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Sample records for antimicrobial resistance prevalence

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter: prevalence and trends in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igimi, S; Okada, Y; Ishiwa, A; Yamasaki, M; Morisaki, N; Kubo, Y; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2008-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan and throughout the world. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans has emerged in many countries during the past 15 years because fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for the treatment of suspected bacterial gastroenteritis. Food contaminated with Campylobacter is the usual source of human infection; therefore, the presence of antimicrobial resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals and in veterinary medicine is suspected to be correlated with an increase in quinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter in food animals, especially in poultry products. In contrast to macrolide resistance in C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans showing a stable low rate, resistant Campylobacter spp. to quinolones have emerged in Japan. The paper summarizes food-borne Campylobacter infection in Japan, and the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from the authors' data and other Japanese papers which reported the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Siam, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:19778428

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food and animals in Lagos, Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing ...

  4. Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Beça, Nuno; Bessa, Lucinda Janete; Mendes, Ângelo; Santos, Joana; Leite-Martins, Liliana; Matos, Augusto J F; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most prevalent coagulase-positive Staphylococcus inhabitant of the skin and mucosa of dogs and cats, causing skin and soft tissue infections in these animals. In this study, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species were isolated from companion animals, veterinary professionals, and objects from a clinical veterinary environment by using two particular culture media, Baird-Parker RPF agar and CHROMagar Staph aureus. Different morphology features of colonies on the media allowed the identification of the species, which was confirmed by performing a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among 23 animals, 15 (65.2%) harbored coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, being 12 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriers. Four out of 12 were methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP). All veterinary professionals had coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) species on their hands and two out of nine objects sampled harbored MRSP. The antimicrobial-resistance pattern was achieved for all isolates, revealing the presence of many multidrug-resistant CoPS, particularly S. pseudintermedius . The combined analysis of the antimicrobial-resistance patterns shown by the isolates led to the hypothesis that there is a possible crosscontamination and dissemination of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius species between the three types of carriers sampled in this study that could facilitate the spread of the methicillin-resistance phenotype.

  5. Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 1: Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Diggle, P J; Wedley, A L; Dawson, S; Pinchbeck, G L; Williams, N J

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli represents a significant problem. However, the carriage of such bacteria by horses in the UK has not been well characterised. To estimate the prevalence of nasal carriage of MRSA and faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli amongst horses in the general equine community of the mainland UK. A cross-sectional study of horses recruited by 65 randomly selected equine veterinary practices was conducted, with nasal swabs and faecal samples collected. Faecal samples were cultured for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. Nasal swabs were cultured for staphylococcal species; methicillin-resistant isolates identified as S. aureus were characterised by SCCmec and spa gene typing. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate prevalence estimates with adjustment for clustering at practice and premises levels. Spatial variation in risk of antimicrobial resistance was also examined. In total, 650 faecal samples and 678 nasal swabs were collected from 692 horses located on 525 premises. The prevalence of faecal carriage of E. coli with resistance to any antimicrobial was 69.5% (95% CI 65.9-73.1%) and the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli was 6.3% (95% CI 4.1-9.6%). The prevalence of nasal carriage of MRSA was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-1.5%). Spatial analysis indicated variation across the UK for risk of carriage of resistant and multidrug-resistant (resistant to more than 3 antimicrobial classes) E. coli. Carriage of MRSA by horses in the community appears rare, but the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli (including ESBL-producing E. coli) is higher. A high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria could have significant health implications for the horse population of the UK. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food animals in Lagos, Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing animals fr...

  7. Effect of commercial broiler processing on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonellae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Broiler processing includes interventions specifically designed to lessen bacterial contamination of carcasses. Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella on broiler carcasses collected from commercial pr...

  8. Prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance of salmonellae isolated from commercially processed broiler carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella on broiler carcasses collected from commercial processing plants. Twenty US commercial processing plants representing eight integrators in thirteen states were included in the survey....

  9. Role of Antimicrobial Selective Pressure and Secondary Factors on Antimicrobial Resistance Prevalence in Escherichia coli from Food-Producing Animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the veterinary field affects the emergence, prevalence, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food-producing animals. To control the emergence, prevalence, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance, it is necessary to implement appropriate actions based on scientific evidence. In Japan, the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM) was established in 1999 to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne and commensal bacteria from food-producing animals. The JVARM showed that the emergence and prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli were likely linked to the therapeutic antimicrobial use in food-producing animals through not only direct selection of the corresponding resistance but also indirect selections via cross-resistance and coresistance. In addition, relevant factors such as host animals and bacterial properties might affect the occurrence and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli under the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage. This paper reviews the trends in antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and consumption of antimicrobials agents in Japan and introduces the relationship between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, from food-producing animals under the JVARM program. In this paper, we will provide the underlying information about the significant factors that can help control antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in veterinary medicine. PMID:20589071

  10. Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study.

    PubMed Central

    Arason, V. A.; Kristinsson, K. G.; Sigurdsson, J. A.; Stefánsdóttir, G.; Mölstad, S.; Gudmundsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of antimicrobial consumption with the carriage rate of penicillin resistant and multiresistant pneumococci in children. DESIGN: Cross sectional and analytical prevalence study. SETTING: Five different communities in Iceland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children aged under 7 years in relation to antibiotic use as determined by information from parents, patient's records, and total sales of antimicrobials from local pharmacies in four study areas. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial sales for children (6223 prescriptions) among the four areas for which data were available ranged from 9.6 to 23.2 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily (1.1 to 2.6 courses yearly per child). Children under 2 consumed twice as much as 2-6 year olds (20.5 v 10.9 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily). Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from 919 children, representing 15-38% of the peer population groups in the different areas. Pneumococci were carried by 484 (52.7%) of the children, 47 (9.7%) of the isolates being resistant to penicillin or multiresistant. By multivariate analysis age (< 2 years), area (highest antimicrobial consumption), and individual use of antimicrobials significantly influenced the odds of carrying penicillin resistant pneumococci. By univariate analysis, recent antimicrobial use (two to seven weeks) and use of co-trimoxazole were also significantly associated with carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use, with regard to both individual use and total antimicrobial consumption in the community, is strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children. Control measures to reduce the prevalence of penicillin resistant pneumococci should include reducing the use of antimicrobials in community health care. PMID:8761224

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread of antimicrobial resistance. Present situation Resistance in bacteria Antibiotic resistance is present in every country. Patients with infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes ...

  12. Temporal Changes in Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in 23 U.S. Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Holly A.; Volkova, Nataliya V.; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Lawton, Rachel M.; Gaynes, Robert P.; McGowan, John E.; Hospitals, Project

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in nearly all health-care–associated pathogens. We examined changes in resistance prevalence during 1996–1999 in 23 hospitals by using two statistical methods. When the traditional chi-square test of pooled mean resistance prevalence was used, most organisms appear to have increased in prevalence. However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were consistently observed only for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. These increases were significant only in isolates from patients outside intensive-care units (ICU). The increases seen are of concern; differences in factors present outside ICUs, such as excessive quinolone use or inadequate infection-control practices, may explain the observed trends. PMID:12095437

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Ontario smallholder chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Lebert, L; Martz, S-L; Janecko, N; Deckert, A E; Agunos, A; Reid, A; Rubin, J E; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance is an important component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistant bacteria in food animals and the food chain. The poultry market has many points of entry into the Canadian food chain, and some production practices are underrepresented in terms of surveillance. For example, pathogen carriage and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data are limited in smallholder chicken flocks raised for slaughter at provincially inspected abattoirs. In Canada, antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from commercial broiler chicken flocks, slaughtered at federally inspected abattoirs, is monitored by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). The objective of this study was to establish baseline information of antimicrobial resistance presence in E. coli and Salmonella isolated from smallholder flocks in Ontario, utilizing CIPARS collection and isolation methodologies, and to compare findings with CIPARS federally inspected abattoir data from Ontario, Canada. Five chickens per flock were sampled from 205 smallholder flocks. Of 1,025 samples, the E. coli prevalence was 99% (1,022/1,025), and 47% (483/1,022) of positive E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more of the 14 antimicrobials. Furthermore, as compared to results reported for the CIPARS commercial flocks, E. coli isolates from smallholder flocks had significantly lower resistance prevalence to six of 14 individual antimicrobials. Recovery of E. coli did not differ between federally inspected and provincially inspected flocks. Salmonella prevalence at the bird level in smallholder flocks was 0.3% (3/1,025), significantly lower (p ≪ 0.0001, 95% CI 0.080%-0.86%) than federally inspected commercial flocks. The overall differences found between the commercial and smallholder flocks may be explained by differences in poultry husbandry practices and hatchery sources. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Raw Shellfish in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lopatek, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2015-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium recognized as an important cause of gastroenteritis in humans consuming contaminated shellfish. In recent years, increasing resistance to ampicillin and aminoglycosides has been observed among V. parahaemolyticus isolates. However, the first-line antimicrobials such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones remained highly effective against these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in live bivalve molluscs available on the Polish market and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the recovered isolates. A total of 400 shellfish samples (mussels, oysters, clams, and scallops) from 2009 to 2012 were tested using the International Organization for Standardization standard 21872-1 method and PCR for the species-specific toxR gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using a microbroth dilution method. V. parahaemolyticus was identified in 70 (17.5%) of the 400 samples, and the toxR gene was confirmed in 64 (91.4%) of these isolates. Most of the isolates were recovered from clams (31 isolates; 48.4% prevalence) followed by mussels (17 isolates; 26.6% prevalence). More V. parahaemolyticus-positive samples were found between May and September (22.7% prevalence) than between October and April (11.4% prevalence). Antibiotic profiling revealed that most isolates were resistant to ampicillin (56 isolates; 87.5%) and to streptomycin (45 isolates; 70.3%), but all of them were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Forty-one isolates (64.1%) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials; however, only one isolate (1.6%) was resistant to three antimicrobial classes. The antimicrobials used in treatment of human V. parahaemolyticus infection had high efficacy against the bacterial isolates tested. This study is the first concerning antibiotic resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Poland, and the results obtained indicate that these bacteria may

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%–19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia. PMID:28074185

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ejo, Mebrat; Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%-19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia.

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Cattle Feces in United States Feedlots in 2011.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Kopral, Christine A; Erdman, Matthew M; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from feces of cattle in feedlots in the United States. Fecal samples were collected from up to three pens of cattle in each of 68 feedlots in 12 states. Samples included up to 25 individual fecal pats from the pen floors and up to five composite samples from the floors of the same pens. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 9.1% (460/5050) and 11.3% (114/1009) for individual and composite samples, respectively. The prevalences of Salmonella at the pen level were 35.6% (72/202) and 22.8% (46/202) for individual and composite samples, respectively. Dietary factors, including inclusion of cottonseed hulls, coccidiostats, and antimicrobial drugs, were associated with differences in prevalence of Salmonella isolation. Overall, 32 serotypes of Salmonella were identified, but six serotypes accounted for 69.1% (495/716) of the isolates. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%, 44/68) of feedlots had at least one positive sample. All isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. Most isolates (74.4%, 533/716) were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs in the panel. When resistance was detected, it was most commonly to tetracycline (21.7%, 155/716 of isolates) or sulfisoxazole (12.4%, 89/716 of isolates). Less than 10% of the isolates were resistant to any other antimicrobials in the panel. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in individual fecal samples was less than 10%, but that Salmonella is widely distributed among feedlot cattle. Furthermore, when Salmonella is present in feedlot cattle, there is a low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance with the exception of tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. More research is indicated to understand the ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance, when present, in cattle-feeding operations.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Shilangale, Renatus P; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Chimwamurombe, Percy M; Kaaya, Godwin P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Food Animals in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenipekun, Eyitayo O; Jackson, Charlene R; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Frye, Jonathan G; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Woodley, Tiffanie A

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing animals from Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated. From December 2012 to June 2013, E. coli were isolated from fecal samples of healthy cattle, chicken, and swine. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 22 antimicrobials was performed using broth microdilution with the Sensititre™ system. Clonal types were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the analysis, 211/238 (88.7%), 170/210 (81%), and 136/152 (89.5%) samples from cattle, chicken, and swine, respectively, were positive for E. coli. A subset of those isolates (n=211) selected based on β-lactamase production was chosen for further study. Overall, E. coli exhibited the highest resistance to tetracycline (124/211; 58.8%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (84/211; 39.8%), and ampicillin (72/211; 34.1%). Approximately 40% of the isolates were pan-susceptible, and none of the isolates were resistant to amikacin, cefepime, ceftazidime, ertapenem, meropenem, or tigecycline. Among the resistant isolates, 28 different resistance patterns were observed; 26 of those were characterized as multi-drug resistant (MDR; resistance to ≥2 antimicrobials). One isolate was resistant to 13 different antimicrobials representing five different antimicrobial classes. Using PFGE, MDR E. coli were genetically diverse and overall did not group based on source; identical PFGE patterns were detected among isolates from different sources. These results suggest that isolates cannot be attributed to specific sources, and some may be present across all of the sources. Results from this study indicate that food-producing animals in Nigeria are a reservoir of MDR E. coli that may be transferred to humans via the food chain.

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  1. Prevalence and genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus species: A multicentre report of the indian council of medical research antimicrobial resistance surveillance network.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Sunanda; Sistla, Sujatha; Manoharan, Meerabai; Sugumar, Madhan; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ray, Pallab; Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Kapil, Arti; Walia, Kamini; Ohri, V C

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid (LNZ) against selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates were determined by E-test and MIC creep, if any, was determined. Resistant genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction for those isolates showing phenotypic resistance. The prevalence of MRSA was found to be range from moderate (21%) to high (45%) among the centres with an overall prevalence of 37.3%. High prevalence of resistance was observed with commonly used antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in all the centres. Resistance to LNZ was not encountered except for a single case. Full-blown resistance to VAN in S. aureus was not observed; however, a few VAN-intermediate S. aureus isolates were documented. The most common species of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) identified was Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Resistance among CoNS was relatively higher than S. aureus. Most phenotypically resistant organisms possessed the corresponding resistance genes. There were localised differences in the prevalence of resistance between the centres. The efficacy of the anti-MRSA antimicrobials was very high; however, almost all these antimicrobials showed evidence of creeping MIC.

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonellae isolated from market-age swine.

    PubMed

    Farrington, L A; Harvey, R B; Buckley, S A; Droleskey, R E; Nisbet, D J; Inskip, P D

    2001-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance levels were examined for 365 Salmonella isolates recovered from the lymph nodes (n = 224) and cecal contents (n = 141) of market-age swine at slaughter. Antimicrobial resistance testing was performed by disk diffusion using 13 antibiotics common in the treatment of disease in human and veterinary medicine. Although none of the antibiotics tested were used subtherapeutically within the last 5 years on the farms sampled, resistance to chlortetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was common. Penicillin G resistance was significantly more frequent (P = 0.03) and sulfisoxazole resistance was significantly less frequent (P < 0.01) in lymph node versus cecal isolates. Multidrug resistance was observed among 94.7% of the lymph node isolates and 93.5% of the cecal isolates. The most frequent multidrug resistance pattern included three antibiotics-penicillin G, streptomycin, and chlortetracycline. Isolates in somatic serogroup B, and more specifically, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Schwarzengrund isolates, were often resistant to a greater number of antibiotics than were isolates in the other serogroups. Streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin (lymph node isolates), and nitrofurantoin (cecal isolates) resistance levels differed significantly between somatic serogroups. The prevalence of penicillin G-, streptomycin-, and sulfisoxazole-resistant isolates differed significantly between serovars for both lymph node and cecal isolates. Results of this study suggest that a correlation exists between the somatic serogroup or serovar of a Salmonella isolate and its antimicrobial resistance status, which is specific to the antibiotic of interest and the source of the isolate (lymph node versus cecal contents).

  3. Temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A; Entz, T; Olson, M E; Yanke, L J; Read, R R

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (< or =4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Andoh, L A; Dalsgaard, A; Obiri-Danso, K; Newman, M J; Barco, L; Olsen, J E

    2016-11-01

    Poultry are possible sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars which may cause foodborne human disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in egg-laying hens and broilers at the farm level and their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used in the poultry industry in Ghana. Sampling of faeces by a sock method (n = 75), dust (n = 75), feed (n = 10) and drinking water (n = 10) was performed at 75 commercial egg-laying and broiler farms in two regions of Ghana and skin neck (n = 30) at a local slaughterhouse from broilers representing different flocks. Salmonella was detected in 94/200 (47%) samples with an overall flock prevalence of 44·0%. Sixteen different serovars were identified with S. Kentucky (18·1%), S. Nima (12·8%), S. Muenster (10·6%), S. Enteritidis (10·6%) and S. Virchow (9·6 %) the most prevalent types. The predominant phage type of S. Enteritidis was PT1. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoxitin. Fifty-seven (60·6%) strains were resistant to one or more of the remaining nine antimicrobials tested by disk diffusion, of which 23 (40·4%) showed multi-resistance (resistance to ⩾3 classes of antimicrobials). Of the resistant strains (n = 57), the most significant were to nalidixic acid (89·5%), tetracycline (80·7%), ciprofloxacin (64·9%), sulfamethazole (42·1%), trimethoprim (29·8%) and ampicillin (26·3%). All S. Kentucky strains were resistant to more than two antimicrobials and shared common resistance to nalidixic acid or ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, often in combinations with other antimicrobials. PFGE analysis using XbaI of S. Kentucky demonstrated one dominant clone in the country. In conclusion, poultry produced in Ghana has a high prevalence of multi-resistant Salmonella and the common finding of clonal S. Kentucky in the Kumasi area warrants further investigations into the epidemiology of this serovar. There is an urgent need for surveillance

  5. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from Cattle Farms in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Wonki; Kaya, Katherine N.; Hancock, Dale D.; Call, Douglas R.; Park, Yong Ho; Besser, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was investigated in cattle on Washington State farms. A total of 350 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates were isolated from 686 cattle sampled on 15 farms (eight dairies, two calf rearer farms, two feedlots, and three beef cow-calf ranches). Isolate species were identified with a combination of phenotypic tests, hipO colony blot hybridization, and multiplex lpxA PCR. Breakpoint resistance to four antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, and doxycycline) was determined by agar dilution. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequent species isolated (34.1%), followed by Campylobacter coli (7.7%) and other thermophilic campylobacters (1.5%). The most frequently detected resistance was to doxycycline (42.3% of 350 isolates). Isolates from calf rearer facilities were more frequently doxycycline resistant than isolates from other farm types. C. jejuni was most frequently susceptible to all four of the antimicrobial drugs studied (58.8% of 272 isolates). C. coli isolates were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni, including resistance to quinolone antimicrobials (89.3% of isolates obtained from calves on calf rearer farms) and to erythromycin (72.2% of isolates obtained from feedlot cattle). Multiple drug resistance was more frequent in C. coli (51.5%) than in C. jejuni (5.1%). The results of this study demonstrate that C. jejuni is widely distributed among Washington cattle farms, while C. coli is more narrowly distributed but significantly more resistant. PMID:15640184

  6. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ramalingam; Mythreyee, Manoharan; Srivani, Seetharaman; Amudhan, Murugesan

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important public health problem as resistant organisms cause difficult-to-treat infections. In this study, the prevalence of AMR in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in rural South India was examined in order to aid empirical therapy. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted during the period from January 2012 to December 2014. Routine clinical isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, colistin and nitrofurantoin by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the data were documented and analyzed with one per patient analysis using WHONET software. A total of 2292 non-duplicate clinical isolates were recovered during the study period, including 1338 E. coli and 954 Klebsiella spp. The prevalence of AMR in the total isolates was as follows: amikacin, 17.3%; ertapenem, 14.4%; doripenem, 4.5%; colistin, 13.2%; and tigecycline, 4.1%. The study results indicate a high prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella spp. especially from pus and urinary isolates, whilst the prevalence of aztreonam and fluoroquinolone resistance was very high in E. coli.

  7. Prevalence, molecular and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from sausages in Meknes, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Filali, Fouzia Rhazi; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Allaoui, Abdellah; Aboulkacem, Amal; Bouchrif, Brahim

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. The aims of this study go through two steps: The first step is to estimate the proportion of sausages products contaminated with Salmonella in Meknes city (Morocco), which were collected from various shopping sites: butchery, street vendors, supermarket and souk (Weekly market combines the population of the small villages around Meknes city). The second one is to identify serovars, to determine the antimicrobials resistance patterns of isolates and to detect the invA and spvC genes. 34 (21.79%) Salmonella were isolated, recovered 4 serogroups and 12 serotypes. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella Corvallis (23.53%) and Salmonella Kentucky (17.65%). All Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 selected antimicrobials agents, of which 100% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 85.30% (29/34) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials and 44.12% (15/34) were resistant to at least three antimicrobials. All Salmonella are resistant to ampicillin, 76.47% to streptomycin, 20.59% to sulfonamides, 17.65% to Tetracycline and 11.77% to Ofloxacin. The "ACSSuT" penta-resistance pattern was observed in tow of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. In addition, this study showed that all Salmonella strains (34) were positive for invasion gene invA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products in Algiers (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Mezali, Lynda; Hamdi, Taha Mossadak

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of raw meat and processed meat products contaminated by Salmonella in the region of Algiers, Algeria, to identify serovars and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates. Out of the total 314 samples (144 of raw red meat and meat products, 128 of raw poultry meat and poultry products, and 42 of processed meat products) collected from various retail outlets, 61 (19.43%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The most significant occurrences were recorded for the categories of red meat (23.61%, n=34) and poultry (17.97%, n=23). Among the 64 isolates recovered, 21 different serovars were identified and two strains were nontypable. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Anatum (14.6%, n=9), Salmonella Altona (12.50%, n=8), Salmonella Corvallis (7.81%, n=5), Salmonella Enteritidis (7.81%, n=5), and Salmonella Typhimurium (7.81%, n=5). Sixty-two Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 32 selected antimicrobial agents. Fifty-six (90.32%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, of which 20 (32.26%) showed multidrug resistance. Resistance to sulphonamides (87.10%, n=54) was the most common. Resistance rates were lower to nalidixic acid (16.13%, n=10), streptomycin (16.13%, n=10), and tetracycline (12.90%, n=8), while resistance to pefloxacin was estimated at 4.84% (n=3). Fourteen different resistance patterns were observed. The "ACSSuT" pentaresistance pattern was observed in three of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The obtained results show that these foodstuffs are a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections.

  10. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in dogs: Prevalence, associated risk factors and molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Nuttall, Tim; Kirchner, Miranda; Williams, Nicola J

    2017-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials, in particular that mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases are frequently reported in bacteria causing canine disease as well as in commensal bacteria, which could be a potential health risk for humans they come into contact with. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence and investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL and plasmid encoded AmpC (pAmpC)-producing E. coli in the mainland UK vet-visiting canine population and, using responses from detailed questionnaires identify factors associated with their carriage. Faecal samples were cultured for antimicrobial resistant (AMR), ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli. A subset of ESBL and pAmpC-producing isolates were subjected to multi-locus sequence typing and DNA microarray analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to construct models to identify risk factors associated with multidrug resistant (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes), fluoroquinolone resistant, ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli. AMR E.coli were isolated from 44.8% (n=260) of samples, with 1.9% and 7.1% of samples carrying ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli, respectively. MDR E. coli were identified in 18.3% of samples. Recent use of antimicrobials and being fed raw poultry were both identified as risk factors in the outcomes investigated. A number of virulence and resistance genes were identified, including genes associated with extra-intestinal and enteropathogenic E. coli genotypes. Considering the close contact that people have with dogs, the high levels of AMR E. coli in canine faeces may be a potential reservoir of AMR bacteria or resistance determinants.

  12. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Fishery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Ho; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from the fecal samples of fishery workers who work in fish farms and often use antibiotics for the feeding fishes. Methods: Seventy-three E. coli strains isolated from the fecal samples of fishery workers and 180 isolates from a control group of restaurant workers were tested for antibiotic resistance by agar disk diffusion with 16 antimicrobial agents. Results: About 30% of isolates from each group showed antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, and 60% of isolates from fishery workers and 41% from restaurant workers were resistant to tetracycline. The isolates showed higher resistance to cephalothin and cefoxitin than to other cephem antibiotics and to gentamicin than to other aminogycosides. Our data indicated that fecal E. coli isolates from fishery workers showed higher antibiotic resistance than those of non-fishery workers (restaurant workers), especially to cephalothin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (p < 0.05). However, rates of multidrug resistance were similar among the fishery workers and restaurant workers. Conclusion: Frequent use of antibiotics may cause increased antibiotic resistance in the human microbiome. PMID:24159534

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Kania, Iwona; Osek, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry carcasses at slaughter in Poland. For the isolated strains, resistance to selected antibiotics and the associated genetic determinants were identified. A total of 498 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 802 poultry samples during the 2-year study period. Strains were identified to species with the PCR method; 53.6% of the strains were Campylobacter jejuni and 46.4% were Campylobacter coli. A high percentage of the tested Campylobacter strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (74.1 and 73.5%, respectively) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and streptomycin (20.5%). Only one C. jejuni and two C. coli isolates were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-nine (15.9%) of the 498 strains were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics examined. Higher levels of resistance, irrespective of the antimicrobial agent tested, were found within the C. coli group. Almost all strains resistant to quinolones (99.5%) and to tetracycline (99.6%) carried the Thr-86-to-Ile mutation in the gyrA gene and possessed the tet(O) marker, respectively. All isolates resistant to erythromycin had the A2075G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. These results reveal that poultry carcasses in Poland are a reservoir of potentially pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter strains for humans, which may pose a public health risk.

  14. Determination of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes in canine Clostridium perfringens isolates.

    PubMed

    Kather, Elizabeth J; Marks, Stanley L; Foley, Janet E

    2006-03-10

    Clostridium perfringens is a well documented cause of a mild self-limiting diarrhea and a potentially fatal acute hemorrhagic diarrheal syndrome in the dog. A recent study documented that 21% of canine C. perfringens isolates had MIC's indicative of resistance to tetracycline, an antimicrobial commonly recommended for treatment of C. perfringens-associated diarrhea. The objective of the present study was to further evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these isolates by determining the prevalence of specific resistance genes, their expression, and ability for transference between bacteria. One hundred and twenty-four canine C. perfringens isolates from 124 dogs were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline, erythromycin, tylosin, and metronidazole were determined using the CLSI Reference Agar Dilution Method. All isolates were screened for three tetracycline resistance genes: tetA(P), tetB(P) and tetM, and two macrolide resistance genes: ermB and ermQ, via PCR using primer sequences previously described. Ninety-six percent (119/124) of the isolates were positive for the tetA(P) gene, and 41% (51/124) were positive for both the tetA(P) and tetB(P) genes. No isolates were positive for the tetB(P) gene alone. Highly susceptible isolates (MIC< or = 4 microg/ml) were significantly more likely to lack the tetB(P) gene. One isolate (0.8%) was positive for the ermB gene, and one isolate was positive for the ermQ gene. The tetM gene was not found in any of the isolates tested. Two out of 15 tested isolates (13%) demonstrated transfer of tetracycline resistance via bacterial conjugation. Tetracycline should be avoided for the treatment of C. perfringens-associated diarrhea in dogs because of the relatively high prevalence of in vitro resistance, and the potential for conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. Mobiluncus species in gynaecological and obstetric infections: antimicrobial resistance and prevalence in a Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Hrisi; Torun, Müzeyyen Mamal; Oçer, Fahri; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mobiluncus species isolated from specimens collected from Turkish women with gynaecological infections. Mobiluncus species were isolated on enriched Schaedler agar and RLK agar plates under anaerobic conditions. The MICs of various antibiotics were evaluated using an agar dilution procedure. The prevalence of Mobiluncus species isolated from vulvo-vaginal abscesses, endometrial smears, salpingitis and bacterial vaginosis was 2%, 4.7%, 3.8% and 49%, respectively. Mobiluncus isolates were only resistant to metronidazole (81% resistance). The isolation rate of M. curtisii was higher than M. mulieris in Turkish women with bacterial vaginosis, vulvo-vaginal abscesses, endometritis or salpingitis.

  16. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Among Common Bacterial Isolates in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ntirenganya, Cyprien; Manzi, Olivier; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Ogbuagu, Onyema

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health threat in both developed and developing countries. Many developing countries, including Rwanda, lack adequate surveillance systems, and therefore, the prevalence of AMR is not well-known. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the prevalence of AMR among common bacterial isolates from clinical specimens obtained from patients on the medical wards of Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). We evaluated the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial pathogens cultured from urine, blood, sputum, and wound swab specimens obtained over a 6-month period (July 1 to December 30, 2013). There were 154 positive cultures from specimens obtained from 141 unique patients over the study period. Urine, blood, wound swab, and sputum cultures comprised 55.2%, 25.3%, 16.2%, and 3.3% of the total specimens evaluated; 31.4% and 58.7% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least one of the third generation cephalosporins. Eight percent of E. coli isolates were resistant to imipenem; 82% and 6% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant respectively. Antimicrobial resistance rates are high in Rwanda and pose a serious therapeutic challenge to the management of common infections. PMID:25646259

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Jonathan K.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21%) were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate), aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen. PMID:21556203

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Jonathan K; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21%) were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate), aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen.

  19. Nontyphoidal salmonella infection in children with acute gastroenteritis: prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei

    2014-03-01

    Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from chicken carcasses during processing in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, E; Momtaz, H; Ameri, M; Ghasemian-Safaei, H; Ali-Kasemi, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken carcasses during different stages of broiler processing in a major commercial poultry processing plant in southwestern Iran. Overall, 84 chicken carcasses were sampled from 4 sites along the processing line during a total of 7 visits. In addition, 14 water samples from the chiller tank were taken. Using the cultural method, 186 of 336 (55.4%) carcasses were positive for Campylobacter. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently isolated (89.4%) than Campylobacter coli (10.6%). The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcasses was 54.8% after defeathering, 51.2% after evisceration, 69.0% 20 min after the chilling period started, and 46.4% 24 h after the chilling period completed. Campylobacter was positive in 85.7% of the samples taken from the chilling water. The frequency of Campylobacter spp.-positive carcasses was reduced in complete chilled chickens but not during the slaughtering process. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion method. Of the 198 Campylobacter isolates tested, 92.9% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (78.3%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (62.1%), nalidixic acid (58.6%), and enrofloxacin (44.4%).

  1. Prevalence, assessment, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella from raw chicken eggs in Haramaya, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kemal, Jelalu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Menkir, Sissay; Beyene, Desta

    2016-11-24

    The presence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products, including eggs, is a global public health concern. This study aimed to estimate the levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from chicken eggs and assess consumers' raw egg consumption and farmers' handling practices. A total of 300 egg samples were collected from Haramaya open market (n = 150) and Haramaya University poultry farm (n = 150) in Ethiopia. Questionnaires were administered to egg sellers and buyers. A sterile cotton swab was used to sample the surface of eggs. The shells were sterilized and the egg content sampled. Isolation was done using the conventional methods for the detection of Salmonella, following the standard guidelines from ISO 6579. Sensitivity to 12 selected antibiotics was tested following the procedure of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A level of 5.3% was observed among eggs shells from the open market and 0% among egg shells from the poultry farm, for an overall level of 2.7%. There was a significant difference (p = 0.004) between the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in sample site and sample type. Of the antimicrobials tested, Salmonella isolates were all resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. Isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin (100%) and chloramphenicol (87.5%). All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. One-third of the consumers were found to have eaten raw eggs for perceived medicinal values. To minimize the potential contamination of eggs by pathogens, the eggs should be properly handled, transported, and stored.

  2. Effect of farm type on within-herd Salmonella prevalence, serovar distribution, and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Arijs, D; Wildemauwe, C; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella represents a major challenge to the pig industry, as pork presents a risk for human salmonellosis. In this study, we have examined the effect of farm type on the prevalence of fattening pigs shedding Salmonella on 12 farms at risk for harboring Salmonella. On six open (grow-to-finish) and six closed (farrow-to-finish) farms, the prevalence of pigs shedding Salmonella was determined on two occasions approximately 2 months apart. The serovar, phage type, and antimicrobial resistance of the obtained Salmonella isolates were determined. On all farms, pigs shedding Salmonella were detected on at least one of the two sampling days. The mean within-herd prevalence was 7.8%. Closed farms were two times less likely to have pigs shedding Salmonella than open farms. On open farms, the odds of finding Salmonella shedding in pigs were 1.9 times higher when sampling was performed at slaughter age than when samples were taken halfway through the fattening period. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was the most predominant serotype, with a prevalence of 62 to 63% on both farm types. Of all the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 65% had the tetraresistant profile ASSuT (ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline) with or without additional resistance to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Phage type DT120 seemed to be especially associated with this antimicrobial-resistant profile. The prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showing resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, trimethoprim-sulfonamide, and lincomycin hydrochloride and spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate was significantly higher on open farms than on closed farms.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio spp. in retail shrimps in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tra, Vu Thi Thu; Meng, Lu; Pichpol, Duangporn; Pham, Ngan Hong; Baumann, Maximilian; Alter, Thomas; Huehn, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Vibrio (V.) spp. isolated from retail shrimp in Hanoi, Vietnam A total of 202 shrimp samples were collected from retail markets located in ten urban districts of Hanoi. Among those, 201 (99.5%) samples were positive for Vibrio spp. The most common species detected was V parahaemolyticus (96.5%), followed by V. alginolyticus (56.4%), V. cholerae (2%) and V. vulnificus (1.5%). Multiple Vibrio spp. were found in 114 (56.4%) samples. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin) and trh (tdh-related haemolysin) genes. In total, 195 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, four V. cholerae isolates and three V. vulnificus isolates were tested for resistance to eight antimicrobial agents. V. parahaemolyticus isolates showed high rates of resistance against ampicillin (87.2%), while a moderate rate was observed for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (18.5%) and intermediate resistance towards tetracycline (24.6%). Low resistance rates (0.5%) were recorded against both ciprofloxacin and cefalothin. Only one V. cholerae isolate with resistance to ampicillin and two V. cholerae isolates with resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were found. All V. vulnificus isolates were susceptible to the eight antimicrobial agents tested. However, the number of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae was small. Multi-resistant isolates were found in V. parahaemolyticus with a low frequency (16.9%). The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous nature of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail. To reduce the potential risk of Vibrio infections due to handling or consumption of undercooked seafood, good manufacturing practice as well as safe handling and processing should be encouraged.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and serotype prevalence of Salmonella isolated from dairy cattle in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Edrington, T S; Schultz, C L; Bischoff, K M; Callaway, T R; Looper, M L; Genovese, K J; Jung, Y S; McReynolds, J L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2004-01-01

    Mature dairy cattle were sampled over a 2-year period (2001-2002) on six farms in New Mexico and Texas. Fecal samples (n = 1560) were collected via rectal palpation and cultured for Salmonella, and one isolate from each positive sample was serotyped. Three isolates of each serotype, with the exception of Salmonella Newport (n = 12), were examined for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents. Twenty-two different serotypes were identified from a total of 393 Salmonella isolates. Montevideo was the predominant serotype (27%) followed by Mbandaka (15%), Senftenberg (11.4%), Newport (6.4%), Anatum (4.8%), and Give (4.8%). Salmonella Typhimurium and Dublin, two frequently reported serotypes, accounted for only 1% of the observed serotypes in this study. Sixty-four percent of the serotypes were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials, 14% were resistant to a single agent, and 22% were multiresistant (2-11 types of resistance). All isolates tested were susceptible to amikacin, apramycin, imipenem, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The most frequent types of resistance were to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin (ranging from 8.9 to 22.4%). Serotypes demonstrating multiple resistance included Dublin and Give (resistant to three or more antibiotics), Typhimurium (resistant to five antibiotics), and Newport (four and two isolates resistant to six and nine antibiotics, respectively). Class 1 integrons were present in only two Salmonella Dublin isolates and one Salmonella Newport isolate. The most prevalent resistance patterns observed in this study were toward antimicrobial agents commonly used in cattle, while all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, antibiotics used in human medicine.

  6. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    PubMed

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02). Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Lestari, Shofiyah Ika; Pu, Shuaihua; Ge, Beilei

    2009-03-01

    Effective in September 2005, enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone group antimicrobial, was withdrawn from use in the U.S. poultry farms. In this 1-year study initiated in October 2006, we isolated and characterized Campylobacter spp. from Louisiana retail conventionally raised (n = 141) and organic (n = 53) chickens as a comparison to evaluate the postban bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Campylobacter was present in 43.3% of the chickens; similar rates were observed among conventional and organic chickens. A total of 165 Campylobacter isolates were recovered, with Campylobacter jejuni being the predominant species (66.7%). No apparent seasonal trend was deduced from the prevalence data. Further, the two main conventional and one organic chicken brands did not carry significantly different rates of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). The most common resistance observed was to tetracycline (31.5%), followed by erythromycin (20%) and ciprofloxacin (6.1%). No resistance to gentamicin was identified. All Campylobacter isolates recovered from organic chickens (n = 48) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, compared to 8.5% resistance rate for those from conventional chickens (n = 117). Additionally, the resistance rate to erythromycin was significantly higher in Campylobacter isolates from conventional chickens (23.9%) than those from organic chickens (10.4%; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated a low prevalence and low ciprofloxacin resistance rate of Campylobacter in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban. Further studies involving a larger sample size over time are warranted to better assess the effects of banning enrofloxacin use in poultry and the levels of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  9. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  10. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  11. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the cfiA resistance gene in Danish Bacteroides fragilis group isolates since 1973.

    PubMed

    Ferløv-Schwensen, Simon Andreas; Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Hansen, Kia Cirkeline Møller; Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance and the cfiA carbapenemase-producing gene in historical Bacteroides fragilis group isolates. Danish clinical B. fragilis group isolates (n = 444) from 1973 to 2015 were identified with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) on the Biotyper platform. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using a disk diffusion screening method and commercial antibiotic gradient strips. Division I (cfiA-negative) and division II (cfiA-positive) B. fragilis strains were differentiated using MALDI-TOF MS and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From 1973-1980 to 2010-2015 the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance rose from 0% to 21.2%, 2.5%, and 1% for clindamycin, meropenem, and metronidazole, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS and real-time PCR identified 16 of 266 (6.0%) B. fragilis strains as division II, of which 4 strains, isolated between 2010 and 2015, were resistant to meropenem. Substantial increases in resistance were found throughout this study. This supports the general perception that antimicrobial resistance in the B. fragilis group has been established in the recent decades in Europe. Resistance to meropenem, facilitated by expression of the cfiA resistance gene, seems to be increasing; therefore, it is imperative to monitor the occurrence of this gene, e.g. using MALDI-TOF MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animals, foods and humans in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsdottir, T R; Haraldsson, G; Fridriksdottir, V; Kristinsson, K G; Gunnarsson, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of resistant bacteria in food products in Iceland is unknown, and little is known of the prevalence in production animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from healthy pigs and broiler chicken, pork, broiler meat, slaughterhouse personnel and outpatients in Iceland. A total of 419 E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using a microbroth dilution method (VetMIC), and resistant strains were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All samples were screened for enrofloxacin-resistant strains with selective agar plates. The resistance rates among E. coli isolates were moderate to high from caecal and meat samples of pigs (54.1% and 28%), broilers (33.6% and 52%) and slaughterhouse personnel (39.1%), whereas isolates from outpatients showed moderate resistance rates (23.1%). Of notice was resistance to quinolones (minimum inhibitory concentrations: nalidixic acid > or = 32, ciprofloxacin > or = 0.12 and enrofloxacin > or = 0.5), particularly among broiler and broiler meat isolates (18.2% and 36%), as there is no known antimicrobial selection pressure in the broiler production in Iceland. The majority (78.6%) of the resistant E. coli isolates was genotypically different, based on PFGE fingerprint analyses and clustering was limited. However, the same resistance pattern and pulsotype were found among isolates from broiler meat and a slaughterhouse worker, indicating spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. Diverse resistance patterns and pulsotypes suggest the presence of a large population of resistant E. coli in production animals in Iceland. This study gives baseline information on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from production animals, and their food products in Iceland and the moderate to high resistance rates emphasize the need for continuing surveillance. Further studies on the

  13. Population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance of the most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Devendra H; Paul, Narayan C; Sischo, Willium C; Crespo, Rocio; Guard, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Due to the risk of human infection associated with poultry products and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella also poses a significant challenge to commercial poultry production. During the last decade (2002 to 2012), the 12 most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) were frequently and consistently isolated from poultry products in the United States. These MPPSTs and their percent prevalence in poultry products include Kentucky (4%), Enteritidis (2%) Heidelberg (2%), Typhimurium (2%), S. I 4,[5],12:i:- (0.31%), Montevideo (0.20%), Infantis (0.16%) Schwarzengrund (0.15%), Hadar (0.15%), Mbandaka (0.13%), Thompson (0.12%), and Senftenberg (0.04%). All MPPSTs except Kentucky are among the top 30 clinically significant serotypes that cause human illnesses in the United States. However with the exception of a few widely studied serotypes such as S. Enteritidis and Typhimurium, the ecology and epidemiology of the majority of MPPSTs still remain poorly investigated. Published data from the United States suggests that MPPSTs such as Heidelberg, Typhimurium, Kentucky, and Sentfenberg are more likely to be multi-drug resistant (MDR, ≥3 antimicobial classes) whereas Enteritidis, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Infantis, Thompson, and Mbandaka are generally pan-susceptible or display resistance to fewer antimicobials. In contrast, the majority of MPPSTs isolated globally have been reported to display MDR phenotype. There also appears to be an international spread of a few MDR serotypes including Kentucky, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Thomson, Sentfenberg, and Enteritidis, which may pose significant challenges to the public health. The current knowledge gaps on the ecology, epidemiology, and antimicrobial resistance of MPPSTs are discussed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Prevalence and Incidence from Indicators of Antimicrobial Use: What Is the Most Accurate Indicator for Surveillance in Intensive Care Units?

    PubMed

    Fortin, Élise; Platt, Robert W; Fontela, Patricia S; Buckeridge, David L; Quach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The optimal way to measure antimicrobial use in hospital populations, as a complement to surveillance of resistance is still unclear. Using respiratory isolates and antimicrobial prescriptions of nine intensive care units (ICUs), this study aimed to identify the indicator of antimicrobial use that predicted prevalence and incidence rates of resistance with the best accuracy. Retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted to three neonatal (NICU), two pediatric (PICU) and four adult ICUs between April 2006 and March 2010. Ten different resistance/antimicrobial use combinations were studied. After adjustment for ICU type, indicators of antimicrobial use were successively tested in regression models, to predict resistance prevalence and incidence rates, per 4-week time period, per ICU. Binomial regression and Poisson regression were used to model prevalence and incidence rates, respectively. Multiplicative and additive models were tested, as well as no time lag and a one 4-week-period time lag. For each model, the mean absolute error (MAE) in prediction of resistance was computed. The most accurate indicator was compared to other indicators using t-tests. Results for all indicators were equivalent, except for 1/20 scenarios studied. In this scenario, where prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas sp. was predicted with carbapenem use, recommended daily doses per 100 admissions were less accurate than courses per 100 patient-days (p = 0.0006). A single best indicator to predict antimicrobial resistance might not exist. Feasibility considerations such as ease of computation or potential external comparisons could be decisive in the choice of an indicator for surveillance of healthcare antimicrobial use.

  15. The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in two species of invasive alien mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Obi, Takeshi; Sakemi, Yoko; Nakayama, Ayano; Miyazaki, Kei; Ogura, Go; Tamaki, Masanobu; Oka, Tatsuzo; Takase, Kozo; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 128 Escherichia coli isolates was investigated in two species of invasive alien mammals (IAMs): the small Asian mongoose (SAM) and Japanese weasel (JW). The SAM is found on the main island of Okinawa, Japan, where a large number of livestock is available, and the JW is present on a small island, where is isolated from the main island, and have a small number of livestock. We focused on the two IAMs, inhabiting under the different environments, and compared their prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. In the comparison of the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates between the SAM and JW, JW showed significantly higher prevalence of resistance against three drugs, ampicillin, chlortetracycline and nalidixic acid, compared with SAM's test results (P<0.05). The bla(TEM) gene and the aph1 gene were detected in 35 subjects (91%) of ampicillin-resistant isolates and 6 subjects (100%) of kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively. The tet (A) gene was detected in 62 subjects (46%) of CTC-resistant isolates, and the tet (B) gene was detected in 25 subjects (8%) of those in IAM. The present results suggest that some IAMs were the carrier of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their genes, and the frequencies of these resistances were different between two IAM species.

  16. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  17. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolates from chicken in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Wu, Cong-Ming; Wu, Guo-Juan; Zhao, Hong-Yu; He, Tao; Cao, Xing-Yuan; Dai, Lei; Xia, Li-Ning; Qin, Shang-Shang; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated in 2008 from a chicken hatchery, chicken farms, and chicken slaughterhouses in China. A total of 311 Salmonella isolates were collected from the three sources, and two serogroups of Salmonella were detected, of which 133 (42.8%) consisted of Salmonella indiana and 178 (57.2%) of Salmonella enteritidis. The lowest percentage of S. indiana isolates was found in the chicken hatchery (4.2%), followed by the chicken farms (54.9%) and the slaughterhouses (71.4%). More than 80% of the S. indiana isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin (97.7%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (87.9%), cephalothin (87.9%), ceftiofur (85.7%), chloramphenicol (84.9%), florfenicol (90.9%), tetracycline (97.7%), doxycycline (98.5%), kanamycin (90.2%), and gentamicin (92.5%). About 60% of the S. indiana isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin (65.4%), norfloxacin (78.9%), and ciprofloxacin (59.4%). Of the S. indiana isolates, 4.5% were susceptible to amikacin and 5.3% to colistin. Of the S. enteritidis isolates, 73% were resistant to ampicillin, 33.1% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 66.3% to tetracycline, and 65.3% to doxycycline, whereas all of these isolates were susceptible to the other drugs used in the study. The S. indiana isolates showed resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents. Strains of Salmonella (n = 108) carrying the resistance genes floR, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and bla(TEM) were most prevalent among the 133 isolates of S. indiana, at a frequency of 81.2%. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to analyze the S. indiana isolates that showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns and carried resistance genes revealed six genotypes of these organisms. Most of these isolates had the common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns found in the chicken hatchery, chicken farms, and slaughterhouses, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of S. indiana prevailed in the three sources. Some of these isolates were

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ewnetu, Desalegne; Mihret, Adane

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the isolation and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from chickens and humans in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, were analyzed. Two hundred and ten human and 220 chicken samples were analyzed between October 2007 and April 2008. Seventeen human and 160 chicken Campylobacter species were isolated. The overall prevalence of thermophilic campylobacters was 8% and 72.7% in humans and chickens, respectively. In humans, 94.1% of the isolates were C. jejuni and 5.9% were C. coli. C. jejuni was a predominant species of thermophilic campylobacters in all categories of patients. In chicken, 92.5% of thermophilic campylobacters isolated were C. jejuni and 7.5% were C. coli. Among the 16 isolates of C. jejuni in humans, 18.8%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 18.8%, 25%, and 22.2% were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively, whereas among the 148 C. jejuni isolates from chicken, 17.5%, 14.9%, 12.2%, and 13.5% were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Among the 12 isolates of C. coli in chicken, 16.6%, 8.3%, and 16.6% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively. The overall level of resistance was not significantly different in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates of both humans and poultry. The detection of resistant isolates for commonly used antimicrobials may cause a threat to humans and chickens by limiting therapeutic options.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from two pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Aslam, Mueen; Service, Cara; Narváez-Bravo, Claudia; Avery, Brent P; Johnson, Roger; Jones, Tineke H

    2017-01-16

    This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP). For plant A, 87% of CSAB and 8% of CSAE were positive for Salmonella while at plant B, Salmonella was recovered from 94% of CSAB and 10% of CSAE. Salmonella was not recovered from the RP samples at either plant, indicating that the plants used effective control measures. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most common serotype (23%, 29/127) recovered in plant A and plant B (61%, 76/124). For plant A, 35% (45/127) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Five isolates (3.9%), 4 serovar Ohio strains and one serovar I:Rough-O:I,v:-, strain were simultaneously resistant to antimicrobials of very high (Category I), high (Category II), and medium (Category III) importance to human medicine. The 4 S. Ohio isolates were recovered from 3 different steps of pork processing on the same sampling day and displayed resistance to 5-7 antimicrobials, with all of them displaying resistance to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). An I:Rough-O:l,v:- isolate, recovered on a different sampling day, was resistant to 7 antimicrobials that included resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). Salmonella strains isolated from plant A harbored 12 different AMR genes. The most prevalent genes were sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B), aadA, strA/strB, aac(3)IV and aphA1. For

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail chicken in two health units in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Deckert, Anne; Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Reid-Smith, Richard; Tamblyn, Susan; Seliske, Patrick; Irwin, Rebecca; Dewey, Cate; Boerlin, Patrick; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Campylobacter is an important enteric pathogen of humans and can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Campylobacter infections have frequently been associated with the handling and consumption of raw and undercooked poultry. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains is of concern in the treatment of campylobacteriosis in vulnerable populations. A 2-year multidisciplinary study was conducted in the Perth and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph public health units in Ontario, Canada, to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in retail chicken. Retail chicken samples were collected from randomly selected stores in these health units. Resulting Campylobacter isolates were tested for susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gentamicin (GEN), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TCY), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) using the E test. The prevalence of Campylobacter in 1,256 retail chicken samples was 59.6%. Of these positive samples, 9% contained Campylobacter coli, 1% contained Campylobacter lari, and 90% contained Campylobacter jejuni. Of the chicken isolates that were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, 301 isolates (40%) were resistant to one agent, 374 (50%) were resistant to two, 39 (5%) were resistant to three, 20 (3%) were resistant to four, and 6 (1%) were resistant to five. Nine isolates (1%) were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. All isolates were susceptible to AMC, CHL, and GEN. Less than 10% of isolates were resistant to NAL, CIP, CLI, ERY, and AMP. Resistance to TCY was common (56%). No isolates had a resistance pattern that included all three antimicrobials important in the treatment of human campylobacteriosis (CIP, ERY, and TCY); however, 24 isolates (3.2%) were resistant to at least two of these antimicrobials.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella from different raw foods in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Mondragón, A C; Martinez, B; Guarddon, M; Rodriguez, J A

    2009-05-01

    The presence of Salmonella was determined in 116 samples of poultry meat, 81 samples of pork, 73 samples of beef, 33 samples of cheese, 61 samples of fish, and 78 samples of vegetables collected from retail stores and supermarkets in Hidalgo State (Mexico). Ninety-three Salmonella strains isolated from raw foods were characterized, and MICs were determined for 10 antimicrobials. Salmonella was detected in 35.3% of poultry meat, 30.3% of cheese, 21.8% of vegetable, 17.3% of pork, and 15.1% of beef samples, but no Salmonella was detected in fish samples. Significantly higher counts were obtained in chicken meat (P = 0.0001), pork (P = 0.0116), cheese (P = 0.0228), and vegetables (P = 0.0072) obtained from retail stores compared with those samples obtained from supermarkets. Salmonella isolates had high levels of resistance to ampicillin (66.7% of isolates), tetracycline (61.3%), and chloramphenicol (64.5%) and low levels of resistance to cefotaxime (0%), gentamicin (3.2%), and kanamycin (4.3%). Higher levels of quinolone resistance were found in isolates from poultry meat and vegetables compared with that in other foods tested. High levels of multiresistant strains were found in all foods tested except fish, ranging from 100% of pork samples to 47.1% of vegetable samples. The present study revealed that Salmonella prevalence was higher in foods from retail stores than in foods from supermarkets. Resistance rates observed for Salmonella were largely comparable to those reported in other countries for most antimicrobials, although resistance to chloramphenicol tended to be higher.

  3. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from retail frozen foods in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Hu, Huijuan; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Huixian

    2015-12-01

    In this study, our aim was to estimate the extent of Yersinia enterocolitica contamination in frozen foods in China and determine the bioserotype, virulotype, antimicrobial resistance, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) genotyping profiles of recovered Y. enterocolitica isolates. Out of 455 samples collected between July 2011 and May 2014, 56 (12.3%) tested positive for Y. enterocolitica. The 70 isolated strains were grouped into five clusters and one singleton based on their ERIC-PCR fingerprint, at a similarity coefficient of 70%. All strains were of biotype 1A, and 35.7% were of bioserotype 1A/O:8. Most strains lacked the virulence genes ail, virF, ystA, and ystC, but harbored ystB, fepD, ymoA, fes and sat. All strains were sensitive to ticarcillin but resistant to two or more antibiotics, and 48.6% of the strains were resistant to four to nine antibiotics. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin, cephalothin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol (98.6%, 95.7%, 74.3%, 28.6%, 18.6% and 12.9%, respectively). This study provides a systematic surveillance of Y. enterocolitica prevalence in frozen foods in China and indicates its high antibiotic resistance, which could serve as useful information for the government to control Y. enterocolitica contamination in frozen foods and the use of antibiotics.

  4. Prevalence, Serotype, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella on Broiler Carcasses Postpick and Postchill in 20 U. S. Processing Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of broiler processing on the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of salmonellae. Twenty US commercial processing plants representing eight integrators in thirteen states were included in the survey. In each of four replic...

  5. Prevalence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from food products in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amajoud, Nadia; Bouchrif, Brahim; El Maadoudi, Mohammed; Skalli Senhaji, Nadia; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Harsal, Abdeltif; El Abrini, Jamal

    2017-02-28

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. The irrational use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal feed has greatly promoted the emergence and spread of resistant strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella. A total of 464 food products were collected in Tetouan from January 2010 to December 2012. The isolation and identification of Salmonella were performed according to Moroccan standard 08.0.116. All isolates were serotyped and were then tested for antibiotic resistance using the disk diffusion method. The microbiological analysis showed that 10.3% of food samples were contaminated with Salmonella. Eleven serotypes were identified: Kentucky 22.9% (11/48), Agona 16.7% (8/48), Reading 12.5% (6/48), Corvallis 8.3% (4/48), Saintpaul 8.3% (4/48), Typhimurium 6.2% (3/48), Montevideo 6.2% (3/48), Enteritidis 4.2% (2/48), and 2% (1/48) for each of Israel, Hadar, and Branderup. Drug susceptibility testing showed that 39.6% of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 60.4% were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. The highest percentage of resistance was found to the following antimicrobial agents: nalidixic acid (27.1%), sulfonamides (25%), amoxicillin (12.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12.5%, trimethoprim (10.4%), cephalothin (4.2%), and chloramphenicol (2.1%). This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of Salmonella in food products in Tetouan and a large percentage of drug-resistant strains. Hygienic measures should be rigorously implemented, and monitoring resistance of Salmonella is required to reduce the risks related to the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria.

  6. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37°C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from slaughtered cattle in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Sefinew; Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla

    2012-03-01

    A study was undertaken from October 2006 to March 2007 to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars. Liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal content, and carcass swab samples (each n = 186) were collected from 186 apparently healthy slaughtered cattle at Bahir Dar abattoir. Bacteriological analysis was done according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579 2002). Isolates were serotyped at Agence Française de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Cedex, France. Twenty-eight isolates consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Haifa, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Mishmarhaemek were identified. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport were most frequently isolated while Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Mishmarhaemek were isolated least. Eleven of the 28 (39.3%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Resistance was shown to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, norfloxacin, polymyxin-B, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Four of 11 (36.4%) were multiple antimicrobial resistant. All the isolates tested were susceptible to the antimicrobial effects of gentamycin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim. Eleven, four, and two isolates of the 28 were resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin, respectively. All isolates of Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Typhimurium (except one), and Salmonella Mishmarhaemek were susceptible to the tested antimicrobials. One Typhimurium isolate was resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Salmonella Haifa was multiply antimicrobial resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and streptomycin. All isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg were resistant to streptomycin. Results of this study indicated high level of carcass contamination with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars which could pose public health risk; suggests need for hygienic slaughtering

  8. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  9. Evolution of the Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus spp. in Spain: Five Nationwide Prevalence Studies, 1986 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Oscar; Cercenado, Emilia; Vindel, Ana; Guinea, Jesús; Sánchez-Conde, Matilde; Sánchez-Somolinos, Mar; Bouza, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Data regarding the evolution of Staphylococcus resistance in a whole country have a definite influence on the design of empirical treatment regimens. Nevertheless, incidence studies over long periods of time are expensive and very difficult to carry out. In order to ascertain the present situation of the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus in Spain and the change of this resistance over time, we performed five point prevalence studies (1986 to 2002) in a large group of Spanish hospitals (from 68 institutions in 1986 to 143 in 2002) collecting all Staphylococcus strains isolated on a single selected day. All microorganisms were identified in the five studies at the same laboratory, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against 17 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method and a microdilution method. During this period, there was an overall increase in resistance to most antimicrobials among Staphylococcus aureus/coagulase-negative staphylococci, mainly to oxacillin (1.5%/32.5% in 1986 versus 31.2%/61.3% in 2002) (P < 0.001), erythromycin (7%/41.1% in 1986 versus 31.7%/63% in 2002) (P < 0.001), gentamicin (5.2%/25.4% in 1986 versus 16.9%/27.8% in 2002) (P < 0.001; P = 0.5), and ciprofloxacin (0.6%/1.1% in 1986 versus 33.9%/44.9% in 2002) (P < 0.001). All of the isolates were uniformly susceptible to glycopeptides, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Resistance of S. aureus to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was very low (from 0.5% to 2.1%) (P = 0.152). Periodic performance of prevalence studies is a useful, inexpensive, and easy tool to know the nationwide situation of a microorganism and its resistance to antimicrobials; it also helps us assess the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:15504847

  10. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Meunier, Danièle; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Wasyl, Dariusz; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2008-07-08

    and variation of the resistance levels between countries were observed for Escherichia coli compared to the other bacterial species investigated. In general, isolates from Denmark, England (and Wales), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland showed low frequencies of resistance, whereas many isolates from Belgium, France, Italy, Latvia and Spain were resistant to most antimicrobials tested. In the future, data on the prevalence of resistance should be used to develop guidelines for appropriate antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine.

  11. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Meunier, Danièle; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Wasyl, Dariusz; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    , gentamicin and erythromycin. More resistance and variation of the resistance levels between countries were observed for Escherichia coli compared to the other bacterial species investigated. Conclusion In general, isolates from Denmark, England (and Wales), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland showed low frequencies of resistance, whereas many isolates from Belgium, France, Italy, Latvia and Spain were resistant to most antimicrobials tested. In the future, data on the prevalence of resistance should be used to develop guidelines for appropriate antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine. PMID:18611246

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles in poultry of Savar area, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Md Showkat; Bari, Md Latiful; Hossain, M Anwar

    2011-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major concerns in the poultry industry and some serovars of Salmonella involve in zoonosis. This study determines the seroprevalence of Salmonella in poultry and their drug-resistant patterns, variability in infectivity and mortality rate of birds, and predilection of some serovars to cause zoonoses. The average seroprevalance of Salmonella in three different age groups was found to be 37.9%. A total of 503 samples were examined over a period of 1 year from five different poultry farms of a semiurban area of Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The prevalence of Salmonella was recorded to be 21.1%. Salmonella was found high in dead birds (31.2%) than live birds (18.1%). Salmonella infection was higher (23.6%) in summer than in winter (12.9%) season. Among the 106 isolates, 46 belong to serogroup B (43%) and 60 isolates to serogroup D (57%). The highest Salmonella infection was recorded as 47.9% on the 30-35-week-old birds. A total of 106 Salmonella isolates were used for antimicrobial susceptibility test against 10 common antibiotics and 17 multiple drug resistance patterns were found. Among the isolates, 69 (65%) harbored plasmids 1-4 with size variation between >1.63 and >40 kb and rest 37 (35%) isolates were plasmid free but showed resistance against 5-10 antibiotics. The results of the present investigation suggested that multiple drug resistance is common among the Salmonella isolates of poultry and some of these isolates may have zoonotic implications.

  13. Influence of farming methods on microbiological contamination and prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in isolates from beef.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Mondragón, A; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2009-06-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. was determined in 75 samples of conventional beef and in 75 samples of organic beef. All samples came from cattle slaughtered and processed in the same slaughterhouse and quartering room. A total of 180 E. coli, 180 S. aureus and 98 L. monocytogenes strains were analyzed by an agar disk diffusion assay for their resistance to 11 antimicrobials, for the case of E. coli and S. aureus, or 9 antimicrobials, for the case of L. monocytogenes. Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the beef samples. No significant differences in prevalence were obtained for any of the bacterial species tested between organic and conventional beef. E. coli isolated from organic beef exhibited significant differences in antimicrobial resistance against 5 of the 11 antimicrobials tested as compared to isolates recovered from conventional beef. In the case of S. aureus, these differences were only found for 3 of the 11 antimicrobials tested and for L. monocytogenes, no differences were obtained between isolates obtained from organic or conventional beef. Although no significant differences were obtained in microbiological contamination, E. coli and S. aureus isolates from organically farmed beef samples showed significantly lower rates of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and S. aureus isolates.

  14. Canadian national survey of prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network.

    PubMed Central

    Simor, A E; Louie, M; Low, D E

    1996-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 1,089 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from 39 laboratories across Canada between October 1994 and August 1995 were determined. A total of 91 isolates (8.4%) demonstrated intermediate resistance (MIC, 0.1 to 1.0 microgram/ml) and 36 (3.3%) had high-level resistance (MIC, > or = 2.0 micrograms/ml) to penicillin. Penicillin-resistant strains were more likely to have been recovered from normally sterile sites (P = 0.005) and to be cross-resistant to several beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there has been a recent significant increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in Canada. PMID:8878605

  15. Moderate prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from lettuce, irrigation water, and soil.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Callens, Benedicte; Dewulf, Jeroen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-11-01

    Fresh produce is known to carry nonpathogenic epiphytic microorganisms. During agricultural production and harvesting, leafy greens can become contaminated with antibiotic-resistant pathogens or commensals from animal and human sources. As lettuce does not undergo any inactivation or preservation treatment during processing, consumers may be exposed directly to all of the (resistant) bacteria present. In this study, we investigated whether lettuce or its production environment (irrigation water, soil) is able to act as a vector or reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Over a 1-year period, eight lettuce farms were visited multiple times and 738 samples, including lettuce seedlings (leaves and soil), soil, irrigation water, and lettuce leaves were collected. From these samples, 473 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained and tested for resistance to 14 antimicrobials. Fifty-four isolates (11.4%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (7%), followed by cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and streptomycin, with resistance rates between 4.4 and 3.6%. No resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or kanamycin was observed. One isolate was resistant to cefotaxime. Among the multiresistant isolates (n = 37), ampicillin and cephalothin showed the highest resistance rates, at 76 and 52%, respectively. E. coli isolates from lettuce showed higher resistance rates than E. coli isolates obtained from soil or irrigation water samples. When the presence of resistance in E. coli isolates from lettuce production sites and their resistance patterns were compared with the profiles of animal-derived E. coli strains, they were found to be the most comparable with what is found in the cattle reservoir. This may suggest that cattle are a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains in plant primary production.

  16. Moderate Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Lettuce, Irrigation Water, and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Callens, Benedicte; Dewulf, Jeroen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Fresh produce is known to carry nonpathogenic epiphytic microorganisms. During agricultural production and harvesting, leafy greens can become contaminated with antibiotic-resistant pathogens or commensals from animal and human sources. As lettuce does not undergo any inactivation or preservation treatment during processing, consumers may be exposed directly to all of the (resistant) bacteria present. In this study, we investigated whether lettuce or its production environment (irrigation water, soil) is able to act as a vector or reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Over a 1-year period, eight lettuce farms were visited multiple times and 738 samples, including lettuce seedlings (leaves and soil), soil, irrigation water, and lettuce leaves were collected. From these samples, 473 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained and tested for resistance to 14 antimicrobials. Fifty-four isolates (11.4%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (7%), followed by cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and streptomycin, with resistance rates between 4.4 and 3.6%. No resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or kanamycin was observed. One isolate was resistant to cefotaxime. Among the multiresistant isolates (n = 37), ampicillin and cephalothin showed the highest resistance rates, at 76 and 52%, respectively. E. coli isolates from lettuce showed higher resistance rates than E. coli isolates obtained from soil or irrigation water samples. When the presence of resistance in E. coli isolates from lettuce production sites and their resistance patterns were compared with the profiles of animal-derived E. coli strains, they were found to be the most comparable with what is found in the cattle reservoir. This may suggest that cattle are a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains in plant primary production. PMID:23974140

  17. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the characteristics and to identify the epidemiological relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional vegetables, the antimicrobial resistance and genetic properties of E. coli were investigated from 2010 to 2011. E. coli was isolated from 1 of 111 (0.9%) organic vegetables and from 20 of 225 (8.9%) conventional vegetables. The majority of strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environment (n=27/150 vs. 49/97 in organic vs. conventional samples). The majority of the vegetable strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environments. E. coli isolated from organic vegetables showed very low antimicrobial resistance rates except for cephalothin, ranging from 0% to 17.9%, while the resistance rates to cephalothin (71%) were extremely high in both groups. E. coli isolates expressed various resistance genes, which most commonly included blaTEM, tet(A), strA, strB, and qnrS. However, none of the isolates harbored tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), or qnrA. The transferability of tet gene, tet(A), and tet(B) was identified in tetracycline-resistant E. coli, and the genetic relationship was confirmed in a few cases from different sources. With regard to the lower antimicrobial resistance found in organic produce, this production mode seems able to considerably reduce the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria on vegetables.

  18. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Hasegawa, Megumi; Esaki, Hidetake; Muramatsu, Masatake; Hirayama, Norio; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in Japanese black beef cattle from the three major production regions of Japan. We collected and examined 291 fecal samples from Japanese black beef cattle in Hokkaido, Chubu, and Kyushu. Of the 3,147 E. coli isolates, 1,397 (44.4%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics; these included 553 (39.8%) of 1,388 isolates from Hokkaido, 352 (54.4%) of 647 isolates from Chubu, and 492 (44.2%) of 1,112 isolates from Kyushu. The difference in resistance rates between the three regions was significant. The antibiotics with the highest rates of resistance were oxytetracycline and dihydrostreptomycin (35.8% each), followed by ampicillin (21.4%). Further, E. coli isolates from calves had higher resistance rates than those from growing cattle and mature cattle, and the calf isolates showed high rates of resistance to gentamicin (20.2%), enrofloxacin (9.4%), and ceftiofur (4.2%). In addition, the high degrees of similarity in the genotypes of the isolates and in the resistance patterns on each farm suggest that resistance bacteria and resistance genes were horizontally transferred. Most isolates, in each of the three regions, harbored resistance genes such as blaTEM, strA, strB, aphA1, aphAI-IAB, and catI. In contrast to the isolates from Kyushu, most of which harbored aacC2, tetB, and dfrA12, the isolates from Hokkaido and Chubu harbored a variety of resistance genes. Furthermore, the prevalence of genes for resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim differed significantly between the regions. This is the first large-scale study describing and comparing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from different regions in Japan. The results will contribute to improving food safety and promoting careful usage of antimicrobial agents.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of canine uropathogens at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, M; Dowling, Patricia M

    2008-10-01

    Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins.

  20. Prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from retail chicken meat in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; León, Maribel; Castellanos, Ricardo; Vanegas, Consuelo; Coral, Adriana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Clavijo, Viviana; Vargas, Mercedes; Romero Zuñiga, Juan J; Tafur, McAllister; Pérez-Gutierrez, Enrique; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS), this study aimed to establish the baseline antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. isolates in retail poultry meat from independent stores and from a main chain distributor center. MICs of the isolates were determined for antimicrobials used both in humans and animals, using an automated system. Salmonella serovars were isolated from 26% of the meat samples and E. coli from 83%, whereas Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were detected in 81 and 13% of the meat samples, respectively. A principal finding of concern in this study was that almost 98% of isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline were the antimicrobials that showed the highest frequency of resistance among Salmonella and E. coli isolates. For enterococci, 61.5% of E. faecium isolates were found to be resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin; this is significant because it is used to treat nosocomial infections when vancomycin resistance is present. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 4% of the E. faecalis isolates. The results of our study highlight the need for rapid implementation of an integrated program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by the Colombian authorities in order to monitor trends, raise awareness, and help promote practices to safeguard later generation antimicrobial agents.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes isolated from retail chicken meat and giblets in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sodagari, Hamid Reza; Mashak, Zohreh; Ghadimianazar, Amir

    2015-05-18

    Salmonella is one of the major foodborne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. A total of 560 samples of chicken meat and giblets were collected from retail markets for Salmonella identification, serotyping, and antimicrobial resistance testing. Salmonella was detected in 19.8% of samples. Among the five serotypes identified, S. Thompson was the predominant type (48.7%). High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed to nalidixic acid (92.8%), tetracycline (81%), trimethoprim (68.4%), sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim (61.2%), streptomycin (56.7%), and kanamycin (36.9%). Although resistance to chloramphenicol (3.6%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (5.4%), and ampicillin (11.7%) was detected, none of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, nor imipenem. Restrictions on the irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals are suggested for the reduction of resistant strains.

  2. High Prevalence of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in China: Geographic Distribution, Clinical Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Hongbin; Li, Henan; Zhang, Feifei; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Ruobing; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is traditionally defined by hypermucoviscosity, but data based on genetic background are limited. Antimicrobial-resistant hvKP has been increasingly reported but has not yet been systematically studied. K. pneumoniae isolates from bloodstream infections, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and intra-abdominal infections were collected from 10 cities in China during February to July 2013. Clinical data were collected from medical records. All K. pneumoniae isolates were investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, string test, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene detection, capsular serotypes, virulence gene profiles, and multilocus sequence typing. hvKP was defined by aerobactin detection. Of 230 K. pneumoniae isolates, 37.8% were hvKP. The prevalence of hvKP varied among different cities, with the highest rate in Wuhan (73.9%) and the lowest in Zhejiang (8.3%). Hypermucoviscosity and the presence of K1, K2, K20, and rmpA genes were strongly associated with hvKP (P < 0.001). A significantly higher incidence of liver abscess (P = 0.026), sepsis (P = 0.038), and invasive infections (P = 0.043) was caused by hvKP. Cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.285) and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.256) appeared to be independent variables associated with hvKP infections by multivariate analysis. Importantly, 12.6% of hvKP isolates produced ESBLs, and most of them carried blaCTX-M genes. Patients with neutropenia (37.5% versus 5.6%; P = 0.020), history of systemic steroid therapy (37.5% versus 5.6%; P = 0.020), and combination therapy (62.5% versus 16.7%; P = 0.009) were more likely to be infected with ESBL-producing hvKP. The prevalence of hvKP is high in China and has a varied geographic distribution. ESBL-producing hvKP is emerging, suggesting an urgent need to enhance clinical awareness, especially for immunocompromised patients receiving combination therapy. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Prevalence, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from northwestern Spanish broiler flocks (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Lamas, A; Fernandez-No, I C; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance to twenty antibiotics, and class 1 integron and virulence genes of Salmonella isolated from poultry houses of broilers in northwestern Spain between 2011 and 2015. Strains were classified to the serotype level using the Kauffman-White typing scheme and subtyping with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 1.02%. Sixteen different serotypes were found, with S. typhimurium and S. arizonae 48:z4, z23:- being the most prevalent. A total of 59.70% of strains were resistant to at least one, and 19.70% were resistant to multiple drugs. All Salmonella spp. were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, neomycin, and trimethoprim. The highest level of resistance was to sulfamethoxazole (40.29%), doxycycline (17.91%), and nalidixic acid (17.91%). None of the isolates carried class 1 integron and only isolates of S. enterica subspecies enterica were positive for all virulence factors tested, whereas S. arizonae lacked genes related to replication and invasion in nonphagocytic cells. This study demonstrates that the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in poultry houses of broilers of northwestern Spain is low compared with those found in other studies and in other steps of the food chain. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in pet mammals, reptiles, fish aquarium water, and birds in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Seepersadsingh, N; Adesiyun, A A

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was determined in 970 animals comprising 423 pet birds, 485 fish aquaria water and 62 other pets (40 pet mammals, 14 reptiles, eight others - crustaceans, snail, stingray) from both pet shops and households throughout Trinidad. The serotypes of Salmonella spp. isolated were identified and the resistance to various antimicrobial agents was determined. Overall nine (0.9%) of 970 pet animals were positive for Salmonella spp. Six isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from all pet birds with two isolates of serotype Aberdeen and one isolate each of Thompson, Rubislaw, Panama and Newport. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in birds was 0.9%. Four isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from fish aquaria water, serotypes included Panama (two isolates), Newport (one isolate) and Virchow (one isolate). Prevalence of Salmonella spp. from fish aquaria was 0.4%. No isolate of Salmonella spp. was detected in pet mammals sampled while two isolates were recovered from reptiles, S. Enteritidis and S. Montevideo. One isolate of Salmonella spp. was recovered from a stingray, serotype unknown. Antimicrobial resistance was present is all animal types. The highest prevalence of resistance was to streptomycin among isolates from birds (83.3%) and other pets (100.0%) while isolates from fish aquarium water exhibited comparatively high resistance to cephalothin (50.0%). It was concluded that the isolation of Salmonella spp. from apparently healthy birds, fish aquarium water and other pet animals may pose a health risk to their owners and contacts as all serotypes are known to be potentially pathogenic depending on the oral dosage of the organism and the immune status of those in contact. The high prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates across pet species may pose chemotherapeutic consequences to their owners and contacts.

  5. Prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella species with their co-resistance pattern to antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Biswas, T; Das, M; Mondal, R; Raj, H J; Mondal, S

    2013-04-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria are potential emerging pathogens and continue to be a major challenge in clinical setup worldwide. In the present study an attempt was made to study the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species from clinical isolates in a rural tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India with their antimicrobial susceptibility as well as co-resistance pattern to different antimicrobials. A total of 179 Escherichia coli and 62 Klebsiella isolates recovered from various clinical samples of urine, pus, aural swabs and respiratory secretions (including sputum) for a period of six months were subjected to routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and also tested for extended spectrum β-lactamase production as per NCCLS recommendations. Extended spectrum β-lactamase was detected in 32.40% of Escherichia coli and 40.32% of Klebsiella species isolates. Urine, pus and respiratory samples were common source of extended spectrum β-lactamase producers and resistance rate of these organisms to third generation cephalosporins were more than 30 to 40%. Co-resistance pattern of these extended spectrum β-lactamase producers to other commonly used antimicrobials were also statistically significant (p≤0.05). From the study it is concluded that indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporins may be responsible for the selection of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant strains in hospital setup and amikacin is a reliable drug against them.

  6. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens and their anti-microbial resistance in Tilapia and their pond water in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Newaj-Fyzul, A; Mutani, A; Ramsubhag, A; Adesiyun, A

    2008-05-01

    In Trinidad, Tilapia (Oreonchromis spp.) is one of the most important fresh water food fish and the number of farms has been increasing annually. A study was conducted in the local tilapia industry to determine the microbial quality of pond water, prevalence of bacterial pathogens and their anti-microbial resistance using the disk diffusion method. Seventy-five apparently healthy fish and 15 pond water samples from three of the four commercial tilapia fish farms in the country were processed. The 202 bacterial isolates recovered from fish slurry and 88 from water, belonged to 13 and 16 genera respectively. The predominant bacteria from fish slurry were Pseudomonas spp. (60.0%), Aeromonas spp. (44.0%), Plesiomonas (41.3%) and Chromobacterium (36.0%) (P < 0.05; chi(2)) compared with isolates from pond water where Bacillus spp. (80.0%), Staphylococcus spp., Alcaligenes spp. and Aeromonas spp. (60.0%) were most prevalent (P < 0.05; chi(2)). Using eight anti-microbial agents, to test bacteria from five genera (Aeromonas, Chromobacterium, Enterobacter, Plesiomonas and Pseudomonas), 168 (97.1%) of 173 bacterial isolates from fish slurry exhibited resistance to one or more anti-microbial agents compared with 47 (90.4%) of 52 from water (P > 0.05; chi(2)). Resistance was high to ampicillin, 90.2% (158 of 173), erythromycin, 66.5% (115 of 173) and oxytetracycline, 52.6%, (91 of 173) but relatively low to chloramphenicol, 9.8% (17 of 173) and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, 6.4% (11 of 173) (P < 0.05; chi(2)). For pond water isolates, the frequency of resistance across bacterial genera ranged from 75% (nine of 12) for Chromobacter spp. to 100% found amongst Enterobacter spp. (six of six), Plesiomonas spp. (nine of nine) and Pseudomonas spp. (eight of eight) (P < 0.05; chi(2)). Resistance was generally high to ampicillin, 78.8% (41 of 52), erythromycin, 51.9% (27 of 52) and oxytetracycline, 34.5% (18 of 52) but low to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, 7.7% (four of 52) and

  7. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Shell Eggs from Small-Scale Poultry Farms and Farmers' Markets.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Nahashon, S N; Godwin, S; Liu, S; Long, D

    2016-12-01

    Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values. Shell eggs and egg contents were positive for Escherichia coli (11.9 and 5.2%, respectively), Enterobacter (9.1 and 7.9%), and Serratia (11.5 and 4.8%). Salmonella was isolated from 3.6% of egg shells but not from egg contents. Mean (±SD) Enterobacteriaceae levels (4.4 ± 2.0 log CFU per eggshell) on shell eggs from poultry farms was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that on shell eggs from farmers' markets (2.1 ± 1.3 log CFU per eggshell). Of the 134 isolates recovered, resistance among isolates from farm and market shell eggs to erythromycin was most common (48.5 and 32.8%, respectively) followed by ampicillin (44.8 and 17.2%), and tetracycline (29.9 and 17.2%). The multiple antibiotic resistance index value for E. coli and Pantoea was 0.62, and that for Salmonella and Klebsiella terrigena was 0.08, indicating that Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. These data reveal that shell eggs from small poultry farms and farmers' markets can harbor antimicrobial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Thus, failure to properly handle shell eggs poses a potential health hazard to consumers.

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from Australian Cattle Populations at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Robert S; McMillan, Kate E; Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle; Jordan, David; Mellor, Glen E

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacteria associated with diseases. Australia is the world's third largest exporter of beef; however, this country does not have an ongoing surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cattle or in foods derived from these animals. In this study, 910 beef cattle, 290 dairy cattle, and 300 veal calf fecal samples collected at slaughter were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the phenotypic AMR of 800 E. coli and 217 Salmonella isolates was determined. E. coli was readily isolated from all types of samples (92.3% of total samples), whereas Salmonella was recovered from only 14.4% of samples and was more likely to be isolated from dairy cattle samples than from beef cattle or veal calf samples. The results of AMR testing corroborate previous Australian animal and retail food surveys, which have indicated a low level of AMR. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella isolates from beef cattle was detected infrequently; however, the resistance was to antimicrobials of low importance in human medicine. Although some differences in AMR between isolates from the different types of animals were observed, there is minimal evidence that specific production practices are responsible for disproportionate contributions to AMR development. In general, resistance to antimicrobials of critical and high importance in human medicine was low regardless of the isolate source. The low level of AMR in bacteria from Australian cattle is likely a result of strict regulation of antimicrobials in food animals in Australia and animal management systems that do not favor bacterial disease.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus species in chicken and beef raw meat in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Saad, Aalaa S A

    2015-05-01

    Coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) staphylococci cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, CPS and CNS have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate CPS and CNS species distribution and their antibiotic resistance profile isolated from chicken and beef meat. Fifty fresh, uncooked chicken parts and 50 beef meat cuts (local n=27; imported n=23) were used. One hundred staphylococcal isolates belonging to 11 species were isolated and identified from chicken (n=50) and beef (n=50) raw meat samples. Staphylococcus hyicus (26/100), lugdunensis (18/100), aureus (15/100) and epidermidis (14/100) were dominant. S. aureus was 100% resistant to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus showed intermediate resistance (51%), which might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. The percentage of resistance to β-lactams was variable, with the highest resistance being to penicillin (94%) and lowest to ampicillin-sulbactam (22%). Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against penicillin (94%), clindamycin (90%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (82%). The results indicate that chicken and beef raw meat are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CPS and CNS.

  10. Stepwise impact of urban wastewater treatment on the bacterial community structure, antibiotic contents, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyu; Shen, Weitao; Yan, Lei; Wang, Xin-Hua; Xu, Hai

    2017-09-26

    Bacteria, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance determinants are key biological pollutants in aquatic systems, which may lead to bacterial infections or prevent the cure of bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated how the wastewater treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) affect these pollutants. We found that the addition of oxygen, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and polyacrylamide (PAM), as well as ultraviolet (UV) disinfection could significantly alter the bacterial communities in the water samples. An overall shift from Gram-negative bacteria to Gram-positive bacteria was observed throughout the wastewater treatment steps, but the overall bacterial biomass was not reduced in the WWTP samples. The antibiotic contents were reduced by the WWTP, but the size of the reduction and the step when antibiotic degradation occurred differed among antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin could be removed completely by the WWTP, whereas cephalexin could not. The removal of ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and erythromycin occurred in the anaerobic digester, whereas the removal of sulfamethoxazole occurred after the addition of PAC and PAM, and UV disinfection. Antimicrobial resistance determinants were highly prevalent in all of the samples analyzed, except for those targeting vancomycin and colistin. However, wastewater treatment was ineffective at removing antimicrobial resistance determinants from wastewater. There were strong correlations between intI1, floR, sul1, and ermB, thereby suggesting the importance of integrons for the spread of these antimicrobial resistance genes. In general, this study comprised a stepwise analysis of the impact of WWTPs on three biological pollutants: bacteria, antibiotics, and antimicrobial resistance determinants, where our results suggest that the design of WWTPs needs to be improved to address the threats due to these pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A five-year study on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from poultry carcasses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2015-08-01

    During 2009-2013 a total of 2114 swab samples collected from broiler carcasses in all 16 voivodeships (administrative districts) of Poland were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The antimicrobial resistance of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin using the MIC method was also tested. It was found that 1151 (54.4%) carcasses were contaminated with Campylobacter, with 50% of C. jejuni and C. coli species isolated from positive samples. The temporal trend in the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples demonstrated that the highest percentage of carcasses was contaminated during the first year of the survey (70.5%) whereas in the last year (2013) only 36.3% of broilers contained these bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance analysis showed that overall 939 (81.6%) of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 646 (56.1%) to tetracycline but only 28 (2.4%) to erythromycin. Significant differences in resistance profiles between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed with greater resistance level observed in the latter species. Furthermore, a significant increase in the percentage of C. jejuni resistant to ciprofloxacin (from 59.6% in 2009 to 85.9% in 2014) and to tetracycline (from 23.2% to 70.4%, respectively) was identified. Only 20 (1.7%) Campylobacter isolates displayed a multiresistance pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter spp. isolated from conventional and antimicrobial-free swine production systems from different U.S. regions.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Daniel A; Bahnson, Peter B; Funk, Julie A; Thakur, Siddhartha; Morrow, William E Morgan; Wittum, Thomas; DeGraves, Fred; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a study to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolated from 34 farm-slaughter pair cohorts of pigs raised in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems. Isolates originated from four different states of two geographic regions (region 1--Ohio and Michigan; region 2--Wisconsin and Iowa). A total of 838 fecal and 1173 carcass samples were examined. Campylobacter isolates were speciated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting ceuE and hipO genes. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using agar dilution to a panel of six antimicrobials: chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 472 of 838 pigs (56.3%). Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly based on production system (conventional [58.9%] and ABF [53.7%], odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-2.6, p = 0.24) or geographic region (region 1 [54.1%] and region 2 [58.2%], OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, p = 0.92). At slaughter plant, Campylobacter prevalence varied based on processing stages (19.4% at pre-evisceration, 25.3% at postevisceration, and 3.2% at postchill). Resistance was common to tetracycline (64.5%), erythromycin (47.9%), and nalidixic acid (23.5%). Campylobacter isolates from conventional production systems were more likely to be erythromycin resistant than from ABF (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2, p = 0.01). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolates were 3.7% and 1.2% from ABF and conventional production systems, respectively. Thirty-seven out of 1257 C. coli (2.9%) were resistant to both erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, drugs of choice for treatment of invasive human campylobacteriosis. The finding of ciprofloxacin resistance, particularly from ABF herds, has significant implications on the potential role of risk factors other than mere antimicrobial use for production

  13. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci from vet-visiting pets and assessment of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Leite-Martins, L; Mahú, M I; Costa, A L; Bessa, L J; Vaz-Pires, P; Loureiro, L; Niza-Ribeiro, J; de Matos, A J F; Martins da Costa, P

    2015-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) exhibited by enterococci isolated from faeces of pets and its underlying risk factors. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from 74 dogs and 17 cats, selected from the population of animals visiting the Veterinary Hospital of University of Porto, UPVet, through a systematic random procedure. Animal owners answered a questionnaire about the risk factors that could influence the presence of AMR in faecal enterococci. Enterococci isolation, identification and antimicrobial (AM) susceptibility testing were performed. Data analyses of multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalised linear mixed models were conducted. From all enterococci isolated (n=315), 61 per cent were considered multidrug-resistant, whereas only 9.2 per cent were susceptible to all AMs tested. Highest resistance was found to tetracycline (67.0 per cent), rifampicin (60.3 per cent), azithromycin (58.4 per cent), quinupristin/dalfopristin (54.0 per cent) and erythromycin (53.0 per cent). Previous fluoroquinolone treatments and coprophagic habits were the features more consistently associated with the presence of AMR for three (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin) and seven (tetracycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and azithromycin), respectively, out of nine AMs assessed. Evaluating risk factors that determine the presence of drug-resistant bacteria in pets, a possible source of resistance determinants to human beings, is crucial for the selection of appropriate treatment guidelines by veterinary practitioners. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial chickens and human clinical isolates from South Africa and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zishiri, Oliver T; Mkhize, Nelisiwe; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-05-26

    Salmonellosis is a significant public health concern around the world. The injudicious use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production for treatment, growth promotion and prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of drug resistant strains of Salmonella. The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes from Salmonella isolated from South African and Brazilian broiler chickens as well as human clinical isolates. Out of a total of 200 chicken samples that were collected from South Africa 102 (51%) tested positive for Salmonella using the InvA gene. Of the overall 146 Salmonella positive samples that were screened for the iroB gene most of them were confirmed to be Salmonella enterica with the following prevalence rates: 85% of human clinical samples, 68.6% of South African chicken isolates and 70.8% of Brazilian chicken samples. All Salmonella isolates obtained were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing with 10 antibiotics. Salmonella isolates from South African chickens exhibited resistance to almost all antimicrobial agents used, such as tetracycline (93%), trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole (84%), trimethoprim (78.4%), kanamycin (74%), gentamicin (48%), ampicillin (47%), amoxicillin (31%), chloramphenicol (31%), erythromycin (18%) and streptomycin (12%). All samples were further subjected to PCR in order to screen some common antimicrobial and virulence genes of interest namely spiC, pipD, misL, orfL, pse-1, tet A, tet B, ant (3")-la, sul 1 and sul. All Salmonella positive isolates exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent; however, antimicrobial resistance patterns demonstrated that multiple drug resistance was prevalent. The findings provide evidence that broiler chickens are colonised by pathogenic Salmonella harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes. Therefore, it is evident that there is a need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production systems in order to

  15. Prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial chickens and human clinical isolates from South Africa and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zishiri, Oliver T; Mkhize, Nelisiwe; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-05-26

    Salmonellosis is a significant public health concern around the world. The injudicious use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production for treatment, growth promotion and prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of drug resistant strains of Salmonella. The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes from Salmonella isolated from South African and Brazilian broiler chickens as well as human clinical isolates. Out of a total of 200 chicken samples that were collected from South Africa 102 (51%) tested positive for Salmonella using the InvA gene. Of the overall 146 Salmonella positive samples that were screened for the iroB gene most of them were confirmed to be Salmonella enterica with the following prevalence rates: 85% of human clinical samples, 68.6% of South African chicken isolates and 70.8% of Brazilian chicken samples. All Salmonella isolates obtained were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing with 10 antibiotics. Salmonella isolates from South African chickens exhibited resistance to almost all antimicrobial agents used, such as tetracycline (93%), trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole (84%), trimethoprim (78.4%), kanamycin (74%), gentamicin (48%), ampicillin (47%), amoxicillin (31%), chloramphenicol (31%), erythromycin (18%) and streptomycin (12%). All samples were further subjected to PCR in order to screen some common antimicrobial and virulence genes of interest namely spiC, pipD, misL, orfL, pse-1, tet A, tet B, ant (3")-la, sul 1 and sul. All Salmonella positive isolates exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent; however, antimicrobial resistance patterns demonstrated that multiple drug resistance was prevalent. The findings provide evidence that broiler chickens are colonised by pathogenic Salmonella harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes. Therefore, it is evident that there is a need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production systems in order to

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  17. Prevalence, serotyping and antimicrobials resistance mechanism of Salmonella enterica isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Abdelnasser S S; Al-Salamah, Ali A; Almaary, Khalid S; Elbadawi, Yahya B

    2017-02-14

    Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n=33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  19. Metagenomic Evidence of the Prevalence and Distribution Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Dairy Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Dou, Zhengxia; Kumar, Sanjay; Indugu, Nagaraju; Toth, John Daniel; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Bhukya, Bhima

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a global problem with serious implications for public health. AR genes are frequently detected on animal farms, but little is known about their origin and distribution patterns. We hypothesized that AR genes can transfer from animal feces to the environment through manure, and to this end, we characterized and compared the resistomes (collections of AR genes) of animal feces, manure, and soil samples collected from five dairy farms using a metagenomics approach. Resistomes constituted only up to 1% of the total gene content, but were variable by sector and also farm. Broadly, the identified AR genes were associated with 18 antibiotic resistances classes across all samples; however, the most abundant genes were classified under multidrug transporters (44.75%), followed by resistance to vancomycin (12.48%), tetracycline (10.52%), bacitracin (10.43%), beta-lactam resistance (7.12%), and MLS efflux pump (6.86%) antimicrobials. The AR gene profiles were variable between farms. Farm 09 was categorized as a high risk farm, as a greater proportion of AR genes were common to at least three sectors, suggesting possible horizontal transfer of AR genes. Taxonomic characterization of AR genes revealed that a majority of AR genes were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria. Nonetheless, there were several members of Bacteroidetes, particularly Bacteroides genus and several lineages from Firmicutes that carried similar AR genes in different sectors, suggesting a strong potential for horizontal transfer of AR genes between unrelated bacterial hosts in different sectors of the farms. Further studies are required to affirm the horizontal gene transfer mechanisms between microbiomes of different sectors in animal agroecosystems.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in human beings which are transmitted mostly via food originating from animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail raw meats in Iran. From June 2008 to June 2009, a total of 722 raw meat samples from camel (n = 107), beef (n = 190), lamb (n = 225), and goat (n = 180) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Isfahan and Yazd, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. In this study, 50 of the 722 meat samples (6.9%) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in lamb meat (12.0%), followed by goat meat (9.4%), beef meat (2.4%), and camel meat (0.9%). The most prevalent Campylobacter spp. isolated from the meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (84.0%); the remaining isolates were Campylobacter coli (16.0%). Susceptibilities of 50 Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk-diffusion assay. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (68.0%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (46.0%) and nalidixic acid (40.0%). All of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p < 0.05) were found in the lamb meat samples taken in spring (20.0%) and summer (18.9%). To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from raw camel, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

  1. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  2. Prevalence, Molecular Characterization, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashmawy, Maha Abdou; Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2016-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk and dairy products in Mansoura City, Egypt. MRSA was detected in 53% (106/200) among all milk and dairy products with prevalence rates of 75%, 65%, 40%, 50%, and 35% in raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, ice cream, and yogurt samples, respectively. The mean S. aureus counts were 3.49, 3.71, 2.93, 3.40, and 3.23 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g among tested raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, ice cream and yogurt, respectively, with an overall count of 3.41 log10 CFU/g. Interestingly, all recovered S. aureus isolates were genetically verified as MRSA strains by molecular detection of the mecA gene. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec) were detected in all isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of recovered MRSA isolates against 13 tested antimicrobials revealed that the least effective drugs were penicillin G, cloxacillin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin with bacterial resistance percentages of 87.9%, 75.9%, 65.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. These findings suggested that milk and dairy products represent a potential infection risk threat of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt due to neglected hygienic practices during production, retail, or storage stages. These findings highlighted the crucial importance of applying more restrictive hygienic measures in dairy production in Egypt for food safety.

  3. [Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Bjørn

    2008-11-06

    While bacterial infections are one of the most important causes of disease and death in developing countries, the prevalence and consequences of antimicrobial resistance are not well known. This is a review article based on literature retrieved from a non-systematic review and own experience from research on the topic. Research on antimicrobial resistance is increasing in developing countries, but most of the data are obtained from referral hospitals in capitals and major cities. Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBL-(extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) producing bacteria have been documented in several countries and are associated with increased lethality. The most serious resistance problems in developing countries are associated with Gram-negative bacteria and tuberculosis and may result in increased risk of death. Developing countries have a much higher overall burden of infectious diseases than the rich western countries and also poor access to newer antibiotics, which can be lifesaving when treating infections caused by resistant bacteria. To combat overuse and misuse of antibiotics, the diagnosis of infectious diseases must be strengthened and antimicrobial resistance must be emphasized in education of health professionals and the general public. There is a need for improved surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and strengthened quality control of antimicrobial drugs. In the long-term perspective, poverty reduction, improved living conditions and hygiene, safe water supplies and access to quality health care (including vaccination and HIV care), may contribute to prevent emerging antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Prevalence of Primary Antimicrobial Resistance of H. pylori in Turkey: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance has increased to the 20% or more in different regions of the world. Clarithromycin resistance is known to be responsible for most of the treatment failures in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline) of H. pylori strains in different geographical regions of Turkey. An Internet search was performed using PubMed and the ULAKBIM Turkish Medical Database. The terms "primary antibiotic resistance (separately; amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline) of H. pylori" with and without "Turkey" or "different geographical regions of Turkey" were searched among articles published in both English and Turkish language within the time span from 1999 to 2015. Data analysis was performed using MedCalc 12.7.0. Each article was weighted according to the number of isolated H. pylori strains. Pooled proportion analysis was performed. Twenty-one Turkish studies including 1059 H. pylori strains were included in this review. The overall primary antibiotic resistance rates of H. pylori strains isolated in Turkey were as follows: amoxicillin 3 (0.971%), clarithromycin 425 (24.864%), metronidazole 75 (33.747%), tetracycline 2 (3.511%), and levofloxacin 31 (23.769%). Primary antibiotic resistance against H. pylori in Turkey shows differences between geographical regions and population densities. There is an increase in primary resistance rates to clarithromycin and metronidazole in different years. The data are not sufficient for tetracycline, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. High clarithromycin resistance rates were mostly detected in overpopulated cities like Ankara (north), Izmir (west), Istanbul (west), and Bursa (west). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on household and small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Trung; Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Ho, Huynh Mai; Ha, Thanh Tuyen; Campbell, James I; Nguyen, Thi Nhung; Hoang, Ngoc Nhung; Pham, Van Minh; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hardon, Anita; Thai, Quoc Hieu; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli isolates on household and small-scale chicken farms, common in southern Vietnam, and to investigate the association of antimicrobial resistance with farming practices and antimicrobial usage. We collected data on farming and antimicrobial usage from 208 chicken farms. E. coli was isolated from boot swab samples using MacConkey agar (MA) and MA with ceftazidime, nalidixic acid or gentamicin. Isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials and for ESBL production. Risk factor analyses were carried out, using logistic regression, at both the bacterial population and farm levels. E. coli resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins was detected on 201 (96.6%), 191 (91.8%) and 77 (37.0%) of the farms, respectively. Of the 895 E. coli isolates, resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 178 (19.9%), 291 (32.5%) and 29 (3.2%) of the isolates, respectively. Ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly associated with quinolone usage (OR = 2.26) and tetracycline usage (OR = 1.70). ESBL-producing E. coli were associated with farms containing fish ponds (OR = 4.82). Household and small farms showed frequent antimicrobial usage associated with a high prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antimicrobials. Given the weak biocontainment, the high prevalence of resistant E. coli could represent a risk to the environment and to humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  6. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Indiana in China (1984-2016).

    PubMed

    Gong, J; Kelly, P; Wang, C

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana, first described in 1955, is generally regarded as having a low frequency worldwide with outbreaks of gastroenteritis and abortions described in North America and Europe. In China, S. Indiana was first reported in 1984 and in the subsequent 71 surveys in 35 cities/municipalities from 18 provinces, 70% of which were after 2012, S. Indiana has been shown to have become widely prevalent in people, animals, food and the environment around abattoirs and meat processing facilities. The organism is now one of the most common serovars found in livestock and raw meat in China with S. Indiana isolates having high levels of drug resistance, especially against tetracyclines, quinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, phenicols, penicillins, monobactams and nitrofurans. Further, S. Indiana isolates that are concurrently resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone/cefotaxime have emerged. Studies have suggested the high levels of multidrug resistance of S. Indiana might be associated with the presence of class 1 integrons and plasmids. Unfortunately, information on the high prevalence of S. Indiana and its extensive drug resistance in China has largely escaped international recognition as it largely appears in local reports written in Chinese. To address this situation, we reviewed all the available local Chinese and international publications on the organism in China and report our findings in this review. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella isolates and antimicrobial resistance patterns in chicken meat throughout Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Endo, Yasuhisa; Ochiai, Tameichi; Hirai, Katsuya

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Salmonella in chicken meat from northern, central, and southern Japan. Between 2006 and 2008, 821 samples from these three regions were collected and examined. Salmonella isolates were detected in 164 (20.0%) of these samples, with 15 (10.0%) of 150, 113 (27.5%) of 411, and 36 (13.8%) of 260 recovered from the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively. We recovered 452 Salmonella isolates. From the isolates, 27 serovars were identified; the predominant serovars isolated were Salmonella Infantis (n=81), Salmonella Kalamu (n=56), and Salmonella Schwarzengrund (n=43). Of the 452 isolates, 443 (98.0%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 221 (48.9%) showed multiple-antibiotic resistance, thereby implying that multiple-antibiotic resistant Salmonella organisms are widespread in chicken meat in Japan. Resistance to oxytetracycline was most common (72.6%), followed by dihydrostreptomycin (69.2%) and bicozamycin (49.1%). This study, the first to report Salmonella prevalence in chicken meat throughout Japan, could provide valuable data for monitoring and controlling Salmonella infection in the future. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  8. Rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections during pregnancy: necessity for exploring newer treatment options.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Meher; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Malik, Abida; Shaheen

    2011-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The emergence of drug resistance and particularly the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance in Staphylococci, limits the choice of antimicrobials. Patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of urinary tract infection attending the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology were screened for significant bacteriuria, by standard loop method on 5% sheep blood agar and teepol lactose agar. Isolates were identified by using standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A total of 4290 (51.2%) urine samples from pregnant females showed growth on culture. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria 3210 (74.8%) was higher than symptomatic UTI 1080 (25.2%). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen accounting for 1800 (41.9%) of the urinary isolates. Among the gram-positive cocci, coagulase negative species of Staphylococci 270 (6.4%) were the most common pathogen. Significantly high resistance was shown by the gram negative bacilli as well as gram positive cocci to the β-lactam group of antimicrobials, flouroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Most alarming was the presence of ESBL in 846 (47%) isolates of Escherichia coli and 344 (36.9%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, along with the presence of methicillin resistance in 41% of Staphylococcus species and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 45(30%) isolates of Enterococcus species. Glycopeptides and carbepenems were the only group of drugs to which all the strains of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were uniformly sensitive, respectively. Regular screening should be done for the presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and specific guidelines should be issued for testing antimicrobial susceptibility with safe drugs in pregnant women so that

  9. Rising Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy: Necessity for Exploring Newer Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Meher; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Malik, Abida; Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The emergence of drug resistance and particularly the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance in Staphylococci, limits the choice of antimicrobials. Materials and Methods: Patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of urinary tract infection attending the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology were screened for significant bacteriuria, by standard loop method on 5% sheep blood agar and teepol lactose agar. Isolates were identified by using standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 4290 (51.2%) urine samples from pregnant females showed growth on culture. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria 3210 (74.8%) was higher than symptomatic UTI 1080 (25.2%). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen accounting for 1800 (41.9%) of the urinary isolates. Among the gram-positive cocci, coagulase negative species of Staphylococci 270 (6.4%) were the most common pathogen. Significantly high resistance was shown by the gram negative bacilli as well as gram positive cocci to the β-lactam group of antimicrobials, flouroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Most alarming was the presence of ESBL in 846 (47%) isolates of Escherichia coli and 344 (36.9%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, along with the presence of methicillin resistance in 41% of Staphylococcus species and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 45(30%) isolates of Enterococcus species. Glycopeptides and carbepenems were the only group of drugs to which all the strains of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were uniformly sensitive, respectively. Conclusions: Regular screening should be done for the presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and specific guidelines should be issued for testing antimicrobial

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Microbes Causing Bloodstream Infections in Unguja, Zanzibar

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Annette; Said, Abdulrahman K.; Jørstad, Melissa; Jenum, Pål A.; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections (BSI) are frequent and cause high case-fatality rates. Urgent antibiotic treatment can save patients’ lives, but antibiotic resistance can render antibiotic therapy futile. This study is the first to collect epidemiological data on BSI from Unguja, Zanzibar. Methods Clinical data and blood for culturing and susceptibility testing of isolated microbes were obtained from 469 consecutively enrolled neonates, children and adults presenting with signs of systemic infections at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital (MMH), Zanzibar. Results Pathogenic bacteria were recovered from the blood of 14% of the patients (66/469). The most frequently isolated microbes were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Infections were community-acquired in 56 patients (85%) and hospital-acquired in 8 (12%) (data missing for 2 patients). BSI caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, K. pneumoniae) was found in 5 cases, of which 3 were community-acquired and 2 hospital-acquired. Three of these patients died. Six of 7 Salmonella Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found in one patient only. Conclusions This is the first report of ESBL-producing bacteria causing BSI from the Zanzibar archipelago. Our finding of community-acquired BSI caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is alarming, as it implies that these difficult-to-treat bacteria have already spread in the society. In the local setting these infections are virtually impossible to cure. The findings call for increased awareness of rational antibiotic use, infection control and surveillance to counteract the problem of emerging antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26700032

  11. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Microbes Causing Bloodstream Infections in Unguja, Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Onken, Annette; Said, Abdulrahman K; Jørstad, Melissa; Jenum, Pål A; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSI) are frequent and cause high case-fatality rates. Urgent antibiotic treatment can save patients' lives, but antibiotic resistance can render antibiotic therapy futile. This study is the first to collect epidemiological data on BSI from Unguja, Zanzibar. Clinical data and blood for culturing and susceptibility testing of isolated microbes were obtained from 469 consecutively enrolled neonates, children and adults presenting with signs of systemic infections at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital (MMH), Zanzibar. Pathogenic bacteria were recovered from the blood of 14% of the patients (66/469). The most frequently isolated microbes were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Infections were community-acquired in 56 patients (85%) and hospital-acquired in 8 (12%) (data missing for 2 patients). BSI caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, K. pneumoniae) was found in 5 cases, of which 3 were community-acquired and 2 hospital-acquired. Three of these patients died. Six of 7 Salmonella Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found in one patient only. This is the first report of ESBL-producing bacteria causing BSI from the Zanzibar archipelago. Our finding of community-acquired BSI caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is alarming, as it implies that these difficult-to-treat bacteria have already spread in the society. In the local setting these infections are virtually impossible to cure. The findings call for increased awareness of rational antibiotic use, infection control and surveillance to counteract the problem of emerging antimicrobial resistance.

  12. High prevalence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 among antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates from geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Chu, Yuki Pui-Shan; Lo, Wai-U; Chow, Kin-Hung; Law, Pierra Y; Tse, Cindy Wing-Sze; Ng, Tak-Keung; Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Que, Tak-Lun

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the subclones within Escherichia coli ST131 predominantly involved isolates from Western countries. This study assessed the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance attributed to this clonal group. A total of 340 consecutive, non-duplicated urinary E. coli isolates originating from four clinical laboratories in Hong Kong in 2013 were tested. ST131 prevalence among the total isolates was 18.5 % (63/340) and was higher among inpatient isolates (23.0 %) than outpatient isolates (11.8 %, P<0.001), and higher among isolates from patients aged ≥65 years than from patients aged 18-50 years and 51-64 years (25.4 vs 3.4 and 4.0 %, respectively, P<0.001). Of the 63 ST131 isolates, 43 (68.3 %) isolates belonged to the H30 subclone, whereas the remaining isolates belonged to H41 (n = 17), H54 (n = 2) and H22 (n = 1). All H30 isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant, of which 18.6 % (8/43) belonged to the H30-Rx subclone. Twenty-six (41.3 %) ST131 isolates were ESBL-producers, of which 19 had blaCTX-M-14 (12 non-H30-Rx, two H30-Rx and five H41), six had blaCTX-M-15 (five non-H30-Rx and one H30-Rx) and one was blaCTX-M-negative (H30). In conclusion, ST131 accounts for a large share of the antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates from geriatric patients. Unlike previous reports, ESBL-producing ST131 strains mainly belonged to non-H30-Rx rather than the H30-Rx subclone, with blaCTX-M-14 as the dominant enzyme type. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on household and small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vinh Trung; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Ho, Huynh Mai; Ha, Thanh Tuyen; Campbell, James I.; Nguyen, Thi Nhung; Hoang, Ngoc Nhung; Pham, Van Minh; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hardon, Anita; Thai, Quoc Hieu; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli isolates on household and small-scale chicken farms, common in southern Vietnam, and to investigate the association of antimicrobial resistance with farming practices and antimicrobial usage. Methods We collected data on farming and antimicrobial usage from 208 chicken farms. E. coli was isolated from boot swab samples using MacConkey agar (MA) and MA with ceftazidime, nalidixic acid or gentamicin. Isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials and for ESBL production. Risk factor analyses were carried out, using logistic regression, at both the bacterial population and farm levels. Results E. coli resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins was detected on 201 (96.6%), 191 (91.8%) and 77 (37.0%) of the farms, respectively. Of the 895 E. coli isolates, resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 178 (19.9%), 291 (32.5%) and 29 (3.2%) of the isolates, respectively. Ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly associated with quinolone usage (OR = 2.26) and tetracycline usage (OR = 1.70). ESBL-producing E. coli were associated with farms containing fish ponds (OR = 4.82). Conclusions Household and small farms showed frequent antimicrobial usage associated with a high prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antimicrobials. Given the weak biocontainment, the high prevalence of resistant E. coli could represent a risk to the environment and to humans. PMID:25755000

  14. Field trial evaluating changes in prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from growing broilers medicated with enrofloxacin, apramycin and amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo Martins; Belo, Anabela; Gonçalves, José; Bernardo, Fernando

    2009-11-18

    The present study investigates, under field conditions, the influence of antimicrobial administration on prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from growing broilers. For this purpose, a group of 16,000 commercial broiler chickens was treated with enrofloxacin from day 1 to day 3, gentamicin from day 19 to day 21, and ampicillin from day 26 to day 28. A control group of 16,000 broilers was placed in the same controlled environment poultry house. Fecal (from both groups) and feed samples were collected at regular intervals. Few E. coli isolates were obtained from either farm environment or poultry feed samples, while enterococci were found to be ubiquitous among these samples. The frequency of resistance against most antimicrobials tested was significantly higher (P<0.05) in E. coli isolated from broilers receiving intermittent antimicrobial pressure than that from non-medicated broilers, whereas in enterococci these differences were only observed among structurally related antimicrobial drugs and over a short period of time. By the time the broilers reached market age (33 days), several multi-resistant E. coli and enterococci were detected in the feces of the medicated group. Results suggest that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli was mainly medication-dependent, whereas among enterococci, changes observed over time were apparently influenced by factors apart from antimicrobial exposure, namely the resistance organisms previously present in farm environment and those present in feedstuffs.

  15. Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.

  16. Impact of wastewater from different sources on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in sewage treatment plants in South India.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Masato; Senba, Hironobu; Otagiri, Haruna; Prabhasankar, Valipparambil P; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Ian Joshua, Derrick; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2015-05-01

    The sewage treatment plant (STP) is one of the most important interfaces between the human population and the aquatic environment, leading to contamination of the latter by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To identify factors affecting the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, water samples were collected from three different STPs in South India. STP1 exclusively treats sewage generated by a domestic population. STP2 predominantly treats sewage generated by a domestic population with a mix of hospital effluent. STP3 treats effluents generated exclusively by a hospital. The water samples were collected between three intermediate treatment steps including equalization, aeration, and clarification, in addition to the outlet to assess the removal rates of bacteria as the effluent passed through the treatment plant. The samples were collected in three different seasons to study the effect of seasonal variation. Escherichia coli isolated from the water samples were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. The results of logistic regression analysis suggest that the hospital wastewater inflow significantly increased the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, whereas the treatment processes and sampling seasons did not affect the prevalence of these isolates. A bias in the genotype distribution of E. coli was observed among the isolates obtained from STP3. In conclusion, hospital wastewaters should be carefully treated to prevent the contamination of Indian environment with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shigella in Brazilian children with acute diarrhoea: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mireille Ângela Bernardes; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira; Collares, Guilherme Birchal; Péret-Filho, Luciano Amedée; Penna, Francisco José; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres

    2013-02-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Among diarrhoeagenic agents, Shigella should be highlighted due to its prevalence and the severity of the associated disease. Here, we assessed Shigella prevalence, drug susceptibility and virulence factors. Faeces from 157 children with diarrhoea who sought treatment at the Children's Hospital João Paulo II, a reference children´s hospital in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were cultured and drug susceptibility of the Shigella isolates was determined by the disk diffusion technique. Shigella virulence markers were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The bacterium was recovered from 10.8% of the children (88.2% Shigella sonnei). The ipaH, iuc, sen and ial genes were detected in strains isolated from all shigellosis patients; set1A was only detected in Shigella flexneri. Additionally, patients were infected by Shigella strains of different ial, sat, sen and set1A genotypes. Compared to previous studies, we observed a marked shift in the distribution of species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei and high rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance.

  18. Shigella in Brazilian children with acute diarrhoea: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mireille Ângela Bernardes; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira; Collares, Guilherme Birchal; Péret-Filho, Luciano Amedée; Penna, Francisco José; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Among diarrhoeagenic agents, Shigella should be highlighted due to its prevalence and the severity of the associated disease. Here, we assessed Shigella prevalence, drug susceptibility and virulence factors. Faeces from 157 children with diarrhoea who sought treatment at the Children's Hospital João Paulo II, a reference children´s hospital in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were cultured and drug susceptibility of the Shigella isolates was determined by the disk diffusion technique. Shigella virulence markers were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The bacterium was recovered from 10.8% of the children (88.2% Shigella sonnei). The ipaH, iuc, sen and ial genes were detected in strains isolated from all shigellosis patients; set1A was only detected in Shigella flexneri. Additionally, patients were infected by Shigella strains of different ial, sat, sen and set1A genotypes. Compared to previous studies, we observed a marked shift in the distribution of species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei and high rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. PMID:23440111

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus in dairy farms, abattoir and humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Takele; Hayishe, Halefom; Gizaw, Fikru; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Abunna, Fufa; Mammo, Bedaso; Ayana, Dinka; Waktole, Hika; Abdi, Reta Duguma

    2017-04-28

    Staphylococcus species cause mastitis and wound infection in livestock and food poisoning in humans through ingestion of contaminated foods, including meat and dairy products. They are evolving pathogens in that they readily acquire drug resistance, and multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococci and their drug resistance in dairy farms and abattoir settings of Addis Ababa. In this cross-sectional study, 193 samples of milk, meat, equipment and humans working in the dairy farms and abattoir were collected (dairy farms = 72 and abattoir sources = 121). Staphylococcus isolation and identification at the species level was done according to ISO-6888-3 using biochemical characteristics. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted for 43 of the isolates using 15 antimicrobial agents commonly used for humans and livestock by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. Staphylococcus organism were isolated from 92 (47.7%) of the total 193 samples, 50% in the dairy farms and 46.3% in the abattoir. The isolated species were S. aureus (n = 31; 16.1%), S. intermedius (n = 21; 10.9%), S. hyicus (n = 16; 8.3%), and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (n = 24; 12.4%). Gentamycin was effective drug as all isolates (n = 43; 100%) were susceptible to it and followed by kanamycin (n = 39; 90.7%). However, the majority of the isolates showed resistance to penicillin-G (95.3%), nalidixic acid (88.4%), cloxacillin (79.1%), vancomycin (65.1%) and cefoxitin (55.8%). Of the 15 S. aureus tested for drug susceptibility, 73.3% of them were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin (VRSA) and all of the 15 isolates showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) to >3 drugs. Also, all of the tested CNS (100%), S. hyicus (100%) and the majority of S. intermedius isolates (88.9%) developed MDR. Alarmingly, the Staphylococcus isolates

  20. Differences in MRSA prevalence and resistance patterns in a tertiary center before and after joining an international program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Olivera; Jovanovic, Snezana; Stosovic, Branka; Tosic, Tanja; Jovanovic, Milica; Nartey, Naomi; Todorovic, Jovana; Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana

    2016-12-08

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia. Isolation and identification of bacterial strains were done following standard microbiological procedures. During the AMR surveillance, nearly twice more bloodstream samples were collected compared to the year without surveillance (1,528 vs. 855). In total, 43 isolates of MRSA were identified. MRSA was significantly more prevalent during the AMR surveillance compared to the previous year [14 (66.7%) to 29 (76.3%); P = 0.046]. During the AMR surveillance, MRSA more frequently originated from medical departments compared to intensive care unit, surgical department, and internal medicine (P = 0.027) indicating increasing MRSA infections in patients with less severe clinical condition and no apparent risk factors. Higher prevalence of MRSA and its lower susceptibility to erythromycin were revealed by implementation of active AMR surveillance, which may reflect more thoughtful collection of bloodstream samples from patients with suspected BSI.

  1. Salmonella in healthy pigs: prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance observed during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Futagawa-Saito, K; Hiratsuka, S; Kamibeppu, M; Hirosawa, T; Oyabu, K; Fukuyasu, T

    2008-08-01

    To determine prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in healthy pigs, faecal samples from 6771 pigs on 73 farms collected during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 were examined. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials: benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, cephaloridine, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, fradiomycin, colistin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Farm-level and pig-level Salmonella prevalences were 35.5% and 2.2% in 1998-1999, and 35.7% and 3.3% in 2004-2005. Prevalence by growth stage was 2.4% for sows, 3.3% for weaned pigs, 2.7% for fattening pigs and 3.8% for finishing pigs. The predominant serotypes identified were Agona (28.4%), Typhimurium (17.9%) and Infantis (16.4%) in 1998-1999, and Typhimurium (32.5%), Anatum (24.6%) and Infantis (13.5%) in 2004-2005. Compared with the 1998-1999 isolates, the 2004-2005 isolates showed significantly higher rates of resistance to all the antimicrobials except tetracyclines (P<0.01 to P<0.05) and resistance to 2 antimicrobials [19.4% (13/67) vs. 39.7% (50/126), P<0.01]. This study provides national estimates of Salmonella prevalence in healthy pigs of different growth stages in Japan.

  2. Prevalence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-positive staphylococci recovered from raw cow milk.

    PubMed

    Rola, J G; Korpysa-Dzirba, W; Czubkowska, A; Osek, J

    2015-07-01

    Raw milk may be contaminated by enterotoxigenic coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Several of these microorganisms show antimicrobial resistance, which poses a potential risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of CPS isolated from cow milk. A total of 115 samples were analyzed for the presence of CPS according to the International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 6888-2). The genes were identified using 2multiplex PCR assays. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Overall, 71 samples (62%) were contaminated with CPS and 69 isolates were further analyzed. Among them, 20 (29%) strains harbored the enterotoxin genes. The most commonly detected staphylococcal enterotoxin markers were sed, sej, and ser, whereas none of the analyzed isolates possessed the seb and see genes. Almost one-half of the tested strains (43%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to penicillin was the most common, followed by sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, and streptomycin. None of the strains was positive for the mecA and mecC (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) genes. These results indicate that enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant CPS strains are present in raw milk, which may be a potential risk for public health.

  3. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  4. Short communication: Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and resistant traits of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cheese samples in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kürekci, Cemil

    2016-04-01

    A total of 17 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates obtained from 72 cheese samples were included in this study. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates obtained in this study comprised 6 (35.3%) Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 3 (17.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis, 2 (11.8%) Staphylococcus hominis, 2 (11.8%) Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 1 (5.9%) Staphylococcus xylosus, 1 (5.9%) Staphylococcus vitulinus, 1 (5.9%) Staphylococcus lentus, and 1 (5.9%) Staphylococcus warneri. The disc diffusion assay revealed that the highest occurrence of resistance was found for penicillin (76.5%), erythromycin (35.3%), tetracycline (29.4%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (17.6%) among CNS isolates. However, all CNS isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, streptomycin, linezolid, and gentamycin. Of the isolates, 64.7% carried at least one of the following antimicrobial resistance genes: mecA, tet(M), erm(B), blaZ, ant(4')-la, aph(3')-IIIa, and lnu(A). The results suggest that improved hygienic conditions, such as safer handling of raw milk, proper cleaning, and sanitation during the manufacturing in the dairies, are urgently needed in Turkey.

  5. Antimicrobial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn; Silley, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of the mechanisms associated with the development of antimicrobial drug resistance, international differences in definitions of resistance, ongoing efforts to track shifts in drug susceptibility, and factors that can influence the selection of therapeutic intervention. The latter presents a matrix of complex variables that includes the mechanism of drug action, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the antimicrobial agent in the targeted patient population, the pharmacodynamics (PD) of the bacterial response to the antimicrobial agent, the PK/PD relationship that will influence dose selection, and the integrity of the host immune system. Finally, the differences between bacterial tolerance and bacterial resistance are considered, and the potential for non-traditional anti-infective therapies is discussed.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures. PMID:25182443

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  8. Impact of UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection on the Prevalence of Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Wastewater Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm2 and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters. PMID:24727265

  9. Impact of UV and peracetic acid disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm(2) and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters.

  10. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact.

  11. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Bahizi, Gloria; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens M. B.; Vudriko, Patrick; Atuheire, Collins; Kabasa, John David

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended. PMID:28246573

  12. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Bahizi, Gloria; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens M B; Vudriko, Patrick; Atuheire, Collins; Kabasa, John David; Kaneene, John B

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended.

  13. Effects of Subtherapeutic Administration of Antimicrobial Agents to Beef Cattle on the Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis†

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. D.; McAllister, T. A.; Busz, H. W.; Yanke, L. J.; Morck, D. W.; Olson, M. E.; Read, R. R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of antimicrobial agents on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter isolates recovered from 300 beef cattle maintained in an experimental feedlot was monitored over a 315-day period (11 sample times). Groups of calves were assigned to one of the following antimicrobial treatments: chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (CS), chlortetracycline alone (Ct), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin phosphate, and no antimicrobial agent (i.e., control treatment). In total, 3,283 fecal samples were processed for campylobacters over the course of the experiment. Of the 2,052 bacterial isolates recovered, 92% were Campylobacter (1,518 were Campylobacter hyointestinalis and 380 were C. jejuni). None of the antimicrobial treatments decreased the isolation frequency of C. jejuni relative to the control treatment. In contrast, C. hyointestinalis was isolated less frequently from animals treated with CS and to a lesser extent from animals treated with Ct. The majority (≥94%) of C. jejuni isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, but more isolates with resistance to tetracycline were recovered from animals fed Ct. All of the 1,500 isolates of C. hyointestinalis examined were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. In contrast, 11%, 10%, and 1% of these isolates were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, and ampicillin, respectively. The number of animals from which C. hyointestinalis isolates with resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline were recovered differed among the antimicrobial treatments. Only Ct administration increased the carriage rates of erythromycin-resistant isolates of C. hyointestinalis, and the inclusion of CS in the diet increased the number of animals from which tetracycline-resistant isolates were recovered. The majority of C. hyointestinalis isolates with resistance to tetracycline were obtained from cohorts within a single pen, and most of these isolates were recovered from cattle during feeding of a

  14. Prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial resistance, and somatic cell counts in organic dairy production: current knowledge and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Rajić, Andrijana; Waddell, Lisa; Parker, Sarah; Harris, Janet; Roberts, Karen C; Kydd, Robyn; Greig, Judy; Baynton, Ashley

    2009-06-01

    The review's objective was to identify, evaluate, and summarize the findings of all primary research published in English or French, investigating prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, bacterial resistance to antimicrobials, and somatic cell count (SCC) in organic dairy production, or comparing organic and conventional dairy production, using a systematic review methodology. Among 47 studies included in the review, 32 comparison studies were suitable for quality assessment. Fifteen studies were not assessed for quality, due to their descriptive nature or a low sample size (n prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria in 12 and 7 studies, respectively. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli including Shiga toxin-producing strains, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and SCC were investigated in 2, 7, 4, 6, and 15 studies, respectively. Contradictory findings were reported for differences in bacterial outcomes and SCC between dairy production types (organic vs. conventional). Lower prevalence of AMR on organic dairy farms was reported more consistently in studies conducted in the United States, as opposed to those conducted in Europe. These conflicting findings may result from geographic differences in organic production regulations governing antimicrobial usage, use of antimicrobials in conventional dairy production, and baseline prevalence, as well as laboratory methods, study designs, or methods of analysis employed. The majority (four of seven) of MDR investigations reported no significant differences in prevalence. Overall, only 9 of 32 studies met all five methodological soundness criteria. More well designed, executed, and reported primary research is needed at the farm and post-farm levels.

  15. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella isolates and antimicrobial resistance in poultry meat from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ran-Hee; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Wei, Bai; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of Salmonella was assessed in duck and chicken meat collected from supermarkets, traditional markets, internet shopping malls, and wholesale markets in Jeonlado, South Korea, in 2013. Salmonella contamination was found in 51.3% of duck meat samples and 3.7% of chicken meat samples. Salmonella contamination of duck meat samples differed by meat type, i.e., 69.8% of samples of whole ducks and 33.9% of samples of duck pieces. Six serotypes were identified from 64 Salmonella isolates in duck meat: Salmonella Typhimurium (37.5%), Salmonella Enteritidis (21.8%), Salmonella Stanley (3.1%), Salmonella Regent (1.6%), Salmonella Winterthur (3.1%), and Salmonella Westhampton (1.6%). All isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole was most common (93.8% of isolates), followed by resistance to nalidixic acid (59.4%), ceftazidime (26.6%), and ampicillin (26.6%). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report Salmonella contamination in duck meat from Korea. Duck meat should be considered an important source of foodborne pathogens.

  17. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Tolerant Bacteria and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Isolated from Ornamental Fish and Their Carriage Water

    PubMed Central

    Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to ≥15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM−1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. PMID:20027306

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David; Walsh, Fiona

    2016-04-19

    In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Thanner et al.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Retail Pork in Major Village Markets in Tai'an Region, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Qin, Kun; Zhou, Yufa

    2017-10-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate Salmonella contamination in retail pork at major village markets of the Tai'an region, China. In total, 200 retail pork samples were collected from four village markets between June 2015 and February 2016, of which 69 samples (34.5%) were determined to be positive for Salmonella. Eleven serotypes were identified from the 69 Salmonella isolates, and Salmonella Derby was the most common (18 of 69, 26.1%), followed by Typhimurium (17 of 69, 24.6%) and Meleagridis (11 of 69, 15.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that antimicrobial resistance against tetracycline was the most prevalent (42 of 69, 60.9%), but antimicrobial resistance against both ceftriaxone and cefotaxime was 1.4% (1 of 69) and 2.9% (2 of 69), respectively. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that the 69 Salmonella isolates were divided into 11 sequence types (STs), among which ST40 (18 of 69, 26.1%) was the most common, followed by ST34 (15 of 69, 21.7%) and ST64 (13 of 69, 18.8%). Collectively, retail pork at village markets in the Tai'an region has a high Salmonella contamination rate, and these isolates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance. However, the absence of a dominant ST demonstrates that the Salmonella isolates from retail pork may be of diverse origins.

  1. Comparison of the prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens, potentially zoonotic bacteria and bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in organic and conventional poultry, swine and beef production: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Rajić, A; Wilhelm, B J; Waddell, L; Parker, S; McEwen, S A

    2009-09-01

    The prevalences of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic bacteria or bacteria resistant to antimicrobials in organic and conventional poultry, swine and beef production were compared using systematic review and meta-analysis methodology. Thirty-eight articles were included in the review. The prevalence of Campylobacter was higher in organic broiler chickens at slaughter, but no difference in prevalence was observed in retail chicken. Campylobacter isolates from conventional retail chicken were more likely to be ciprofloxacin-resistant (odds ratio 9.62, 95% confidence interval 5.67-16.35). Bacteria isolated from conventional animal production exhibited a higher prevalence of resistance to antimicrobials; however, the recovery of some resistant strains was also identified in organic animal production, where there is an apparent reduced antimicrobial selection pressure. Limited or inconsistent research was identified in studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic bacteria in other food-animal species. There is a need for further research of sufficient quality in this area.

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli from domestic pets and assessment of associated risk markers using a generalized linear mixed model.

    PubMed

    Leite-Martins, Liliana R; Mahú, Maria I M; Costa, Ana L; Mendes, Angelo; Lopes, Elisabete; Mendonça, Denisa M V; Niza-Ribeiro, João J R; de Matos, Augusto J F; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global public health problem, which is caused by the use of antimicrobials in both human and animal medical practice. The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were as follows: (1) to determine the prevalence of resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of pets from the Porto region of Portugal against 19 antimicrobial agents and (2) to assess the individual, clinical and environmental characteristics associated with each pet as risk markers for the AMR of the E. coli isolates. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from pets selected using a systematic random procedure from the ordinary population of animals attending the Veterinary Hospital of Porto University. A total of 78 dogs and 22 cats were sampled with the objective of isolating E. coli. The animals' owners, who allowed the collection of fecal samples from their pets, answered a questionnaire to collect information about the markers that could influence the AMR of the enteric E. coli. Chromocult tryptone bile X-glucuronide agar was used for E. coli isolation, and the disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. The data were analyzed using a multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Several (49.7%) of the 396 isolates obtained in this study were multidrug-resistant. The E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to the antimicrobial agent's ampicillin (51.3%), cephalothin (46.7%), tetracycline (45.2%) and streptomycin (43.4%). Previous quinolone treatment was the main risk marker for the presence of AMR for 12 (ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aztreonam) of the 15 antimicrobials assessed. Coprophagic habits were also positively associated with an increased risk of AMR for six drugs, ampicillin, amoxicillin

  3. A cost analysis of introducing an infectious disease specialist-guided antimicrobial stewardship in an area with relatively low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Lanbeck, Peter; Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Resman, Fredrik

    2016-07-27

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been widely introduced in hospitals as a response to increasing antimicrobial resistance. Although such programs are commonly used, the long-term effects on antimicrobial resistance as well as societal economics are uncertain. We performed a cost analysis of an antimicrobial stewardship program introduced in Malmö, Sweden in 20 weeks 2013 compared with a corresponding control period in 2012. All direct costs and opportunity costs related to the stewardship intervention were calculated for both periods. Costs during the stewardship period were directly compared to costs in the control period and extrapolated to a yearly cost. Two main analyses were performed, one including only comparable direct costs (analysis one) and one including comparable direct and opportunity costs (analysis two). An extra analysis including all comparable direct costs including costs related to length of hospital stay (analysis three) was performed, but deemed as unrepresentative. According to analysis one, the cost per year was SEK 161 990 and in analysis two the cost per year was SEK 5 113. Since the two cohorts were skewed in terms of size and of infection severity as a consequence of the program, and since short-term patient outcomes have been demonstrated to be unchanged by the intervention, the costs pertaining to patient outcomes were not included in the analysis, and we suggest that analysis two provides the most correct cost calculation. In this analysis, the main cost drivers were the physician time and nursing time. A sensitivity analysis of analysis two suggested relatively modest variation under changing assumptions. The total yearly cost of introducing an infectious disease specialist-guided, audit-based antimicrobial stewardship in a department of internal medicine, including direct costs and opportunity costs, was calculated to be as low as SEK 5 113.

  4. [Neruda and antimicrobial resistance].

    PubMed

    Cotera, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been a problem in medicine, since their incorporation to clinical practice. Numerous papers have been written on the subject. The analysis of two poems by Pablo Neruda "How much does a man live" and "Larynx", included in the volume "Estravagario" and published for the first time in 1957 and 1958, give us an incredible revelation about the concept of resistance. In these poems aureomycin, the first antimicrobial of the family of tetracyclines, was included as a poetic figure and the therapeutic action of antimicrobials was described. "Never so much bugs died I tons of them fell I but the few that remained olive I manifested their perversity". These writings incorporated novel concepts, even for physicians of that time and described the closeness of death that a patient may perceive during the course of a given disease. The capacity of Pablo Neruda to extract the essence of situations and to anticipate to conditions that only years later became clinically relevant problems, is noteworthy.

  5. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on the prevalence, distribution, and quantity of antimicrobial resistance genes in the fecal metagenome of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Scott, H Morgan; Vinasco, Javier; Nagaraja, T G; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Bai, Jianfa; Norby, Bo; Renter, David G; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Tokach, Mike D

    2015-05-01

    Use of in-feed antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) in food animals is fiercely debated as a cause of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens; as a result, alternatives to antibiotics such as heavy metals have been proposed. We used a total community DNA approach to experimentally investigate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation on the presence and quantity of antimicrobial resistance elements in the gut microbial ecology of pigs. Total community DNA was extracted from 569 fecal samples collected weekly over a 6-week period from groups of 5 pigs housed in 32 pens that were randomized to receive either control, CTC, copper, or copper plus CTC regimens. Qualitative and quantitative PCR were used to detect the presence of 14 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and to quantify gene copies of tetA, tetB, blaCMY-2 (a 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance gene), and pcoD (a copper resistance gene), respectively. The detection of tetA and tetB decreased over the subsequent sampling periods, whereas the prevalence of tetC and tetP increased. CTC and copper plus CTC supplementation increased both the prevalence and gene copy numbers of tetA, while decreasing both the prevalence and gene copies of tetB. In summary, tet gene presence was initially very diverse in the gut bacterial community of weaned pigs; thereafter, copper and CTC supplementation differentially impacted the prevalence and quantity of the various tetracycline, ceftiofur and copper resistance genes resulting in a less diverse gene population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM CARCASSES, PROCESSING FACILITIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING SMALL SCALE POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Chotinun, Suwit; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Unger, Fred; Tadee, Pakpoom; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide, including Thai- land, and poultry meat plays a role as a vehicle for the spread of the disease from animals to humans. The prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from 41 small scale poultry slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined during July 2011 through May 2012. Salmonella's prevalence in live poultry, car- casses, waste water, and soil around processing plants were 3.2%, 7.3%, 22.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Eighteen different serotypes were identified, the most common being Corvallis (15.2%), followed by Rissen (13.9%), Hadar (12.7%), Enteritidis (10.1%), [I. 4,5,12:i:-] (8.8%), Stanley (8.8%), and Weltevreden (8.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 68.4% of the Salmonella spp were resistant to at least one antimicrobial while 50.6% showed multiple drug resis- tance (MDR). Specifically, 44.3% of Salmonella were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by streptomycin (41.8%), ampicillin (34.2%), tetracycline (34.2%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20.3%). Salmonella contamination was found in processing lines, carcasses, and in the environment around the processing sta- tions. These findings indicate that improving hygiene management in small scale poultry slaughterhouses as well as prudent use of antimicrobial drugs is urgently needed if Salmonella contamination is to be reduced.

  7. Five-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Urinary Escherichia coli at an Australian Tertiary Hospital: Time Series Analyses of Prevalence Data

    PubMed Central

    Fasugba, Oyebola; Mitchell, Brett G.; Mnatzaganian, George; Das, Anindita; Collignon, Peter; Gardner, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the antimicrobial resistance temporal trends and seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) over five years, from 2009 to 2013, and compares prevalence of resistance in hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI. A cross sectional study of E. coli UTIs from patients attending a tertiary referral hospital in Canberra, Australia was undertaken. Time series analysis was performed to illustrate resistance trends. Only the first positive E. coli UTI per patient per year was included in the analysis. A total of 15,022 positive cultures from 8724 patients were identified. Results are based on 5333 first E. coli UTIs, from 4732 patients, of which 84.2% were community-acquired. Five-year hospital and community resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (41.9%) and trimethoprim (20.7%). Resistance was lowest for meropenem (0.0%), nitrofurantoin (2.7%), piperacillin-tazobactam (2.9%) and ciprofloxacin (6.5%). Resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, gentamicin and piperacillin-tazobactam were significantly higher in hospital- compared to community-acquired UTIs (9.3% versus 6.2%; 15.4% versus 9.7%; 5.2% versus 3.7% and 5.2% versus 2.5%, respectively). Trend analysis showed significant increases in resistance over five years for amoxycillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefazolin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin (P<0.05, for all) with seasonal pattern observed for trimethoprim resistance (augmented Dickey-Fuller statistic = 4.136; P = 0.006). An association between ciprofloxacin resistance, cefazolin resistance and ceftriaxone resistance with older age was noted. Given the relatively high resistance rates for ampicillin and trimethoprim, these antimicrobials should be reconsidered for empirical treatment of UTIs in this patient population. Our findings have important implications for UTI treatment based on setting of acquisition. PMID:27711250

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes isolated from laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena, Chad.

    PubMed

    Tabo, Djim-adjim; Diguimbaye, Colette D; Granier, Sophie A; Moury, Frédérique; Brisabois, Anne; Elgroud, Rachid; Millemann, Yves

    2013-09-27

    This study aimed at updating knowledge on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella isolated from poultry in the province of N'Djamena, Chad. The results collected during this study provide the first baseline data on the prevalence of contamination by Salmonella in laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena. All samples were collected from sixteen poultry farms over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Diagnostic methods used during this study allowed to isolate eighty four Salmonella strains, belonging to twenty seven different serotypes. The most frequent serotypes were Salmonella Colindale (19%) followed by S. Minnesota (18%) S. Havana and S. Riggil (each 6%), S. Kottbus and S. Amager (4.7%), S. Idikan, Mississipi, and Muenchen (3.6%). Other serotypes were poorly represented. The majority of these serotypes were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except some S. Colindale isolates that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, S. Limete resistant to three antibiotics and S. Minnesota isolates resistant to five different antimicrobial classes. The different serotypes and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in Chad, the contribution of avian isolates to human salmonellosis and Salmonella's capacity to colonize all types of environment worldwide.

  9. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and small ruminant veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lisa C; Menzies, Paula I

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognized as an emerging issue in the practice of veterinary medicine. Although little surveillance and research has been completed on the prevalence of AMR and associated risk factors in small ruminants, evidence of AMR is present in many countries. Furthermore, antimicrobial use (AMU) practices in sheep have been shown to be associated with increased resistance, highlighting the issue of prudent use of these drugs in many countries. Furthermore, AMU practices in sheep have been shown to be associated with increased resistance, highlighting the issue of prudent use of these drugs.

  11. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Risk Factors for Thermophilic Campylobacter Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Humans in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Komba, E V G; Mdegela, R H; Msoffe, P L M; Nielsen, L N; Ingmer, H

    2015-11-01

    The genus Campylobacter comprises members known to be a leading cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. A study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in humans in Morogoro, Eastern Tanzania. Isolation of Campylobacter from stool specimens adopted the Cape Town protocol. Campylobacter isolates were preliminarily identified by conventional phenotypic tests and subsequently confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial resistance testing employed the disc diffusion method. A small proportion of the test isolates was also subjected to agar dilution method. Risk factors for human illness were determined in an unmatched case-control study. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 11.4% of the screened individuals (n = 1195). The agreement between PCR and MALDI-TOF was perfect (κ = 1.0). Symptomatics and young individuals were infected with higher numbers than asymptomatic and adults, respectively. The majority (84.6%) of the isolates were C. jejuni and the remaining were C. coli. Isolates had highest resistance (95.6%) for colistin sulphate and lowest for ciprofloxacin (22.1%). The rates of resistance for other antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol) ranged from 44.1% to 89%. Comparison between disc diffusion and agar dilution methods indicated a good correlation, and the tests were in agreement to each other (κ ≥ 0.75). Human illness was found to be associated with young age and consumption of chicken meat and pre-prepared salad. Our data indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in humans in the study area. There is a need for routine investigation of the presence of the organisms in gastroenteritis aetiology, including determination of their antibiotic

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large. PMID:27642307

  13. [Antimicrobial resistance among E. coli in urinary specimens: prevalence data from three laboratories in Zurich between 1985 and 2010].

    PubMed

    Savaria, F; Zbinden, R; Wüst, J; Burnens, A; Ledergerber, B; Weber, R; Kovari, H

    2012-04-25

    Urinary tract infections in women are common. Drug resistance among Escherichia coli, the most frequent uropathogen, has increased worldwide. In a prevalence study we investigated the local antibiotic susceptibility of this microorganism in urinary specimens of three laboratories in Zurich. Resistance rates against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 2010 were 28%, 16% against quinolones and 16% against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Resistance prevalence for nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin were low with 3,6%, resp. 0,7%. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli has rapidly increased to 4,3% in 2010. Based on this data and according to the international guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis, therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and quinolones are no longer recommended. Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin are an appropriate choice. Microbiological testing is advised.

  14. Prevalence, Enumeration, Serotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Carcasses at Two Large United States Pork Processing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Shackelford, Steven D.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella enterica contamination on carcasses in two large U.S. commercial pork processing plants. The carcasses were sampled at three points, before scalding (prescald), after dehairing/polishing but before evisceration (preevisceration), and after chilling (chilled final). The overall prevalences of Salmonella on carcasses at these three sampling points, prescald, preevisceration, and after chilling, were 91.2%, 19.1%, and 3.7%, respectively. At one of the two plants, the prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for each of the carcass sampling points. The prevalences of carcasses with enumerable Salmonella at prescald, preevisceration, and after chilling were 37.7%, 4.8%, and 0.6%, respectively. A total of 294 prescald carcasses had Salmonella loads of >1.9 log CFU/100 cm2, but these carcasses were not equally distributed between the two plants, as 234 occurred at the plant with higher Salmonella prevalences. Forty-one serotypes were identified on prescald carcasses with Salmonella enterica serotypes Derby, Typhimurium, and Anatum predominating. S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and London were the most common of the 24 serotypes isolated from preevisceration carcasses. The Salmonella serotypes Johannesburg and Typhimurium were the most frequently isolated serotypes of the 9 serotypes identified from chilled final carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for selected isolates from each carcass sampling point. Multiple drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents, was identified for 71.2%, 47.8%, and 77.5% of the tested isolates from prescald, preevisceration, and chilled final carcasses, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the interventions used by pork processing plants greatly reduce the prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses, but MDR Salmonella was isolated from 3.2% of the final carcasses sampled. PMID:22327585

  15. Prevalence, serotype diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in imported shipments of spice offered for entry to the United States, FY2007-FY2009.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jane M; Kleinmeier, Daria; Hammack, Thomas S; Westerman, Ann

    2013-06-01

    In response to increased concerns about spice safety, the U.S. FDA initiated research to characterize the prevalence of Salmonella in imported spices. Shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United Sates were sampled during the fiscal years 2007-2009. The mean shipment prevalence for Salmonella was 0.066 (95% CI 0.057-0.076). A wide diversity of Salmonella serotypes was isolated from spices; no single serotype constituted more than 7% of the isolates. A small percentage of spice shipments were contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains (8.3%). Trends in shipment prevalence for Salmonella associated with spice properties, extent of processing, and export country, were examined. A larger proportion of shipments of spices derived from fruit/seeds or leaves of plants were contaminated than those derived from the bark/flower of spice plants. Salmonella prevalence was larger for shipments of ground/cracked capsicum and coriander than for shipments of their whole spice counterparts. No difference in prevalence was observed between shipments of spice blends and non-blended spices. Some shipments reported to have been subjected to a pathogen reduction treatment prior to being offered for U.S. entry were found contaminated. Statistical differences in Salmonella shipment prevalence were also identified on the basis of export country.

  16. Quantifying Antimicrobial Resistance at Veal Calf Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Angela B.; Wagenaar, Jaap; Stegeman, Arjan; Vernooij, Hans; Mevius, Dik

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s) by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution) and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p≤0.05). Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which 90 isolates are

  17. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-07

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P<0.0001) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; n=16, P<0.01), whereas only 1 strain belonged to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 1 to EAEC and 2 to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains. Of the 82 DEC isolates, 22 O and 13H serogroups were detected, including some specific serogroups (O91, O103, O115, O119, O126, and O157) which have been associated with human diarrheal infections. Phylogenetic group A and B1 were predominant among the DEC isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline was most common (49%), followed by nalidixic acid (28%), ampicillin (24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20%), and cephalothin (18%). All isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Of the resistant strains, 44% (22/50) demonstrated resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA

  18. Identification and antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from treated wastewater effluents in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefisoye, Martins A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E. coli isolates against 17 common antibiotics in human therapy and veterinary medicine. Seven virulence associated and fourteen antibiotic resistance genes were also evaluated by molecular methods. Molecular characterization revealed five pathotypes of E. coli in the following proportions: enterotoxigenic ETEC (1.4%), enteropathogenic EPEC (7.6%), enteroaggregative EAEC (7.6%), neonatal meningitis (NMEC) (14.8%), uropathogenic (41.7%), and others (26.9%). Isolates showed varying (1.7-70.6%) degrees of resistance to 15 of the test antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was exhibited by 32.7% of the isolates, with the commonest multiple antibiotic-resistant phenotype (MARP) being AP-T-CFX (12 isolates), while multiple antibiotic-resistant indices (MARI) estimated are 0.23 (Site 1) and 0.24 (Site 2). Associated antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates include: strA (88.2%), aadA (52.9%), cat I (15%), cmlA1 (4.6%), blaTEM (56.4%), tetA (30.4%), tetB (28.4%), tetC (42.2%), tetD (50%), tetK (11.8%), and tetM (68.6%). We conclude that municipal wastewater effluents are important reservoirs for the dissemination of potentially pathogenic E. coli (and possibly other pathogens) and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape and a risk to public health. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Walkty, Andrew J; Adam, Heather J; Baxter, Melanie R; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2012-03-01

    Clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 387) were collected from patients attending nine Canadian hospitals in 2010-2011 and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. B. fragilis (59.9%), Bacteroides ovatus (16.3%), and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (12.7%) accounted for ~90% of isolates collected. Overall rates of percent susceptibility were as follows: 99.7%, metronidazole; 99.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam; 99.2%, imipenem; 97.7%, ertapenem; 92.0%, doripenem; 87.3%, amoxicillin-clavulanate; 80.9%, tigecycline; 65.9%, cefoxitin; 55.6%, moxifloxacin; and 52.2%, clindamycin. Percent susceptibility to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and moxifloxacin was lowest for B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 49, 24.5%), Parabacteroides distasonis/P. merdae (n = 11, 9.1%), and B. ovatus (n = 63, 31.8%), respectively. One isolate (B. thetaiotaomicron) was resistant to metronidazole, and two isolates (both B. fragilis) were resistant to both piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Since the last published surveillance study describing Canadian isolates of B. fragilis group almost 20 years ago (A.-M. Bourgault et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:343-347, 1992), rates of resistance have increased for amoxicillin-clavulanate, from 0.8% (1992) to 6.2% (2010-2011), and for clindamycin, from 9% (1992) to 34.1% (2010-2011).

  20. Engineering Antimicrobials Refractory to Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-drug resistant superbugs are a persistent problem in modern health care, demonstrating the need for a new class of antimicrobials that can address this concern. Triple-acting peptidoglycan hydrolase fusions are a novel class of antimicrobials which have qualities well suited to avoiding resis...

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from broiler chickens, pigs and meat products in Thailand-Cambodia border provinces.

    PubMed

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Tuttle, R Emerson; Poungseree, Jiratchaya; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broiler chickens at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. From these samples, 345 Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Serovars Typhimurium (29%) and Rissen (29%) were the most common serotypes found in Thai and Cambodian isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in 34% and 52% of isolates from Sa Keao and Banteay Meanchey, respectively. The majority of the Thai isolates were resistant to ampicillin (72.4%), whereas most Cambodian isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (71%). Eleven isolates from Sa Keao and 44 from Banteay Meanchey carried class 1 integrons comprising resistance gene cassettes. The most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (61.1%). Six isolates were ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found included blaTEM-1 , blaCTX-M-55 and blaCMY-2 . Some of these class 1 integrons and ESBL genes were located on conjugative plasmid. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella are common in pigs, chickens and their products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. Our findings indicate that class 1 integrons play a role in spread of AMR in the strains in this study.

  2. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from Zambian dairy cattle across different production systems

    PubMed Central

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Bessell, Paul B.; Muma, John B.; McAteer, Sean P.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gibbons, James; Stevens, Mark P.; Gally, David L.; deC. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the use of antibiotics on small, medium and commercial-sized dairy farms in the central region of Zambia and its relationship to antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. A stratified random sample of 104 farms was studied, representing approximately 20% of all dairy farms in the region. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from a random sample of animals and a standardised questionnaire on the usage of antibiotics was completed. An E. coli isolate was obtained from 98.67% (371/376) of the sampled animals and tested for resistance to six classes of antibiotics. The estimated prevalence of resistance across the different farming systems was: tetracycline (10.61; 95%CI: 7.40–13.82), ampicillin (6.02; 95%CI: 3.31–8.73), sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim (4.49; 95%CI: 2.42–6.56), cefpodoxime (1.91; 95%CI: 0.46–3.36), gentamicin (0.89; 95%CI: 0.06–1.84) and ciprofloxacin (0%). Univariate analyses indicated certain diseases, exotic breeds, location, farm size and certain management practices as risk factors for detection of resistance, whereas multivariate analyses showed an association with lumpy skin disease and a protective effect for older animals (>25 months). This study has provided novel insights into the drivers of antibiotic use and their association with antibiotic resistance in an under-studied region of Southern Africa. PMID:26211388

  3. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from Zambian dairy cattle across different production systems.

    PubMed

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Bessell, Paul R; Bessell, Paul B; Muma, John B; McAteer, Sean P; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Gibbons, James; Stevens, Mark P; Gally, David L; deC Bronsvoort, Barend M

    2015-07-27

    This study focused on the use of antibiotics on small, medium and commercial-sized dairy farms in the central region of Zambia and its relationship to antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. A stratified random sample of 104 farms was studied, representing approximately 20% of all dairy farms in the region. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from a random sample of animals and a standardised questionnaire on the usage of antibiotics was completed. An E. coli isolate was obtained from 98.67% (371/376) of the sampled animals and tested for resistance to six classes of antibiotics. The estimated prevalence of resistance across the different farming systems was: tetracycline (10.61; 95%CI: 7.40-13.82), ampicillin (6.02; 95%CI: 3.31-8.73), sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim (4.49; 95%CI: 2.42-6.56), cefpodoxime (1.91; 95%CI: 0.46-3.36), gentamicin (0.89; 95%CI: 0.06-1.84) and ciprofloxacin (0%). Univariate analyses indicated certain diseases, exotic breeds, location, farm size and certain management practices as risk factors for detection of resistance, whereas multivariate analyses showed an association with lumpy skin disease and a protective effect for older animals (>25 months). This study has provided novel insights into the drivers of antibiotic use and their association with antibiotic resistance in an under-studied region of Southern Africa.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Scandinavia after ban of antimicrobial growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Björn; Wierup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The banned use of antimicrobial growth promoters resulted in a considerably decreased use of antimicrobials in food animal production in Sweden (65%), Denmark (47%), Norway (40%) and Finland (27%). The current prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in animal bacterial populations is also considerably lower than in some other countries in the EU. In the swine production, no or limited effect was found in the finisher production (>25 to 30 kg). Temporary negative effects occurred during the post weaning period (7-30 kg). In Denmark, the cost of production from birth to slaughter per pig produced increased by approximately 1.0 euro with a high variability between pig producers. In the broiler production the termination had no significant negative effect on animal health and welfare or on production economy.

  5. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  6. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P < 0·05) higher odds of resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline compared to DP pens. Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures in an Istanbul University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Fatma; Ak, Kenan; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Samasti, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Between January 2001 and September 2006, a total of 459 Escherichia coli and 226 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were isolated from blood samples of patients with bacteremia who were hospitalized at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Blood cultures were analyzed with the Bactec 9120 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). Antimicrobic resistance of the E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains was determined by the disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was examined with the double-disk synergy test. The percentage of ESBL was 40% (182/459) for E. coli and 49% (111/226) for K. pneumoniae. ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were highly resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (60 and 40.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.5 and 48.6%), ciprofloxacin (57.6 and 35%) and gentamicin (38 and 40.5%), respectively; however, lower resistance rates were found for amikacin (19.7 and 16%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (29.6 and 24%). None of the strains were resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains isolated from blood cultures is high and antimicrobial resistance increases. Considerable effort should be made to decrease the ESBL-positive organisms. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in Escherichia coli isolated from yaks (Poephagus grunniens) in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zou, Wencheng; Zeng, Jinxin; Xie, Shengze; An, Tianwu; Luo, Xiaolin; Chen, Danyu; Feng, Lan; Cheng, Guangyang; Cai, Run; Huang, Qianru; Wang, Hongning

    2017-10-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic bacteria as it may cause severe morbidity and mortality in yaks (poephagus grunniens). In recent years, several kinds of antibiotics have been widely used in Tibetan areas to treat the bacterial diseases, resulting in serious repercussions on the bacterial antibiotic resistance in yaks. This investigation was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from yaks in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Aba TAP), China. A total of 278 non-duplicated fresh samples were collected from the yaks in Aba TAP for the isolation and identification of E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is performed by using the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (CLSI, 2013). Various antibiotic resistance genes and integron gene cassettes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Overall, a total of 228 E. coli bacteria were isolated from the fresh faeces of yaks in four different geographical regions. 58% of those isolates showed multi-drug resistance capabilities (MDR) in our study. These isolated bacteria showed a high resistance rate to streptomycin (84%), cefotaxime (79%), amikacin (61%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (54%). The most common antimicrobial resistance genes in the isolates were blaCTX-M, sul1, aph (3')-IIa, aac (3)-IIa, aac (6')-Ib, tetB, with respective detection rates of 65%, 46%, 35%, 13%, 11%, and 10%. Furthermore, 66% and 6% of the strains carried Class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. However, the class 3 integron was not detected. Gene cassette arrays in the class 1 integron included aadA1, aadA7, aadA5, aadA17, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2 and dfrA17-aadA5. The most prevalent gene cassette was aadA1 (20%). For the class 2 integron, dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 (6%) and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (0.4%) were also

  9. Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; de Abajo, Francisco J.; Baquero, Fernando; Campos, José

    2005-01-01

    To address the public health problem of antimicrobial resistance, the European Union founded the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. A network of 32 Spanish hospitals, serving ≈9.6 million persons, submitted antimicrobial-susceptibility data on 7,098 invasive Escherichia coli species (2001–2003). Resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin was found at rates of 59.9%, 32.6%, 19.3%, 6.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. Resistance to multiple drugs increased from 13.8% in 2001 to 20.6% in 2003 (p <0.0001). Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained from the Spanish National Health System. In spite of decreased cephalosporin and β-lactam use, overall extended-spectrum β-lactamase production increased from 1.6% (2001) to 4.1% (2003) (p <0.0001), mainly due to the rising prevalence of cefotaximases. Resistance to ciprofloxacin significantly increased, mostly in community-onset infections, which coincided with a rise in community quinolone use. Cotrimoxazole resistance remained stable at ≈30%, even though its use was dramatically reduced. PMID:15829192

  10. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  12. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies.

    PubMed

    Del Collo, Laura P; Karns, Jeffrey S; Biswas, Debabrata; Lombard, Jason E; Haley, Bradd J; Kristensen, R Camilla; Kopral, Christine A; Fossler, Charles P; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. Sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the United States are generally attributed to poultry, but outbreaks are also commonly associated with dairy products, particularly unpasteurized or raw milk. Bulk tank milk samples and milk filters from US dairy operations were collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study and analyzed using real-time PCR and traditional culture techniques for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The weighted prevalence of operations from which we detected Campylobacter spp. in either bulk tank milk or milk filters was 24.9%. We detected Campylobacter spp. in a higher percentage of operations with 100-499 cows (42.8%) and 500 or more cows (47.5%) than in operations with 30-99 cows (6.5%). Campylobacter spp. were also more frequently detected in operations in the west than the east (45.9 and 22.6%, respectively). We isolated Campylobacter spp. from approximately half of PCR-positive samples, representing 12.5% (weighted prevalence) of operations. The majority (91.8%) of isolates were C. jejuni, but C. lari and C. coli were also isolated. We detected resistance to tetracycline in 68.4% of C. jejuni isolates, and resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in 13.2% of C. jejuni isolates. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found that dairy-associated C. jejuni were genotypically diverse, although clonal strains were isolated from different geographic regions. These results suggest that bulk tank milk can be contaminated with pathogenic Campylobacter spp., and that the consumption of unpasteurized or raw milk presents a potential human health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance: from global agenda to national strategic plan, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sattayawutthipong, Wanchai; Kanjanapimai, Sukhum; Kanpravidth, Wantanee; Brown, Richard; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2017-08-01

    In Thailand, antimicrobial resistance has formed a small component of national drug policies and strategies on emerging infectious diseases. However, poor coordination and a lack of national goals and monitoring and evaluation platforms have reduced the effectiveness of the corresponding national actions. On the basis of local evidence and with the strong participation of relevant stakeholders, the first national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance has been developed in Thailand. Before the development of the plan, ineffective coordination meant that antimicrobial resistance profiles produced at sentinel hospitals were not used effectively for clinical decision-making. There was no integrated system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, no system for monitoring consumption of antimicrobial drugs by humans, livestock and pets and little public awareness of antimicrobial resistance. In August 2016, the Thai government endorsed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance that comprised six strategic actions and five targets. A national steering committee guides the plan's implementation and a module to assess the prevalence of household antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance awareness has been embedded into the biennial national health survey. A national system for the surveillance of antimicrobial consumption has also been initiated. Strong political commitment, national ownership and adequate multisectoral institutional capacities will be essential for the effective implementation of the national plan. A robust monitoring and evaluation platform now contributes to evidence-based interventions. An integrated system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance still needs to be established.

  14. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Harish, Belgode N; Menezes, Godfred A

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. Salmonella are one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in humans. There are many types of Salmonella but they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and those that do not. The typhoidal Salmonella (TS), such as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and S. Paratyphi only colonize humans and are usually acquired by the consumption of food or water contaminated with human fecal material. The much broader group of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) usually results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material. Antimicrobials are critical to the successful outcome of invasive Salmonella infections and enteric fever. Due to resistance to the older antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin [fluoroquinolone (FQ)] has become the first-line drug for treatment. Nevertheless, switch to FQ has led to a subsequent increase in the occurrence of salmonellae resistant to this antimicrobial agent. The exact mechanism of this FQ resistance is not fully understood. FQ resistance has driven the use of third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, there are sporadic worldwide reports of high level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) in TS and in NTS it has been recognized since 1988 and are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance leading to treatment failure. Spread of such resistance would further greatly limit the available therapeutic options, and leave us with only the reserve antimicrobials such as carbapenem and tigecycline as possible treatment options. Here, we describe the methods involved in the genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of salmonellae.

  16. Revised simulation model does not predict rebound in gonorrhoea prevalence where core groups are treated in the presence of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Trecker, Molly A; Hogan, Daniel J; Waldner, Cheryl L; Dillon, Jo-Anne R; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effects of using discrete versus continuous quantities of people in a compartmental model examining the contribution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to rebound in the prevalence of gonorrhoea. A previously published transmission model was reconfigured to represent the occurrence of gonorrhoea in discrete persons, rather than allowing fractions of infected individuals during simulations. In the revised model, prevalence only rebounded under scenarios reproduced from the original paper when AMR occurrence was increased by 10(5) times. In such situations, treatment of high-risk individuals yielded outcomes very similar to those resulting from treatment of low-risk and intermediate-risk individuals. Otherwise, in contrast with the original model, prevalence was the lowest when the high-risk group was treated, supporting the current policy of targeting treatment to high-risk groups. Simulation models can be highly sensitive to structural features. Small differences in structure and parameters can substantially influence predicted outcomes and policy prescriptions, and must be carefully considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  18. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal generic Escherichia coli isolated in western Canadian cow-calf herds. Part I — Beef calves

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Sheryl P.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rajić, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe antimicrobial resistance patterns in fecal generic Escherichia coli obtained from calves in western Canadian cow-calf herds. Susceptibility testing was completed on 1677 isolates obtained from 480 beef calves in 91 herds in the spring, and from 1187 isolates obtained from 394 calves in 45 herds in the fall of 2002. Resistance was rare to antimicrobials classified as being of very high importance to human health. Isolates were most commonly resistant to tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole, and streptomycin. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was identified in 48.8% of the isolates collected in the spring, and 7.0% of those collected in the fall. Spring or fall calf resistance status was not associated with calf gender, breed, age of the dam, or if the calf was treated before sample collection. Calves ≤ 3 days of age were less likely to be resistance positive than calves > 10 days of age. PMID:18505196

  19. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  20. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh and smoked fish in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63.6%). Similar duality of prevalence was observed only for L. monocytogenes of 1/2b-3b-7 serogroup (14 strains; 24.6%), which was identified in 11 (23.9%) marine and 3 (27.3%) freshwater fish. All isolates harboured 10 virulence-associated genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672, plcA, plcB, hlyA, actA, and mpl) and most of them (56; 98.2%) also possessed the flaA marker. Several strains displayed resistance to oxacillin (33; 57.9%), ceftriaxone (18; 31.6%), or clindamycin (5; 8.8%), and two isolates of serogroup 1/2a-3a showed multiresistance to all three. Genetic subtyping showed the presence of different pulsotypes belonging to six PFGE clusters. The obtained results provide useful information regarding fish contamination with L. monocytogenes which may have implications for public health.

  1. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Pune

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Velu; Sharma, Dinesh; Sahni, A.K.; Grover, Naveen; Shankar, S.; Jaiswal, S.S.; Dalal, S.S.; Basannar, D.R.; Phutane, Vivek S.; Kotwal, Atul; Gopal Rao, G.; Batura, Deepak; Venkatesh, M.D.; Sinha, Tapan; Kumar, Sushil; Joshi, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in wide variety of nosocomial and community acquired pathogens. Widespread and often inappropriate use of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents is recognized as a significant contributing factor to the development and spread of bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to gain insight into the prevalent antimicrobial prescribing practices, and antimicrobial resistance pattern in nosocomial pathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. Methods Series of one day cross sectional point prevalence surveys were carried out on four days between March and August 2014. All eligible in patients were included in the study. A structured data entry form was used to collect the data for each patient. Relevant samples were collected for microbiological examination from all the clinically identified hospital acquired infection cases. Results 41.73% of the eligible patients (95% CI: 39.52–43.97) had been prescribed at least one antimicrobial during their stay in the hospital. Beta-lactams (38%) were the most prescribed antimicrobials, followed by Protein synthesis inhibitors (24%). Majority of the organisms isolated from Hospital acquired infection (HAI cases) were found to be resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials viz: Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Amikacin, Gentamicin and Monobactams. Conclusion There is need to have regular antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and dissemination of this information to the clinicians. In addition, emphasis on the rational use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial rotation and strict adherence to the standard treatment guidelines is very essential. PMID:25859071

  2. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Pune.

    PubMed

    Nair, Velu; Sharma, Dinesh; Sahni, A K; Grover, Naveen; Shankar, S; Jaiswal, S S; Dalal, S S; Basannar, D R; Phutane, Vivek S; Kotwal, Atul; Gopal Rao, G; Batura, Deepak; Venkatesh, M D; Sinha, Tapan; Kumar, Sushil; Joshi, D P

    2015-04-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in wide variety of nosocomial and community acquired pathogens. Widespread and often inappropriate use of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents is recognized as a significant contributing factor to the development and spread of bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to gain insight into the prevalent antimicrobial prescribing practices, and antimicrobial resistance pattern in nosocomial pathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. Series of one day cross sectional point prevalence surveys were carried out on four days between March and August 2014. All eligible in patients were included in the study. A structured data entry form was used to collect the data for each patient. Relevant samples were collected for microbiological examination from all the clinically identified hospital acquired infection cases. 41.73% of the eligible patients (95% CI: 39.52-43.97) had been prescribed at least one antimicrobial during their stay in the hospital. Beta-lactams (38%) were the most prescribed antimicrobials, followed by Protein synthesis inhibitors (24%). Majority of the organisms isolated from Hospital acquired infection (HAI cases) were found to be resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials viz: Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Amikacin, Gentamicin and Monobactams. There is need to have regular antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and dissemination of this information to the clinicians. In addition, emphasis on the rational use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial rotation and strict adherence to the standard treatment guidelines is very essential.

  3. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970–2011 using the terms ‘antibiotic resistance in Libya’, ‘antimicrobial resistance in Libya’, ‘tuberculosis in Libya’, and ‘primary and acquired resistance in Libya’ in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54–68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984–1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-03-27

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  7. WGS for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: a pilot study to detect the prevalence and mechanism of resistance to azithromycin in a UK population of non-typhoidal Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Nair, Satheesh; Ashton, Philip; Doumith, Michel; Connell, Steve; Painset, Anais; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Langridge, Gemma; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Godbole, Gauri; Day, Martin

    2016-12-01

    WGS and phenotypic methods were used to determine the prevalence of azithromycin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolates from the UK and to identify the underlying mechanisms of resistance. WGS by Illumina HiSeq was carried out on 683 Salmonella spp. isolates. Known genes associated with azithromycin resistance were detected by WGS using a mapping-based approach. Macrolide resistance determinants were identified and the genomic context of these elements was assessed by various bioinformatics tools. Susceptibility testing was in accordance with EUCAST methodology (MIC ≤16 mg/L). Fifteen isolates of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica belonging to serovars Salmonella Blockley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Thompson, Salmonella Ridge and Salmonella Kentucky showed resistance or decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (from 6 to >16 mg/L) due to the presence of macrolide resistance genes mphA, mphB or mefB. These genes were either plasmid or chromosomally mediated. Azithromycin-resistant Salmonella Blockley isolates harboured a macrolide inactivation gene cluster, mphA-mrx-mphr(A), within a novel Salmonella azithromycin resistance genomic island (SARGI) determined by MinION sequencing. This is the first known chromosomally mediated mphA gene cluster described in salmonellae. Phylogenetic analysis and epidemiological information showed that mphA Salmonella Blockley isolates were not derived from a single epidemiologically related event. The azithromycin MICs of the 15 Salmonella spp. isolates showed that the presence of the mphA gene was associated with MIC ≥16 mg/L, while the presence of mefB or mphB was not. Azithromycin resistance due to acquisition of known macrolide resistance genes was seen in four different Salmonella serovars and can be either plasmid-encoded or chromosomally encoded. © Crown copyright 2016.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Agata A; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Binek, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important etiologic agent of respiratory- and non-respiratory tract infections, diseases of animals and humans. Therapy includes the use of various group of chemotherapeutic agents, however resistance acquirement is quite common. To date there is no preferred treatment protocol for infections caused by isolates resistant to macrolides and rifampicin. The resistance acquirement is a result of many molecular mechanisms, some of which include alterations in the cell envelope composition and structure, activity of the efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction or inactivation of antibiotics, and changes in the target site. This paper contains an overview of antimicrobial susceptibility of R. equi, and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for antimicrobial resistance in this particular microorganism.

  9. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Dayna M; Schmidt, John W

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact" environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar prevalences

  10. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Dayna M.; Schmidt, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two “low impact” environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar

  11. Impact of Antimicrobial Usage on Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli Strains Colonizing Broiler Chickens▿

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. L.; Drum, D. J. V.; Dai, Y.; Kim, J. M.; Sanchez, S.; Maurer, J. J.; Hofacre, C. L.; Lee, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial broilers and an experimental flock of chickens were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance and carriage of drug resistance determinants. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of oxytetracycline, sarafloxacin, and enrofloxacin administration on the distribution of resistance determinants and strain types among intestinal commensal E. coli strains isolated from broiler chickens. We detected a high prevalence of resistance to drugs such as tetracycline (36 to 97%), sulfonamides (50 to 100%), and streptomycin (53 to 100%) in E. coli isolates from treated and untreated flocks. These isolates also had a high prevalence of class 1 integron carriage, and most of them possessed the streptomycin resistance cassette, aadA1. In order to investigate the contribution of E. coli strain distribution to the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the resistance determinants, isolates from each flock were DNA fingerprinted by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC) PCR. Although very diverse E. coli strain types were detected, four ERIC strain types were present on all of the commercial broiler farms, and two of the strains were also found in the experimental flocks. Each E. coli strain consisted of both susceptible and antimicrobial agent-resistant isolates. In some instances, isolates of the same E. coli strain expressed the same drug resistance patterns although they harbored different tet determinants or streptomycin resistance genes. Therefore, drug resistance patterns could not be explained solely by strain prevalence, indicating that mobile elements contributed significantly to the prevalence of resistance. PMID:17194843

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci in small animals.

    PubMed

    Cain, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance presents an emerging challenge for both human and veterinary medical professionals. Infections associated with methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococci are increasingly encountered by veterinarians and are frequently associated with empiric therapeutic failures and limited systemic antimicrobial options. This article addresses mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in common staphylococcal pathogens and implications for clinical practice, including indications for culture and susceptibility testing, rational antimicrobial selection, and potential for zoonotic transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Perovic, Olga; Iyaloo, Samantha; Kularatne, Ranmini; Lowman, Warren; Bosman, Noma; Wadula, Jeannette; Seetharam, Sharona; Duse, Adriano; Mbelle, Nontombi; Bamford, Colleen; Dawood, Halima; Mahabeer, Yesholata; Bhola, Prathna; Abrahams, Shareef; Singh-Moodley, Ashika

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87%) most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB.

  14. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Perovic, Olga; Iyaloo, Samantha; Kularatne, Ranmini; Lowman, Warren; Bosman, Noma; Wadula, Jeannette; Seetharam, Sharona; Duse, Adriano; Mbelle, Nontombi; Bamford, Colleen; Dawood, Halima; Mahabeer, Yesholata; Bhola, Prathna; Abrahams, Shareef; Singh-Moodley, Ashika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Methods Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87%) most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). Conclusions MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB. PMID:26719975

  15. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID invests in basic research to understand the biology of microbes, their behavior, and how drug resistance ... Nucleotide Polymorphism Phylogenetics & Ontology Proteomics & Protein Analysis Systems Biology Data Portals Software Applications BCBB Mobyle Interface Designer ( ...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  17. Macrolide resistance in microorganisms at antimicrobial-free Swine farms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between agricultural antimicrobial use and resistance, a variety of methods for quantification of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance were applied to organic swine farm manure samples. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to indirectly quantify the specific rRNA methylation resulting in MLS(B) resistance. Using this method, an unexpectedly high prevalence of ribosomal methylation and, hence, predicted MLS(B) resistance was observed in manure samples from two swine finisher farms that reported no antimicrobial use (37.6% +/- 6.3% and 40.5% +/- 5.4%, respectively). A culture-based method targeting relatively abundant clostridia showed a lower but still unexpectedly high prevalence of resistance at both farms (27.7% +/- 11.3% and 11.7% +/- 8.6%, respectively), while the prevalence of resistance in cultured fecal streptococci was low at both farms (4.0%). These differences in the prevalence of resistance across microorganisms suggest the need for caution when extrapolating from data obtained with indicator organisms. A third antimicrobial-free swine farm, a breeder-to-finisher operation, had low levels of MLS(B) resistance in manure samples with all methods used (<9%). Tetracycline antimicrobials were detected in manure samples from one of the finisher farms and may provide a partial explanation for the high level of MLS(B) resistance. Taken together, these findings highlight the need for a more fundamental understanding of the relationship between antimicrobial use and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

  18. The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Karen; Zhang, Ruifang; Zeckhauser, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance. PMID:20948953

  19. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility.

  20. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serotype Hadar isolated from humans, retail meat, and food animals at slaughter, United States, NARMS 1996-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Although most infections are self-limited, antibiotic treatment is essential for severe illness. Use of antimicrobial agents in food animals contributes to resistance in NTS. Multidrug resis...

  1. Global aspects of antimicrobial-resistant enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, S; Hart, C A

    2001-10-01

    Antibiotics have been considered to be safe and effective 'magic bullets', with no disadvantages to their widespread use. This has been proven to be a complacent attitude, with ever-increasing prevalences of resistance now evident. The present review covers aspects of the development, mechanisms and genetics of antimicrobial resistance in enteric commensals and pathogens.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance: Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmed, Saeed; Wang, Funan; Gu, Yufeng; Zhang, Chaonan; Chai, Ximan; Wu, Yalan; Cai, Jinxia; Cheng, Guyue

    2017-01-01

    Rational use of antibiotic is the key approach to improve the antibiotic performance and tackling of the antimicrobial resistance. The efficacy of antimicrobials are influenced by many factors: (1) bacterial status (susceptibility and resistance, tolerance, persistence, biofilm) and inoculum size; (2) antimicrobial concentrations [mutant selection window (MSW) and sub-inhibitory concentration]; (3) host factors (serum effect and impact on gut micro-biota). Additional understandings regarding the linkage between antimicrobial usages, bacterial status and host response offers us new insights and encourage the struggle for the designing of antimicrobial treatment regimens that reaching better clinical outcome and minimizing the emergence of resistance at the same time. PMID:28659799

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from Ontario sheep flocks and associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Scott, L; Menzies, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Avery, B P; McEwen, S A; Moon, C S; Berke, O

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in faecal Campylobacter spp. from lambs and adult sheep and associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR. A total of 275 faecal samples collected during initial and final visits from 51 sheep flocks, including one feedlot, across southern Ontario were tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 52% (143/275) of the faecal samples, Campylobacter coli in 7% (19/275), Campylobacter lari in 1% (2/275) and 2% (4/275) were non-speciated Campylobacter. Broth microdilution was used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of 162 isolates to nine antimicrobials. Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 142) were resistant to tetracycline (39%), ciprofloxacin (4%), nalidixic acid (4%) and telithromycin (1%). C. coli isolates (n = 19) were resistant to tetracycline (74%), and azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and telithromycin (5%). The C. lari isolate displayed resistance to nalidixic acid. No statistically significant associations were found between AMU and AMR during multivariate modelling in this study.

  4. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and relation to indicator and pathogenic microorganisms of Salmonella enterica isolated from surface waters within an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota; Kansouzidou, Athina; Sakkas, Hercules; Karanis, Panagiotis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2013-07-01

    During a 12 month period (June 2007-May 2008), the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella serovars and their relation to specific pathogenic and indicator bacteria in river and coastal waters was investigated. A total of 240 water samples were collected from selected sites in Acheron and Kalamas Rivers and the Ionian Sea coast in north western Greece. The samples were analyzed for Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp., Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, Fecal Streptococci, Total Heterotrophic Flora at 20°C and at 37°C, fungi and protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia). Susceptibility tests to nine antimicrobials (ampicillin, amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulavic acid, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam) were performed using the disk diffusion method for Salmonella isolates. We isolated 28 serovars of Salmonella spp. identified as Salmonella enteritidis (23), Salmonella thompson (3) and Salmonella virchow (2). Multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovars were isolated from both river and marine waters, with 34.8% of S. enteritidis and 100% of S. virchow being resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Also we isolated 42 strains of Listeria spp. identified as L. monocytogenes (20), L. innocua (9), L. seeligeri (2) and L. ivanovii (11). All the Listeria isolates were susceptible to the tested antibiotics. No Campylobacter spp., E. coli O157, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected. The overall ranges (and average counts) of the indicator bacteria were: Total Coliforms 0-4×10(4)cfu/100ml (3.7×10(3)cfu/100ml), Fecal Coliforms 0-9×10(3)cfu/100ml (9.2×10(2)cfu/100ml), Fecal Streptococci 0-3.5×10(4)cfu/100ml (1.4×10(3)cfu/100ml), Total Heterotrophic Flora at 20°C 0-6×10(3)cfu/ml (10(3)cfu/ml) and at 37°C 0-5×10(3)cfu/ml (4.9×10(2)cfu/ml). Weak or non significant positive Spearman correlations (p<0.05, rs range: 0.13-0.77) were obtained

  5. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ndahi, M D; Kwaga, J K P; Bello, M; Kabir, J; Umoh, V J; Yakubu, S E; Nok, A J

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial genera Listeria and Staphylococcus have been frequently isolated from food products and are responsible for a number of animal and human diseases. The aim of the study was to simultaneously isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus species from 300 samples of raw meat and meat products, to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents and to determine the presence of haemolysin A (hyl) virulence gene in L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA (SCCmec) gene in the Staph. aureus isolates using PCR. Of the 85 Listeria isolates tested, 12 L. monocytogenes were identified and tested for their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobial agents. All the 12 isolates (100%) were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents, but however sensitive to gentamicin. Only one isolate was found to harbour the hylA gene. Twenty-nine isolates were confirmed as Staph. aureus by the Microbact 12S identification system and were all presumptively identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus species using oxacillin-resistant Staph. aureus basal medium (ORSAB). The 29 Staph. aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents, and 11 were resistant to methicillin. None of the 11 Staph. aureus isolates harboured the methicillin resistance, mecA gene. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian

  6. Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

  7. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Claudio D; Tello, Alfredo; Keen, Patricia L

    2013-01-01

    Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in genes found in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  8. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Claudio D.; Tello, Alfredo; Keen, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in genes found in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture. PMID:23986749

  9. Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR)-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Keerthi S.; Yamanaka, Noriko; Sonobe, Miyuki; Fujizono, Wataru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Akiba, Masato; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Joshua, Derrick I.; Balakrishna, Keshava; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs) receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic) physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and prevalence of

  10. Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR)-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Sonobe, Miyuki; Fujizono, Wataru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Akiba, Masato; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Joshua, Derrick I; Balakrishna, Keshava; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs) receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic) physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and prevalence of

  11. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, S; Prema, B; Yoga, Latha L

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in dairy products. Methods Isolation and identification of S. aureus were performed in 3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 5 different common antimicrobial drugs. Results Of 50 samples examined, 5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the 5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample 18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. Conclusions The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus. Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistant S. aureus. PMID:23569742

  12. Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli recovered from dairy operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health concern and animal agriculture is often implicated as a source of resistant bacteria. The primary objective of this study was to determine prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli from healthy animals on dairy farms i...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  14. Comparison of the Prevalences and Antimicrobial Resistances of Escherichia coli Isolates from Different Retail Meats in the United States, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Blickenstaff, K.; Bodeis-Jones, S.; Gaines, S. A.; Tong, E.; McDermott, P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System retail meat program and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. Retail meat samples (n = 11,921) from four U.S. states collected during 2002 to 2008, consisting of 2,988 chicken breast, 2,942 ground turkey, 2,991 ground beef, and 3,000 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 8,286 E. coli isolates were recovered. The greatest numbers of samples contaminated with the organism were chicken (83.5%) and turkey (82.0%), followed by beef (68.9%) and pork (44.0%). Resistance was most common to tetracycline (50.3%), followed by streptomycin (34.6%), sulfamethoxazole-sulfisoxazole (31.6%), ampicillin (22.5%), gentamicin (18.6%), kanamycin (8.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (6.4%), and cefoxitin (5.2%). Less than 5% of the isolates had resistance to trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Compared to beef and pork isolates, the poultry meat isolates had a greater percentage of resistance to all tested drugs, with the exception of chloramphenicol, to which pork isolates had the most resistance. More than half of the turkey isolates (56%) were resistant to multidrugs (≥3 classes) compared to 38.9% of chicken, 17.3% of pork, and 9.3% of beef isolates. The blaCMY gene was present in all ceftriaxone- and ceftiofur-resistant isolates. The cmlA, flo, and catI genes were present in 45%, 43%, and 40% of chloramphenicol-resistant isolates, respectively. Most nalidixic acid-resistant isolates (98.5%) had a gyrA mutation in S83 or D87 or both, whereas only 6.7% had a parC mutation in either S80 or E84. The results showed that E. coli was commonly present in the retail meats, and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed according to the animal origin of the isolates. PMID:22247155

  15. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  16. Quantitative assessment of antimicrobial resistance in livestock during the course of a nationwide antimicrobial use reduction in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dorado-García, Alejandro; Mevius, Dik J; Jacobs, José J H; Van Geijlswijk, Inge M; Mouton, Johan W; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Heederik, Dick J

    2016-12-01

    To quantify associations between antimicrobial use and acquired resistance in indicator Escherichia coli over a period of time which involved sector-wide antimicrobial use reductions in broilers and pigs (years 2004-14), veal calves (2007-14) and dairy cattle (2005-14). Prevalence estimates of resistance were predicted for a hypothetical further decrease in antimicrobial use. Data reported annually for the resistance surveillance programme in the Netherlands were retrieved. Two multivariate random-effects logistic models per animal sector were used to relate total and class-specific antimicrobial use (as defined daily dosages per animal per year, DDDA/Y) with the probability of E. coli resistance to a panel of 10 antimicrobial agents. Positive dose-response relationships (ORs) were obtained from all models. Specific resistance phenotypes were more often associated with total antimicrobial use than with class-specific use. The most robust associations were found in pigs and veal calves. Resistance to historically widely used antimicrobials (e.g. penicillins, tetracyclines) was, in relative terms, less influenced by drug use changes over time than resistance to newer or less prescribed antimicrobials (e.g. third-/fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones). In pigs and veal calves, prevalence estimates for the most common resistance phenotypes were projected to decline ∼5%-25% during 2014-16 if total antimicrobial use reduction reached 80%; projections for poultry and dairy cows were more modest. Epidemiological evidence indicated that drug use history and co-selection of resistance are key elements for perpetuation of resistance. Data suggest that recent Dutch policies aimed at reducing total use of antimicrobials have decreased E. coli resistance in the pig and veal calf production sectors while the impact on the dairy cattle and poultry sectors is less clear. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  17. The role of poverty in antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Planta, Margaret B

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that has deleterious long-term effects as the development of drug resistance outpaces the development of new drugs. Poverty has been cited by the World Health Organization as a major force driving the development of antimicrobial resistance. In developing countries, factors such as inadequate access to effective drugs, unregulated dispensing and manufacture of antimicrobials, and truncated antimicrobial therapy because of cost are contributing to the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Within the United States, poverty-driven practices such as medication-sharing, use of "leftover" antibiotics, and the purchase and use of foreign-made drugs of questionable quality are likely contributing to antimicrobial resistance. However, there is currently a dearth of studies in the United States analyzing the socioeconomic and behavioral factors behind antimicrobial resistance in United States communities. Further studies of these factors, with an emphasis on poverty-driven practices, need to be undertaken in order to fully understand the problem of antimicrobial resistance in the United States and to develop effective intervention to combat this problem.

  18. Evaluation of feeding distiller's grains, containing virginiamycin, on antimicrobial susceptibilities in fecal isolates of Enterococcus and Escherichia coli and prevalence of resistance genes in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distiller’s grains (DG), produced from fermentations using no antibiotic (Control) or dosed with 2 or 20 ppm virginiamycin product and containing 0, 0.7, and 8.9 ppm virginiamycin, respectively, were fed to cattle and effects on antibiotic sensitivity and prevalence of resistance genes in comm...

  19. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) – Enteric Bacteria is a national public health surveillance system in the United States that tracks changes in the susceptibility of certain enteric bacteria to antimicrobial agents of human and veterinary medical importance. The NARMS ...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible. PMID:27828633

  2. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Santajit, Sirijan; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2016-01-01

    The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. Most of them are multidrug resistant isolates, which is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. Multidrug resistance is amongst the top three threats to global public health and is usually caused by excessive drug usage or prescription, inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and substandard pharmaceuticals. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is crucial for the development of novel antimicrobial agents or other alternative tools to combat these public health challenges. Greater mechanistic understanding would also aid in the prediction of underlying or even unknown mechanisms of resistance, which could be applied to other emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. In this review, we summarize the known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of ESKAPE pathogens. PMID:27274985

  3. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santajit, Sirijan; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2016-01-01

    The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. Most of them are multidrug resistant isolates, which is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. Multidrug resistance is amongst the top three threats to global public health and is usually caused by excessive drug usage or prescription, inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and substandard pharmaceuticals. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is crucial for the development of novel antimicrobial agents or other alternative tools to combat these public health challenges. Greater mechanistic understanding would also aid in the prediction of underlying or even unknown mechanisms of resistance, which could be applied to other emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. In this review, we summarize the known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of ESKAPE pathogens.

  4. Antimicrobial-resistant Listeria species from retail meat in metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Liziane S; Gunathilaka, Gayathri U; Zhang, Yifan

    2012-12-01

    A total of 138 Listeria isolates from retail meat, including 58 Listeria welshimeri, 44 Listeria monocytogenes, and 36 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility tests against nine antimicrobials. In addition, the 44 L. monocytogenes isolates were analyzed by serotype identification using PCR and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 32 Listeria isolates (23.2%). No multidrug resistance was identified. Tetracycline resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 22 Listeria isolates. A low prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin was also detected. L. innocua isolates demonstrated the highest overall prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, 36.1%, followed by 34.1% in L. monocytogenes isolates and 6.9% in L. welshimeri isolates. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were identified in 19, 23, and 1 L. monocytogenes isolate, respectively. One isolate was untypeable. Fifteen L. monocytogenes isolates were antimicrobial resistant (12 were serotype 1/2b, 2 were 1/2a, and 1 was untypeable). A diverse population of L. monocytogenes isolates was identified, as evidenced by multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns in the 44 isolates. The data indicate that Listeria contamination is common in retail meat. Although antimicrobial resistance still occurs at a low prevalence, multiple Listeria species can serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Various antimicrobial susceptibilities may exist in L. monocytogenes isolates of different serotypes.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance development following surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Călina, Daniela; Docea, Anca Oana; Rosu, Lucica; Zlatian, Ovidiu; Rosu, Alexandra Floriana; Anghelina, Florin; Rogoveanu, Otilia; Arsene, Andreea Letiția; Nicolae, Alina Crenguța; Drăgoi, Cristina Manuela; Tsiaoussis, John; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Gofita, Eliza

    2017-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) determine an increase in hospitalization time and antibiotic therapy costs. The aim of this study was to identify the germs involved in SSIs in patients from the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova (SCJUC) and to assess their resistance to antimicrobials, with comparisons between surgical wards and the intensive care unit (ICU). The biological samples were subjected to classical bacteriological diagnostics. Antibiotic resistance was tested by disc diffusion. We used hierarchical clustering as a method to group the isolates based upon the antibiotic resistance profile. The most prevalent bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; 50.72%), followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli; 17.22%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 10.05%). In addition, at lower percentages, we isolated glucose-non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacteria and other Enterobacteriaceae. The antibiotic resistance varied greatly between species; the most resistant were the non-fermenting Gram‑negative rods. E. coli exhibited lower resistance to third generation cephalosporins, quinolones and carbapenems. By contrast, Klebsiella was resistant to many cephalosporins and penicillins, and to a certain extent to carbapenems due to carbapenemase production. The non-fermenting bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics, but were generally sensitive to colistin. S. aureus was resistant to ceftriaxone (100%), penicillin (91.36%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (87.50%), amikacin (80.00%) and was sensitive to levofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamycin, tigecycline and teicoplanin. The Enterobacteriaceae resistance was only slightly higher in the ICU, particularly to carbapenems (imipenem, 31.20% in the ICU vs. 14.30% in the surgical wards; risk ratio = 2.182). As regards Staphylococcus species, but for non-fermenting bacteria, even if the median was almost the same, the antibiotic resistance index values were confined to the upper limit in the ICU

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and the food chain.

    PubMed

    Teale, C J

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which antibiotics given to animals contribute to the overall problem of antibiotic resistance in man is still uncertain. The development of resistance in some human pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is linked to the use of antimicrobials in man and there is no evidence for animal involvement. However, there are several good examples of transfer of resistant bacteria or bacterial resistance genes from animals to man via the food chain. A bacterial ecosystem exists with simple and complex routes of transfer of resistance genes between the bacterial populations; in addition to transfer of organisms from animals to man, there is also evidence of resistance genes spilling back from humans into the animal population. This is important because of the amplification that can occur in animal populations. The most important factor in the selection of resistant bacteria is generally agreed to be usage of antimicrobial agents and in general, there is a close association between the quantities of antimicrobials used and the rate of development of resistance. The use of antimicrobials is not restricted to animal husbandry but also occurs in horticulture (for example, aminoglycosides in apple growing) and in some other industrial processes such as oil production.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide. Poultry flocks are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat disease, as well as for growth promotion. Antimicrobial resistant poultry pathogens may result in treatment failure, leading to economic losses, but also be a source of resistant bacteria/genes (including zoonotic bacteria) that may represent a risk to human health. Here we reviewed data on AMR in 12 poultry pathogens, including avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Gallibacterium anatis, Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Riemerella anatipestifer. A number of studies have demonstrated increases in resistance over time for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, and G. anatis. Among Enterobacteriaceae, APEC isolates displayed considerably higher levels of AMR compared with S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, with prevalence of resistance over >80% for ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline across studies. Among the Gram-negative, non-Enterobacteriaceae pathogens, ORT had the highest levels of phenotypic resistance with median levels of AMR against co-trimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur all exceeding 50%. In contrast, levels of resistance among P. multocida isolates were less than 20% for all antimicrobials. The study highlights considerable disparities in methodologies, as well as in criteria for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing and result interpretation. It is necessary to increase efforts to harmonize testing practices, and to promote free access to data on AMR in order to improve treatment guidelines as well as to

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Carrique-Mas, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide. Poultry flocks are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat disease, as well as for growth promotion. Antimicrobial resistant poultry pathogens may result in treatment failure, leading to economic losses, but also be a source of resistant bacteria/genes (including zoonotic bacteria) that may represent a risk to human health. Here we reviewed data on AMR in 12 poultry pathogens, including avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Gallibacterium anatis, Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Riemerella anatipestifer. A number of studies have demonstrated increases in resistance over time for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, and G. anatis. Among Enterobacteriaceae, APEC isolates displayed considerably higher levels of AMR compared with S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, with prevalence of resistance over >80% for ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline across studies. Among the Gram-negative, non-Enterobacteriaceae pathogens, ORT had the highest levels of phenotypic resistance with median levels of AMR against co-trimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur all exceeding 50%. In contrast, levels of resistance among P. multocida isolates were less than 20% for all antimicrobials. The study highlights considerable disparities in methodologies, as well as in criteria for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing and result interpretation. It is necessary to increase efforts to harmonize testing practices, and to promote free access to data on AMR in order to improve treatment guidelines as well as to

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Lotti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-12-15

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88.7%), neomycin (80.6%), and tetracycline (69.4%). Forty-two (18.9%) isolates showed an HLAR to streptomycin and 15 (6.7%) to gentamicin. Vancomycin and ampicillin MIC values showed 1 and 18 resistant strains, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (61.2%) strains were classified as multidrug resistant and six (2.7%) strains as possibly extensively drug-resistant bacteria. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were the most prevalent antimicrobial resistant species. Companion animals, which often live in close contact with their owners and share the same environment, represent a serious source of enterococci resistant to several antibiotics; for this reason, they may be a hazard for public health by providing a conduit for the entrance of resistance genes into the community.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  11. Campylobacter spp. - prevalence on pig livers and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Hamedy, Ahmad; Merle, Roswitha; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on surfaces of slaughtered pig livers. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter coli isolates. Additionally, C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the broth dilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for erythromycin, gentamicin, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Samples were taken during the slaughtering process in a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. Altogether, 10% of 1500 surfaces of pig livers from 50 fattening herds was found to be Campylobacter positive, with C. coli as the predominant species (76%) followed by C. jejuni (21%). Resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was higher in C. jejuni compared to C. coli, whereas C. coli were more resistant to quinolone compared to C. jejuni. Fluoroquinolone resistance is usually associated with cross-resistance to quinolone, but in the presented investigation C. coli as well as C. jejuni showed a higher resistance to ciprofloxacin (28.6% and 20.0%, respectively) than to nalidixic acid (9.5% and 0%, respectively). A high genetic diversity of the C. coli isolates was demonstrated by MLST. Differences in STs and antimicrobial resistance pattern indicate that the Campylobacter strains originated from the pig itself and not from the slaughterhouse. A comparison of the STs with those reported in the C. jejuni/coli PubMLST database showed an overlap of porcine and human isolates, indicating that C. coli isolates from pigs should be considered as potential sources of human infection.

  12. Prevalence, Seasonal Occurrence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolates Recovered from Chicken Carcasses Sampled at Major Poultry Processing Plants of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung; Choi, Dasom; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The current study was conducted to assess Salmonella spp. contamination in chicken carcasses produced at major poultry processing plants in South Korea. In total, 120 chicken carcasses were collected through 12 individual trials (10 chickens per trial) from six poultry processing plants in the summer of 2014 and the winter of 2015. Eighteen chicken samples (15%) were contaminated with Salmonella, with a higher rate of contamination observed during summer (14 isolates, 11.7%) than during winter (four isolates, 3.3%). Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium was the most prevalent, followed by Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Bareilly, and Salmonella Virchow. Among five multidrug resistant isolates, a single strain was resistant to 10 antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins. This cephalosporin-resistant strain exhibited the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and harbored the gene encoding CTX-M-15, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme worldwide. Herein, repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) subtyping was conducted to discriminate the isolated Salmonella spp. and the ESBL-producing Salmonella isolate was distinguished by rep-PCR molecular subtyping, showing low genetic similarity in their rep-PCR-banding patterns. Given that poultry processing plants are the last stage in the chicken-production chain, the occurrence of Salmonella spp. including ESBL-producing strain in individually packaged chicken products highlights the necessity for regular monitoring for Salmonella in poultry processing plants.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Vorachit, M; Chongtrakool, P; Arkomsean, S; Boonsong, S

    2000-02-05

    Four strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves with 13 single antimicrobial agents: ceftazidime, piperacillin, imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, cotrimoxazole, kanamycin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and meropenem. The time-kill studies were also performed with 33 pairs of combinations of the above antimicrobial agents: 15 combinations which would be expected to be used for acute therapy and 18 combinations for maintenance therapy. The results show that the single and combination antimicrobial agents with bactericidal effects against the four strains of B. pseudomallei which should be used for clinical trials in acute melioidosis are: imipenem, meropenem, and imipenem + azithromycin. The combination antimicrobial agents which should be further studied for the ability to eliminate biofilm and intracellular killing effect are ciprofloxacin + clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin + azithromycin, and imipenem + azithromycin.

  14. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Facing the problem of development and spreading of bacterial resistance, preventive strategies are considered the most appropriate means to counteract. The establishment of corresponding management options relies on scientifically defensible efforts to obtain objective data on the prevalence of bacterial resistance in healthy and diseased livestock. Additionally, detailed statistics are needed on the overall amount of antimicrobial agents dispensed in Germany. The collection of valid data on the prevalence of resistance requires representative and cross-sectional studies. The German national antimicrobial resistance monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) determines the current quantitative resistance level of life-stock pathogens, in order to permit the evaluation and surveillance of the distribution of resistances on a valid basis. Essential key features determining the design of these studies comprise (1) a statistically valid sampling program. This incorporates regional differences in animal population density, (2) the avoidance of "copy strains", (3) testing of no more than two bacterial strains belonging to one species per herd, (4) testing only if no antimicrobial therapy preceded sample collection, and (5) the use of standardized methods [e.g. microdilution broth method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. The analysis and interpretation of this data permits reliable identification and definition of epidemiological characteristics of resistance and its development in animal associated bacteria, such as geographically and time wise differentiated profiles on its prevalence, the emergence of unknown phenotypes of resistance and an assessment of the threat resistant bacteria from animals pose for humans. In applied antimicrobial therapy, the data can serve as a decision guidance in choosing the antimicrobial agent most adapted to the prevailing epidemiological situation. The susceptibility testing

  15. Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production in Southeast Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, Nguyen T.; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU) and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens. Most of the published work relates to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Campylobacter spp. (mainly from Vietnam and Thailand), Enterococcus spp. (Malaysia), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Thailand). However, most studies used the disk diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; breakpoints were interpreted using Clinical Standard Laboratory Institute (CSLI) guidelines. Statistical models integrating data from publications on AMR in NTS and E. coli studies show a higher overall prevalence of AMR in pig isolates, and an increase in levels of AMR over the years. AMU studies (mostly from Vietnam) indicate very high usage levels of most types of antimicrobials, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and quinolones. This review summarizes information about genetic determinants of resistance, most of which are transferrable (mostly plasmids and integrons). The data in this review provide a benchmark to help focus research and policies on AMU and AMR in the region. PMID:27827853

  16. Antimicrobial resistance transfer in transport media.

    PubMed

    George, B A; Fagerberg, D J; Sanem, J A

    1981-09-01

    Five different transport media (buffered glycerol saline, Amies, Cary and Blair, Stuart, and modified Stuart) were tested to determine if antimicrobial resistance transfer could occur among bacteria in the media. Transfer of resistance occurred in all of the media, except buffered glycerol saline, within 2 h of holding both at room temperature and 4 degrees C.

  17. Zoonotic fecal pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in county fair animals.

    PubMed

    Roug, A; Byrne, B A; Conrad, P A; Miller, W A

    2013-05-01

    Livestock fairs present a unique opportunity for the public to experience close contact with animals, but may also expose people to zoonotic pathogens through contact with animal feces. The goal of this study was to screen cattle, sheep, goat, chicken, rabbit and horse feces from a livestock fair in California for the potentially zoonotic pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp., as well as determining the level of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella. Notably, E. coli O157:H7 was reported for the first time in a pig at a county fair in California. Campylobacter jejuni as well as Salmonella enterica serovars Derby and Thompson were also isolated from pigs, cattle, sheep, goats or chickens, whereas horses and rabbits were negative for all target pathogens. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance as well as multi-drug resistance patterns were highest for E. coli and Salmonella spp. cultured from pigs and chickens, were generally widespread but at lower levels for other animal groups, and included resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin, two antimicrobial drugs of importance for human medicine. This study provides data that highlight the importance of practicing good hygiene in livestock fair settings to avoid transmission of zoonotic microbes, particularly pathogens with antimicrobial resistance, to fair visitors and among animal populations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health

    PubMed Central

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact. PMID:24550896

  19. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health.

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from meat.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Casquete, Rocio; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2017-02-21

    The prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter spp. from fifty samples of meat (chicken, turkey, beef and pork) were evaluated. Acinetobacter spp. was recovered from all samples and the clonal relatedness of 223 isolates identified to belong to the genus Acinetobacter was established by PFGE. A high genetic diversity was observed and 166 isolates from different samples, 141 representing different PFGE profiles, were further identified to the species level by rpoB gene sequencing. Thirteen distinct Acinetobacter species were identified among 156 isolates. The remaining ten isolates may represent three putatively novel species since rpoB sequence homologies with type strains of all available described Acinetobacter species, were <95%. The most common species was Acinetobacter guillouiae with a prevalence of 34.9%. However 18.7% of the strains belong to the Acinetobacter baumannii group (n=31) which include the species Acinetobacter baumannii (n=7), Acinetobacter pittii (n=12), Acinetobacter seifertii (n=8) and Acinetobacter nosocomialis (n=4) that are the species most frequently associated with nosocomial infections worldwide. In general, strains were resistant to some of the antimicrobials most frequently used to treat Acinetobacter infections such as piperacillin-tazobactam (64.9% of strains resistant), ceftazidime (43.5%), ciprofloxacin (42.9%), as well as to colistin (41.7%) and polymyxin B (35.1%), the last-resort drugs to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. The percentage of resistant strains to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin) and ampicillin-sulbactam was >10% (23.2%, 23.2%, 14.3%, 12.5%, 12.5%, respectively). However, resistances to meropenem, imipenem and minocycline were only sporadically observed (8.3%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively). Overall, 51.2% of the strains were considered as multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 9.6% as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prevalence

  1. Prevalence of the ST239 Clone of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Differences in Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of ST239 and ST5 Clones Identified in a Korean Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hwa Yun; Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Oh, Jae Young; Jeong, Young Sook; Lee, Yoo Chul; Seol, Sung Yong; Cho, Dong Taek; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Kim, Shin-Woo; Lee, Je Chul

    2005-01-01

    A total of 188 nonduplicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained between 2001 and 2004 in a university hospital in Daegu, Korea, were analyzed for their clonal types by molecular typing techniques, including multilocus sequence typing, spaA typing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). They were examined for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. The majority (87%) of MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 239 (ST239; n = 100; 53%) and ST5 (n = 63, 34%) on the basis of sequence typing. MRSA isolates belonging to ST239 were genotypically homogeneous, while those belonging to ST5 showed variations in spaA type, SCCmec type, and PFGE patterns. The rates of resistance of the MRSA isolates belonging to ST239 to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher than those of the isolates belonging to ST5 (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that the ST239 clone, while rarely detected in Korea, was prevalent and that the antimicrobial susceptibility of the ST239 clone was significantly different from that of the ST5 clone. PMID:16081886

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Recovered from Feedlot Cattle and Associations with Antimicrobial Use

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Katharine M.; Gow, Sheryl P.; McAllister, Tim A.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hannon, Sherry J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Noyes, Noelle R.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to investigate the associations between exposures to antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and AMR in fecal non-type specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) recovered from a large population of feedlot cattle. Two-stage random sampling was used to select individually identified cattle for enrollment, which were sampled at arrival and then a second time later in the feeding period. Advanced regression techniques were used to estimate resistance prevalences, and to investigate associations between AMD exposures in enrolled cattle and penmates and AMR identified in NTSEC recovered from the second sample set. Resistance was most commonly detected to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole, and was rarely identified for critically important AMDs. All cattle were exposed to AMDs in feed, and 45% were treated parenterally. While resistance prevalence generally increased during the feeding period, most AMD exposures were not significantly associated with AMR outcomes. Exposures of enrolled cattle to tetracycline were associated with increased resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim sulfa, while beta-lactam exposures were associated with decreased likelihood of detecting streptomycin resistance. Pen-level AMD exposure measures were not associated with resistance outcomes. These findings suggest that tetracycline treatment of feedlot cattle can be associated with modest increases in risk for recovery of resistant NTSEC, but the numerous treatments with an advanced macrolide (tulathromycin) were not associated with detectable increases in resistance in NTSEC. All cattle were exposed to in-feed treatments of tetracycline and this could limit the ability to identify the full impact of these exposures, but these exposures varied for enrolled cattle varied, providing an opportunity to evaluate a dose response. While AMD exposures were not associated with detectably increased risks for

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Recovered from Feedlot Cattle and Associations with Antimicrobial Use.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Katharine M; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Booker, Calvin W; Hannon, Sherry J; Checkley, Sylvia L; Noyes, Noelle R; Morley, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to investigate the associations between exposures to antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and AMR in fecal non-type specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) recovered from a large population of feedlot cattle. Two-stage random sampling was used to select individually identified cattle for enrollment, which were sampled at arrival and then a second time later in the feeding period. Advanced regression techniques were used to estimate resistance prevalences, and to investigate associations between AMD exposures in enrolled cattle and penmates and AMR identified in NTSEC recovered from the second sample set. Resistance was most commonly detected to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole, and was rarely identified for critically important AMDs. All cattle were exposed to AMDs in feed, and 45% were treated parenterally. While resistance prevalence generally increased during the feeding period, most AMD exposures were not significantly associated with AMR outcomes. Exposures of enrolled cattle to tetracycline were associated with increased resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim sulfa, while beta-lactam exposures were associated with decreased likelihood of detecting streptomycin resistance. Pen-level AMD exposure measures were not associated with resistance outcomes. These findings suggest that tetracycline treatment of feedlot cattle can be associated with modest increases in risk for recovery of resistant NTSEC, but the numerous treatments with an advanced macrolide (tulathromycin) were not associated with detectable increases in resistance in NTSEC. All cattle were exposed to in-feed treatments of tetracycline and this could limit the ability to identify the full impact of these exposures, but these exposures varied for enrolled cattle varied, providing an opportunity to evaluate a dose response. While AMD exposures were not associated with detectably increased risks for

  4. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  5. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides’. PMID:27160595

  6. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung; Otto, Michael

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'.

  7. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Alison H; Moore, Luke S P; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Steinbakk, Martin; Regmi, Sadie; Karkey, Abhilasha; Guerin, Philippe J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2016-01-09

    To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment. Onward transmission is affected by standards of infection control, sanitation, access to clean water, access to assured quality antimicrobials and diagnostics, travel, and migration. Strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance by removing antimicrobial selective pressure alone rely upon resistance imparting a fitness cost, an effect not always apparent. Minimising resistance should therefore be considered comprehensively, by resistance mechanism, microorganism, antimicrobial drug, host, and context; parallel to new drug discovery, broad ranging, multidisciplinary research is needed across these five levels, interlinked across the health-care, agriculture, and environment sectors. Intelligent, integrated approaches, mindful of potential unintended results, are needed to ensure sustained, worldwide access to effective antimicrobials.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli isolated from retail grain-fed veal meat from Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cook, Angela; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Irwin, Rebecca J; McEwen, Scott A; Young, Virginia; Ribble, Carl

    2011-08-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli isolates in fresh retail grain-fed veal obtained in Ontario, Canada. The prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns were examined for points of public health significance. Veal samples (n = 528) were collected from February 2003 through May 2004. Twenty-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18 (4%) of 438 samples and underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 6 (29%) of 21 Salmonella isolates; 5 (24%) of 21 isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. No resistance to antimicrobials of very high human health importance was observed. Ampicillin-chloramphenicolstreptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance was found in 5 (3%) of 21 Salmonella isolates. Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 5 (1%) of 438 samples; 6 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was documented in 3 (50%) of 6 Campylobacter isolates. No Campylobacter isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials or category I antimicrobials. E. coli isolates were recovered from 387 (88%) of 438 samples; 1,258 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 678 (54%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates; 128 (10%) of 1,258 were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. Five (0.4%) and 7 (0.6%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates were resistant to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone, respectively, while 34 (3%) of 1,258 were resistant to nalidixic acid. Ciprofloxacin resistance was not detected. There were 101 different resistance patterns observed among E. coli isolates; resistance to tetracycline alone (12.7%, 161 of 1,258) was most frequently observed. This study provides baseline prevalence and antimicrobial resistance data and highlights potential public health concerns.

  9. Prevalence of Recent Antimicrobial Exposure among Elective Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Christopher A; Sawyer, Robert G

    2017-10-01

    The annual prevalence of antimicrobial exposure is high in the outpatient setting and should be a common exposure for surgical patients. Antimicrobials have negative side effects and may be associated with poor outcomes. Logically, one would expect surgical patients to be particularly susceptible to any negative effects of recent antimicrobial exposure. Despite these observations, however, the prevalence of recent antimicrobial exposure among surgical patients remains undefined. The purpose of this study is to define the prevalence of antimicrobial exposure in patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. Patients presenting for elective operations between August 4, 2015 and August 3, 2016 at our institution were asked prospectively about any antimicrobial exposure in the previous three months. Answers were recorded as either Yes, No, or Unsure. Patients were grouped according to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, primary operative service, and post-operative destination. Descriptive statistics were employed using simple percentages and chi-square analysis when appropriate. Cochrane-Armitage test was used to evaluate temporal trends. There were 21,473 elective surgical procedures performed during the study period across 13 operative services. Answers were recorded for 91.2% cases. The overall prevalence of exposure during this period was 28.6%. Exposure varied with age, ASA score, and surgical specialty. Vascular and transplant operations had the highest prevalence of exposure while ophthalmology and pediatric orthopedic procedures had the lowest. Patients with recent antimicrobial exposure were less likely to be discharged home on the same day and more likely to be admitted to an intensive care or intermediate care unit than those who denied recent exposure. In this descriptive analysis, the prevalence of recent antimicrobial exposure is overall approximately 28.6% and is higher than anticipated. Further work is needed to determine to what

  10. ACVIM consensus statement on therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Giguère, S; Guardabassi, L; Morley, P S; Papich, M; Ricciuto, D R; Sykes, J E

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of antimicrobial resistant infections continues to challenge, compromising animal care, complicating food animal production and posing zoonotic disease risks. While the overall role of therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals in the development AMR in animal and human pathogens is poorly defined, veterinarians must consider the impacts of antimicrobial use in animal and take steps to optimize antimicrobial use, so as to maximize the health benefits to animals while minimizing the likelihood of antimicrobial resistance and other adverse effects. This consensus statement aims to provide guidance on the therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animals, balancing the need for effective therapy with minimizing development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals and humans.

  11. Prevalence, quantification and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on chicken neck-skins at points of slaughter in 5 major cities located on 4 continents.

    PubMed

    Garin, Benoit; Gouali, Malika; Wouafo, Marguerite; Perchec, Anne-Marie; Pham, Minh Thu; Ravaonindrina, Noro; Urbès, Florence; Gay, Manu; Diawara, Abdoulaye; Leclercq, Alexandre; Rocourt, Jocelyne; Pouillot, Régis

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative data on Campylobacter contamination of food are lacking, notably in developing countries. We assessed Campylobacter contamination of chicken neck-skins at points of slaughter in 5 major cities in Africa (Dakar in Senegal, Yaounde in Cameroon), Oceania (Noumea in New Caledonia), the Indian Ocean (Antananarivo in Madagascar) and Asia (Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam. One hundred and fifty slaughtered chickens were collected in each of the 5 major cities from semi-industrial abattoirs or markets (direct slaughter by the seller), and 65.5% (491/750) were found to be Campylobacter-positive. Two cities, Yaounde and Noumea, demonstrated high prevalence Campylobacter detection rates (92.7% and 96.7% respectively) in contrast with HCMC (15.3%). Four species were identified among 633 isolates, namely C. jejuni (48.3%), C. coli (37.3%), C. lari (11.7%) and C. upsaliensis (1%). HCMC was the only city with C. lari isolation as was Antananarivo for C. upsaliensis. C. coli was highly prevalent only in Yaounde (69.5%). Among the 491 samples positive in Campylobacter detection, 329 were also positive with the enumeration method. The number of Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of neck-skin in samples positive in enumeration was high (mean of the log(10): 3.2 log(10) CFU/g, arithmetic mean: 7900CFU/g). All the cities showed close enumeration means except HCMC with a 1.81 log(10) CFU/g mean for positive samples. Semi-industrial abattoir was linked to a significant lower count of Campylobacter contamination than direct slaughter by the seller (p=0.006). On 546 isolates (546/633, 86.3%) tested for antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was observed for respectively 11%, 19% and 50%. HCMC was the city where antibiotic resistant rates were the highest (95%, p=0.014). Considering the 329 positive chickens in Campylobacter enumeration, the mean number of resistant isolates to at least 2 different antibiotic

  12. Core groups, antimicrobial resistance and rebound in gonorrhoea in North America.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christina H; McCabe, Caitlin J; Fisman, David N

    2012-04-01

    Genital tract infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are a major cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Surveillance data suggest that incidence has increased in recent years after initially falling in the face of intensified control efforts. The authors sought to evaluate the potential contribution of antimicrobial resistance to such rebound and to identify optimal treatment strategies in the face of resistance using a mathematical model of gonorrhoea. The authors built risk-structured 'susceptible-infectious-susceptible' models with and without the possibility of antibiotic resistance and used these models as a platform for the evaluation of competing plausible treatment strategies, including changing antimicrobial choice when resistance prevalence surpassed fixed thresholds, random assignment of treatment and use of combination antimicrobial therapy. Absent antimicrobial resistance, strategies that focus on treatment of highest risk individuals (the so-called core group) result in collapse of disease transmission. When antimicrobial resistance exists, a focus on the core group causes rebound in incidence, with maximal dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Random assignment of antimicrobial treatment class outperformed the use of fixed resistance thresholds with respect to sustained reduction in gonorrhoea prevalence. Gonorrhoea control is achievable only when core groups are treated, but treatment of core groups maximises dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant strains. This paradox poses a great dilemma to the control and prevention of gonorrhoea and underlines the need for gonococcal vaccines.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp and their antimicrobial resistant patterns among healthy neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Kersh, Talat A.; Marie, Mohammed A.; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed A.; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H.; Al-Bloushy, Ahmad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistant profiles, and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and staphylococci among 150 healthy Saudi neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Al-Bukayriyah General Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, between June 2012 and January 2013. The E. faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified manually, and Vitek2 system was used for identity confirmation at the species level and minimum inhibitory concentration-susceptibility testing. Results: Enterococcus faecalis (n=73) and Staphylococcus spp. (n=18) were recovered. Unlike staphylococci, E. faecalis colonization did not significantly vary from day one up to 7 days of life, regardless of the type of feeding, but it was relatively higher among vaginally versus cesarean delivery. Both Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus carriage increase as the body weight increases, and this difference was significant (p=0.025) for S. epidermidis. High-level resistance in Gentamycin among E. faecalis isolates was 25% and 11% to Streptomycin. Thirty percent of S. epidermidis were resistant to oxacillin and exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns of 5 resistant markers, which were also observed among 2/5 (40%) of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecalis did not significantly vary in relation to type of delivery, age up to 7 days, and type of feeding. The neonatal fecal carriage of MDR isolates should be considered as a crucial reservoir to the further spread of antimicrobial resistance genes among hospitals, cross infections, and the community. PMID:26905350

  15. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter in broiler flocks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruna, M; Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Ikeda, A; Kusukawa, M; Tsujiyama, Y; Ito, K; Asai, T; Yamada, Y

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from 67 (47.2%) of 142 broiler flocks between September 2009 and February 2010. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was significantly lower during January and February than it was from September to December. Campylobacter colonization was more common in flocks that were not provided with a disinfected water supply, which was consistent with the findings of a previous study. The prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. was investigated, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of eight antimicrobial agents were determined for 122 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 46 Campylobacter coli isolates from broiler flocks between 2007 and 2010. In this study, 29.5% (36/122) of C. jejuni isolates and 41.3% (19/46) of C. coli isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin (ERFX), whereas all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. Furthermore, the ERFX-resistant isolates were tested for susceptibility to other classes of antimicrobial agents, and 55.6% (20/36) of ERFX-resistant C. jejuni isolates and 47.4% (9/19) of ERFX-resistant C. coli isolates were resistant to at least one of aminobenzyl penicillin, dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline. To avoid an impact of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. on the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for human campylobacteriosis, prudent use of antimicrobial agents is a requisite. The use of antimicrobial agents should be accompanied by various approaches such as prevention of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks with the aim of lowering the occurrence of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  17. Changes in Antimicrobial Use Prevalence in China: Results from Five Point Prevalence Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhui; Ren, Nan; Wen, Ximao; Zhou, Pengcheng; Huang, Xun; Gong, Ruie; Lv, Yixin; Feng, Li; Wu, Hongman; Liu, Zhenru; Fu, Chenchao; Huang, Xin; Li, Jie; Chen, Yuhua; Zeng, Cui; Zuo, Shuangyan; Xiong, Xinrui; Xu, Xiuhua; Wu, Anhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective The abuse of antimicrobials is a serious concern in China. Several measures have been taken to improve the rational use of antimicrobials, including the establishment of a national surveillance network for antimicrobial use. This study describes the dynamic changes in antimicrobial use in China between 2001 and 2010, with the scope of identifying targets to improve the prescription of antimicrobials. Methods Five point prevalence surveys were performed in hospitals across mainland China in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010. All inpatients who were admitted for at least 24 hours were included in the study. Details regarding antimicrobial use by these patients and the collection of samples for bacterial culture from inpatients administered therapeutic antimicrobials were recorded. Results The surveys encompassed tertiary hospitals from all 31 provinces of mainland China. Antimicrobial use prevalence decreased from 54.79% in 2001 to 46.63% in 2010. While this decline was observed in most hospital departments, antimicrobial use remained stable or increased in others. Antimicrobial use prevalence was relatively high in the Pediatrics departments and general intensive care units, whereas it was lower in the Obstetrics (Neonatal group) departments in each survey. The proportion of patients administered a single antimicrobial increased from 60.78% in 2001 to 70.16% in 2010, while the proportion of administration of two or more antimicrobials declined. The bacterial culture rate increased from 25.22% in 2003 to 34.71% in 2010. Antimicrobial use prevalence (47.96% vs 46.16%), bacterial culture rate (36.40% vs 34.19%), and the proportion of administration of a single antimicrobial (71.41% vs 67.33%) were higher in teaching hospitals than in nonteaching hospitals in 2010. Conclusion Although measures for enhancing the rational use of antimicrobials have been effective, further improvements are required. The findings from this study can promote such improvements. PMID

  18. Antimicrobial usage among hospitalized children in Latvia: a neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial point prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Sviestina, Inese; Mozgis, Dzintars

    2014-01-01

    The point prevalence survey was conducted as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Project. The study aimed at analyzing pediatric and neonatal antimicrobial prescribing patterns in Latvian hospitals, to identify targets for quality improvement. A one day cross-sectional point prevalence survey on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was conducted in November 2012 in 10 Latvian hospitals, using a previously validated and standardized method. The survey included all inpatient pediatric and neonatal beds and identified all children receiving an antimicrobial treatment on the day of survey. Overall 549 patients were included in the study; 167 (39%) patients admitted to pediatric wards and 25 (21%) patients admitted to neonatal wards received at least one antimicrobial. Pediatric top three antibiotic groups were third-generation cephalosporins (55 prescriptions, 28%), extended spectrum penicillins (n=32, 16%) and first-generation cephalosporins (n=26, 13%). Eleven pediatric patients (85%) received surgical prophylaxis more than 1 day; 143 pediatric patients (86%) received antibiotics intravenously. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common indications for antibiotic use both in pediatric (n=60, 35.9%) and neonatal patients (n=9, 36%). The most used antibiotics for neonatal patients were benzylpenicillin (n=12, 32%), and gentamicin (n=9, 24%). We identified a few problematic areas, which need improvement: the high use of third-generation cephalosporins for pediatric patients, prolonged surgical prophylaxis, predominant use of parenteral antibiotics and an urgent need for local antibiotic guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis upon the intestinal microbiota and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in vaginally delivered full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Milani, Christian; Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Alaez, Lidia; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-08-08

    Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Antibiotics are among the drugs most frequently used in early life, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP), present in over 30% of deliveries, being the most frequent source of exposure. However, our knowledge on the effects of IAP on the microbiota establishment is still limited. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of IAP investigating a cohort of 40 full-term vaginally delivered infants born after an uncomplicated pregnancy, 18 of which were born from mothers receiving IAP. Fecal samples were collected at 2, 10, 30, and 90 days of age. We analyzed the composition of the fecal microbiota during the first 3 months of life by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantified fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. The presence of genes for resistance to antibiotics was determined by PCR in the samples from 1-month-old infants. Our results showed an altered pattern of intestinal microbiota establishment in IAP infants during the first weeks of life, with lower relative proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes and increased of Preoteobacteria and Firmicutes. A delay in the increase on the levels of acetate was observed in IAP infants. The analyses of specific antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher occurrence of some β-lactamase coding genes in infants whose mothers received IAP. Our results indicate an effect of IAP on the establishing early microbiota during the first months of life, which represent a key moment for the development of the microbiota

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Samuel; Gordon, Melita A.; Feasey, Nicholas; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Salmonella infections (typhoidal and non-typhoidal) cause a huge burden of illness estimated at nearly 3.4 million cases and over 600,000 deaths annually especially in resource-limited settings. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are particularly important in immunosuppressed populations especially in sub-Saharan Africa, causing a mortality of 20–30% in vulnerable children below 5 years of age. In these settings, where routine surveillance for antimicrobial resistance is rare or non-existent, reports of 50–75% multidrug resistance (MDR) in NTS are common, including strains of NTS also resistant to flouroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Typhoid (enteric) fever caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia and Africa. Currently over a third of isolates in many endemic areas are MDR, and diminished susceptibility or resistance to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for MDR cases over the last decade is an increasing problem. The situation is particularly worrying in resource-limited settings where the few remaining effective antimicrobials are either unavailable or altogether too expensive to be afforded by either the general public or by public health services. Although the prudent use of effective antimicrobials, improved hygiene and sanitation and the discovery of new antimicrobial agents may offer hope for the management of invasive salmonella infections, it is essential to consider other interventions including the wider use of WHO recommended typhoid vaccines and the acceleration of trials for novel iNTS vaccines. The main objective of this review is to describe existing data on the prevalence and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant invasive Salmonella infections and how this affects the management of these infections, especially in endemic developing countries. PMID:25912288

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Samuel; Gordon, Melita A; Feasey, Nicholas; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-06-19

    Invasive Salmonella infections (typhoidal and non-typhoidal) cause a huge burden of illness estimated at nearly 3.4 million cases and over 600,000 deaths annually especially in resource-limited settings. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are particularly important in immunosuppressed populations especially in sub-Saharan Africa, causing a mortality of 20-30% in vulnerable children below 5 years of age. In these settings, where routine surveillance for antimicrobial resistance is rare or non-existent, reports of 50-75% multidrug resistance (MDR) in NTS are common, including strains of NTS also resistant to flouroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Typhoid (enteric) fever caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia and Africa. Currently over a third of isolates in many endemic areas are MDR, and diminished susceptibility or resistance to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for MDR cases over the last decade is an increasing problem. The situation is particularly worrying in resource-limited settings where the few remaining effective antimicrobials are either unavailable or altogether too expensive to be afforded by either the general public or by public health services. Although the prudent use of effective antimicrobials, improved hygiene and sanitation and the discovery of new antimicrobial agents may offer hope for the management of invasive salmonella infections, it is essential to consider other interventions including the wider use of WHO recommended typhoid vaccines and the acceleration of trials for novel iNTS vaccines. The main objective of this review is to describe existing data on the prevalence and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant invasive Salmonella infections and how this affects the management of these infections, especially in endemic developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Low rates of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, surrounded by villages with high prevalence of multiresistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in people and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Papousek, Ivo; De Nys, Helene; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Metzger, Sonya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Wittig, Roman M; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Leendertz, Fabian H; Literak, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife.

  3. Antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Long, M; Huang, Y; Wu, G; Deng, W; Yang, X; Li, B; Meng, Y; Cheng, L; Fan, L; Zhang, H; Zou, L

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to demonstrate the antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Antimicrobial testing was performed according to the standard disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of disinfectants were determined using the agar dilution method. All isolates were screened for the presence of antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance genes and further analysed for genetic relatedness by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results showed that 46·6% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to fewer antimicrobials as panda age increased. Among antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates, the antimicrobial resistance genes blaCTX-M (88·2%) and sul1 (92·3%) were most prevalent. The disinfectant resistance genes emrE, ydgE/ydgF, mdfA and sugE(c) were commonly present (68·2-98·9%), whereas qac and sugE(p) were relatively less prevalent (0-21·3%). The frequencies of resistance genes tended to be higher in E. coli isolated in December than in July, and PFGE profiles were also more diverse in isolates in December. The qacEΔ1 and sugE(p) genes were higher in adolescent pandas than in any other age groups. PFGE revealed that antimicrobial resistance correlated well with sampling time and habitat. This study demonstrated that antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance was common in giant panda-derived E. coli, and the antimicrobial resistance was associated with sampling time and habitat. Escherichia coli could serve as a critical vector in spreading disinfectant and antimicrobial resistance. This is the first study that demonstrated the phenotypic and genetic characterizations of antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance in E. coli isolates from more than 60 giant pandas. Frequent transfer of pandas to other cages may lead to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The

  4. Shigella serotypes among hospitalized patients in urban Bangladesh and their antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. I.; Huq, S.; Malek, M. A.; Hossain, M. I.; Talukder, K. A.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Salam, M. A.; Sack, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the isolation of Shigella spp., and their antimicrobial resistance. S. flexneri (54 %) was most frequently isolated, followed by S. dysenteriae (20 %), S. boydii (16 %) and S. sonnei (10 %). Among S. flexneri (n = 122), 29 (24 %) were 2a, and 23 (19 %) were 2b. None of the Shigella strains were resistant to mecillinam or ciprofloxacin. Resistance to nalidixic acid was most frequent among S. dysenteriae type 1 (100%) followed by S. flexneri 2a (69%), and S. flexneri 2b (52 %). Systematic monitoring is needed to identify most prevalent serotypes, and to detect changes in the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern. PMID:15310182

  5. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages of Enterococcus spp. from vegetable food, soil and irrigation water in farm environments in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Leila; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Borgo, Francesca; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the species, clonal diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence of enterococci in different environments. Seventy-one samples of farm origin (34 of food vegetables, 27 of soil and ten of irrigation water) and 19 samples of vegetables from five markets, were inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented or not with gentamicin (SB-Gen and SB plates, respectively) for enterococci recovery. Enterococci were obtained from 72.2% of tested samples in SB media (food vegetables from farms, 88.2%; soil and irrigation water, 51%; food vegetables from markets, 84.2%), and 65 enterococcal isolates were obtained. Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species (52.3%), followed by E. hirae (35.4%), E. faecalis (6.15%), and E. casseliflavus (6.15%). Antibiotic resistance detected among these enterococci was as follows (percentage/detected gene): ciprofloxacin (60%), erythromycin (18.4%/erm(B)), tetracycline (15.4%/tet(M)-tet(L)), kanamycin (15.4%/aph(3')-III), chloramphenicol (7.7%), streptomycin (3%/ant(6)), vancomycin (6.15%/vanC2)), teicoplanin (0%) and ampicillin (0%). High-level gentamicin-resistant (HLR-G) enterococci were detected in SB-Gen plates in 14 of 90 tested samples (15.5%), and 15 isolates were characterized: ten E. faecalis, four E. faecium and one E. hirae. All HLR-G enterococci carried the aac(6')-aph(2″), erm(B) and tet(M) genes, among other resistance genes. The HLR-G isolates showed high genetic diversity (ten different PFGE profiles), and were ascribed to the sequence types ST2, ST16, ST28 and new ST528 (in E. faecalis), and ST56, new ST885 and new ST886 (in E. faecium). Food vegetables in the farm or market settings are frequently contaminated by HLR-G enterococci, and these microorganisms could reach the human intestine through the food chain, if hygienic conditions are not followed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Risks of Cholera Prophylaxis for United Nations Peacekeepers.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Amber; Lewnard, Joseph A; Pitzer, Virginia E; Cohen, Ted

    2017-08-01

    More than 5 years after a United Nations peacekeeping battalion introduced cholera to Haiti, over 150,000 peacekeepers continue to be deployed annually from countries where cholera is endemic. The United Nations has thus far declined to provide antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers, a policy based largely on concerns that the risks of drug resistance generation and spread would outweigh the potential benefits of preventing future cholera importations. In this study, we sought to better understand the relative benefits and risks of cholera chemoprophylaxis for peacekeepers in terms of antibiotic resistance. Using a stochastic model to quantify the potential impact of chemoprophylaxis on importation and transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive Vibrio cholerae, we found that chemoprophylaxis would decrease the probability of cholera importation but would increase the expected number of drug-resistant infections if an importation event were to occur. Despite this potential increase, we found that at least 10 drug-sensitive infections would likely be averted per excess drug-resistant infection under a wide range of assumptions about the underlying prevalence of drug resistance and risk of acquired resistance. Given these findings, policymakers should reconsider whether the potential resistance risks of providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers are sufficient to outweigh the anticipated benefits. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Guideline recommendations and antimicrobial resistance: the need for a change.

    PubMed

    Elias, Christelle; Moja, Lorenzo; Mertz, Dominik; Loeb, Mark; Forte, Gilles; Magrini, Nicola

    2017-07-26

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a global burden for which inappropriate antimicrobial use is an important contributing factor. Any decisions on the selection of antibiotics use should consider their effects on antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which antibiotic prescribing guidelines have considered resistance patterns when making recommendations for five highly prevalent infectious syndromes. We used Medline searches complemented with extensive use of Web engine to identify guidelines on empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infections, acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis and pharyngitis. We collected data on microbiology and resistance patterns and identified discrete pattern categories. We assessed the extent to which recommendations considered resistance, in addition to efficacy and safety, when recommending antibiotics. We identified 135 guidelines, which reported a total of 251 recommendations. Most (103/135, 79%) were from developed countries. Community-acquired pneumonia was the syndrome mostly represented (51, 39%). In only 16 (6.4%) recommendations, selection of empirical antibiotic was discussed in relation to resistance and specific microbiological data. In a further 69 (27.5%) recommendations, references were made in relation to resistance, but the attempt was inconsistent. Across syndromes, 12 patterns of resistance with implications on recommendations were observed. 50% to 75% of recommendations did not attempt to set recommendation in the context of these patterns. There is consistent evidence that guidelines on empirical antibiotic use did not routinely consider resistance in their recommendations. Decision-makers should analyse and report the extent of local resistance patterns to allow better decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  8. The Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance in Managing Intra-Abdominal Infections.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; di Saverio, Salomone; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Tranà, Cristian; Kirkby-Bott, James

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a worldwide increase in infections caused by microorganisms resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. In the past few decades, an increased prevalence of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including Enterococcus spp., carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and resistant Candida spp., also has been observed among intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistance is responsible for a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality rates associated with IAIs. It is necessary for every surgeon treating IAIs to understand the underlying epidemiology and clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance. Emergence of drug resistance, combined with the lack of new agents in the drug development pipeline, indicates that judicious antimicrobial management will be necessary to preserve the utility of the drugs available currently.

  9. SCC mec typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from pigs of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, S; Sarma, D K; Pegu, S R

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance. The overall prevalence of MRSA was 7.02 % with the highest prevalence recorded in pigs aged 1-3 months (P = 0.001) and in nasal samples (P = 0.005). Two SCC mec types (type III and V) were found in Indian pigs with predominance of type V. All isolates were resistant to penicillin. Seventeen resistance groups were observed where 87.75 % isolates showed multidrug resistance (showed resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials). The most predominant resistance pattern observed was Oxytetracycline + Penicillin + Sulfadiazine + Tetracycline accounting 12.24 % of the isolates. The present study contributes to the understanding of characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of porcine MRSA isolates which in turn will help in devising strategy for the control of this pathogen. Findings of the study also throw light on multidrug resistance MRSA and emphasize the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in animal practice.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and the activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    PubMed

    Bruno, A V; Mackay, Carolissen

    2012-04-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission has been working on the subject of antimicrobial resistance, mainly through the activities of the Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods and the ad hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance. Principal texts developed by Codex include the 'Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial Resistance (CAC/RCP 61-2005) and 'Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance' (CAC/GL 77-2011). The successful containment of antimicrobial resistance requires the collaboration of a wide range of stakeholders, working together to protect consumer health by ensuring the safety of food products of animal origin.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from retail meat purchased in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Checkley, Sylvia; Avery, Brent; Chalmers, Gabhan; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard; Aslam, Mueen

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzed antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and resistance genes in generic Escherichia coli isolated from retail meat samples purchased (2007-2008) in Alberta, Canada, and determined potential associations between resistance phenotypes and resistance genes with relation to the meat types. A total of 422 E. coli isolates from retail chicken, turkey, beef, and pork meats were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Multiplex PCRs were used to detect major resistance genes for tetracyclines [tet(A), tet(B), tet(C)], sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, sul3), aminoglycosides (strA/B, aadA, aadB, aac(3)IV, aphA1, aphA2), and β-lactamase (bla(CMY-2), bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(PSE-1)). Resistance to ciprofloxacin was not found in any isolate. Overall resistances to clinically important antimicrobials amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16.8% of isolates) and ceftriaxone (12.6% isolates) were observed. These resistances were observed more frequently (p<0.0001) in chicken-derived E. coli than those from the other meat types. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials (≥ 5) was found in more chicken derived E. coli (32%) than E. coli from other meat types. The β-lactamase genes of clinical importance, including bla(CMY-2) and bla(TEM), were found in about 18% of poultry-derived E. coli and in only 5% of ground beef. The bla(CMY-2) gene was more likely to be found in E. coli from chicken than turkey, beef, or pork meats. The tet(A) gene was associated with bla(CMY-2), whereas bla(CMY-2) and bla(TEM) genes were associated with strA/B genes. Resistance genes for tetracycline, sulfonamides, and aminoglycosides were associated with the phenotypic expression of resistance to unrelated classes of antimicrobials. These data suggest the prevalence of AMR and select resistance genes were higher in poultry-derived E. coli. The multiple associations found between AMR phenotypes and resistance genes suggest a complex nature of resistance in E. coli from retail meat, and hence the use of a single

  12. [Antimicrobial resistance after antibiotic use in animals--impact on human health].

    PubMed

    Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Sunde, Marianne

    2008-11-06

    This review describes the use of antibiotics and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in animal husbandry, with emphasis on the current situation in Norway. The clinically most important resistance problems in human medicine that are associated with antimicrobial resistance in animals, are discussed in a global perspective. This review is based on a Pubmed search with the terms "animal" and "antimicrobial resistance", as well as the authors' own research experience. Antibiotic use in animals is the main cause for selection and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in animals. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in animal husbandry in Norway is lower than that in many non-Nordic countries, and is associated with less use of therapeutic antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance may spread from animals to humans by transfer of resistant bacteria from animals to humans and resistance genes from animal bacteria to human pathogens. It is adamant to have efficient prevention measures and rational use of antibiotics in animals to delay development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Although good examples exist of how resistance in animal bacteria can create problems for human health, it is well documented that the human use of therapeutic antibiotics and lack of efficient infection control measures have the most profound influence on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in humans.

  13. Prevalence of antimicrobial use in a network of Canadian hospitals in 2002 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Geoffrey; Gravel, Denise; Saxinger, Lynora; Bush, Kathryn; Simmonds, Kimberley; Matlow, Anne; Embree, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Johnston, Lynn; Suh, Kathryn N; Embil, John; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Roth, Virginia; Wong, Alice

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing antimicrobial resistance has been identified as an important global health threat. Antimicrobial use is a major driver of resistance, especially in the hospital sector. Understanding the extent and type of antimicrobial use in Canadian hospitals will aid in developing national antimicrobial stewardship priorities. METHODS: In 2002 and 2009, as part of one-day prevalence surveys to quantify hospital-acquired infections in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals, data were collected on the use of systemic antimicrobial agents in all patients in participating hospitals. Specific agents in use (other than antiviral and antiparasitic agents) on the survey day and patient demographic information were collected. RESULTS: In 2002, 2460 of 6747 patients (36.5%) in 28 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy. In 2009, 3989 of 9953 (40.1%) patients in 44 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy (P<0.001). Significantly increased use was observed in central Canada (37.4% to 40.8%) and western Canada (36.9% to 41.1%) but not in eastern Canada (32.9% to 34.1%). In 2009, antimicrobial use was most common on solid organ transplant units (71.0% of patients), intensive care units (68.3%) and hematology/oncology units (65.9%). Compared with 2002, there was a significant decrease in use of first-and second-generation cephalosporins, and significant increases in use of carbapenems, antifungal agents and vancomycin in 2009. Piperacillin-tazobactam, as a proportion of all penicillins, increased from 20% in 2002 to 42.8% in 2009 (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in simultaneous use of >1 agent, from 12.0% of patients in 2002 to 37.7% in 2009. CONCLUSION: From 2002 to 2009, the prevalence of antimicrobial agent use in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals significantly increased; additionally, increased use of broad-spectrum agents and a marked increase in simultaneous use of multiple agents were

  14. Prevalence of antimicrobial use in a network of Canadian hospitals in 2002 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geoffrey; Gravel, Denise; Saxinger, Lynora; Bush, Kathryn; Simmonds, Kimberley; Matlow, Anne; Embree, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Johnston, Lynn; Suh, Kathryn N; Embil, John; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Roth, Virginia; Wong, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has been identified as an important global health threat. Antimicrobial use is a major driver of resistance, especially in the hospital sector. Understanding the extent and type of antimicrobial use in Canadian hospitals will aid in developing national antimicrobial stewardship priorities. In 2002 and 2009, as part of one-day prevalence surveys to quantify hospital-acquired infections in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals, data were collected on the use of systemic antimicrobial agents in all patients in participating hospitals. Specific agents in use (other than antiviral and antiparasitic agents) on the survey day and patient demographic information were collected. In 2002, 2460 of 6747 patients (36.5%) in 28 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy. In 2009, 3989 of 9953 (40.1%) patients in 44 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy (P<0.001). Significantly increased use was observed in central Canada (37.4% to 40.8%) and western Canada (36.9% to 41.1%) but not in eastern Canada (32.9% to 34.1%). In 2009, antimicrobial use was most common on solid organ transplant units (71.0% of patients), intensive care units (68.3%) and hematology/oncology units (65.9%). Compared with 2002, there was a significant decrease in use of first-and second-generation cephalosporins, and significant increases in use of carbapenems, antifungal agents and vancomycin in 2009. Piperacillin-tazobactam, as a proportion of all penicillins, increased from 20% in 2002 to 42.8% in 2009 (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in simultaneous use of >1 agent, from 12.0% of patients in 2002 to 37.7% in 2009. From 2002 to 2009, the prevalence of antimicrobial agent use in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals significantly increased; additionally, increased use of broad-spectrum agents and a marked increase in simultaneous use of multiple agents were observed.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Characterization among Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates Causing Severe Obstetric Infections in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiral, Elisabet; Sáez-López, Emma; Bosch, Jordi; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Sanz, Sergi; Vila, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The virulence markers and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 78 Escherichia coli isolates causing obstetric infections accompanied by sepsis or not were studied. Adhesion-related virulence factors were the most prevalent markers. Low rates of resistance to the antimicrobial agents used as first-line therapy suggest their correct implementation in stewardship guidelines. PMID:25740771

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23812024

  17. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolated from food animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of multi drug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica is a concern for both animal and human health. MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most prevalent penta-resistant serovar isolated from animals as part of the National Antimicrobial Resis...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray for analysis of multi-drug resistant isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Leski, Tomasz; Stenger, David; Vora, Gary J.; House, Brent; Nicklasson, Matilda; Pimentel, Guillermo; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Craft, David; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.; Bangurae, Umaru; Ansumana, Rashid

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections in personnel wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan has made it challenging for physicians to choose effective therapeutics in a timely fashion. To address the challenge of identifying the potential for drug resistance, we have developed the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM) to provide DNAbased analysis for over 250 resistance genes covering 12 classes of antibiotics. Over 70 drug-resistant bacteria from different geographic regions have been analyzed on ARDM, with significant differences in patterns of resistance identified: genes for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, rifampin, and macrolide-lincosamidesulfonamide drugs were more frequently identified in isolates from sources in Iraq/Afghanistan. Of particular concern was the presence of genes responsible for resistance to many of the last-resort antibiotics used to treat war traumaassociated infections.

  19. Epistasis and the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The fitness effects of a mutation can depend, sometimes dramatically, on genetic background; this phenomenon is often referred to as “epistasis.” Epistasis can have important practical consequences in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). For example, genetic background plays an important role in determining the costs of resistance, and hence in whether resistance will persist in the absence of antibiotic pressure. Furthermore, interactions between resistance mutations can have important implications for the evolution of multi-drug resistance. I argue that there is a need to better characterize the extent and nature of epistasis for mutations and horizontally transferred elements conferring AMR, particularly in clinical contexts. Furthermore, I suggest that epistasis should be an important consideration in attempts to slow or limit the evolution of AMR. PMID:28261193

  20. Epistasis and the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The fitness effects of a mutation can depend, sometimes dramatically, on genetic background; this phenomenon is often referred to as "epistasis." Epistasis can have important practical consequences in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). For example, genetic background plays an important role in determining the costs of resistance, and hence in whether resistance will persist in the absence of antibiotic pressure. Furthermore, interactions between resistance mutations can have important implications for the evolution of multi-drug resistance. I argue that there is a need to better characterize the extent and nature of epistasis for mutations and horizontally transferred elements conferring AMR, particularly in clinical contexts. Furthermore, I suggest that epistasis should be an important consideration in attempts to slow or limit the evolution of AMR.

  1. Molecular serotyping and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boram; Hur, Jin; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns in APP isolates from pigs in Korea were examined. Sixty-five APP isolates were genetically serotyped using standard and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the standardized disk-agar method. PCR was used to detect β-lactam, gentamicin and tetracycline-resistance genes. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were determined by PCR. Korean pigs predominantly carried APP serotypes 1 and 5. Among 65 isolates, one isolate was sensitive to all 12 antimicrobials tested in this study. Sixty-two isolates was resistant to tetracycline and 53 isolates carried one or five genes including tet(B), tet(A), tet(H), tet(M)/tet(O), tet(C), tet(G) and/or tet(L)-1 markers. Among 64 strains, 9% and 26.6% were resistance to 10 and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. Thirteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed and RAPD analysis revealed a separation of the isolates into two clusters: cluster II (6 strains resistant to 10 antimicrobials) and cluster I (the other 59 strains). Results show that APP serotypes 1 and 5 are the most common in Korea, and multi-drug resistant strains are prevalent. RAPD analysis demonstrated that six isolates resistant to 10 antimicrobials belonged to the same cluster.

  2. Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides in Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Duperthuy, Marylise; Vanhove, Audrey Sophie; Schmitt, Paulina; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Vibrios are associated with a broad diversity of hosts that produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of their defense against microbial infections. In particular, vibrios colonize epithelia, which function as protective barriers and express AMPs as a first line of chemical defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown they can also colonize phagocytes, key components of the animal immune system. Phagocytes infiltrate infected tissues and use AMPs to kill the phagocytosed microorganisms intracellularly, or deliver their antimicrobial content extracellularly to circumvent tissue infection. We review here the mechanisms by which vibrios have evolved the capacity to evade or resist the potent antimicrobial defenses of the immune cells or tissues they colonize. Among their strategies to resist killing by AMPs, primarily vibrios use membrane remodeling mechanisms. In particular, some highly resistant strains substitute hexaacylated Lipid A with a diglycine residue to reduce their negative surface charge, thereby lowering their electrostatic interactions with cationic AMPs. As a response to envelope stress, which can be induced by membrane-active agents including AMPs, vibrios also release outer membrane vesicles to create a protective membranous shield that traps extracellular AMPs and prevents interaction of the peptides with their own membranes. Finally, once AMPs have breached the bacterial membrane barriers, vibrios use RND efflux pumps, similar to those of other species, to transport AMPs out of their cytoplasmic space. PMID:27025756

  3. Comparison of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K.; Bartlett, P. C.; Kaneene, J. B.; Downes, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. PMID:15006764

  4. Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Bartlett, P C; Kaneene, J B; Downes, F P

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline.

  5. How Can Vaccines Contribute to Solving the Antimicrobial Resistance Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Siber, George R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing appreciation for the role of vaccines in confronting the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Vaccines can reduce the prevalence of resistance by reducing the need for antimicrobial use and can reduce its impact by reducing the total number of cases. By reducing the number of pathogens that may be responsible for a particular clinical syndrome, vaccines can permit the use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics for empirical therapy. These effects may be amplified by herd immunity, extending protection to unvaccinated persons in the population. Because much selection for resistance is due to selection on bystander members of the normal flora, vaccination can reduce pressure for resistance even in pathogens not included in the vaccine. Some vaccines have had disproportionate effects on drug-resistant lineages within the target species, a benefit that could be more deliberately exploited in vaccine design. We describe the effects of current vaccines in controlling AMR, survey some vaccines in development with the potential to do so further, and discuss strategies to amplify these benefits. We conclude with a discussion of research and policy priorities to more fully enlist vaccines in the battle against AMR. PMID:27273824

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from meat products and meat-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego; Azón, Ester; Marco, Noelia; Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Ariño, Agustín; Yangüela, Javier

    2014-09-01

    A total of 336 Listeria isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and meat-processing environments, consisting of 206 Listeria monocytogenes, and 130 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antimicrobial susceptibility against twenty antimicrobials. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 71 L. monocytogenes isolates (34.5%), and 56 L. innocua isolates (43.1%). Multidrug resistance was identified in 24 Listeria isolates, 18 belonging to L. innocua (13.9%) and 6 to L. monocytogenes (2.9%). Oxacillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 100% Listeria isolates. A medium prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (39.3% isolates) and low incidence of resistance to tetracycline (3.9% isolates) were also detected. Listeria isolates from RTE meat products displayed higher overall antimicrobial resistance (31.3%) than those from the environment (13.4%). All the strains assayed were sensitive to the preferred antibiotics used to treat listeriosis. Results showed that although antimicrobial resistance in L. monocytogenes still occurs at a low prevalence, L. innocua can form a reservoir of resistance genes which may transfer between bacterial species, including transference to organisms capable of causing disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children <15 years (p = 0.005). Latrine availability, source of drinking water and hand washing habits before meal were statistically significant with shigellosis (p < 0.05). Isolates of Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from edible bivalve molluscs purchased from Bangkok markets, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchaikul, Nantika; Garelick, Hemda

    2009-10-01

    Campylobacter species have been recognized as the most commonly reported cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The increase of resistance rates to drugs of choice used for treatment in campylobacteriosis is becoming a public health concern. In parallel, the increased use of antimicrobials in aquaculture may lead to the emergence of resistant microorganisms and is likely to cause additional health risk to humans through food consumption. The study assesses the presence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species isolated from three groups of bivalve molluscs (bloody cockles, green mussels, and oysters) purchased from markets in Bangkok. Thirty samples were collected from each group. Susceptibility to three antimicrobials was determined using the Epsilometer test. Rates of erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter isolates were 72-84%, 28-40%, and 21-25%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of each antimicrobial resistance between the three groups. This study demonstrates a significant level of antimicrobial resistance in the Campylobacter spp. isolated from molluscs with a particular high rate of resistance to erythromycin. Consumption of raw molluscs contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter spp. may therefore result in resistant infections in humans.

  9. The tide of antimicrobial resistance and selection.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark H

    2009-08-01

    The cumulative ecological damage, both to the individual patient and to patient populations, secondary to antibiotic prescribing is increasingly recognised. The impact of antibiotics on pathogens and normal flora should be a criterion for antimicrobial selection. Measures to reduce the use of third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones should be considered. Increased reliance on carbapenems may accelerate the emergence of extremely resistant isolates, and these antimicrobials should be restricted to key scenarios. There is a clear need for new agents with novel modes of action and low ecological damage potential to treat nosocomial infections. Tigecycline has a spectrum of activity that theoretically may reduce the selection pressure for key nosocomial pathogens, and represents an alternative to carbapenems. Further studies are needed to confirm this potentially low selection pressure.

  10. Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria among cattle from Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeeta; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David; Morley, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter) and non-type-specific E. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use. A secondary objective was to determine if AMR in non-type-specific E. coli could be used as a predictor of AMR in foodborne pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 Alberta feedlots during March through December 2004, and resistance prevalence was estimated by season (Spring, Fall) and cattle type (fewest days-on-feed and closest to slaughter). AMD exposures were obtained by calculating therapeutic animal daily doses for each drug before sampling from feedlot records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between each AMR and AMD use. Non-type-specific E. coli was commonly recovered from fecal samples (88.62%), and the highest prevalence of resistance was found toward tetracycline (53%), streptomycin (28%), and sulfadiazine (48%). Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 55.3% of the fecal samples, and resistance was generally less for the drugs that were evaluated (doxycycline 38.1%, ciprofloxacin 2.6%, nalidixic acid 1.64%, erythromycin 1.2%). E. coli O157 and Salmonella were recovered much less frequently (7% and 1% prevalence, respectively). The prevalence of recovery for the bacteria studied varied between seasons and cattle types, as did patterns of AMR. Among non-type-specific E. coli, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfadiazine was found to be positively associated with in-feed exposure as well as injectable tetracycline, but these differences were relatively small and of questionable practical relevance. Among C. jejuni isolates, cattle type was significantly associated with doxycycline resistance. Results suggested that resistance in non-type-specific E. coli to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim

  11. Rhabdomyolysis associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Narita, Mitsuo; Ohya, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Takayuki; Aizawa, Yuta; Matsuo, Mai; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Tsukano, Shinya; Taguchi, Testuo

    2012-05-01

    We describe a case of rhabdomyolysis in a patient infected with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae The patient's acute-phase serum levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-α were high, which suggests a pathogenic role for M. pneumoniae. In an era of increasing antimicrobial drug resistance, a system for rapidly identifying resistant M. pneumoniae would be beneficial.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: From bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is undoubtedly one of the most successful pathogens in the modern healthcare system. With invasive procedures, antibiotic use and immunocompromised hosts increasing in recent years, A. baumannii has become endemic in hospitals due to its versatile genetic machinery, which allows it to quickly evolve resistance factors, and to its remarkable ability to tolerate harsh environments. Infections and outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) are prevalent and have been reported worldwide over the past twenty or more years. To address this problem effectively, knowledge of species identification, typing methods, clinical manifestations, risk factors, and virulence factors is essential. The global epidemiology of MDRAB is monitored by persistent surveillance programs. Because few effective antibiotics are available, clinicians often face serious challenges when treating patients with MDRAB. Therefore, a deep understanding of the resistance mechanisms used by MDRAB can shed light on two possible strategies to combat the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance: stringent infection control and antibiotic treatments, of which colistin-based combination therapy is the mainstream strategy. However, due to the current unsatisfying therapeutic outcomes, there is a great need to develop and evaluate the efficacy of new antibiotics and to understand the role of other potential alternatives, such as antimicrobial peptides, in the treatment of MDRAB infections. PMID:25516853

  13. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  14. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, respectively. Resistance to ≥4 antibiotics was primarily observed for serotypes Typhimurium and Hadar. Enteritidis remains the predominant serotype in Crete. Although low resistance to most antimicrobials was detected, continued surveillance of susceptibility is needed due to the risk of resistance.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Zając, Magdalena; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli (N = 3430) isolated from slaughtered broilers, laying hens, turkeys, swine, and cattle in Poland has been run between 2009 and 2012. Based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbiological resistance to each of 14 tested antimicrobials was found reaching the highest values for tetracycline (43.3%), ampicillin (42.3%), and ciprofloxacin (39.0%) whereas the lowest for colistin (0.9%), cephalosporins (3.6 ÷ 3.8%), and florfenicol (3.8%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted in broiler and turkey isolates, whereas it was rare in cattle. That finding along with resistance patterns specific to isolation source might reflect antimicrobial consumption, usage preferences or management practices in specific animals. Regression analysis has identified changes in prevalence of microbiological resistance and shifts of MIC values. Critically important fluoroquinolone resistance was worrisome in poultry isolates, but did not change over the study period. The difference (4.7%) between resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid indicated the scale of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Cephalosporin resistance were found in less than 3.8% of the isolates but an increasing trends were observed in poultry and MIC shift in the ones from cattle. Gentamycin resistance was also increasing in E. coli of turkey and cattle origin although prevalence of streptomycin resistance in laying hens decreased considerably. Simultaneously, decreasing MIC for phenicols observed in cattle and layers isolates as well as tetracycline values in E. coli from laying hens prove that antimicrobial resistance is multivariable phenomenon not only directly related to antimicrobial usage. Further studies should elucidate the scope of commensal E. coli as reservoirs of resistance genes, their spread and possible threats for human and animal health. PMID:23935596

  16. [Update of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Cercenado, Emilia

    2010-12-01

    In the last few decades, resistance among Gram-positive microorganisms to classical antimicrobials as well as the emergence of resistance to new antimicrobials has been observed in our environment. Methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci seems to have stabilized at around 30% and 70%, respectively, however, multiresistance of these species to other antimicrobials, emergence of linezolid resistance, and decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides is a cause of concern. Daptomycin has good antimicrobial activity, although some strains with slightly increased MICs have been detected. Among enterococci, vancomycin resistance is less than 5%, but multiresistance among these microorganisms, emerging linezolid resistance and reports of some isolates with decreased susceptibility to daptomycin are worrying. Adequate use of antimicrobials could help to prevent the increase in resistance and dissemination of these pathogens and will allow their efficacy to be guaranteed in the future.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food

    PubMed

    Mąka, Łukasz; Popowska, Magdalena

    This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different. Resistance to sulfonamides is mostly associated with genes sul1 and sul2, while resistance to trimethoprim is associated with various variants of dhfr ( dfr) genes. Taking into account Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food, resistance to β-lactams is commonly associated with β-lactamases encoding by blaTEM genes. However strains ESBL and AmpC – positive are also detected. Resistance to aminoglicosides is commonly result of enzymatic inactivation. Three types of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme are: acetyltransferases (AAC), adenyltransferases (ANT) and phosphotransferases (APH). Resistance to tetracyclines among Salmonella spp. isolated from food is most commonly associated with active efflux. Among numerous genetic determinants encoding efflux pumps tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetG are reported predominatingly. One of the most common mechanisms of resistance against chloramphenicol is its inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltrasferases (CATs), but resistance to this compound can be also mediated by chloramphenicol efflux pumps encoded by the genes cmlA and floR. It is important to monitor resistance of Salmonella isolated from food, because the globalization of trade, leading to the long-distance

  18. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in antimicrobial-free and conventional antimicrobial use swine production.

    PubMed

    Funk, Julie A; Abley, Melanie J; Bowman, Andrew S; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Morrow, William E Morgan; Tadesse, Daniel A

    2013-06-01

    Swine are the primary reservoir for foodborne illness associated with Yersinia enterocolitica. The use of antimicrobials in animal agriculture has been hypothesized as having a potential role in the increase in prevalence of zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of Y. enterocolitica fecal shedding in swine reared on farms with conventional antimicrobial use policies to farms that were antimicrobial free (ABF). Swine farms were selected from three regions in the United States. In each region, farms were categorized based on antimicrobial use policy. Fecal samples were collected from pigs on-farm within 48 h of harvest. The overall proportion of Y. enterocolitica and ail-harboring Y. enterocolitica-positive pigs was 10.9% and 4.0%, respectively. There were increased odds (odds ratio [OR] 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.46-13.28) for a pig to be Y. enterocolitica positive if it was reared on an ABF farm as compared to a conventional farm. There was no significant association between farm antimicrobial use policy and isolation of an ail-harboring Y. enterocolitica from an individual pig (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.90-3.61). The association of antimicrobial use policy with Y. enterocolitica shedding in feces should be interpreted cautiously, as antimicrobial use cannot be separated from other management factors (e.g., confinement or outdoor housing), which may be associated with risk of Y. enterocolitica in swine.

  19. Where Sepsis and Antimicrobial Resistance Countermeasures Converge

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Urosevic, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly debate on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recognizes the global significance of AMR. Much work needs to be done on technology capability and capacity to convert the strategic intent of the debate into operational plans and tangible outcomes. Enhancement of the biomedical science–clinician interface requires better exploitation of systems biology tools for in-laboratory and point of care methods that detect sepsis and characterize AMR. These need to link sepsis and AMR data with responsive, real-time surveillance. We propose an AMR sepsis register, similar in concept to a cancer registry, to aid coordination of AMR countermeasures. PMID:28220145

  20. Is Antimicrobial Resistance a Slowly Emerging Disaster?

    PubMed Central

    Viens, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance is so dire that people are predicting that the era of antibiotics may be coming to an end, ushering in a ‘post-antibiotic’ era. A comprehensive policy response is therefore urgently needed. A part of this response will require framing the problem in such a way that adequately reflects its nature as well as encompassing an approach that has the best prospect of success. This paper considers framing the problem as a slowly emerging disaster, including its potential benefits and difficulties, from a conceptual and policy perspective. PMID:26566396

  1. Role of biofilms in antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Donlan, R M

    2000-01-01

    Biofilms are formed by a spectrum of microorganisms, including pathogens, and provide a means for these organisms to protect themselves against antimicrobial agents. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon of resistance within biofilms, including delayed penetration of the antimicrobial into the biofilm extracellular matrix, slowing of growth rate of organisms within the biofilm, or other physiologic changes brought about by interaction of the organisms with a surface. The practical implications of biofilm formation are that alternative control strategies must be devised both for testing the susceptibility of the organisms within the biofilm and treating the established biofilm to alter its structure. A number of testing protocols have been developed. Effective treatment strategies will incorporate antimicrobials or other agents that have been demonstrated to penetrate and kill biofilm organisms, or treatments that disrupt or target specific components of the biofilm matrix. A better understanding of the role of biofilms in infection and how in vivo biofilms respond to selected treatments requires more study.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sebastien; Brettin, Thomas; ...

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned bymore » their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. Lastly, this set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.« less

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Prediction in PATRIC and RAST.

    PubMed

    Davis, James J; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88-99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71-88%. This set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sebastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W.; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R.; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. Lastly, this set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance Prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W.; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R.; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. This set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services. PMID:27297683

  6. Antimicrobial resistance changes in enteric Escherichia coli of horses during hospitalisation: resistance profiling of isolates.

    PubMed

    Williams, A; Christley, R M; McKane, S A; Roberts, V L H; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hospitalisation of horses leads to increased antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates. E. coli were cultured from faecal samples of horses on admission and after 7 days of hospitalisation; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for eight antimicrobial agents. Resistance profiles of E. coli isolates were grouped into clusters, which were analysed to determine resistance patterns. Resistance to 7/8 antimicrobial agents and multi-drug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes) were significantly higher after 7 days of hospitalisation. Forty-eight resistance profiles were identified; 15/48 were present on day 0 only, 16/48 on day 7 only and 17/48 at both times of sampling. There was a significant association between day 7 profiles and resistance detected to an increased number of antimicrobial agents. Hospitalisation of horses for 7 days resulted in alterations in equine faecal E. coli antimicrobial resistance profiles.

  7. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Dominique L.; López-Lozano, José María; Beyaert, Arielle; Camacho, Máximo; Wilson, Rachel; Stuart, David; Gould, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    Similar to many hospitals worldwide, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has had an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this setting, the outbreak is attributable to two major clones. The relationships between antimicrobial use and MRSA prevalence were analyzed by time-series analysis. From June 1997 to December 2000, dynamic, temporal relationships were found between monthly %MRSA and previous %MRSA, macrolide use, third-generation cephalosporin use, and fluoroquinolone use. This study suggests that use of antimicrobial drugs to which the MRSA outbreak strains are resistant may be an important factor in perpetuating the outbreak. Moreover, this study confirmed the ecologic effect of antimicrobial drug use (i.e., current antimicrobial use) may have an effect on resistance in future patients. Although these results may not be generalized to other hospitals, they suggest new directions for control of MRSA, which has thus far proved difficult and expensive. PMID:15496245

  8. The Ethical Significance of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the ethical challenges that arise in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which includes an introduction to the contributions to the symposium in this issue. We begin by discussing why AMR is a distinct ethical issue, and should not be viewed purely as a technical or medical problem. In the second section, we expand on some of these arguments and argue that AMR presents us with a broad range of ethical problems that must be addressed as part of a successful policy response to emerging drug resistance. In the third section, we discuss how some of these ethical challenges should be addressed, and we argue that this requires contributions from citizens, ethicists, policy makers, practitioners and industry. We conclude with an overview of steps that should be taken in moving forward and addressing the ethical problems of AMR. PMID:26566395

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolates from reptiles in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wan-Ching; Chin, Shih-Chien; Lai, Yen-Hsueh; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Pets, including reptiles, have been shown to be a source of Salmonella infection in humans. Due to increasing popularity and variety of exotic reptiles as pets in recent years, more human clinical cases of reptile-associated Salmonella infection have been identified. However, limited information is available with regard to serotypes in different reptiles (turtles, snakes, and lizards) and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in pet reptiles. The current study was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella colonization in pet reptiles. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 30.9% of 476 reptiles investigated. The isolation prevalences were 69.7% (23/33), 62.8% (27/43), and 24.3% (97/400) in snakes, lizards, and turtles, respectively. A total of 44 different Salmonella serovars were identified. Compared with S. Heron, Bredeney, Treforest, and 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Typhimurium isolates were resistant to many antimicrobials tested, and notably 61.1% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. The results indicated that raising reptiles as pets could be a possible source of Salmonella infection in humans, particularly zoonotic Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that may be resistant to antimicrobials.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic nontyphoidal Salmonella: an alarming trend?

    PubMed

    Michael, G B; Schwarz, S

    2016-12-01

    Zoonotic bacteria of the genus Salmonella have acquired various antimicrobial resistance properties over the years. The corresponding resistance genes are commonly located on plasmids, transposons, gene cassettes, or variants of the Salmonella Genomic Islands SGI1 and SGI2. Human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates mainly result from ingestion of contaminated food. The two predominantly found Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars in the USA and in Europe are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Many other nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars have been implicated in foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. Summary reports of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates over time suggest a moderate to low level of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug-resistance. However, serovar-specific analyses showed in part a steady state, a continuous decline, or a recent increase in resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. Resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents, e.g. third-generation cephalosporins and (fluoro)quinolones is part of many monitoring programmes and the corresponding results confirm that extended-spectrum β-lactamases are still rarely found in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, whereas resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is prevalent at variable frequencies among different serovars from humans and animals in different countries. Although it is likely that nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from animals represent a reservoir for resistance determinants, it is mostly unknown where and when Salmonella isolates acquired resistance properties and which exchange processes have happened since then.

  11. Refugees and antimicrobial resistance: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Smalen, Allard Willem; Ghorab, Hatem; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A

    There is a large increase in the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers worldwide and a lack of data on the carriage of antimicrobial resistance in refugee/asylum seeking groups. This article aims to identify the impact of refugees and asylum seekers on the acquisition and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through a literature search. The databases Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Web of Science Core Collection were utilised and covered all articles before the 1st of October 2016. In total, 577 articles were identified, and studies were eligible if they met the selection criteria, including observational study design, English language, and AMR strains reported in absolute numbers. In total, 17 articles met the criteria, the majority were from the European region. Articles fitting the selection criteria exclusively reported AMR in bacterial species including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytoca, Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The analyses indicated that a high percentage of AMR strains, have been circulating among refugees and asylum seekers. The displacement of refugees and asylum seekers seem to play a key role in the transmission of AMR. Therefore, improved AMR control measures are essential. A knowledge gap was identified; further research is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong; Wendlandt, Sarah; Fessler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Kadlec, Kristina; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In staphylococci and other Firmicutes, resistance to numerous classes of antimicrobial agents, which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is mediated by genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements. The gene products of some of these antimicrobial resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a certain class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into any of three major categories: active efflux, enzymatic inactivation, and modification/replacement/protection of the target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Among the mobile genetic elements that carry such resistance genes, plasmids play an important role as carriers of primarily plasmid-borne resistance genes, but also as vectors for nonconjugative and conjugative transposons that harbor resistance genes. Plasmids can be exchanged by horizontal gene transfer between members of the same species but also between bacteria belonging to different species and genera. Plasmids are highly flexible elements, and various mechanisms exist by which plasmids can recombine, form cointegrates, or become integrated in part or in toto into the chromosomal DNA or into other plasmids. As such, plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci and other Firmicutes.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance: a global multifaceted phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Prestinaci, Francesca; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious global public health threats in this century. The first World Health Organization (WHO) Global report on surveillance of AMR, published in April 2014, collected for the first time data from national and international surveillance networks, showing the extent of this phenomenon in many parts of the world and also the presence of large gaps in the existing surveillance. In this review, we focus on antibacterial resistance (ABR), which represents at the moment the major problem, both for the high rates of resistance observed in bacteria that cause common infections and for the complexity of the consequences of ABR. We describe the health and economic impact of ABR, the principal risk factors for its emergence and, in particular, we illustrate the highlights of four antibiotic-resistant pathogens of global concern – Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, non-typhoidal Salmonella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis – for whom we report resistance data worldwide. Measures to control the emergence and the spread of ABR are presented. PMID:26343252

  14. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns.

    PubMed

    Amezcua, Rocio; Friendship, Robert M; Dewey, Catherine E; Gyles, Carlton; Fairbrother, John M

    2002-04-01

    Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWECD) in Ontario was investigated using a case-control study involving 50 Ontario nurseries. The clinical signs and the impact on productive parameters were determined by means of a producer survey. The hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved in PWECD (O149:K91:K88) were examined in this study. Based on a polymerase chain reaction test, the hemolytic E. coli from 82% of the case herds were positive for 3 enterotoxins (STa, STb, and LT), those from 12% of the case herds were positive for STb and LT only, and those from one herd (6%) were positive for 3 enterotoxins, as well as for verotoxin and F18 pili. The E. coli involved in disease were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Case farms commonly used a wide variety of antibiotics either in the feed or water, or as injectable drugs. The most common antibiotic used to treat PWECD on the study farms was apramycin, but evidence of resistance to this antibiotic was noted. The PWECD problem was commonly seen within a week of weaning but onset of diarrhea was reported as late as the grower-finisher stage. Growth rate was poorer in case herds and mortality was higher than in control herds, demonstrating that PWECD is an economically important disease in Ontario.

  15. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rocio; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Catherine E.; Gyles, Carlton; Fairbrother, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWECD) in Ontario was investigated using a case-control study involving 50 Ontario nurseries. The clinical signs and the impact on productive parameters were determined by means of a producer survey. The hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved in PWECD (O149:K91:K88) were examined in this study. Based on a polymerase chain reaction test, the hemolytic E. coli from 82% of the case herds were positive for 3 enterotoxins (STa, STb, and LT), those from 12% of the case herds were positive for STb and LT only, and those from one herd (6%) were positive for 3 enterotoxins, as well as for verotoxin and F18 pili. The E. coli involved in disease were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Case farms commonly used a wide variety of antibiotics either in the feed or water, or as injectable drugs. The most common antibiotic used to treat PWECD on the study farms was apramycin, but evidence of resistance to this antibiotic was noted. The PWECD problem was commonly seen within a week of weaning but onset of diarrhea was reported as late as the grower-finisher stage. Growth rate was poorer in case herds and mortality was higher than in control herds, demonstrating that PWECD is an economically important disease in Ontario. PMID:11989737

  16. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C.; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  17. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli O157 Isolated from Humans, Cattle, Swine, and Food

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Carl M.; Zhao, Cuiwei; DebRoy, Chitrita; Torcolini, Jocelyn; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G.; Wagner, David D.; McDermott, Patrick F.; Walker, Robert D.; Meng, Jianghong

    2002-01-01

    A total of 361 Escherichia coli O157 isolates, recovered from humans, cattle, swine, and food during the years 1985 to 2000, were examined to better understand the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among these organisms. Based on broth microdilution results, 220 (61%) of the isolates were susceptible to all 13 antimicrobials tested. Ninety-nine (27%) of the isolates, however, were resistant to tetracycline, 93 (26%) were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, 61 (17%) were resistant to cephalothin, and 48 (13%) were resistant to ampicillin. Highest frequencies of resistance occurred among swine isolates (n = 70), where 52 (74%) were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, 50 (71%) were resistant to tetracycline, 38 (54%) were resistant to cephalothin, and 17 (24%) were resistant to ampicillin. Based on the presence of Shiga toxin genes as determined by PCR, 210 (58%) of the isolates were identified as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Among these, resistance was generally low, yet 21 (10%) were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and 19 (9%) were resistant to tetracycline. Based on latex agglutination, 189 (52%) of the isolates were identified as E. coli O157:H7, among which 19 (10%) were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and 16 (8%) were resistant to tetracycline. The data suggest that selection pressure imposed by the use of tetracycline derivatives, sulfa drugs, cephalosporins, and penicillins, whether therapeutically in human and veterinary medicine or as prophylaxis in the animal production environment, is a key driving force in the selection of antimicrobial resistance in STEC and non-STEC O157. PMID:11823193

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolated from swine fecal samples in 90 Alberta finishing farms

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Rajíc, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Avery, Brent P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 90 Alberta finisher swine farms. Up to 5 isolates were obtained from each of 269 pooled fecal samples and were classified as susceptible or resistant according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Of the 1322 isolates, 166 (12.6%) were susceptible to all 15 antimicrobials. No resistance to amikacin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin, antimicrobials of importance in human medicine, was observed. Relatively low frequencies of resistance were observed to gentamicin (1.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (0.7%), and cefoxitin (0.7%). Higher frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (78.9%), sulfisoxazole (49.9%), streptomycin (49.6%), ampicillin (30.6%), chloramphenicol (17.6%), kanamycin (10%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (6.4%). Among the isolates resistant to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes, 20.8%, 20.6%, 18.2%, 7.0%, 1.8%, 0.2%, and 0.2% were resistant to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 antimicrobials, respectively. The most common multidrug-resistance patterns (resistance to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes) were streptomycin-tetracycline (9.4%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.2%), and ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.1%). More clustering (higher intra-class correlation coefficients) in antimicrobial resistance was observed for isolates at the same visit than for isolates from different visits in the same farm, indicating that sampling more farms, testing fewer isolates per visits, and taking longer periods between visits may be appropriate and more efficient for a better understanding of potential shifts in resistance over time. PMID:18505207

  20. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) 2010 Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to prospectively monitor the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic pathogens, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was established in 1996 by the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Veterinary Medicine in collaboration with the Centers for Di...

  1. Providing context: antimicrobial resistance from multiple environmental sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Animal agriculture has been identified as encouraging the spread of resistance due to the use of large quantities of antimicrobials for animal production purposes. When antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is reported in agricultural settings without comparison to other environments there is a...

  2. Engineering Antimicrobials that are Refractory to Resistance Development.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-drug resistant pathogens are a serious problem in modern health care and there is a need for novel antimicrobials that are refractory to resistance development. Several US government agencies (FDA, CDC and NIH) recommend avoiding the use of broad range antimicrobials, a practice that is known...

  3. Food Production and Antimicrobial Resistance – The Next 100 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of food is complex and ensuring the safety of food for human consumption provides serious challenges. Since 1996 the U.S. has conducted surveillance on food borne and commensal antimicrobial resistance bacteria through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bac...

  4. Regulation of antimicrobial resistance by extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Emily C; McBride, Shonna M

    2017-01-30

    Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a subfamily of σ(70) sigma factors that activate genes involved in stress-response functions. In many bacteria, ECF sigma factors regulate resistance to antimicrobial compounds. This review will summarize the ECF sigma factors that regulate antimicrobial resistance in model organisms and clinically relevant pathogens.

  5. Haemophilus ducreyi is resistant to human antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Mount, Kristy L B; Townsend, Carisa A; Bauer, Margaret E

    2007-09-01

    We examined the susceptibility of Haemophilus ducreyi to antimicrobial peptides likely to be encountered in vivo during human infection. H. ducreyi was significantly more resistant than Escherichia coli to the bactericidal effects of all peptides tested. Class I and II H. ducreyi strains exhibited similar levels of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

  6. Cyclodextrins: A Weapon in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chew Ee; Dolzhenko, Anton V.; Lee, Sui Mae; Young, David James

    Antimicrobial resistance poses one of the most serious global challenges of our age. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely utilized excipients in formulations because of their solubilizing properties, low toxicity, and low inflammatory response. This review summarizes recent investigations of antimicrobial agents involving CDs and CD-based antimicrobial materials. CDs have been employed for antimicrobial applications either through formation of inclusion complexes or by chemical modification of their hydroxyl groups to tailor pharmaceutically active compounds. Applications of these CD inclusion complexes include drug delivery, antimicrobial coatings on materials (e.g., biomedical devices and implants) and antimicrobial dressings that help to prevent wound infections. There are relatively limited studies of chemically modified CDs with antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial CD inclusion complexes and derivatives needs further elucidation, but activity of CDs and their derivatives is often associated with their interaction with bacterial cell membranes.

  7. A trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from several livestock species in Belgium (2011-2014).

    PubMed

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Jaspers, Stijn; Butaye, Patrick; Wattiau, Pierre; Méroc, Estelle; Aerts, Marc; Imberechts, Hein; Vermeersch, Katie; Van der Stede, Yves

    2015-12-01

    A temporal trend analysis was performed on antimicrobial resistance data collected over 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) in the official Belgian antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme. Commensal Escherichia coli strains were isolated from faecal samples of four livestock categories (veal calves, young beef cattle, broiler chickens and slaughter pigs) and the trends of resistance profiles were analysed. The resistance prevalence remained high (>50%) during the study period for ampicillin in veal calves and chickens, for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in chickens, for sulfamethoxazole in veal calves, chickens and pigs and for tetracycline in veal calves. Using logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equation and after p value adjustment for multiple testing (Linear step-up method), statistically significant decreasing temporal trends were observed for several of the 11 tested antimicrobials in several livestock categories: in veal calves (10/11), in chickens (6/11) and in pigs (5/11). A significant increasing trend was observed for the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin in chickens. Multi-resistance, considered as the resistance to at least three antimicrobials of different antibiotic classes, was observed in the four livestock categories but was significantly decreasing in veal calves, chickens and pigs. Overall, the prevalence of resistance and of multi-resistance was lowest in the beef cattle livestock category and highest in broiler chickens. These decreasing temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance might be due to a decrease of the total antimicrobial consumption for veterinary use in Belgium which was reported for the period between 2010 and 2013. The methodology and statistical tools developed in this study provide outputs which can detect shifts in resistance levels or resistance trends associated with particular antimicrobial classes and livestock categories. Such outputs can be used as objective evidence to evaluate the possible

  8. Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial populations and antimicrobial resistance genes obtained from environments impacted by livestock and municipal waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal waste water treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact...

  9. Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Stije J; van Leth, Frank; Tarekegn, Hayalnesh; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) amongst bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), despite calls for continent-wide surveillance to inform empirical treatment guidelines. We searched PubMed and additional databases for susceptibility data of key pathogens for surveillance, published between 1990 and 2013. Extracted data were standardized to a prevalence of resistance in populations of isolates and reported by clinical syndrome, microorganism, relevant antimicrobial drugs and region. We identified 2005 publications, of which 190 were analysed. Studies predominantly originated from east sSA (61%), were hospital based (60%), were from an urban setting (73%) and reported on isolates from patients with a febrile illness (42%). Quality procedures for susceptibility testing were described in <50% of studies. Median prevalence (MP) of resistance to chloramphenicol in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from patients with a febrile illness, ranged between 31.0% and 94.2%, whilst MP of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins ranged between 0.0% and 46.5%. MP of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella enterica Typhi ranged between 15.4% and 43.2%. The limited number of studies providing prevalence data on AMR in Gram-positive pathogens or in pathogens isolated from patients with a respiratory tract infection, meningitis, urinary tract infection or hospital-acquired infection suggested high prevalence of resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline and low prevalence to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Our results indicate high prevalence of AMR in clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial drugs commonly used in sSA. Enhanced approaches for AMR surveillance are needed to support empirical therapy in sSA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  10. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  11. Analysis on antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziyong; Li, Li; Zhu, Xuhui; Ma, Yue; Li, Jingyun; Shen, Zhengyi; Jin, Shaohong

    2006-01-01

    The distinction of antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital was investigated. Disc diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital. The data was analyzed by WHONET5 and SPSS statistic software. A total of 655 strains and 1682 strains were collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital, respectively, in the year of 2003. The top ten pathogens were Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. areus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., otherwise Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Shigella spp. in county hospitals and Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., X. maltophilia in the teaching hospital. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was 5% (4/86) of methicillin-resistant S. areus (MRSA), 12% (16/133) and 15.8% (9/57) of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively, in county hospitals. All of the three rates were lower than that in the teaching hospital and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01). However, the incidence of methicillin-resistant CNS (MRCNS) reached to 70% (109/156) in the two classes of hospitals. Generally, the antimicrobial resistant rates in the county hospitals were lower than those in the teaching hospital, except the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, SMZco which were similar in the two classes of hospitals. There were differences between county hospitals and the teaching hospital in the distribution of clinical isolates and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. It was the basis of rational use of antimicrobial agents to monitor antimicrobial resistance by each hospital.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rato, Márcia G; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos; Cavaco, Lina M; Vilela, Cristina L; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2013-01-25

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. The aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by disk diffusion against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefoperazone, pirlimycin-PRL, rifaximin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin-ERY, gentamicin, tetracycline-TET and vancomycin. Genotypic relationships were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), macrolide and/or tetracycline resistance gene profiling, GBS capsular typing, GBS virulence gene profiling and GBS and S. uberis multi locus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs except to aminoglycoside, macrolide, lincosamide and tetracycline. Close to half of the TET resistant isolates have tetO and tetK and almost all ERY-PRL resistant isolates have ermB. A high degree of intra-species polymorphism was found for GCS. The GBS belonged to ST-2, -554, -61, -23 lineages and five new molecular serotypes and human GBS insertion sequences in the cpsE gene were found. Also, GBS of serotype V with scpB and lmb seem to be related with GBS isolates of human origin (same ST-2 and similar PFGE). Overall our results suggested that different therapeutic programs may have been implemented in the different farms and that in most cases clones were herd-specific.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria among ceftiofur treated and non-antimicrobial treated co-mingled pasture beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...

  14. Genomic and functional techniques to mine the microbiome for novel antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Gasparrini, Andrew J; Dantas, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance. Here, we review genomic and functional methods that have been developed for accessing the antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance capacity of microbiomes and highlight outstanding examples of their applications.

  15. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  16. Intrinsic Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in the Superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Murray, Justine L; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M; Whiteley, Marvin

    2015-10-27

    Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat in the clinic. This is particularly true for opportunistic pathogens that possess high intrinsic resistance. Though many studies have focused on understanding the acquisition of bacterial resistance upon exposure to antimicrobials, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are not well understood. In this study, we subjected the model opportunistic superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa to 14 antimicrobials under highly controlled conditions and assessed its response using expression- and fitness-based genomic approaches. Our results reveal that gene expression changes and mutant fitness in response to sub-MIC antimicrobials do not correlate on a genomewide scale, indicating that gene expression is not a good predictor of fitness determinants. In general, fewer fitness determinants were identified for antiseptics and disinfectants than for antibiotics. Analysis of gene expression and fitness data together allowed the prediction of antagonistic interactions between antimicrobials and insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling these interactions. Infections involving multidrug-resistant pathogens are difficult to treat because the therapeutic options are limited. These infections impose a significant financial burden on infected patients and on health care systems. Despite years of antimicrobial resistance research, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms controlling antimicrobial resistance. This work uses two fine-scale genomic approaches to identify genetic loci important for antimicrobial resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that antibiotics have more resistance determinants than antiseptics/disinfectants and that gene expression upon exposure to antimicrobials is not a good predictor of these resistance determinants. In addition, we show that when used together, genomewide gene expression and fitness profiling can provide

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in female outpatients, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Yong; Li, Rong-Hai; Zheng, Lu-Qing; Shang, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis among female outpatients treated for genital infection at a Chinese hospital from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Samples from 6051 female outpatients were analyzed using Mycoplasma Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (ID/AST). The overall prevalence of U. urealyticum was higher than the prevalence of single M. hominis infection (31.2% vs 0.7%) and coinfections (31.2% vs. 1.9%). The percentage of U. urealyticum and/or M. hominis detected in the 30-39 year age group was greater than in the other age groups. More than 94.6% of the U. urealyticum isolates, 100% of the M. hominis isolates, and 84.3% of the isolates from coinfections were susceptible to doxycycline, minocycline, and tetracycline. More than 69.2% of the U. urealyticum isolates were susceptible to azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, but > 95.6% of the M. hominis isolates and 89.6% of the isolates from coinfections were resistant to these antibiotics. Acetylspiramycin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin were inactive against more than one-half of the isolates. More than 75.6% of the M. hominis isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin, but > 87.1% of the U. urealyticum and 93.3% of the coinfection isolates were resistant to this antibiotic. Isolates from three coinfections were completely resistant to the 14 antibiotics. The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of these mycoplasma species is often crucial for optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected outpatients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R. V.; Siler, J. D.; Ng, J. C.; Davis, M. A.; Warnick, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems. PMID:25306277

  19. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected in MDR Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium animal isolates from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The presence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella in food animals is concerning. To understand how antimicrobial resistance (AR) develops, the genetic elements responsible for MDR phenotypes in Salmonella animal isolates were investigated. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring...

  20. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: management through gene monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an acknowledged crisis for humanity. Its genetic origins and dire potential outcomes are increasingly well understood. However, diagnostic techniques for monitoring the crisis are currently largely limited to enumerating the increasing incidence of resistant pathogens. Being the end-stage of the evolutionary process that produces antimicrobial resistant pathogens, these measurements, while diagnostic, are not prognostic, and so are not optimal in managing this crisis. A better test is required. Here, using insights from an understanding of evolutionary processes ruling the changing abundance of genes under selective pressure, we suggest a predictive framework for the AMR crisis. We then discuss the likely progression of resistance for both existing and prospective antimicrobial therapies. Finally, we suggest that by the environmental monitoring of resistance gene frequency, resistance may be detected and tracked presumptively, and how this tool may be used to guide decision-making in the local and global use of antimicrobials. PMID:27831476

  1. Ecology of antimicrobial resistance: humans, animals, food and environment.

    PubMed

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Escudero, José A

    2012-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment.

  2. Prevalence of resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates in Bulgarian children.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Koumanova, Radka; Gergova, Galina; Popova, Maria; Mitov, Ivan; Kovacheva, Youlia; Derejian, Sirigan; Katsarov, Nikolai; Nikolov, Rossen; Krastev, Zacharii

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the primary and combined resistances of Helicobacter pylori isolates obtained from paediatric patients in 2000-2001 to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates of pre-treatment isolates from 115 children were investigated by the limited agar dilution method alone and by the E-test. The cut-off concentrations for resistance were: metronidazole >8 mg/L, clarithromycin and azithromycin >1 mg/L, clindamycin >4 mg/L, amoxicillin >0.5 mg/L, tetracycline >4 mg/L and ciprofloxacin >1 mg/L. Primary resistance rates were: metronidazole 15.8%, clarithromycin 12.4%, azithromycin 14.6%, clindamycin 20.0%, amoxicillin 0%, metronidazole + clarithromycin 4.5%, ciprofloxacin 6.0%, metronidazole + clarithromycin + ciprofloxacin 1.2%, tetracycline 3.1% and metronidazole + ciprofloxacin 1.2%. There were no significant age (1-9 years versus 10-18 years) or gender differences. Prevalence of both macrolide-resistant and intermediately susceptible strains was 21.9% for azithromycin and 15.9% for clarithromycin. Of 18 metronidazole-resistant isolates, 77.8% exhibited a metronidazole MIC > or = 32 mg/L. H. pylori resistance rates to metronidazole, clarithromycin and both agents were relatively low in Bulgarian children. However, resistance was found to all drugs tested except for amoxicillin. The consumption of newer macrolides and tetracyclines could be related to the prevalence of resistance to the corresponding agents. There were no significant differences in primary resistance rates of H. pylori to antimicrobial agents between children and adults except for metronidazole. Multi-drug resistance to newer macrolides, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in association with a slightly elevated amoxicillin MIC (0.38 mg/L) was detected in one strain.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of common mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Keefe, G P; Scholl, D T; Morck, D W; Barkema, H W

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria has clinical and public health significance. The present study determined prevalence of AMR in common mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA; n=1,810), Escherichia coli (n=394), and Klebsiella species (n=139), including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and Klebsiella species, isolated from milk samples on 89 dairy farms in 6 Canadian provinces. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) and a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System gram-negative panel containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Denim blue chromogenic agar and real-time PCR were used to screen and confirm MRSA, respectively. Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for cephalothin and oxacillin to 8.8% for penicillin in Staph. aureus isolates, and 15% of the resistant Staph. aureus isolates were multidrug resistant. One MRSA isolate was confirmed (prevalence: 0.05%). Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin to 14.8% for tetracycline in E. coli, and 0% for amikacin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid to 18.6% for tetracycline in Klebsiella species isolates. Further, 62.8 and 55% of the resistant E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were multidrug resistant, respectively. Resistance to >5 and >2 antimicrobials was most common in E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates, respectively, and no ESBL producers were found. Prevalence of AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was low. Most gram-negative udder pathogens were multidrug resistant; MRSA was rarely found, and ESBL E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were absent in Canadian milk samples. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of a plasmid classification system to determine prevalence of replicon families among multidrug resistant enterococci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence and transfer of plasmids from commensal bacteria to more pathogenic bacteria may contribute to dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. However, prevalence of plasmids from commensal bacteria in food animals such as the enterococci remains largely unknown. In this study, the prevale...

  5. Association between Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Miika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Huovinen, Pentti; Paakkari, Pirkko; Hakanen, Antti J.

    2009-01-01

    During a 9-year study period from 1997 through 2005, the association between antimicrobial resistance rates in Escherichia coli and outpatient antimicrobial consumption was investigated in 20 hospital districts in Finland. A total of 754,293 E. coli isolates, mainly from urine samples, were tested for antimicrobial resistance in 26 clinical microbiology laboratories. The following antimicrobials were studied: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pivmecillinam, and nitrofurantoin. We applied a protocol used in earlier studies in which the level of antimicrobial consumption over 1 year was compared with the level of resistance in the next year. Statistically significant associations were found for nitrofurantoin use versus nitrofurantoin resistance (P < 0.0001), cephalosporin use versus nitrofurantoin resistance (P = 0.0293), amoxicillin use versus fluoroquinolone resistance (P = 0.0031), and fluoroquinolone use versus ampicillin resistance (P = 0.0046). Interestingly, we found only a few associations between resistance and antimicrobial consumption. The majority of the associations studied were not significant, including the association between fluoroquinolone use and fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:19104012

  6. Association between antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Miika; Nyberg, Solja T; Huovinen, Pentti; Paakkari, Pirkko; Hakanen, Antti J

    2009-03-01

    During a 9-year study period from 1997 through 2005, the association between antimicrobial resistance rates in Escherichia coli and outpatient antimicrobial consumption was investigated in 20 hospital districts in Finland. A total of 754,293 E. coli isolates, mainly from urine samples, were tested for antimicrobial resistance in 26 clinical microbiology laboratories. The following antimicrobials were studied: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pivmecillinam, and nitrofurantoin. We applied a protocol used in earlier studies in which the level of antimicrobial consumption over 1 year was compared with the level of resistance in the next year. Statistically significant associations were found for nitrofurantoin use versus nitrofurantoin resistance (P < 0.0001), cephalosporin use versus nitrofurantoin resistance (P = 0.0293), amoxicillin use versus fluoroquinolone resistance (P = 0.0031), and fluoroquinolone use versus ampicillin resistance (P = 0.0046). Interestingly, we found only a few associations between resistance and antimicrobial consumption. The majority of the associations studied were not significant, including the association between fluoroquinolone use and fluoroquinolone resistance.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use animal monitoring policies in Europe: Where are we ?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Staerk, Katharina

    2017-02-08

    The World Health Organization has recognized antimicrobial resistance as one of the top three threats to human health. Any use of antibiotics in animals will ultimately affect humans and vice versa. Appropriate monitoring of antimicrobial use and resistance has been repeatedly emphasized along with the need for global policies. Under the auspices of the European Union research project, EFFORT, we mapped antimicrobial use and resistance monitoring programs in ten European countries. We then compared international and European guidelines and policies. In resistance monitoring, we did not find important differences between countries. Current resistance monitoring systems are focused on food animal species (using fecal samples). They ignore companion animals. The scenario is different for monitoring antibiotics use. Recently, countries have tried to harmonize methodologies, but reporting of antimicrobial use remains voluntary. We therefore identified a need for stronger policies.

  8. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Ambrose, Karita D.; Zughaier, Susu; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Miller, Yoon K.; Shafer, William M.; Stephens, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are important components of the innate host defense system against microbial infections and microbial products. However, the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is intrinsically highly resistant to CAMPs, such as polymyxin B (PxB) (MIC ≥ 512 μg/ml). To ascertain the mechanisms by which meningococci resist PxB, mutants that displayed increased sensitivity (≥4-fold) to PxB were identified from a library of mariner transposon mutants generated in a meningococcal strain, NMB. Surprisingly, more than half of the initial PxB-sensitive mutants had insertions within the mtrCDE operon, which encodes proteins forming a multidrug efflux pump. Additional PxB-sensitive mariner mutants were identified from a second round of transposon mutagenesis performed in an mtr efflux pump-deficient background. Further, a mutation in lptA, the phosphoethanolamine (PEA) transferase responsible for modification of the lipid A head groups, was identified to cause the highest sensitivity to PxB. Mutations within the mtrD or lptA genes also increased meningococcal susceptibility to two structurally unrelated CAMPs, human LL-37 and protegrin-1. Consistently, PxB neutralized inflammatory responses elicited by the lptA mutant lipooligosaccharide more efficiently than those induced by wild-type lipooligosaccharide. mariner mutants with increased resistance to PxB were also identified in NMB background and found to contain insertions within the pilMNOPQ operon involved in pilin biogenesis. Taken together, these data indicated that meningococci utilize multiple mechanisms including the action of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump and lipid A modification as well as the type IV pilin secretion system to modulate levels of CAMP resistance. The modification of meningococcal lipid A head groups with PEA also prevents neutralization of the biological effects of endotoxin by CAMP. PMID:16030233

  9. Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter in Organically and Conventionally Raised Layer Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Issmat I; Kehinde, Olugbenga; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens. Here, we showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic and conventional layer farms was statistically similar (p > 0.05). However, the average number of Campylobacter jejuni-positive organically grown hens was lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to conventionally grown hens. Campylobacter isolated from both production systems carried antimicrobial resistance genes. The tet(O) and cmeB were the most frequently detected genes, while the occurrence of aph-3-1 and blaOXA-61 was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Farming practices appeared to have an effect on the antimicrobial resistance phenotype, because the isolates from organically grown hens on two farms (OF-2 and OF-3) exhibited significantly lower resistance (p < 0.05) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tylosin. However, on one of the sampled organic farms (OF-1), a relatively high number of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter were isolated. We conclude that organic farming can potentially impact the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. Nevertheless, this impact should be regularly monitored to avoid potential relapses.

  10. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Dairy Calves in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Sofka, Dmitri; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc; Hilbert, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves’ feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST883 (20.0%), followed by ST48 (14.5%), and ST50 (9.1%). In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic vs. conventional) and calf housing (place, and individual vs. group) were identified as significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3%) were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%), followed by nalidixic acid (42.8%), and tetracycline (14.5%) was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for C. jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans. PMID:26870027

  11. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Dairy Calves in Austria.

    PubMed

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Sofka, Dmitri; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc; Hilbert, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves' feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST883 (20.0%), followed by ST48 (14.5%), and ST50 (9.1%). In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic vs. conventional) and calf housing (place, and individual vs. group) were identified as significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3%) were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%), followed by nalidixic acid (42.8%), and tetracycline (14.5%) was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for C. jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken carcasses in Bandung, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sugiri, Yoni Darmawan; Gölz, Greta; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Kleer, Josef; Chaisowwong, Warangkhana; Alter, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and quantify the number of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated L. monocytogenes strains. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in chicken carcasses was 15.8% (29/184). When comparing samples from traditional markets and supermarkets, no significant difference in the L. monocytogenes prevalence was detectable (15.2 versus 16.3%). Of the samples, 97.3% had L. monocytogenes counts <100 CFU/g, 2.2% had L. monocytogenes counts between 101 and 1,000 CFU/g, and 0.5% had L. monocytogenes counts of 1,001 to 10,000 CFU/g. Of the isolates, 27.6% were resistant to at least one of the 10 antimicrobials tested, with the major resistant phenotypes to penicillin (17.2%), ampicillin (6.9%), and erythromycin (6.9%). All 29 isolates recovered in this study were grouped into the molecular serogroup IIb, comprising the serovars 1/2b, 3b, and 7.

  13. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Katakweba, Abdul Sekemani; Muhairwa, Amandus Pachificus; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Guardabassi, Luca; Mtambo, Madundo M A; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-02-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Nasal swabs were taken from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. S. aureus was isolated from 22% of humans, 4% of pigs and 11% of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. S. aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed irrespective of the host species from which the strains were isolated.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and the current refugee crisis.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Theodoridou, Maria; Daikos, George L

    2017-09-01

    In the past few years, Europe has experienced an enormous influx of refugees and migrants owing to the ongoing civil war in Syria as well as conflicts, violence and instability in other Asian and African countries. Available data suggest that refugees carry a significant burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, which is attributed to the rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates in their countries of origin, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Transmission of MDR pathogens among refugees is facilitated by the collapsed housing, hygiene and healthcare infrastructures in several communities as well as poor hygiene conditions during their trip to destination countries. These findings highlight the fact that refugees may serve as vehicles of AMR mechanisms from their countries of origin along the immigration route. Following risk assessment, routine microbiological screening for MDR organism carriage of refugees and migrants as well as effective infection control measures should be considered upon admission. This will on the one hand address the possibility of dissemination of novel AMR mechanisms in non- or low-endemic countries and on the other will ensure safety for all patients. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter in the food chain in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; McDermott, Patrick F; Campos, Freddy D; Chim, Rodolfo; Leon, Magda; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2012-09-01

    We describe prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility results for thermophilic Campylobacter isolates collected from humans, food, and food-animals in an integrated food chain surveillance network in Mexico. From 2003 to 2006, stool samples were collected from children with diarrhea at state sentinel hospitals. Concurrently, fecal samples from asymptomatic children in kindergartens, as well as raw chicken, pork and beef from retail outlets, and food-animal intestines from slaughterhouses were all collected in 65 cities from four different states. C. jejuni was identified with a standardized hippurate test. Hippurate negative, indoxyl acetate positive isolates were classified as Campylobacter spp. Susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 1,259 C. jejuni and 1,797 Campylobacter spp. isolates were recovered from 11,811 samples. Chicken was significantly more contaminated for both intestinal samples (93.6%) and meat products (58.3%), compared with swine (71.4%)/pork (14.6%) samples, and cattle (25.1%)/beef (5.3%) samples (p<0.001). Campylobacter was recovered from 5.1% of children with diarrhea and from 3.2% of asymptomatic children. Chicken was significantly more likely to harbor ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni (85.8%) than swine (62.5%, OR=3.6), cattle (39.8%, OR=9.3), or humans (58.2%, OR=4.4). No significant differences were found for ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter spp. among food-animals, but the rate in food-animals was significantly higher than in humans (84% vs. 56.7%, OR=4.0). Swine was significantly more likely to harbor erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni (14.8%) than chicken (3.5%, OR=4.9), cattle (1.8%, OR=9.3), or humans (3.0%, OR=5.7), and was associated with higher rates of erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. (41.9%) than chicken (10.5%, OR=6.1) and humans (11.9%, OR=5.3). The high resistance rates to ciprofloxacin preclude the use of

  16. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  17. Methodological comparisons for antimicrobial resistance surveillance in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to objectively compare methodological approaches that might be utilized in designing an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance program in beef feedlot cattle. Specifically, four separate comparisons were made to investigate their potential impact on estimates for prevalence of AMR. These included investigating potential differences between 2 different susceptibility testing methods (broth microdilution and disc diffusion), between 2 different target bacteria (non-type-specific E. coli [NTSEC] and Mannheimia haemolytica), between 2 strategies for sampling feces (individual samples collected per rectum and pooled samples collected from the pen floor), and between 2 strategies for determining which cattle to sample (cattle that were culture-positive for Mannheimia haemolytica and those that were culture-negative). Results Comparing two susceptibility testing methods demonstrated differences in the likelihood of detecting resistance between automated disk diffusion (BioMIC®) and broth microdilution (Sensititre®) for both E. coli and M. haemolytica. Differences were also detected when comparing resistance between two bacterial organisms within the same cattle; there was a higher likelihood of detecting resistance in E. coli than in M. haemolytica. Differences in resistance prevalence were not detected when using individual animal or composite pen sampling strategies. No differences in resistance prevalences were detected in E. coli recovered from cattle that were culture-positive for M. haemolytica compared to those that were culture-negative, suggesting that sampling strategies which targeted recovery of E. coli from M. haemolytica-positive cattle would not provide biased results. Conclusions We found that for general purposes, the susceptibility test selected for AMR surveillance must be carefully chosen considering the purpose of the surveillance since the ability to detect resistance appears to vary between these tests

  18. A Platform for Monitoring Regional Antimicrobial Resistance, Using Online Data Sources: ResistanceOpen.

    PubMed

    MacFadden, Derek R; Fisman, David; Andre, Jeff; Ara, Yuki; Majumder, Maimuna S; Bogoch, Isaac I; Daneman, Nick; Wang, Annie; Vavitsas, Marianna; Castellani, Lucas; Brownstein, John S

    2016-12-01

    Our understanding of the global burden of antimicrobial resistance is limited. Complementary approaches to antimicrobial resistance surveillance are needed. We developed a Web-based/mobile platform for aggregating, analyzing, and disseminating regional antimicrobial resistance information. Antimicrobial resistance indices from existing but disparate online sources were identified and abstracted. To validate antimicrobial resistance data, in the absence of regional comparators, US and Canadian indices were aggregated and compared to existing national and state estimates. Measures of variability of antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for the United States and Canada to evaluate magnitudes of differences within countries. Over 850 resistance indices globally were identified and abstracted, totaling >5 million isolates, from 340 unique locations. Resistance index coverage spanned 41 countries, 6 continents, 43 of 50 US states, and 8 of 10 Canadian provinces. When compared to reported values, aggregated resistance values for the United States and Canada during 2013 and 2014 demonstrated agreements ranging from 94% to 97%. For the United States, state-specific resistance estimates demonstrated an agreement of 92%. Large differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were seen within countries. Using existing nontraditional data sources, we have developed a Web-based platform for aggregating antimicrobial resistance indices to support monitoring of regional antimicrobial resistance patterns.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from canine urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, Shao-Kuang; LO, Dan-Yuan; WEI, Hen-Wei; KUO, Hung-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Urine samples from 201 dogs with UTI diagnosed through clinical examination and urinalysis were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. Colonies from pure cultures were identified by biochemical reactions (n=114) and were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. The two most frequent antimicrobials showing resistance in Urinary E. coli isolates were oxytetracycline and ampicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 17 resistance patterns were observed, with 12 patterns involving multidrug resistance (MDR). Of the 69 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 50.9% of the isolates, whereas the remaining 25.5% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. Most ampicillin and/or amoxicillin-resistant E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1 genes. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (28.9%) and contained previously described gene cassettes that are implicated primarily in resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA17-aadA5). Of the 44 quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, 38 were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 6 were resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Chromosomal point mutations were found in the GyrA (Ser83Leu) and ParC (Ser80Ile) genes. Furthermore, the aminoglycoside resistance gene aacC2, the chloramphenicol resistant gene cmlA and the florfenicol resistant gene floR were also identified. This study revealed an alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolates from dogs with UTIs. PMID:25720807

  20. Acquired antimicrobial resistance in the intestinal microbiota of diverse cat populations.

    PubMed

    Moyaert, H; De Graef, E M; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance in the resident intestinal microbiota of cats and to identify significant differences between various cat populations. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium and Streptococcus canis were isolated as faecal indicator bacteria from rectal swabs of 47 individually owned cats, 47 cattery cats and 18 hospitalised cats, and submitted through antimicrobial sensitivity tests. The results revealed that bacteria isolated from hospitalised and/or cattery cats were more frequently resistant than those from individually owned cats. E. coli isolates from hospitalised cats were particularly resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and sulfonamide. Both enterococci and streptococci showed high resistance to tetracycline and in somewhat lesser extent to erythromycin and tylosin. Most E. faecium isolates were resistant to lincomycin and penicillin. One E. faecalis as well as one E. faecium isolate from hospitalised cats showed 'high-level resistance' (MIC > 500 microg/ml) against gentamicin, a commonly used antimicrobial agent in case of human enterococcal infections. The results of this research demonstrate that the extent of acquired antimicrobial resistance in the intestinal microbiota of cats depends on the social environment of the investigated population. It is obvious that the flora of healthy cats may act as a reservoir of resistance genes.

  1. Molecular analysis of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria isolated from fish farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yojiro; Ahmed, Ashraf M; Mahfouz, Nadia B; Kimura, Tomomi; El-Khodery, Sabry A; Moawad, Amgad A; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2010-06-01

    As little is known about antimicrobial resistance genes in fish farms, this study was conducted to monitor the incidence and prevalence of a wide range of antimicrobial resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water samples taken from fish farms in the northern part of Egypt. Ninety-one out of two hundred seventy-four (33.2%) non-repetitive isolates of Gram-negative bacteria showed multidrug resistance phenotypes and harbored at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that 72 (26.3%) isolates contain tetracycline resistance genes and 19 (6.9%) isolates were positive for class 1 integrons with 12 different gene cassettes. The beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 14 (5.1%) isolates. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr, were identified in 16 (5.8%) and 3 (1.1%) isolates, respectively. Finally, the florphenicol resistance gene, floR, was identified in four (1.5%) isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from fish farms in Africa.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance temporal trend of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood.

    PubMed

    Gavriliu, L C; Benea, O E; Benea, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, Romania reports an increasing number of resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from invasive infections every year. Material and Method. We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood in 2010 and 2015 in "Matei Bals" National Institute of Infectious Diseases, in order to identify any significant changes in the last five years. Results. We identified 18 strains in 2010 and 37 strains in 2015. Although the resistance to aminopenicillin-betalactamase inhibitors association, piperacillin-tazobactam, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, amikacin and the combined resistance decreased between these two time frames, this evolution was statistically non-significant. The same was noticed for the increased resistance rates to carbapenems. Conclusions. Antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae may become a major problem for the public health and the hospital-acquired infections control. Therefore, it needs further monitoring and efforts must be made in order to limit the increase of the resistance.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Tricia D; McLaughlin, Wayne; Brown, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial usage is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens and compare these data with isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Jamaica. Results Eighty-two E. coli strains isolated from faecal samples of broiler chickens and urine and wound specimens of hospitalized patients were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 11 antimicrobial agents. Tetracycline resistance determinants were investigated by plasmid profiling, transformations, and amplification of plasmid-borne resistance genes. Tetracycline resistance occurred at a frequency of 82.4% in avian isolates compared to 43.8% in human isolates. In addition, among avian isolates there was a trend towards higher resistance frequencies to kanamycin and nalidixic acid (p < 0.05), while a greater percentage of human isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (p < 0.05). Multiple drug resistance was found in isolates from both sources and was usually associated with tetracycline resistance. Tetracycline-resistant isolates from both avian and human sources contained one or several plasmids, which were transmissible by transformation of chemically-competent E. coli. Tetracycline resistance was mediated by efflux genes tetB and/or tetD. Conclusion The present study highlights the prevalence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among healthy broiler chickens in Jamaica, possibly associated with expression of tetracycline resistance. While there did not appear to be a common source for multiple drug resistance in the strains from avian or human origin, the genes encoding resistance are similar. These results suggest that genes are disseminated in the

  4. Antimicrobial resistance profiles in pathogens isolated from chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles are frequently studied from the perspective of epidemiology and not so often from the perspective of population genetics. The population geneticist assumes that gene flow, vertically (generation to generation), horizontally (individual to individual) or migratory (...

  5. Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin Spreading in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Skurnik, David; Clermont, Olivier; Guillard, Thomas; Launay, Adrien; Danilchanka, Olga; Pons, Stéphanie; Diancourt, Laure; Lebreton, François; Kadlec, Kristina; Roux, Damien; Jiang, Deming; Dion, Sara; Aschard, Hugues; Denamur, Maurice; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Schwarz, Stefan; Tenaillon, Olivier; Andremont, Antoine; Picard, Bertrand; Mekalanos, John; Brisse, Sylvain; Denamur, Erick

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the great concern about the impact of human activities on the environment, we studied 403 commensal Escherichia coli/Escherichia clade strains isolated from several animal and human populations that have variable contacts to one another. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a decrease of diversity 1) in strains isolated from animals that had an increasing contact with humans and 2) in all strains that had increased antimicrobial resistance. A specific B1 phylogroup clonal complex (CC87, Institut Pasteur schema nomenclature) of animal origin was identified and characterized as being responsible for the increased antimicrobial resistance prevalence observed in strains from the environments with a high human-mediated antimicrobial pressure. CC87 strains have a high capacity of acquiring and disseminating resistance genes with specific metabolic and genetic determinants as demonstrated by high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping. They are good mouse gut colonizers but are not virulent. Our data confirm the predominant role of human activities in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the environmental bacterial strains and unveil a particular E. coli clonal complex of animal origin capable of spreading antimicrobial resistance to other members of microbial communities. PMID:26613786

  6. Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin Spreading in Humans.

    PubMed

    Skurnik, David; Clermont, Olivier; Guillard, Thomas; Launay, Adrien; Danilchanka, Olga; Pons, Stéphanie; Diancourt, Laure; Lebreton, François; Kadlec, Kristina; Roux, Damien; Jiang, Deming; Dion, Sara; Aschard, Hugues; Denamur, Maurice; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Schwarz, Stefan; Tenaillon, Olivier; Andremont, Antoine; Picard, Bertrand; Mekalanos, John; Brisse, Sylvain; Denamur, Erick

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the great concern about the impact of human activities on the environment, we studied 403 commensal Escherichia coli/Escherichia clade strains isolated from several animal and human populations that have variable contacts to one another. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a decrease of diversity 1) in strains isolated from animals that had an increasing contact with humans and 2) in all strains that had increased antimicrobial resistance. A specific B1 phylogroup clonal complex (CC87, Institut Pasteur schema nomenclature) of animal origin was identified and characterized as being responsible for the increased antimicrobial resistance prevalence observed in strains from the environments with a high human-mediated antimicrobial pressure. CC87 strains have a high capacity of acquiring and disseminating resistance genes with specific metabolic and genetic determinants as demonstrated by high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping. They are good mouse gut colonizers but are not virulent. Our data confirm the predominant role of human activities in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the environmental bacterial strains and unveil a particular E. coli clonal complex of animal origin capable of spreading antimicrobial resistance to other members of microbial communities.

  7. The epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of cholera cases in Iran during 2013

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi-Asl, Hossein; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahbar, Mohammad; Sabourian, Roghieh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Cholera is an endemic diarrheal disease in Iran, caused by Vibrio Cholerae. The epidemiology, transmission route, environmental determinants and antimicrobial resistant pattern of cholera have been changed during recent years. In this study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of cholera in Iran during 2013 outbreak was investigated. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out using cholera national surveillance system collected data in 2013. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done on 60 Vibrio cholerae isolates, serotype Inaba. Results: During July to November 2013, 256 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed by stool culture. Two hundred and eleven out of 256 (83%) cases were imported from Afghanistan and Pakistan. The prevalent age group was 16–30 years old, 90% were male, 98.8% affected by Inaba serotype and case fatality rate was 2.7%. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 60 V. cholerae, serotype Inaba showed that all isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, tetracyclin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intermediate resistance to erythromycin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cefixime and ampicillin. Conclusion: Migrants from neighboring countries played a key role in cholera outbreak in Iran during 2013. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 60 V. cholerae, serotype Inaba showed an increasing resistance rate in comparison with previous years. PMID:28210461

  8. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Among Dairy Farm Environmental Samples Collected in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Cummings, Kevin J; Loneragan, Guy H; Rankin, Shelley C; Hanson, Devin L; Leone, William M; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven dairy farms throughout Texas were sampled from August through October 2013, using a cross-sectional approach. Samples were collected from four locations within each farm (hospital pen, maternity pen, cow housing area, and calf housing area), and feces were collected from cull cows as available. Environmental and fecal samples were processed for Salmonella, and isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. Serovar characterization was performed on a subset of these isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 67.0% (236/352) of the environmental samples and 64.2% (43/67) of the cull cow fecal samples. Environmental samples from the maternity pen were significantly more likely to be Salmonella positive than samples from the cow and calf housing areas. Multidrug resistance was evident in 11.9% (27/226) of environmental isolates and 19.5% (8/41) of fecal isolates. Salmonella isolates from the calf housing area and maternity pen were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant (MDR) than isolates from the cow housing area. The most common serovars found among the MDR isolates were Newport, Muenchen, and Typhimurium. These results help provide a focus for efforts to mitigate the burden of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella at the preharvest level.

  9. Serovars of Salmonella isolated from Danish turkeys between 1995 and 2000 and their antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Hansen, H C; Jørgensen, J C; Borck, B

    2002-04-13

    The prevalence of Salmonella serovars and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were investigated among Danish turkeys between 1995 and 2000, by sampling the flocks approximately 14 days before they were slaughtered. Within the flocks, the prevalence of salmonella varied from 7.1 per cent to 25 per cent, and 24 different serovars were detected. The five most prevalent, which accounted for 58.5 per cent of the isolates were Salmonella Heidelberg (16.2 per cent of the isolates), Salmonella Agona (15.8 per cent), Salmonella Derby (12.4 per cent), Salmonella Muenster (7.3 per cent) and Salmonella Anatum (6.8 per cent). In addition, a few rough isolates and isolates belonging to the antigenically incomplete formulae 6,7:-:- and 4,12:b:- were found. The level of antimicrobial resistance was low; the highest resistance was recorded to ampicillin (13.7 per cent) and streptomycin (9.0 per cent) followed by tetracycline (8.5 per cent), sulphonamides (7.7 per cent) and spectinomycin (4.7 per cent). Resistance to quinolones was very low: four isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, and only one was resistant to enrofloxacin. No resistance was recorded to colistin, apramycin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, or amoxycillin with clavulanic acid. Only 24 isolates were resistant to two or more compounds in various combinations of up to six compounds; one Salmonella Havana isolate was resistant to six compounds. Six isolates were serovar Typhimurium, but none of them belonged to phage type DT104.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enteritidis, southern Italy, 1990-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Nastasi, A.; Mammina, C.; Cannova, L.

    2000-01-01

    During 1990 to 1998, we identified multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis in southern Italy. Plasmids containing class I integrons and codifying for synthesis of extended- spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Active surveillance for resistance to antimicrobial agents is needed to guard against the possible spread of resistant clones. PMID:10905977

  11. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Swine Waste Treatment Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Archana; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana; Mehboob, Asma; Robert, Matthew; Mackie, Roderick I.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L.

    2006-01-01

    Chlortetracycline and the macrolide tylosin were identified as commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and prophylaxis in swine production. Resistance to these antimicrobials was measured throughout the waste treatment processes at five swine farms by culture-based and molecular methods. Conventional farm samples had the highest levels of resistance with both culture-based and molecular methods and had similar levels of resistance despite differences in antimicrobial usage. The levels of resistance in organic farm samples, where no antimicrobials were used, were very low by a culture-based method targeting fecal streptococci. However, when the same samples were analyzed with a molecular method detecting methylation of a specific nucleotide in the 23S rRNA that results in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB), an unexpectedly high level of resistant rRNA (approximately 50%) was observed, suggesting that the fecal streptococci were not an appropriate target group to evaluate resistance in the overall microbial community and that background levels of MLSB resistance may be substantial. All of the feed samples tested, including those from the organic farm, contained tetracycline resistance genes. Generally, the same tetracycline resistance genes and frequency of detection were found in the manure and lagoon samples for each commercial farm. The levels of tetracycline and MLSB resistance remained high throughout the waste treatment systems, suggesting that the potential impact of land application of treated wastes and waste treatment by-products on environmental levels of resistance should be investigated further. PMID:17041160

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  13. Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Salmonella Isolated from Commercial Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Liljebjelke, Karen A.; Hofacre, Charles L.; White, David G.; Ayers, Sherry; Lee, Margie D.; Maurer, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella remains the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and the dissemination of drug-resistant Salmonellae through the food chain has important implications for treatment failure of salmonellosis. We investigated the ecology of Salmonella in integrated broiler production in order to understand the flow of antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains within this system. Data were analyzed from a retrospective study focused on antimicrobial resistant Salmonella recovered from commercial broiler chicken farms conducted during the initial years of the US FDA’s foray into retail meat surveillance by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). Sixty-three percentage of Salmonella were pan-susceptible to a panel of 19 antimicrobials used by the NARMS program. Twenty-five antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were observed in Salmonella isolated from two broiler chicken farms. However, Salmonella displaying resistance to streptomycin, alone, and in combination with other antibiotics was the most prevalent (36.3%) antimicrobial resistance phenotype observed. Resistance to streptomycin and sulfadimethoxine appeared to be linked to the transposon, Tn21. Combinations of resistance against streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfadimethoxine, trimethoprim, and tetracycline were observed for a variety of Salmonella enterica serovars and genetic types as defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. There were within and between farm differences in the antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella and some of these differences were linked to specific serovars. However, farm differences were not linked to antibiotic usage. Analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of the endemic Salmonella serovars on these farms suggests that preventing vertical transmission of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella would reduce carcass contamination with antibiotic-resistant Salmonella and subsequently human risk exposure. PMID:28691011

  14. Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Salmonella Isolated from Commercial Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Liljebjelke, Karen A; Hofacre, Charles L; White, David G; Ayers, Sherry; Lee, Margie D; Maurer, John J

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella remains the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and the dissemination of drug-resistant Salmonellae through the food chain has important implications for treatment failure of salmonellosis. We investigated the ecology of Salmonella in integrated broiler production in order to understand the flow of antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains within this system. Data were analyzed from a retrospective study focused on antimicrobial resistant Salmonella recovered from commercial broiler chicken farms conducted during the initial years of the US FDA's foray into retail meat surveillance by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). Sixty-three percentage of Salmonella were pan-susceptible to a panel of 19 antimicrobials used by the NARMS program. Twenty-five antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were observed in Salmonella isolated from two broiler chicken farms. However, Salmonella displaying resistance to streptomycin, alone, and in combination with other antibiotics was the most prevalent (36.3%) antimicrobial resistance phenotype observed. Resistance to streptomycin and sulfadimethoxine appeared to be linked to the transposon, Tn21. Combinations of resistance against streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfadimethoxine, trimethoprim, and tetracycline were observed for a variety of Salmonella enterica serovars and genetic types as defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. There were within and between farm differences in the antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella and some of these differences were linked to specific serovars. However, farm differences were not linked to antibiotic usage. Analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of the endemic Salmonella serovars on these farms suggests that preventing vertical transmission of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella would reduce carcass contamination with antibiotic-resistant Salmonella and subsequently human risk exposure.

  15. How to measure and monitor antimicrobial consumption and resistance.

    PubMed

    Grau, Santiago; Bou, Germán; Fondevilla, Esther; Nicolás, Jordi; Rodríguez-Maresca, Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2013-09-01

    Collateral damage caused by antibiotic use includes resistance, which could be reduced if the global inappropriate use of antibiotics, especially in low-income countries, could be prevented. Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption can identify and target practice areas for quality improvement, both in the community and in healthcare institutions. The defined daily dose, the usual adult dose of an antimicrobial for treating one patient for one day, has been considered useful for measuring antimicrobial prescribing trends within a hospital. Various denominators from hospital activity including beds, admissions and discharges have been used to obtain some standard ratios for comparing antibiotic consumption between hospitals and countries. Laboratory information systems in Clinical Microbiology Services are the primary resource for preparing cumulative reports on susceptibility testing results. This information is useful for planning empirical treatment and for adopting infection control measures. Among the supranational initiatives on resistance surveillance, the EARS-Net provides information about trends on antimicrobial resistance in Europe. Resistance is the consequence of the selective pressure of antibiotics, although in some cases these agents also promote resistance by favouring the emergence of mutations that are subsequently selected. Multiple studies have shown a relationship between antimicrobial use and emergence or resistance. While in some cases a decrease in antibiotic use was associated with a reduction in resistance rates, in many other situations this has not been the case, due to co-resistance and/or the low biological cost of the resistance mechanisms involved. New antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, which coupled with infection control measures will help to control the current problem of antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence: a Successful or Deleterious Association in the Bacterial World?

    PubMed Central

    Beceiro, Alejandro; Tomás, María

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hosts and bacteria have coevolved over millions of years, during which pathogenic bacteria have modified their virulence mechanisms to adapt to host defense systems. Although the spread of pathogens has been hindered by the discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance has increased globally. The emergence of resistant bacteria has accelerated in recent years, mainly as a result of increased selective pressure. However, although antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence have developed on different timescales, they share some common characteristics. This review considers how bacterial virulence and fitness are affected by antibiotic resistance and also how the relationship between virulence and resistance is affected by different genetic mechanisms (e.g., coselection and compensatory mutations) and by the most prevalent global responses. The interplay between these factors and the associated biological costs depend on four main factors: the bacterial species involved, virulence and resistance mechanisms, the ecological niche, and the host. The development of new strategies involving new antimicrobials or nonantimicrobial compounds and of novel diagnostic methods that focus on high-risk clones and rapid tests to detect virulence markers may help to resolve the increasing problem of the association between virulence and resistance, which is becoming more beneficial for pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23554414

  17. Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Adam J; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a panel of populations of Staphylococcus aureus that were experimentally selected for resistance to a suite of individual AMPs and antibiotics to investigate the ‘arming the enemy’ hypothesis. We tested whether the selected strains showed higher survival in an insect model (Tenebrio molitor) and cross-resistance against other antimicrobials in vitro. A population selected for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide iseganan showed increased in vivo survival, but was not more virulent. We suggest that increased survival of AMP-resistant bacteria almost certainly poses problems to immune-compromised hosts. PMID:25469169

  18. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention.

    PubMed

    Roca, I; Akova, M; Baquero, F; Carlet, J; Cavaleri, M; Coenen, S; Cohen, J; Findlay, D; Gyssens, I; Heuer, O E; Kahlmeter, G; Kruse, H; Laxminarayan, R; Liébana, E; López-Cerero, L; MacGowan, A; Martins, M; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Rolain, J-M; Segovia, C; Sigauque, B; Tacconelli, E; Wellington, E; Vila, J

    2015-07-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  19. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roca, I.; Akova, M.; Baquero, F.; Carlet, J.; Cavaleri, M.; Coenen, S.; Cohen, J.; Findlay, D.; Gyssens, I.; Heure, O.E.; Kahlmeter, G.; Kruse, H.; Laxminarayan, R.; Liébana, E.; López-Cerero, L.; MacGowan, A.; Martins, M.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Rolain, J.-M.; Segovia, C.; Sigauque, B.; Taconelli, E.; Wellington, E.; Vila, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26029375

  20. Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, Maria Angeles; Deplano, Ariane; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Dodémont, Magali; Heinrichs, Amelie; Denis, Olivier; Nonhoff, Claire; Roisin, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria. This review focused in relevant examples within the ESC(K)APE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile (Klebsiella pneumoniae), Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) group of bacterial pathogens that are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. PMID:28587316

  1. Antimicrobial Use for and Resistance of Zoonotic Bacteria Recovered from Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeffrey; Coble, Dondrae J; Salyards, Gregory W; Bower, Julie K; Rinaldi, William J; Plauche, Gail B; Habing, Gregory G

    2017-01-01

    As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Large-scale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions. We focused on 4 enteric bacteria: Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Campylobacter jejuni. Fifteen veterinarians, 7 biomedical research institutions, and 4 diagnostic laboratories participated, providing susceptibility test results from January 2012 through April 2015. Veterinarians primarily treated cases caused by S. flexneri, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis with enrofloxacin but treated C. jejuni cases with azithromycin and tylosin. All isolates were susceptible to the associated primary antimicrobial but often showed resistance to others. Specifically, S. flexneri isolates frequently were resistant to erythromycin (87.5%), doxycycline (73.7%), and tetracycline (38.3%); Y. enterocolitica isolates to ampicillin (100%) and cefazolin (93.6%); and C. jejuni isolates to methicillin (99.5%) and cephalothin (97.5%). None of the 58 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates was resistant to any tested antimicrobial. Notably, resistance patterns were not shared between this study's NHP isolates and human isolates presented by NARMS. Our findings indicate that zoonotic bacteria from NHP diagnostic samples are broadly susceptible to the antimicrobials used to treat the clinical infections. These results can help veterinarians ensure effective antimicrobial therapy and protect staff by minimizing occupational risk. PMID:28222842

  2. Antimicrobial Use for and Resistance of Zoonotic Bacteria Recovered from Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Kim Dondrae J Coble Gregory W Salyards Julie K Bower William J Rinaldi Gail B Plauche And Gregory G Habing, Jeffrey

    2017-01-26

    As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions. We focused on 4 enteric bacteria: Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis,and Campylobacter jejuni. Fifteen veterinarians, 7 biomedical research institutions, and 4 diagnostic laboratories participated, providingsusceptibility test results from January 2012 through April 2015. Veterinarians primarily treated cases caused by S. flexneri,Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis with enrofloxacin but treated C. jejuni cases with azithromycin and tylosin. All isolates were susceptible to the associated primary antimicrobial but often showed resistance to others. Specifically, S. flexneri isolates frequently were resistant to erythromycin (87.5%), doxycycline (73.7%), and tetracycline (38.3%); Y. enterocolitica isolates to ampicillin (100%) and cefazolin (93.6%); and C. jejuni isolates to methicillin (99.5%) and cephalothin (97.5%). None of the 58 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates was resistant to any tested antimicrobial. Notably, resistance patterns were not shared between this study's NHP isolates and human isolates presented by NARMS. Our findings indicate that zoonotic bacteria from NHP diagnostic samples are broadly susceptible to the antimicrobials used to treat the clinical infections. These results can help veterinarians ensure effective antimicrobial therapy and protect staff by minimizing occupational risk.

  3. Antimicrobial Use for and Resistance of Zoonotic Bacteria Recovered from Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeffrey; Coble, Dondrae J; Salyards, Gregory W; Bower, Julie K; Rinaldi, William J; Plauche, Gail B; Habing, Gregory G

    2017-02-01

    As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions. We focused on 4 enteric bacteria: Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Campylobacter jejuni. Fifteen veterinarians, 7 biomedical research institutions, and 4 diagnostic laboratories participated, providing susceptibility test results from January 2012 through April 2015. Veterinarians primarily treated cases caused by S. flexneri, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis with enrofloxacin but treated C. jejuni cases with azithromycin and tylosin. All isolates were susceptible to the associated primary antimicrobial but often showed resistance to others. Specifically, S. flexneri isolates frequently were resistant to erythromycin (87.5%), doxycycline (73.7%), and tetracycline (38.3%); Y. enterocolitica isolates to ampicillin (100%) and cefazolin (93.6%); and C. jejuni isolates to methicillin (99.5%) and cephalothin (97.5%). None of the 58 Y. pseudotuber-culosis isolates was resistant to any tested antimicrobial. Notably, resistance patterns were not shared between this study's NHP isolates and human isolates presented by NARMS. Our findings indicate that zoonotic bacteria from NHP diagnostic samples are broadly susceptible to the antimicrobials used to treat the clinical infections. These results can help veterinarians ensure effective antimicrobial therapy and protect staff by minimizing occupational risk.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from swine.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Michele; Merenda, Marianna; Barigazzi, Giuseppe; Garbarino, Chiara; Luppi, Andrea; Tognetti, Rosalba; Intorre, Luigi

    2012-04-23

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates and the trend in resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Italy from 1994 to 2009. A total of 992 A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were tested for their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents in a disk diffusion method. Resistance to 7 drugs (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefquinome, cotrimoxazole, penicillin G and tilmicosin) showed a significant increasing trend over the time, while for 2 drugs (gentamycin and marbofloxacin) a significant decrease was observed. Resistance to the remaining 14 antimicrobial agents tested did not change significantly over the study period. Most of the isolates retained high susceptibility to antimicrobials usually effective against A. pleuropneumoniae such as amphenicols, fluoroquinolones and ceftiofur. However, high rates of resistance were observed for potentiated sulfa drugs, tetracyclines and penicillins which are currently recommended antimicrobials for pig pleuropneumonia therapy. Our results suggest the importance of continued monitoring of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates in order to choose the most appropriate treatment of infections and to control the increase of resistance to currently used antimicrobials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial agents in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deyno, Serawit; Fekadu, Sintayehu; Astatkie, Ayalew

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Staphylococcus aureus has limited treatment options against its infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by S. aureus in Ethiopia. Web-based search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) to identify potentially eligible published studies. Required data were extracted and entered into Excel spread sheet. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 13.0. The metaprop Stata command was used to pool prevalence values. Twenty-one separate meta-analysis were done to estimate the pooled prevalence of the resistance of S. aureus to twenty-one different antimicrobial agents. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I(2) statistic and chi-square test. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. Because of significant heterogeneity amongst the studies, the random effects model was used to pool prevalence values. The electronic database search yielded 1317 studies among which 45 studies met our inclusion criteria. Our analyses demonstrated very high level of resistance to amoxicillin (77% [95% confidence interval (CI): 68%, 0.85%]), penicillin (76% [95% CI: 67%, 84%]), ampicillin (75% [95% CI: 65%, 85%]), tetracycline (62% [95% CI: 55%, 68%]), methicillin (47% [95% CI: 33%, 61%]), cotrimoxaziole (47% [95% CI: 40%, 55%]), doxycycline (43% [95% CI: 26%, 60%]), and erythromycin (41% [95% CI: 29%, 54%]). Relatively low prevalence of resistance was observed with kanamycin (14% [95% CI: 5%, 25%]) and ciprofloxacin (19% [95% CI: 13%, 26%]). The resistance level to vancomycin is 11% 995% CI: (4%, 20%). High heterogeneity was observed for each of the meta-analysis performed (I(2) ranging from 79.36% to 95.93%; all p-values ≤0.01). Eggers' test did not show a significant publication bias for all antimicrobial agents except for erythromycin and

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli and enterococci from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Pacheco, Rui; Monteiro, Ricardo; Sargo, Roberto; Brito, Francisco; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated, as well as the virulence factors, in faecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. from red foxes. From 52 faecal samples, 22 E. coli (42.3%) and 50 enterococci (96.2%) isolates were recovered (one/sample). A high percentage of E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin (54-27%), and they harboured the aadA, tet(A) and/or tet(B), sul1 and blaTEM resistance genes, respectively. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to the 4 major phylogroups, D (41% of isolates), A (31.8%), B1 (18.2%) and B2 (9.1%), and carried the fimA (63.3%) or aer (13.6%) virulence genes. Among enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species (50%). A high percentage of enterococcal isolates showed tetracycline resistance (88%) harbouring different combinations of tet(M) and tet(L) genes. The erm(B) or the aph(3')-IIIa gene were identified in most of our erythromycin- or kanamycin-resistant enterococci, respectively. This report suggests the role of red foxes from rural areas in the cycle of transmission and spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and enterococci into the environment, representing a reservoir of these antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance trends among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens in Greece, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009-2012). A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%). Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4%) penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for β -lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance of Faecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Pig Farms with Different Durations of In-feed Antimicrobial Use.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, J F; Boland, F; Egan, J; Fanning, S; Markey, B K; Leonard, F C

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial use and resistance in animal and food production are of concern to public health. The primary aims of this study were to determine the frequency of resistance to 12 antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from 39 pig farms and to identify patterns of antimicrobial use on these farms. Further aims were to determine whether a categorization of farms based on the duration of in-feed antimicrobial use (long-term versus short-term) could predict the occurrence of resistance on these farms and to identify the usage of specific antimicrobial drugs associated with the occurrence of resistance. Escherichia coli were isolated from all production stages on these farms; susceptibility testing was carried out against a panel of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected, and farms were categorized as long term or short term based on these. Resistance frequencies and antimicrobial use were tabulated. Logistic regression models of resistance to each antimicrobial were constructed with stage of production, duration of antimicrobial use and the use of 5 antimicrobial classes included as explanatory variables in each model. The greatest frequencies of resistance were observed to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and streptomycin with the highest levels of resistance observed in isolates from first-stage weaned pigs. Differences in the types of antimicrobial drugs used were noted between long-term and short-term use farms. Categorization of farms as long- or short-term use was sufficient to predict the likely occurrence of resistance to 3 antimicrobial classes and could provide an aid in the control of resistance in the food chain. Stage of production was a significant predictor variable in all models of resistance constructed and did not solely reflect antimicrobial use at each stage. Cross-selection and co-selection for resistance was evident in the models constructed, and the use of trimethoprim/sulphonamide drugs in particular was

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Broilers in Live Bird Markets in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Beibei; Ma, Licai; Li, Yingli; Jia, Haiyan; Wei, Jianchao; Shao, Donghua; Liu, Ke; Shi, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Yafeng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolates from broilers in live bird markets (LBMs). A total of 209 Campylobacter spp. isolates (84 Campylobacter jejuni; 125 Campylobacter coli) were recovered from 364 broiler cecum samples collected from five LBMs in Shanghai, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antimicrobials were determined using agar dilution method. More than 96% of the Campylobacter spp. isolates were resistant to quinolones and tetracyclines. A high prevalence of macrolide resistance (erythromycin, 84.0%; azithromycin, 80.8%) was observed in C. coli, but not in C. jejuni (erythromycin, 6.0%; azithromycin, 2.4%). C. coli also showed significantly higher resistance than C. jejuni to clindamycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. In contrast, C. coli isolates had lower resistance to florfenicol than the C. jejuni isolates. The majority of the C. jejuni (88.1%) and C. coli (97.6%) isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) to three or more classes of antimicrobials. All of the 208 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the C257T mutation of the gyrA gene. In addition, the tet(O) gene was identified in all of the 202 doxycycline-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates. Furthermore, 75.7% and 20.4% of the 103 azithromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the A2075G mutation of the 23S rRNA gene and the presence of the erm(B) gene, respectively. Moreover, the cat gene was found in 14.3% (8/56) and 76.8% (73/95) of the chloramphenicol-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. isolates originating from LBMs. The high prevalence of MDR Campylobacter spp. isolates in LBMs highlights the need to implement efficient intervention measures to control not only Campylobacter contamination in LBMs but also

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella spp. from Agricultural Environments in Fruit Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Gomba, Annancietar; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks involving fresh produce have increased in recent years. The risk of infection from contaminated food is worsened by the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. This study evaluated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates (n = 263) from agricultural production systems through to the final packed product. Salmonella isolates were preliminarily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) and API 20E and identities confirmed by invA gene polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed with 15 antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Of the 263 Salmonella isolates assessed, 59.3% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most frequently detected resistance was against chloramphenicol and kanamycin (46.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (28%), and streptomycin (14%), and the less frequently detected resistance was toward ampicillin (1.14%), amikacin (0.76%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (0.38%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics) was found in 48.7% (76/156) isolates. The most common MAR phenotype was to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-kanamycin (43.6%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only observed in MAR phenotypes. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and tetracycline. This study confirms the importance of fresh produce production environments as potential reservoirs and fresh produce as carriers of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. with significant clinical importance. Further studies to evaluate the actual level of health risk from these pathogens should include characterization of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates.

  11. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Band, Victor I.; Weiss, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are important innate immune defenses that inhibit colonization by pathogens and contribute to clearance of infections. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are a major target, yet many of them have evolved mechanisms to resist these antimicrobials. These resistance mechanisms can be critical contributors to bacterial virulence and are often crucial for survival within the host. Here, we summarize methods used by Gram-negative bacteria to resist CAMPs. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to new therapeutic strategies against pathogens with extensive CAMP resistance. PMID:25927010

  12. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Band, Victor I; Weiss, David S

    2015-03-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are important innate immune defenses that inhibit colonization by pathogens and contribute to clearance of infections. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are a major target, yet many of them have evolved mechanisms to resist these antimicrobials. These resistance mechanisms can be critical contributors to bacterial virulence and are often crucial for survival within the host. Here, we summarize methods used by Gram-negative bacteria to resist CAMPs. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to new therapeutic strategies against pathogens with extensive CAMP resistance.

  13. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Bortolaia, V; Espinosa-Gongora, C; Guardabassi, L

    2016-02-01

    Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human health risks associated with the occurrence of these opportunistic human pathogens on poultry meat with particular focus on the risk of food-borne transmission of antimicrobial resistance. In the absence of conclusive evidence of transmission, this risk was inferred using data from scientific articles and national reports on prevalence, bacterial load, antimicrobial resistance and clonal distribution of these three species on poultry meat. The risks associated with ingestion of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci of poultry origin comprise horizontal transfer of resistance genes and transmission of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis lineages such as sequence type ST16. Enterococcus faecium lineages occurring in poultry meat products are distantly related to those causing hospital-acquired infections but may act as donors of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance and other resistance determinants of clinical interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin-producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of antimicrobial-resistance genes among Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates recovered from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Simjee, Shabbir; McDermott, Patrick F; White, David G; Hofacre, Charles; Berghaus, Roy D; Carter, Peggy J; Stewart, Leigh; Liu, Tongrui; Maier, Marie; Maurer, John J

    2007-12-01

    Data on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant enterococci and staphylococci from the poultry production environment are sparse in the United States. This information is needed for science-based risk assessments of antimicrobial use in animal husbandry and potential public-health consequences. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of staphylococci and enterococci isolated from poultry litter, recovered from 24 farms across Georgia, to several antimicrobials of veterinary and human health importance. Among the 90 Enterococcus isolates recovered, E. hirae (46%) was the most frequently encountered species, followed by E. faecium (27%), E. gallinarum (12%), and E. faecalis (10%). Antimicrobial resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (96%), followed by clindamycin (90%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (62%), penicillin (53%), erythromycin (50%), nitrofurantoin (49%), and clarithromycin (48%). Among the 110 staphylococci isolates recovered, only coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were identified with the predominant Staphylococcus species being S. sciuri (38%), S. lentus (21%), S. xylosus (14%) and S. simulans (12%). Resistance was less-frequently observed among the Staphylococcus isolates for the majority of antimicrobials tested, as compared with Enterococcus isolates, and was primarily limited to clarithromycin (71%), erythromycin (71%), clindamycin (48%), and tetracycline (38%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes were prevalent in both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus; however, Enterococcus exhibited a statistically significant difference in the median number of antimicrobials to which resistance was observed (median = 5.0) compared with Staphylococcus species (median = 3.0). Because resistance to several of these antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria may be attributed to the shuttling of common drug-resistance genes, we also determined which common antimicrobial-resistance genes were present in both enterococci and staphylococci. The

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  16. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and integrons among Escherichia coli isolated from animal farms in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liming; Dai, Lei; Wang, Yang; Wu, Congming; Chen, Xia; Li, Lin; Qi, Yonghua; Xia, Lining; Shen, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    A total of 182 Escherichia coli isolates from animals, environment and workers of dairy cattle, swine and chicken farms in Shandong which locates in Eastern China, were investigated for antimicrobial resistance as well as prevalence and the transfer mechanisms of integrons. The results revealed isolates from swine and chicken farm exhibited high levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents. The positive rate of gene cassette of class 1 integron in dairy cattle, swine and chicken farms was 5%, 20% and 41.94%, respectively. Only four isolates possessed class 2 integron, all of which were from chicken farm. Nine distinct cassette arrays were detected and two novel gene cassette arrays yheSDelta-yheR-kefBDelta and chrADelta-sul1-qacEDelta1-orf5-aadA5-dfrA17 were identified in class 1 integron for the first time. Class 1 integrons were found to be located mostly in both chromosomal and conjugative plasmid through southern hybridization and conjugation. PFGE revealed clonal relatedness among the isolates from different sources, especially within the same farm. The results confirmed the antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of integrons were strongly associated with the selection pressure of antimicrobial agents, and resistance genes in animal farms were probably spread by both vertical and horizontal transfer.

  17. Associations between host characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Ruddat, I; Tietze, E; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L

    2014-10-01

    A collection of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from sporadic salmonellosis cases in humans from Lower Saxony, Germany between June 2008 and May 2010 was used to perform an exploratory risk-factor analysis on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using comprehensive host information on sociodemographic attributes, medical history, food habits and animal contact. Multivariate resistance profiles of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 13 antimicrobial agents were analysed using a non-parametric approach with multifactorial models adjusted for phage types. Statistically significant associations were observed for consumption of antimicrobial agents, region type and three factors on egg-purchasing behaviour, indicating that besides antimicrobial use the proximity to other community members, health consciousness and other lifestyle-related attributes may play a role in the dissemination of resistances. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase in AMR from the first study year to the second year was observed.

  18. The World Health Assembly resolution on antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, Laura J; Davies, Sally C

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem that can only be tackled successfully through strengthened international partnerships. A concerted political, scientific and media campaign has garnered support for the recent World Health Assembly resolution on antimicrobial resistance, mandating the WHO to develop a global action plan. This resolution has the 'One Health' approach at its core, emphasizing collaboration across human and animal health sectors at the international, national and regional levels, coupled with strong leadership and the political will to act. Key themes are communication, prevention of infection, using knowledge to guide action, sustainability and optimizing the use of antimicrobial medicines and diagnostic devices. Implementation of the global action plan will require member states to make a commitment to developing national action plans and strengthening capacity, building on collaborations between the WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the World Bank, Codex Alimentarius and the Transatlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance.

  19. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in lesions of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander H; Haskin, Alessandra; Okoye, Ginette A

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic therapy is commonly used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although concern for antibiotic resistance exists, data examining the association between antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions are limited. We sought to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions from patients on antibiotic therapy. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 239 patients with HS seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions from 2010 through 2015. Patients using topical clindamycin were more likely to grow clindamycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with patients using no antibiotics (63% vs 17%; P = .03). Patients taking ciprofloxacin were more likely to grow ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S aureus compared with patients using no antibiotics (100% vs 10%; P = .045). Patients taking trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were more likely to grow trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Proteus species compared with patients using no antibiotics (88% vs 0%; P < .001). No significant antimicrobial resistance was observed with tetracyclines or oral clindamycin. Data on disease characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities for certain bacteria were limited. Antibiotic therapy for HS treatment may be inducing antibiotic resistance. These findings highlight the importance of stewardship in antibiotic therapy for HS and raise questions regarding the balance of antibiotic use versus potential harms associated with antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Salmonella in dairy operations in the United States: prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Blau, D M; McCluskey, B J; Ladely, S R; Dargatz, D A; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Ferris, K E; Headrick, M L

    2005-04-01

    Salmonella serotypes are important foodborne pathogens of humans that can be acquired through consumption of contaminated meat and dairy products. Salmonella infection also can be a significant animal health issue. As part of a national study of U.S. dairy operations conducted between March and September 2002, fecal samples were collected from representative cows in 97 dairy herds in 21 states and were cultured to determine the prevalence of Salmonella shedding. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cow in 30.9% of the herds. Overall, 7.3% of fecal samples were culture positive for Salmonella. The three most frequently recovered serotypes were Salmonella Meleagridis (24.1%), Salmonella Montevideo (11.9%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9.9%). The susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates recovered were determined using a panel of 16 antimicrobial drugs. Salmonella isolates recovered from dairy cows had relatively little resistance to these antimicrobial agents; 83.0% of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This study provides updated information on the prevalence and susceptibility patterns of Salmonella in dairy herds and on cow and herd characteristics. These data contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Salmonella in the dairy farm environment.

  2. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolates from hospitals in Rome.

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, V.; Caprioli, A.; Mondello, F.; Cacace, M. L.; Luzi, S.; Greco, D.

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of 569 salmonella isolated collected in 1977-8 from patients in hospitals in Rome was tested. Fifty-nine per cent of all isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance was most common to sulphathiazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, whereas colistin, gentamicin, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and nalidixic acid were the most active in vitro. Multiple resistance was most frequently found in strains of Salmonella wien and S. typhimurium (94% and 38% respectively). A significant change in the resistance pattern of S. wien was observed between 1977 and 1978, with a significant increase of susceptibility to some antimicrobials in 1978. Twenty-one R-plasmids transmissible to E. coli K12 were derived from 46 resistant strains of S. typhimurum. PMID:7061839

  4. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H.; Hung, Albert M.; Graves, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  5. Population-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Antimicrobial Resistance in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt, Brian H.; Anderson, Raydel D.; Wu, Henry M.; Cohn, Amanda C.; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Wang, Xin; Clark, Thomas A.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Antimicrobial treatment and chemoprophylaxis of patients and their close contacts is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality and prevent secondary cases of meningococcal disease. Through the 1990's, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antimicrobials among Neisseria meningitidis was low in the United States. Susceptibility testing was performed to ascertain whether the proportions of isolates with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used for N meningitidis have increased since 2004 in the United States. Methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution on 466 isolates of N meningitidis collected in 2004, 2008, 2010, and 2011 from an active, population-based surveillance system for susceptibility to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, rifampin, and azithromycin. The molecular mechanism of reduced susceptibility was investigated for isolates with intermediate or resistant phenotypes. Results. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, 10.3% were penicillin G intermediate (range, 8% in 2008–16.7% in 2010), and <1% were ciprofloxacin, rifampin, or penicillin G resistant. Of the penicillin G intermediate or resistant isolates, 63% contained mutations in the penA gene associated with reduced susceptibility to penicillin G. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates contained mutations in the gyrA gene associated with reduced susceptibility. Conclusions. Resistance of N meningitidis to antimicrobials used for empirical treatment of meningitis in the United States has not been detected, and resistance to penicillin G and chemoprophylaxis agents remains uncommon. Therapeutic agent recommendations remain valid. Although periodic surveillance is warranted to monitor trends in susceptibility, routine clinical testing may be of little use. PMID:26357666

  6. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in MDR bacteria by microarray and high-throughput sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major concern in human and animal health. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was designed by the CDC, FDA, and USDA to monitor antimicrobial resistance in the U.S. The Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistanc...

  7. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chi