symmetrical breaking of merging droplet, merging regime becomes the alternating regime at appropriate conditions. In addition, the effects of channel geometries on droplet formation are studied in terms of relative channel width. The predicted results show that the ADF region is shifted toward lower capillary numbers when channel width ratio is less than unity. The alternating droplet size increases with the increase of channel width ratio. When this ratio reaches unity, alternating droplets can be formed at very high water fraction (wf = 0.8). The droplet formation in MFDTD depends significantly on the viscosity ratio, and the droplet size in ADF decreases with the increase of the viscosity ratio. The understanding of underlying physics of the ADF phenomenon is useful for many applications, including nanoparticle synthesis with different concentrations, hydrogel bead generation, and cell transplantation in biomedical therapy. PMID:25825622

  13. A Simple Dynamical Model for Filament Formation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Wheatland, M. S.

    2005-09-01

    Filament formation in the solar atmosphere is considered. In the limit of sub-Alfvénic but supersonic motion, plasma flow in the solar corona is driven via the induction equation by a slow evolution of force-free magnetic fields. Methods for solving the relevant magnetohydrodynamic equations are presented and applied to filament modeling in two and three dimensions. An illustrative two-dimensional example is given, which is based on a potential magnetic field with a dip. The example describes the formation of a normal filament between two bipolar regions on the Sun. Next a detailed three-dimensional calculation is presented, which uses linear force-free magnetic fields. The boundary conditions are chosen to resemble the qualitative ``head-to-tail'' linkage model for the formation of filaments, suggested by Martens & Zwaan. Consistent with this model, dense formations, reminiscent of filament pillars, are shown to appear in the corona above the region of converging and canceling magnetic bipoles. The numerical results are consistent with the principal role of magnetic field in the dynamical processes of dense plasma accumulation and support in filaments, advocated by Martens & Zwaan.

  14. Integration of Libration Point Orbit Dynamics into a Universal 3-D Autonomous Formation Flying Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The autonomous formation flying control algorithm developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission is investigated for applicability to libration point orbit formations. In the EO-1 formation-flying algorithm, control is accomplished via linearization about a reference transfer orbit with a state transition matrix (STM) computed from state inputs. The effect of libration point orbit dynamics on this algorithm architecture is explored via computation of STMs using the flight proven code, a monodromy matrix developed from a N-body model of a libration orbit, and a standard STM developed from the gravitational and coriolis effects as measured at the libration point. A comparison of formation flying Delta-Vs calculated from these methods is made to a standard linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The universal 3-D approach is optimal in the sense that it can be accommodated as an open-loop or closed-loop control using only state information.

  15. Dynamic-energy-budget-driven fruiting-body formation in myxobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrata, M.; Birnir, B.

    2010-06-01

    We develop an interacting particle model to simulate the life cycle of myxobacteria, which consists of two main stages—the swarming stage and the development (fruiting body formation) stage. As experiments have shown that the phase transition from swarming to development stage is triggered by starvation, we incorporate into the simulation a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) called the dynamic energy budget, which controls the uptake and use of energy by individuals. This inclusion successfully automates the phase transition in our simulation. Only one parameter, namely, the food density, controls the entire simulation of the life cycle.

  16. Dynamical picture for the formation and decay of the exotic XYZ mesons.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lebed, Richard F

    2014-09-12

    We present a new dynamical picture that identifies the formation of the exotic c[over ¯]c-containing states XYZ with the confinement-induced hadronization of a rapidly separating pair of a compact diquark and antidiquark. This picture combines the advantages of diquark-based models, which can accommodate much of the known XYZ spectrum, with the experimental fact that such states are both relatively narrow and are produced promptly. It also naturally explains the preference of some of the exotic states to decay to ψ(2S), rather than J/ψ, in terms of a simple wave-function overlap effect.

  17. Domain formation and growth in spinodal decomposition of a binary fluid by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Amol K; den Otter, W K; Briels, W J

    2008-01-01

    The two initial stages of spinodal decomposition of a symmetric binary Lennard-Jones fluid have been simulated by molecular dynamics simulations, using a hydrodynamics-conserving thermostat. By analyzing the growth of the average domain size R(t) with time, a satisfactory agreement is found with the R(t) proportional t1/3 Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law for the early diffusion-driven stage of domain formation in a quenched homogeneous mixture. In the subsequent stage of viscous-dominated growth, the mean domain size appears to follow the linear growth law predicted by Siggia.

  18. [Dynamics of the formation of 2 types of instrumental behavior in the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnikov, L V

    1982-01-01

    The work is aimed at studying the dynamics of formation of a complex form of instrumental behaviour in rabbits, satisfying two different requirements of the organism. By pressing one and the same lever, the animals were able to fetch the feeding through with food and to periodically avoid pain stimulation preceded by an acoustic signal. The pairings: acoustic signal - pain stimulus were presented at periods of about 3 min against the background of the cyclic instrumental food-procuring behaviour and produced its temporary cessation. The changes of different parameters of the animals' behaviour in the process of their training are analysed in the aspect of the theory of functional systems.

  19. Dynamics of seed magnetic island formation due to geometrically coupled perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.; LaHaye, R.J.

    1998-06-01

    Seed magnetic island formation due to a dynamically growing external source in toroidal confinement devices is modeled as an initial value forced reconnection problem. For an external source whose amplitude grows on a time scale quickly compared to the Sweet-Parker time of resistive magnetohydrodynamics, the induced reconnection is characterized by a current sheet and a reconnected flux amplitude which lags in time the source amplitude. This suggests that neoclassical tearing modes, whose excitation requires a seed magnetic island, are more difficult to cause in high Lundquist number plasmas.

  20. Formation of bound states in expanded metal studied via path integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deymier, P. A.; Oh, Ki-Dong

    2004-03-01

    The usefulness of the restricted path integral molecular dynamics method for the study of strongly correlated electrons is demonstrated by studying the formation of bound electronic states in a half-filled expanded three-dimensional hydrogenoid body-centred cubic lattice at finite temperature. Starting from a metallic state with one-component plasma character, we find that bound electrons form upon expansion of the lattice. The bound electrons are spatially localized with their centre for the motion of gyration located at ionic positions. The number of bound electrons increases monotonically with decreasing density.

  1. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel; Marks, Michael

    2015-02-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation.

  2. The structure, dynamics, and star formation rate of the Orion nebula cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C.; Jaehnig, Karl

    2014-11-01

    The spatial morphology and dynamical status of a young, still-forming stellar cluster provide valuable clues to the conditions during the star formation event and the processes that regulated it. We analyze the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), utilizing the latest censuses of its stellar content and membership estimates over a large wavelength range. We determine the center of mass of the ONC and study the radial dependence of angular substructure. The core appears rounder and smoother than the outskirts, which is consistent with a higher degree of dynamical processing. At larger distances, the departure from circular symmetry is mostly driven by the elongation of the system, with very little additional substructure, indicating a somewhat evolved spatial morphology or an expanding halo. We determine the mass density profile of the cluster, which is well fitted by a power law that is slightly steeper than a singular isothermal sphere. Together with the interstellar medium density, which is estimated from average stellar extinction, the mass content of the ONC is insufficient by a factor ∼1.8 to reproduce the observed velocity dispersion from virialized motions, in agreement with previous assessments that the ONC is moderately supervirial. This may indicate recent gas dispersal. Based on the latest estimates for the age spread in the system and our density profiles, we find that at the half-mass radius, 90% of the stellar population formed within ∼5-8 free-fall times (t {sub ff}). This implies a star formation efficiency per t {sub ff} of ε{sub ff} ∼ 0.04-0.07 (i.e., relatively slow and inefficient star formation rates during star cluster formation).

  3. Formation and dynamics of an artificial ring of dust for active orbital debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Chris; Zedd, Michael; Ganguli, Gurudas; Rudakov, Leonid; Healy, Liam

    Recently we suggested a dust-based active debris removal technique to selectively remove small untrackable debris that occupies a very large volume around the Earth. For designing a working system an accurate knowledge of the dynamics of the released dust in orbit is necessary. In this paper we numerically examine the dynamics of non-interacting spherical tungsten dust grains of diameter between 30-60 microns released in a polar low-Earth orbit. We analyze different perturbations due to nonuniform gravity, solar radiation pressure, solar cycles as well as solar and lunar gravity, and dust charging effects, etc., and determine a set of forces adequate to describe the dynamics over the life of the dust in orbit (˜ 12- 15 years). With the resulting force model we analyze the orbits of many dust grains to determine the formation and geometry of the ring. We qualitatively examine the effects of the calculated geometry and dynamics of the dust cloud on the efficiency of the Active Debris Removal scheme.

  4. Dynamic phases, clustering, and chain formation for driven disk systems in the presence of quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; McDermott, D.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2017-04-01

    We numerically examine the dynamic phases and pattern formation of two-dimensional monodisperse repulsive disks driven over random quenched disorder. We show that there is a series of distinct dynamic regimes as a function of increasing drive, including a clogged or pile-up phase near depinning, a homogeneous disordered flow state, and a dynamically phase separated regime consisting of high-density crystalline regions surrounded by a low density of disordered disks. At the highest drives the disks arrange into one-dimensional moving chains. The phase separated regime has parallels with the phase separation observed in active matter systems, but arises from a distinct mechanism consisting of the combination of nonequilibrium fluctuations with density-dependent mobility. We discuss the pronounced differences between this system and previous studies of driven particles with longer-range repulsive interactions moving over random substrates, such as superconducting vortices or electron crystals, where dynamical phase separation and distinct one-dimensional moving chains are not observed. Our results should be generic to a broad class of systems in which the particle-particle interactions are short ranged, such as sterically interacting colloids or Yukawa particles with strong screening driven over random pinning arrays, superconducting vortices in the limit of small penetration depths, or quasi-two-dimensional granular matter flowing over rough landscapes.

  5. The formation of continuous opinion dynamics based on a gambling mechanism and its sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yueying; Alexandre Wang, Qiuping; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2017-09-01

    The formation of continuous opinion dynamics is investigated based on a virtual gambling mechanism where agents fight for a limited resource. We propose a model with agents holding opinions between -1 and 1. Agents are segregated into two cliques according to the sign of their opinions. Local communication happens only when the opinion distance between corresponding agents is no larger than a pre-defined confidence threshold. Theoretical analysis regarding special cases provides a deep understanding of the roles of both the resource allocation parameter and confidence threshold in the formation of opinion dynamics. For a sparse network, the evolution of opinion dynamics is negligible in the region of low confidence threshold when the mindless agents are absent. Numerical results also imply that, in the presence of economic agents, high confidence threshold is required for apparent clustering of agents in opinion. Moreover, a consensus state is generated only when the following three conditions are satisfied simultaneously: mindless agents are absent, the resource is concentrated in one clique, and confidence threshold tends to a critical value(=1.25+2/ka ; k_a>8/3 , the average number of friends of individual agents). For fixed a confidence threshold and resource allocation parameter, the most chaotic steady state of the dynamics happens when the fraction of mindless agents is about 0.7. It is also demonstrated that economic agents are more likely to win at gambling, compared to mindless ones. Finally, the importance of three involved parameters in establishing the uncertainty of model response is quantified in terms of Latin hypercube sampling-based sensitivity analysis.

  6. Do dynamic effects play a significant role in enzymatic catalysis? A theoretical analysis of formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Roca, Maite; Oliva, Mónica; Castillo, Raquel; Moliner, Vicente; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2010-10-04

    A theoretical study of the protein dynamic effects on the hydride transfer between the formate anion and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (FDH), is presented in this paper. The analysis of free downhill molecular dynamic trajectories, performed in the enzyme and compared with the reaction in aqueous solution, has allowed the study of the dynamic coupling between the reacting fragments and the protein or the solvent water molecules, as well as an estimation of the dynamic effect contribution to the catalytic effect from calculation of the transmission coefficient in the enzyme and in solution. The obtained transmission coefficients for the enzyme and in solution were 0.46±0.04 and 0.20±0.03, respectively. These values represent a contribution to catalysis of 0.5 kcal mol(-1), which, although small, is not negligible keeping in mind the low efficiency of FDH. The analysis of the reactive trajectories also reveals how the relative movements of some amino acids, mainly His332 and Arg284, precede and promote the chemical reaction. In spite of these movements, the time-dependent evolution of the electric field created by the enzyme on the key atoms of the reaction reveals a permanent field, which reduces the work required to reach the transition state, with a concomitant polarization of the cofactor. Finally, application of Grote-Hynes theory has allowed the identification of the modes responsible for the substrate-environment coupling, showing how some protein motions take place simultaneously with the reaction. Thus, the equilibrium approach would provide, in this case, an overestimation of the catalyzed rate constant.

  7. Dynamic aspects of the ozone anomalies formation in the Antarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapo, Palina; Svetashev, Alexander; Krasouski, Alexander; Barodka, Siarhei

    2013-04-01

    The ozone layer is a unique shield protecting all living creatures on our planet. However, it has become subject of active research only after the first ozone hole was discovered over Antarctica. Ozone layer depletion over Antarctica is an even more acute problem, since Antarctica is the only continent having a very endemic, rich nature with least human impact. It has been shown that extreme temperature conditions in polar stratosphere and polar stratospheric clouds formation in addition to photochemical reactions involving ozone and ozone-depleting substances act as a primary cause of ozone-layer depletion. In the present study we review the dynamic aspects of ozone anomalies formation in the Antarctic region by numerical simulation. For that purpose we consider the ozone hole which formed over Antarctica in the period of September-October 2011. Using the WRF modelling system and its PolarWRF modification, we simulate meteorological situation over Antarctica in the time periods of ozone hole formation and destruction, and also in the time period when the ozone hole is absent. Based on the modelling results, we argue that a cold air mass (anticyclone) formed over the territory of Antarctica during the formation of the ozone hole. Absence of solar irradiation and strong cooling of the atmosphere contribute to formation of such meteorological conditions during the Antarctic winter. In the stratosphere there is a region of low atmospheric pressure, which is clearly visible on a pressure topography map. Under the effect of the tropospheric and the stratospheric vortices, air patches movement leads to ozone concentration decrease and formation of the ozone anomalies. From the WRF system modelling results we calculate several basic meteorological characteristics and analyze surface maps and aerological (skew-T) diagrams for atmospheric variables with the NCL scripting language. We conclude that atmospheric dynamics has an impact on ozone depression. Also, we evaluate the

  8. Aperiodic dynamics in a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jonathan A.; Grindrod, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Adaptive network models, in which node states and network topology coevolve, arise naturally in models of social dynamics that incorporate homophily and social influence. Homophily relates the similarity between pairs of nodes' states to their network coupling strength, whilst social influence causes coupled nodes' states to convergence. In this paper we propose a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups that includes these effects, and in which the attitudinal dynamics are represented by an activato-inhibitor process. We illustrate that consensus, corresponding to all nodes adopting the same attitudinal state and being fully connected, may destabilise via Turing instability, giving rise to aperiodic dynamics with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. These aperiodic dynamics correspond to the formation and dissolution of sub-groups that adopt contrasting attitudes. We discuss our findings in the context of cultural polarisation phenomena. Social influence. This reflects the fact that people tend to modify their behaviour and attitudes in response to the opinions of others [22-26]. We model social influence via diffusion: agents adjust their state according to a weighted sum (dictated by the evolving network) of the differences between their state and the states of their neighbours. Homophily. This relates the similarity of individuals' states to their frequency and strength of interaction [27]. Thus in our model, homophily drives the evolution of the weighted ‘social' network. A precise formulation of our model is given in Section 2. Social influence and homophily underpin models of social dynamics [21], which cover a wide range of sociological phenomena, including the diffusion of innovations [28-32], complex contagions [33-36], collective action [37-39], opinion dynamics [19,20,40,10,11,13,15,41,16], the emergence of social norms [42-44], group stability [45], social differentiation [46] and, of particular relevance

  9. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table–marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  10. Controlled and uncontrolled motion in the circular, restricted three-body problem: Dynamically natural spacecraft formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio, Ralph Ramos

    Spacecraft formation flying involves operating multiple spacecraft in a pre-determined geometrical shape such that the configuration yields both individual and system benefits. One example is an over-flight of the same spatial position by spacecraft in geocentric orbit with the intent to create a complementary data set of remotely sensed observables. Another example is controlling to a high degree of accuracy the distance between spacecraft in heliocentric orbit to create a virtual, large-diameter interferometer telescope. Although Keplerian orbits provide the basic framework for general and precision spacecraft formation flying they also present limitations. Spacecraft are generally constrained to operate only in circular and elliptical orbits, parabolic paths, or hyperbolic trajectories around celestial bodies. Applying continuation methods and bifurcation theory techniques to the circular, restricted three-body problem - where stable and unstable periodic orbits exist around equilibrium points - creates an environment that is more orbit rich. After surmounting a similar challenge with test particles in the circular, restricted three-vortex problem in fluid mechanics as a proof-of-concept, it was shown that spacecraft traveling in uncontrolled motion along separate and distinct planar or three-dimensional periodic orbits could be placed in controlled motion, i.e. a controller is enabled and later disabled at precisely the proper positions, to have them phase-locked on a single periodic orbit. Although it was possible to use this controller in a resonant frequency/orbit approach to establish a formation, it was clearly shown that a separate controller could be used in conjunction with the first to expedite the formation establishment process. Creation of these dynamically natural spacecraft formations or multi-spacecraft platforms will enable the 'loiter, synchronize/coordinate, and observe' approach for future engineering and scientific missions where flexibility

  11. Dynamics of identity in the academic field and implications to science students' identity formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Flavia

    2011-03-01

    Aydeniz and Hodge investigated how college professors negotiate their responsibilities as teachers and as researchers and the rationales behind their pedagogical approaches. Their findings illustrate how difficult it can be to keep the balance between these two responsibilities in a university that does not support professor's enactment of teaching goals. Thinking identity as a dynamics in self and institutional boundary, Albrecht and Fortney in their forum contribution, expand the analysis of Professor G's professional identity and conclude that in his case, institutional boundary is impermeable as it values research scientist more than teacher identity. In this forum contribution I emphasize the role of institutional culture in the identitarian process, interpreting the identity and identity formation of a science college teacher within the dynamics of the academic field. I expand the discussion to the other side of the problem, bringing excerpts of an interview with a Physics student from a Brazilian university as an illustration of how the academic habitus can impact the formation of a student's identity.

  12. Formation of the widest binary stars from dynamical unfolding of triple systems.

    PubMed

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2012-12-13

    The formation of very wide binary systems, such as the α Centauri system with Proxima (also known as α Centauri C) separated from α Centauri (which itself is a close binary A/B) by 15,000 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), challenges current theories of star formation, because their separation can exceed the typical size of a collapsing cloud core. Various hypotheses have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the suggestion that ultrawide binaries result from the dissolution of a star cluster--when a cluster star gravitationally captures another, distant, cluster star. Recent observations have shown that very wide binaries are frequently members of triple systems and that close binaries often have a distant third companion. Here we report N-body simulations of the dynamical evolution of newborn triple systems still embedded in their nascent cloud cores that match observations of very wide systems. We find that although the triple systems are born very compact--and therefore initially are more protected against disruption by passing stars--they can develop extreme hierarchical architectures on timescales of millions of years as one component is dynamically scattered into a very distant orbit. The energy of ejection comes from shrinking the orbits of the other two stars, often making them look from a distance like a single star. Such loosely bound triple systems will therefore appear to be very wide binaries.

  13. Micelle Formation in Aqueous Solutions of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Vicent-Luna, J M; Romero-Enrique, J M; Calero, S; Anta, J A

    2017-09-07

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations in the presence of water are used as a test system to study by molecular dynamics the formation of micelles in aqueous mixtures of highly anisotropic room temperature ionic liquids (IL). Structural properties, i.e., radial distribution functions (RDF) and transport parameters, such as diffusion coefficients and conductivities, are computed as a function of the IL/water mole fraction. The concentration plots reveal a sharp change of the slope of both the cation self-diffusion coefficient and the first peak of the head-head RDF at approximately the same value of the concentration. This transition, considered as a measure of a critical micellar concentration, appears only for the most anisotropic systems, composed of longer alkyl chains. The formation of the micelles is confirmed from the analysis of the tail-tail and cation-water RDFs. As a general result, we found that the larger the anisotropy of the ionic liquid the lower the critical concentration and the larger the proportion of monomers forming part of the micelles. The molecular dynamics predictions are in line with the experimental evidence reported for these systems.

  14. Ultrafast electronic and vibrational dynamics in brominated aluminum corroles: Energy relaxation and triplet formation

    PubMed Central

    Stensitzki, T.; Yang, Y.; Berg, A.; Mahammed, A.; Gross, Z.; Heyne, K.

    2016-01-01

    We combined femtosecond (fs) VIS pump–IR probe spectroscopy with fs VIS pump–supercontinuum probe spectroscopy to characterize the photoreaction of the hexacoordinated Al(tpfc-Br8)(py)2 in a comprehensive way. Upon fs excitation at ∼400 nm in the Soret band, the excitation energy relaxes with a time constant of (250 ± 80) fs to the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. This is evident from the rise time of the stimulated emission signal in the visible spectral range. On the same time scale, narrowing of broad infrared signals in the C=C stretching region around 1500 cm−1 is observed. Energy redistribution processes are visible in the vibrational and electronic dynamics with time constants between ∼2 ps and ∼20 ps. Triplet formation is detected with a time constant of (95 ± 3) ps. This is tracked by the complete loss of stimulated emission. Electronic transition of the emerging triplet absorption band overlaps considerably with the singlet excited state absorption. In contrast, two well separated vibrational marker bands for triplet formation were identified at 1477 cm−1 and at 1508 cm−1. These marker bands allow a precise identification of triplet dynamics in corrole systems. PMID:27226980

  15. Formation and Development of the Dynamic Stall Vortex on a Wing with Leading Edge Tubercles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynuk, John; Bohl, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Humpback whales are unique in that their flippers have leading edge ``bumps'' or tubercles. Past work on airfoils inspired by whale flippers has centered on the static aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils. The current study uses Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV) to investigate the effects of tubercles on dynamically pitching NACA 0012 airfoils. A baseline (i.e. straight leading edge) wing and one modified with leading edge tubercles are investigated. Tracking of the Dynamic Stall Vortex (DSV) is performed to quantitatively compare the DSV formation location, path, and convective velocity for tubercled and baseline wings. The results show that there is a spanwise variation in the initial formation location and motion of the DSV on the modified wing. Once formed, the DSV aligns into a more uniform spanwise structure. As the pitching motion progresses, the DSV on the modified wing convects away from the airfoil surface later and slower than is observed for the baseline airfoil. The results indicate that the tubercles may delay stall when compared to the baseline airfoil. This work was supported by NSF Grant # 0845882.

  16. The Romulus cosmological simulations: a physical approach to the formation, dynamics and accretion models of SMBHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremmel, M.; Karcher, M.; Governato, F.; Volonteri, M.; Quinn, T. R.; Pontzen, A.; Anderson, L.; Bellovary, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation, dynamics and accretion in the massively parallel tree+SPH code, ChaNGa. This approach improves the modelling of SMBHs in fully cosmological simulations, allowing for a more detailed analysis of SMBH-galaxy co-evolution throughout cosmic time. Our scheme includes novel, physically motivated models for SMBH formation, dynamics and sinking timescales within galaxies and SMBH accretion of rotationally supported gas. The sub-grid parameters that regulate star formation (SF) and feedback from SMBHs and SNe are optimized against a comprehensive set of z = 0 galaxy scaling relations using a novel, multidimensional parameter search. We have incorporated our new SMBH implementation and parameter optimization into a new set of high-resolution, large-scale cosmological simulations called Romulus. We present initial results from our flagship simulation, Romulus25, showing that our SMBH model results in SF efficiency, SMBH masses and global SF and SMBH accretion histories at high redshift that are consistent with observations. We discuss the importance of SMBH physics in shaping the evolution of massive galaxies and show how SMBH feedback is much more effective at regulating SF compared to SNe feedback in this regime. Further, we show how each aspect of our SMBH model impacts this evolution compared to more common approaches. Finally, we present a science application of this scheme studying the properties and time evolution of an example dual active galactic nucleus system, highlighting how our approach allows simulations to better study galaxy interactions and SMBH mergers in the context of galaxy-BH co-evolution.

  17. Dynamic auxin transport patterns preceding vein formation revealed by live-imaging of Arabidopsis leaf primordia

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Danielle; Berleth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulatory patterning mechanisms capable of generating biologically meaningful, yet unpredictable cellular patterns offer unique opportunities for obtaining mathematical descriptions of underlying patterning systems properties. The networks of higher-order veins in leaf primordia constitute such a self-regulatory system. During the formation of higher-order veins, vascular precursors are selected from a homogenous field of subepidermal cells in unpredictable positions to eventually connect in complex cellular networks. Auxin transport routes have been implicated in this selection process, but understanding of their role in vascular patterning has been limited by our inability to monitor early auxin transport dynamics in vivo. Here we describe a live-imaging system in emerging Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that uses a PIN1:GFP reporter to visualize auxin transport routes and an Athb8:YFP reporter as a marker for vascular commitment. Live-imaging revealed common features initiating the formation of all higher-order veins. The formation of broad PIN1 expression domains is followed by their restriction, leading to sustained, elevated PIN1 expression in incipient procambial cells files, which then express Athb8. Higher-order PIN1 expression domains (hPEDs) are initiated as freely ending domains that extend toward each other and sometimes fuse with them, creating connected domains. During the restriction and specification phase, cells in wider hPEDs are partitioned into vascular and non-vascular fates: Central cells acquire a coordinated cell axis and express elevated PIN1 levels as well as the pre-procambial marker Athb8, while edge cells downregulate PIN1 and remain isodiametric. The dynamic nature of the early selection process is underscored by the instability of early hPEDs, which can result in dramatic changes in vascular network architecture prior to Athb8 expression, which is correlated with the promotion onto vascular cell fate. PMID:24966861

  18. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network: Dynamics, Fluxes, Stability, Succession and Landscape Formation in Cold Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, A. A.; Molau, U.

    2012-04-01

    Within Europe there is a wide array of high-latitude and high-altitude landscapes, covering a significant proportion of the total land area. These cold climate landscapes represent a variety of stages of deglaciation history and landscape formation. We find landscapes at different levels of postglacial stabilization providing the unique possibility to study the interactions between geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic systems at the land surface. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network (2004 - ) bridges across geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic sciences in order to investigate the complex dynamics of stabilization, succession and landscape formation during and after ice retreat and under human impact. DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD provides a multidisciplinary forum where research groups come together. The integrated approach provides - in addition to newly generated disciplinary knowledge - the qualitative and quantitative linkages of findings from geo-, bio- and socio-work groups to develop a systems-based holistic level-of-understanding about the dynamics of environmental fluxes in high-latitude and high-altitude geo-ecosystems and landscapes. This knowledge can be used to assess the risks and potentials of the future development with reference to land use intensity / changes and climatic dynamics. DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD is since 2004 linking and integrating a number of networks and programmes and creates an umbrella programme and a forum for sharing knowledge. The focus of the Network is relevant for different end users, including risk and vulnerability assessment, sustainable land use, land management and conservation. Also questions with regards to Global Change are addressed (hazards, permafrost degradation, loss of biodiversity, etc.).

  19. A genetic algorithm for a bi-objective mathematical model for dynamic virtual cell formation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradgholi, Mostafa; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Mahdavi, Iraj; Jouzdani, Javid

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, with the increasing pressure of the competitive business environment and demand for diverse products, manufacturers are force to seek for solutions that reduce production costs and rise product quality. Cellular manufacturing system (CMS), as a means to this end, has been a point of attraction to both researchers and practitioners. Limitations of cell formation problem (CFP), as one of important topics in CMS, have led to the introduction of virtual CMS (VCMS). This research addresses a bi-objective dynamic virtual cell formation problem (DVCFP) with the objective of finding the optimal formation of cells, considering the material handling costs, fixed machine installation costs and variable production costs of machines and workforce. Furthermore, we consider different skills on different machines in workforce assignment in a multi-period planning horizon. The bi-objective model is transformed to a single-objective fuzzy goal programming model and to show its performance; numerical examples are solved using the LINGO software. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) is customized to tackle large-scale instances of the problems to show the performance of the solution method.

  20. Droplet formation and growth inside a polymer network: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jiyun; Jang, Eunseon; Shoaib, Mahbubul Alam; Jo, Kyubong; Kim, Jun Soo

    2016-04-07

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study that focuses on the formation and growth of nanoscale droplets inside polymer networks. Droplet formation and growth are investigated by the liquid-vapor phase separation of a dilute Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid inside regularly crosslinked, polymer networks with varying mesh sizes. In a polymer network with small mesh sizes, droplet formation can be suppressed, the extent of which is dependent on the attraction strength between the LJ particles. When droplets form in a polymer network with intermediate mesh sizes, subsequent growth is significantly slower when compared with that in bulk without a polymer network. Interestingly, droplet growth beyond the initial nucleation stage occurs by different mechanisms depending on the mesh size: droplets grow mainly by diffusion and coalescence inside polymer networks with large mesh sizes (as observed in bulk), whereas Ostwald ripening becomes a more dominant mechanism for droplet growth for small mesh sizes. The analysis of droplet trajectories clearly reveals the obstruction effect of the polymer network on the movement of growing droplets, which leads to Ostwald ripening of droplets. This study suggests how polymer networks can be used to control the growth of nanoscale droplets.

  1. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D; Schilling, Katherine A; Loza, Christine L; Craven, Jill S; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-16

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process.

  2. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation

    PubMed Central

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D.; Schilling, Katherine A.; Loza, Christine L.; Craven, Jill S.; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process. PMID:23818634

  3. Droplet formation and growth inside a polymer network: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jiyun; Jang, Eunseon; Shoaib, Mahbubul Alam; Jo, Kyubong; Kim, Jun Soo

    2016-04-01

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study that focuses on the formation and growth of nanoscale droplets inside polymer networks. Droplet formation and growth are investigated by the liquid-vapor phase separation of a dilute Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid inside regularly crosslinked, polymer networks with varying mesh sizes. In a polymer network with small mesh sizes, droplet formation can be suppressed, the extent of which is dependent on the attraction strength between the LJ particles. When droplets form in a polymer network with intermediate mesh sizes, subsequent growth is significantly slower when compared with that in bulk without a polymer network. Interestingly, droplet growth beyond the initial nucleation stage occurs by different mechanisms depending on the mesh size: droplets grow mainly by diffusion and coalescence inside polymer networks with large mesh sizes (as observed in bulk), whereas Ostwald ripening becomes a more dominant mechanism for droplet growth for small mesh sizes. The analysis of droplet trajectories clearly reveals the obstruction effect of the polymer network on the movement of growing droplets, which leads to Ostwald ripening of droplets. This study suggests how polymer networks can be used to control the growth of nanoscale droplets.

  4. New Worlds Observer Formation Control Design Based on the Dynamics of Relative Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The New Worlds Observer (NWO) mission is designed for the direct detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. The NWO mission concept employs a two spacecraft leader-follower formation on a trajectory around the Earth/Moon-Sun L(sub 2) Libration Point. The leader spacecraft is baselined as a 4 meter optical telescope. The follower, Starshade spacecraft, is designed to suppress light from a central body star permitting direct detection of a surrounding exoplanetary system. The current design requires a nominal leader-follower separation range of 72 Megameters. NWO poses many challenges including formation control. NWO cycles between three principal control modes during the nominal mission timeline: science (fine pointing), realignment and transition. This paper examines formation control strategies in the context of dynamics of relative motion for two spacecraft operating in the vicinity of the Earth/Moon-Sun L(sub 2)libration point. The paper presents an overview of the equations of relative motion followed by a discussion of each of the control modes. Discussion and analysis characterize control strategies for each of the mission control modes, including requirements, implementation challenges and project fuel budgets.

  5. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Tilvi, Vithal S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  6. Mosaic-pattern vegetation formation and dynamics driven by the water-wind crisscross erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Wang, Dong; Liu, Yu; Hao, Hong-Min; Fang, Nu-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical explanations for vegetation pattern dynamic emphasized on banded pattern-forming systems on the dynamics of the spot pattern. In this context, we explore the patch pattern forming and development in the desertification land. We hypothesized that spatial heterogeneity of microtopography and soil properties with different patch sizes would determine vegetation pattern dynamics theory. The spatial heterogeneity of microtopography and soil properties with different patch sizes were studied. Differences between the inside and outside of the canopy of soil carbon content and soil total nitrogen content were significantly increasing with patches sizes. Sampling location across vegetation patch was the main factor controlling soil properties. Soil nutrient content and saturated hydraulic conductivity were the largest, while bulk density and the coarse sand content were the lowest at the sampling location of half-way between taproot and downslope edge of the canopy. The height of the mound relative to the adjacent soil interspace between shrubs increased as patches diameter increased at the upslope of the taproot. Hydrological and aeolian processes resulted in spatial distributions of soil moisture, nutrition properties, which lead to patch migrated to downslope rather than upslope. A conceptual model was integrated hydrological and nutrient facilitation and competition effects among the plant-soil in mosaic-pattern patch formation and succession process.

  7. Cell dynamics simulation of droplet and bridge formation within striped nanocapillaries.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2007-10-23

    The kinetics of droplet and bridge formation within striped nanocapillaries is studied when the wetting film grows via interface-limited growth. The phenomenological time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL)-type model with thermal noise is used and numerically solved using the cell dynamics method. The model is two-dimensional and consists of undersaturated vapor confined within a nanocapillary made of two infinitely wide flat substrates. The surface of the substrate is chemically heterogeneous with a single stripe of lyophilic domain that exerts long-range attractive potential to the vapor molecule. The dynamics of nucleation and subsequent growth of droplet and bridge can be simulated and visualized. In particular, the evolution of the morphology from droplet or bump to bridge is clearly identified. The crucial role played by the substrate potential on the morphology of bridge of nanoscopic size is clarified. Nearly temperature-independent evolution of capillary condensation is predicted when the interface-limited growth dominates. In addition, it is shown that the dynamics of capillary condensation follows the scenario of capillary condensation proposed by Everett and Haynes three decades ago.

  8. The formation of close binary systems by dynamical interactions and orbital decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Bromm, Volker

    2002-11-01

    We present results from the first hydrodynamical star formation calculation to demonstrate that close binary stellar systems (separations <~ 10 au) need not be formed directly by fragmentation. Instead, a high frequency of close binaries can be produced through a combination of dynamical interactions in unstable multiple systems and the orbital decay of initially wider binaries. Orbital decay may occur as a result of gas accretion and/or the interaction of a binary with its circumbinary disc. These three mechanisms avoid the problems associated with the fragmentation of optically thick gas to form close systems directly. They also result in a preference for close binaries to have roughly equal-mass components because dynamical exchange interactions and the accretion of gas with high specific angular momentum drive mass ratios towards unity. Furthermore, because of the importance of dynamical interactions, we find that stars with greater masses ought to have a higher frequency of close companions, and that many close binaries ought to have wide companions. These properties are in good agreement with the results of observational surveys.

  9. Dynamic formation of single-atom catalytic active sites on ceria-supported gold nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yanggang; Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; ...

    2015-03-04

    Ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations and static Density Functional Theory calculations have been performed to investigate the reaction mechanism of CO oxidation on Au/CeO2 catalyst. It is found that under reaction condition CO adsorption significantly labializes the surface atoms of the Au cluster and leads to the formation of isolated Au+-CO species that resides on the support in the vicinity of the Au particle. In this context, we identified a dynamic single-atom catalytic mechanism at the interfacial area for CO oxidation on Au/CeO2 catalyst, which is a lower energy pathway than that of CO oxidation at the interface with themore » metal particle. This results from the ability of the single atom site to strongly couple with the redox properties of the support in a synergistic manner thereby lowering the barrier for redox reactions. We find that the single Au+ ion, which only exists under reaction conditions, breaks away from the Au cluster to catalyze CO oxidation and returns to the Au cluster after the catalytic cycle is completed. Generally, our study highlights the importance of the dynamic creation of active sites under reaction conditions and their essential role in a catalytic process.« less

  10. Dynamic formation of single-atom catalytic active sites on ceria-supported gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanggang; Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Li, Jun; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2015-03-04

    Ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations and static Density Functional Theory calculations have been performed to investigate the reaction mechanism of CO oxidation on Au/CeO2 catalyst. It is found that under reaction condition CO adsorption significantly labializes the surface atoms of the Au cluster and leads to the formation of isolated Au+-CO species that resides on the support in the vicinity of the Au particle. In this context, we identified a dynamic single-atom catalytic mechanism at the interfacial area for CO oxidation on Au/CeO2 catalyst, which is a lower energy pathway than that of CO oxidation at the interface with the metal particle. This results from the ability of the single atom site to strongly couple with the redox properties of the support in a synergistic manner thereby lowering the barrier for redox reactions. We find that the single Au+ ion, which only exists under reaction conditions, breaks away from the Au cluster to catalyze CO oxidation and returns to the Au cluster after the catalytic cycle is completed. Generally, our study highlights the importance of the dynamic creation of active sites under reaction conditions and their essential role in a catalytic process.

  11. Efficient transfer of positrons from a buffer-gas-cooled accumulator into an orthogonally oriented superconducting solenoid for antihydrogen studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeau, D.; Dror, A.; Fitzakerley, D. W.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Gabrielse, G.; Kalra, R.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Müllers, A.; Walz, J.; ATRAP Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    Positrons accumulated in a room-temperature buffer-gas-cooled positron accumulator are efficiently transferred into a superconducting solenoid which houses the ATRAP cryogenic Penning trap used in antihydrogen research. The positrons are guided along a 9 m long magnetic guide that connects the central field lines of the 0.15 T field in the positron accumulator to the central magnetic field lines of the superconducting solenoid. Seventy independently controllable electromagnets are required to overcome the fringing field of the large-bore superconducting solenoid. The guide includes both a 15° upward bend and a 105° downward bend to account for the orthogonal orientation of the positron accumulator with respect to the cryogenic Penning trap. Low-energy positrons ejected from the accumulator follow the magnetic field lines within the guide and are transferred into the superconducting solenoid with nearly 100% efficiency. A 7 m long 5 cm diameter stainless-steel tube and a 20 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter cryogenic pumping restriction ensure that the 10-2 mbar pressure in the accumulator is isolated well from the extreme vacuum required in the Penning trap to allow for long antimatter storage times.

  12. DYNAMICS AND ECCENTRICITY FORMATION OF PLANETS IN OGLE-06-109L SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Su; Zhao Gang; Zhou Jilin

    2009-11-20

    Recent observation of the microlensing technique reveals two giant planets at 2.3 AU and 4.6 AU around the star OGLE-06-109L. The eccentricity of the outer planet (e{sub c} ) is estimated to be 0.11{sup +0.17}{sub -0.04}, comparable to that of Saturn (0.01-0.09). The similarities between the OGLE-06-109L system and the solar system indicate that they may have passed through similar histories during their formation stage. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and formation of the orbital architecture in the OGLE-06-109L system. For the present two planets with their nominal locations, the secular motions are stable as long as their eccentricities (e{sub b} , e{sub c} ) fulfill e {sup 2} {sub b} + e {sup 2} {sub c} <= 0.3{sup 2}. Earth-size bodies might be formed and are stable in the habitable zone (0.25-0.36 AU) of the system. Three possible scenarios may be accounted for the formation of e{sub b} and e{sub c} : (1) convergent migration of two planets and the 3:1 mean motion resonance (MMR) trapping; (2) planetary scattering; and (3) divergent migration and the 3:1 MMR crossing. As we showed that the probability for the two giant planets in 3:1 MMR is low (approx3%), scenario (1) is less likely. According to models (2) and (3), the final eccentricity of inner planet (e{sub b} ) may oscillate between [0-0.06], comparable to that of Jupiter (0.03-0.06). An inspection of e{sub b} , e{sub c} 's secular motion may be helpful to understand which model is really responsible for the eccentricity formation.

  13. A dynamical model for gas flows, star formation and nuclear winds in galactic centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crocker, Roland M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a dynamical model for gas transport, star formation and winds in the nuclear regions of galaxies, focusing on the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). In our model angular momentum and mass are transported by a combination of gravitational and bar-driven acoustic instabilities. In gravitationally unstable regions the gas can form stars, and the resulting feedback drives both turbulence and a wind that ejects mass from the CMZ. We show that the CMZ is in a quasi-steady state where mass deposited at large radii by the bar is transported inwards to a star-forming, ring-shaped region at ∼100 pc from the Galactic Centre, where the shear reaches a minimum. This ring undergoes episodic starbursts, with bursts lasting ∼5-10 Myr occurring at ∼20-40 Myr intervals. During quiescence the gas in the ring is not fully cleared, but is driven out of a self-gravitating state by the momentum injected by expanding supernova remnants. Starbursts also drive a wind off the star-forming ring, with a time-averaged mass flux comparable to the star formation rate. We show that our model agrees well with the observed properties of the CMZ, and places it near a star formation minimum within the evolutionary cycle. We argue that such cycles of bursty star formation and winds should be ubiquitous in the nuclei of barred spiral galaxies, and show that the resulting distribution of galactic nuclei on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation is in good agreement with that observed in nearby galaxies.

  14. Structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharide matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans in biofilms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Koo, H

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans during the biofilm development process. Biofilms of Strep. mutans were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) discs in the presence of glucose or sucrose (alone or mixed with starch). At specific time points, biofilms were subjected to confocal fluorescence imaging and computational analysis. EPS matrix was steadily formed on sHA surface in the presence of sucrose during the first 8 h followed by a threefold biomass increase between 8 and 30 h of biofilm development. The initial formation and further development of three-dimensional microcolony structure occurred concomitantly with EPS matrix synthesis. Tridimensional renderings showed EPS closely associated with microcolonies throughout the biofilm development process forming four distinct domains (i) between sHA surface and microcolonies, (ii) within, (iii) covering and (iv) filling the spaces between microcolonies. The combination of starch and sucrose resulted in rapid formation of elevated amounts of EPS matrix and faster assembly of microcolonies by Strep. mutans, which altered their structural organization and susceptibility of the biofilm to acid killing (vs sucrose-grown biofilms; P < 0.05). Our data indicate that EPS modulate the development, sequence of assembly and spatial distribution of microcolonies by Strep. mutans. Simultaneous visualization and analysis of EPS matrix and microcolonies provide a more precise examination of the structural organization of biofilms than labelling bacteria alone, which could be a useful approach to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which Strep. mutans influences oral biofilm formation and possibly identify novel targets for effective antibiofilm therapies.

  15. The formation of Uranus and Neptune in solid-rich feeding zones: Connecting chemistry and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Bodenheimer, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The core accretion theory of planet formation has at least two fundamental problems explaining the origins of Uranus and Neptune: (1) dynamical times in the trans-saturnian solar nebula are so long that core growth can take >15 Myr and (2) the onset of runaway gas accretion that begins when cores reach ˜10 M⊕ necessitates a sudden gas accretion cutoff just as Uranus and Neptune's cores reach critical mass. Both problems may be resolved by allowing the ice giants to migrate outward after their formation in solid-rich feeding zones with planetesimal surface densities well above the minimum-mass solar nebula. We present new simulations of the formation of Uranus and Neptune in the solid-rich disk of Dodson-Robinson et al. (Dodson-Robinson, S.E., Willacy, K., Bodenheimer, P., Turner, N.J., Beichman, C.A. [2009]. Icarus 200, 672-693) using the initial semimajor axis distribution of the Nice model (Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A. [2005]. Nature 435, 466-469; Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R. [2005]. Nature 435, 462-465; Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F. [2005]. Nature 435, 459-461), with one ice giant forming at 12 AU and the other at 15 AU. The innermost ice giant reaches its present mass after 3.8-4.0 Myr and the outermost after 5.3-6 Myr, a considerable time decrease from previous one-dimensional simulations (e.g. Pollack, J.B., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., Podolak, M., Greenzweig, Y. [1996]. Icarus 124, 62-85). The core masses stay subcritical, eliminating the need for a sudden gas accretion cutoff. Our calculated carbon mass fractions of 22% are in excellent agreement with the ice giant interior models of Podolak et al. (Podolak, M., Weizman, A., Marley, M. [1995]. Planet. Space Sci. 43, 1517-1522) and Marley et al. (Marley, M.S., Gómez, P., Podolak, M. [1995]. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23349-23354). Based on the requirement that the ice giant-forming planetesimals contain >10% mass

  16. What pair formation can do to the battle of the sexes: towards more realistic game dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mylius, S D

    1999-04-21

    In the various dynamic models of Dawkin's Battle of the Sexes, payoff matrices serve as the basic ingredients for the specification of a game-dynamic model. Here I model the sex war mechanistically, by expressing the costs of raising the offspring and performing a prolonged courtship via a time delay for the corresponding individuals, instead of via payoff matrices. During such a time delay an individual is not able to have new matings. Only after the delay has occurred, an individual (and its offspring) appears on the mating market again. From these assumptions I derive a pair-formation submodel, and a system of delay-differential equations describing the dynamics of the game. By a time-scale argument, I obtain an approximation of this system by means of a much simpler system of ordinary differential equations. Analysis of this simplified system shows that the model can give rise to two non-trivial asymptotically stable equilibrium points: an interior equilibrium where both female strategies and both male strategies are present, and a boundary equilibrium where only one of the female strategies and both male strategies are present. This behaviour is qualitatively different from that of models of the battle of the sexes formulated in the traditional framework of game-dynamic equations. In other words, the addition of a most elementary further assumption about individual life history fundamentally changes the model predictions. These results show that in analysing evolutionary games one should pay careful attention to the specific mechanisms involved in the conflict. In general, I advocate deriving simple models for evolutionary games, starting from more complex, mechanistic building blocks. The wide-spread method of modelling games at a high phenomenological level, through payoff matrices, can be misleading. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Dynamical Properties of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies and a Universal Star Formation Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Lehnert, M.; Lutz, D.; Nesvadba, N.; Shapiro, K. L.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.; Verma, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Erb, D. K.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first comparison of the dynamical properties of different samples of z~1.4-3.4 star-forming galaxies from spatially resolved imaging spectroscopy from SINFONI/VLT integral field spectroscopy and IRAM CO millimeter interferometry. Our samples include 16 rest-frame UV-selected, 16 rest-frame optically selected, and 13 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). We find that rest-frame UV and optically bright (K<20) z~2 star forming galaxies are dynamically similar, and follow the same velocity-size relation as disk galaxies at z~0. In the theoretical framework of rotating disks forming from dissipative collapse in dark matter halos, the two samples require a spin parameter <λ> ranging from 0.06 to 0.2. In contrast, bright SMGs (S850μm>=5 mJy) have larger velocity widths and are much more compact. Hence, SMGs have lower angular momenta and higher matter densities than either the UV or optically selected populations. This indicates that dissipative major mergers may dominate the SMGs population, resulting in early spheroids, and that a significant fraction of the UV/optically bright galaxies have evolved less violently, either in a series of minor mergers, or in rapid dissipative collapse from the halo, given that either process may leads to the formation of early disks. These early disks may later evolve into spheroids via disk instabilities or mergers. Because of their small sizes and large densities, SMGs lie at the high surface density end of a universal (out to z=2.5) ``Schmidt-Kennicutt'' relation between gas surface density and star formation rate surface density. The best-fit relation suggests that the star formation rate per unit area scales as the surface gas density to a power of ~1.7, and that the star formation efficiency increases by a factor of 4 between non-starbursts and strong starbursts. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, under programs GTO 073.B-9018, 074.A-9011

  18. Studies of the effects of electron cloud formation on beam dynamics at CesrTA

    SciTech Connect

    Crittenden, J. A.; Calvey, J. R.; Dugan, G.; Livezey, J. A.; Kreinick, D.L.; Palmer, M. A.; Rubin, D. L.; Harkay, K.; Holtzapple, R. L.; Ohmi, K.; Furman, M. A.; Penn, G.; Venturini, M.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) has commenced operation as a linear collider damping ring test bed following its conversion from an e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider in 2008. A core component of the research program is the measurement of effects of synchrotron-radiation-induced electron cloud formation on beam dynamics. We have studied the interaction of the beam with the cloud with measurements of coherent tune shifts and emittance growth in various bunch train configurations, bunch currents, beam energies, and bunch lengths, for both e{sup +} and e{sup -} beams. This paper compares a subset of these measurements to modeling results from the two-dimensional cloud simulation packages ECLOUD and POSINST. These codes each model most of the tune shift measurements with remarkable accuracy, while some comparisons merit further investigation.

  19. First-principles molecular dynamics simulations of (sulfuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1 cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    The clustering process (sulfuric acid) + (base)→(sulfuric acid)1(base)1 is of fundamental importance in the atmospheric new-particle formation. Especially interesting are the collisions where a proton transfer reaction can happen, as the reaction often leads to relatively strongly bound clusters. Here, we studied the clustering process of (sulfuric acid) + (dimethylamine) → (sulfuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1 using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. The collision of the two molecules was simulated starting with various spatial orientations and the evolution of the cluster was followed in the NVE ensemble. The simulations suggest that the proton transfer reaction takes place regardless of the intial collision orientation. However, due to the energy released in the process, the newly-formed cluster is not able to reach the minimun energy configuration, which might affect the following growth processes.

  20. Stochastic formation of magnetic vortex structures in asymmetric disks triggered by chaotic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Mi-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Vogel, Andreas; Hong, Jung-Il; Meier, Guido; Fischer, Peter

    2014-12-17

    The non-trivial spin configuration in a magnetic vortex is a prototype for fundamental studies of nanoscale spin behaviour with potential applications in magnetic information technologies. Arrays of magnetic vortices interfacing with perpendicular thin films have recently been proposed as enabler for skyrmionic structures at room temperature, which has opened exciting perspectives on practical applications of skyrmions. An important milestone for achieving not only such skyrmion materials but also general applications of magnetic vortices is a reliable control of vortex structures. However, controlling magnetic processes is hampered by stochastic behaviour, which is associated with thermal fluctuations in general. Here we show that the dynamics in the initial stages of vortex formation on an ultrafast timescale plays a dominating role for the stochastic behaviour observed at steady state. Our results show that the intrinsic stochastic nature of vortex creation can be controlled by adjusting the interdisk distance in asymmetric disk arrays.

  1. Formation and dynamics of "waterproof" photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Blades, Michael; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V

    2014-12-28

    Understanding behavior of rare-earth ions (REI) in crowded environments is crucial for several nano- and bio-technological applications. Evolution of REI photoluminescence (PL) in small compartments inside a silica hydrogel, mimic to a soft matter bio-environment, has been studied and explained within a solvation model. The model uncovered the origin of high PL efficiency to be the formation of REI complexes, surrounded by bile salt (DOC) molecules. Comparative study of these REI-DOC complexes in bulk water solution and those enclosed inside the hydrogel revealed a strong correlation between an up to 5×-longer lifetime of REIs and appearance of the DOC ordered phase, further confirmed by dynamics of REI solvation shells, REI diffusion experiments and morphological characterization of microstructure of the hydrogel.

  2. Consensus formation simulation in a social network modeling controversial opinion dynamics with pairwise interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Guevara, María G.; Macías-Díaz, Jorge E.; Gallegos, Armando; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor

    In this work, we consider a system of coupled finite-difference equations which incorporates a variety of opinion formation models, and use it to describe the dynamics of opinions on controversial subjects. The social network consists of a finite number of agents with pairwise interactions at discrete times. Meanwhile, the opinion of each agent is updated following a general nonlinear law which considers parameters identified as the personal constants of each of the members. We establish conditions that guarantee the existence of global attracting points (strong consensus) and intervals (weak consensus). Moreover, we note that these conditions are independent of the weight matrix and the number of agents of the network. Two particular scenarios are investigated numerically in order to confirm the validity of the analytical results.

  3. Necklace formation during dynamic recrystallization: Mechanisms and impact on flow behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ponge, D.; Gottstein, G.

    1997-12-19

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the nucleation mechanisms of new grains during DRX and the deformation behavior of a necklace structure. The investigations were conducted on Ni{sub 3}Al, because Ni{sub 3}Al develops a distinct necklace structure during dynamic recrystallization DRX. Local orientation measurements were conducted to determine misorientations between new recrystallized grains and their parent grains. DRX was set off by strain induced bulging of prior grain boundaries. Additionally, the formation of new grains by recrystallization twinning was observed. With progressing DRX the orientation coherency of DRX grains with the matrix grains diminished rapidly, and the texture tended to randomize. The strain rate sensitivity indicated superplastic flow in the recrystallized volume. The deformation behavior changed significantly, when these soft regions formed a contiguous 3D network along the original grain boundaries. A new model for the flow curve is proposed that accounts for the percolation character of necklace structures.

  4. Dynamical formation of spatially localized arrays of aligned nanowires in plastic films with magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Despina; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Bertoni, Giovanni; Sangregorio, Claudio; Innocenti, Claudia; Falqui, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Cingolani, Roberto

    2010-04-27

    We present a simple technique for magnetic-field-induced formation, assembling, and positioning of magnetic nanowires in a polymer film. Starting from a polymer/iron oxide nanoparticle casted solution that is allowed to dry along with the application of a weak magnetic field, nanocomposite films incorporating aligned nanocrystal-built nanowire arrays are obtained. The control of the dimensions of the nanowires and of their localization across the polymer matrix is achieved by varying the duration of the applied magnetic field, in combination with the evaporation dynamics. These multifunctional anisotropic free-standing nanocomposite films, which demonstrate high magnetic anisotropy, can be used in a wide field of technological applications, ranging from sensors to microfluidics and magnetic devices.

  5. Dynamic models of biological pattern formation have some surprising implications for understanding the epigenetics of development.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Peter C M; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear epigenetic processes are conceived of in terms of self-organizing dynamic models of biological pattern formation. Epigenetic processes thus conceived generate substantial subject-specific structural variation, for instance, in growing brain networks. It is shown that standard quantitative genetic modeling based on analyses of interindividual phenotypic variation misclassifies the variation generated by nonlinear epigenetic processes as being due to specific environmental influences. A new quantitative genetic model, iFACE, is introduced to correctly identify the structural variation generated by self-organizing epigenetic processes. iFACE is based on time series analysis of intraindividual variation of a single pair of genetically related subjects. The results of an application of iFACE to multilead EEG obtained with a single dizygotic twin pair is presented.

  6. Simulation of an atomistic dynamic field theory for monatomic liquids: freezing and glass formation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Elder, K R; Grant, Martin

    2008-06-01

    We examine a phase field crystal model for simple liquid-solid systems consisting of a free energy functional related to the Ramakrishnan-Yussouff free energy of classical density functional theory and an equation of motion capable of describing long-time-scale behavior in the deeply supercooled regime. The thermodynamics and dynamics of freezing and glass formation in this model system are studied through large-scale three-dimensional Langevin simulations. At low cooling rates bcc crystals are formed by nucleation and growth from the melt. At large cooling rates no clear glass transition is observed, but a kinetically driven first-order transition from supercooled liquid to a disordered glasslike solid does occur. Despite the peculiarities of the transition, the structure and properties of the resulting disordered solid are shown to strongly resemble those of a typical glass. Consequences of pseudocritical behavior and heterogeneity near the liquid spinodal are also discussed.

  7. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  8. Stochastic formation of magnetic vortex structures in asymmetric disks triggered by chaotic dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Im, Mi-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Vogel, Andreas; ...

    2014-12-17

    The non-trivial spin configuration in a magnetic vortex is a prototype for fundamental studies of nanoscale spin behaviour with potential applications in magnetic information technologies. Arrays of magnetic vortices interfacing with perpendicular thin films have recently been proposed as enabler for skyrmionic structures at room temperature, which has opened exciting perspectives on practical applications of skyrmions. An important milestone for achieving not only such skyrmion materials but also general applications of magnetic vortices is a reliable control of vortex structures. However, controlling magnetic processes is hampered by stochastic behaviour, which is associated with thermal fluctuations in general. Here we showmore » that the dynamics in the initial stages of vortex formation on an ultrafast timescale plays a dominating role for the stochastic behaviour observed at steady state. Our results show that the intrinsic stochastic nature of vortex creation can be controlled by adjusting the interdisk distance in asymmetric disk arrays.« less

  9. Synaptic scaling enables dynamically distinct short- and long-term memory formation.

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Tsodyks, Misha; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    Memory storage in the brain relies on mechanisms acting on time scales from minutes, for long-term synaptic potentiation, to days, for memory consolidation. During such processes, neural circuits distinguish synapses relevant for forming a long-term storage, which are consolidated, from synapses of short-term storage, which fade. How time scale integration and synaptic differentiation is simultaneously achieved remains unclear. Here we show that synaptic scaling - a slow process usually associated with the maintenance of activity homeostasis - combined with synaptic plasticity may simultaneously achieve both, thereby providing a natural separation of short- from long-term storage. The interaction between plasticity and scaling provides also an explanation for an established paradox where memory consolidation critically depends on the exact order of learning and recall. These results indicate that scaling may be fundamental for stabilizing memories, providing a dynamic link between early and late memory formation processes.

  10. Sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene in a slit supersonic expansion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Agarwal, Jay; Allen, Wesley D; Nesbitt, David J

    2016-02-21

    Infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene are investigated in a slit jet supersonic discharge and probed with sub-Doppler resolution (≈60 MHz) on the fundamental antisymmetric CH stretch mode (ν5). The triacetylene is generated in the throat of the discharge by sequential attack of ethynyl radical with acetyelene and diacetylene: (i) HCCH → HCC + H, (ii) HCC + HCCH → HCCCCH + H, (iii) HCC + HCCCCH → HCCCCCCH + H, cooled rapidly in the slit expansion to 15 K, and probed by near shot-noise-limited absorption sensitivity with a tunable difference-frequency infrared laser. The combination of jet cooled temperatures (Trot = 15 K) and low spectral congestion permits (i) analysis of rotationally avoided crossings in the ν5 band ascribed to Coriolis interactions, as well as (ii) first detection of ν5 Π-Π hot band progressions built on the ν12 sym CC bend and definitively assigned via state-of-the-art ab initio vibration-rotation interaction parameters (αi), which make for interesting comparison with recent spectroscopic studies of Doney et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 316, 54 (2015)]. The combined data provide direct evidence for significantly non-equilibrium populations in the CC bending manifold, dynamically consistent with a strongly bent radical intermediate and transition states for forming triacetylene product. The presence of intense triacetylene signals under cold, low density slit jet conditions provides support for (i) barrierless addition of HCC with HCCCCH and (ii) a high quantum yield for HCCCCCCH formation. Complete basis set calculations for energetics [CCSD(T)-f12/VnZ-f12, n = 2,3] and frequencies [CCSD(T)-f12/VdZ-f12] are presented for both radical intermediate and transition state species, predicting collision stabilization in the slit jet expansion to be competitive with unimolecular decomposition with increasing polyyne chain length.

  11. Sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene in a slit supersonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Agarwal, Jay; Allen, Wesley D.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2016-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene are investigated in a slit jet supersonic discharge and probed with sub-Doppler resolution (≈60 MHz) on the fundamental antisymmetric CH stretch mode (ν5). The triacetylene is generated in the throat of the discharge by sequential attack of ethynyl radical with acetyelene and diacetylene: (i) HCCH → HCC + H, (ii) HCC + HCCH → HCCCCH + H, (iii) HCC + HCCCCH → HCCCCCCH + H, cooled rapidly in the slit expansion to 15 K, and probed by near shot-noise-limited absorption sensitivity with a tunable difference-frequency infrared laser. The combination of jet cooled temperatures (Trot = 15 K) and low spectral congestion permits (i) analysis of rotationally avoided crossings in the ν5 band ascribed to Coriolis interactions, as well as (ii) first detection of ν5 Π-Π hot band progressions built on the ν12 sym CC bend and definitively assigned via state-of-the-art ab initio vibration-rotation interaction parameters (αi), which make for interesting comparison with recent spectroscopic studies of Doney et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 316, 54 (2015)]. The combined data provide direct evidence for significantly non-equilibrium populations in the CC bending manifold, dynamically consistent with a strongly bent radical intermediate and transition states for forming triacetylene product. The presence of intense triacetylene signals under cold, low density slit jet conditions provides support for (i) barrierless addition of HCC with HCCCCH and (ii) a high quantum yield for HCCCCCCH formation. Complete basis set calculations for energetics [CCSD(T)-f12/VnZ-f12, n = 2,3] and frequencies [CCSD(T)-f12/VdZ-f12] are presented for both radical intermediate and transition state species, predicting collision stabilization in the slit jet expansion to be competitive with unimolecular decomposition with increasing polyyne chain length.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Aortic Thrombus Formation Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Foeke J H; Lau, Kevin D; Arthurs, Christopher J; Eagle, Kim A; Williams, David M; Trimarchi, Santi; Patel, Himanshu J; Figueroa, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    We present the possible utility of computational fluid dynamics in the assessment of thrombus formation and virtual surgical planning illustrated in a patient with aortic thrombus in a kinked ascending aortic graft following thoracic endovascular aortic repair. A patient-specific three-dimensional model was built from computed tomography. Additionally, we modeled 3 virtual aortic interventions to assess their effect on thrombosis potential: (1) open surgical repair, (2) conformable endografting, and (3) single-branched endografting. Flow waveforms were extracted from echocardiography and used for the simulations. We used the computational index termed platelet activation potential (PLAP) representing accumulated shear rates of fluid particles within a fluid domain to assess thrombosis potential. The baseline model revealed high PLAP in the entire arch (119.8 ± 42.5), with significantly larger PLAP at the thrombus location (125.4 ± 41.2, p < 0.001). Surgical repair showed a 37% PLAP reduction at the thrombus location (78.6 ± 25.3, p < 0.001) and a 24% reduction in the arch (91.6 ± 28.9, p < 0.001). Single-branched endografting reduced PLAP in the thrombus region by 20% (99.7 ± 24.6, p < 0.001) and by 14% in the arch (103.8 ± 26.1, p < 0.001), whereas a more conformable endograft did not have a profound effect, resulting in a modest 4% PLAP increase (130.6 ± 43.7, p < 0.001) in the thrombus region relative to the baseline case. Regions of high PLAP were associated with aortic thrombus. Aortic repair resolved pathologic flow patterns, reducing PLAP. Branched endografting also relieved complex flow patterns reducing PLAP. Computational fluid dynamics may assist in the prediction of aortic thrombus formation in hemodynamically complex cases and help guide repair strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist overprint: early obduction dynamics witnessed by W. Turkey ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating

  14. Multicolor Photometry of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A2319: Dynamics and Star Formation Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xu

    2014-05-01

    Asymmetric X-ray emission and a powerful cluster-scale radio halo indicate that A2319 is a merging cluster of galaxies. This paper presents our multicolor photometry for A2319 with 15 optical intermediate filters in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system. There are 142 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts within the viewing field of 58' × 58' centered on this rich cluster, including 128 member galaxies (called sample I). A large velocity dispersion in the rest frame, 1622^{+91}_{-70} km s-1, suggests merger dynamics in A2319. The contour map of projected density and localized velocity structure confirm the so-called A2319B substructure, at ~10' northwest to the main concentration A2319A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of more than 30,000 sources are obtained in our BATC photometry down to V ~ 20 mag. A u-band (~3551 Å) image with better seeing and spatial resolution, obtained with the Bok 2.3 m telescope at Kitt Peak, is taken to make star-galaxy separation and distinguish the overlapping contamination in the BATC aperture photometry. With color-color diagrams and photometric redshift technique, 233 galaxies brighter than h BATC = 19.0 are newly selected as member candidates after an exclusion of false candidates with contaminated BATC SEDs by eyeball-checking the u-band Bok image. The early-type galaxies are found to follow a tight color-magnitude correlation. Based on sample I and the enlarged sample of member galaxies (called sample II), subcluster A2319B is confirmed. The star formation properties of cluster galaxies are derived with the evolutionary synthesis model, PEGASE, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR). A strong environmental effect on star formation histories is found in the manner that galaxies in the sparse regions have various star formation histories, while galaxies in the dense regions are found to have shorter SFR time scales, older stellar ages, and

  15. Multicolor photometry of the merging galaxy cluster A2319: Dynamics and star formation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xu E-mail: yuanqirong@njnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Asymmetric X-ray emission and a powerful cluster-scale radio halo indicate that A2319 is a merging cluster of galaxies. This paper presents our multicolor photometry for A2319 with 15 optical intermediate filters in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system. There are 142 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts within the viewing field of 58' × 58' centered on this rich cluster, including 128 member galaxies (called sample I). A large velocity dispersion in the rest frame, 1622{sub −70}{sup +91} km s{sup –1}, suggests merger dynamics in A2319. The contour map of projected density and localized velocity structure confirm the so-called A2319B substructure, at ∼10' northwest to the main concentration A2319A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of more than 30,000 sources are obtained in our BATC photometry down to V ∼ 20 mag. A u-band (∼3551 Å) image with better seeing and spatial resolution, obtained with the Bok 2.3 m telescope at Kitt Peak, is taken to make star-galaxy separation and distinguish the overlapping contamination in the BATC aperture photometry. With color-color diagrams and photometric redshift technique, 233 galaxies brighter than h {sub BATC} = 19.0 are newly selected as member candidates after an exclusion of false candidates with contaminated BATC SEDs by eyeball-checking the u-band Bok image. The early-type galaxies are found to follow a tight color-magnitude correlation. Based on sample I and the enlarged sample of member galaxies (called sample II), subcluster A2319B is confirmed. The star formation properties of cluster galaxies are derived with the evolutionary synthesis model, PEGASE, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR). A strong environmental effect on star formation histories is found in the manner that galaxies in the sparse regions have various star formation histories, while galaxies in the dense regions are found to have shorter SFR time

  16. Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a Penning-Malmberg trap used for antihydrogen trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Keller, J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2009-10-01

    In many antihydrogen trapping schemes, antiprotons held in a short-well Penning-Malmberg trap are released into a longer well. This process necessarily causes the bounce-averaged rotation frequency Ω¯r of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole, experiments and simulations show that many antiprotons (over 30% in some cases) can be lost to a hitherto unidentified bounce-resonant process when Ω¯r is close to zero.

  17. Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a Penning-Malmberg trap used for antihydrogen trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Keller, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Kurchaninov, L.

    2009-10-15

    In many antihydrogen trapping schemes, antiprotons held in a short-well Penning-Malmberg trap are released into a longer well. This process necessarily causes the bounce-averaged rotation frequency {omega}{sub r} of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole, experiments and simulations show that many antiprotons (over 30% in some cases) can be lost to a hitherto unidentified bounce-resonant process when {omega}{sub r} is close to zero.

  18. Laboratory studies of the dynamic of resonance cones formation in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V. V.; Starodubtsev, M. V.; Kostrov, A. V.

    2013-03-15

    The paper is devoted to experimental studies of formation of resonance cones in magnetized plasmas by pulsed RF source in the lower-hybrid (whistler) and the upper-hybrid frequency ranges. It is shown that in both frequency ranges, resonance cones exhibit similar dynamics after switching-on the RF source: at first, wide maxima of radiation are formed in non-resonance directions, which then become narrower, with their direction approaching the resonance one. While the resonance cones are being formed, one observes a fine structure in the form of secondary radiation maxima. It is shown that the characteristic formation time of stationary resonance cones is determined by the minimal value of the group velocity of the quasi-electrostatic waves excited by the antenna. In the low-temperature plasma, this value is limited in the lower-hybrid frequency range by the spatial spectrum of the emitting antenna and in the upper-hybrid range, by the effects of spatial plasma dispersion.

  19. Coupled Attitude and Orbit Dynamics and Control in Formation Flying Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Mason, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Formation flying systems can range from global constellations offering extended service coverage to clusters of highly coordinated vehicles that perform distributed sensing. Recently, the use of groups of micro-satellites in the areas of near Earth explorations, deep space explorations, and military applications has received considerable attention by researchers and practitioners. To date, most proposed control strategies are based on linear models (e.g., Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations) or nonlinear models that are restricted to circular reference orbits. Also, all models in the literature are uncoupled between relative position and relative attitude. In this paper, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. The reference orbit is not restricted to the circular case. In this formulation, the leader or follower satellite can be in either a circular or an elliptic orbit. In addition to maintaining a specified relative position, the satellites are also required to maintain specified relative attitudes. Thus the model presented couples vehicle attitude and orbit requirements. Orbit perturbations are also included. In particular, the J(sub 2) effects are accounted in the model. Finally, a sliding mode controller is developed and used to control the relative attitude of the formation and the simulation results are presented.

  20. Changes in molecular dynamics upon formation of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Brás, Ana R E; Viciosa, M Teresa; Rodrigues, Carla M; Dias, C J; Dionísio, Madalena

    2006-06-01

    The molecular dynamics during the formation of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) was followed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the frequency range from 10(-1) to 2 x 10(6) Hz and over the temperature range from 158 to 273 K. The composite was produced by thermal polymerization induced phase separation of a mixture of triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate and the nematic liquid crystal, E7, in the proportion of 60:40 w/w. Both monomer and liquid crystal vitrify upon cooling having glass transition relaxation processes already characterized by some of us; yet E7 was previously studied in a narrower frequency range, so the present work updates its dielectric behavior. The starting mixture exhibits a rather complex dielectric spectrum due to the detection of multiple processes occurring simultaneously in the monomer and liquid crystal constituents. The PDLC formation occurs by mobility changes essentially in the liquid crystal tumbling motion, while the main relaxation of the monomer depletes upon polymerization. A low intense secondary process of E7 hardly detected in the bulk material is enhanced in both starting mixture and final composite allowing its characterization.

  1. Chemical dynamics of triacetylene formation and implications to the synthesis of polyynes in Titan's atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X.; Kim, Y. S.; Kaiser, R. I.; Mebel, A. M.; Liang, M. C.; Yung, Y. L.

    2009-01-01

    For the last four decades, the role of polyynes such as diacetylene (HCCCCH) and triacetylene (HCCCCCCH) in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan has been a subject of vigorous research. These polyacetylenes are thought to serve as an UV radiation shield in planetary environments; thus, acting as prebiotic ozone, and are considered as important constituents of the visible haze layers on Titan. However, the underlying chemical processes that initiate the formation and control the growth of polyynes have been the least understood to date. Here, we present a combined experimental, theoretical, and modeling study on the synthesis of the polyyne triacetylene (HCCCCCCH) via the bimolecular gas phase reaction of the ethynyl radical (CCH) with diacetylene (HCCCCH). This elementary reaction is rapid, has no entrance barrier, and yields the triacetylene molecule via indirect scattering dynamics through complex formation in a single collision event. Photochemical models of Titan's atmosphere imply that triacetylene may serve as a building block to synthesize even more complex polyynes such as tetraacetylene (HCCCCCCCCH). PMID:19805262

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Permeation of Bisphenol A and Pore Formation in a Lipid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Junlang; Zhou, Guoquan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Can; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is particularly considered as one of the most suspicious endocrine disruptors. Exposure to BPA may bring about possible human toxicities, such as cancerous tumors, birth defects and neoteny. One of the key issues to understand its toxicities is how BPA enters cells. In this paper, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interactions between BPA and a phospholipid membrane (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC bilayer). The simulation results show that BPA can easily enter the membrane from the aqueous phase. With the increasing concentrations of BPA in the membrane, BPA tends to aggregate and form into cluster. Meanwhile, several DPPC lipids are pulled out from each leaflet and adsorbed on the cluster surface, leading to pore formation. Detailed observations indicate that the lipid extraction results mainly from the dispersion interactions between BPA cluster and lipid tails, as well as weak electrostatic attractions between lipid headgroups and the two hydroxyl groups on BPA. The lipid extraction and pore formation may cause cell membrane damage and are of great importance to uncover BPA’s cytotoxicity. PMID:27629233

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Permeation of Bisphenol A and Pore Formation in a Lipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Junlang; Zhou, Guoquan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Can; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is particularly considered as one of the most suspicious endocrine disruptors. Exposure to BPA may bring about possible human toxicities, such as cancerous tumors, birth defects and neoteny. One of the key issues to understand its toxicities is how BPA enters cells. In this paper, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interactions between BPA and a phospholipid membrane (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC bilayer). The simulation results show that BPA can easily enter the membrane from the aqueous phase. With the increasing concentrations of BPA in the membrane, BPA tends to aggregate and form into cluster. Meanwhile, several DPPC lipids are pulled out from each leaflet and adsorbed on the cluster surface, leading to pore formation. Detailed observations indicate that the lipid extraction results mainly from the dispersion interactions between BPA cluster and lipid tails, as well as weak electrostatic attractions between lipid headgroups and the two hydroxyl groups on BPA. The lipid extraction and pore formation may cause cell membrane damage and are of great importance to uncover BPA’s cytotoxicity.

  4. Overflow dynamics and bottom water formation in the western Ross Sea: Influence of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Danilov, S.; Hellmer, H. H.; SchröTer, J.

    2010-10-01

    The tidal impact on overflow dynamics and bottom water production in the western Ross Sea is studied with the Finite Element Ocean Model, which allows embedding a mesh with 0.5 km resolution in a coarse resolution (30 km) setup without nesting. The simulated overflow properties inside and downstream of the western Ross Sea are described. The overflow exhibits pronounced variability at both daily and spring-neap tidal time scales in the western Ross Sea. Tides increase mixing over both the outer shelf and upper slope there. Plume jets are shaped by tidal currents at a bathymetric bend west of the Drygalski Trough mouth, descending rapidly and supplying the bottom water. A fraction of shelf water remains over the shelf and propagates westward from the Ross Sea, but it does not contribute significantly to bottom water formation because of energetic mixing over the upper slope. Compared to a simulation without tidal forcing, tides (with the major K1 and O1 constituents) increase the outflow rate over the continental slope off Cape Adare by about 70%. A set of sensitivity experiments show that the rate of bottom water production is not a monotonic function of the tidal currents amplitude. Tidal forcing with intermediate strength leads to the most efficient bottom water formation.

  5. Coupled Attitude and Orbit Dynamics and Control in Formation Flying Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Mason, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Formation flying systems can range from global constellations offering extended service coverage to clusters of highly coordinated vehicles that perform distributed sensing. Recently, the use of groups of micro-satellites in the areas of near Earth explorations, deep space explorations, and military applications has received considerable attention by researchers and practitioners. To date, most proposed control strategies are based on linear models (e.g., Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations) or nonlinear models that are restricted to circular reference orbits. Also, all models in the literature are uncoupled between relative position and relative attitude. In this paper, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. The reference orbit is not restricted to the circular case. In this formulation, the leader or follower satellite can be in either a circular or an elliptic orbit. In addition to maintaining a specified relative position, the satellites are also required to maintain specified relative attitudes. Thus the model presented couples vehicle attitude and orbit requirements. Orbit perturbations are also included. In particular, the J(sub 2) effects are accounted in the model. Finally, a sliding mode controller is developed and used to control the relative attitude of the formation and the simulation results are presented.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation and pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-10-01

    A mathematical model of the process of pattern recognition in the first olfactory sensory cortex of the rabbit is presented. It explains the formation and alteration of spatial patterns in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. On each inspiration of the animal, a surge of receptor input enters the olfactory bulb. EEG activity recorded at the surface of the bulb undergoes a transition from a low amplitude background state of temporal disorder to coherent oscillation. There is a distinctive spatial pattern of rms amplitude in this oscillation which changes reliably to a second pattern during each successful recognition by the animal of a conditioned stimulus odor. When a new odor is paired as conditioned stimulus, these patterns are replaced by new patterns that stabilize as the animal adapts to the new environment. I will argue that a unification of the theories of pattern formation and associative memory is required to account for these observations. This is achieved in a model of the bulb as a discrete excitable medium with spatially inhomogeneous coupling expressed by a connection matrix. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of competing unstable oscillatory modes. These may be created in the system by proper coupling and selectively evoked by specific classes of inputs. This allows a view of limit cycle attractors as “stored” fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  7. Dynamical Influence of Bars on the Star Formation in Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verley, S.; Combes, F.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Leon, S.

    2008-10-01

    Star formation depends strongly on both the local environment of galaxies and the internal dynamics of the interstellar medium. To disentangle the two effects, we obtained, in the framework of the AMIGA project (Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005; Sulentic et al. 2006; Lisenfeld et al. 2007; Verlay et al. 2007a,b,c), Hα and Gunn r photometric data for more than 200 spiral galaxies lying in very low-density regions of the local Universe. We characterize the Hα emission, tracing current star formation, of the 45 largest and least inclined galaxies observed for which we estimate the torques between the gas and the bulk of the optical matter. We subsequently study the Hα morphological aspect of these isolated spiral galaxies. Using Fourier analysis, we focus on the modes of the spiral arms and also on the strength of the bars, computing the torques between the gas and newly formed stars (Hα), and the bulk of the optical matter (Gunn r).

  8. HCO3(-) formation from CO2 at high pH: ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Stirling, András

    2011-12-15

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the dissolution of CO2 in water at high pH. The CO2 + OH(-) --> HCO3(-) forward and the HCO3(-) --> CO2 + OH(-) reverse paths have been simulated by employing the metadynamics technics. We have found that the free energy barrier along the forward direction is predominantly hydration related and significantly entropic in origin, whereas the backward barrier is primarily enthalpic. The main motifs in the forward mechanism are the structural diffusion of the hydroxyl ion to the first hydration sphere of CO2, its desolvation, and the C-O bond formation in concert with the CO2 bending within the hydrate cavity. In the reverse reaction, the origin of the barrier is the rupture of the strong C-O(H) bond. The present findings support the notion that the free energy barrier of the bicarbonate formation is strongly solvation related but provide also additional mechanistic details at the molecular level.

  9. Dynamics, Fluxes, Stability, Succession and Landscape Formation in Cold Environments: The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2015-04-01

    Within Europe there is a wide array of high-latitude and high-altitude landscapes, covering a significant proportion of the total land area. These defined cold climate landscapes represent a variety of stages of deglaciation history and landscape formation. We find landscapes at different levels of postglacial stabilization, providing the unique opportunity to study the interactions between geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic systems at the land surface. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network (2004 - ) bridges across the geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic sciences in order to investigate the complex dynamics of stabilization, succession and landscape formation during and after ice retreat and under human impact. The Network provides a multidisciplinary forum where research groups come together. It is linking and integrating a number of networks and programs and creates an umbrella program and a forum for sharing knowledge. The focus of this network is relevant for different end users, including risk and vulnerability assessment, sustainable land use, land management and conservation. Also questions closely related to Global Change like, e.g., hazards, permafrost degradation, loss of biodiversity are addressed.

  10. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network: Dynamics, Fluxes, Stability, Succession and Landscape Formation in Cold Climate Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2016-04-01

    There is a wide range of high-latitude and high-altitude cold climate landscapes in Europe, covering a significant proportion of the total land surface area. This spectrum of defined cold climate landscapes represents a variety of stages of deglaciation history and landscape formation. We can find landscapes at different levels of postglacial stabilization which is providing the opportunity to study the interactions between geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic systems at the land surface. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network (2004-) bridges across the geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic sciences in order to analyze the complex dynamics of stabilization, succession and landscape formation during and after ice retreat and under ongoing human influences. The network provides a multidisciplinary forum where researchers come together. In addition, it is linking a number of networks, working groups and programs and creates an umbrella network and a forum for sharing knowledge. The scientific focus of this network is also relevant for different end users, including risk and vulnerability assessment, sustainable land use, land management and conservation. In addition, key questions related to Global Change like, e.g., hazards, permafrost degradation and loss of biodiversity are discussed.

  11. Studying the Dynamics of Non-stationary Jet Streams Formation in the Northern Hemisphere Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emtsev, Sergey; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we investigate dynamics of non-stationary jets formation in troposphere by means of mesoscale simulations in the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, analyzing jet streams that affected the territory of Belarus over the time period of 2010-2012. For that purpose, we perform modeling on domains with 5 km, 3 km and 1 km grid steps and 35 vertical coordinate levels with an upper boundary of 10 hPa. We focus our attention to identification of basic regularities in formation, movements and transformations of jet streams, as well as to analysis of their characteristic features, geographical position and underlying atmospheric processes and their classification. On the basis of these regularities, we define basic meteorological parameters that can be used to directly or indirectly (as well as qualitatively and quantitatively) identify the presence of jet streams in the specific region of troposphere, and also to determine their localization, stage of development and other characteristics. Furthermore, we estimate energetic parameters of the identified jet streams and their impact on synoptic situation in the surrounding region. Analyzing meteorological fields obtained from satellite observations, we elaborate a methodology of operational detection and localization of non-stationary jet streams from satellite data. Validation of WRF modeling results with these data proves that mesoscale simulations with WRF are able to provide quite successful forecasts of non-stationary tropospheric jet streams occurrence and also determination of their localization and main characteristics up to 3 days in advance.

  12. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicovic, F. G.; Cuadra, J.; Sesana, A.; Stasyszyn, F.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Tanaka, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most - if not all - galaxies harbour a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus; hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the Universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall towards and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall on to equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that the formation of circumbinary discs and discs around each SMBH (`mini-discs') depend on those parameters. We also study the dynamics of the formed discs, and the variability of the feeding rate on to the SMBHs in the different configurations.

  13. An Observational Study of the Recurring Formation and Dissipation of a Dynamic Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guiping; Wang, Jingxiu; Zhang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Based on observations at the Hα wavelength from the Hinode spacecraft, we report here the detailed process of a dynamical filament that showed repeated appearance and dissipation in a filament channel. First, Hα short fibrils spreading in the pre-formed filament channel joined into longer threads. The joining process was found to be accompanied by small-scale brightening activity, indicating the possible involvement of magnetic reconnection. The forming filament was thickened by merging the neighboring dark threads that were nearly parallel to the axis and also those adjacent to its main endpoints. The formed filament as a single coherent structure only existed for tens of minutes, immediately followed by the dissipation. The dissipation appeared to start with expansion of the filament body, ascending and stripping away of the filament threads, and mass drainage along the legs of the filament. The formation-dissipation process of the filament was repeated three times within the four-hour observational window of Hinode. These observations indicate that the filament structure is highly dynamic. This study provides the observational evidence to confirm the hypothesis of Martin et al. ( Ann. Geophys. 26, 3061, 2008) on the irreversible build-up of magnetic fields in the corona by discrete threads or groups of threads ascending bodily into the corona.

  14. Plasma formation and dynamics in conical wire arrays in the Llampudken pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz, C. Gonzalo E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Valenzuela, Vicente E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Veloso, Felipe E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Favre, Mario E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Wyndham, Edmund E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl

    2014-12-15

    Plasma formation and dynamics from conical wire array is experimentally studied. Ablation from the wires is observed, forming plasma accumulation at the array axis and subsequently a jet outflow been expelled toward the top of the array. The arrays are composed by 16 equally spaced 25μ diameter tungsten wires. Their dimensions are 20mm height, with base diameters of 8mm and 16mm top diameter. The array loads are design to be overmassed, hence no complete ablation of the wires is observed during the current rise. The experiments have been carried out in the Llampudken. pulsed power generator (∼350kA in ∼350ns). Plasma dynamics is studied in both side-on and end-on directions. Laser probing (shadowgraphy) is achieved using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532nm, 12ps FWHM) captured by CCD cameras. Pinhole XUV imaging is captured using gated microchannel plate cameras with time resolution ∼5ns. Results on the jet velocity and the degree of collimation indicating the plausibility on the use of these jets as comparable to the study astrophysically produced jets are presented and discussed.

  15. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Duan, Xiaoxi; Ouyang, Jiting

    2015-12-01

    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  16. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting; Duan, Xiaoxi

    2015-12-15

    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  17. External potential dynamic studies on the formation of interface in polydisperse polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shuanhu; Zhang, Xinghua; Yan, Dadong

    2010-02-14

    The formation of interface from an initial sharp interface in polydisperse A/B blends is studied using the external potential dynamic method. The present model is a nonlocal coupling model as we take into account the correlation between segments in a single chain. The correlation is approximately expressed by Debye function and the diffusion dynamics are based on the Rouse chain model. The chain length distribution is described by the continuous Schulz distribution. Our numerical calculation indicates that for a wide range of the Flory-Huggins parameter the broadening of interface with respect to time obeys a power law at early time, and the power indices are the same for both monodisperse and polydisperse blends. The power index is larger than that in the local coupling model. However, there is no unified scaling form of the broadening of the interface width if only the interfacial width at equilibrium is taken into account as the characteristic length of the system, because the correlation makes an extra characteristic length in the system, and the polydispersity is related to this length.

  18. Travelling lipid domains in a dynamic model for protein-induced pattern formation in biomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Karin; Bär, Markus

    2005-06-01

    Cell membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids. Many biological processes require the formation of spatial domains in the lipid distribution of the plasma membrane. We have developed a mathematical model that describes the dynamic spatial distribution of acidic lipids in response to the presence of GMC proteins and regulating enzymes. The model encompasses diffusion of lipids and GMC proteins, electrostatic attraction between acidic lipids and GMC proteins as well as the kinetics of membrane attachment/detachment of GMC proteins. If the lipid-protein interaction is strong enough, phase separation occurs in the membrane as a result of free energy minimization and protein/lipid domains are formed. The picture is changed if a constant activity of enzymes is included into the model. We chose the myristoyl-electrostatic switch as a regulatory module. It consists of a protein kinase C that phosphorylates and removes the GMC proteins from the membrane and a phosphatase that dephosphorylates the proteins and enables them to rebind to the membrane. For sufficiently high enzymatic activity, the phase separation is replaced by travelling domains of acidic lipids and proteins. The latter active process is typical for nonequilibrium systems. It allows for a faster restructuring and polarization of the membrane since it acts on a larger length scale than the passive phase separation. The travelling domains can be pinned by spatial gradients in the activity; thus the membrane is able to detect spatial clues and can adapt its polarity dynamically to changes in the environment.

  19. A TRIPHASIC CONSTRAINED MIXTURE MODEL OF ENGINEERED TISSUE FORMATION UNDER IN-VITRO DYNAMIC MECHANICAL CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Joao S.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    While it has become axiomatic that mechanical signals promotes in-vitro engineered tissue formation, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Moreover, efforts to date to determine parameters for optimal extracellular matrix (ECM) development have been largely empirical. In the present work, we propose a two-pronged approach involving novel theoretical developments coupled with key experimental data to develop better mechanistic understanding of growth and development of dense connective tissue under mechanical stimuli. To describe cellular proliferation and ECM synthesis that occur at rates of days to weeks, we employ mixture theory to model the construct constituents as a nutrient-cell-ECM triphasic system, their transport, and their biochemical reactions. Dynamic conditioning protocols with frequencies around 1 Hz are described with multi-scale methods to couple the dissimilar time scales. Enhancement of nutrient transport due to pore fluid advection is up-scaled into the growth model, and the spatially dependent ECM distribution describes the evolving poroelastic characteristics of the scaffold-engineered tissue construct. Simulation results compared favorably to the existing experimental data, and most importantly, distinguish between static and dynamic conditioning regimes. The theoretical framework for mechanically conditioned tissue engineering (TE) permits not only the formulation of novel and better-informed mechanistic hypothesis describing the phenomena underlying TE growth and development, but also the exploration/optimization of conditioning protocols in a rational manner. PMID:26055347

  20. Protein complex formation and intranuclear dynamics of NAC1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Naomi; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakashita, Gyosuke; Nariai, Yuko; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Urano, Takeshi

    2016-09-15

    Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1) is a cancer-related transcription regulator protein that is also involved in the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. NAC1 is overexpressed in various carcinomas including ovarian, cervical, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. NAC1 knock-down was previously shown to result in the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines and to rescue their sensitivity to chemotherapy, suggesting that NAC1 may be a potential therapeutic target, but protein complex formation and the dynamics of intranuclear NAC1 in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, analysis of HeLa cell lysates by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a sizing column showed that the NAC1 peak corresponded to an apparent molecular mass of 300-500 kDa, which is larger than the estimated molecular mass (58 kDa) of the protein. Furthermore, live cell photobleaching analyses with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NAC1 proteins revealed the intranuclear dynamics of NAC1. Collectively our results demonstrate that NAC1 forms a protein complex to function as a transcriptional regulator in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of detectors positioning with respect to flying dynamics for future formation flight missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, Marta; Djalal, Sophie; Chipaux, Remi

    2009-08-01

    In a X-ray telescope in formation flight configuration, the optics and the focal-plane detectors reside in two different spacecraft. The dynamics of the detector spacecraft (DSC) with respect to the mirror spacecraft (MSC, carrying the mirrors of the telescope) changes continuously the arrival positions of the photons on the detectors. In this paper we analyze this issue for the case of the SIMBOL-X hard X-ray mission, extensively studied by CNES and ASI until 2009 spring. Due to the existing gaps between pixels and between detector modules, the dynamics of the system may produce a relevant photometric effect. The aim of this work is to present the optimization study of the control-law algorithm with respect to the detector's geometry. As the photometric effect may vary depending upon position of the source image on the detector, the analysis-carried out using the simuLOS (INAF, CNES, CEA) simulation tool-is extended over the entire SIMBOL-X field of view.

  2. The poleward edge of the mid-latitude trough - Its formation, orientation and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodger, A. S.; Brace, L. H.; Hoegy, W. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) deployed at Halley, Antarctica (76-deg S, 27-deg W; L = 4.2) and the Dynamics Explorer-2 spacecraft (DE-2) are used to investigate several aspects of the formation processes and dynamics of the poleward edge of the midlatitude electron density trough. These include a study of the flux and energy of charged particles precipitating into the F-region as a function of Magnetic Local Time. It is found that local energetic electron precipitation is a major source of ionization of the poleward edge in the evening sector, but only after magnetic midnight transport processes become more important. Occasionally a significant increase in the flux of conjugate photoelectrons is colocated with the poleward edge of the trough in the morning sector. The combination of AIS and DE-2 data has allowed identification of significant longitudinal structure on the poleward edge of the trough that may be the result of substorm activity. It is found that the orientation of the poleward edge of the trough and the locus of the plasmapause predicted from the 'tear-drop' model vary in rather a similar manner with local time, though no close physical link between the two features is inferred from this coincidence.

  3. Autonomy in Action: Linking the Act of Looking to Memory Formation in Infancy via Dynamic Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Looking is a fundamental exploratory behavior by which infants acquire knowledge about the world. In theories of infant habituation, however, looking as an exploratory behavior has been deemphasized relative to the reliable nature with which looking indexes active cognitive processing. We present a new theory that connects looking to the dynamics of memory formation and formally implement this theory in a Dynamic Neural Field model that learns autonomously as it actively looks and looks away from a stimulus. We situate this model in a habituation task and illustrate the mechanisms by which looking, encoding, working memory formation, and long-term memory formation give rise to habituation across multiple stimulus and task contexts. We also illustrate how the act of looking and the temporal dynamics of learning affect each other. Finally, we test a new hypothesis about the sources of developmental differences in looking. PMID:23136815

  4. Dynamics and predictability of secondary eyewall formation in sheared tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqing; Tao, Dandan; Sun, Y. Qiang; Kepert, Jeffrey D.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the predictability and dynamics of tropical cyclone (TC) secondary eyewall formation (SEF), eyewall replacement cycles (ERC), and intensity changes under moderate environmental shear through convection-permitting ensemble simulations. Even with the same environmental shear, the TC intensity changes during formation, rapid intensification, and SEF/ERC can be extremely sensitive to small, unobservable, random initial condition uncertainties, or computer's truncation error due to the chaotic nature of moist convection. Through composite analysis of five ensemble members with similar clear SEF/ERC and diagnostics with a nonlinear boundary layer (BL) model, we identify several key factors in the SEF/ERC process: (1) fast expansion of outer wind fields and changing inertial stability through shear-induced peripheral convection outside of the primary eyewall, (2) downward building and axisymmetrization of the primary (outer) rainband due to enhanced inertial stability and positive feedback between BL and outer convection, (3) establishment of the secondary eyewall along with moat formation that is facilitated by compensating subsidence from the primary eyewall, and (4) weakening and eventual replacement of the original primary eyewall by the strengthening secondary eyewall. It is also seen from the partial ERC cases that the preexisting rainband can be of great importance to the later development of SEF. Diagnosis with the nonlinear BL model shows that the location and relative strengths of the diagnosed frictional updrafts closely match those in the ensemble simulation of the ERC case, suggesting that the boundary layer convergence substantially influences the location of the convection in both eyewalls there.

  5. Formation of liquid drops at an orifice and dynamics of pinch-off in liquid jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthakur, Manash Pratim; Biswas, Gautam; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the dynamics of pinch-off in liquid drops and jets during injection of a liquid through an orifice into another fluid. The current study is carried out by solving axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the interface is captured using a coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid approach. The delicate interplay of inertia and viscous effects plays a crucial role in deciding the dynamics of the formation as well as breakup of liquid drops and jets. In the dripping regime, the growth and breakup rate of a drop are studied and quantified by corroborating with theoretical predictions. During the growth stage of the drops, a self-similar behavior of the drop profile is identified over a relatively short duration of time. The viscosity of the drop liquid shows substantial influence on the thinning behavior of a liquid neck and a transition is observed from an inertia dominated regime to an inertia-viscous regime beyond a critical minimum value of the neck radius. The phenomenon of interface overturning is fundamentally related to the magnitude of drop viscosity. The variation of overturning angle as a function of drop viscosity is computed and a critical value of Ohnesorge number is obtained beyond which overturning ceases. Increasing the inertia of drop liquid transforms the system from a periodically dripping regime to a quasiperiodic regime and finally it culminates into an elongated liquid jet. Another interesting transition from dripping to jetting regime is demonstrated by varying the viscosity of the ambient medium. The breakup of jets in Rayleigh mode is explored and the breakup length obtained from our computations shows excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions owing to Rayleigh's analysis. The ambient medium is entrained as the jet moves downstream with the creation of a vortical structure just outside the jet signifying increased participation of the ambient medium in the dynamics of jet breakup at

  6. Territorial Dynamics and Stable Home Range Formation for Central Place Foragers

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Harris, Stephen; Giuggioli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanisms behind territory formation is a fundamental problem in behavioural ecology. The broad nature of the underlying conspecific avoidance processes are well documented across a wide range of taxa. Scent marking in particular is common to a large range of terrestrial mammals and is known to be fundamental for communication. However, despite its importance, exact quantification of the time-scales over which scent cues and messages persist remains elusive. Recent work by the present authors has begun to shed light on this problem by modelling animals as random walkers with scent-mediated interaction processes. Territories emerge as dynamic objects that continually change shape and slowly move without settling to a fixed location. As a consequence, the utilisation distribution of such an animal results in a slowly increasing home range, as shown for urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes). For certain other species, however, home ranges reach a stable state. The present work shows that stable home ranges arise when, in addition to scent-mediated conspecific avoidance, each animal moves as a central place forager. That is, the animal's movement has a random aspect but is also biased towards a fixed location, such as a den or nest site. Dynamic territories emerge but the probability distribution of the territory border locations reaches a steady state, causing stable home ranges to emerge from the territorial dynamics. Approximate analytic expressions for the animal's probability density function are derived. A programme is given for using these expressions to quantify both the strength of the animal's movement bias towards the central place and the time-scale over which scent messages persist. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical work modelling central place foragers with conspecific avoidance. Some insights into the mechanisms behind allometric scaling laws of animal space use are also given. PMID:22479510

  7. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Menou, K.; Rein, H.

    2015-06-01

    A recent Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns and numerical simulations of gap opening in such systems. We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This presents an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, massive disks like HL Tau should induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks. For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets’ masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments.

  8. Formation and dynamical evolution of the Neptune Trojans - the influence of the initial Solar system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykawka, P. S.; Horner, J.; Jones, B. W.; Mukai, T.

    2010-05-01

    Current models of Solar system formation suggest that the four giant planets accreted as a significantly more compact system than we observe today. In this work, we investigate the dynamical stability of pre-formed Neptune Trojans under the gravitational influence of the four giant planets in compact planetary architectures, over 10 Myr. In our modelling, the initial orbital locations of Uranus and Neptune (aN) were varied to produce systems in which those planets moved on non-resonant orbits or in which they lay in their mutual 1:2, 2:3 and 3:4 mean-motion resonances (MMRs). In total, 420 simulations were carried out, examining 42 different architectures, with a total of 840000 particles across all runs. In the non-resonant cases, the Trojans suffered only moderate levels of dynamical erosion, with the most compact systems (those with aN <= 18 au) losing around 50 per cent of their Trojans by the end of the integrations. In the 2:3 and 3:4 MMR scenarios, however, dynamical erosion was much higher with depletion rates typically greater than 66 per cent and total depletion in the most compact systems. The 1:2 resonant scenarios featured disruption on levels intermediate between the non-resonant cases and other resonant scenarios, with depletion rates of the order of tens of per cent. Overall, the great majority of plausible pre-migration planetary architectures resulted in severe levels of depletion of the Neptunian Trojan clouds. In particular, if Uranus and Neptune formed near their mutual 2:3 or 3:4 MMR and at heliocentric distances within 18au (as favoured by recent studies), we found that the great majority of pre-formed Trojans would have been lost prior to Neptune's migration. This strengthens the case for the great bulk of the current Neptunian Trojan population having been captured during that migration.

  9. Analog modeling of pressurized subglacial water flow: Implications for tunnel valley formation and ice flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelandais, Thomas; Ravier, Edouard; Mourgues, Régis; Pochat, Stéphane; Strzerzynski, Pierre; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Tunnel valleys are elongated and overdeepened depressions up to hundreds of kilometers long, several kilometers wide and hundreds of meters deep, found in formerly glaciated areas. These drainage features are interpreted as the result of subglacial meltwater erosion beneath ice sheets and constitute a major component of the subglacial drainage system. Although tunnel valleys have been described worldwide in the past decades, their formation is still a matter of debate. Here, we present an innovative experimental approach simulating pressurized water flow in a subglacial environment in order to study the erosional processes occurring at the ice-bed interface. We use a sandbox partially covered by a circular, viscous and transparent lid (silicon putty), simulating an impermeable ice cap. Punctual injection of pressurized water in the substratum at the center of the lid simulates meltwater production beneath the ice cap. Surface images collected by six synchronized cameras allow to monitor the evolution of the experiment through time, using photogrammetry methods and DEM generation. UV markers placed in the silicon are used to follow the silicon flow during the drainage of water at the substratum-lid interface, and give the unique opportunity to simultaneously follow the formation of tunnel valleys and the evolution of ice dynamics. When the water pressure is low, groundwater circulates within the substratum only and no drainage landforms appear at the lid-substratum interface. By contrast, when the water pressure exceeds a threshold that is larger than the sum of glaciostatic and lithostatic pressures, additional water circulation occurs at the lid-substratum interface and drainage landforms develop from the lid margin. These landforms share numerous morphological criteria with tunnel valleys such as undulating longitudinal profiles, U-shaped cross-sectional profiles with flat floors, constant widths and abrupt flanks. Continuous generation of DEMs and flow velocity

  10. Dynamics and drivers for dense shelf water formation, migration and cascading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaldo, Davide; Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Langone, Leonardo; Sclavo, Mauro; Trincardi, Fabio; Carniel, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Dense Shelf Waters formation and their descent towards the deep ocean are generally accepted as one of the main factors driving large-scale thermohaline and biogeochemical fluxes from the continental shelf. With reference to a particularly intense event occurred in winter 2012 in the northern Adriatic Sea (namely Gulf of Venice), an epicontinental basin of the Mediterranean Sea, a set of high-resolution (1 km horizontal discretization) numerical experiments carried out by means of the COAWST (Coupled Ocean, Atmosphere Waves and Sediment Transport) modelling system allowed to explore the dynamics underlying such phenomena. The role of external factors (freshwater input, tides, and continental margin topography) was investigated as well as the mutual interactions involving atmosphere, waves and ocean circulation. The so-called North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) forms in the Gulf of Venice as a consequence of the cooling and salinization of the sub-basin induced by cold air jets blowing from northeast across the Eastern Alps and Balkans. Partially recirculating in a double-gyre structure, newly formed water masses progressively leave the formation region flowing southeastwards leant on the Italian shelf. Along its path, significant fractions of NAdDW are intercepted by mid-Adriatic pits and by the continental shelf break off the Apulian coast. Whilst riverine freshwater input is crucial in preconditioning the NAdDW formation basin and controlling the intrusion of saltier waters from the south, atmosphere-wave-ocean dynamics drive the generation proper by governing air-sea heat and momentum exchanges and ocean circulation, with substantial effects on the modes of buoyancy extraction and on the extent of the water masses involved in this process. The trajectory of the dense stream leaving the northernmost basin tends to a geostrophic equilibrium determined by water mass momentum and density, which in turn reflect the interplay of the factors acting on the generation

  11. Investigation of regularities of formation and propagation of elastic vortices in surface layers of materials under dynamic contact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafurov, S. V.; Shilko, E. V.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-11-01

    On the base of computer-aided simulation by movable cellular automaton method regularities of formation of vortices in surface layers of materials under dynamic contact loading were investigated. It was shown that the dynamic contact loading leads to the formation of an elastic vortex in the area of contact interaction and its subsequent propagation in the volume of material. Direction of vortex movement essentially depends on the velocity of contact loading and value of the contact pressure, which are determined features of the interaction of the material surface and the counterbody (e.g. stress state of contact area).

  12. REGULATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES IN MULTIPHASE GALACTIC DISKS: A THERMAL/DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ostriker, Eve C.; McKee, Christopher F.; Leroy, Adam K. E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.ed

    2010-10-01

    We develop a model for the regulation of galactic star formation rates {Sigma}{sub SFR} in disk galaxies, in which interstellar medium (ISM) heating by stellar UV plays a key role. By requiring that thermal and (vertical) dynamical equilibrium are simultaneously satisfied within the diffuse gas, and that stars form at a rate proportional to the mass of the self-gravitating component, we obtain a prediction for {Sigma}{sub SFR} as a function of the total gaseous surface density {Sigma} and the midplane density of stars+dark matter {rho}{sub sd}. The physical basis of this relationship is that the thermal pressure in the diffuse ISM, which is proportional to the UV heating rate and therefore to {Sigma}{sub SFR}, must adjust until it matches the midplane pressure value set by the vertical gravitational field. Our model applies to regions where {Sigma} {approx}< 100 M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}. In low-{Sigma}{sub SFR} (outer-galaxy) regions where diffuse gas dominates, the theory predicts that {Sigma}{sub SFR{proportional_to}{Sigma}{radical}}({rho}{sub sd}). The decrease of thermal equilibrium pressure when {Sigma}{sub SFR} is low implies, consistent with observations, that star formation can extend (with declining efficiency) to large radii in galaxies, rather than having a sharp cutoff at a fixed value of {Sigma}. The main parameters entering our model are the ratio of thermal pressure to total pressure in the diffuse ISM, the fraction of diffuse gas that is in the warm phase, and the star formation timescale in self-gravitating clouds; all of these are (at least in principle) direct observables. At low surface density, our model depends on the ratio of the mean midplane FUV intensity (or thermal pressure in the diffuse gas) to the star formation rate, which we set based on solar-neighborhood values. We compare our results to recent observations, showing good agreement overall for azimuthally averaged data in a set of spiral galaxies. For the large flocculent spiral

  13. IUTAM Symposium on Vortex Dynamics: Formation, Structure and Function, 10-14 March 2013, Fukuoka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-06-01

    This special issue of Fluid Dynamics Research contains the first of a two-part publication of the papers presented at the IUTAM Symposium on Vortex Dynamics: Formation, Structure and Function, held at the Centennial Hall, Kyushu University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan, during the week of 10-14 March 2013. Vortices are ubiquitous structures in fluid mechanics spanning the range of scales from nanofluidics and microfluidics to geophysical and astrophysical flows. Vortices are the key to understanding many different phenomena. As a result, the subject of vortex dynamics continues to evolve and to constantly find new applications in biology, biotechnology, industrial and environmental problems. Vortices can be created by the separation of a flow from the surface of a body or at a density interface, and evolve into coherent structures. Once formed, a vortex acquires a function, depending on its individual structure. In this way, for example, insects gain lift and fish gain thrust. Surprisingly, despite the long history of vortex dynamics, only recently has knowledge about formation, structure and function of vortices been combined to yield new perspectives in the subject, thereby helping to solve outstanding problems brought about by modern advances in computer technology and improved experimental techniques. This symposium is a continuation, five years on, of the IUTAM Symposium '50 Years of Vortex Dynamics', Lyngby, Denmark that took place between 12-16 October 2008, organized by the late Professor Hassan Aref. Originally, Professor Aref was a member of the International Scientific Committee of this symposium and offered his enthusiasm and great expertise, to support its organization. To our shock, he suddenly passed away on 9 September 2011. Furthermore, Professor Slava Meleshko, a leading scientist of fluid and solid mechanics and an intimate friend of Professor Aref, was expected to make an eminent contribution to the symposium. Soon after this sad loss

  14. Statistical state dynamics based theory for the formation and equilibration of Saturn's north polar jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Brian F.; Ioannou, Petros J.

    2017-07-01

    Coherent jets containing most of the kinetic energy of the flow are a common feature in observations of atmospheric turbulence at the planetary scale. In the gaseous planets these jets are embedded in a field of incoherent turbulence on scales small relative to the jet scale. Large-scale coherent waves are sometimes observed to coexist with the coherent jets and the incoherent turbulence with a prominent example of this phenomenon being the distortion of Saturn's north polar jet (NPJ) into a distinct hexagonal form. Observations of this large-scale jet-wave-turbulence coexistence regime raise the question of identifying the mechanism responsible for forming and maintaining this turbulent state. The coherent planetary scale jet component of the turbulence arises and is maintained by interaction with the incoherent small-scale turbulence component. It follows that theoretical understanding of the dynamics of the jet-wave-turbulence coexistence regime can be facilitated by employing a statistical state dynamics (SSD) model in which the interaction between coherent and incoherent components is explicitly represented. In this work a two-layer β -plane SSD model closed at second order is used to develop a theory that accounts for the structure and dynamics of the NPJ. An asymptotic analysis is performed of the SSD equilibrium in the weak jet damping limit that predicts a universal jet structure in agreement with observations of the NPJ. This asymptotic theory also predicts the wave number of the prominent jet perturbation. Analysis of the jet-wave-turbulence regime dynamics using this SSD model reveals that jet formation is controlled by the effective value of β and the required value of this parameter for correspondence with observation is obtained. As this is a robust prediction it is taken as an indirect observation of a deep poleward sloping stable layer beneath the NPJ. The slope required is obtained from observations of the magnitude of the zonal wind component

  15. Dynamics of Mantle Circulation Associated with Slab Window Formation: Insights from 3D Laboratory Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, B.; Funiciello, F.; Moroni, M.; Faccenna, C.; Martinod, J.

    2009-12-01

    Slab window can form either by the intersection of a spreading ridge with a subduction zone or because of internal deformation of the slab that leads to its disruption. The main consequences of this phenomenon are the modifications of the physical, chemical and thermal conditions in the backarc mantle that in turn affect the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the overriding plate. We performed laboratory models of a two-layer linear viscous slab (silicone putty)-upper mantle (glucose syrup) system to quantitatively investigate the pattern of mantle circulation within the slab window (using Feature Tracking image analysis technique) and its influence on the kinematics of the system. Two different geometries have been tested considering a window located (a) at slab edges or (b) within the slab. Kinematic consequences of slab window have been explored to understand the dynamics of the mantle-slab interaction. Configuration (a) implies a reduction of the slab width (W) during subduction and is characterized by toroidal fluxes around the slab edges. The abrupt opening of lateral slab windows produces an acceleration of the trench retreat and subduction velocity, such as 40% for a three-fold width reduction. We interpret this behavior as mostly due to the decrease in the toroidal flow inside subduction windows, scaling with W2. Configuration (b) has been designed to explore the pattern of mantle flow within the window in the case of a laterally constrained subduction system. Slab window, which had a width (Ww) fixed to 15 % of the slab width, opened in the trench-perpendicular direction. It produced the formation of two toroidal mantle cells, centered on the slab midpoint and laterally growing as the slab window enlarged. Particles extruded through the slab window did not mix with particles located in the mantle wedge, the boundary between both reaching distances from the trench up to 3×Ww in the trench-perpendicular direction, and up to 1.5×Ww from the window edge in

  16. Torque controlled rotary-shear experiments reveal pseudotachilites formation-dynamics and precursor events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Cordonnier, Benoit; De Siena, Luca; Lavier, Luc; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Except few cases, rotary shear tests, which are designed to study dynamic friction and strengthening/weakening mechanisms in seismogenic faults, are performed by imposing, to the specimens, a slipping velocity that is pre-defined. This approach has been adopted from engineering that typically, tests man-made objects that, when functioning, spin or slide at a pre-defined velocity under a pre-defined load. On the other hand, natural earthquakes are the effect of a rupture that nucleates, propagates and arrests in the subsurface. These three phases, and the consequent emerging fault slipping velocity, are controlled by the accumulated and released energy around the seismogenic fault before, during and after the earthquake. Thus, imposing the slipping velocity in laboratory experiments might not represent the best option to uncover many aspects of earthquake nucleation and fault slipping dynamics. Here we present some experiments performed with an innovative rotary shear apparatus that uses a clock-spring that when winded provides to the rotating sample a linearly increasing torque. Thus, the nucleation of simulated events occur spontaneously when the shear stress on the slipping surface overcomes the static friction times the normal load that is controlled by a deadweight. In addition, this method allows studying precursory seismic events resembling natural slow-slip earthquakes. We report some preliminary results for a transparent polymer that has melting point 340 K and allows observing the slipping surface (i.e., the contact between the two samples). By coupling: i) the rotary shear apparatus, ii) a video camera recording at 60 fps and a iii) laser pointer we observed the formation and evolution of a melt film that forms in the slipping surface after a phase of "dry" stick-slip. After each seismic event the melt layer solidify forming a pseudotachilite that partially welds the slipping surfaces. We also present the mechanical data that show rupture strengthening in

  17. On the dynamic nature of the prolate solar chromosphere: jet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B.; Koutchmy, S.; Vilinga, J.

    2007-03-01

    Context: In "cool" spectral lines, the smoothed upper edge of the solar chromosphere is prolate in the South-North direction at the epoch of minimum solar activity and nearly spherically symmetric at the maximum phase. We attribute the effect to the dynamical nature of the upper chromosphere, which consists of a large number of small jet-like structures ascending into the corona. We could not resolve the source region of an individual jetlet, although similar but larger structures are visible, especially in EUV coronal lines. Aims: We consider the problem of the formation of an individual jet above the limb, assuming that a large number of jet-like events is responsible for the prolate solar upper chromosphere. We then assume that spicules, being the cool part of the phenomenon, behave similarly, and we will mainly concentrate the analysis on the magnetic origin of the event. Methods: Image processing is used to reveal the displacement of magnetic field tubes filled with coronal plasma and jet formation due to field aligned motion above the null point created in the corona by the emerging magnetic bipole. Results: The growth of the bipole leads to a reconnection of the field lines and to a specific plasma motion in the vicinity of the null point that results in a plasma flow along the spine line of the 3D null. We assume that similar but smaller processes could happen very often at a smaller scale in the chromosphere, near emerging magnetic ephemeral regions, forming numerous jetlets in the upper chromosphere. As the field aligned motion is guided by the magnetic field, at the epoch of low activity the large-scale structure of the polar magnetic field and the one of the quiet equatorial region is sufficiently different to explain the prolateness of the chromosphere.

  18. Dynamic Coupling of Pattern Formation and Morphogenesis in the Developing Vertebrate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Picker, Alexander; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Machate, Anja; Bernauer, Sabine; Hans, Stefan; Abe, Gembu; Kawakami, Koichi; Wilson, Stephen W.; Brand, Michael

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, pattern formation must be tightly synchronized with tissue morphogenesis to coordinate the establishment of the spatial identities of cells with their movements. In the vertebrate retina, patterning along the dorsal-ventral and nasal-temporal (anterior-posterior) axes is required for correct spatial representation in the retinotectal map. However, it is unknown how specification of axial cell positions in the retina occurs during the complex process of early eye morphogenesis. Studying zebrafish embryos, we show that morphogenetic tissue rearrangements during eye evagination result in progenitor cells in the nasal half of the retina primordium being brought into proximity to the sources of three fibroblast growth factors, Fgf8/3/24, outside the eye. Triple-mutant analysis shows that this combined Fgf signal fully controls nasal retina identity by regulating the nasal transcription factor Foxg1. Surprisingly, nasal-temporal axis specification occurs very early along the dorsal-ventral axis of the evaginating eye. By in vivo imaging GFP-tagged retinal progenitor cells, we find that subsequent eye morphogenesis requires gradual tissue compaction in the nasal half and directed cell movements into the temporal half of the retina. Balancing these processes drives the progressive alignment of the nasal-temporal retina axis with the anterior-posterior body axis and is controlled by a feed-forward effect of Fgf signaling on Foxg1-mediated cell cohesion. Thus, the mechanistic coupling and dynamic synchronization of tissue patterning with morphogenetic cell behavior through Fgf signaling leads to the graded allocation of cell positional identity in the eye, underlying retinotectal map formation. PMID:19823566

  19. Dynamic coupling of pattern formation and morphogenesis in the developing vertebrate retina.

    PubMed

    Picker, Alexander; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Machate, Anja; Bernauer, Sabine; Hans, Stefan; Abe, Gembu; Kawakami, Koichi; Wilson, Stephen W; Brand, Michael

    2009-10-01

    During embryonic development, pattern formation must be tightly synchronized with tissue morphogenesis to coordinate the establishment of the spatial identities of cells with their movements. In the vertebrate retina, patterning along the dorsal-ventral and nasal-temporal (anterior-posterior) axes is required for correct spatial representation in the retinotectal map. However, it is unknown how specification of axial cell positions in the retina occurs during the complex process of early eye morphogenesis. Studying zebrafish embryos, we show that morphogenetic tissue rearrangements during eye evagination result in progenitor cells in the nasal half of the retina primordium being brought into proximity to the sources of three fibroblast growth factors, Fgf8/3/24, outside the eye. Triple-mutant analysis shows that this combined Fgf signal fully controls nasal retina identity by regulating the nasal transcription factor Foxg1. Surprisingly, nasal-temporal axis specification occurs very early along the dorsal-ventral axis of the evaginating eye. By in vivo imaging GFP-tagged retinal progenitor cells, we find that subsequent eye morphogenesis requires gradual tissue compaction in the nasal half and directed cell movements into the temporal half of the retina. Balancing these processes drives the progressive alignment of the nasal-temporal retina axis with the anterior-posterior body axis and is controlled by a feed-forward effect of Fgf signaling on Foxg1-mediated cell cohesion. Thus, the mechanistic coupling and dynamic synchronization of tissue patterning with morphogenetic cell behavior through Fgf signaling leads to the graded allocation of cell positional identity in the eye, underlying retinotectal map formation.

  20. Dynamics of polyploid formation and establishment in the allotetraploid rock fern Asplenium majoricum

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Harriet V.; Ansell, Stephen W.; Russell, Stephen J.; Schneider, Harald; Vogel, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Successful establishment of newly formed polyploid species depends on several interlinked genetic and ecological factors. These include genetic diversity within and among individuals, chromosome behaviour and fertility, novel phenotypes resulting from novel genomic make-up and expression, intercytotypic and interspecific competition, and adaptation to distinct habitats. The allotetraploid rock fern Asplenium majoricum is known from one small population in Valencia, Spain, and several larger populations on the Balearic island of Majorca. In Valencia, it occurs sympatrically with its diploid parents, A. fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, and their diploid hybrid A. × protomajoricum. This highly unusual situation allowed the study of polyploid genetic diversity and its relationship to the formation and establishment of nascent polyploid lineages. Methods Genetic variation for isozyme and chloroplast DNA markers was determined for A. majoricum and A. × protomajoricum sampled thoroughly from known sites in Majorca and Valencia. Results were compared with variation determined previously for the diploid parent taxa. Key Results A highly dynamic system with recurring diploid hybrid and allotetraploid formation was discovered. High diversity in the small Valencian A. majoricum population indicates multiple de novo origins from diverse parental genotypes, but most of these lineages become extinct without becoming established. The populations on Majorca most probably represent colonization(s) from Valencia rather than an in situ origin. Low genetic diversity suggests that this colonization may have occurred only once. Conclusions There is a striking contrast in success of establishment of the Majorcan and Valencian populations of A. majoricum. Chance founding of populations in a habitat where neither A. fontanum subsp. fontanum nor A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens occurs appears to have been a key factor enabling the establishment

  1. Role of the temperature dynamics in formation of nanopatterns upon single femtosecond laser pulses on gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Evgeny L.; Levy, Yoann; Gurevich, Svetlana V.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of two-temperature heating dynamics for formation of periodic structures on metal surfaces exposed to single ultrashort laser pulses.The results of two-temperature model (TTM) two-dimensional simulations are presented on the irradiation of gold by a single 800-nm femtosecond laser pulse the intensity of which is modulated in order to reproduce an initial electron temperature perturbation, which can arise from incoming and scattered surface wave interference. The growing (unstable) modes of the lattice temperature distribution along the surface may be significant in the laser induced periodic surface structures formation. After the end of the laser pulse and before the complete coupling between lattice and electrons occurs, the evolution of the amplitude of the subsequent modulation in the lattice temperature reveals different tendencies depending on the spatial period of the initial modulation. This instabilitylike behavior is shown to arise due to the perturbation of the electronic temperature which relaxes slower for bigger spatial periods and thus imparts more significant modulations to the lattice temperature. Small spatial periods of the order of 100 nm and smaller experience stabilization and fast decay from the more efficient lateral heat diffusion which facilitates the relaxation of the electronic temperature amplitude due to in-depth diffusion. An analytical instability analysis of a simplified version of the TTM set of equations supports the lattice temperature modulation behavior obtained in the simulations and reveals that in-depth diffusion length is a determining parameter in the dispersion relation of unstable modes. Finally, it is discussed how the change in optical properties can intensify the modulation-related effects.

  2. Initial conditions of formation of starburst clusters: constraints from stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-08-01

    Recent high resolution observations of dense regions of molecular clouds and massive gaseous clumps with instruments like Herschel and ALMA have revealed intricate and filamentary overdensity structures in them. Such progenitors of massive starburst clusters are in contrast with smooth, centrally-pronounced profiles of the latter. In this work, we intend to constrain massive, substructured stellar distributions that would evolve to cluster-like profiles at very young ages (~Myr), as seen in starburst clusters. Taking the well observed NGC3603 Young Cluster (NYC) as an example, we compute the infall and final merger of filament-like compact (0.1-0.3 pc) subclusters, totalling 10000 M_sun, from a range of spatial scales and modes of sub-clustering, using direct N-body calculations. These calculations infer an allowable span of approx. 2.5 pc from which the subclusters can fall in a gas potential and merge to form a single centrally-dense structure in near dynamical equilibrium, within the young age of NYC (1-2 Myr). However, these merged clusters are too compact and centrally overdense compared to typical young clusters. Our N-body calculations, beginning from such compact initial conditions, show that even stellar wind and supernova mass loss, dynamical heating from retaining black holes, external tidal field and heating due to tight O-star binaries together cannot expand these clusters to their observed sizes, even in 100 Myr. Hence an explosive gas dispersal phase seems essential for forming starburst and other young clusters observed in the Milky Way and in the Local Group which can expand the clusters to their observed sizes and concentrations; including that for NYC with approx. 30% clump star formation efficiency. However, some observed massive but highly extended (>10 pc) , >10 Myr old clusters better fit a slow (several Myr timescale) gas dispersal from parsec-scale initial profiles, which can be the future of embedded systems like W3 Main.

  3. Molecular dynamics of wetting layer formation and forced water invasion in angular nanopores with mixed wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Sedghi, Mohammad Piri, Mohammad; Goual, Lamia

    2014-11-21

    The depletion of conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has prompted the oil and gas industry to search for unconventional resources such as shale gas/oil reservoirs. In shale rocks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbon reside in nanoscale pore spaces. As a result, understanding the multiphase flow of wetting and non-wetting phases in nanopores is important to improve oil and gas recovery from these formations. This study was designed to investigate the threshold capillary pressure of oil and water displacements in a capillary dominated regime inside nanoscale pores using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. The pores have the same cross-sectional area and volume but different cross-sectional shapes. Oil and water particles were represented with a coarse grained model and the NEMD simulations were conducted by assigning external pressure on an impermeable piston. Threshold capillary pressures were determined for the drainage process (water replaced by oil) in different pores. The molecular dynamics results are in close agreements with calculations using the Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MS-P) method which has been developed on the premise of energy balance in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the drainage simulations, a change in wall particles’ wettability from water-wet to oil-wet was implemented based on the final configuration of oil and water inside the pore. Waterflooding simulations were then carried out at the threshold capillary pressure. The results show that the oil layer formed between water in the corner and in the center of the pore is not stable and collapses as the simulation continues. This is in line with the predictions from the MS-P method.

  4. Molecular dynamics of wetting layer formation and forced water invasion in angular nanopores with mixed wettability.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, Mohammad; Piri, Mohammad; Goual, Lamia

    2014-11-21

    The depletion of conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has prompted the oil and gas industry to search for unconventional resources such as shale gas/oil reservoirs. In shale rocks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbon reside in nanoscale pore spaces. As a result, understanding the multiphase flow of wetting and non-wetting phases in nanopores is important to improve oil and gas recovery from these formations. This study was designed to investigate the threshold capillary pressure of oil and water displacements in a capillary dominated regime inside nanoscale pores using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. The pores have the same cross-sectional area and volume but different cross-sectional shapes. Oil and water particles were represented with a coarse grained model and the NEMD simulations were conducted by assigning external pressure on an impermeable piston. Threshold capillary pressures were determined for the drainage process (water replaced by oil) in different pores. The molecular dynamics results are in close agreements with calculations using the Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MS-P) method which has been developed on the premise of energy balance in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the drainage simulations, a change in wall particles' wettability from water-wet to oil-wet was implemented based on the final configuration of oil and water inside the pore. Waterflooding simulations were then carried out at the threshold capillary pressure. The results show that the oil layer formed between water in the corner and in the center of the pore is not stable and collapses as the simulation continues. This is in line with the predictions from the MS-P method.

  5. Decreased Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic lung model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to be associated with increased mortality rates and medical costs in the pediatric intensive care unit. Currently, there is no cost-effective solution to the problems posed by VAP. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial colonization and that inhibit biofilm formation could provide a novel solution to the problems posed by VAP. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs and on ETTs etched with a fungal lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus, to create nanoscale surface features. These differences were evaluated using an in vitro model of the pediatric airway to simulate a ventilated patient in the pediatric intensive care unit. Each experiment was run for 24 hours and was supported by computational models of the ETT. Dynamic conditions within the ETT had an impact on the location of bacterial growth within the tube. These conditions also quantitatively affected bacterial growth especially within the areas of tube curvature. Most importantly, experiments in the in vitro model revealed a 2.7 log reduction in the number (colony forming units/mL) of P. aeruginosa on the nanoroughened ETTs compared to the untreated PVC ETTs after 24 hours. This reduction in total colony forming units/mL along the x-axis of the tube was similar to previous studies completed for Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, this dynamic study showed that lipase etching can create surface features of nanoscale roughness on PVC ETTs that decrease bacterial attachment of P. aeruginosa without the use of antibiotics and may provide clinicians with an effective and inexpensive tool to combat VAP. PMID:27563242

  6. Decreased Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic lung model.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to be associated with increased mortality rates and medical costs in the pediatric intensive care unit. Currently, there is no cost-effective solution to the problems posed by VAP. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial colonization and that inhibit biofilm formation could provide a novel solution to the problems posed by VAP. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs and on ETTs etched with a fungal lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus, to create nanoscale surface features. These differences were evaluated using an in vitro model of the pediatric airway to simulate a ventilated patient in the pediatric intensive care unit. Each experiment was run for 24 hours and was supported by computational models of the ETT. Dynamic conditions within the ETT had an impact on the location of bacterial growth within the tube. These conditions also quantitatively affected bacterial growth especially within the areas of tube curvature. Most importantly, experiments in the in vitro model revealed a 2.7 log reduction in the number (colony forming units/mL) of P. aeruginosa on the nanoroughened ETTs compared to the untreated PVC ETTs after 24 hours. This reduction in total colony forming units/mL along the x-axis of the tube was similar to previous studies completed for Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, this dynamic study showed that lipase etching can create surface features of nanoscale roughness on PVC ETTs that decrease bacterial attachment of P. aeruginosa without the use of antibiotics and may provide clinicians with an effective and inexpensive tool to combat VAP.

  7. Vortex formation in coalescence of droplets with a reservoir using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Taherian, Fereshte; Marcon, Valentina; Bonaccurso, Elmar; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2016-10-01

    The flow patterns generated by the coalescence of aqueous ethanol droplets with a water reservoir are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The influence of surface tension gradient, which leads to the spreading of the droplet along the liquid-vapor interface of the reservoir, is studied by changing the ethanol concentration of the droplet. The internal circulation (vortex strength) of the droplet and the reservoir are analyzed separately. Simulation results reveal the formation of swirling flows within the droplet at early times when the radius of the coalescence neck due to the capillary forces increases rapidly with time. The vortex strength is found to be higher at lower concentrations of ethanol (higher liquid-vapor surface tension of the droplet), where the driving force for the contact line movement (capillary force) is stronger. The circulation diminishes by moving the center of mass of the droplet toward the reservoir. The lower surface tension of the droplet compared to the reservoir leads to surface tension gradient driven flow, which transports the droplet molecules along the liquid-vapor interface of the reservoir. Such a flow motion results in the generation of convective flows in the underlying water, which forms swirling flows within the reservoir. Therefore, the vortex strength of the reservoir is higher at higher ethanol concentrations of the droplet. The reservoir circulation decays to zero as soon as the ethanol concentration becomes homogeneous along the interface of the pool. The time evolution of circulation within the droplet and the reservoir are correlated with the center of mass motion of the droplet toward the surface, the time variation of the precursor film radius and the dynamic surface tension of the reservoir.

  8. THE DYNAMICAL STATE OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AND THE FORMATION OF CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Coziol, R.; Andernach, H.; Caretta, C. A.; Alamo-MartInez, K. A.; Tago, E. E-mail: heinz@astro.ugto.mx E-mail: k.alamo@astrosmo.unam.mx

    2009-06-15

    A large sample of Abell clusters of galaxies, selected for the likely presence of a dominant galaxy, is used to study the dynamical properties of the brightest cluster members (BCMs). From visual inspection of Digitized Sky Survey images combined with redshift information we identify 1426 candidate BCMs located in 1221 different redshift components associated with 1169 different Abell clusters. This is the largest sample published so far of such galaxies. From our own morphological classification we find that {approx}92% of the BCMs in our sample are early-type galaxies and 48% are of cD type. We confirm what was previously observed based on much smaller samples, namely, that a large fraction of BCMs have significant peculiar velocities. From a subsample of 452 clusters having at least 10 measured radial velocities, we estimate a median BCM peculiar velocity of 32% of their host clusters' radial velocity dispersion. This suggests that most BCMs are not at rest in the potential well of their clusters. This phenomenon is common to galaxy clusters in our sample, and not a special trait of clusters hosting cD galaxies. We show that the peculiar velocity of the BCM is independent of cluster richness and only slightly dependent on the Bautz-Morgan type. We also find a weak trend for the peculiar velocity to rise with the cluster velocity dispersion. The strongest dependence is with the morphological type of the BCM: cD galaxies tend to have lower relative peculiar velocities than elliptical galaxies. This result points to a connection between the formation of the BCMs and that of their clusters. Our data are qualitatively consistent with the merging-groups scenario, where BCMs in clusters formed first in smaller subsystems comparable to compact groups of galaxies. In this scenario, clusters would have formed recently from the mergers of many such groups and would still be in a dynamically unrelaxed state.

  9. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  10. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Thomas C. T. Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2015-08-07

    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  11. Site-specific dynamics of amyloid formation and fibrillar configuration of Aβ(1-23) using an unnatural amino acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyang; Lantz, Richard; Cosme, Patrick; Rivera, Nelson; Andino, Carlos; Gonzalez, Walter G; Terentis, Andrew C; Wojcikiewicz, Ewa P; Oyola, Rolando; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Du, Deguo

    2015-04-25

    We identify distinct site-specific dynamics over the time course of Aβ1-23 amyloid formation by using an unnatural amino acid, p-cyanophenylalanine, as a sensitive fluorescent and Raman probe. Our results also suggest the key role of an edge-to-face aromatic interaction in the conformational conversion to form and stabilize β-sheet structure.

  12. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Yee, L. D.; Schilling, K.; Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Zuend, A.; Ziemann, P. J.; Seinfeld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multi-generation gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a mid-experiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. The results of the current work have a number of implications for SOA models. While the dynamics of an aerosol size distribution reflects the mechanism of growth, we demonstrate here that it provides a key constraint in interpreting laboratory and ambient SOA formation. This work, although carried out specifically for the long chain alkane, dodecane, is expected to be widely applicable to other major classes of SOA precursors. SOA consists of a myriad of organic compounds containing various functional groups, which can generally undergo heterogeneous/multiphase reactions forming low-volatility products such as oligomers and other high molecular mass compounds. If particle-phase chemistry is indeed

  13. Understanding the dynamics of the inductive plasma formation and its application to create doublet shaped plasma in the TCV tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Joyeeta; Coda, Stefano; Duval, Basil Paul; Galperti, Cristian; Moret, Jean-Marc; Reimerdes, Holger

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of the plasma formation in TCV are revisited with the goal of improving reliability and developing new scenarios such as the creation of doublet configurations. A database for the plasma formation scenarios in TCV reveals that 15% of the attempts to form a plasma fail during the burn-through phase. Plasma formation dynamics are greatly affected by the difference between programmed and obtained plasma current ramp rates that can lead to oscillations in IP when the IP feedback control is activated. This mismatch in IP also propagates into the radial position control. Failed burn-throughs occur when the Ohmic heating power is insufficient either since IP rises too slow or due to a combined effect of the IP feedback oscillations and a regularly occurring MHD instability. Several strategies to improve the present plasma formation scenario have been implemented. Based on the improved understanding of the plasma formation dynamics, a strategy has been developed to create and control a doublet configuration by merging of two droplet-shaped plasma requiring simultaneous breakdown at two locations.

  14. Formation and regulation of dynamic patterns in two-dimensional spiking neural circuits with spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, John H C; Gong, Pulin

    2013-11-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is an important synaptic dynamics that is capable of shaping the complex spatiotemporal activity of neural circuits. In this study, we examine the effects of STDP on the spatiotemporal patterns of a spatially extended, two-dimensional spiking neural circuit. We show that STDP can promote the formation of multiple, localized spiking wave patterns or multiple spike timing sequences in a broad parameter space of the neural circuit. Furthermore, we illustrate that the formation of these dynamic patterns is due to the interaction between the dynamics of ongoing patterns in the neural circuit and STDP. This interaction is analyzed by developing a simple model able to capture its essential dynamics, which give rise to symmetry breaking. This occurs in a fundamentally self-organizing manner, without fine-tuning of the system parameters. Moreover, we find that STDP provides a synaptic mechanism to learn the paths taken by spiking waves and modulate the dynamics of their interactions, enabling them to be regulated. This regulation mechanism has error-correcting properties. Our results therefore highlight the important roles played by STDP in facilitating the formation and regulation of spiking wave patterns that may have crucial functional roles in brain information processing.

  15. Lane Formation Dynamics of Oppositely Self-Driven Binary Particles: Effects of Density and Finite System Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Kim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    We examined the lane formation dynamics of oppositely self-driven binary particles by molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system. Our study comprehensively revealed the effects of the density and system size on the lane formation. The phase diagram distinguishing the no-lane and lane states was systematically determined for various combinations of the anisotropic friction coefficient and the desired velocity. A peculiar clustered structure was observed when the lane was destroyed by considerably increasing the desired velocity. A strong system size effect was demonstrated by the relationship between the temporal and spatial scales of the lane structure. This system size effect can be attributed to an analogy with the driven lattice gas. The transport efficiency was characterized from the scaling relation in terms of the degree of lane formation and the interface thickness between different lanes.

  16. Excitable population dynamics, biological control failure, and spatiotemporal pattern formation in a model ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Andrew; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2009-05-01

    Biological control has been attracting an increasing attention over the last two decades as an environmentally friendly alternative to the more traditional chemical-based control. In this paper, we address robustness of the biological control strategy with respect to fluctuations in the controlling species density. Specifically, we consider a pest being kept under control by its predator. The predator response is assumed to be of Holling type III, which makes the system's kinetics "excitable." The system is studied by means of mathematical modeling and extensive numerical simulations. We show that the system response to perturbations in the predator density can be completely different in spatial and non-spatial systems. In the nonspatial system, an overcritical perturbation of the population density results in a pest outbreak that will eventually decay with time, which can be regarded as a success of the biological control strategy. However, in the spatial system, a similar perturbation can drive the system into a self-sustained regime of spatiotemporal pattern formation with a high pest density, which is clearly a biological control failure. We then identify the parameter range where the biological control can still be successful and describe the corresponding regime of the system dynamics. Finally, we identify the main scenarios of the system response to the population density perturbations and reveal the corresponding structure of the parameter space of the system.

  17. Dynamical pattern formation in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid under two orthogonal sinusoidal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yépez, L. D.; Carrillo, J. L.; Donado, F.; Sausedo-Solorio, J. M.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical pattern formation of clusters of magnetic particles in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid, under the influence of a superposition of two perpendicular sinusoidal fields, is studied experimentally. By varying the frequency and phase shift of the perpendicular fields, this configuration enables us to experimentally analyze a wide range of field configurations, including the case of a pure rotating field and the case of an oscillating unidirectional field. The fields are applied parallel to the horizontal plane where the fluid lies or in the vertical plane. For fields applied in the horizontal plane, we observed that, when the ratio of the frequencies increases, the average cluster size exhibits a kind of periodic resonances. When the phase shift between the fields is varied, the average chain length reaches maximal values for the cases of the rotating field and the unidirectional case. We analyze and discuss these results in terms of a weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number. In the case of a rotating field on the vertical plane, we also observe that the competition between the magnetic and the viscous forces determines the average cluster size. We show that this configuration generates a series of physically meaningful self-organization of clusters and transport phenomena.

  18. Formation and dynamics of large-scale magnetic structures in the ionosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutier, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of large-scale magnetic structures in the ionosphere of Venus are examined. It is shown that such structures must be the result of steady state convection of interplanetary field lines into the ionosphere by the small amount of solar wind plasma (less than or approximately equal to 1-5 percent) absorbed by the planetary atmosphere below the ionopause, rather than isolated remnants of large fields persisting for long periods without connection to the solar wind induced current and convection pattern. In particular, it is demonstrated that the magnetic diffusion of such structures would result in their dissipation with time scales of 1-10 min, if they were not steady state structures in convective and diffusive equilibriuim. It is shown that the equations governing the diffusion of these magnetic structures are similar to those governing diffusion of a gas out of an enclosed chamber with a porous wall, and