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Sample records for antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria

  1. Risk factors for infection with pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria in northern elephant seals in California.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Atwill, Edward R; Gulland, Frances M D; Miller, Melissa A; Dabritz, Haydee A; Paradies, Dave M; Worcester, Karen R; Jang, Spencer; Lawrence, Judy; Byrne, Barbara A; Conrad, Patricia A

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify potential environmental and demographic factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Salmonella enterica (Salmonella spp.), and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection in northern elephant seals stranded along the California coastline. E. coli, Salmonella spp., and C. jejuni were isolated from rectal swabs from 196 juvenile northern elephant seals, which were found stranded and alive along the California coast and brought to The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, for rehabilitation. Gender, weight, county where the animal stranded, month stranded, coastal human population density, exposure to sewage outfall or freshwater outflow (river or stream), and cumulative precipitation in the previous 24 hours, seven days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days were analyzed as potential risk factors for infection. The odds of C. jejuni and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were higher in feces of seals stranded at sites with higher levels of freshwater outflow compared with lower levels of freshwater outflow. The odds of Salmonella spp. in feces were 5.4 times greater in seals stranded in locations with lower levels of 30-day cumulative precipitation, along with substantially lower odds of Salmonella shedding for seals stranded in Monterey or Santa Cruz county compared with seals stranded in regions further north or south of this central California location. Juvenile northern elephant seals that have entered the water are being colonized by antimicrobial-resistant and pathogenic fecal bacteria that may be acquired from terrestrial sources transmitted via river and surface waters.

  2. Variations in the fecal occurrences of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are greater between seasons than between "raised without antibiotics" and "conventional" cattle production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare, over a year, fecal occurrences of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) in fed-cattle between two production systems: "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and “conventional” (CONV). Feces were recovered from colons at a commercial beef processing plant obta...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  4. Changes in antimicrobial resistance in fecal bacteria associated with pig transit and holding times at slaughter plants.

    PubMed Central

    Molitoris, E; Fagerberg, D J; Quarles, C L; Krichevsky, M I

    1987-01-01

    Fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with various pig transit and holding times were investigated at slaughter plants. Changes in the relative abundance of two biotypes of Streptococcus faecium were associated with transit and holding of pigs, although approximately 20% of the isolates were unidentified. The greatest variety of coliforms was isolated from porcine feces after short transit (2 h) or holding (3 h) times and was qualitatively similar to those from pigs on farms. Isolates from pigs with longer average transit or holding times were almost all Escherichia coli (four biotypes). Streptococcal resistance to most antimicrobial agents was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in isolates from live pigs at slaughter plants than in those from pigs at farms and was apparent after a short transit time (2 h). Streptococci from pigs held an average of 15 h were less resistant to most antimicrobial agents than those from pigs held 3 or 43 h. When compared with short transit times, moderate transit times (6 h) were associated with significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) coliform resistance and decreased resistance transfer but a greater diversity of AMR patterns. Holding pigs overnight (14 h) was associated with lowered coliform resistance to several antimicrobial agents, compared with the resistance of isolates from pigs held 3 or 39 h. A substantial increase (18 to 48%) in the ability to transfer streptomycin resistance was demonstrated in coliforms from pigs held 39 h, when compared with those from pigs held 3 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3606107

  5. Antimicrobial resistance characteristics and fitness of Gram-negative fecal bacteria from volunteers treated with minocycline or amoxicillin

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Miranda; Mafura, Muriel; Hunt, Theresa; Abu-Oun, Manal; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Hu, Yanmin; Weile, Jan; Coates, Anthony; Card, Roderick; Anjum, Muna F.

    2014-01-01

    A yearlong study was performed to examine the effect of antibiotic administration on the bacterial gut flora. Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria were recovered from the feces of healthy adult volunteers administered amoxicillin, minocycline or placebo, and changes determined in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene carriage. Seventy percent of the 1039 facultative anaerobic isolates recovered were identified by MALDI-TOF as Escherichia coli. A microarray used to determine virulence and resistance gene carriage demonstrated that AMR genes were widespread in all administration groups, with the most common resistance genes being blaTEM, dfr, strB, tet(A), and tet(B). Following amoxicillin administration, an increase in the proportion of amoxicillin resistant E. coli and a three-fold increase in the levels of blaTEM gene carriage was observed, an effect not observed in the other two treatment groups. Detection of virulence genes, including stx1A, indicated not all E. coli were innocuous commensals. Approximately 150 E. coli collected from 6 participants were selected for pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and a subset used for characterisation of plasmids and Phenotypic Microarrays (PM). PFGE indicated some E. coli clones had persisted in volunteers for up to 1 year, while others were transient. Although there were no unique characteristics associated with plasmids from persistent or transient isolates, PM assays showed transient isolates had greater adaptability to a range of antiseptic biocides and tetracycline; characteristics which were lost in some, but not all persistent isolates. This study indicates healthy individuals carry bacteria harboring resistance to a variety of antibiotics and biocides in their intestinal tract. Antibiotic administration can have a temporary effect of selecting bacteria, showing co-resistance to multiple antibiotics, some of which can persist within the gut for up to 1 year. PMID:25566232

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal indicators in municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Łuczkiewicz, A; Jankowska, K; Fudala-Książek, S; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of fecal coliforms (n = 153) and enterococci (n = 199) isolates was investigated in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) based on activated sludge system. The number of fecal indicators (in influent and effluent as well as in the aeration chamber and in return activated sludge mixture) was determined using selective media. Susceptibility of selected strains was tested against 19 (aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, penicillines, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) and 17 (high-level aminoglycosides, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, linezolid, lincosamides, nitrofuration, streptogramins, tetracycline) antimicrobial agents respectively. Among enterococci the predominant species were Enterococcus faecium (60.8%) and Enterococcus faecalis (22.1%), while remaining isolates belonged to Enterococcus hirae (12.1%), Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarum (4.5%), and Enterococcus durans (0.5%). Resistance to nitrofuration and erythromycin was common among enterococci (53% and 44%, respectively), and followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (29%) and tetracycline (20%). The resistance phenotypes related to glycopeptides (up to 3.2%) and high-level aminoglycosides (up to 5.4%) were also observed. Most frequently, among Escherichia coli isolates the resistance patterns were found for ampicillin (34%), piperacillin (24%) and tetracycline (23%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli was detected once, in the aeration chamber. In the study the applied wastewater treatment processes considerably reduced the number of fecal indicators. Nevertheless their number in the WWTP effluent was higher than 10(4) CFU per 100 ml and periodically contained 90% of bacteria with antimicrobial resistance patterns. The positive selection of isolates with antimicrobial resistance patterns was observed during the treatment processes

  7. Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, Maria Angeles; Deplano, Ariane; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Dodémont, Magali; Heinrichs, Amelie; Denis, Olivier; Nonhoff, Claire; Roisin, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria. This review focused in relevant examples within the ESC(K)APE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile (Klebsiella pneumoniae), Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) group of bacterial pathogens that are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. PMID:28587316

  8. Zoonotic fecal pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in county fair animals.

    PubMed

    Roug, A; Byrne, B A; Conrad, P A; Miller, W A

    2013-05-01

    Livestock fairs present a unique opportunity for the public to experience close contact with animals, but may also expose people to zoonotic pathogens through contact with animal feces. The goal of this study was to screen cattle, sheep, goat, chicken, rabbit and horse feces from a livestock fair in California for the potentially zoonotic pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp., as well as determining the level of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella. Notably, E. coli O157:H7 was reported for the first time in a pig at a county fair in California. Campylobacter jejuni as well as Salmonella enterica serovars Derby and Thompson were also isolated from pigs, cattle, sheep, goats or chickens, whereas horses and rabbits were negative for all target pathogens. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance as well as multi-drug resistance patterns were highest for E. coli and Salmonella spp. cultured from pigs and chickens, were generally widespread but at lower levels for other animal groups, and included resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin, two antimicrobial drugs of importance for human medicine. This study provides data that highlight the importance of practicing good hygiene in livestock fair settings to avoid transmission of zoonotic microbes, particularly pathogens with antimicrobial resistance, to fair visitors and among animal populations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in MDR bacteria by microarray and high-throughput sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major concern in human and animal health. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was designed by the CDC, FDA, and USDA to monitor antimicrobial resistance in the U.S. The Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistanc...

  10. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02). Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  11. Antimicrobial-Resistant Enteric Bacteria from Dairy Cattle▿

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ashish A.; Hegde, Narasimha V.; Straley, Beth A.; Donaldson, Sarah C.; Love, Brenda C.; Knabel, Stephen J.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to understand the descriptive and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the feces of healthy lactating dairy cattle. Gram-negative enteric bacteria resistant to ampicillin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, and tetracycline were isolated from the feces of 35, 8, 5, and 42% of 213 lactating cattle on 74, 39, 9, 26, and 82% of 23 farms surveyed, respectively. Antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria accounted for 5 (florfenicol) to 14% (tetracycline) of total gram-negative enteric microflora. Nine bacterial species were isolated, of which Escherichia coli (87%) was the most predominant species. MICs showing reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline were observed in E. coli isolates. Isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (48%), ceftiofur (11%), chloramphenicol (20%), florfenicol (78%), spectinomycin (18%), and tetracycline (93%). Multidrug resistance (≥3 to 6 antimicrobials) was seen in 40% of E. coli isolates from healthy lactating cattle. Of 113 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 93% of isolates, while the remaining 7% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. DNA-DNA hybridization assays revealed that tet determinants were located on the chromosome. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates (n = 99 isolates) belonged to 60 subtypes, which is suggestive of a highly diverse population of tetracycline-resistant organisms. On most occasions, E. coli subtypes, although shared between cows within the herd, were confined mostly to a dairy herd. The findings of this study suggest that commensal enteric E. coli from healthy lactating cattle can be an important reservoir for tetracycline and perhaps other antimicrobial resistance determinants. PMID:17098918

  12. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in wild game in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Križman, M.; Kirbiš, A.; Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, U.

    2017-09-01

    Wildlife is usually not exposed to clinically-used antimicrobial agents but can acquire antimicrobial resistance throughout contact with humans, domesticated animals and environments. Samples of faeces from intestines (80 in total) were collected from roe deer (52), wild boars (11), chamois (10) red deer (6) and moufflon (1). After culture on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plates to select for growth of ESBL-producing bacteria, 25 samples produced bacterial colonies for further study. Six species of bacteria were identified from the 25 samples: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Two ESBL enzymes were amplified from group TEM and three from group CTX-M-1. Undercooked game meat and salami can be a source of resistant bacteria when animals are not eviscerated properly.

  13. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread of antimicrobial resistance. Present situation Resistance in bacteria Antibiotic resistance is present in every country. Patients with infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes ...

  15. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Facing the problem of development and spreading of bacterial resistance, preventive strategies are considered the most appropriate means to counteract. The establishment of corresponding management options relies on scientifically defensible efforts to obtain objective data on the prevalence of bacterial resistance in healthy and diseased livestock. Additionally, detailed statistics are needed on the overall amount of antimicrobial agents dispensed in Germany. The collection of valid data on the prevalence of resistance requires representative and cross-sectional studies. The German national antimicrobial resistance monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) determines the current quantitative resistance level of life-stock pathogens, in order to permit the evaluation and surveillance of the distribution of resistances on a valid basis. Essential key features determining the design of these studies comprise (1) a statistically valid sampling program. This incorporates regional differences in animal population density, (2) the avoidance of "copy strains", (3) testing of no more than two bacterial strains belonging to one species per herd, (4) testing only if no antimicrobial therapy preceded sample collection, and (5) the use of standardized methods [e.g. microdilution broth method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. The analysis and interpretation of this data permits reliable identification and definition of epidemiological characteristics of resistance and its development in animal associated bacteria, such as geographically and time wise differentiated profiles on its prevalence, the emergence of unknown phenotypes of resistance and an assessment of the threat resistant bacteria from animals pose for humans. In applied antimicrobial therapy, the data can serve as a decision guidance in choosing the antimicrobial agent most adapted to the prevailing epidemiological situation. The susceptibility testing

  16. Global aspects of antimicrobial-resistant enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, S; Hart, C A

    2001-10-01

    Antibiotics have been considered to be safe and effective 'magic bullets', with no disadvantages to their widespread use. This has been proven to be a complacent attitude, with ever-increasing prevalences of resistance now evident. The present review covers aspects of the development, mechanisms and genetics of antimicrobial resistance in enteric commensals and pathogens.

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of bovine bacteria to antibiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most formidable threats to human medicine today. Therefore, the research objective is to evaluate the susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from beef cows to 12 antibiotics commonly used in treating human and animal infections. This research w...

  18. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from growing chickens on commercial broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroichi; Esaki, Hidetake; Takemoto, Kouhei; Ikeda, Akira; Nakatani, Yasutaka; Someya, Azusa; Hirayama, Norio; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2011-05-12

    To investigate the effects of rearing practices of commercial broiler chickens on the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates, fecal E. coli isolates obtained in 4 farms were screened for anitimicrobial resistance. Ten E. coli isolates were recovered from each of the fecal samples collected from 10 birds in the farms at the ages of 2 days, 14-17 days, and 47-50 days. In 2 out of the 4 farms, no antimicrobials were used during the rearing period. In the other two farms, following collection of the fecal samples at 14 and 15 days of age, oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), and tylosin were given to birds on one farm and SDMX was used in the other. Isolates resistant to ampicillin and OTC that were obtained from an untreated flock at different sampling times were closely related to each other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (PFGE) of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA. PFGE analysis together with in vitro conjugation experiments suggested that diversity of resistance phenotypes within a clone may be resulted from the acquisition and loss of R-plasmids in an untreated and a treated flock. The numbers of resistance phenotypes observed among fecal isolates increased during the growth of the chickens in all the farms. The results in the present study suggest that persistence of commensal E. coli strains resistant to antimicrobials even in the absence of antimicrobial administration. It is also hypothesized that horizontal transmission of resistance determinants resulted in the emergence of different resistance phenotypes in those farms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 1: Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Diggle, P J; Wedley, A L; Dawson, S; Pinchbeck, G L; Williams, N J

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli represents a significant problem. However, the carriage of such bacteria by horses in the UK has not been well characterised. To estimate the prevalence of nasal carriage of MRSA and faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli amongst horses in the general equine community of the mainland UK. A cross-sectional study of horses recruited by 65 randomly selected equine veterinary practices was conducted, with nasal swabs and faecal samples collected. Faecal samples were cultured for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. Nasal swabs were cultured for staphylococcal species; methicillin-resistant isolates identified as S. aureus were characterised by SCCmec and spa gene typing. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate prevalence estimates with adjustment for clustering at practice and premises levels. Spatial variation in risk of antimicrobial resistance was also examined. In total, 650 faecal samples and 678 nasal swabs were collected from 692 horses located on 525 premises. The prevalence of faecal carriage of E. coli with resistance to any antimicrobial was 69.5% (95% CI 65.9-73.1%) and the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli was 6.3% (95% CI 4.1-9.6%). The prevalence of nasal carriage of MRSA was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-1.5%). Spatial analysis indicated variation across the UK for risk of carriage of resistant and multidrug-resistant (resistant to more than 3 antimicrobial classes) E. coli. Carriage of MRSA by horses in the community appears rare, but the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli (including ESBL-producing E. coli) is higher. A high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria could have significant health implications for the horse population of the UK. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolated from swine fecal samples in 90 Alberta finishing farms

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Rajíc, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Avery, Brent P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 90 Alberta finisher swine farms. Up to 5 isolates were obtained from each of 269 pooled fecal samples and were classified as susceptible or resistant according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Of the 1322 isolates, 166 (12.6%) were susceptible to all 15 antimicrobials. No resistance to amikacin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin, antimicrobials of importance in human medicine, was observed. Relatively low frequencies of resistance were observed to gentamicin (1.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (0.7%), and cefoxitin (0.7%). Higher frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (78.9%), sulfisoxazole (49.9%), streptomycin (49.6%), ampicillin (30.6%), chloramphenicol (17.6%), kanamycin (10%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (6.4%). Among the isolates resistant to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes, 20.8%, 20.6%, 18.2%, 7.0%, 1.8%, 0.2%, and 0.2% were resistant to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 antimicrobials, respectively. The most common multidrug-resistance patterns (resistance to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes) were streptomycin-tetracycline (9.4%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.2%), and ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.1%). More clustering (higher intra-class correlation coefficients) in antimicrobial resistance was observed for isolates at the same visit than for isolates from different visits in the same farm, indicating that sampling more farms, testing fewer isolates per visits, and taking longer periods between visits may be appropriate and more efficient for a better understanding of potential shifts in resistance over time. PMID:18505207

  2. Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria among cattle from Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeeta; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David; Morley, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter) and non-type-specific E. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use. A secondary objective was to determine if AMR in non-type-specific E. coli could be used as a predictor of AMR in foodborne pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 Alberta feedlots during March through December 2004, and resistance prevalence was estimated by season (Spring, Fall) and cattle type (fewest days-on-feed and closest to slaughter). AMD exposures were obtained by calculating therapeutic animal daily doses for each drug before sampling from feedlot records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between each AMR and AMD use. Non-type-specific E. coli was commonly recovered from fecal samples (88.62%), and the highest prevalence of resistance was found toward tetracycline (53%), streptomycin (28%), and sulfadiazine (48%). Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 55.3% of the fecal samples, and resistance was generally less for the drugs that were evaluated (doxycycline 38.1%, ciprofloxacin 2.6%, nalidixic acid 1.64%, erythromycin 1.2%). E. coli O157 and Salmonella were recovered much less frequently (7% and 1% prevalence, respectively). The prevalence of recovery for the bacteria studied varied between seasons and cattle types, as did patterns of AMR. Among non-type-specific E. coli, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfadiazine was found to be positively associated with in-feed exposure as well as injectable tetracycline, but these differences were relatively small and of questionable practical relevance. Among C. jejuni isolates, cattle type was significantly associated with doxycycline resistance. Results suggested that resistance in non-type-specific E. coli to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim

  3. Molecular analysis of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria isolated from fish farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yojiro; Ahmed, Ashraf M; Mahfouz, Nadia B; Kimura, Tomomi; El-Khodery, Sabry A; Moawad, Amgad A; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2010-06-01

    As little is known about antimicrobial resistance genes in fish farms, this study was conducted to monitor the incidence and prevalence of a wide range of antimicrobial resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water samples taken from fish farms in the northern part of Egypt. Ninety-one out of two hundred seventy-four (33.2%) non-repetitive isolates of Gram-negative bacteria showed multidrug resistance phenotypes and harbored at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that 72 (26.3%) isolates contain tetracycline resistance genes and 19 (6.9%) isolates were positive for class 1 integrons with 12 different gene cassettes. The beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 14 (5.1%) isolates. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr, were identified in 16 (5.8%) and 3 (1.1%) isolates, respectively. Finally, the florphenicol resistance gene, floR, was identified in four (1.5%) isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from fish farms in Africa.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG ENTERIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL WASTES AND IMPACTED SURFACE WATERS: COMPARISON WITH NARMS FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG ENTERIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL WASTES AND IMPACTED SURFACE WATERS: COMPARISON WITH NARMS FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...

  6. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria among ceftiofur treated and non-antimicrobial treated co-mingled pasture beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...

  8. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Agga, G E; Scott, H M; Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G; Vinasco, J; Bai, J; Norby, B; Renter, D G; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D

    2014-06-01

    Feed-grade chlortetracycline (CTC) and copper are both widely utilized in U.S. pig production. Cluster randomized experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation in weaned pigs on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among fecal Escherichia coli. Four treatment groups: control, copper, CTC, or copper plus CTC were randomly allocated to 32 pens with five pigs per pen. Fecal samples were collected weekly from three pigs per pen for six weeks. Two E. coli isolates per fecal sample were tested for phenotypic and genotypic resistance against antibiotics and copper. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed effects logistic regression, multivariate probit analysis and discrete time survival analysis. CTC-supplementation was significantly (99% [95% CI=98-100%]) associated with increased tetracycline resistance compared to the control group (95% [95% CI=94-97%]). Copper supplementation was associated with decreased resistance to most of the antibiotics tested, including cephalosporins, over the treatment period. Overall, 91% of the E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes). tetA and blaCMY-2 genes were positively associated (P<0.05) with MDR categorization, while tetB and pcoD were negatively associated with MDR. tetA and blaCMY-2 were positively associated with each other and in turn, these were negatively associated with both tetB and pcoD genes; which were also positively associated with one another. Copper minimum inhibitory concentration was not affected by copper supplementation or by pcoD gene carriage. CTC supplementation was significantly associated with increased susceptibilities of E. coli to copper (HR=7 [95% CI=2.5-19.5]) during treatment period. In conclusion, E. coli isolates from the nursery pigs exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance, with diverse multi-resistant phenotypic profiles. The roles of copper supplementation in pig production, and pco-mediated copper resistance

  9. Analysis on antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziyong; Li, Li; Zhu, Xuhui; Ma, Yue; Li, Jingyun; Shen, Zhengyi; Jin, Shaohong

    2006-01-01

    The distinction of antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital was investigated. Disc diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital. The data was analyzed by WHONET5 and SPSS statistic software. A total of 655 strains and 1682 strains were collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital, respectively, in the year of 2003. The top ten pathogens were Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. areus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., otherwise Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Shigella spp. in county hospitals and Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., X. maltophilia in the teaching hospital. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was 5% (4/86) of methicillin-resistant S. areus (MRSA), 12% (16/133) and 15.8% (9/57) of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively, in county hospitals. All of the three rates were lower than that in the teaching hospital and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01). However, the incidence of methicillin-resistant CNS (MRCNS) reached to 70% (109/156) in the two classes of hospitals. Generally, the antimicrobial resistant rates in the county hospitals were lower than those in the teaching hospital, except the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, SMZco which were similar in the two classes of hospitals. There were differences between county hospitals and the teaching hospital in the distribution of clinical isolates and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. It was the basis of rational use of antimicrobial agents to monitor antimicrobial resistance by each hospital.

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. cultured from identical fecal samples in finishing swine

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Rajić, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne E.; Pearl, David L.; Avery, Brent P.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between antimicrobial resistance patterns in generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from identical pen pooled fecal samples, and to evaluate potential clustering of multiple isolates of these organisms within identical fecal samples. Up to 5 generic E. coli (n = 922 isolates) and Salmonella spp. (n = 922 isolates) isolates were obtained from each of 188 pen pooled fecal samples that had been collected from 45 finishing swine farms in Alberta in 2000, and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. No isolates of either organism were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones, which in Canada are considered antimicrobials of very high importance to human health. Approximately twice as many generic E. coli isolates as Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial. In addition, E. coli isolates showed more multidrug-resistance patterns. No significant association was observed between the resistance phenotypes of Salmonella spp. and E. coli at the fecal sample level. More clustering at the sample level was observed for proportions of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella spp. isolates than E. coli indicating that in future studies it might be sufficient to test fewer than 5 Salmonella spp. isolates per sample. PMID:18505208

  11. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  12. Potentially pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in bioaerosols from cage-housed and floor-housed poultry operations.

    PubMed

    Just, Natasha A; Létourneau, Valérie; Kirychuk, Shelley P; Singh, Baljit; Duchaine, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in animal confinement buildings, such as cage-housed (CH) and floor-housed (FH) poultry operations, to lower the likeliness of disease transmission. In FH facilities, antibiotics may also be used at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion. Low levels of antibiotic create a selective pressure toward antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in chicken fecal bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare bacteria and AMR genes in bioaerosols from CH and FH poultry facilities. Bioaerosols were collected from 15 CH and 15 FH poultry operations, using stationary area samplers as well as personal sampling devices. Bacteria concentrations were determined by genus- or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and AMR genes were detected using endpoint PCR. Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus spp. were significantly higher in bioaerosols of FH poultry operations than CH bioaerosols (P < 0.001) while Clostridium perfringens was significantly higher in area bioaerosols of CH operations than FH area bioaerosols (P < 0.05). Campylobacter spp. were detected only in bioaerosols of FH facilities. Zinc bacitracin resistance gene, bcrR, erythromycin resistance gene, ermA, and tetracycline resistance gene, tetA/C, were more prevalent in bioaerosols of FH facilities than CH bioaerosols (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively). Most bacteria are more concentrated and most AMR genes are more prevalent in bioaerosols of FH poultry operations, where growth-promoting antibiotics may be used.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Observed in Escherichia coli Isolates Obtained from Domestic- and Wild-Animal Fecal Samples, Human Septage, and Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Sayah, Raida S.; Kaneene, John B.; Johnson, Yvette; Miller, RoseAnn

    2005-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in 1,286 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human septage, wildlife, domestic animals, farm environments, and surface water in the Red Cedar watershed in Michigan. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was demonstrated in isolates from livestock, companion animals, human septage, wildlife, and surface water. In general, E. coli isolates from domestic species showed resistance to the largest number of antimicrobial agents compared to isolates from human septage, wildlife, and surface water. The agents to which resistance was demonstrated most frequently were tetracycline, cephalothin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin. There were similarities in the patterns of resistance in fecal samples and farm environment samples by animal, and the levels of cephalothin-resistant isolates were higher in farm environment samples than in fecal samples. Multidrug resistance was seen in a variety of sources, and the highest levels of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for swine fecal samples. The fact that water sample isolates were resistant only to cephalothin may suggest that the resistance patterns for farm environment samples may be more representative of the risk of contamination of surface waters with antimicrobial agent-resistant bacteria. PMID:15746342

  15. The importance of 2D aggregates on the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus sessile bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miñán, A; Schilardi, P L; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, M

    2016-04-01

    Biofilms formed on implanted devices are difficult to eradicate. Adhesion mechanism, high bacterial density, aggregation, induction of persisters and stressed bacteria are some of the factors considered when the antimicrobial resistance of these biofilms is analyzed. The aim of this work was to provide an alternative approach to the understanding of this issue by using a specially designed experimental set up that includes the use of microstructured (MS) surfaces (potential inhibitors of bacterial aggregation) in combination with antimicrobial agents (streptomycin and levofloxacin) against Staphylococcusaureus attached cells. Biofilms formed on smooth surfaces were used as plain controls (biofilmed-PC) characterized by the formation of dense 2D bacterial aggregates. Results showed bacterial persistence when streptomycin or levofloxacin were applied to PC-biofilms. The antimicrobial activity of both antibiotics was enhanced when bacteria were attached on MS, where single cells or small aggregates were observed. Thus, dense 2D aggregates of bacteria seem to be crucial as a required previous stage to develop the antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poole, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Bacteria encounter a myriad of potentially growth-compromising conditions in nature and in hosts of pathogenic bacteria. These 'stresses' typically elicit protective and/or adaptive responses that serve to enhance bacterial survivability. Because they impact upon many of the same cellular components and processes that are targeted by antimicrobials, adaptive stress responses can influence antimicrobial susceptibility. In targeting and interfering with key cellular processes, antimicrobials themselves are 'stressors' to which protective stress responses have also evolved. Cellular responses to nutrient limitation (nutrient stress), oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell envelope damage (envelope stress), antimicrobial exposure and other growth-compromising stresses, have all been linked to the development of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria - resulting from the stimulation of protective changes to cell physiology, activation of resistance mechanisms, promotion of resistant lifestyles (biofilms), and induction of resistance mutations.

  17. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  18. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture.

    PubMed

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  19. Intrinsic, adaptive and acquired antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Arzanlou, Mohsen; Chai, Wern Chern; Venter, Henrietta

    2017-02-28

    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for a large proportion of antimicrobial-resistant infections in humans and animals. Among this class of bacteria are also some of the most successful environmental organisms. Part of this success is their adaptability to a variety of different niches, their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial drugs and their ability to rapidly acquire resistance mechanisms. These mechanisms of resistance are not exclusive and the interplay of several mechanisms causes high levels of resistance. In this review, we explore the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in Gram-negative organisms and how these different mechanisms enable them to survive many different stress conditions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    PubMed

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves.

  1. Modelling dynamics of plasmid-gene mediated antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria using stochastic differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Victoriya V.; Lu, Zhao; Lanzas, Cristina; Scott, H. Morgan; Gröhn, Yrjö T.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous commensal bacteria harbour genes of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), often on conjugative plasmids. Antimicrobial use in food animals subjects their enteric commensals to antimicrobial pressure. A fraction of enteric Escherichia coli in cattle exhibit plasmid-gene mediated AMR to a third-generation cephalosporin ceftiofur. We adapted stochastic differential equations with diffusion approximation (a compartmental stochastic mathematical model) to research the sources and roles of stochasticity in the resistance dynamics, both during parenteral antimicrobial therapy and in its absence. The results demonstrated that demographic stochasticity among enteric E. coli in the occurrence of relevant events was important for the AMR dynamics only when bacterial numbers were depressed during therapy. However, stochasticity in the parameters of enteric E. coli ecology, whether externally or intrinsically driven, contributed to a wider distribution of the resistant E. coli fraction, both during therapy and in its absence, with stochasticities in individual parameters interacting in their contribution. PMID:23982723

  2. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P < 0.05. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (22.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (17.3 % each), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) (14.7 %), Klebsiella sp. (8 %), Salmonella spp. (6.7 %), and Shigella spp. and Proteus spp. (6.7 % each). The tested bacterial isolates were resistant to variant antibiotics used. S. aureus exhibited 100 % resistance to colistine. However, E. coli revealed 92.9 and 78.6 % resistance against tetracycline and colistine, respectively. Both Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 100 % resistant to penicillin, and Klebsiella sp. had 100 % resistance to tetracycline. In conclusion, Culicoides biting midges and house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  3. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  4. A geospatial analysis of flies and the spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Onwugamba, Francis Chinedum; Akulenko, Ruslan; Peters, Georg; Mellmann, Alexander; Köck, Robin; Becker, Karsten

    2016-11-01

    Livestock is often colonized with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Staphylococcus aureus. There is a risk that flies spread antimicrobial resistant bacteria from livestock to humans. Here, we screened flies from urban and rural areas near the city of Münster, Germany, for the presence of ESBL-E and S. aureus and compared molecular characteristics of these isolates with those isolated from humans in the same region. In total, 1346 single flies were grinded and cultured overnight in BHI-broth. The broth was cultured on Columbia blood agar and selective media for the detection of S. aureus and ESBL-E. Human isolates from routine diagnostics at the University Hospital Münster were used for comparison. Antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogroups (Escherichia coli), spa types/multilocus sequence types (S. aureus) and selected antimicrobial resistance genes were determined for each isolate. GPS data of the sampling sites were used to map flies carrying ESBL-E and S. aureus. Overall, Serratia fonticola (123/1346; 9.1%) was the most prevalent ESBL-E in flies, followed by E. coli (44/1346; 3.3%). A high proportion of flies was positive for ESBL-producing E. coli (15.0-22.2%) in a rural area. CTX-M-1 was the most prevalent beta-lactamase in E. coli (38.6%). One livestock-associated methicillin resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA, t011/ST398) was found in the city centre of Münster. Overall, a substantial part of ESBL-producing E. coli and S. aureus from flies and humans showed a similar genetic background. In conclusion, flies can carry ESBL-E and LA-MRSA in urban and rural areas. The similar genetic background of isolates from humans and flies points towards a common source.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria and human uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a region of intensive aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Rioseco, Maria Luisa; Kalsi, Rajinder K; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobials are heavily used in Chilean salmon aquaculture. We previously found significant differences in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria between sediments from an aquaculture and a non-aquaculture site. We now show that levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) are significantly higher in antimicrobial-selected marine bacteria than in unselected bacteria from these sites. While ARG in tetracycline- and florfenicol-selected bacteria from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites were equally frequent, there were significantly more plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes per bacterium and significantly higher numbers of qnrB genes in quinolone-selected bacteria from the aquaculture site. Quinolone-resistant urinary Escherichia coli from patients in the Chilean aquacultural region were significantly enriched for qnrB (including a novel qnrB gene), qnrS, qnrA and aac(6')-1b, compared with isolates from New York City. Sequences of qnrA1, qnrB1 and qnrS1 in quinolone-resistant Chilean E. coli and Chilean marine bacteria were identical, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between antimicrobial-resistant marine bacteria and human pathogens. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of healthy dogs after enrofloxacin or amoxicillin administration.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sherine A; Debavalya, Nipattra; Suh, Sang-Jin; Oryazabal, Omar A; Boothe, Dawn M

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli respond to selective pressure of antimicrobial therapy by developing resistance through a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli after the routine use of 2 popular antimicrobials. Fourteen resistant E. coli isolates, representing predominant clones that emerged in healthy dogs' feces after treatment with either amoxicillin (11 E. coli isolates) or enrofloxacin (3 E. coli isolates), were tested for mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and in topoisomerase IV (parC) and for the presence of β-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(PSE-1) and bla(CTX-M)) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib, and qepA), by polymerase chain reaction. Escherichia coli isolates cultured following amoxicillin therapy only expressed single-drug resistance to β-lactams, while the isolates cultured from dogs receiving enrofloxacin therapy expressed multidrug resistance (MDR). The use of RND efflux pump inhibitors increased the susceptibility of the 3 MDR E. coli isolates to doxycycline, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, which indicates a role of the efflux pump in the acquisition of the MDR phenotype. Amplification and sequencing of AcrAB efflux pump regulators (soxR, soxS, marR, and acrR) revealed only the presence of a single mutation in soxS in the 3 MDR isolates.

  7. Effect of in-feed paromomycin supplementation on antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Isabelle; Le Roux, Aurélie; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Le Devendec, Laetitia; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Richez, Pascal; Le Pottier, Gilles; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Histomoniasis in turkeys can be prevented by administering paromomycin sulfate, an aminoglycoside antimicrobial agent, in feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of in-feed paromomycin sulfate supplementation on the antimicrobial resistance of intestinal bacteria in turkeys. Twelve flocks of breeder turkeys were administered 100 ppm paromomycin sulfate from hatching to day 120; 12 flocks not supplemented with paromomycin were used as controls. Faecal samples were collected monthly from days 0 to 180. The resistance of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus to paramomycin and other antimicrobial agents was compared in paromomycin supplemented (PS) and unsupplemented (PNS) flocks. E. coli from PS birds had a significantly higher frequency of resistance to paromomycin, neomycin and kanamycin until 1 month after the end of supplementation compared to PNS birds. Resistance to amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was also more frequent in PS turkeys. Resistance was mainly due to the presence of aph genes, which could be transmitted by conjugation, sometimes with streptomycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, trimethoprim or sulfonamide resistance genes. Resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin in E. faecium was significantly different in PS and PNS breeders on days 60 and 90. Significantly higher frequencies of resistance to paromomycin, kanamycin, neomycin and tobramycin were observed in S. aureus isolates from PS birds. Paromomycin supplementation resulted in resistance to aminoglycosides in bacteria of PS turkeys. Co-selection for resistance to other antimicrobial agents was observed in E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Egypt. Multidrug resistance phenotypes were found in 34 of 112 (30.4%) Gram-negative bacterial isolates, which harbored at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. The most prevalent multidrug-resistant (MDR) species were Enterobacter cloacae (8 isolates, 7.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 isolates, 6.3%), Klebsiella oxytoca (7 isolates, 6.3%), Escherichia coli (5 isolates, 4.5%), and Citrobacter freundii (3 isolates, 2.7%). The most commonly observed resistance phenotypes were against ampicillin (97.0%), streptomycin (94.1%), tetracycline (91.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (88.2%), nalidixic acid (85.3%), and chloramphenicol (76.5%). Class 1 integrons were detected in 28 (25.0%) isolates. The gene cassettes within class 1 integrons included those encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA15, dfrA17, and dfrA25), aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aadA7, aadA12, aadA22, and aac(3)-Id), chloramphenicol (cmlA), erythromycin (ereA2), and rifampicin (arr-3). Class 2 integrons were identified in 6 isolates (5.4%) with three different profiles. Furthermore, the β-lactamase encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), and bla(OXA), the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac(6)-Ib-cr, and the florfenicol resistance gene, floR, were also identified. To the best of our knowledge, the results identified class 2 integrons, qnr and aac(6)-Ib-cr from cases of mastitis for the first time. This is the first report of molecular characterization for antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis in Africa.

  9. How Fitness Reduced, Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Survive and Spread: A Multiple Pig - Multiple Bacterial Strain Model

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-01-01

    More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given that there are multiple susceptible and resistant bacterial strains in the pig intestines, how can we describe their coexistence? To what extent does the composition of these multiple strains in individual pigs influence the total bacterial population of the pig pen? What happens to a complex population when antimicrobials are used? To investigate these questions, we created a model where multiple strains of bacteria coexist in the intestines of pigs sharing a pen, and explored the parameter limits of a stable system; both with and without an antimicrobial treatment. The approach taken is a deterministic bacterial population model with stochastic elements of bacterial distributions and transmission. The rates that govern the model are process-oriented to represent growth, excretion, and uptake from environment, independent of herd and meta-population structures. Furthermore, an entry barrier and elimination process for the individual strains in each pig were implemented. We demonstrate how competitive growth between multiple bacterial strains in individual pigs, and the transmission between pigs in a pen allow for strains of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to persist in a pig population to different extents, and how quickly they can become dominant if antimicrobial treatment is initiated. The level of spread depends in a non-linear way of the parameters that govern excretion and uptake. Furthermore, the sampling of initial distributions of strains and stochastic transmission events give rise to large variation in how homogenous and how resistant the bacterial population becomes. Most important: resistant bacteria are demonstrated to survive with a disadvantage in growth rate of well over 10

  10. Epidemiology, ecology, and molecular genetics of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic and commensal bacteria from food animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) is a collaborative program between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the United States Department of Agriculture to prospectively monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities of zoon...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal flora: longitudinal community-based surveillance of children from urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Calva, J J; Sifuentes-Osornio, J; Cerón, C

    1996-07-01

    We assessed the colonization patterns, over time, of three sentinel drug-resistant enteric bacterial genera in samples from a cohort of 20 healthy small children in a periurban community in Mexico. The children were monitored during a 13-week period by means of weekly home visits and examinations of stool collections. These specimens were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Shigella species resistant to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents. Ninety, 77, and 62% of the stool specimens had E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline, respectively. Simultaneous resistance to more than one antibiotic by an E. coli isolate was observed in 88.5% of stool samples. Persistent fecal shedding of ampicillin-, trimethoprim-, and tetracycline-resistant E. coli occurred during the study period in the majority of children. We detected colonization by E. coli resistant to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, or norfloxacin, as well as by Klebsiella species and Shigella species resistant to one of these antibiotics, in fewer children and for shorter periods. These data suggest the common and persistent intestinal shedding of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains by small healthy children.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal flora: longitudinal community-based surveillance of children from urban Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Calva, J J; Sifuentes-Osornio, J; Cerón, C

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the colonization patterns, over time, of three sentinel drug-resistant enteric bacterial genera in samples from a cohort of 20 healthy small children in a periurban community in Mexico. The children were monitored during a 13-week period by means of weekly home visits and examinations of stool collections. These specimens were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Shigella species resistant to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents. Ninety, 77, and 62% of the stool specimens had E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline, respectively. Simultaneous resistance to more than one antibiotic by an E. coli isolate was observed in 88.5% of stool samples. Persistent fecal shedding of ampicillin-, trimethoprim-, and tetracycline-resistant E. coli occurred during the study period in the majority of children. We detected colonization by E. coli resistant to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, or norfloxacin, as well as by Klebsiella species and Shigella species resistant to one of these antibiotics, in fewer children and for shorter periods. These data suggest the common and persistent intestinal shedding of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains by small healthy children. PMID:8807065

  13. Rapid determination of β-lactam antimicrobial resistance in bacteria by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method.

    PubMed

    Kang, JeongWoo; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Hae-Chul; Jang, Yangho; Kim, Seonhwa; Song, Jae Young; Lee, Kwang-Jick; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2016-11-01

    Conventional antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are very time consuming and insufficiently precise to promptly select a proper antimicrobial treatment. This difficulty disrupts the management of infections and exacerbates the development of antimicrobial resistance. Generally, antimicrobial resistance involves the chemical modification of an antimicrobial compound to an inactive form by an enzyme released by bacteria. This modification causes a structural change and is followed by a characteristic mass shift of the antimicrobials. Using this mechanism, we developed a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to rapidly determine the degree of resistance of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium), Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus to amoxicillin, ampicillin, and penicillin G, respectively. This method was successfully applied to 20 bacterial isolates from Korean slaughterhouses and farms. There were 18-Da mass shifts in resistant strains compared with susceptible strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli, and S. aureus, and the intensities of the hydrolyzed penicillin mass spectra were much higher in resistant strains than those in susceptible strains, which together indicate the reliability of this method. A comparison of the mass spectrometry-derived results with that from conventional ASTs revealed an identical classification of the tested bacteria according to sensitivity and resistance. Notably, this assay method requires only 2 h for determining the susceptibility status of a strain. This newly developed method is able to determine the extent of antimicrobial resistance qualitatively and quantitatively within a very short time and could be used to replace conventional AST methods. Graphical abstract Rapid determination of β-lactam antimicrobial resistance in bacteria by LC-MS/MS.

  14. Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in febrile neutropenic patients with cancer: current epidemiology and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Trecarichi, Enrico M; Tumbarello, Mario

    2014-04-01

    In the recent years, several studies involving cancer patients have demonstrated a clear trend in the epidemiology of bacterial infections showing a shift in the prevalence from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria and the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains among Gram-negatives isolated from the blood. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the recent trends in epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negatives recovered from neutropenic cancer patients, with particular emphasis on the impact of antimicrobial resistance on the clinical outcome of severe infections caused by such microorganisms. Overall, from 2007 to date, the rate of Gram-negative bacteria recovery ranged from 24.7 to 75.8% (mean 51.3%) in cancer patient cohorts. Escherichia coli represented the most common species (mean frequency of isolation 32.1%) among the Gram-negatives, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mean frequency of isolation 20.1%). An increasing frequency of Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also reported. Increased rates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains have been highlighted among Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting Gram-negative rods, despite discontinuation of fluoroquinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis for neutropenic patients. In addition, antimicrobial resistance and/or the inadequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment have been frequently linked to a worse outcome in cancer patients with bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative isolates. Sound knowledge of the local distribution of pathogens and their susceptibility patterns and prompt initiation of effective antimicrobial treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are essential in cancer patients.

  15. Incidence of antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from eels and aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao; Wu, Xiaomei; Yan, Qingpi; Ma, Ying; Huang, Lixing; Qin, Yingxue; Xu, Xiaojin

    2016-07-07

    The overuse of antimicrobials in aquaculture has promoted the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Here we investigated the abundance of antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons in 108 strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from eels and aquaculture ponds in China. Conventional PCR was implemented to examine common antibiotic-resistance genes, integrons, and their gene cassette arrays. The results showed that the antibiotic-resistance genes blaTEM, tetC, sulI, aadA, floR, and qnrB were detected at high percentages, as were a number of other resistance genes. Class I integrons were present in 79.63% of the strains, and 10 out of 108 isolates carried class II integrons. Class III integrons were not detected. Three strains carried both class I and class II integrons, and 73.26% of the class I integron-positive isolates contained the qacEΔ1/sul1 gene. Fourteen types of integron cassette arrays were found among class I integron-positive isolates. A new array, dfrB4-catB3-blaOXA-10-aadA1, was discovered in this study. The gene cassette array dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 was the most widely distributed. In summary, 23 different gene cassettes encoding resistance to 8 classes of antibiotics were identified in the class I integrons, and the main cassettes contained genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aad) and trimethoprim (dfr). All class II integron-positive strains had only a single gene cassette array, viz. dfrA1-catB2-sat2-aadA1. High levels of antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons in eels and auqauculture ponds suggest that the overuse of antimicrobials should be strictly controlled and that the levels of bacterial antimicrobial-resistance genes in aquaculture should be monitored.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from breeding dogs housed in kennels with differing neonatal mortality and use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Milani, C; Corrò, M; Drigo, M; Rota, A

    2012-10-01

    This work examines the antimicrobial resistance of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus canis, Escherichia coli) found in the vaginal tract in prepartum mammary secretions and postpartum milk of bitches housed in breeding kennels (N = 20; 92 bitches). The kennels were divided into three categories: no routine antimicrobial administration around parturition (category 1); routine administration of one antibiotic around parturition (category 2); routine administration of multiple antimicrobials around parturition (category 3). Bacteriological cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on vaginal specimens, prepartum mammary secretions, and postpartum milk. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths were recorded for each whelping and analyzed as "within-litter stillbirths" and "within-litter neonatal deaths" according to kennel category, by Pearson χ(2) test and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, respectively. The frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were analyzed according to kennel category by Pearson χ(2) test. Kennel category was not significantly associated with differing numbers of stillbirths or neonatal death events, nor was the frequency of isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the three kennel categories significantly different. Kennel category 3 had a significantly higher frequency of isolation of multiresistant gram-positive bacterial strains. Our results show that intense administration of antibiotics to breeding bitches does not effectively reduce neonatal mortality; on the contrary, it induces multiresistance in potentially pathogenic bacteria. Breeders and veterinarians should be aware of the risk of selecting pathogenic bacteria by uncontrolled treatment in prepartum bitches.

  17. Associations of antimicrobial uses with antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the associations between antimicrobial use and other management practices in pigs and antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli recovered from feces of weaner and finisher pigs on 39 purposefully selected farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and 8 in British Columbia. Antimicrobials (n = 13), most frequently penicillins and tetracycline, were administered to different age groups of pigs on study farms through various routes of administration. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli of pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, apramycin, carbadox, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole). Use of antimicrobials in weaner pigs compared with use in finisher pigs was associated with resistance in most models. There was phenotypic evidence of different mechanisms of resistance selection, including direct selection [use of carbadox was associated with carbadox resistance (OR = 6.48)]; cross-resistance [use of spectinomycin was associated with streptomycin resistance (OR = 2.29)]; and possible co-selection [ceftiofur use was associated with tetracycline resistance (OR = 6.12)]. These results provide further evidence that use of antimicrobials in pigs selects for resistance among fecal E. coli within and between classes of antimicrobials. PMID:18505211

  18. Associations of antimicrobial uses with antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Akwar, Holy T; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the associations between antimicrobial use and other management practices in pigs and antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli recovered from feces of weaner and finisher pigs on 39 purposefully selected farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and 8 in British Columbia. Antimicrobials (n = 13), most frequently penicillins and tetracycline, wer dministered to different age groups of pigs on study farms through various routes of administration. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli of pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, apramycin, carbadox, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole). Use of antimicrobials in weaner pigs compared with use in finisher pigs was associated with resistance in most models. There was phenotypic evidence of different mechanisms of resistance selection, including direct selection [use of carbadox was associated with carbadox resistance (OR = 6.48)]; cross-resistance [use of spectinomycin was associated with streptomycin resistance (OR = 2.29)]; and possible co-selection [ceftiofu use was associated with tetracycline resistance (OR = 6.12)]. These results provide further evidence that use of antimicrobials in pigs selects for resistance among fecal E. coli within and between classes of antimicrobials.

  19. Salmonella Newport as Reported by the Animal Arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System – Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) 1997-2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Since the early 1990’s there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upw...

  20. Impact of medicated feed on the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria at integrated pig-fish farms in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Petersen, Andreas; Van Truong, Dung; Chu, Huong Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta, urine, and feed leftovers as pond fertilizers to enhance the growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. However, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may be transferred and develop in the pond due to selective pressure from antimicrobials present in animal feed, urine, and feces. In an experimental pig-fish farm located in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam, nine piglets were provided feed containing 5 μg of tetracycline (TET)/kg pig weight/day and 0.45 μg of enrofloxacin (ENR)/kg pig weight/day during the second and fourth (last) months of the experiment. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the provision of pig feed with antimicrobials and the development of antimicrobial resistance, as measured in a total of 520 Escherichia coli and 634 Enterococcus strains isolated from pig manure and water-sediment pond samples. MIC values for nalidixic acid (NAL) and ENR showed that E. coli and Enterococcus spp. overall exhibited significant higher frequencies of resistance toward NAL and ENR during the 2 months when pigs were administered feed with antimicrobials, with frequencies reaching 60 to 80% in both water-sediment and manure samples. TET resistance for both indicators was high (>80%) throughout the study period, which indicates that TET-resistant E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were present in the piglets before the initiation of the experiment. PCR-based identification showed similar relative occurrences of Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and other Enterococcus spp. in the water-sediment and manure samples, suggesting that Enterococcus spp. isolated in the ponds originated mainly from the pig manure. The development of antimicrobial resistance in integrated animal husbandry-fish farms and possible transfers and the impact of such resistance on food safety and human health should be further assessed.

  1. Effect of feeding a direct-fed microbial on total and antimicrobial-resistant fecal coliform counts in preweaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Erik M; Norby, Bo; Halbert, Lisa W; Henderson, Scott T; Grooms, Daniel L; Manning, Shannon D; Kaneene, John B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether feeding a direct-fed microbial (DFM) to dairy calves would reduce total and antimicrobial-resistant coliform counts in feces and affect average daily gain (ADG). 21 preweaned Holstein heifer calves. The study had a randomized complete block design. Within each block, 3 consecutively born calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups within 24 hours after birth (day 0). Calves were fed the DFM at 1.0 g (DFM1; n = 7) or 0.5 g (DFM2; 7) twice daily or no DFM (control; 7) from days 0 through 29. A fecal sample was collected from each calf daily on days 0 through 3 and then every other day through day 29. Fecal samples were cultured, and mean numbers of total coliforms and coliforms resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, and tetracycline were compared among the 3 treatment groups. Calves were weighed on days 0 and 29 to calculate ADG. Mean total fecal coliform counts did not differ significantly among the 3 treatment groups. Mean ceftiofur-resistant and tetracycline-resistant coliform counts for the control group were significantly lower, compared with those for the DFM1 and DFM2 groups. Mean ADG did not differ significantly between the DFM1 and DFM2 groups; however, the mean ADG for all calves fed the DFM was 0.15 kg less than that for control calves. Results suggested that the DFM fed to the preweaned calves of this study did not reduce total or antimicrobial-resistant coliform counts in feces.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with porcine respiratory disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dayao, Denise Ann E; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2014-06-25

    The porcine respiratory disease complex greatly affects the health and production of pigs. While antimicrobial agents are used to treat the respiratory infections caused by bacterial pathogens, there is no current information on antimicrobial resistance in Australian pig respiratory bacterial isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles, by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of nine antimicrobial agents for 71 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 51 Pasteurella multocida and 18 Bordetella bronchiseptica cultured from Australian pigs. The majority of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to erythromycin (89%) and tetracycline (75%). Resistance to ampicillin (8.5%), penicillin (8.5%) and tilmicosin (25%) was also identified. The P. multocida isolates exhibited resistance to co-trimoxazole (2%), florfenicol (2%), ampicillin (4%), penicillin (4%), erythromycin (14%) and tetracycline (28%). While all the B. bronchiseptica isolates showed resistance to beta-lactams (ampicillin, ceftiofur and penicillin), some were resistant to erythromycin (94%), florfenicol (6%), tilmicosin (22%) and tetracycline (39%). The incidence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) varied across the species - in B. bronchiseptica, 27.8% of resistant isolates showed MDR, while 9.1% of the resistant isolates in A. pleuropneumoniae, and 4.8% in P. multocida showed MDR. This study illustrated that Australian pig strains of bacterial respiratory pathogens exhibited low levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in the pig industry.

  3. Predicting and preventing antimicrobial resistance utilizing pharmacodynamics: Part I gram positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Linder, Kristin E; Nicolau, David P; Nailor, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a potentially inevitable consequence of widespread use of antibiotics in the healthcare system. An enhanced understanding of pharmacodynamic (PD) targets that prevent antimicrobial resistance development will improve currently availably therapies and help to guide future drug development strategies. Current in vitro methods to predict bacterial resistance to antimicrobials consist of serial dilution experiments, determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), mutant selection window (MSW), and human simulated pharmacodynamics studies. Clinical trial data and real -world surveillance studies can help validate or disprove in vitro modeling. This review will discuss methods of predicting development of resistance and how the use of pharmacodynamics can reduce or eliminate the emergence of resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species. Pharmacodynamic targets can be used successfully to guide antimicrobial therapy to prevent resistance development. Currently, PD targets do not take into consideration horizontal resistance gene transfer and various factors may lead to different PD targets based on sites of infection. Further research is necessary to guide future drug development strategies and optimize new drug therapies.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli isolated from grow-finish pigs in 20 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McFall, Margaret E.; Rajić, Andrijana

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli (n = 1439), isolated from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in 20 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin and less than 1% was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, and nalidixic acid. Resistance was most common to tetracycline (66.8%), sulfamethoxazole (46.0%) and streptomycin (33.4%). Twenty-one percent of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs, while 57% were resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials. Unconditional associations between resistances provided insight into the potential for co-selection. Every resistance-outcome was associated with at least 2 other drug-resistances. These associations illustrate the propensity for resistance phenotypes to occur together and the importance of considering co-selection in antimicrobial use decisions. A 2nd analysis explored the associations between resistance phenotypes in E. coli and Salmonella spp. from the same herd. Only 2 resistances in Salmonella were associated with herd-level E. coli resistance, indicating that E. coli is a poor sentinel for Salmonella AMR within herds. Herd-level management, including antimicrobial use, could affect antimicrobial resistance. The intra-class correlation between isolates within herds ranged from 0.1 to 0.46, which confirmed resistance clustered within herds. This suggests herd-level interventions might mitigate antimicrobial resistance. Overall, these results reflect the on-farm selection pressure for resistance and the potential food-safety risk from near-market animals. These data provide a baseline for comparisons with future on-farm monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli. PMID:18505205

  5. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal generic Escherichia coli isolated in western Canadian cow-calf herds. Part I — Beef calves

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Sheryl P.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rajić, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe antimicrobial resistance patterns in fecal generic Escherichia coli obtained from calves in western Canadian cow-calf herds. Susceptibility testing was completed on 1677 isolates obtained from 480 beef calves in 91 herds in the spring, and from 1187 isolates obtained from 394 calves in 45 herds in the fall of 2002. Resistance was rare to antimicrobials classified as being of very high importance to human health. Isolates were most commonly resistant to tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole, and streptomycin. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was identified in 48.8% of the isolates collected in the spring, and 7.0% of those collected in the fall. Spring or fall calf resistance status was not associated with calf gender, breed, age of the dam, or if the calf was treated before sample collection. Calves ≤ 3 days of age were less likely to be resistance positive than calves > 10 days of age. PMID:18505196

  6. Multiple antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria from natural oligotrophic lakes under distinct anthropogenic influence in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Pontes, D S; Pinheiro, F A; Lima-Bittencourt, C I; Guedes, R L M; Cursino, L; Barbosa, F; Santos, F R; Chartone-Souza, E; Nascimento, A M A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance to ten antimicrobial agents and the presence of bla ( TEM1 ) gene of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from three natural oligotrophic lakes with varying degrees of anthropogenic influence. A total of 272 indigenous bacteria were recovered on eosin methylene blue medium; they were characterized for antimicrobial resistance and identified taxonomically by homology search and phylogenetic comparisons. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences analysis, 97% of the isolates were found to be Gram-negative bacteria; they belonged to 11 different genera. Members of the genera Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas predominated. Most of the bacteria were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The incidence of resistance to beta-lactams, chloramphenicol, and mercury was high, whereas resistance to tetracycline, aminoglycosides, and nalidixic acid was low. There was a great frequency of multiple resistances among the isolates from the three lakes, although no significant differences were found among the disturbed and reference lakes. The ampicillin resistance mechanism of 71% of the isolates was due to the gene bla ( TEM1 ). Our study suggests that multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria and the bla ( TEM1 ) gene are common in freshwater oligotrophic lakes, which are subject to different levels of anthropogenic inputs.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: the missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-05-14

    The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents used in nine European countries from 2005 to 2011, and compares by univariate analysis the correlations between consumptions of each of the following antimicrobial classes; tetracycline, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones and macrolides. An overview of resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe focusing on Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter sp. and Enterococcus sp., during the same period of time based on monitoring programs is also assessed. With the exception of cephalosporins, linear regressions showed strong positive associations between the consumption of the four different antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1 kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite the withdrawn of a specific antimicrobial from "on farm" use, persistence over the years of bacteria resistant to this particular antimicrobial agent, was still observed. There were also differences in trends of resistance associated to specific animal species. In order to correlate the use of antimicrobial agents to the presence of resistance, surveillance of antimicrobial consumption by animal species should be established. Subsequently, intervention strategies could be designed to minimize the occurrence of resistance.

  8. [Clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and antimicrobial resistance of the pathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Hui-Xin; Yuan, Lin; Gu, Song; Jiang, Min; Ding, Yi-Jun; Guo, Dan; Yao, Kai-Hu; Wang, Ya-Juan

    2014-10-01

    To study the clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and the antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. Clinical information of 7 neonates with whooping cough confirmed by bacterial culture was collected. The antimirobial resistance of the isolates was tested using E-test and disk diffusion methods. The children′s mothers or other family members had cough for more than 10 days in 6 neonates, in which four neonates contacted with 3 or more family members with cough. All the neonates had rhinobyon and slight cough at the beginning of the disease. Five cases presented typical spasmodic cough after 4-7 days of the onset. Five cases displayed cyanosis, four cases occurred apnea, three cases suffered breath holding, and only two cases had fever. Nares flaring and three depression signs were found in the physical examination. No bacteriostatic ring around the erythromycin disks were found for five bacterial isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin were all >256 mg/L against the five isolates. Whooping cough should be considered for neonates with respiratory symptoms and a history of close contact with respiratory infection patients. Macrolide-resistant Bordetella pertussis is common in children with whooping cough.

  9. Considerations When Using Discriminant Function Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles To Identify Sources of Fecal Contamination of Surface Water in Michigan▿

    PubMed Central

    Kaneene, John B.; Miller, RoseAnn; Sayah, Raida; Johnson, Yvette J.; Gilliland, Dennis; Gardiner, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (i) identify issues that affect the ability of discriminant function analysis (DA) of antimicrobial resistance profiles to differentiate sources of fecal contamination, (ii) test the accuracy of DA from a known-source library of fecal Escherichia coli isolates with isolates from environmental samples, and (iii) apply this DA to classify E. coli from surface water. A repeated cross-sectional study was used to collect fecal and environmental samples from Michigan livestock, wild geese, and surface water for bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion for 12 agents chosen for their importance in treating E. coli infections or for their use as animal feed additives. Nonparametric DA was used to classify E. coli by source species individually and by groups according to antimicrobial exposure. A modified backwards model-building approach was applied to create the best decision rules for isolate differentiation with the smallest number of antimicrobial agents. Decision rules were generated from fecal isolates and applied to environmental isolates to determine the effectiveness of DA for identifying sources of contamination. Principal component analysis was applied to describe differences in resistance patterns between species groups. The average rate of correct classification by DA was improved by reducing the numbers of species classifications and antimicrobial agents. DA was able to correctly classify environmental isolates when fewer than four classifications were used. Water sample isolates were classified by livestock type. An evaluation of the performance of DA must take into consideration relative contributions of random chance and the true discriminatory power of the decision rules. PMID:17337537

  10. Considerations when using discriminant function analysis of antimicrobial resistance profiles to identify sources of fecal contamination of surface water in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kaneene, John B; Miller, RoseAnn; Sayah, Raida; Johnson, Yvette J; Gilliland, Dennis; Gardiner, Joseph C

    2007-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (i) identify issues that affect the ability of discriminant function analysis (DA) of antimicrobial resistance profiles to differentiate sources of fecal contamination, (ii) test the accuracy of DA from a known-source library of fecal Escherichia coli isolates with isolates from environmental samples, and (iii) apply this DA to classify E. coli from surface water. A repeated cross-sectional study was used to collect fecal and environmental samples from Michigan livestock, wild geese, and surface water for bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion for 12 agents chosen for their importance in treating E. coli infections or for their use as animal feed additives. Nonparametric DA was used to classify E. coli by source species individually and by groups according to antimicrobial exposure. A modified backwards model-building approach was applied to create the best decision rules for isolate differentiation with the smallest number of antimicrobial agents. Decision rules were generated from fecal isolates and applied to environmental isolates to determine the effectiveness of DA for identifying sources of contamination. Principal component analysis was applied to describe differences in resistance patterns between species groups. The average rate of correct classification by DA was improved by reducing the numbers of species classifications and antimicrobial agents. DA was able to correctly classify environmental isolates when fewer than four classifications were used. Water sample isolates were classified by livestock type. An evaluation of the performance of DA must take into consideration relative contributions of random chance and the true discriminatory power of the decision rules.

  11. Development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria in animals and their public health impact.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shewli; O'Dea, Mark; Barton, Mary; Kirkwood, Roy; Lee, Terence; Abraham, Sam

    2017-02-28

    Gram-negative bacteria are known to cause severe infections in both humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge in the treatment of clinical infections globally due to the propensity of these organisms to rapidly develop resistance against antimicrobials in use. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria possess highly efficient mechanisms through which the AMR can be disseminated between pathogenic and commensal bacteria of the same or different species. These unique traits of Gram-negative bacteria have resulted in evolution of Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials. The evergrowing resistance issue has not only resulted in limitation of treatment options but also led to increased treatment costs and mortality rates in humans and animals. With few or no new antimicrobials in production to combat severe life-threatening infections, AMR has been described as the one of the most severe, long-term threats to human health. Aside from overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, another factor that has exacerbated the emergence of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria is the veterinary use of antimicrobials that belong to the same classes considered to be critically important for treating serious life-threatening infections in humans. Despite the fact that development of AMR dates back to before the introduction of antimicrobials, the recent surge in the resistance towards all available critically important antimicrobials has emerged as a major public health issue. This review thus focuses on discussing the development, transmission and public health impact of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria in animals.

  12. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on the prevalence, distribution, and quantity of antimicrobial resistance genes in the fecal metagenome of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Scott, H Morgan; Vinasco, Javier; Nagaraja, T G; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Bai, Jianfa; Norby, Bo; Renter, David G; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Tokach, Mike D

    2015-05-01

    Use of in-feed antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) in food animals is fiercely debated as a cause of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens; as a result, alternatives to antibiotics such as heavy metals have been proposed. We used a total community DNA approach to experimentally investigate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation on the presence and quantity of antimicrobial resistance elements in the gut microbial ecology of pigs. Total community DNA was extracted from 569 fecal samples collected weekly over a 6-week period from groups of 5 pigs housed in 32 pens that were randomized to receive either control, CTC, copper, or copper plus CTC regimens. Qualitative and quantitative PCR were used to detect the presence of 14 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and to quantify gene copies of tetA, tetB, blaCMY-2 (a 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance gene), and pcoD (a copper resistance gene), respectively. The detection of tetA and tetB decreased over the subsequent sampling periods, whereas the prevalence of tetC and tetP increased. CTC and copper plus CTC supplementation increased both the prevalence and gene copy numbers of tetA, while decreasing both the prevalence and gene copies of tetB. In summary, tet gene presence was initially very diverse in the gut bacterial community of weaned pigs; thereafter, copper and CTC supplementation differentially impacted the prevalence and quantity of the various tetracycline, ceftiofur and copper resistance genes resulting in a less diverse gene population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Contamination rates and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from "grass-fed" labeled beef products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayi; Wall, Samantha K; Xu, Li; Ebner, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Grass-fed and organic beef products make up a growing share of the beef market in the United States. While processing, animal handling, and farm management play large roles in determining the safety of final beef products, grass-fed beef products are often marketed as safer alternatives to grain-finished beef products based on the potential effects of all-forage diets on host microbiota. We conducted a series of experiments examining bacterial contamination rates in 50 beef products labeled as "grass-fed" versus 50 conventionally raised retail beef products. Coliform concentrations did not differ between conventional and grass-fed beef (conventional: 2.6 log(10) CFU/mL rinsate; grass-fed: 2.7 log(10) CFU/mL rinsate). The percentages of Escherichia coli positive samples did not differ between the two groups (44% vs. 44%). Enterococcus spp. were frequently isolated from both grass-fed beef products (44%) and conventional beef products (62%; p = 0.07). No Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 isolates were recovered from any of the meat samples. Enterococcus spp. isolates from conventional beef were more frequently resistant to daptomycin and linezolid (p < 0.05). Resistance to some antimicrobials (e.g., chloramphenicol, erythromycin, flavomycin, penicillin, and tetracyline) was high in Enterococcus spp. isolated from both conventional and grass-fed beef. There were no differences in the percentages of antimicrobial resistant E. coli isolates between the two groups. Taken together, these data indicate that there are no clear food safety advantages to grass-fed beef products over conventional beef products.

  14. Food-borne zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of indicator bacteria in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Porrero, Concepción M; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2013-12-27

    Wildlife is increasingly abundant in urban environments, but little is known about the zoonotic pathogens carried by these populations. Urban wild boars are of particular concern because this species is well-known as a pathogen reservoir, and thus, we studied selected zoonotic pathogens in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain (n=41). Salmonella enterica was found in 5.00% (95% CI 0.61-16.91) and Campylobacter coli in 4.88% (95% CI 0.6-16.53) of the animals. E. coli O157:H7 and C. jejuni were not found. Other thermophilic Campylobacter were moderately prevalent (19.51%, 95% CI 8.82-34.87). Additionally, we screened for antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria: resistance was most frequent in Enterococcus faecium (95% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (50%) and Escherichia coli (10%). For the first time resistance to linezolid in bacteria carried by wildlife is reported. These findings pose a concern for public health, and thus, further research is needed on wildlife in urban environments.

  15. How fitness reduced, antimicrobial resistant bacteria survive and spread: a multiple pig-multiple bacterial strain model.

    PubMed

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-01-01

    More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given that there are multiple susceptible and resistant bacterial strains in the pig intestines, how can we describe their coexistence? To what extent does the composition of these multiple strains in individual pigs influence the total bacterial population of the pig pen? What happens to a complex population when antimicrobials are used? To investigate these questions, we created a model where multiple strains of bacteria coexist in the intestines of pigs sharing a pen, and explored the parameter limits of a stable system; both with and without an antimicrobial treatment. The approach taken is a deterministic bacterial population model with stochastic elements of bacterial distributions and transmission. The rates that govern the model are process-oriented to represent growth, excretion, and uptake from environment, independent of herd and meta-population structures. Furthermore, an entry barrier and elimination process for the individual strains in each pig were implemented. We demonstrate how competitive growth between multiple bacterial strains in individual pigs, and the transmission between pigs in a pen allow for strains of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to persist in a pig population to different extents, and how quickly they can become dominant if antimicrobial treatment is initiated. The level of spread depends in a non-linear way of the parameters that govern excretion and uptake. Furthermore, the sampling of initial distributions of strains and stochastic transmission events give rise to large variation in how homogenous and how resistant the bacterial population becomes. Most important: resistant bacteria are demonstrated to survive with a disadvantage in growth rate of well over 10%.

  16. Environmental sources of fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

  17. The attribution of human infections with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance in 2000-2001, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Domestic food products accounted for 53.1% of all cases, mainly caused by table eggs (37.6%). A large proportion (19%) of cases were travel related, while 18% could not be associated with any source. Imported food products accounted for 9.5% of all cases; the most important source being imported chicken. Multidrug and quinolone resistance was rarely found in cases acquired from Danish food, but was common in cases related to imported products (49.7% and 35.6% of attributable cases) and travelling (26.5% and 38.3% of attributable cases). For most serovars, the quinolone-resistant isolates were found to be associated with relatively more human infections than that of resistant isolates, which in turn was higher than that of susceptible isolates. This may be due to quinolone-resistant isolates having a higher ability to survive food processing and/or cause disease. This study showed domestic food to be the most important source of Salmonella infections in Denmark, but infections with multidrug- and quinolone-resistant isolates were more commonly caused by imported food products and travelling, emphasizing the need for a global perspective on food safety and antimicrobial usage.

  18. [Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Bjørn

    2008-11-06

    While bacterial infections are one of the most important causes of disease and death in developing countries, the prevalence and consequences of antimicrobial resistance are not well known. This is a review article based on literature retrieved from a non-systematic review and own experience from research on the topic. Research on antimicrobial resistance is increasing in developing countries, but most of the data are obtained from referral hospitals in capitals and major cities. Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBL-(extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) producing bacteria have been documented in several countries and are associated with increased lethality. The most serious resistance problems in developing countries are associated with Gram-negative bacteria and tuberculosis and may result in increased risk of death. Developing countries have a much higher overall burden of infectious diseases than the rich western countries and also poor access to newer antibiotics, which can be lifesaving when treating infections caused by resistant bacteria. To combat overuse and misuse of antibiotics, the diagnosis of infectious diseases must be strengthened and antimicrobial resistance must be emphasized in education of health professionals and the general public. There is a need for improved surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and strengthened quality control of antimicrobial drugs. In the long-term perspective, poverty reduction, improved living conditions and hygiene, safe water supplies and access to quality health care (including vaccination and HIV care), may contribute to prevent emerging antimicrobial resistance.

  19. The use of minimum selectable concentrations (MSCs) for determining the selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadia; Beattie, Tara K; Knapp, Charles W

    2017-03-01

    The use of antimicrobial compounds is indispensable in many industries, especially drinking water production, to eradicate microorganisms. However, bacterial growth is not unusual in the presence of disinfectant concentrations that would be typically lethal, as bacterial populations can develop resistance. The common metric of population resistance has been based on the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), which is based on bacteria lethality. However, sub-lethal concentrations may also select for resistant bacteria due to the differences in bacterial growth rates. This study determined the Minimal Selective Concentrations (MSCs) of bacterial populations exposed to free chlorine and monochloramine, representing a metric that possibly better reflects the selective pressures occurring at lower disinfectant levels than MIC. Pairs of phylogenetically similar bacteria were challenged to a range of concentrations of disinfectants. The MSCs of free chlorine and monochloramine were found to range between 0.021 and 0.39 mg L(-1), which were concentrations 1/250 to 1/5 than the MICs of susceptible bacteria (MIC susc ). This study indicates that sub-lethal concentrations of disinfectants could result in the selection of resistant bacterial populations, and MSCs would be a more sensitive indicator of selective pressure, especially in environmental systems.

  20. Assessing the similarity of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes among fecal Escherichia coli isolates from two aggregated occupational cohorts of humans versus swine using cluster analysis and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Scott, H M; Norby, B

    2010-04-01

    Statistical methods employed to analyze antimicrobial resistance (AR) phenotypic data have largely focused on multiple individual antimicrobial resistance outcomes without considering the pharmacologic and biological dependence among these data. In our 3-year longitudinal study, the relationship between AR phenotype of E. coli isolates from integrated multi-site group cohorts of humans and swine and the following risk factors: host-species (human versus swine) and human vocation (swine-workers versus non-workers) was assessed; first, by using cluster analysis techniques and then multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Human sewage wastewater draining from occupation-specific housing and swine fecal E. coli isolates (n=3,113 and 3,428, respectively) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 15 agents on the 2003 NARMS panel using the Sensititre system (Trek Diagnostics, Cleveland, OH). The MIC values for each isolate were interpreted according to standardized breakpoints into resistant or susceptible. The phenotypic data (n=6,541) were cluster-analyzed using Ward's minimum variance with Jaccard's distance measure. The multivariate relationships of E. coli cluster membership with the risk factors in the study were assessed using a multivariate GEE model in a SAS((R)) macro to adjust for the multiple cluster dependencies as well as adjusting for response dependencies within each unit location. The cluster solution that best described our entire dataset and where the multivariate GEE model converged was 14. In general, the adjusted odds-ratios of the multiple clusters (i.e., 14 clusters) for human isolates were significantly (P<0.05) at a higher odds of being in the pansusceptible cluster (OR=12.8), and also in clusters that contained high levels of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, sulfisoxazole, and/or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, when compared to swine isolates. The adjusted odds-ratios of

  1. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue. PMID:25878509

  2. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue.

  3. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from oral and topical medicaments from Hilla, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Charrakh, Alaa H

    2012-06-15

    The presence of microorganisms in pharmaceuticals is undesirable because they may cause spoilage of the product and may present an infection hazard to the consumers or patients. A total of 102 samples of oral and topical non-sterile pharmaceutical products were collected at random from different drug houses and pharmacies in Iraq, to investigate the microbial contamination of these products. Bacterial isolates recovered from these medicaments were subjected to susceptibility testing against various antibiotics by disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards (CLSI) guidelines. The results revealed that the occurrence of gram-positive bacteria was in oral and topical medicaments while gram-negative bacteria were only detected in topical medicaments. More than 58% of Bacillus isolates were resistant to lincomycin and Bacillus mycoides isolates were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Staphylococcus spp. showed a relatively high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. S. epidermidis had the highest number of multi-resistant isolates. Furthermore, 87.5% of isolated gram-negative rods showed high resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and 75% of them were highly resistant to erythromycin. One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant among all gram-negative rod isolates. The high rate of resistance to antimicrobial agents of bacterial isolates recovered from oral and topical medicaments in this study may indicate a widespread antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from different sources, including those of anthropological and environmental origin.

  4. [Common antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections in Taiwan and their prevention].

    PubMed

    Lin, Nien-Tsung

    2011-08-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially multidrug-resistant strains (MDR) that cause difficulties in clinical treatment, have long been a problem of global concern. Drug-resistant strains of common nosocomial infections in Taiwan include Gram-positive coccal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Gram-negative bacilli such as carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, among others. About 10 to 20% of Gram-negative bacteria that encode extended-spectrum β-lactamases are resistant to cephalosporin, a third generation antibiotic, and the fluoroquinolone-resistance rate has continued to increase in recent years. Despite the high mortality rate in patients with infections caused by MDR, the problem is still solvable by blocking or reducing MDR dissemination in addition to proper antibiotics use. Hand hygiene is the simplest, most effective measure for preventing nosocomial infections. However, healthcare workers' adherence to recommended hand hygiene practices is unacceptably low worldwide, making the promotion of hand hygiene a major challenge for infection control experts. Therefore, as a first step of preventing the spread of MDR bacteria, knowledge of hand hygiene and adherence to hand hygiene practices must be required of healthcare workers. Such should help reduce nosocomial infections significantly and upgrade healthcare quality.

  5. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; ZAFARZADEH, Ali; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. Results: In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Conclusion: Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms. PMID:26811820

  6. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    PubMed

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria isolated from foods in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wood, L V; Morgan, D R; DuPont, H L

    1983-10-01

    When trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was given to US travelers in Mexico to prevent diarrheal illness, high-level resistance to the drug emerged [2], although in previous studies such resistance had not been observed among enteric flora following administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection [3]. Since food has been shown to be an important vehicle of transmission of travelers' diarrhea, food samples were examined for the presence of drug-resistant bacteria to explain the acquisition of high-level resistance among enteric flora of individuals taking antibiotics as prophylaxis against traveler's diarrhea. Of 34 strains of ETEC isolated from US students in Guadalajara, Mexico, who had acute gastroenteritis, one was resistant to trimethoprim and one was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eight of the ETEC strains tested demonstrated multiple drug resistance. Twenty-two of 149 isolates from food produced enterotoxin. Only one isolate, which was nontoxigenic, was resistant to trimethoprim, and no coliforms were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; however, 16 isolates demonstrated multiple drug resistance. Of 235 gram-negative organisms recovered from frozen food samples grown on antibiotic-containing media and tested for enterotoxin production, no isolates were enterotoxigenic. Thirty-four isolates were resistant to trimethoprim, 15 were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 33 demonstrated multiple resistance. Multiple drug resistance was demonstrated among gram-negative organisms isolated from patients' stools and foods in Mexico.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in the Gomti river water and determination of their tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Asma; Imran, Mohd; Akhter, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among coliform in the Gomti river water samples was investigated. The coliform populations were isolated on Mac Conky and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates supplemented with antibiotics. The incidence of resistance among the coliform population varied considerably in different drug and water sampling sites. Coliform bacteria showed lower drug resistant viable count in sampling site-III (receiving treated wastewater) as compared to more polluted site-I and site-II. Viable count of coliform population obtained on both medium was recorded higher against erythromycin from sampling site-III. Lower viable count of coliforms was recorded against tetracycline in site-II and III. Similar resistance pattern was obtained in the frequency of E. coli and Enterobacter species from all the three sampling sites. Percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli was observed higher than Enterobacter spp among the total coliforms against all antibiotics tested without Erythromycin and penicillin in site-I and II respectively. Isolates of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. showed their tolerance level (MIC) in the range of 2-100 against the antibiotics tested. Maximum number of isolates of both genus exhibited their MICs at lower concentration range 2-5µg/ml against ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin and amoxycillin. EMB - Eosin methylene blue, IMViC tests - Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer and Citrate Utilization Tests, MIC - Minimum inhibitory concentration.

  9. Genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram positive bacteria from organic foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ortega Morente, Elena; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-02-17

    Bacterial biocide resistance is becoming a matter of concern. In the present study, a collection of biocide-resistant, Gram-positive bacteria from organic foods (including 11 isolates from genus Bacillus, 25 from Enterococcus and 10 from Staphylococcus) were analyzed for genes associated to biocide resistance efflux pumps and antibiotic resistance. The only qac-genes detected were qacA/B (one Bacillus cereus isolate) and smr (one B. cereus and two Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates). Efflux pump genes efrA and efrB genes were detected in Staphylococcus (60% of isolates), Bacillus (54.54%) and Enterococcus (24%); sugE was detected in Enterococcus (20%) and in one Bacillus licheniformis; mepA was detected in Staphylococcus (60%) and in one Enterococcus isolate (which also carried mdeA), and norE gene was detected only in one Enterococcus faecium and one S. saprophyticus isolate. An amplicon for acrB efflux pump was detected in all but one isolate. When minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined, it was found that the addition of reserpine reduced the MICs by eight fold for most of the biocides and isolates, corroborating the role of efflux pumps in biocide resistance. Erythromycin resistance gene ermB was detected in 90% of Bacillus isolates, and in one Staphylococcus, while ereA was detected only in one Bacillus and one Staphyloccus, and ereB only in one Staphylococcus. The ATP-dependent msrA gene (which confers resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramins) was detected in 60% of Bacillus isolates and in all staphylococci, which in addition carried msrB. The lincosamide and streptogramin A resistance gene lsa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%), Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%) isolates. The aminoglycoside resistance determinant aph (3_)-IIIa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%) and Bacillus (one isolate), aph(2_)-1d in Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%), aph(2_)-Ib in Bacillus (one isolate), and the bifunctional aac

  10. Impact of Third-Generation-Cephalosporin Administration in Hatcheries on Fecal Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Resistance in Broilers and Layers

    PubMed Central

    Jouy, Eric; Larvor, Emeline; Eono, Florent; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the hatchery practice of administering third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) on the selection and persistence of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry. We studied 15 3GC-treated (TB) and 15 non-3GC-treated (NTB) broiler flocks and 12 3GC-treated (TL) and 10 non-3GC-treated (NTL) future layer flocks. Fecal samples from each flock were sampled before arrival on the farm (day 0), on day 2, on day 7, and then twice more. E. coli isolates were isolated on MacConkey agar without antibiotics and screened for 3GC resistance, and any 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates were further analyzed. 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates were found in all 3GC-treated flocks on at least one sampling date. The percentages of 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates were significantly higher in TB (41.5%) than in NTB (19.5%) flocks and in TL (49.5%) than in NTL (24.5%) flocks. In the day 2 samples, more than 80% of the E. coli strains isolated were 3GC resistant. 3GC-resistant E. coli strains were still detected at the end of the follow-up period in 6 out of 27 3GC-treated and 5 out of 25 non-3GC-treated flocks. Many 3GC-resistant E. coli strains were resistant to tetracycline, and there were significant differences in the percentages of resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, or gentamicin between treated and nontreated flocks. blaCTX-M and blaCMY-2 were the most frequently detected genes. These results clearly demonstrated that 3GC-resistant strains are introduced early in flocks and that the use of 3GC in hatcheries promotes the selection of 3GC-resistant E. coli. Measures must be implemented to avoid the spread and selection of 3GC-resistant strains. PMID:24982086

  11. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  12. Prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from retail chicken meat in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; León, Maribel; Castellanos, Ricardo; Vanegas, Consuelo; Coral, Adriana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Clavijo, Viviana; Vargas, Mercedes; Romero Zuñiga, Juan J; Tafur, McAllister; Pérez-Gutierrez, Enrique; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS), this study aimed to establish the baseline antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. isolates in retail poultry meat from independent stores and from a main chain distributor center. MICs of the isolates were determined for antimicrobials used both in humans and animals, using an automated system. Salmonella serovars were isolated from 26% of the meat samples and E. coli from 83%, whereas Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were detected in 81 and 13% of the meat samples, respectively. A principal finding of concern in this study was that almost 98% of isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline were the antimicrobials that showed the highest frequency of resistance among Salmonella and E. coli isolates. For enterococci, 61.5% of E. faecium isolates were found to be resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin; this is significant because it is used to treat nosocomial infections when vancomycin resistance is present. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 4% of the E. faecalis isolates. The results of our study highlight the need for rapid implementation of an integrated program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by the Colombian authorities in order to monitor trends, raise awareness, and help promote practices to safeguard later generation antimicrobial agents.

  13. Rapid nucleic acid diagnostics for the detection of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: is it time for a paradigm shift?

    PubMed

    Tuite, Nina; Reddington, Kate; Barry, Thomas; Zumla, Alimuddin; Enne, Virve

    2014-07-01

    A key component for tackling the ever more serious antimicrobial resistance problem in Gram-negative bacteria is the introduction of rapid nucleic acid diagnostics. Successful incorporation of new diagnostic technologies has the potential benefit of improving not only patient treatment but also infection control and antimicrobial stewardship. However, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the complexity of resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria, the discrepancy between phenotype and genotype and the difficulty in distinguishing pathogens from background commensals. A small number of manufacturers have introduced tests to the market that concentrate partly or specifically on resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria. These are currently predominantly based on different types of PCR technology. The development of new technologies, such as whole-genome sequencing and the combination of MALDI-TOF with PCR, holds much promise for the introduction of improved diagnostics for the future.

  14. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  15. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  16. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  17. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  18. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23812024

  20. Interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Derde, Lennie P G; Cooper, Ben S; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Willems, Rob J L; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Empel, Joanna; Dautzenberg, Mirjam J D; Annane, Djillali; Aragão, Irene; Chalfine, Annie; Dumpis, Uga; Esteves, Francisco; Giamarellou, Helen; Muzlovic, Igor; Nardi, Giuseppe; Petrikkos, George L; Tomic, Viktorija; Martí, Antonio Torres; Stammet, Pascal; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Bonten, Marc J M

    2014-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are high-risk areas for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, but no controlled study has tested the effect of rapid screening and isolation of carriers on transmission in settings with best-standard precautions. We assessed interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in European ICUs. We did this study in three phases at 13 ICUs. After a 6 month baseline period (phase 1), we did an interrupted time series study of universal chlorhexidine body-washing combined with hand hygiene improvement for 6 months (phase 2), followed by a 12-15 month cluster randomised trial (phase 3). ICUs were randomly assigned by computer generated randomisation schedule to either conventional screening (chromogenic screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] and vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) or rapid screening (PCR testing for MRSA and VRE and chromogenic screening for highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae [HRE]); with contact precautions for identified carriers. The primary outcome was acquisition of resistant bacteria per 100 patient-days at risk, for which we calculated step changes and changes in trends after the introduction of each intervention. We assessed acquisition by microbiological surveillance and analysed it with a multilevel Poisson segmented regression model. We compared screening groups with a likelihood ratio test that combined step changes and changes to trend. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00976638. Seven ICUs were assigned to rapid screening and six to conventional screening. Mean hand hygiene compliance improved from 52% in phase 1 to 69% in phase 2, and 77% in phase 3. Median proportions of patients receiving chlorhexidine body-washing increased from 0% to 100% at the start of phase 2. For trends in acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, weekly incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0·976 (0·954-0·999) for phase 2 and 1

  1. Interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Derde, Lennie P G; Cooper, Ben S; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Willems, Rob J L; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Empel, Joanna; Dautzenberg, Mirjam J D; Annane, Djillali; Aragão, Irene; Chalfine, Annie; Dumpis, Uga; Esteves, Francisco; Giamarellou, Helen; Muzlovic, Igor; Nardi, Giuseppe; Petrikkos, George L; Tomic, Viktorija; Martí, Antonio Torres; Stammet, Pascal; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Bonten, Marc J M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Intensive care units (ICUs) are high-risk areas for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, but no controlled study has tested the effect of rapid screening and isolation of carriers on transmission in settings with best-standard precautions. We assessed interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in European ICUs. Methods We did this study in three phases at 13 ICUs. After a 6 month baseline period (phase 1), we did an interrupted time series study of universal chlorhexidine body-washing combined with hand hygiene improvement for 6 months (phase 2), followed by a 12–15 month cluster randomised trial (phase 3). ICUs were randomly assigned by computer generated randomisation schedule to either conventional screening (chromogenic screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] and vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) or rapid screening (PCR testing for MRSA and VRE and chromogenic screening for highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae [HRE]); with contact precautions for identified carriers. The primary outcome was acquisition of resistant bacteria per 100 patient-days at risk, for which we calculated step changes and changes in trends after the introduction of each intervention. We assessed acquisition by microbiological surveillance and analysed it with a multilevel Poisson segmented regression model. We compared screening groups with a likelihood ratio test that combined step changes and changes to trend. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00976638. Findings Seven ICUs were assigned to rapid screening and six to conventional screening. Mean hand hygiene compliance improved from 52% in phase 1 to 69% in phase 2, and 77% in phase 3. Median proportions of patients receiving chlorhexidine body-washing increased from 0% to 100% at the start of phase 2. For trends in acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, weekly incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0

  2. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of gram-negative bacteria of nosocomial origin at a teaching hospital in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khalili, H; Soltani, R; Safhami, S; Dashti-Khavidaki, S; Alijani, B

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a global problem in the community and in hospitals. Antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria from nosocomial infections were evaluated during a 6-month period at Shariati teaching hospital, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Susceptibility tests were performed on 570 Gram-negative isolates obtained from clinical samples of patients infected after at least 72 hours stay in the hospital. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated Gram-negative organism (42.6%). The highest rate of resistance in Gram-negative isolates was seen in the intensive care unit, with Acinetobacter spp. as the most resistant organisms. Gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic against E. coli and all other isolates, while ciprofloxacin was also effective against a wide range of other species. Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative nosocomial infection is prevalent in this teaching hospital in Tehran.

  3. Differentiation of farmed and wild turbot (Psetta maxima): proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, trace minerals and antimicrobial resistance of contaminant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez, B; Miranda, J M; Nebot, C; Rodriguez, J L; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2010-10-01

    The proximate, cholesterol, fatty acid and trace mineral compositions in the flesh of farmed and wild turbot (Psetta maxima) were evaluated. Additionally, the potential influence of the use of antimicrobial agents in the bacteria carried by farmed turbot was investigated. For this purpose, a total of 144 Pseudomonas spp. and 127 Aeromonas spp. were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Farmed turbot contained higher fat, cholesterol and calories as well as lower moisture content than its wild counterpart. The fatty acid profile of farmed turbot included higher levels of myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitoleic, gadoleic, cetoleic, linoleic, linolenic, stearidonic, eicosadienoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and lower levels of stearic, arachidonic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids than its wild counterpart. The proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratios were higher in wild turbot than in farmed turbot. With respect to trace minerals, no toxic levels were found, and higher amounts of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, as well as lower amounts of Cr, were found in farmed turbot relative to wild turbot. The antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. were quite similar, with only the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance of Aeromonas spp. isolated from farmed turbot being higher than those isolated from wild turbot. In the case of ampicillin, Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wild turbot showed higher resistance levels than those of their counterparts isolated from farmed turbot. In conclusion, the nutritional parameters of wild turbot are more adequate with respect to nutritional recommendations, while no differences were observed in food safety derived from trace mineral concentrations or the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from wild and farmed turbot.

  4. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  5. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  6. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group bacteria and emergence of MRSP in the UK.

    PubMed

    Beever, L; Bond, R; Graham, P A; Jackson, B; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A

    2015-02-14

    Frequencies of antimicrobial resistance were determined amongst 14,555 clinical Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) isolates from UK dogs and cats to estimate resistance trends and quantify the occurrence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Reports from two diagnostic laboratories (13,313 general submissions, 1242 referral centre only submissions) were analysed retrospectively (2003/2006-2012). MRSP were defined by phenotypic resistance to meticillin and concurrent broad β-lactam resistance; a subset was confirmed genetically (SIG-specific nuc and mecA). Trends were analysed by Cochran-Armitage test. Resistance remained below 10 per cent for cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the fluoroquinolones. Increasing resistance trends were seen in both laboratories for ampicillin/amoxicillin (both P<0.001), cefovecin (both P<0.046) and enrofloxacin (both P<0.02). Resistance to cefalexin increased over time in referral hospital isolates (P<0.001) to clindamycin (P=0.01) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P=0.001) amongst general laboratory submissions. Overall, 106 MRSP were isolated (0.7 per cent of submissions) including 32 (2.6 per cent of submissions, all genetically confirmed) from the referral centre population (inter-laboratory difference P<0.001). Against a background of widely susceptible SIG isolates, a new trend of increasing resistance to important antimicrobials was identified overtime and the emergence of MRSP from UK clinical cases was confirmed. Attention to responsible use of antibacterial therapy in small animal practice is urgently needed.

  7. Effects of feeding wet corn distillers grains with solubles with or without monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne pathogenic and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M E; Fox, J T; Narayanan, S K; Drouillard, J S; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-05-01

    Distillers grains, a coproduct of ethanol production from cereal grains, are composed principally of the bran, protein, and germ fractions and are commonly supplemented in ruminant diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle. Cattle were fed 0 or 25% WDGS in steam-flaked corn-based diets with the addition of no antimicrobials, monensin, or monensin and tylosin. Fecal samples were collected from each animal (n = 370) on d 122 and 136 of the 150-d finishing period and cultured for Escherichia coli O157. Fecal samples were also pooled by pen (n = 54) and cultured for E. coli O157, Salmonella, commensal E. coli, and Enterococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by determining antimicrobial susceptibilities of pen bacterial isolates and quantifying antimicrobial resistance genes in fecal samples by real-time PCR. Individual animal prevalence of E. coli O157 in feces collected from cattle fed WDGS was greater (P < 0.001) compared with cattle not fed WDGS on d 122 but not on d 136. There were no treatment effects on the prevalence of E. coli O157 or Salmonella spp. in pooled fecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed Enterococcus isolates from cattle fed monensin or monensin and tylosin had greater levels of resistance toward macrolides (P = 0.01). There was no effect of diet or antimicrobials on concentrations of 2 antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB or tetM, in fecal samples. Results from this study indicate that WDGS may have an effect on the prevalence of E. coli O157 and the concentration of selected antimicrobial resistance genes, but does not appear to affect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Enterococcus and generic E. coli isolates.

  8. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) – Enteric Bacteria is a national public health surveillance system in the United States that tracks changes in the susceptibility of certain enteric bacteria to antimicrobial agents of human and veterinary medical importance. The NARMS ...

  9. Competitive effect of commensal faecal bacteria from growing swine fed chlortetracycline-supplemented feed on beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in competitive fitness among E. coli strains with multiple plasmids when grown in commensal fecal bacteria from growing swine fed Aureomycin®–supplemented or –unsupplemented diets. Four multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli strains that possessed 2, 6,...

  10. Competitive effect of commensal faecal bacteria from growing swine fed chlortetracycline-supplemented feed on beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing threat to human and animal health. The objectives of the present study were to determine: (1) the effect of Aureomycin® on MDR E. coli field strains in growing swine fecal fluid; (2) the competitive fitness of each of these strains in long-term c...

  11. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  12. Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Lotti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-12-15

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88.7%), neomycin (80.6%), and tetracycline (69.4%). Forty-two (18.9%) isolates showed an HLAR to streptomycin and 15 (6.7%) to gentamicin. Vancomycin and ampicillin MIC values showed 1 and 18 resistant strains, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (61.2%) strains were classified as multidrug resistant and six (2.7%) strains as possibly extensively drug-resistant bacteria. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were the most prevalent antimicrobial resistant species. Companion animals, which often live in close contact with their owners and share the same environment, represent a serious source of enterococci resistant to several antibiotics; for this reason, they may be a hazard for public health by providing a conduit for the entrance of resistance genes into the community.

  14. Food Production and Antimicrobial Resistance – The Next 100 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of food is complex and ensuring the safety of food for human consumption provides serious challenges. Since 1996 the U.S. has conducted surveillance on food borne and commensal antimicrobial resistance bacteria through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bac...

  15. Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial populations and antimicrobial resistance genes obtained from environments impacted by livestock and municipal waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal waste water treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact...

  16. Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

  17. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Bager, F; Jensen, N E; Madsen, M; Meyling, A; Wegener, H C

    1998-06-01

    This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to

  18. Competitive effect of commensal faecal bacteria from growing swine fed chlortetracycline-supplemented feed on β-haemolytic Escherichia coli strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Poole, T L; Callaway, T R; Bischoff, K M; Loneragan, G H; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2012-09-01

    To determine the differences in competitive fitness among Escherichia coli strains with different plasmid profiles when grown in suspension with commensal faecal bacteria from growing swine fed chlortetracycline-supplemented or unsupplemented diets. Five multiple drug-resistant (MDR) E. coli strains that possessed 0, 2, 6 or 8 plasmids were inoculated into anoxic faecal cultures from swine fed an unsupplemented (control) or chlortetracycline (50 g ton(-1))-supplemented (experimental) diet. On days 21 of chlortetracycline supplementation, faecal growth competition studies were performed. MDR E. coli were enumerated at 0, 6 and 24 h. The plasmid-free strain was below culturable limits in both the control and experimental cultures by 24 h. For each plasmid-bearing strain, there was no statistically significant difference in population CFU ml(-1) (P < 0.05) between the control and experimental cultures. There was no significant effect on the faecal microflora, owing to the inclusion of chlortetracycline, in the swine diets, that affected the growth of E. coli in the competition studies employed. Furthermore, these results suggest that the cost of maintaining plasmids in these E. coli strains had little influence on survivability. Mutations that led to antimicrobial resistance may have a greater impact on survivability than multiple plasmid carriage. No claim to US Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Fecal indicator bacteria variability in samples pumped from monitoring wells.

    PubMed

    Kozuskanich, J; Novakowski, K S; Anderson, B C

    2011-01-01

    The detection of microbiological contamination in drinking water from groundwater wells is often made with a limited number of samples that are collected using traditional geochemical sampling protocols. The objective of this study is to examine the variability of fecal indicator bacteria, as observed using discrete samples, due to pumping. Two wells were instrumented as multilevel piezometers in a bedrock aquifer, and bacterial enumeration was conducted on a total of 166 samples (for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci) using standard membrane filtration methods. Five tests were conducted using pumping rates ranging from 0.3 to 17 L/min in a variety of purging scenarios, which included constant and variable (incremental increase and decrease) flow. The results clearly show a rapid and reproducible, 1 to 2 log-unit decrease in fecal indicator bacteria at the onset of pumping to stabilized, low-level concentrations prior to the removal of three to five well volumes. The pumping rate was not found to be correlated with the magnitude of observed bacterial counts. Based on the results, we suggest sampling protocols for fecal indicator bacteria that include multiple collections during the course of pumping, including early-time samples, and consider other techniques such as microscopic enumeration when assessing the source of bacteria from the well-aquifer system.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance transfer in transport media.

    PubMed

    George, B A; Fagerberg, D J; Sanem, J A

    1981-09-01

    Five different transport media (buffered glycerol saline, Amies, Cary and Blair, Stuart, and modified Stuart) were tested to determine if antimicrobial resistance transfer could occur among bacteria in the media. Transfer of resistance occurred in all of the media, except buffered glycerol saline, within 2 h of holding both at room temperature and 4 degrees C.

  1. Fecal-coliform bacteria in extended-aeration plant sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Kester, G.; Arant, S.

    1998-07-01

    The concentration of fecal-coliform bacteria in sludge from extended-aeration plants was analyzed for compliance with new state and federal land application requirements. This study was initiated to determine if additional digestion would be necessary for plants to meet the new pathogen standards of less than 2 million CFU per gm of solids. Sludge was found to contain less than 2 million fecal coliform bacteria/gm of sludge as a result of a combination or aerobic digestion and/or long term storage.

  2. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  3. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments. PMID:24688529

  4. Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nathaniel D.; Smith, Mark B.; Perrotta, Allison R.; Kassam, Zain; Alm, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities—believed to be the therapeutic agent—can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii—an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease—decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material. PMID:28125667

  5. Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nathaniel D; Smith, Mark B; Perrotta, Allison R; Kassam, Zain; Alm, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii-an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease-decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Gram-positive bacteria during three consecutive years at the nephrology ward of a tertiary referral hospital in Shiraz, Southwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadeh, Iman; Mirzaee, Mona; Sadeghimanesh, Niloofar; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria during three consecutive years at the nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. Methods: During a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015, data of all biological samples of hospitalized patients at the adult nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital were sent to the central laboratory for identification of Gram-positive microorganisms and subsequently, their antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method were analyzed in a retrospective manner. Findings: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CONS) (38.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (25.4%), and Enterococcus spp. (23.8%) were the most common isolated Gram-positive bacteria from all biological samples. All Enterococcus spp. isolates within the 3 years were resistant to oxacillin. The rate of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) increased from 40.63% in 2013 to 72.73% in 2015. Enterococcus spp. resistance rates to aminoglycosides during 3 years were above 85%. The frequencies of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA) in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were 95.24%, 80.95%, and 36.36%, respectively. Two out of 11 (6.67%) S. aureus isolates were resistant to vancomycin. More than 90% of CONS were sensitive to vancomycin within the study period. The frequency of gentamicin-resistant CONS ranged from 40% to 57.14%. Conclusion: The rates of ORSA, VRE, and aminoglycoside-resistant CONS as well as Enterococcus spp. in our clinical setting were considerably high and concerning. These may be due to the failure or lack of infection control activities and antimicrobial selection pressure. PMID:27843959

  7. Prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial resistance, and somatic cell counts in organic dairy production: current knowledge and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Rajić, Andrijana; Waddell, Lisa; Parker, Sarah; Harris, Janet; Roberts, Karen C; Kydd, Robyn; Greig, Judy; Baynton, Ashley

    2009-06-01

    The review's objective was to identify, evaluate, and summarize the findings of all primary research published in English or French, investigating prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, bacterial resistance to antimicrobials, and somatic cell count (SCC) in organic dairy production, or comparing organic and conventional dairy production, using a systematic review methodology. Among 47 studies included in the review, 32 comparison studies were suitable for quality assessment. Fifteen studies were not assessed for quality, due to their descriptive nature or a low sample size (n antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria in 12 and 7 studies, respectively. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli including Shiga toxin-producing strains, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and SCC were investigated in 2, 7, 4, 6, and 15 studies, respectively. Contradictory findings were reported for differences in bacterial outcomes and SCC between dairy production types (organic vs. conventional). Lower prevalence of AMR on organic dairy farms was reported more consistently in studies conducted in the United States, as opposed to those conducted in Europe. These conflicting findings may result from geographic differences in organic production regulations governing antimicrobial usage, use of antimicrobials in conventional dairy production, and baseline prevalence, as well as laboratory methods, study designs, or methods of analysis employed. The majority (four of seven) of MDR investigations reported no significant differences in prevalence. Overall, only 9 of 32 studies met all five methodological soundness criteria. More well designed, executed, and reported primary research is needed at the farm and post-farm levels.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of the gram-positive bacteria isolated from children with bloodstream infection in an Iranian referral Hospital: a 6-year study.

    PubMed

    Mamishi, Setareh; Pourakbari, Babak; Mahmoudi, Shima; Moradzadeh, Mina; Mahzari, Masoumeh; Ashtiani, Mohammad TaghiHaghi; Tanzifi, Parin

    2017-08-21

    Bloodstream infections (BSI) are considered as a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatricschildren. The aim of this study was to depict report the common Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) responsible for bloodstream infections in children and determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), ) Hospital, Tehran, Iran. This retrospective study was conducted within a six-year period (March 2011 to September 2016) for pediatric patients with BSI. Standard bacteriological methods were performed for identification of the bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were evaluated by using the disk diffusion method according to the CLSI recommendations. Among 68233 blood cultures, 2325 2349 isolates were obtained which 59% of them (N=13691393) were GPB and 41% (n=956) were Gram-negative. The most common GPB isolates were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (N= 609, 44%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (N=319, 23%), Enterococcus spp.(. (N=139, 10%), Streptococcus pneumonia (N= 106, 8%), Streptococci viridans (N= 180, 13%) Micrococcus spp. (N=24, 1.7%) and Streptococcus group B (N= 16, 1%). The rate of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus S. aureus and CoNS was 47% (N=116/246) and 91% (N=557/609), respectively. Isolates of S. pneumoniae showed high-level of resistance to Trimethoprimtrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (N=28/33, 85%) and erythromycin (N=59/91, 65%). S. viridans isolates and Micrococcus spp. were highly sensitive to linezolid (100%). All of the tested isolates of Streptococcus group B were sensitive to all of antibiotic were used in this study. Among Enterococcus spp., 52% (N=69/133) of them were resistant to vancomycin. Our results emphasize the importance of a valuable guide in identifying resistance trends and selecting appropriate antibiotic. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from canine urinary samples submitted to a New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratory between 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, C H; Hill, K E; Gibson, I R; Bridges, J P; Benschop, J

    2017-03-01

    To identify and describe culture and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns in bacteria isolated from canine urinary samples submitted to a New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Records from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory were examined for bacterial isolates cultured from canine urine samples between January 2005 and December 2012. Culture and susceptibility results were compiled with information on the age, sex and breed of dog. Repeat submissions were removed. Susceptibility was assessed using results of the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, for a standard panel including amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), cefovecin (from 2010-2012), cephalothin, clindamycin, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide (TMS). A total of 5,786 urine samples were submitted for analysis, and 3,135 bacterial isolates were cultured from 2,184 samples. Of these 3,135 isolates, 1,104 (35.2%) were Escherichia coli, 442 (14.1%) were Staphylococcus spp., 357 (11.4%) Proteus mirabilis and 276 (8.8%) were Enterococcus spp. The frequency of culture-positive samples increased with increasing age in both female and male dogs (p<0.001). The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to AMC and cephalothin increased between 2005 and 2012 (p<0.001), as did resistance to enrofloxacin (p=0.022), but there was no change in resistance to TMS (p=0.696). Enrofloxacin was the antimicrobial with the least resistance shown by the four most common bacteria isolated during the course of the study. The results of this study provide important regional information regarding the prevalence of bacterial uropathogens and their susceptibility patterns. There was an increase in resistance to some commonly used antimicrobials in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Having access to regional antimicrobial susceptibility results is crucial when forming guidelines for the use of antimicrobials for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Given changes in practising habits and antimicrobial usage over

  10. Antimicrobial resistance among aerobic biofilm producing bacteria isolated from chronic wounds in the tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahim, K; Qasim, M; Rahman, H; Khan, T A; Ahmad, I; Khan, N; Ullah, A; Basit, A; Saleha, S

    2016-08-01

    Chronic wound infections impose major medical and economic costs on health-care systems, cause significant morbidity, mortality and prolonged hospitalisation. The presence of biofilm producing bacteria in these wounds is considered as an important virulence factor that leads to chronic implications including ulceration. The undertaken study aimed to isolate and identify the biofilm aerobic bacterial pathogens from patients with chronic wound infections, and determine their antibiotics resistance profiles Method: During this study, swab specimens were collected from patients with chronic wounds at teaching hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan between May 2013 and June 2014. The isolated aerobic bacterial pathogens were identified on the basis of standard cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Antibiotics resistance profiles of biofilm producing bacteria against selected antibiotics were then determined. Among the chronic wound infections, diabetic foot ulcers were most common 37 (37%), followed by surgical ulcers 27 (27%). Chronic wounds were common in male patients older than 40 years. Among the total 163 isolated bacterial pathogens the most prevalent bacterial species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44 (27%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 26 (16%), Staphylococcus species 22 (14%) and Streptococcus spp. 21 (13%). The isolation rate of bacterial pathogens was high among patients with diabetic foot ulcers 83 (50.9%). Among bacterial isolates, 108 (66.2%) were observed as biofilm producers while 55 (33.8%) did not form biofilm in our model. The investigated biofilm producing bacterial isolates showed comparatively high resistance against tested antibiotics compared to non-biofilm producing bacterial isolates. The most effective antibiotics were amikacine and cefepime against all isolates. Increased multidrug resistance in biofilm producing bacteria associated with chronic wounds was observed in this study. Judicious use of antibiotics is needed to control the wound

  11. Growth of infant fecal bacteria on commercial prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Bunešová, Věra; Vlková, Eva; Rada, Vojtěch; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Ročková, Sárka; Geigerová, Martina; Božik, Matěj

    2012-07-01

    Fecal bacteria from 33 infants (aged 1 to 6 months) were tested for growth on commercial prebiotics. The children were born vaginally (20) or by caesarean section (13). Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and total anaerobes in fecal samples were enumerated by selective agars and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The total fecal bacteria were inoculated into cultivation media containing 2 % Vivinal® (galactooligosaccharides-GOS) or Raftilose® P95 (fructooligosaccharides-FOS) as a single carbon source and bacteria were enumerated again after 24 h of anaerobic cultivation. Bifidobacteria dominated, reaching counts of 9-10 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g in 17 children born vaginally and in seven children delivered by caesarean section. In these infants, lactobacilli were more frequently detected and a lower number of E. coli and gram-negative bacteria were determined compared to bifidobacteria-negative infants. Clostridia dominated in children without bifidobacteria, reaching counts from 7 to 9 log CFU/g. Both prebiotics supported all groups of bacteria tested. In children with naturally high counts of bifidobacteria, bifidobacteria dominated also after cultivation on prebiotics, reaching counts from 8.23 to 8.77 log CFU/mL. In bifidobacteria-negative samples, clostridia were supported by prebiotics, reaching counts from 7.17 to 7.69 log CFU/mL. There were no significant differences between bacterial growth on Vivinal® and Raftilose® P95 and counts determined by cultivation and FISH. Prebiotics should selectively stimulate the growth of desirable bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. However, our results showed that commercially available FOS and GOS may stimulate also other fecal bacteria.

  12. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens and indicator bacteria in pigs in different European countries from year 2002 – 2004: the ARBAO-II study

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Jouy, Eric; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina DC; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria causing infections in pigs are reported. Methods Susceptibility data from 17,642 isolates of pathogens and indicator bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002–2004. Results Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim – sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 – 92.0%) and erythromycin (29.1 – 75.0%) was observed in all countries whereas the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin differed between the reporting countries. Isolates from England (and Wales), France and The Netherlands were all susceptible to penicillin. In contrast the proportion of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin ranged from 12.6 to 79.0% (2004) and to penicillin from 8.1 – 13.0% (2004) in Poland and Portugal. Data for E. coli from infected and healthy pigs were obtained from eleven countries. The data reveal a high level of resistance to tetracyclines, streptomycin and ampicillin among infected pigs whereas in healthy pigs the frequency of resistance was lower. Conclusion Bacterial resistance to some antimicrobials was frequent with different levels of resistance being observed to several antimicrobial

  13. Host Distributions of Uncultivated Fecal Bacteroidales Bacteria Reveal Genetic Markers for Fecal Source Identification

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Linda K.; Bernhard, Anne E.; Brodeur, Timothy J.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Simpson, Joyce M.; Walters, Sarah P.; Field, Katharine G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine host distribution patterns among fecal bacteria in the order Bacteroidales, with the goal of using endemic sequences as markers for fecal source identification in aquatic environments. We analyzed Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from the feces of eight hosts: human, bovine, pig, horse, dog, cat, gull, and elk. Recovered sequences did not match database sequences, indicating high levels of uncultivated diversity. The analysis revealed both endemic and cosmopolitan distributions among the eight hosts. Ruminant, pig, and horse sequences tended to form host- or host group-specific clusters in a phylogenetic tree, while human, dog, cat, and gull sequences clustered together almost exclusively. Many of the human, dog, cat, and gull sequences fell within a large branch containing cultivated species from the genus Bacteroides. Most of the cultivated Bacteroides species had very close matches with multiple hosts and thus may not be useful targets for fecal source identification. A large branch containing cultivated members of the genus Prevotella included cloned sequences that were not closely related to cultivated Prevotella species. Most ruminant sequences formed clusters separate from the branches containing Bacteroides and Prevotella species. Host-specific sequences were identified for pigs and horses and were used to design PCR primers to identify pig and horse sources of fecal pollution in water. The primers successfully amplified fecal DNAs from their target hosts and did not amplify fecal DNAs from other species. Fecal bacteria endemic to the host species may result from evolution in different types of digestive systems. PMID:15933020

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp and their antimicrobial resistant patterns among healthy neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Kersh, Talat A.; Marie, Mohammed A.; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed A.; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H.; Al-Bloushy, Ahmad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistant profiles, and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and staphylococci among 150 healthy Saudi neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Al-Bukayriyah General Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, between June 2012 and January 2013. The E. faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified manually, and Vitek2 system was used for identity confirmation at the species level and minimum inhibitory concentration-susceptibility testing. Results: Enterococcus faecalis (n=73) and Staphylococcus spp. (n=18) were recovered. Unlike staphylococci, E. faecalis colonization did not significantly vary from day one up to 7 days of life, regardless of the type of feeding, but it was relatively higher among vaginally versus cesarean delivery. Both Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus carriage increase as the body weight increases, and this difference was significant (p=0.025) for S. epidermidis. High-level resistance in Gentamycin among E. faecalis isolates was 25% and 11% to Streptomycin. Thirty percent of S. epidermidis were resistant to oxacillin and exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns of 5 resistant markers, which were also observed among 2/5 (40%) of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecalis did not significantly vary in relation to type of delivery, age up to 7 days, and type of feeding. The neonatal fecal carriage of MDR isolates should be considered as a crucial reservoir to the further spread of antimicrobial resistance genes among hospitals, cross infections, and the community. PMID:26905350

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David; Walsh, Fiona

    2016-04-19

    In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Thanner et al.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  18. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Tolerant Bacteria and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Isolated from Ornamental Fish and Their Carriage Water

    PubMed Central

    Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to ≥15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM−1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. PMID:20027306

  19. [Antimicrobial resistance in gram negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units of Colombian hospitals, WHONET 2003, 2004 and 2005].

    PubMed

    Miranda, María Consuelo; Pérez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Olivera, María del Rosario; Correa, Adriana; Reyes, Sandra Lorena; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2006-09-01

    Surveillance systems play a key role in the detection and control of bacterial resistance. It is necessary to constantly collect information from all institutions because the mechanisms of bacterial resistance can operate in different ways between countries, cities and even in hospitals in the same area. Therefore local information is important in order to learn about bacterial behaviour and design appropriate interventions for each institution. Between January 2003 and December 2004, the Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM) developed a surveillance project in 10 tertiary hospitals in 6 cities of Colombia. Describe the trends of antibiotic resistance among the isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae, five of the most prevalent nosocomial Gram negative pathogens. The susceptibility tests were performed by automated methods in 9 hospitals and by Kirby Bauer in 1 hospital. Antibiotics with known activity against Gram negatives, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, were selected. The laboratories performed internal and external quality controls. During the study period, the information was downloaded monthly from the databases of each microbiology laboratory and sent to CIDEIM where it was centralized in a database using the system WHONET 5.3. The high resistance rates reported especially for A. baumannii, evidenced the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria in both ICUs and wards at every studied institution. The creation of a national surveillance network to improve our capabilities to detect, follow up, and control the antibiotic resistance in Colombia is urgently needed.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections, and that of human fecal flora, in the southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Shahla; Shareifi, Sorreia

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity of 500 Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs, 311 isolate) and fecal samples (189 isolates) was tested against 12 antimicrobial agents using the standard disk diffusion method. Although the rate of resistance to antimicrobial agents was higher in the UTIs, in comparison with the fecal samples, the only significant difference was found in cases of tetracycline (p = 0.008), nalidixic acid (p = 0.038), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Sxt,p = 0.05). The pattern of sensitivity to antimicrobial agents with respect to statistically significant difference in the number of sensitive isolates (p < or = 0.01) was: ceftizoxime (99.4%) and ceftriaxone (99.2%) > gentamicin (97.8%), ciprofloxacin (93%) and nitrofurantoin (92%) > cefazoline (85.2%) and nalidixic acid (84.6%) > chloramphenicol (71.6%), cephradine (69.6%) and tetracycline (63.2%) > Sxt (41.6%) > ampicillin (23.2%). Sensitivity of the isolates in respect to sex and age was also determined and compared during this study. Resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents (multidrug resistance, MDR) was found in 209 (41.8%) of the isolates. The high rate of resistance to Sxt and the presence of a high rate of MDR isolates in this area suggest that a reevaluation of the first-line therapeutic may be necessary for the treatment of UTIs in this area.

  1. Insusceptibility to disinfectants in bacteria from animals, food and humans—is there a link to antimicrobial resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin S.; Bischoff, Meike; Preikschat, Petra; Mölle, Gabriele; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Lindorfer, Solveig; Thalhammer, Sandra; Bauer, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (n = 834) and Enterococcus faecium (n = 135) from blood and feces of hospitalized humans, from feces of outpatients and livestock and from food were screened for their susceptibility to a quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammoniumchloride, DDAC) and to 28 antibiotics by micro-/macrodilution. The maximum DDAC-MIC in our field study was 3.5 mg/l, but after adaptation in the laboratory, MIC values of 21.9 mg/l were observed. Strains for which DDAC had MICs > 1.4 mg/l (“non-wildtype,” in total: 46 of 969 isolates/4.7%) were most often found in milk and dairy products (14.6%), while their prevalence in livestock was generally low (0–4%). Of human isolates, 2.9–6.8% had a “non-wildtype” phenotype. An association between reduced susceptibility to DDAC, high-level-aminoglycoside resistance and aminopenicillin resistance was seen in E. faecium (p < 0.05). No indications for a common source of non-wildtype strains were found by RAPD-PCR; however, several non-wildtype E. faecalis shared the same variant of the emeA-gene. In addition, bacteria (n = 42) of different genera were isolated from formic acid based boot bath disinfectant (20 ml of 55% formic acid/l). The MICs of this disinfectant exceeded the wildtype MICs up to 20-fold (staphylococci), but were still one to three orders of magnitude below the used concentration of the disinfectant (i. e., 1.1% formic acid). In conclusion, the bacterial susceptibility to disinfectants still seems to be high. Thus, the proper use of disinfectants in livestock surroundings along with a good hygiene praxis should still be highly encouraged. Hints to a link between antibiotic resistance and reduced susceptibility for disinfectants—as seen for E. faecium—should be substantiated in further studies and might be an additional reason to confine the use of antibiotics. PMID:24672513

  2. Comparison of the selection of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli during enrofloxacin administration with a local drug delivery system or with intramuscular injections in a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Béraud, Romain; Huneault, Louis; Bernier, Dave; Beaudry, Francis; Letellier, Ann; del Castillo, Jérôme R.E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated, for the first time, the selection of antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli, a potential reservoir of genes of resistance, during the prolonged exposure to fluoroquinolones after the implantation of a local drug delivery system (LDDS) in a swine model. Fourteen pigs were randomly assigned to group IM (5 mg/kg/day of intramuscular enrofloxacin — EFX) or LD (surgical implantation of EFX-polymethyl-methacrylate perifemoral implants). Blood samples were collected daily for determination of plasma EFX and ciprofloxacin (CFX) concentrations. Fecal samples were collected daily to determine the E. coli counts and the susceptibility patterns of its isolates as evaluated by antibiotic disk diffusion tests. In both groups, EFX administration significantly reduced the bacterial counts after 2 days. During recolonization, the bacterial counts remained lower than baseline in group IM but not significantly, and almost reached pre-treatment levels in group LD. Susceptibility to EFX, CFX, and nalidixic acid of recolonizing E. coli in LD pigs slightly decreased but remained within the limit of “susceptible” isolates. In contrast, quinolone susceptibility of recolonizing E. coli in IM pigs dropped dramatically (P < 0.0001). In addition, intramuscular exposure to fluoroquinolones significantly decreased the susceptibility of E. coli to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of a dosing regimen that minimized the intestinal output of fluoroquinolones also minimized the selection of resistance to several classes of antibiotics. This could represent another advantage of LDDS usage compared to long-lasting systemic administration of fluoroquinolones. PMID:18783019

  3. Relationship between the severity of acne vulgaris and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from acne lesions in a hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Makoto; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are normal skin inhabitants that are frequently isolated from lesions caused by acne, and these micro-organisms are considered to contribute to the inflammation of acne. In the present study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance mechanisms of P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolated from patients with acne vulgaris in a university hospital in Japan from 2009 to 2010. Additionally, we analysed the relationship between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and the severity of acne vulgaris. Some P. acnes strains (18.8 %; 13/69) were resistant to clindamycin. All strains had a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, except for one strain that expressed erm(X) encoding a 23S rRNA methylase. Tetracycline-resistant P. acnes strains were found to represent 4.3 % (3/69) of the strains, and this resistance was caused by a mutation in the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, three strains with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (MIC = 16 µg ml(-1)) were detected. When analysing the correlation between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, more than 80 % of the patients who carried clindamycin-resistant P. acnes also carried clindamycin-resistant S. epidermidis. However, no epidemic strain that exhibited antimicrobial resistance was detected in the P. acnes strains when analysed by PFGE. Therefore, our results suggest that the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes is closely related to antimicrobial therapy. Additionally, those P. acnes strains tended to be frequently found in severe acne patients rather than in mild acne patients. Consequently, the data support a relationship between using antimicrobial agents and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, and phylogenetic groups of fecal Escherichia coli isolates: a comparative analysis between dogs and their owners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Okada, Erika; Shimizu, Takae; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sawada, Takuo; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-03-01

    In this study, fecal Escherichia coli isolates (n=188) from 34 dog-owner pairs and 26 healthy control humans (2 isolates per individual) were tested for susceptibility to 6 antimicrobials and screened for virulence genes. Genetic diversity between canine and owner isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Canine isolates exhibited significantly different rates of resistance to four and two antimicrobials, compared to control and owner isolates, respectively. Of the genes examined, the prevalence of sfa, hly, and cnf genes in canine isolates were higher than in control isolates, but not than in owner isolates. These results suggest that characteristics of owner isolates are somewhat similar to canine isolates, compared to isolates from non-dog owners. In addition, PFGE analysis revealed that transfer of E. coli between owners and their dogs had occurred within 3/34 (8.8%) households. Considering the effects of dog ownership on the population of E. coli isolates from owners, further epidemiological studies are required.

  5. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P < 0.001) with the potential pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, the findings in this study reveal the diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  6. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Dayna M; Schmidt, John W

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact" environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar prevalences

  7. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Dayna M.; Schmidt, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two “low impact” environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar

  8. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  9. Addressing uncertainty in fecal indicator bacteria dark inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Myers, Luke; Swall, Jenise L; Noble, Rachel T

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the potential threat of fecal contamination in surface water often depends on model forecasts which assume that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a proxy for the concentration of pathogens found in fecal contamination from warm-blooded animals) are lost or removed from the water column at a certain rate (often referred to as an "inactivation" rate). In efforts to reduce human health risks in these water bodies, regulators enforce limits on easily-measured FIB concentrations, commonly reported as most probable number (MPN) and colony forming unit (CFU) values. Accurate assessment of the potential threat of fecal contamination, therefore, depends on propagating uncertainty surrounding "true" FIB concentrations into MPN and CFU values, inactivation rates, model forecasts, and management decisions. Here, we explore how empirical relationships between FIB inactivation rates and extrinsic factors might vary depending on how uncertainty in MPN values is expressed. Using water samples collected from the Neuse River Estuary (NRE) in eastern North Carolina, we compare Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus (ENT) dark inactivation rates derived from two statistical models of first-order loss; a conventional model employing ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression with MPN values, and a novel Bayesian model utilizing the pattern of positive wells in an IDEXX Quanti-Tray®/2000 test. While our results suggest that EC dark inactivation rates tend to decrease as initial EC concentrations decrease and that ENT dark inactivation rates are relatively consistent across different ENT concentrations, we find these relationships depend upon model selection and model calibration procedures. We also find that our proposed Bayesian model provides a more defensible approach to quantifying uncertainty in microbiological assessments of water quality than the conventional MPN-based model, and that our proposed model represents a new strategy for developing robust relationships between

  10. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  12. [Neruda and antimicrobial resistance].

    PubMed

    Cotera, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been a problem in medicine, since their incorporation to clinical practice. Numerous papers have been written on the subject. The analysis of two poems by Pablo Neruda "How much does a man live" and "Larynx", included in the volume "Estravagario" and published for the first time in 1957 and 1958, give us an incredible revelation about the concept of resistance. In these poems aureomycin, the first antimicrobial of the family of tetracyclines, was included as a poetic figure and the therapeutic action of antimicrobials was described. "Never so much bugs died I tons of them fell I but the few that remained olive I manifested their perversity". These writings incorporated novel concepts, even for physicians of that time and described the closeness of death that a patient may perceive during the course of a given disease. The capacity of Pablo Neruda to extract the essence of situations and to anticipate to conditions that only years later became clinically relevant problems, is noteworthy.

  13. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  14. Characterization of the variable region in the class 1 integron of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water.

    PubMed

    Canal, Natália; Meneghetti, Karine Lena; de Almeida, Clara Ponzi; da Rosa Bastos, Marina; Otton, Letícia Muner; Corção, Gertrudes

    2016-01-01

    Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacEΔ1 gene at the 3' conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.

  15. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  16. Evaluating spatial and temporal variability of fecal coliform bacteria loads at Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations from the Pelahatchie ...

  17. Zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in ornamental fish: a systematic review of the existing research and survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    PubMed

    Weir, M; Rajić, A; Dutil, L; Cernicchiaro, N; Uhland, F C; Mercier, B; Tuševljak, N

    2012-02-01

    Using systematic review methodology, global research reporting the frequency of zoonotic bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in ornamental fish, and human illness due to exposure to ornamental fish, was examined. A survey was performed to elicit opinions of aquaculture-allied personnel on the frequency of AMU and AMR in ornamental fish. The most commonly reported sporadic human infections were associated with Mycobacterium marinum, while Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java was implicated in all reported outbreaks. Aeromonas spp. were most frequently investigated (n=10 studies) in 25 studies surveying ornamental fish from various sources. High levels of resistance were reported to amoxicillin, penicillin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline, which was also in agreement with the survey respondents' views. Studies on AMU were not found in our review. Survey respondents reported frequent use of quinolones, followed by tetracyclines, nitrofurans, and aminoglycosides. Recommendations for future surveillance and public education efforts are presented.

  18. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food and animals in Lagos, Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing ...

  20. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli recovered from dairy operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health concern and animal agriculture is often implicated as a source of resistant bacteria. The primary objective of this study was to determine prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli from healthy animals on dairy farms i...

  2. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Stimulation of fecal bacteria in ambient waters by experimental inputs of organic and inorganic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Chudoba, Elizabeth A; Mallin, Michael A; Cahoon, Lawrence B; Skrabal, Stephen A

    2013-06-15

    Fecal microbial pollution of recreational and shellfishing waters is a major human health and economic issue. Microbial pollution sourced from stormwater runoff is especially widespread, and strongly associated with urbanization. However, non-point source nutrient pollution is also problematic, and may come from sources different from fecal-derived pollution (i.e. fertilization of farm fields, lawns and gardens, and ornamental urban areas). Fecal bacteria require nutrients; thus the impact of such nutrient loading on survival and abundance of fecal coliform bacteria in ambient waters was experimentally investigated in a constructed wetland in coastal North Carolina, USA. A series of nutrient-addition bioassays testing impacts of inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus demonstrated that additions of neither organic nor inorganic nitrogen stimulated fecal coliform bacteria. However, phosphorus additions provided significant stimulation of fecal coliform growth at times; on other occasions such additions did not. Dilution bioassays combined with nutrient additions were subsequently devised to assess potential impacts of microzooplankton grazing on the target fecal bacteria populations. Results demonstrated grazing to be a significant bacterial reduction factor in 63% of tests, potentially obscuring nutrient effects. Thus, combining dilution experiments with nutrient addition bioassays yielded simultaneous information on microzooplankton grazing rates on fecal bacteria, fecal bacterial growth rates, and nutrient limitation. Overall, when tested against a non-amended control, additions of either organic or inorganic phosphorus significantly stimulated fecal coliform bacterial growth on 50% of occasions tested, with organic phosphorus generally providing greater stimulation. The finding of significant phosphorus stimulation of fecal bacteria indicates that extraneous nutrient loading can, at times, augment the impacts of fecal microbial pollution of shellfishing

  4. Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance: A Cloud Compatible Pipeline and Web Interface for Rapidly Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Directly from Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Will; Baker, Kate S.; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J.; Maskell, Duncan; Pearce, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance remains a growing and significant concern in human and veterinary medicine. Current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are limited in their effectiveness and scope. With the rapidly developing field of whole genome sequencing beginning to be utilised in clinical practice, the ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes will become increasingly important and useful for informing clinical decisions. Additionally, use of such tools will provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic samples such as those used in environmental monitoring. Results Here we present the Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in raw sequencing data. The pipeline provides gene information, abundance estimation and the reconstructed sequence of antimicrobial resistance genes; it also provides web links to additional information on each gene. The pipeline utilises clustering and read mapping to annotate full-length genes relative to a user-defined database. It also uses local alignment of annotated genes to a range of online databases to provide additional information. We demonstrate SEAR’s application in the detection and abundance estimation of antimicrobial resistance genes in two novel environmental metagenomes, 32 human faecal microbiome datasets and 126 clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei. Conclusions We have developed a pipeline that contributes to the improved capacity for antimicrobial resistance detection afforded by next generation sequencing technologies, allowing for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance genes directly from sequencing data. SEAR uses raw sequencing data via an intuitive interface so can be run rapidly without requiring advanced bioinformatic skills or

  5. Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance: A Cloud Compatible Pipeline and Web Interface for Rapidly Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Directly from Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Will; Baker, Kate S; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J; Maskell, Duncan; Pearce, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance remains a growing and significant concern in human and veterinary medicine. Current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are limited in their effectiveness and scope. With the rapidly developing field of whole genome sequencing beginning to be utilised in clinical practice, the ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes will become increasingly important and useful for informing clinical decisions. Additionally, use of such tools will provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic samples such as those used in environmental monitoring. Here we present the Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in raw sequencing data. The pipeline provides gene information, abundance estimation and the reconstructed sequence of antimicrobial resistance genes; it also provides web links to additional information on each gene. The pipeline utilises clustering and read mapping to annotate full-length genes relative to a user-defined database. It also uses local alignment of annotated genes to a range of online databases to provide additional information. We demonstrate SEAR's application in the detection and abundance estimation of antimicrobial resistance genes in two novel environmental metagenomes, 32 human faecal microbiome datasets and 126 clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei. We have developed a pipeline that contributes to the improved capacity for antimicrobial resistance detection afforded by next generation sequencing technologies, allowing for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance genes directly from sequencing data. SEAR uses raw sequencing data via an intuitive interface so can be run rapidly without requiring advanced bioinformatic skills or resources. Finally, we show that SEAR

  6. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  7. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  8. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  9. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals, or other agents to cure or prevent infections. Epidemiology The study of the spread of disease, or ... are also called microorganisms. Nosocomial Referring to an infection acquired by a patient while ... living thing. Organisms include humans, animals, plants, bacteria , ...

  10. Regulation of antimicrobial resistance by extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Emily C; McBride, Shonna M

    2017-01-30

    Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a subfamily of σ(70) sigma factors that activate genes involved in stress-response functions. In many bacteria, ECF sigma factors regulate resistance to antimicrobial compounds. This review will summarize the ECF sigma factors that regulate antimicrobial resistance in model organisms and clinically relevant pathogens.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Slaughter Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    *Background*: Antimicrobial resistance is of global concern and first emerged in bacteria shortly after the introduction of penicillin. It is common to see resistance develop after new compounds (regardless of class) are released. However many factors influence the persistence and transmission of r...

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM EGGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is of global concern and first emerged in bacteria shortly after the introduction of penicillin. It is common to see resistance develop after new compounds (regardless of class) are released. However many factors influence the persistence and transmission of r...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in aviary and enriched housing environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a global problem. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the emergence of resistance in populations of bacteria over time in layers in different housing systems. Houses were newly constructed and tested for pathogens prior to placement of hens. Hens we...

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of fecal indicator bacteria in an urban stream under different meteorological regimes.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Yong Eun; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Seungyoon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-01-01

    As a representative urban stream in Korea, the Gwangju (GJ) stream suffers from chronic fecal contamination. In this study, to characterize levels of fecal pollution in the GJ stream, the monthly monitoring data for seven years (from 2001 to 2007) and the hourly monitoring data from two field experiments were examined with respect to seasonal/daily variations and spatial distribution under wet and dry weather conditions. This research revealed that concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria strongly varied depending on the prevalent meteorological conditions. That is, during the dry daytime, fecal indicator bacteria concentrations decreased due to inactivation from solar irradiation, but rapidly increased in the absence of sunlight, suggesting external source inputs. In addition, bacterial concentrations substantially increased during rainfall events, due probably to a major contribution from combined sewer overflow. The observations in this study can be useful for implementing fecal pollution management strategies and for predicting fecal contamination as a function of meteorological conditions.

  15. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention.

    PubMed

    Roca, I; Akova, M; Baquero, F; Carlet, J; Cavaleri, M; Coenen, S; Cohen, J; Findlay, D; Gyssens, I; Heuer, O E; Kahlmeter, G; Kruse, H; Laxminarayan, R; Liébana, E; López-Cerero, L; MacGowan, A; Martins, M; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Rolain, J-M; Segovia, C; Sigauque, B; Tacconelli, E; Wellington, E; Vila, J

    2015-07-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  16. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roca, I.; Akova, M.; Baquero, F.; Carlet, J.; Cavaleri, M.; Coenen, S.; Cohen, J.; Findlay, D.; Gyssens, I.; Heure, O.E.; Kahlmeter, G.; Kruse, H.; Laxminarayan, R.; Liébana, E.; López-Cerero, L.; MacGowan, A.; Martins, M.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Rolain, J.-M.; Segovia, C.; Sigauque, B.; Taconelli, E.; Wellington, E.; Vila, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26029375

  17. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  18. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H.; Hung, Albert M.; Graves, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  19. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  20. Fate and Enumeration Problems of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Runoff Waters from Terrestrial Ecosystems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    manure or wastewater sludges, might exceed present point -source criteria for fecal coliform bacteria. i56 b. Determining the bacterial sorptive...fecal wastes: application rttes were varied to determine best treatment conditions. The fecal colifo’.. (N-PC) test isolates were identified to... determine their origin, fate, and evume, ation problem. Modifications to (Co tin OD 3 Wsee or Iy Rev asisesma Unclassified 11YNT CLMSSPICATIbS. OF YW" P0"t

  1. Physical dynamics controlling variability in nearshore fecal pollution: fecal indicator bacteria as passive particles.

    PubMed

    Rippy, M A; Franks, P J S; Feddersen, F; Guza, R T; Moore, D F

    2013-01-15

    We present results from a 5-h field program (HB06) that took place at California's Huntington State Beach. We assessed the importance of physical dynamics in controlling fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations during HB06 using an individual based model including alongshore advection and cross-shore variable horizontal diffusion. The model was parameterized with physical (waves and currents) and bacterial (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) observations made during HB06. The model captured surfzone FIB dynamics well (average surfzone model skill: 0.84 {E. coli} and 0.52 {Enterococcus}), but fell short of capturing offshore FIB dynamics. Our analyses support the hypothesis that surfzone FIB variability during HB06 was a consequence of southward advection and diffusion of a patch of FIB originating north of the study area. Offshore FIB may have originated from a different, southern, source. Mortality may account for some of the offshore variability not explained by the physical model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella isolated from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pedroso, Nuno Miguel; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo

    2010-10-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) are present in a wide range of aquatic environments. Salmonella isolates have been obtained from otters at rehabilitation centers and in the wild and are sometimes associated with serious illnesses. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella were isolated from otter fecal samples collected in March 2006, September 2007, and March 2008 in two river basins in southern Portugal. From 67 samples tested, five were positive for Salmonella (7.58%). None of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and all were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Our results confirm the role of otters as potential carriers of Salmonella and the importance of environmental exposure to antimicrobial agents in selection for resistance in bacteria.

  3. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria along the Malibu, California, Coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beach-goers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches having more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Tests show that FIB concentrations occasionally exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches (Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2009). Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) California Water Science Center are doing a study to identify the distribution and sources of FIB in coastal Malibu waters (fig. 1). The study methods were similar to those used in a study of FIB contamination on beaches in the Santa Barbara, California, area (Izbicki and others, 2009). This report describes the study approach and presents preliminary results used to evaluate the distribution and source of FIB in the Malibu area. Results of this study will help decision-makers address human health issues associated with FIB contamination in Malibu, and the methods used in this study can be used in other coastal areas affected by FIB contamination.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Swiss weaned pigs and sows.

    PubMed

    Stannarius, C; Bürgi, E; Regula, G; Zychowska, M A; Zweifel, C; Stephan, R

    2009-03-01

    Based on Directive (EC) No 99/2003, monitoring programs on the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from livestock are implemented in many European countries. The aim of the present study was (i) to establish comprehensive baseline data on the antimicrobial resistance situation in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy pigs (pooled fecal samples) originating from 60 Swiss pig-breeding farms, and (ii) to analyze differences in the resistance frequency between Escherichia coli isolates from weaned pigs and sows. Susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method) was performed on 429 isolates from weaned pigs and 431 isolates from sows. Overall, 17.7% of the isolates from weaned pigs and 22.5% of the Escherichia coli isolates from sows were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Low resistance prevalence was found for amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefquinome, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, and gentamicin. The most frequently found resistances were against streptomycin (60.6% of the isolates from weaners and 64.3% of the isolates from sows), sulfonamide (51.5% and 26.9%), tetracycline (35.2% and 22.0%), and trimethoprim (27.5% and 11.1%). With exception of colistin, most resistances were found for those antibiotics commonly used on the farms. Except for ciprofloxacin and streptomycin, isolates from weaned pigs showed higher resistance prevalence than those from sows. This difference was significant for cefquinome, florfenicol, sulfonamide, tetracycline, and trimethoprim (p<0.05).

  5. Ecology of antimicrobial resistance: humans, animals, food and environment.

    PubMed

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Escudero, José A

    2012-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment.

  6. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  7. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  8. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Fate and Removal in Urban Stormwater at the Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfand, J.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Of the many stormwater pollutants, fecal indicator bacteria are particularly important to track because they are directly linked to pathogens which jeopardize public health; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Monitoring fecal bacteria in stormwater is possible, but due to the high variability of fecal indicators both spatially and temporally, single grab or composite samples do not fully capture fecal indicator loading. Models have been developed to predict fecal indicator bacteria at the watershed scale, but they are often limited to agricultural areas, or areas that receive frequent rainfall. Further, it is unclear whether best management practices (BMPs), such as bioretention or engineered wetlands, are able to reduce bacteria to meet water quality standards at watershed outlets. This research seeks to develop a model to predict fecal indicator bacteria in urban stormwater in a semi-arid climate at the watershed scale. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (89 mi2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, several existing mechanistic models are coupled with a hydrologic model to predict fecal indicator concentrations (E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliform, and total coliform) at the outfall of Ballona Creek watershed, Santa Monica Bay. The hydrologic model was developed using InfoSWMM Sustain, calibrated for flow from WY 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.95), and validated from WY 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.93; R2 = 0.95). The developed coupled model is being used to predict fecal indicator fate and transport and evaluate how BMPs can be optimized to reduce fecal indicator loading to surface waters and recreational beaches.

  9. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters. PMID:9925633

  10. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    PubMed

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.

  11. Source specific fecal bacteria modeling using soil and water assessment tool model.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Prem B; Mankin, Kyle R; Barnes, Philip L

    2009-01-01

    Fecal bacteria can contaminate water and result in illness or death. It is often difficult to accurately determine sources of fecal bacteria contamination, but bacteria source tracking can help identify non-point sources of fecal bacteria such as livestock, humans and wildlife. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) microbial sub-model 2005 was used to evaluate source-specific fecal bacteria using three years (2004-2006) of observed modified deterministic probability of bacteria source tracking data, as well as measure hydrologic and water quality data. This study modeled source-specific bacteria using a model previously calibrated for flow, sediment and total fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentration. The SWAT model was calibrated at the Rock Creek sub-watershed, validated at the Deer Creek sub-watershed, and verified at the Auburn sub-watershed and then at the entire Upper Wakarusa watershed for predicting daily flow, sediment, nutrients, total fecal bacteria, and source-specific fecal bacteria. Watershed characteristics for livestock, humans, and wildlife fecal bacterial sources were first modeled together then with three separate sources and combinations of source-specific FCB concentration: livestock and human, livestock and wildlife and human and wildlife. Model results indicated both coefficient of determination (R(2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Index (E) parameters ranging from 0.52 to 0.84 for daily flow and 0.50-0.87 for sediment (good to very good agreement); 0.14-0.85 for total phosphorus (poor to very good agreement); -3.55 to 0.79 for total nitrogen (unsatisfactory to very good agreement) and -2.2 to 0.52 for total fecal bacteria (unsatisfactory to good agreement). Model results generally determined decreased agreement for each single source of bacteria (R(2) and E range from -5.03 to 0.39), potentially due to bacteria source tracking (BST) uncertainty and spatial variability. This study contributes to new knowledge in bacteria modeling and

  12. Seasonal variation of fecal indicator bacteria in storm events within the US stormwater database.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xubin; Jones, Kim D

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are one of the major causes of surface water impairments in the USA. Over the past several years, best management practices, including detention basins, manufactured devices, grass swales, filters and bioretention cells have been used to remove bacteria and other pollutants from stormwater runoff. However, there are data gaps in the comprehensive studies of bacteria concentrations in stormwater runoff. In this paper, the event mean concentration (EMC) of fecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, fecal Streptococcus group bacteria, and fecal coliform) across the USA was retrieved from the international stormwater best management practices database to analyze the seasonal variations of inflow and outflow event mean concentrations and removal efficiencies. The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the seasonal variations of bacteria indicator concentrations and removals, and the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for comparing different seasonal outcomes. The results indicate that all the inflow EMC of FIB in stormwater runoff is above the water quality criteria. The seasonal differences of fecal Streptococcus group bacteria and fecal coliform are significant. Summer has the potential to increase the bacteria EMC and illustrate the seasonal differences.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  14. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  15. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  16. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  17. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  18. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Santajit, Sirijan; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2016-01-01

    The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. Most of them are multidrug resistant isolates, which is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. Multidrug resistance is amongst the top three threats to global public health and is usually caused by excessive drug usage or prescription, inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and substandard pharmaceuticals. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is crucial for the development of novel antimicrobial agents or other alternative tools to combat these public health challenges. Greater mechanistic understanding would also aid in the prediction of underlying or even unknown mechanisms of resistance, which could be applied to other emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. In this review, we summarize the known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of ESKAPE pathogens. PMID:27274985

  19. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santajit, Sirijan; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2016-01-01

    The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. Most of them are multidrug resistant isolates, which is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. Multidrug resistance is amongst the top three threats to global public health and is usually caused by excessive drug usage or prescription, inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and substandard pharmaceuticals. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is crucial for the development of novel antimicrobial agents or other alternative tools to combat these public health challenges. Greater mechanistic understanding would also aid in the prediction of underlying or even unknown mechanisms of resistance, which could be applied to other emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. In this review, we summarize the known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of ESKAPE pathogens.

  20. Occurrence of fecal coliform bacteria in selected streams in Wyoming, 1990-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Norris, Jodi R.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ), is collecting water samples for analysis of fecal coliform bacteria at 18 stream sites as part of a statewide network. Contamination by bacteria of fecal origin in streams where contact recreation is a designated water use is a concern because of potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Fecal coliform concentrations are temporally and spatially variable in Wyoming streams-concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 45,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water during 1990-99. Fecal coliform concentrations were less than the water-quality criterion of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 83 percent of the samples, indicating fecal coliform contamination is not a widespread problem in these Wyoming streams. However, 14 of the 18 monitoring sites had at least one sample in which the fecal coliform concentration exceeded 400 colonies per 100 milliliters at some time during the 10-year period. Fecal coliform concentrations generally are higher during April through September than during October through March. The higher concentrations coincide with the time period when the public-health risk is higher because summer months are when contact recreation use is more likely occurring. Fecal coliform concentrations were positively correlated with discharge and stream temperature and generally were negatively correlated with pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen.

  1. Fecal-indicator bacteria in streams alonga gradient of residential development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.; Couvillion, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Fecal-indicator bacteria were sampled at 14 stream sites in Anchorage, Alaska, USA, as part of a study to determine the effects of urbanization on water quality. Population density in the subbasins sampled ranged from zero to 1,750 persons per square kilometer. Higher concentrations of fecal-coliform, E. coli, and enterococci bacteria were measured at the most urbanized sites. Although fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were higher in summer than in winter, seasonal differences in bacteria concentrations generally were not significant. Areas served by sewer systems had significantly higher fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations than did areas served by septic systems. The areas served by sewer systems also had storm drains that discharged directly to the streams, whereas storm sewers were not present in the areas served by septic systems. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were highly variable over a two-day period of stable streamflow, which may have implications for testing of compliance to water-quality standards.

  2. Micro-zooplankton grazing as a means of fecal bacteria removal in stormwater BMPs.

    PubMed

    Burtchett, Jade M; Mallin, Michael A; Cahoon, Lawrence B

    2017-06-01

    A priority for environmental managers is control of stormwater runoff pollution, especially fecal microbial pollution. This research was designed to determine if fecal bacterial grazing by micro-zooplankton is a significant control on fecal bacteria in aquatic best management practices (BMPs); if grazing differs between a wet detention pond and a constructed wetland; and if environmental factors enhance grazing. Both 3-day grazing tests and 24-h dilution assays were used to determine grazing differences between the two types of BMP. Micro-zooplankton grazing was a stronger bacteria removal mechanism in stormwater wetlands rich in aquatic vegetation compared to a standard wet detention pond, although grazing was important in detention ponds as well. Our experiments indicated that the majority of grazers that fed on fecal bacteria were <20 μm in size. Grazing rates were positively correlated with fecal coliform abundance and increased water temperatures. Enumeration of grazers demonstrated that protozoans were significantly more abundant among wetland vegetation than in open water, and open wetland waters contained more flagellates and dinoflagellates than open wet detention pond waters. Grazing on fecal bacteria in BMPs is enhanced by aquatic vegetation, and grazing in aquatic BMPs in warmer climates should be greater than in cooler climates.

  3. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal) was evaluated throughout a ten-year period. Methods In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab during the period 2000–2009 were analysed. Samples with more than 105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive and, for these samples, the bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. Results From the 155597 samples analysed, 18797 (12.1%) were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in women (78.5%) and its incidence varied with age, affecting more the elderly patients (38.6%). Although E. coli was, as usual, the most common pathogen implicated in UTI, it were observed differences related to the other bacteria more implicated in UTI relatively to previous studies. The bacteria implicated in the UTI varied with the sex of the patient, being P. aeruginosa a more important cause of infection in men than in women. The incidence of the main bacteria changed over the study period (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Providencia spp increased and Enterobacter spp decreased). Although E. coli was responsible for more than an half of UTI, its resistance to antibiotics was low when compared with other pathogens implicated in UTI, showing also the lowest percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates (17%). Bacteria isolated from females were less resistant than those isolated from males and this difference increased with the patient age. Conclusions The differences in sex and age must be taken into account at the moment of empirical prescription of antimicrobials. From the recommended antimicrobials by the European

  4. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  5. Isolation, Biochemical and Molecular Identification, and In-Vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Bubaline Subclinical Mastitis in South India

    PubMed Central

    Preethirani, P. L.; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Sundareshan, S.; Nuthanalakshmi, V.; Deepthikiran, K.; Sinha, Akhauri Y.; Rathnamma, D.; Nithin Prabhu, K.; Sharada, R.; Mukkur, Trilochan K.; Hegde, Nagendra R.

    2015-01-01

    Buffaloes are the second largest source of milk. Mastitis is a major impediment for milk production, but not much information is available about bubaline mastitis, especially subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the application of various tests for the diagnosis of bubaline subclinical mastitis, (b) identify the major bacteria associated with it, and (c) evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacteria. To this end, 190 quarter milk samples were collected from 57 domesticated dairy buffaloes from organized (64 samples) and unorganized (126 samples) sectors. Of these, 48.4%, 40.0%, 45.8%, 61.1%, and 61.6% were positive for subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, California mastitis test, bromothymol blue test, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase test, respectively. As compared to the gold standard of somatic cell count, California mastitis test performed the best. However, a combination of the two methods was found to be the best option. Microbiological evaluation, both by biochemical methods as well as by monoplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, revealed that coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most predominant (64.8%) bacteria, followed by streptococci (18.1%), Escherichia coli (9.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.3%). Most of the pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics, especially to β-lactam antibiotics. We propose that California mastitis test be combined with somatic cell count for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in domestic dairy buffaloes. Further, our results reveal high resistance of the associated bacteria to the β-lactam class of antibiotics, and a possible major role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in causing the disease in India. PMID:26588070

  6. Isolation, Biochemical and Molecular Identification, and In-Vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Bubaline Subclinical Mastitis in South India.

    PubMed

    Preethirani, P L; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Sundareshan, S; Nuthanalakshmi, V; Deepthikiran, K; Sinha, Akhauri Y; Rathnamma, D; Nithin Prabhu, K; Sharada, R; Mukkur, Trilochan K; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2015-01-01

    Buffaloes are the second largest source of milk. Mastitis is a major impediment for milk production, but not much information is available about bubaline mastitis, especially subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the application of various tests for the diagnosis of bubaline subclinical mastitis, (b) identify the major bacteria associated with it, and (c) evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacteria. To this end, 190 quarter milk samples were collected from 57 domesticated dairy buffaloes from organized (64 samples) and unorganized (126 samples) sectors. Of these, 48.4%, 40.0%, 45.8%, 61.1%, and 61.6% were positive for subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, California mastitis test, bromothymol blue test, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase test, respectively. As compared to the gold standard of somatic cell count, California mastitis test performed the best. However, a combination of the two methods was found to be the best option. Microbiological evaluation, both by biochemical methods as well as by monoplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, revealed that coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most predominant (64.8%) bacteria, followed by streptococci (18.1%), Escherichia coli (9.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.3%). Most of the pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics, especially to β-lactam antibiotics. We propose that California mastitis test be combined with somatic cell count for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in domestic dairy buffaloes. Further, our results reveal high resistance of the associated bacteria to the β-lactam class of antibiotics, and a possible major role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in causing the disease in India.

  7. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health

    PubMed Central

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact. PMID:24550896

  8. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health.

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact.

  9. ACVIM consensus statement on therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Giguère, S; Guardabassi, L; Morley, P S; Papich, M; Ricciuto, D R; Sykes, J E

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of antimicrobial resistant infections continues to challenge, compromising animal care, complicating food animal production and posing zoonotic disease risks. While the overall role of therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals in the development AMR in animal and human pathogens is poorly defined, veterinarians must consider the impacts of antimicrobial use in animal and take steps to optimize antimicrobial use, so as to maximize the health benefits to animals while minimizing the likelihood of antimicrobial resistance and other adverse effects. This consensus statement aims to provide guidance on the therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animals, balancing the need for effective therapy with minimizing development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals and humans.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis from broiler carcasses in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, A.; Baltić, T.; Velebit, B.; Babić, M.; Milojević, L.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Infantis isolates from poultry carcasses in Serbia. A total of 48 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance. A panel of 10 antibiotics was selected for testing. Isolates showed resistance to sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and cefotaxime (100%). However, the highest number of Salmonella Infantis isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol. The usage of antibiotics in food producing animals could result in antimicrobial resistance pathogenic bacteria especially Salmonella spp. in poultry, which may be transmitted to humans through the food chain and increase risk of treatment failures.

  11. Longitudinal characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes in feces shed from cattle fed different subtherapeutic antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance gene determinants originating from livestock is affected by their persistence in agricultural-related matrices. This study investigated the effects of administering subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials to beef cattle on the abundance and persistence of resistance genes within the microbial community of fecal deposits. Cattle (three pens per treatment, 10 steers per pen) were administered chlortetracycline, chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine, tylosin, or no antimicrobials (control). Model fecal deposits (n = 3) were prepared by mixing fresh feces from each pen into a single composite sample. Real-time PCR was used to measure concentrations of tet, sul and erm resistance genes in DNA extracted from composites over 175 days of environmental exposure in the field. The microbial communities were analyzed by quantification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S-rRNA. Results The concentrations of 16S-rRNA in feces were similar across treatments and increased by day 56, declining thereafter. DGGE profiles of 16S-rRNA differed amongst treatments and with time, illustrating temporal shifts in microbial communities. All measured resistance gene determinants were quantifiable in feces after 175 days. Antimicrobial treatment differentially affected the abundance of certain resistance genes but generally not their persistence. In the first 56 days, concentrations of tet(B), tet(C), sul1, sul2, erm(A) tended to increase, and decline thereafter, whereas tet(M) and tet(W) gradually declined over 175 days. At day 7, the concentration of erm(X) was greatest in feces from cattle fed tylosin, compared to all other treatments. Conclusion The abundance of genes coding for antimicrobial resistance in bovine feces can be affected by inclusion of antibiotics in the feed. Resistance genes can persist in feces from cattle beyond 175 days with concentrations

  12. Temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A; Entz, T; Olson, M E; Yanke, L J; Read, R R

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (< or =4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  13. [Antimicrobial resistance after antibiotic use in animals--impact on human health].

    PubMed

    Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Sunde, Marianne

    2008-11-06

    This review describes the use of antibiotics and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in animal husbandry, with emphasis on the current situation in Norway. The clinically most important resistance problems in human medicine that are associated with antimicrobial resistance in animals, are discussed in a global perspective. This review is based on a Pubmed search with the terms "animal" and "antimicrobial resistance", as well as the authors' own research experience. Antibiotic use in animals is the main cause for selection and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in animals. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in animal husbandry in Norway is lower than that in many non-Nordic countries, and is associated with less use of therapeutic antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance may spread from animals to humans by transfer of resistant bacteria from animals to humans and resistance genes from animal bacteria to human pathogens. It is adamant to have efficient prevention measures and rational use of antibiotics in animals to delay development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Although good examples exist of how resistance in animal bacteria can create problems for human health, it is well documented that the human use of therapeutic antibiotics and lack of efficient infection control measures have the most profound influence on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in humans.

  14. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and the Environment on Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013 and tested them for E. coli and susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Of samples testing positive for E. coli, resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobials was detected in 7.4% (77/1044; 95% CI, 5.9-9.1) of raccoon fecal samples, 6.3% (23/365; 95% CI, 4.0-9.3) of paw samples, 9.6% (121/1260; 8.0-11.4) of soil samples, 57.4% (31/54; 95% CI, 43.2-70.8) of manure pit samples, and 13.8% (4/29; 95% CI, 3.9-31.7) of dumpster samples. Using univariable logistic regression, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of resistant E. coli in raccoon feces on conservation areas versus farms; however, E. coli isolates resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobials were significantly less likely to be detected from raccoon paw samples on swine farms than conservation areas and significantly more likely to be detected in soil samples from swine farms than conservation areas. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes that were absent from the swine farm environment were detected in raccoons from conservation areas, suggesting that conservation areas and swine farms may have different exposures to resistant bacteria. However, the similar resistance patterns and genes in E. coli from raccoon fecal and environmental samples from the same location types suggest that resistant bacteria may be exchanged between raccoons and their environment.

  15. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  16. Aquaculture as yet another environmental gateway to the development and globalisation of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Dölz, Humberto J

    2016-07-01

    Aquaculture uses hundreds of tonnes of antimicrobials annually to prevent and treat bacterial infection. The passage of these antimicrobials into the aquatic environment selects for resistant bacteria and resistance genes and stimulates bacterial mutation, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. The potential bridging of aquatic and human pathogen resistomes leads to emergence of new antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and global dissemination of them and their antimicrobial resistance genes into animal and human populations. Efforts to prevent antimicrobial overuse in aquaculture must include education of all stakeholders about its detrimental effects on the health of fish, human beings, and the aquatic ecosystem (the notion of One Health), and encouragement of environmentally friendly measures of disease prevention, including vaccines, probiotics, and bacteriophages. Adoption of these measures is a crucial supplement to efforts dealing with antimicrobial resistance by developing new therapeutic agents, if headway is to be made against the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine.

  17. Twenty years of antimicrobial resistance control programme in a regional multi hospital institution, with focus on emerging bacteria (VRE and CPE).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sandra; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Jarlier, Vincent

    2012-02-13

    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), the largest public health care institution in France (38 hospitals, 23,000 beds, serving 11.6 millions inhabitants) launched in 1993 a long term programme to control and survey multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). AP-HP MDR programme consisted in successive waves of actions: bundle measures to survey and control cross transmission of MRSA and extended-spectrum betalactamase producing enterobacteria (ESBL) in 1993, large campaign to promote the use of alcohol-based hand rub solution (ABHRS) in 2001, specific strategy to quickly control the spread of emerging MDR (vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, VRE; carbapenemase producing enterobacteria, CPE) in 2006, large campaign to decrease antibiotics consumption in 2006.Following this programme, the ABHRS consumption dramatically increased, the antibiotic consumption decreased by 10%, the incidence of MRSA, including MRSA bacteraemia, decreased by 2/3, all VRE and CPE events were rapidly controlled. However, the incidence of ESBL, mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, that remained low and stable until 2003 increased markedly afterwards, justifying adapting our programme in the future. A sustained and coordinated strategy can lead to control multidrug resistant bacteria at the level of a large multihospital institution.

  18. Determination of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Harish, Belgode N; Menezes, Godfred A

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. Salmonella are one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in humans. There are many types of Salmonella but they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and those that do not. The typhoidal Salmonella (TS), such as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and S. Paratyphi only colonize humans and are usually acquired by the consumption of food or water contaminated with human fecal material. The much broader group of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) usually results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material. Antimicrobials are critical to the successful outcome of invasive Salmonella infections and enteric fever. Due to resistance to the older antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin [fluoroquinolone (FQ)] has become the first-line drug for treatment. Nevertheless, switch to FQ has led to a subsequent increase in the occurrence of salmonellae resistant to this antimicrobial agent. The exact mechanism of this FQ resistance is not fully understood. FQ resistance has driven the use of third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, there are sporadic worldwide reports of high level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) in TS and in NTS it has been recognized since 1988 and are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance leading to treatment failure. Spread of such resistance would further greatly limit the available therapeutic options, and leave us with only the reserve antimicrobials such as carbapenem and tigecycline as possible treatment options. Here, we describe the methods involved in the genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of salmonellae.

  19. Novobiocin Inhibits the Antimicrobial Resistance Acquired through DNA Damage-Induced Mutagenesis in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Luis M.; Pérez-Varela, María; Corral, Jordi; Arch, Marta; Cortés, Pilar; Bou, Germán; Barbé, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, a worldwide emerging nosocomial pathogen, acquires antimicrobial resistances in response to DNA-damaging agents, which increase the expression of multiple error-prone DNA polymerase components. Here we show that the aminocoumarin novobiocin, which inhibits the DNA damage response in Gram-positive bacteria, also inhibits the expression of error-prone DNA polymerases in this Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogen and, consequently, its potential acquisition of antimicrobial resistance through DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. PMID:26503651

  20. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  1. Antibiotic rotation strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units: study protocol for a cluster-randomized crossover controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive care units (ICU) are epicenters for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (ARGNB) because of high rates of antibiotic usage, rapid patient turnover, immunological susceptibility of acutely ill patients, and frequent contact between healthcare workers and patients, facilitating cross-transmission. Antibiotic stewardship programs are considered important to reduce antibiotic resistance, but the effectiveness of strategies such as, for instance, antibiotic rotation, have not been determined rigorously. Interpretation of available studies on antibiotic rotation is hampered by heterogeneity in implemented strategies and suboptimal study designs. In this cluster-randomized, crossover trial the effects of two antibiotic rotation strategies, antibiotic mixing and cycling, on the prevalence of ARGNB in ICUs are determined. Antibiotic mixing aims to create maximum antibiotic heterogeneity, and cycling aims to create maximum antibiotic homogeneity during consecutive periods. Methods/Design This is an open cluster-randomized crossover study of mixing and cycling of antibiotics in eight ICUs in five European countries. During cycling (9 months) third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems will be rotated during consecutive 6-week periods as the primary empiric treatment in patients suspected of infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria. During mixing (9 months), the same antibiotics will be rotated for each consecutive antibiotic course. Both intervention periods will be preceded by a baseline period of 4 months. ICUs will be randomized to consecutively implement either the mixing and then cycling strategy, or vice versa. The primary outcome is the ICU prevalence of ARGNB, determined through monthly point-prevalence screening of oropharynx and perineum. Secondary outcomes are rates of acquisition of ARGNB, bacteremia and appropriateness of therapy, length of stay in the ICU and ICU mortality

  2. Antibiotic rotation strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units: study protocol for a cluster-randomized crossover controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2014-07-10

    Intensive care units (ICU) are epicenters for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (ARGNB) because of high rates of antibiotic usage, rapid patient turnover, immunological susceptibility of acutely ill patients, and frequent contact between healthcare workers and patients, facilitating cross-transmission.Antibiotic stewardship programs are considered important to reduce antibiotic resistance, but the effectiveness of strategies such as, for instance, antibiotic rotation, have not been determined rigorously. Interpretation of available studies on antibiotic rotation is hampered by heterogeneity in implemented strategies and suboptimal study designs. In this cluster-randomized, crossover trial the effects of two antibiotic rotation strategies, antibiotic mixing and cycling, on the prevalence of ARGNB in ICUs are determined. Antibiotic mixing aims to create maximum antibiotic heterogeneity, and cycling aims to create maximum antibiotic homogeneity during consecutive periods. This is an open cluster-randomized crossover study of mixing and cycling of antibiotics in eight ICUs in five European countries. During cycling (9 months) third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems will be rotated during consecutive 6-week periods as the primary empiric treatment in patients suspected of infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria. During mixing (9 months), the same antibiotics will be rotated for each consecutive antibiotic course. Both intervention periods will be preceded by a baseline period of 4 months. ICUs will be randomized to consecutively implement either the mixing and then cycling strategy, or vice versa. The primary outcome is the ICU prevalence of ARGNB, determined through monthly point-prevalence screening of oropharynx and perineum. Secondary outcomes are rates of acquisition of ARGNB, bacteremia and appropriateness of therapy, length of stay in the ICU and ICU mortality. Results will be adjusted for

  3. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-01-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed. PMID:8593045

  4. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Agata A; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Binek, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important etiologic agent of respiratory- and non-respiratory tract infections, diseases of animals and humans. Therapy includes the use of various group of chemotherapeutic agents, however resistance acquirement is quite common. To date there is no preferred treatment protocol for infections caused by isolates resistant to macrolides and rifampicin. The resistance acquirement is a result of many molecular mechanisms, some of which include alterations in the cell envelope composition and structure, activity of the efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction or inactivation of antibiotics, and changes in the target site. This paper contains an overview of antimicrobial susceptibility of R. equi, and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for antimicrobial resistance in this particular microorganism.

  6. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  7. In vitro exposure of bacteria to antimicrobial impregnated-central venous catheters does not directly lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Munson, Erik L; Heard, Stephen O; Doern, Gary V

    2004-11-01

    exposure and the emergence of resistance was not established. Our in vitro data suggest that the exposure of Gram-positive cocci to either rifampin or minocycline can lead to the development of resistance. However, exposure of bacteria to these antibiotics in combination does not directly lead to resistance. Clinical investigations will be required to determine the true risk and implications of the development of resistance.

  8. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R. V.; Siler, J. D.; Ng, J. C.; Davis, M. A.; Warnick, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems. PMID:25306277

  9. Use of barcoded pyrosequencing and shared OTUs to determine sources of fecal bacteria in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Jang, Jeonghwan; Han, Dukki; Kim, Joon Ha; Sadowsky, Michael J; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2010-10-15

    While many current microbial source tracking (MST) methods rely on the use of specific molecular marker genes to identify sources of fecal contamination, these methods often fail to determine all point and nonpoint contributors of fecal inputs into waterways. In this study, we developed a new library-dependent MST method that uses pyrosequencing-derived shared operational taxonomy units (OTUs) to define sources of fecal contamination in waterways. A total 56,841 pyrosequencing reads of 16S rDNA obtained from the feces of humans and animals were evaluated and used to compare fecal microbial diversity in three freshwater samples obtained from the Yeongsan river basin in Jeonnam Province, South Korea. Sites included an urbanized agricultural area (Y1) (Escherichia coli counts ≥ 1600 CFU/100 mL), an open area (Y2) with no major industrial activities (940 CFU/100 mL), and a typical agricultural area (Y3) (≥ 1600 CFU/100 mL). Data analyses indicated that the majority of bacteria in the feces of humans and domesticated animals were comprised of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes, whereas the majority of bacteria in wild goose feces and freshwater samples were classified to the phylum Proteobacteria. Analysis of OTUs shared between the fecal and environmental samples suggested that the potential sources of the fecal contamination at the sites were of human and swine origin. Quantification of fecal contamination was also examined by comparing the density of pyrosequencing reads in each fecal sample within shared OTUs. Taken together, our results indicated that analysis of shared OTUs derived from barcoded pyrosequencing reads provide the necessary resolution and discrimination to be useful as a next generation platform for microbial source tracking studies.

  10. Antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria from ceftiofur-treated and nonantimicrobial-treated comingled beef cows at a cow-calf operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared the occurrences of 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr ), tetracycline-resistant (TETr) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr ) Escherichia coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica and erythromycin-resistant (ERYr) enterococci from ...

  11. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  12. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling-livestock interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Hyatt, Doreene R; Ellis, Jeremy W; Pipkin, David R; Mangan, Anna M; Russell, Michael; Bolte, Denise S; Engeman, Richard M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Linz, George M

    2015-08-31

    Bird-livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in particular are known to contaminate cattle feed and water with Salmonella enterica through their fecal waste. We propose that fecal waste is not the only mechanisms through which starlings introduce S. enterica to CAFO. The goal of this study was to assess if starlings can mechanically move S. enterica. We define mechanical movement as the transportation of media containing S. enterica, on the exterior of starlings within CAFO. We collected 100 starlings and obtained external wash and gastrointestinal tract (GI) samples. We also collected 100 samples from animal pens. Within each pen we collected one cattle fecal, feed, and water trough sample. Isolates from all S. enterica positive samples were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All sample types, including 17% of external starling wash samples, contained S. enterica. All sample types had at least one antimicrobial resistant (AMR) isolate and starling GI samples harbored multidrug resistant S. enterica. The serotypes isolated from the starling external wash samples were all found in the farm environment and 11.8% (2/17) of isolates from positive starling external wash samples were resistant to at least one class of antibiotics. This study provides evidence of a potential mechanism of wildlife introduced microbial contamination in CAFO. Mechanical movement of microbiological hazards, by starlings, should be considered a potential source of bacteria that is of concern to veterinary, environmental and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Lateral Antimicrobial Resistance Genetic Transfer is active in the open environment.

    PubMed

    Chamosa, Luciana S; Álvarez, Verónica E; Nardelli, Maximiliano; Quiroga, María Paula; Cassini, Marcelo H; Centrón, Daniela

    2017-03-31

    Historically, the environment has been viewed as a passive deposit of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, where bacteria show biological cost for maintenance of these genes. Thus, in the absence of antimicrobial pressure, it is expected that they disappear from environmental bacterial communities. To test this scenario, we studied native IntI1 functionality of 11 class 1 integron-positive environmental strains of distant genera collected in cold and subtropical forests of Argentina. We found natural competence and successful site-specific insertion with no significant fitness cost of both aadB and bla VIM-2 antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes, in a model system without antibiotic pressure. A bidirectional flow of antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes between natural and nosocomial habitats is proposed, which implies an active role of the open environment as a reservoir, recipient and source of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, outlining an environmental threat where novel concepts of rational use of antibiotics are extremely urgent and mandatory.

  14. Integrating animal health surveillance and food safety: the issue of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Acar, J F; Moulin, G

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in commensal, zoonotic and pathogenic bacteria from humans, animals and food is an essential source of information when formulating measures to improve food safety. International organisations (the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) have developed a complete set of standards related to resistance surveillance programmes and are calling for the establishment of integrated surveillance programmes. The most important task in establishing an integrated surveillance programme for antimicrobial resistance should be the harmonisation of laboratory testing methodology and antimicrobial-use reporting. Overthe last decade, the integration of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance has been an important step toward addressing the global concern with antimicrobial resistance. However, very few systems are in place and there is still a lot to do before harmonised surveillance systems become the norm.

  15. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  16. Interlaboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Protocols for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized proto...

  17. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  18. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  19. Hydrological modeling of fecal indicator bacteria in a tropical mountain catchment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence of pathogen bacteria in surface waters is a threat to public health worldwide. In particular, inadequate sanitation resulting in high contamination of surface water with pathogens of fecal origin is a serious issue in developing countries such as Lao P.D.R. Despite the health implicat...

  20. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  1. DNA analysis of fecal bacteria to augment an epikarst dye trace study at Crump's Cave, Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rainfall simulation experiment was performed to investigate the transport behavior of fecal-derived bacteria through shallow karst soils and through the epikarst. The experiment was conducted at Cave Springs Cavern located just south of Mammoth Cave National Park on the Sinkhole Plain of South Cen...

  2. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  3. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  4. Interlaboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Protocols for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized proto...

  5. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  6. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  7. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  8. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in Campylobacter coli, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolated from the same animal sample

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The potential spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria through the food chain is concerning. Animals may provide an environment for the exchange of antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes among bacteria; therefore a study was developed to identify AR genes found in common among commensal a...

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from symbovine flies, cattle and sympatric insectivorous house martins from a farm in the Czech Republic (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Rybaríková, Jana; Dolejská, Monika; Materna, David; Literák, Ivan; Cízek, Alois

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli was tested in symbovine flies and sympatric house martins (Delichon urbica) at a dairy farm. Antimicrobial resistant E. coli was detected in 89% (n=147) of isolates from flies within a calf barn. Isolates with the same antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, genes, and pulsotypes were found between both fly and calf E. coli isolates, suggesting that the calves were the initial source of the antimicrobial resistant strains in fly isolates. Symbovine flies were considered as important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains at a dairy farm, due to their intensive contact with cattle feces and manure. House martin fecal samples from the same farm contained 4.5% (n=393) of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. House martin isolates displayed different macrorestriction profiles than fly isolates and the significance of house martins as a reservoir and vector of antimicrobial resistant E. coli appears low.

  10. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  11. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab devices for storage and transportation of Diarrheagenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jari J; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-07-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at -20°C or -70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At -70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At -20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions.

  12. Historical trends and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Town, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Brandywine Creek in Chester County is used for recreation and as an important source of drinking water. For this study, 40 sites were established for collection of water samples for analysis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in 1998-99. Samples were collected during base-flow conditions and during five storms in which rainfall exceeded 0.5 inch. During base- flow conditions, the median concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 col/100 mL at 26 of the 40 sites (65 percent). During stormflow conditions, the median concentration of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) criterion of 200 col/100 mL at 30 of 33 sites sampled (91 percent). Trends in fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were downward for the period 1973-99 at three long-term water-quality monitor stations, the result of upgrades in wastewater treatment plants, decreases in point-source discharges, and a decrease in agricultural land. A positive relation exists between streamflow and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria at two of the long-term stations, but concentrations are elevated in base flow and stormflow at all three stations. Factors affecting bacteria concentrations in the Brandywine Creek Basin include nonpoint-source contaminants, reservoirs, seasonality, and stormflow. Nonpoint sources of bacterial contamination in the basin include, but are not limited to, land-surface runoff, urbanization, agricultural processes, groundwater contamination, and wildlife. Bacteria concentrations in streams that flow directly from the reservoirs are much lower than the concentrations in the streams flowing into the reservoirs. During March, April, May, October, and November, the Brandywine Creek tends to have lower water temperatures and bacteria concentrations than during June, July, August, and September. The 10-year median concentrations of bacteria at West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena and East Branch

  13. Antimicrobial resistance: a global multifaceted phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Prestinaci, Francesca; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious global public health threats in this century. The first World Health Organization (WHO) Global report on surveillance of AMR, published in April 2014, collected for the first time data from national and international surveillance networks, showing the extent of this phenomenon in many parts of the world and also the presence of large gaps in the existing surveillance. In this review, we focus on antibacterial resistance (ABR), which represents at the moment the major problem, both for the high rates of resistance observed in bacteria that cause common infections and for the complexity of the consequences of ABR. We describe the health and economic impact of ABR, the principal risk factors for its emergence and, in particular, we illustrate the highlights of four antibiotic-resistant pathogens of global concern – Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, non-typhoidal Salmonella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis – for whom we report resistance data worldwide. Measures to control the emergence and the spread of ABR are presented. PMID:26343252

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci in small animals.

    PubMed

    Cain, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance presents an emerging challenge for both human and veterinary medical professionals. Infections associated with methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococci are increasingly encountered by veterinarians and are frequently associated with empiric therapeutic failures and limited systemic antimicrobial options. This article addresses mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in common staphylococcal pathogens and implications for clinical practice, including indications for culture and susceptibility testing, rational antimicrobial selection, and potential for zoonotic transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-related changes in select fecal bacteria in foals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult horses depend on the microbial community in the hindgut to produce VFAs that are utilized for energy. Microbial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of foals is essential to develop a healthy symbiotic relationship and prevent proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. However, colonization i...

  16. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in lesions of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander H; Haskin, Alessandra; Okoye, Ginette A

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic therapy is commonly used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although concern for antibiotic resistance exists, data examining the association between antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions are limited. We sought to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions from patients on antibiotic therapy. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 239 patients with HS seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions from 2010 through 2015. Patients using topical clindamycin were more likely to grow clindamycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with patients using no antibiotics (63% vs 17%; P = .03). Patients taking ciprofloxacin were more likely to grow ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S aureus compared with patients using no antibiotics (100% vs 10%; P = .045). Patients taking trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were more likely to grow trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Proteus species compared with patients using no antibiotics (88% vs 0%; P < .001). No significant antimicrobial resistance was observed with tetracyclines or oral clindamycin. Data on disease characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities for certain bacteria were limited. Antibiotic therapy for HS treatment may be inducing antibiotic resistance. These findings highlight the importance of stewardship in antibiotic therapy for HS and raise questions regarding the balance of antibiotic use versus potential harms associated with antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong; Wendlandt, Sarah; Fessler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Kadlec, Kristina; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In staphylococci and other Firmicutes, resistance to numerous classes of antimicrobial agents, which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is mediated by genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements. The gene products of some of these antimicrobial resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a certain class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into any of three major categories: active efflux, enzymatic inactivation, and modification/replacement/protection of the target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Among the mobile genetic elements that carry such resistance genes, plasmids play an important role as carriers of primarily plasmid-borne resistance genes, but also as vectors for nonconjugative and conjugative transposons that harbor resistance genes. Plasmids can be exchanged by horizontal gene transfer between members of the same species but also between bacteria belonging to different species and genera. Plasmids are highly flexible elements, and various mechanisms exist by which plasmids can recombine, form cointegrates, or become integrated in part or in toto into the chromosomal DNA or into other plasmids. As such, plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci and other Firmicutes.

  18. Association of dry cow therapy with the antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal coliform bacteria in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Glendening, Candace; Wittum, Thomas E; Funk, Julie A; Tragesser, Lesley A; Morley, Paul S

    2010-08-01

    The prophylactic use of intramammary antimicrobial drugs at the end of lactation in dairy cows, known as dry cow therapy (DCT), is widely practiced in US dairy herds. This extremely common use of high-dose, slow-release antimicrobials may influence the ecology of bacterial flora on dairy farms. We investigated the association between the antimicrobial used for intramammary DCT and the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to three antimicrobial drugs in dairy cattle. Most probable number (MPN) data were estimated from 463 individual fecal samples collected from lactating cows in 15 dairy herds in Ohio, USA. These data were used to calculate the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin, streptomycin, and tetracycline for individual cow samples. The farms included in this project were classified based on DCT, with 8 farms using a cephalosporin-based product and the remaining 7 using a penicillin/streptomycin therapy. Results of a linear mixed model indicate that herds using a cephalosporin DCT had higher (P<0.01) relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin and streptomycin compared to those using a penicillin/streptomycin intramammary therapy. Relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was not associated with DCT. These results suggest that high-dose slow-release antimicrobials applied locally in the udder to populations of dairy cows might influence the antimicrobial susceptibility of the enteric flora. However, the potential animal and public health implications of this result are not clear.

  19. Intrinsic Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in the Superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Murray, Justine L; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M; Whiteley, Marvin

    2015-10-27

    Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat in the clinic. This is particularly true for opportunistic pathogens that possess high intrinsic resistance. Though many studies have focused on understanding the acquisition of bacterial resistance upon exposure to antimicrobials, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are not well understood. In this study, we subjected the model opportunistic superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa to 14 antimicrobials under highly controlled conditions and assessed its response using expression- and fitness-based genomic approaches. Our results reveal that gene expression changes and mutant fitness in response to sub-MIC antimicrobials do not correlate on a genomewide scale, indicating that gene expression is not a good predictor of fitness determinants. In general, fewer fitness determinants were identified for antiseptics and disinfectants than for antibiotics. Analysis of gene expression and fitness data together allowed the prediction of antagonistic interactions between antimicrobials and insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling these interactions. Infections involving multidrug-resistant pathogens are difficult to treat because the therapeutic options are limited. These infections impose a significant financial burden on infected patients and on health care systems. Despite years of antimicrobial resistance research, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms controlling antimicrobial resistance. This work uses two fine-scale genomic approaches to identify genetic loci important for antimicrobial resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that antibiotics have more resistance determinants than antiseptics/disinfectants and that gene expression upon exposure to antimicrobials is not a good predictor of these resistance determinants. In addition, we show that when used together, genomewide gene expression and fitness profiling can provide

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food animals in Lagos, Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing animals fr...

  1. Status and trends of fecal indicator bacteria in two urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tina M; Suarez, Monica P; Rifai, Hanadi S; Jensen, Paul; Su, Yu-Chun; Stein, Ron

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines bacterial levels and their causes in two Houston bayous (Texas). Buffalo and Whiteoak bayous are two of the most contaminated water bodies in Texas for indicator bacteria, based on the frequency and magnitude of contact recreation water quality exceedances. Examination of historical data indicates frequent exceedances, although some improvement has been made since the 1970s. Statistical analyses showed some correlation between in-stream fecal coliform concentrations and rainfall and with land use. Differences in fecal coliform concentrations were found between high- and low-flow conditions in Whiteoak Bayou, while reservoir releases confounded this relationship in Buffalo Bayou. Wastewater treatment plant effluent was found to make up two-thirds to three-fourths of the median flow in both bayous. Effluent sampling was conducted at 72 of the approximately 140 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the watersheds, providing evidence that WWTP effluent could act to maintain low-flow concentrations of fecal coliform in the bayous.

  2. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  3. Occurrence of fecal-indicator bacteria and protocols for identification of fecal-contamination sources in selected reaches of the West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of fecal-indicator bacteria indicates the potential presence of pathogens originating from the fecal matter of warm-blooded animals. These pathogens are responsible for numerous human diseases ranging from common diarrhea to meningitis and polio. The detection of fecal-indicator bacteria and interpretation of the resultant data are, therefore, of great importance to water-resource managers. Current (2005) techniques used to assess fecal contamination within the fluvial environment primarily assess samples collected from the water column, either as grab samples or as depth- and (or) width-integrated samples. However, current research indicates approximately 99 percent of all bacteria within nature exist as attached, or sessile, bacteria. Because of this condition, most current techniques for the detection of fecal contamination, which utilize bacteria, assess only about 1 percent of the total bacteria within the fluvial system and are, therefore, problematic. Evaluation of the environmental factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of bacteria within the fluvial system, as well as the evaluation and modification of alternative approaches that effectively quantify the larger population of sessile bacteria within fluvial sediments, will present water-resource managers with more effective tools to assess, prevent, and (or) eliminate sources of fecal contamination within pristine and impaired watersheds. Two stream reaches on the West Branch Brandywine Creek in the Coatesville, Pa., region were studied between September 2002 and August 2003. The effects of sediment particle size, climatic conditions, aquatic growth, environmental chemistry, impervious surfaces, sediment and soil filtration, and dams on observed bacteria concentrations were evaluated. Alternative approaches were assessed to better detect geographic sources of fecal contamination including the use of turbidity as a surrogate for bacteria, the modification and implementation of sandbag

  4. Selection of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus with Inhibitory Activity Against Salmonella and Fecal Coliform Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abhisingha, Mattika; Dumnil, Jureeporn; Pitaksutheepong, Chetsadaporn

    2017-07-15

    Three hundred and sixty presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pregnant sows, newborn, suckling, and weaned piglets were preliminarily screened for anti-Salmonella activity. Fifty-eight isolates consisting of Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 32), Lactobacillus salivarius (n = 10), Lactobacillus mucosae (n = 8), Lactobacillus johnsonii (n = 5), and Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 3) were selected and further characterized for probiotic properties including production of antimicrobial substances, acid and bile tolerance, and cell adherence to Caco-2 cells. Eight isolates including Lact. johnsonii LJ202 and Lact. reuteri LR108 were identified as potential probiotics. LJ202 was selected for further use in co-culture studies of two-bacterial and multiple-bacterial species to examine its inhibitory activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis DMST7106 (SE7106). Co-culture of LJ202 and SE7106 showed that LJ202 could completely inhibit the growth of SE7106 in 10 h of co-culture. In co-culture of multiple-bacterial species, culturable fecal bacteria from pig feces were used as representative of multiple-bacterial species. The study was performed to examine whether interactions among multiple-bacterial species would influence antagonistic activity of LJ202 against SE7106 and fecal coliform bacteria. Co-culture of SE7106 with different combinations of fecal bacteria and probiotic (LJ202 and LR108) or non-probiotic (Lact. mucosae LM303) strains revealed that the growth of SE7106 was completely inhibited either in the presence or in the absence of probiotic strains. Intriguingly, LJ202 exhibited notable inhibitory activity against fecal coliform bacteria while LR108 did not. Taken together, the results of co-culture studies suggested that LJ202 is a good probiotic candidate for further study its inhibitory effects against pathogen infections in pigs.

  5. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Duris, Joseph W; Fogarty, Lisa R; Kolpin, Dana W; Focazio, Michael J; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL(-1), human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions.

  7. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana)

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dagne D.; Owens, William E.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that non-point source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources. PMID:16823083

  8. Transport of fecal bacteria by boots and vehicle tires in a rural Alaskan community.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Molly K; Ford, Malcolm R; White, Daniel M; Barnes, David L; Schiewer, Silke

    2009-02-01

    People living without piped water and sewer can be at increased risk for diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. One rural Alaskan community that relies on hauling water into homes and sewage from homes was studied to determine the pathways of fecal contamination of drinking water and the human environment so that barriers can be established to protect health. Samples were tested for the fecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and the less specific indicator group, total coliforms. Shoes transported fecal contamination from outside to floor material inside buildings. Contamination in puddles on the road, in conjunction with contamination found on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) tires, supports vehicle traffic as a mechanism for transporting contamination from the dumpsite or other source areas to the rest of the community. The abundance of fecal bacteria transported around the community on shoes and ATV tires suggests that centralized measures for waste disposal as well as shoe removal in buildings could improve sanitation and health in the community.

  9. Methodological comparisons for antimicrobial resistance surveillance in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to objectively compare methodological approaches that might be utilized in designing an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance program in beef feedlot cattle. Specifically, four separate comparisons were made to investigate their potential impact on estimates for prevalence of AMR. These included investigating potential differences between 2 different susceptibility testing methods (broth microdilution and disc diffusion), between 2 different target bacteria (non-type-specific E. coli [NTSEC] and Mannheimia haemolytica), between 2 strategies for sampling feces (individual samples collected per rectum and pooled samples collected from the pen floor), and between 2 strategies for determining which cattle to sample (cattle that were culture-positive for Mannheimia haemolytica and those that were culture-negative). Results Comparing two susceptibility testing methods demonstrated differences in the likelihood of detecting resistance between automated disk diffusion (BioMIC®) and broth microdilution (Sensititre®) for both E. coli and M. haemolytica. Differences were also detected when comparing resistance between two bacterial organisms within the same cattle; there was a higher likelihood of detecting resistance in E. coli than in M. haemolytica. Differences in resistance prevalence were not detected when using individual animal or composite pen sampling strategies. No differences in resistance prevalences were detected in E. coli recovered from cattle that were culture-positive for M. haemolytica compared to those that were culture-negative, suggesting that sampling strategies which targeted recovery of E. coli from M. haemolytica-positive cattle would not provide biased results. Conclusions We found that for general purposes, the susceptibility test selected for AMR surveillance must be carefully chosen considering the purpose of the surveillance since the ability to detect resistance appears to vary between these tests

  10. Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew S.; Layton, Alice C.; Mailloux, Brian J; Culligan, Patricia J.; Williams, Daniel E.; Smartt, Abby E.; Sayler, Gary S.; Feighery, John; McKay, Larry; Knappett, Peter S.K.; Alexandrova, Ekaterina; Arbit, Talia; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Streatfield, P. Kim; Yunus, Mohammad; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is routinely analyzed for fecal indicators but direct comparisons of fecal indicators to the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens are rare. This study was conducted in rural Bangladesh where the human population density is high, sanitation is poor, and groundwater pumped from shallow tubewells is often contaminated with fecal bacteria. Five indicator microorganisms (E. coli, total coliform, F+RNA coliphage, Bacteroides and human-associated Bacteroides) and various environmental parameters were compared to the direct detection of waterborne pathogens by quantitative PCR in groundwater pumped from 50 tubewells. Rotavirus was detected in groundwater filtrate from the largest proportion of tubewells (40%), followed by Shigella (10%), Vibrio (10%), and pathogenic E. coli (8%). Spearman rank correlations and sensitivity-specificity calculations indicate that some, but not all, combinations of indicators and environmental parameters can predict the presence of pathogens. Culture-dependent fecal indicator bacteria measured on a single date did not predict total bacterial pathogens, but annually averaged monthly measurements of culturable E. coli did improve prediction for total bacterial pathogens. A qPCR-based E. coli assay was the best indicator for the bacterial pathogens. F+RNA coliphage were neither correlated nor sufficiently sensitive towards rotavirus, but were predictive of bacterial pathogens. Since groundwater cannot be excluded as a significant source of diarrheal disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries with similar characteristics, the need to develop more effective methods for screening tubewells with respect to microbial contamination is necessary. PMID:22705866

  11. An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge Charles D. McGee Orange County Sanitation District* 10844 Ellis...Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative in 1999. This initiative required investigation, understanding and oversight of discharges from large cruise ships...into the waters of Alaska. As part of the overall assessment of impacts from cruise ship waste discharges on the environment, a Science Advisory

  12. Enterobacterial detection and Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance in parrots seized from the illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Hilari Wanderley; Hidasi Neto, José; Moraes, Dunya Mara Cardoso; Linhares, Guido Fontgallad Coelho; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora

    2013-03-01

    Enteric bacteria are considered important potential pathogens in avian clinical medicine, causing either primary or opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enterobacteria in the intestinal microbiota of psittacine birds and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the Escherichia coli isolates cultured. Fecal samples were collected from 300 parrots captured from the illegal wildlife trade in Goiás, Brazil and were processed using conventional bacteriological procedures. A total of 508 isolates were obtained from 300 fecal samples: 172 E. coli (33.9% of isolates; 57.3% of individuals); 153 Enterobacter spp. (30.1% of isolates; 51.0% of individuals); 89 Klebsiella spp. (17.7% of isolates; 29.7% of individuals); 59 Citrobacter spp. (11.6% of isolates; 19.7% of individuals), 21 Proteus vulgaris (4.2% of isolates; 7.0% of individuals), 5 Providencia alcalifaciens (0.98% of isolates; 1.67% of individuals), 5 Serratia sp. (0.98% of isolates; 1.67% of individuals), 3 Hafnia aivei (0.59% of isolates; 1.00% of individuals), and 1 Salmonella sp. (0.20% of isolates; 0.33% of individuals). Escherichia coli isolates were subsequently tested for susceptibility to the following antibiotics: amoxicillin (70.93% of the isolates were resistant), ampicillin (75.58%), ciprofloxacin (23.25%), chloramphenicol (33.14%), doxycycline (64.53%), enrofloxacin (41.28%), tetracycline (69.19%), and sulfonamide (71.51%). Multi-resistance to three and four groups of antibiotics occurred in 40 samples (23.25%) and 4 samples (2.32%), respectively. These results demonstrate that illegally traded birds are carriers of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli strains with antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated bla(CMY-2) gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated blaCMY-2 gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment. PMID:22447599

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Siam, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:19778428

  16. The role of poverty in antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Planta, Margaret B

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that has deleterious long-term effects as the development of drug resistance outpaces the development of new drugs. Poverty has been cited by the World Health Organization as a major force driving the development of antimicrobial resistance. In developing countries, factors such as inadequate access to effective drugs, unregulated dispensing and manufacture of antimicrobials, and truncated antimicrobial therapy because of cost are contributing to the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Within the United States, poverty-driven practices such as medication-sharing, use of "leftover" antibiotics, and the purchase and use of foreign-made drugs of questionable quality are likely contributing to antimicrobial resistance. However, there is currently a dearth of studies in the United States analyzing the socioeconomic and behavioral factors behind antimicrobial resistance in United States communities. Further studies of these factors, with an emphasis on poverty-driven practices, need to be undertaken in order to fully understand the problem of antimicrobial resistance in the United States and to develop effective intervention to combat this problem.

  17. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  18. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  19. Effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on survival of fecal and other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, J; McMeekin, T A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on the survival of bacteria of fecal and plant origin was studied. The decline in the numbers of Escherichia coli cells in estuarine water samples was found to be significantly greater in the presence of both naturally occurring microbial predators and solar radiation than when each of these factors was acting independently. The effect of solar radiation on microbial predators was negligible, whereas the susceptibility of bacteria to light-induced decay varied from one organism to another, as follows: Klebsiella pneumoniae greater than E. coli greater than Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia herbicola. PMID:7020590

  20. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Atidégla, Séraphin C.; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  1. Azorean wild rabbits as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Catarina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Silva, Nuno; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, David; Rodrigues, Tiago; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an increasing problem that is not only constrained to the clinical setting but also to other environments that can lodge antibiotic resistant bacteria and therefore they may serve as reservoirs of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance. One hundred and thirty-six faecal samples from European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) were collected on São Jorge Island in Azores Archipelago, and analysed for Escherichia coli isolates. Seventy-seven isolates (56.6%) were recovered and studied for antimicrobial resistance, one isolate per positive sample. Thirteen (16.9%), 19 (24.7%), 25 (32.4%) and 20 (26%) isolates were ascribed to A, B1, B2 and D phylogenetic groups, respectively, by specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Different E. coli isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (16.9%), tetracycline (1.3%), streptomycin (42.9%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (1.3%), amikacin (1.3%), tobramycin (2.6%) and nalidixic acid (1.3%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tetA, strA/strB, aadA, sul1, intI, intI2 and qacEΔ+sul1 genes were found in most resistant isolates. This study showed that E. coli from the intestinal tract of wild rabbits from Azores Archipelago are resistant to widely prescribed antibiotics in medicine and they constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant genes, which may play a significant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, antibiotic resistant E. coli from Azorean wild rabbits may represent an ecological and public health problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Hasegawa, Megumi; Esaki, Hidetake; Muramatsu, Masatake; Hirayama, Norio; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in Japanese black beef cattle from the three major production regions of Japan. We collected and examined 291 fecal samples from Japanese black beef cattle in Hokkaido, Chubu, and Kyushu. Of the 3,147 E. coli isolates, 1,397 (44.4%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics; these included 553 (39.8%) of 1,388 isolates from Hokkaido, 352 (54.4%) of 647 isolates from Chubu, and 492 (44.2%) of 1,112 isolates from Kyushu. The difference in resistance rates between the three regions was significant. The antibiotics with the highest rates of resistance were oxytetracycline and dihydrostreptomycin (35.8% each), followed by ampicillin (21.4%). Further, E. coli isolates from calves had higher resistance rates than those from growing cattle and mature cattle, and the calf isolates showed high rates of resistance to gentamicin (20.2%), enrofloxacin (9.4%), and ceftiofur (4.2%). In addition, the high degrees of similarity in the genotypes of the isolates and in the resistance patterns on each farm suggest that resistance bacteria and resistance genes were horizontally transferred. Most isolates, in each of the three regions, harbored resistance genes such as blaTEM, strA, strB, aphA1, aphAI-IAB, and catI. In contrast to the isolates from Kyushu, most of which harbored aacC2, tetB, and dfrA12, the isolates from Hokkaido and Chubu harbored a variety of resistance genes. Furthermore, the prevalence of genes for resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim differed significantly between the regions. This is the first large-scale study describing and comparing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from different regions in Japan. The results will contribute to improving food safety and promoting careful usage of antimicrobial agents.

  3. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli from Farm-Raised Diarrheic Sika Deer in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Hongchen

    2013-01-01

    In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were identified from the obtained E. coli isolates with O2, O26, O128, O142 and O154 being dominant. Nearly all the isolates were resistant to at least four of the tested antimicrobials. More than 90% of the E. coli isolates carried at least one of the tested virulence genes. About 85% of the E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial-resistant genes responsible for resistant phenotypes of sulfonamides, streptomycin/spectionomycin or tetracycline. The antimicrobial resistant level and pathogenic group occurrences of the obtained E. coli isolates were higher than that of livestock and wild animals reported in some developed countries. Thus, the fecal-carrying antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from the farm-raised sika deer is potentially a significant contamination source for freshwater systems and food chain, and may pose great health risks for human and animals in Northeastern China. PMID:24039919

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from farm-raised diarrheic sika deer in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Hongchen

    2013-01-01

    In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were identified from the obtained E. coli isolates with O2, O26, O128, O142 and O154 being dominant. Nearly all the isolates were resistant to at least four of the tested antimicrobials. More than 90% of the E. coli isolates carried at least one of the tested virulence genes. About 85% of the E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial-resistant genes responsible for resistant phenotypes of sulfonamides, streptomycin/spectionomycin or tetracycline. The antimicrobial resistant level and pathogenic group occurrences of the obtained E. coli isolates were higher than that of livestock and wild animals reported in some developed countries. Thus, the fecal-carrying antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from the farm-raised sika deer is potentially a significant contamination source for freshwater systems and food chain, and may pose great health risks for human and animals in Northeastern China.

  5. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  6. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  7. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  8. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  9. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-Term Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Estuarine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, A. S.; Layton, A.; Culligan, P. J.; Kenna, T. C.; Mailloux, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of marine and freshwater environments can negatively impact water quality, leading to contaminated drinking water as well as the closure of recreational beaches and waterways. Fecal contamination is routinely assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and even though the potential for their long-term survival or proliferation in sediments exist, information linking deposition of FIB with sediment age is scarce. We evaluate sediments as a reservoir for culturable FIB, by examining dated sediments from the lower Hudson River estuary for Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococcus, and Bacteroides. Sediment cores were collected from in the vicinity of the George Washington (GWB) and Tappan Zee (TZB) Bridges NY. Sediment deposition ages were constrained using gamma emitting radionuclides and pollution chronology. Culturable E. coli and enterococcus were quantified using a culture-based most probable number method (ColilertTM, Idexx Laboratories). Molecular based methods were used to quantify E. coli and Bacteroides. In the GWB core, viable enterococcus or E. coli were consistently detected in sediment younger than the 1960s with maximum concentrations of 39 and 171 cells/g, respectively. In the TZB core, only enterococcus was sporadically detected in sediment younger than 1950 with a maximum concentration of 79 cells/g. Molecular Bacteroides and E. coli were detected in all core samples with a geometric mean of 4.2x104 and 1.2x105 copies/g, respectively. Results indicate that fecal bacteria can survive within estuarine sediments for decades, suggesting that sediments could be a significant and persistent source of bacterial pollution.

  11. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates recovered from swine: A NARMS report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1996 the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine established the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System – Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) as a post-approval monitoring program. From 1997 through 2005 10,565 Salmonella isolates originated from swine slaughter/processing ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Escherichia coli and fecal-coliform bacteria as indicators of recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Myers, Donna N.; Metzker, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended that Escherichia coli (E. coli) be used in place of fecal-coliform bacteria in State recreational water-quality standards as an indicator of fecal contamination. This announcement followed an epidemiological study in which E. coli concentration was shown to be a better predictor of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness than fecal-coliform concentration. Water-resource managers from Ohio have decided to collect information specific to their waters and decide whether to use E. coli or fecal-coliform bacteria as the basis for State recreational water-quality standards. If one indicator is a better predictor of recreational water quality than the other and if the relation between the two indicators is variable, then the indicator providing the most accurate measure of recreational water quality should be used in water-quality standards. Water-quality studies of the variability of concentrations of E. coli to fecal-coliform bacteria have shown that (1) concentrations of the two indicators are positively correlated, (2) E. coli to fecal-coliform ratios differ considerably from site to site, and (3) the E. coli criteria recommended by USEPA may be more difficult to meet than current (1992) fecal-coliform standards. In this study, a statistical analysis was done on concentrations of E. coli and fecal-coliform bacteria in water samples collected by two government agencies in Ohio-- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). Data were organized initially into five data sets for statistical analysis: (1) Cuyahoga River, (2) Olentangy River, (3) Scioto River, (4) Ohio River at Anderson Ferry, and (5) Ohio River at Cincinnati Water Works and Tanners Creek. The USGS collected the data in sets 1, 2, and 3, whereas ORSANCO collected the data in sets 4 and 5. The relation of E. coli to fecal-coliform concentration was investigated by use of linear

  15. Fecal-borne bacteria in stormwater and treatment systems in coastal New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. H.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial contamination is the most common use limitation in New Hampshire's coastal waters. Past studies have shown consistently elevated levels of fecal-borne bacteria in surface waters occur during and following runoff events. Follow-up investigations have shown many stormwater conduits in urban areas that discharge directly into tidal rivers to contain high levels of bacteria, even during dry weather conditions. One of the results of these conditions is the need to close shellfishing waters throughout coastal New Hampshire, especially in Hampton Harbor, following rainfall events. Several recent studies have involved investigation of stormwater treatment system impacts on bacterial pollutants. Influent and effluent water samples from parking lot and storm drain treatment systems, runoff from urban streets, effluent from urban storm drains and receiving water samples were collected during different stages of stormwater runoff and analyzed for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. E. coli isolates from one storm drain system were also ribotyped to identify source species. The stormwater treatment systems showed different capabilities for removing bacteria. Most were inconsistent at removing bacteria while others showed evidence of possible re-growth of bacteria between storms, especially during warmer weather. Re-growth or illicit connections appear to impact effluent bacterial levels in many urban storm drains. The source species identified for E. coli isolates in one storm drain changed between different stages of a storm event, reflecting runoff dynamics and human behavior patterns. Further work is focused on identifying the most significant sources of bacterial contaminants in receiving waters to help focus ongoing pollution abatement measures.

  16. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  17. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pa. Water-quality samples and river-discharge measurements were collected from July to September 2001 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period), mixed-, and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 6-hour period) conditions at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers in Allegheny County. Water samples were collected weekly to establish baseline conditions and during successive days after three wet-weather events. Water samples were analyzed for fecal-indicator organisms including fecal-coliform (FC) bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Water samples were collected by the USGS and analyzed by the ACHD Laboratory. At each site, left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a composite sample (discharge-weighted sample representative of the channel cross section as a whole) at each site. Fecal-indicator bacteria reported in bank and composite samples were used to evaluate the distribution and mixing of bacteria-source streams in receiving waters such as the Three Rivers. Single-event concentrations of enterococci, E. coli, and FC during dry-weather events were greater than State and Federal water-quality standards (WQS) in 11, 28, and 28 percent of the samples, respectively; during mixed-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 28, 37, and 43 percent of the samples, respectively; and during wet-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 56, 71, and 81 percent of samples, respectively. Single-event, wet-weather concentrations exceeded those during dry-weather events for all sites except the Allegheny River at

  18. Use of a bacterial antimicrobial resistance gene microarray for the identification of resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Garneau, P; Labrecque, O; Maynard, C; Messier, S; Masson, L; Archambault, M; Harel, J

    2010-11-01

    As diagnostic and surveillance activities are vital to determine measures needed to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR), new and rapid laboratory methods are necessary to facilitate this important effort. DNA microarray technology allows the detection of a large number of genes in a single reaction. This technology is simple, specific and high-throughput. We have developed a bacterial antimicrobial resistance gene DNA microarray that will allow rapid antimicrobial resistance gene screening for all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A prototype microarray was designed using a 70-mer based oligonucleotide set targeting AMR genes of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present version, the microarray consists of 182 oligonucleotides corresponding to 166 different acquired AMR gene targets, covering most of the resistance genes found in both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. A test study was performed on a collection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples from dairy farms in Québec, Canada. The reproducibility of the hybridizations was determined, and the microarray results were compared with those obtained by phenotypic resistance tests (either MIC or Kirby-Bauer). The microarray genotyping demonstrated a correlation between penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance phenotypes with the corresponding acquired resistance genes. The hybridizations showed that the 38 antimicrobial resistant S. aureus isolates possessed at least one AMR gene. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and the activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    PubMed

    Bruno, A V; Mackay, Carolissen

    2012-04-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission has been working on the subject of antimicrobial resistance, mainly through the activities of the Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods and the ad hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance. Principal texts developed by Codex include the 'Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial Resistance (CAC/RCP 61-2005) and 'Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance' (CAC/GL 77-2011). The successful containment of antimicrobial resistance requires the collaboration of a wide range of stakeholders, working together to protect consumer health by ensuring the safety of food products of animal origin.

  20. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and the Environment on Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, David L.; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011–2013 and tested them for E. coli and susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Of samples testing positive for E. coli, resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobials was detected in 7.4% (77/1044; 95% CI, 5.9–9.1) of raccoon fecal samples, 6.3% (23/365; 95% CI, 4.0–9.3) of paw samples, 9.6% (121/1260; 8.0–11.4) of soil samples, 57.4% (31/54; 95% CI, 43.2–70.8) of manure pit samples, and 13.8% (4/29; 95% CI, 3.9–31.7) of dumpster samples. Using univariable logistic regression, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of resistant E. coli in raccoon feces on conservation areas versus farms; however, E. coli isolates resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobials were significantly less likely to be detected from raccoon paw samples on swine farms than conservation areas and significantly more likely to be detected in soil samples from swine farms than conservation areas. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes that were absent from the swine farm environment were detected in raccoons from conservation areas, suggesting that conservation areas and swine farms may have different exposures to resistant bacteria. However, the similar resistance patterns and genes in E. coli from raccoon fecal and environmental samples from the same location types suggest that resistant bacteria may be exchanged between raccoons and their environment. PMID:27829035

  1. Source tracking fecal bacteria in water: a critical review of current methods.

    PubMed

    Meays, Cynthia L; Broersma, Klaas; Nordin, Rick; Mazumder, Asit

    2004-10-01

    Many molecular and biochemical methods and techniques are being developed to track sources of bacteria in water and food. Currently, there is no standard method proposed for source tracking. This manuscript is a critical evaluation of the various methods used in watersheds, and highlights some of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Making a decision on a single or combination of methods to use under a particular situation will depend on a number of factors including: question(s) to be answered, scale of identification (broad scale versus specific species identification), available expertise, cost of analysis, turnaround time, and access to facilities. This manuscript reviews several source tracking methodologies which are in current use for source tracking fecal bacteria in the environment including: ribotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis, repetitive DNA sequences (Rep-PCR), host-specific 16S rDNA genetic markers, and antibiotic resistance analysis.

  2. Role of Antimicrobial Selective Pressure and Secondary Factors on Antimicrobial Resistance Prevalence in Escherichia coli from Food-Producing Animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the veterinary field affects the emergence, prevalence, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food-producing animals. To control the emergence, prevalence, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance, it is necessary to implement appropriate actions based on scientific evidence. In Japan, the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM) was established in 1999 to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne and commensal bacteria from food-producing animals. The JVARM showed that the emergence and prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli were likely linked to the therapeutic antimicrobial use in food-producing animals through not only direct selection of the corresponding resistance but also indirect selections via cross-resistance and coresistance. In addition, relevant factors such as host animals and bacterial properties might affect the occurrence and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli under the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage. This paper reviews the trends in antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and consumption of antimicrobials agents in Japan and introduces the relationship between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, from food-producing animals under the JVARM program. In this paper, we will provide the underlying information about the significant factors that can help control antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in veterinary medicine. PMID:20589071

  3. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  4. Effects of two diesel fuel mixtures on fecal coliform bacteria densities

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Scott, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    One of the major potential environmental impacts from synthetic fuel production plants and conventional petroleum refinement operations is the spillage of the refined product into natural waters. Impacts upon aquatic ecosystems resulting from spills of synthetic fuel would likely be different from those associated with conventional petroleum since products extracted from coal or shale are generally richer in phenolics, aromatic amines and other soluble organic compounds. Also, synfuels have higher water solubilities than equivalent petroleum products giving the potential for higher water concentrations of hydrocarbons. This study tested the effects of the water soluble fractions (WSFs) of a shale diesel fuel mixture (SDFM) and a petroleum diesel fuel mixture (PDFM) on the growth of fecal coliform bacteria, the group used almost universally as an indicator of bacteriological water quality. The WSF was tested instead of whole oil because acute toxicity results primarily from this fraction. A wild group of fecal coliform bacteria was used since the objective was to observe effects upon this indicator group encountered in the environment instead of pure laboratory cultures by the routine ambient monitoring and measurement technique of membrane filter colony counts as employed by most water quality management agencies.

  5. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Food Animals in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenipekun, Eyitayo O; Jackson, Charlene R; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Frye, Jonathan G; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Woodley, Tiffanie A

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing animals from Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated. From December 2012 to June 2013, E. coli were isolated from fecal samples of healthy cattle, chicken, and swine. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 22 antimicrobials was performed using broth microdilution with the Sensititre™ system. Clonal types were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the analysis, 211/238 (88.7%), 170/210 (81%), and 136/152 (89.5%) samples from cattle, chicken, and swine, respectively, were positive for E. coli. A subset of those isolates (n=211) selected based on β-lactamase production was chosen for further study. Overall, E. coli exhibited the highest resistance to tetracycline (124/211; 58.8%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (84/211; 39.8%), and ampicillin (72/211; 34.1%). Approximately 40% of the isolates were pan-susceptible, and none of the isolates were resistant to amikacin, cefepime, ceftazidime, ertapenem, meropenem, or tigecycline. Among the resistant isolates, 28 different resistance patterns were observed; 26 of those were characterized as multi-drug resistant (MDR; resistance to ≥2 antimicrobials). One isolate was resistant to 13 different antimicrobials representing five different antimicrobial classes. Using PFGE, MDR E. coli were genetically diverse and overall did not group based on source; identical PFGE patterns were detected among isolates from different sources. These results suggest that isolates cannot be attributed to specific sources, and some may be present across all of the sources. Results from this study indicate that food-producing animals in Nigeria are a reservoir of MDR E. coli that may be transferred to humans via the food chain.

  6. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from Australian Cattle Populations at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Robert S; McMillan, Kate E; Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle; Jordan, David; Mellor, Glen E

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacteria associated with diseases. Australia is the world's third largest exporter of beef; however, this country does not have an ongoing surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cattle or in foods derived from these animals. In this study, 910 beef cattle, 290 dairy cattle, and 300 veal calf fecal samples collected at slaughter were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the phenotypic AMR of 800 E. coli and 217 Salmonella isolates was determined. E. coli was readily isolated from all types of samples (92.3% of total samples), whereas Salmonella was recovered from only 14.4% of samples and was more likely to be isolated from dairy cattle samples than from beef cattle or veal calf samples. The results of AMR testing corroborate previous Australian animal and retail food surveys, which have indicated a low level of AMR. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella isolates from beef cattle was detected infrequently; however, the resistance was to antimicrobials of low importance in human medicine. Although some differences in AMR between isolates from the different types of animals were observed, there is minimal evidence that specific production practices are responsible for disproportionate contributions to AMR development. In general, resistance to antimicrobials of critical and high importance in human medicine was low regardless of the isolate source. The low level of AMR in bacteria from Australian cattle is likely a result of strict regulation of antimicrobials in food animals in Australia and animal management systems that do not favor bacterial disease.

  7. The antimicrobial resistance monitoring and research (ARMoR) program: the US Department of Defense response to escalating antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Lesho, Emil P; Waterman, Paige E; Chukwuma, Uzo; McAuliffe, Kathryn; Neumann, Charlotte; Julius, Michael D; Crouch, Helen; Chandrasekera, Ruvani; English, Judith F; Clifford, Robert J; Kester, Kent E

    2014-08-01

    Responding to escalating antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the US Department of Defense implemented an enterprise-wide collaboration, the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program, to aid in infection prevention and control. It consists of a network of epidemiologists, bioinformaticists, microbiology researchers, policy makers, hospital-based infection preventionists, and healthcare providers who collaborate to collect relevant AMR data, conduct centralized molecular characterization, and use AMR characterization feedback to implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures and influence policy. A particularly concerning type of AMR, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, significantly declined after the program was launched. Similarly, there have been no further reports or outbreaks of another concerning type of AMR, colistin resistance in Acinetobacter, in the Department of Defense since the program was initiated. However, bacteria containing AMR-encoding genes are increasing. To update program stakeholders and other healthcare systems facing such challenges, we describe the processes and impact of the program. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J. M.; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.; Humphrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. PMID:25934615

  9. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J M; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P; Humphrey, Tom; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health.

  10. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  11. Mathematical modelling of antimicrobial resistance in agricultural waste highlights importance of gene transfer rate.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michelle; Hobman, Jon L; Dodd, Christine E R; Ramsden, Stephen J; Stekel, Dov J

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is of global concern. Most antimicrobial use is in agriculture; manures and slurry are especially important because they contain a mix of bacteria, including potential pathogens, antimicrobial resistance genes and antimicrobials. In many countries, manures and slurry are stored, especially over winter, before spreading onto fields as organic fertilizer. Thus, these are a potential location for gene exchange and selection for resistance. We develop and analyse a mathematical model to quantify the spread of antimicrobial resistance in stored agricultural waste. We use parameters from a slurry tank on a UK dairy farm as an exemplar. We show that the spread of resistance depends in a subtle way on the rates of gene transfer and antibiotic inflow. If the gene transfer rate is high, then its reduction controls resistance, while cutting antibiotic inflow has little impact. If the gene transfer rate is low, then reducing antibiotic inflow controls resistance. Reducing length of storage can also control spread of resistance. Bacterial growth rate, fitness costs of carrying antimicrobial resistance and proportion of resistant bacteria in animal faeces have little impact on spread of resistance. Therefore, effective treatment strategies depend critically on knowledge of gene transfer rates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sucralose Increases Antimicrobial Resistance and Stimulates Recovery of Escherichia coli Mutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yilin; Li, Rongyan; Jiang, Mingshan; Wang, Xiuhong

    2017-07-01

    Because of heavy use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become of great concern. The effect of some widely used food additives such as sucralose on bacteria in the gut and the environment has also drawn increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the interaction between antimicrobials and sucralose impacting antimicrobial resistance and mutation of Escherichia coli (E. coli). To examine antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency, different subinhibitory concentrations of sucralose were added to cultures of E.coli BW25113 that were then treated with antimicrobials, oxolinic acid, or moxifloxacin. Then the E.coli were assayed for bacterial survival and recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Pre-treatment of E.coli BW25113 with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sucralose increased the survival rate in oxolinic acid or moxifloxacin. A 1/3 MIC of sucralose increased rifampicin-resistant mutation rate of E.coli BW25113 after 72 h, while rifampicin-resistant mutation rate was increased when co-treated with 1/8 MIC, 1/4 MIC, 1/3 MIC sucralose, and oxolinic acid after 24 h. Sucralose can increase the antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency of E.coli to some antimicrobials.

  13. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  14. Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and Selected Tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  15. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: 2009-2010 results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Yung-Ching; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) was expanded to include surveillance of Gram-negative pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Asia-Pacific region. A total of 1762 isolates were collected from 38 centers in 11 countries from patients with UTIs in 2009 and 2010. In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2010 (M100-S20), in 2011 (M100-S21), and in 2012 (M100-S22). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 86.0% of the isolates, of which Escherichia coli (56.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.8%) were the two most common species. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic (91.7%), followed by ertapenem (86.9%), imipenem (86.6%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (84.9%). Rates of susceptibility were 50.3% for cefoxitin and ranged from 50.3% to 74.2% for the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. For ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, the susceptibility rates were 51.4% and 54.4%, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae comprised 28.2% of all isolates. We also found a high rate of resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing UTI. Interestingly, according to 2012 CLSI breakpoints, approximately 33.4% of ESBL producers were still susceptible to ceftazidime. However, this in vitro efficacy of ceftazidime needs to be validated in vivo by clinical data. The lowered CLSI interpretive breakpoints for piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems, and some cephalosporins in 2011-2012 for Enterobacteriaceae resulted in an approximate 5% drop in susceptibility rates for each drug, with the exception of imipenem for which the susceptibility rate dropped from 99.4% according to 2010 criteria to 91.2% according to 2011 criteria. With the updated

  16. Effect of external or internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on prechilled broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D

    2007-06-01

    During processing, fecal material may contact broiler carcasses externally or internally. A study was conducted to determine the effect of external vs. internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 trials, 12 carcasses just prior to evisceration were obtained from a commercial processing plant, placed on a shackle line, and eviscerated with commercial equipment in a pilot scale processing plant. Also, approximately 20 intestinal tracts were collected from the processing plant; then cecal contents were collected and pooled. One gram of cecal content was placed on the exterior breast skin (external), inside the carcass cavity (internal), or not applied (control). All carcasses were held 10 min, then placed on the shackle line and passed through a commercial inside-outside bird washer set at 552 kPa, 5 s dwell time, using approximately 189 L per min of tap water at ambient temperature. After a 1-min drip, whole carcass rinses were conducted on each carcass, and coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter counts were determined and reported as log cfu/mL of rinse. External carcass contamination resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) coliform, E. coli, and Campylobacter numbers than internal contamination (5.0 vs. 4.5, 4.9 vs. 4.2, and 3.6 vs. 2.6, respectively). Control carcass counts were significantly lower than external or internal carcass contamination counts for coliforms (3.7), E. coli (3.6), and Campylobacter (2.2). External contamination resulted in higher numbers of bacteria after carcass washing, but carcasses with internal contamination still have higher numbers of bacteria after washing than carcasses without applied contamination.

  17. Movement of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets through septic drainfields.

    PubMed

    Billian, Hannah; Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Thompson, Theresa; Hagedorn, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The past three decades' data on outbreaks in the United States indicate that homes dependent on untreated groundwater (e.g. wells) for household drinking water that are also reliant on onsite treatment of household wastewater (e.g. septic systems) may be at greater risk for waterborne disease. While groundwater quality monitoring to protect public health has traditionally focused on the detection of fecal indicator bacteria, the application of emerging source tracking strategies may offer a more efficient means to identify pollution sources and effective means of remediation. This study compares the movement of common fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) with a chemical (optical brighteners, OB) and a molecular (Bacteroides HF183) source tracking (ST) target in small scale septic drainfield models in order to evaluate their potential utility in groundwater monitoring. Nine PVC column drainfield models received synchronized doses of primary-treated wastewater twice daily, with influent and effluent monitored bi-weekly over a 7-month period for all targets. Results indicate that E. coli and enterococci concentrations were strongly associated (Spearman's rank, p<0.05), and correlations between enterococci and optical brighteners were moderately strong. Bacteroides HF183 was significantly, but not strongly, associated with optical brighteners and both indicator bacteria (Point-biserial correlation, p<0.05), most likely due to its sporadic detection. Application of human ST marker monitoring in groundwaters at risk of contamination by human sewage is recommended, although consistent interpretation of results will rely on more detailed evaluation of HF183 incidence in source contamination waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: Two Decades of Advancing Public Health Through Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Plumblee, Jodie R; Dessai, Uday; Whichard, Jean M; Thacker, Eileen L; Hale, Kis Robertson; Wilson, Wanda; Friedman, Cindy R; Griffin, Patricia M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-10-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in

  19. The effect of storage time on Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in an Isco autosampler.

    PubMed

    Ghazaleh, Maite N; Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination in coastal and estuarine ecosystems is critical to reduce adverse effects to public health. During storm events, particularly hurricanes, floods, Nor'easters, and tropical cyclones, sampling of coastal and estuarine waters is not generally possible due to safety concerns. It is particularly important to monitor waters during these periods as it is at precisely these times that pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations fluctuate, potentially posing significant risks to public health. Automated samplers, such as the Isco sampler, are commonly used to conduct remote sample collection. Remote sampling is employed during severe storm periods, thereby reducing risk to researchers. Water samples are then stored until conditions are safe enough to retrieve them, typically in less than 21h, to collect the samples. Concerns exist regarding potential "bottle effects", whereby containment of sample might result in altered results. While these effects are well documented in samples being held for 24h or more, there is little data on bottle effects occurring during the first 24h of containment, and less still on the specific effects related to this type of sampling regime. Estuarine water samples were collected in the fall of 2013, placed into an Isco autosampler and subsampled over time to determine the effects of storage within this type of autosampling device. Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria were quantified using replicated culture-based methods, including Enterolert™ and membrane filtration. The experiments demonstrated no significant impact of storage time when comparing concentrations of total Vibrio spp., Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, or Enterococcus spp. after storage compared to original concentrations. However, the findings also suggested that increased variability and growth can occur during the middle of the day

  20. Fecal indicator bacteria persistence under natural conditions in an ice-covered river.

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, C V; Sparrow, E B; Gordon, R C

    1976-01-01

    Total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS) survival characteristics, under natural conditions at 0 degrees C in an ice-covered river, were examined during February and March 1975. The membrane filter (MF) technique was used throughout the study, and the multiple-tube (MPN) method was used in parallel on three preselected days for comparative recovery of these bacteria. Survival was studied at seven sample stations downstream from all domestic pollution sources in a 317-km reach of the river having 7.1 days mean flow time (range of 6.0 to 9.1 days). The mean indicator bacteria densities decreased continuously at successive stations in this reach and, after adjustment for dilution, the most rapid die-off was found to occur during the first 1.9 days, followed by a slower decrease. After 7.1 days, the relative survival was TC less than FC less than FS, with 8.4%, 15.7%, and 32.8% of the initial populations remaining viable, respectively. These rates are higher than previously reported and suggest that the highest survival rates for these bacteria in receiving streams can be expected at 0 degree C under ice cover. Additionally, the FC-FS ratio was greater than 5 at all stations, indicating that this ratio may be useable for determining the source of fecal pollution in receiving streams for greater than 7 days flow time at low water temperatures. The MPN and MF methods gave comparable results for the TC and FS at all seven sample stations, with both the direct and verified MF counts within the 95% confidence limits of the respective MPNs in most samples, but generally lower than the MPN index. Although FC recovery on membrane filters was comparable results at stations near the pollution source. However, the results became more comparable with increasing flow time. The results of this study indicate that heat shock is a major factor in suppression of the FC counts on the membrane filters at 44.5 degree C. Heat shock may be minimized by extended

  1. Presence and Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Epilithic Periphyton Communities of Lake Superior▿

    PubMed Central

    Ksoll, Winfried B.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Hicks, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Epilithic periphyton communities were sampled at three sites on the Minnesota shoreline of Lake Superior from June 2004 to August 2005 to determine if fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were present throughout the ice-free season. Fecal coliform densities increased up to 4 orders of magnitude in early summer, reached peaks of up to 1.4 × 105 CFU cm−2 by late July, and decreased during autumn. Horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced repetitive-PCR DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that the source for 2% to 44% of the E. coli bacteria isolated from these periphyton communities could be identified when compared with a library of E. coli fingerprints from animal hosts and sewage. Waterfowl were the major source (68 to 99%) of periphyton E. coli strains that could be identified. Several periphyton E. coli isolates were genotypically identical (≥92% similarity), repeatedly isolated over time, and unidentified when compared to the source library, suggesting that these strains were naturalized members of periphyton communities. If the unidentified E. coli strains from periphyton were added to the known source library, then 57% to 81% of E. coli strains from overlying waters could be identified, with waterfowl (15 to 67%), periphyton (6 to 28%), and sewage effluent (8 to 28%) being the major potential sources. Inoculated E. coli rapidly colonized natural periphyton in laboratory microcosms and persisted for several weeks, and some cells were released to the overlying water. Our results indicate that E. coli from periphyton released into waterways confounds the use of this bacterium as a reliable indicator of recent fecal pollution. PMID:17468280

  2. Distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy rivers in the Columbus, Ohio, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to determine the distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy Rivers. Fecal-indicator bacteria are among the contaminants of concern to recreational users of these rivers in the Columbus area. Samples were collected to be analyzed for fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and selected water-quality constituents and physical properties at 10 sites-- 4 on the Olentangy River and 6 on the Scioto River during the recreational seasons in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Measurements of streamflow also were made at these sites at various frequencies during base flow and runoff. The concentrations of fecal-coliform and E. coli bacteria in the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers spanned a range of five orders of magnitude, from less than 20 to greater than 2,000,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters). In addition, the concentrations of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria are well correlated (r=0.97) in the study area. At times, relatively high concentrations, for fecal-indicator bacteria (concentrations greater than 51,000 col/100 mL for fecal-coliform and E. coli ) were found in Olentangy River at Woody Hayes Drive and at Goodale Street, and in Scioto River at Greenlawn Avenue and at Columbus. Intermediate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 5,100 to 50,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and (from 510 to 50,000 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found in Scioto River at Town Street and below O'Shaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio, and in Olentangy River at Henderson Road. The lowest (median) concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 20 to 5,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and from 20 to 500 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found at Olentangy River near Worthington, Ohio, Scioto River at Dublin Road Water Treatment Plant and below Griggs Reservoir. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the geometric

  3. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  4. Stochastic Analysis of Non Point Source Loading of Fecal Bacteria in a Shallow Heterogeneous Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S. J.; Li, X.; Atwill, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Manure and wastewater irrigation (MWI) presents a microbiological risk to shallow groundwater quality. Particularly vulnerable are domestic wells in rural areas where treatment systems may be limited or unreliable. However, despite multiple and persistent sources of fecal contamination, cross sectional monitoring of fecal bacteria in groundwater indicates a high degree of variability in both prevalence and measured concentrations. Apparently random variation occurs both between wells and samples at individual wells. In contrast, deliberate longitudinal studies of MWIs, particularly in the laboratory, tend to exhibit relatively smooth breakthrough curves consistent with colloid filtration theory. To better characterize potential sources of variability in observed field data, a 3D stochastic groundwater modeling approach representative of irrigation applications to vulnerable alluvial aquifers was developed. Heterogeniety is assessed by incorporating multiple loading functions and hydrostratigraphic representations of a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer. Simulations indicate that irrigation water breakthroughs to wells are generally limited to shallow depths, suggesting limited risk to domestic wells screened several tens of meters below the water table. Whilst the presence of aquifer heterogeneity significantly extends the transport distance and tailing of breakthrough curves, owing to macro-dispersion and in-well mixing, simulated breakthrough curves are relatively smooth and consistent with observed longitudinal studies. This suggests that the highly erratic and variable nature of microorganism detection may be due to highly transient processes, including but not limited to spatio-temporal variations in source variability and limitations in infrequent monitoring programs to properly determine variability.

  5. Particle-size distribution as indicator for fecal bacteria contamination of drinking water from karst springs.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Michiel; Goldscheider, Nico; Zopfi, Jakob

    2007-12-15

    Continuous monitoring of particle-size distribution (PSD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, discharge and physicochemical parameters, together with analyses of fecal indicator bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, made it possible to better understand the processes governing pathogen transport in karst groundwater and to establish PSD as indicator for possible microbial contamination of drinking water from karst springs. In the study area near Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, tracer tests proved connection between a sinking stream draining agricultural land and several springs, 4.8-6.3 km away. Tracing and monitoring results demonstrate that (i) suspended particles (turbidity) in the spring water either originate from remobilization of sediments inside the aquifer (autochthonous) or from the sinking stream and land surface (allochthonous); (ii) allochthonous turbidity coincides with increased E. coli and TOC levels; (iii) PSD makes it possible to distinguish the two types of turbidity; (iv) a relative increase of finer particles (0.9-10 microm) indicates allochthonous turbidity and thus possible fecal contamination. The method permits to optimize water treatment and identify periods when the spring water must be rejected. Findings from other test sites confirm the feasibility of this approach.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide. Poultry flocks are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat disease, as well as for growth promotion. Antimicrobial resistant poultry pathogens may result in treatment failure, leading to economic losses, but also be a source of resistant bacteria/genes (including zoonotic bacteria) that may represent a risk to human health. Here we reviewed data on AMR in 12 poultry pathogens, including avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Gallibacterium anatis, Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Riemerella anatipestifer. A number of studies have demonstrated increases in resistance over time for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, and G. anatis. Among Enterobacteriaceae, APEC isolates displayed considerably higher levels of AMR compared with S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, with prevalence of resistance over >80% for ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline across studies. Among the Gram-negative, non-Enterobacteriaceae pathogens, ORT had the highest levels of phenotypic resistance with median levels of AMR against co-trimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur all exceeding 50%. In contrast, levels of resistance among P. multocida isolates were less than 20% for all antimicrobials. The study highlights considerable disparities in methodologies, as well as in criteria for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing and result interpretation. It is necessary to increase efforts to harmonize testing practices, and to promote free access to data on AMR in order to improve treatment guidelines as well as to

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Carrique-Mas, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide. Poultry flocks are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat disease, as well as for growth promotion. Antimicrobial resistant poultry pathogens may result in treatment failure, leading to economic losses, but also be a source of resistant bacteria/genes (including zoonotic bacteria) that may represent a risk to human health. Here we reviewed data on AMR in 12 poultry pathogens, including avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Gallibacterium anatis, Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Riemerella anatipestifer. A number of studies have demonstrated increases in resistance over time for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, and G. anatis. Among Enterobacteriaceae, APEC isolates displayed considerably higher levels of AMR compared with S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, with prevalence of resistance over >80% for ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline across studies. Among the Gram-negative, non-Enterobacteriaceae pathogens, ORT had the highest levels of phenotypic resistance with median levels of AMR against co-trimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur all exceeding 50%. In contrast, levels of resistance among P. multocida isolates were less than 20% for all antimicrobials. The study highlights considerable disparities in methodologies, as well as in criteria for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing and result interpretation. It is necessary to increase efforts to harmonize testing practices, and to promote free access to data on AMR in order to improve treatment guidelines as well as to

  8. Strategic measures for the control of surging antimicrobial resistance in Hong Kong and mainland of China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vincent CC; Wong, Sally CY; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are either highly prevalent or increasing rapidly in Hong Kong and China. Treatment options for these bacteria are generally limited, less effective and more expensive. The emergence and dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria circulating between animals, the environment and humans are not entirely known. Nonetheless, selective pressure by antibiotics on the microbiomes of animal and human, and their associated environments (especially farms and healthcare institutions), sewage systems and soil are likely to confer survival advantages upon bacteria with antimicrobial-resistance genes, which may be further disseminated through plasmids or transposons with integrons. Therefore, antibiotic use must be tightly regulated to eliminate such selective pressure, including the illegalization of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed and regulation of antibiotic use in veterinary practice and human medicine. Heightened awareness of infection control measures to reduce the risk of acquiring resistant bacteria is essential, especially during antimicrobial use or institutionalization in healthcare facilities. The transmission cycle must be interrupted by proper hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, avoidance of undercooked or raw food and compliance with infection control measures by healthcare workers, visitors and patients, especially during treatment with antibiotics. In addition to these routine measures, proactive microbiological screening of hospitalized patients with risk factors for carrying resistant bacteria, including history of travel to endemic countries, transfer from other hospitals, and prolonged hospitalization; directly observed hand hygiene before oral intake of drugs, food and drinks; and targeted disinfection of high-touch or mutual-touch items, such as bed rails and bed curtains, are important. Transparency of surveillance data from each institute for public scrutiny provides an incentive for

  9. Strategic measures for the control of surging antimicrobial resistance in Hong Kong and mainland of China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Wong, Sally C Y; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are either highly prevalent or increasing rapidly in Hong Kong and China. Treatment options for these bacteria are generally limited, less effective and more expensive. The emergence and dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria circulating between animals, the environment and humans are not entirely known. Nonetheless, selective pressure by antibiotics on the microbiomes of animal and human, and their associated environments (especially farms and healthcare institutions), sewage systems and soil are likely to confer survival advantages upon bacteria with antimicrobial-resistance genes, which may be further disseminated through plasmids or transposons with integrons. Therefore, antibiotic use must be tightly regulated to eliminate such selective pressure, including the illegalization of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed and regulation of antibiotic use in veterinary practice and human medicine. Heightened awareness of infection control measures to reduce the risk of acquiring resistant bacteria is essential, especially during antimicrobial use or institutionalization in healthcare facilities. The transmission cycle must be interrupted by proper hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, avoidance of undercooked or raw food and compliance with infection control measures by healthcare workers, visitors and patients, especially during treatment with antibiotics. In addition to these routine measures, proactive microbiological screening of hospitalized patients with risk factors for carrying resistant bacteria, including history of travel to endemic countries, transfer from other hospitals, and prolonged hospitalization; directly observed hand hygiene before oral intake of drugs, food and drinks; and targeted disinfection of high-touch or mutual-touch items, such as bed rails and bed curtains, are important. Transparency of surveillance data from each institute for public scrutiny provides an incentive for

  10. Cultivation-Independent Analysis of Bacteria in IDEXX Quanti-Tray/2000 Fecal Indicator Assays ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Murray, Jill L. S.; Holden, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring microbiological water quality is important for protecting water resources and the health of swimmers. Routine monitoring relies on cultivating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), frequently using defined substrate technology. Defined substrate technology is designed to specifically enrich for FIB, but a complete understanding of the assay microbiology requires culture-independent analysis of the enrichments. This study aimed to identify bacteria in positive wells of Colilert and Enterolert Quanti-Tray/2000 (IDEXX Laboratories) FIB assays in environmental water samples and to quantify the degree of false-positive results for samples from an urban creek by molecular methods. Pooled Escherichia coli- and Enterococcus-positive Quanti-Tray/2000 enrichments, either from urban creek dry weather flow or municipal sewage, harbored diverse bacterial populations based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Target taxa (coliforms or enterococci) and nontarget taxa (Vibrio spp., Shewanella spp., Bacteroidetes, and Clostridium spp.) were identified in pooled and individual positive Colilert and Enterolert wells based on terminal restriction fragments that were in common with those generated in silico from clone sequences. False-positive rates of between 4 and 23% occurred for the urban creek samples, based on the absence of target terminal restriction fragments in individual positive wells. This study suggests that increased selective inhibition of nontarget bacteria could improve the accuracy of the Colilert and Enterolert assays. PMID:21097584

  11. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics. PMID:25941519

  12. [Preliminary study on bacteroides as the potential fecal contamination indicator bacteria].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-yan; Chen, Zhi-jin; Ding, Xiao-bei; Huang, Wei; Yang, Rui-jia; Pei, Xiao-fang

    2011-03-01

    To explore the possibility of Bacteroides spp. as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) assay through analyzing the correlation between Bacteroides spp. and coliform group in external environment. Quantity of coliform group and Bacteroides in water samples were detected by most-probable-number method (MPN) and RT-PCR, respectively, and their detection correlation was evaluated with linear correlation analysis. Both methods were also applied to detect the contaminated time limits and river water samples collected at four sampling sites in three different times. Seventy two hours were needed for the numeration of coliform group with MPN method, while RT-PCR could detect Bacteroides within 3 hours. The contaminated time limit of indoor and outdoor water samples of coliform group was more than 40 days and 9 days, and Bacteroides 13 days and 5 days, respectively. Also, the positive correlation between the quantity of Bacteroides and coliform group in outdoor water samples was obtained, the quantity of Bacteroides was from 8.3 × 10(6) copies/ml to less than 10(4) copies/ml during the first day to the fifth day, while coliform group was 4.3 × 10(6) MPN/100 ml to 2.4 × 10(3) MPN/100 ml. A 100% coincidence rate of the detection results with both methods was also observed. These results indicated that the detection results of both methods had perfect consistency. Bacteroides spp. can be potentially used as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with RT-PCR rapid detection.

  13. Bayesian meta-analysis to synthesize decay rate constant estimates for common fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Lauren E; Field, Katharine G

    2016-11-01

    For decades, fecal indicator bacteria have been used as proxies to quantitatively estimate fecal loading into water bodies. Widely used cultured indicators (e.g. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) and more recently developed genetic markers are well studied, but their decay in the environment is still poorly understood. We used Hierarchical Bayesian Linear Modeling to conduct a series of meta-analyses using published decay rate constant estimates, to synthesize findings into pooled estimates and identify gaps in the data preventing reliable estimates. In addition to the meta-analysis assuming all estimates come from the same population, meta-regressions including covariates believed to contribute to decay were fit and used to provided synthesized estimates for specific combinations of significant variables. Additionally, statements regarding the significance of variables across studies were made using the 95% confidence interval for meta-regression coefficients. These models were used to construct a mean decay rate constant estimate as well as credible intervals for the mean and the distribution of all likely data points. While synthesized estimates for each targeted indicator bacteria were developed, the amount of data available varied widely for each target, as did the predictive power of the models as determined by testing with additional data not included in the modeling. Temperature was found to be significant for all selected indicators, while light was found to be significant only for culturable indicators. Results from the models must be interpreted with caution, as they are based only on the data available, which may not be representative of decay in other scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations in the Illinois River between Hennepin and Peoria, Illinois: 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, David H.; Hortness, Jon E.; Terrio, Paul J.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has designated portions of the Illinois River in Peoria, Woodford, and Tazewell Counties, Illinois, as impaired owing to the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission, examined the water quality in the Illinois River and major tributaries within a 47-mile reach between Peoria and Hennepin, Ill., during water year 2008 (October 2007–September 2008). Investigations included synoptic (snapshot) sampling at multiple locations in a 1-day period: once in October 2007 during lower streamflow conditions, and again in June 2008 during higher streamflow conditions. Five locations in the study area were monitored for the entire year at monthly or more frequent intervals. Two indicator bacteria were analyzed in each water sample: fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Streamflow information from previously established monitoring locations in the study area was used in the analysis. Correlation analyses were used to characterize the relation between the two fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation of either indicator to streamflow. Concentrations of the two measured fecal-indicator bacteria correlated well for all samples analyzed (r = 0.94, p E. coli: rho = -0.43, p = 0.0157). The correlation between fecal indicators and streamflow in tributaries or in the Illinois River at Hennepin was found to be statistically significant, yet moderate in strength with coefficient values ranging from r = 0.4 to 0.6. Indirect observations from the June 2008 higher flow synoptic event may indicate continued effects from combined storm and sanitary sewers in the vicinity of the Illinois River near Peoria, Ill., contributing to observed single-sample exceedance of the State criterion for fecal coliform.

  15. Inter-laboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Methods for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized prot...

  16. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Treated Wastewater through Monitoring of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Salinity in Irrigated Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess the potential for bacterial persistence and/or growth in reclaimed water irrigation systems and in irrigated soils, and to quantify the effects of wastewater application on soil salinity, levels of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, Enterococcus) and environmental covariates were measured ...

  17. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  18. Analysis of Enterococci and Bacteriodales Fecal Indicator Bacteria in a Lake Michigan Tributary by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Creek watershed in northwest Indiana drains into Lake Michigan near several heavily used recreational beaches. This study aimed to investigate the levels of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci and Bacteroidales, in Salt Creek using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) an...

  19. Analysis of Enterococci and Bacteriodales Fecal Indicator Bacteria in a Lake Michigan Tributary by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Creek watershed in northwest Indiana drains into Lake Michigan near several heavily used recreational beaches. This study aimed to investigate the levels of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci and Bacteroidales, in Salt Creek using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) an...

  20. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME PCR FECAL BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS USING DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS AND REAGENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA guidance on the safety of surface waters for recreational use is currently based on concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria. Attention is now shifting to more rapid molecular monitoring methods. A multi-year epidemiological study is in progress to determine...

  1. Inter-laboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Methods for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized prot...

  2. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  3. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME PCR FECAL BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS USING DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS AND REAGENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA guidance on the safety of surface waters for recreational use is currently based on concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria. Attention is now shifting to more rapid molecular monitoring methods. A multi-year epidemiological study is in progress to determine...

  4. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  5. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  6. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the characteristics and to identify the epidemiological relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional vegetables, the antimicrobial resistance and genetic properties of E. coli were investigated from 2010 to 2011. E. coli was isolated from 1 of 111 (0.9%) organic vegetables and from 20 of 225 (8.9%) conventional vegetables. The majority of strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environment (n=27/150 vs. 49/97 in organic vs. conventional samples). The majority of the vegetable strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environments. E. coli isolated from organic vegetables showed very low antimicrobial resistance rates except for cephalothin, ranging from 0% to 17.9%, while the resistance rates to cephalothin (71%) were extremely high in both groups. E. coli isolates expressed various resistance genes, which most commonly included blaTEM, tet(A), strA, strB, and qnrS. However, none of the isolates harbored tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), or qnrA. The transferability of tet gene, tet(A), and tet(B) was identified in tetracycline-resistant E. coli, and the genetic relationship was confirmed in a few cases from different sources. With regard to the lower antimicrobial resistance found in organic produce, this production mode seems able to considerably reduce the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria on vegetables.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase rates in aerobic gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in Vietnam: report from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART 2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith; Phuong, Doan Mai; Nga, Tran Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Tran My; Phuong, Tran Thi Lan; Badal, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Treatment options for multidrug-resistant pathogens remain problematic in many regions and individual countries, warranting ongoing surveillance and analysis. Limited antimicrobial susceptibility information is available for pathogens from Vietnam. This study determined the bacterial susceptibility of aerobic gram-negative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections among patients in Vietnam during 2009-2011. A total of 905 isolates were collected from 4 medical centers in this investigation as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) rates among the appropriate species were determined by a central laboratory using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Among the species collected, Escherichia coli (48.1% ESBL-positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.5% ESBL-positive) represented the majority (46.4%) of the isolates submitted for this study. Ertapenem MIC90 values were lowest for these 2 species at 0.12 and 0.25μg/mL and remained unchanged for ESBL-positive isolates. Imipenem MIC90 values were also the same for all isolates and ESBL-positive strains at 0.25 and 0.5μg/mL, respectively. Ertapenem MIC90 values for additional species with sufficient numbers for analysis, including Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were 1, 0.06, >4, and >4μg/mL, respectively. Analysis of beta-lactamases in a subset of 132 phenotypically ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated that CTX-M variants, particularly CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-15, were the predominant enzymes. High resistance rates in Vietnam hospitals dictate continuous monitoring as antimicrobial inactivating enzymes continue to spread throughout Asia and globally.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and small ruminant veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lisa C; Menzies, Paula I

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognized as an emerging issue in the practice of veterinary medicine. Although little surveillance and research has been completed on the prevalence of AMR and associated risk factors in small ruminants, evidence of AMR is present in many countries. Furthermore, antimicrobial use (AMU) practices in sheep have been shown to be associated with increased resistance, highlighting the issue of prudent use of these drugs in many countries. Furthermore, AMU practices in sheep have been shown to be associated with increased resistance, highlighting the issue of prudent use of these drugs.

  9. Where Sepsis and Antimicrobial Resistance Countermeasures Converge

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Urosevic, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly debate on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recognizes the global significance of AMR. Much work needs to be done on technology capability and capacity to convert the strategic intent of the debate into operational plans and tangible outcomes. Enhancement of the biomedical science–clinician interface requires better exploitation of systems biology tools for in-laboratory and point of care methods that detect sepsis and characterize AMR. These need to link sepsis and AMR data with responsive, real-time surveillance. We propose an AMR sepsis register, similar in concept to a cancer registry, to aid coordination of AMR countermeasures. PMID:28220145

  10. Is Antimicrobial Resistance a Slowly Emerging Disaster?

    PubMed Central

    Viens, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance is so dire that people are predicting that the era of antibiotics may be coming to an end, ushering in a ‘post-antibiotic’ era. A comprehensive policy response is therefore urgently needed. A part of this response will require framing the problem in such a way that adequately reflects its nature as well as encompassing an approach that has the best prospect of success. This paper considers framing the problem as a slowly emerging disaster, including its potential benefits and difficulties, from a conceptual and policy perspective. PMID:26566396

  11. Surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Silley, P; Simjee, S; Schwarz, S

    2012-04-01

    Surveillance and monitoring studies of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of human and animal origin and antimicrobial consumption in humans and animals have been conducted in various countries throughout the world. In the veterinary field, in particular, programmes have been installed which target bacteria of zoonotic, foodborne and/or veterinary relevance. Each year, the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project summarises and evaluates antimicrobial consumption in ambulatory and hospital care in many European countries. In contrast, antimicrobial consumption data in veterinary medicine are available from only a few countries and the type of information that is collected or reported varies. To address this challenge, the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project was launched by the European Medicines Agency in September 2009 and has just published its first report. This comparison of the different studies for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in humans and animals shows the need to improve harmonisation.

  12. Refugees and antimicrobial resistance: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Smalen, Allard Willem; Ghorab, Hatem; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A

    There is a large increase in the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers worldwide and a lack of data on the carriage of antimicrobial resistance in refugee/asylum seeking groups. This article aims to identify the impact of refugees and asylum seekers on the acquisition and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through a literature search. The databases Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Web of Science Core Collection were utilised and covered all articles before the 1st of October 2016. In total, 577 articles were identified, and studies were eligible if they met the selection criteria, including observational study design, English language, and AMR strains reported in absolute numbers. In total, 17 articles met the criteria, the majority were from the European region. Articles fitting the selection criteria exclusively reported AMR in bacterial species including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytoca, Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The analyses indicated that a high percentage of AMR strains, have been circulating among refugees and asylum seekers. The displacement of refugees and asylum seekers seem to play a key role in the transmission of AMR. Therefore, improved AMR control measures are essential. A knowledge gap was identified; further research is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; de Abajo, Francisco J.; Baquero, Fernando; Campos, José

    2005-01-01

    To address the public health problem of antimicrobial resistance, the European Union founded the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. A network of 32 Spanish hospitals, serving ≈9.6 million persons, submitted antimicrobial-susceptibility data on 7,098 invasive Escherichia coli species (2001–2003). Resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin was found at rates of 59.9%, 32.6%, 19.3%, 6.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. Resistance to multiple drugs increased from 13.8% in 2001 to 20.6% in 2003 (p <0.0001). Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained from the Spanish National Health System. In spite of decreased cephalosporin and β-lactam use, overall extended-spectrum β-lactamase production increased from 1.6% (2001) to 4.1% (2003) (p <0.0001), mainly due to the rising prevalence of cefotaximases. Resistance to ciprofloxacin significantly increased, mostly in community-onset infections, which coincided with a rise in community quinolone use. Cotrimoxazole resistance remained stable at ≈30%, even though its use was dramatically reduced. PMID:15829192

  14. Partial least squares for efficient models of fecal indicator bacteria on Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Wesley R.; Fienen, Michael N.; Corsi, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    At public beaches, it is now common to mitigate the impact of water-borne pathogens by posting a swimmer's advisory when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceeds an action threshold. Since culturing the bacteria delays public notification when dangerous conditions exist, regression models are sometimes used to predict the FIB concentration based on readily-available environmental measurements. It is hard to know which environmental parameters are relevant to predicting FIB concentration, and the parameters are usually correlated, which can hurt the predictive power of a regression model. Here the method of partial least squares (PLS) is introduced to automate the regression modeling process. Model selection is reduced to the process of setting a tuning parameter to control the decision threshold that separates predicted exceedances of the standard from predicted non-exceedances. The method is validated by application to four Great Lakes beaches during the summer of 2010. Performance of the PLS models compares favorably to that of the existing state-of-the-art regression models at these four sites.

  15. Climate change and land use drivers of fecal bacteria in tropical hawaiian rivers.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Ayron M; Mackenzie, Richard A; Bruland, Gregory L; Tingley, Ralph; Giardina, Christian P

    2014-07-01

    Potential shifts in rainfall driven by climate change are anticipated to affect watershed processes (e.g., soil moisture, runoff, stream flow), yet few model systems exist in the tropics to test hypotheses about how these processes may respond to these shifts. We used a sequence of nine watersheds on Hawaii Island spanning 3000 mm (7500-4500 mm) of mean annual rainfall (MAR) to investigate the effects of short-term (24-h) and long-term (MAR) rainfall on three fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (enterococci, total coliforms, and ). All sample sites were in native Ohia dominated forest above 600 m in elevation. Additional samples were collected just above sea level where the predominant land cover is pasture and agriculture, permitting the additional study of interactions between land use across the MAR gradient. We found that declines in MAR significantly amplified concentrations of all three FIB and that FIB yield increased more rapidly with 24-h rainfall in low-MAR watersheds than in high-MAR watersheds. Because storm frequency decreases with declining MAR, the rate of change in water potential affects microbial growth, whereas increased rainfall intensity dislodges more soil and bacteria as runoff compared with water-logged soils of high-MAR watersheds. As expected, declines in % forest cover and increased urbanization increased FIB. Taken together, shifts in rainfall may alter bacterial inputs to tropical streams, with land use change also affecting water quality in streams and near-shore environments.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Ontario smallholder chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Lebert, L; Martz, S-L; Janecko, N; Deckert, A E; Agunos, A; Reid, A; Rubin, J E; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance is an important component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistant bacteria in food animals and the food chain. The poultry market has many points of entry into the Canadian food chain, and some production practices are underrepresented in terms of surveillance. For example, pathogen carriage and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data are limited in smallholder chicken flocks raised for slaughter at provincially inspected abattoirs. In Canada, antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from commercial broiler chicken flocks, slaughtered at federally inspected abattoirs, is monitored by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). The objective of this study was to establish baseline information of antimicrobial resistance presence in E. coli and Salmonella isolated from smallholder flocks in Ontario, utilizing CIPARS collection and isolation methodologies, and to compare findings with CIPARS federally inspected abattoir data from Ontario, Canada. Five chickens per flock were sampled from 205 smallholder flocks. Of 1,025 samples, the E. coli prevalence was 99% (1,022/1,025), and 47% (483/1,022) of positive E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more of the 14 antimicrobials. Furthermore, as compared to results reported for the CIPARS commercial flocks, E. coli isolates from smallholder flocks had significantly lower resistance prevalence to six of 14 individual antimicrobials. Recovery of E. coli did not differ between federally inspected and provincially inspected flocks. Salmonella prevalence at the bird level in smallholder flocks was 0.3% (3/1,025), significantly lower (p ≪ 0.0001, 95% CI 0.080%-0.86%) than federally inspected commercial flocks. The overall differences found between the commercial and smallholder flocks may be explained by differences in poultry husbandry practices and hatchery sources. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  17. Classification of antibiotic resistance patterns of indicator bacteria by discriminant analysis: use in predicting the source of fecal contamination in subtropical waters.

    PubMed

    Harwood, V J; Whitlock, J; Withington, V

    2000-09-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from domestic wastewater and animal feces were determined using a battery of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin) at four concentrations each. The sources of animal feces included wild birds, cattle, chickens, dogs, pigs, and raccoons. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms from known sources were grouped into two separate databases, and discriminant analysis of these patterns was used to establish the relationship between the antibiotic resistance patterns and the bacterial source. The fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform databases classified isolates from known sources with similar accuracies. The average rate of correct classification for the fecal streptococcus database was 62.3%, and that for the fecal coliform database was 63.9%. The sources of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters were identified by discriminant analysis of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Both databases identified the source of indicator bacteria isolated from surface waters directly impacted by septic tank discharges as human. At sample sites selected for relatively low anthropogenic impact, the dominant sources of indicator bacteria were identified as various animals. The antibiotic resistance analysis technique promises to be a useful tool in assessing sources of fecal contamination in subtropical waters, such as those in Florida.

  18. Classification of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Indicator Bacteria by Discriminant Analysis: Use in Predicting the Source of Fecal Contamination in Subtropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Whitlock, John; Withington, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from domestic wastewater and animal feces were determined using a battery of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin) at four concentrations each. The sources of animal feces included wild birds, cattle, chickens, dogs, pigs, and raccoons. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms from known sources were grouped into two separate databases, and discriminant analysis of these patterns was used to establish the relationship between the antibiotic resistance patterns and the bacterial source. The fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform databases classified isolates from known sources with similar accuracies. The average rate of correct classification for the fecal streptococcus database was 62.3%, and that for the fecal coliform database was 63.9%. The sources of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters were identified by discriminant analysis of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Both databases identified the source of indicator bacteria isolated from surface waters directly impacted by septic tank discharges as human. At sample sites selected for relatively low anthropogenic impact, the dominant sources of indicator bacteria were identified as various animals. The antibiotic resistance analysis technique promises to be a useful tool in assessing sources of fecal contamination in subtropical waters, such as those in Florida. PMID:10966379

  19. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) 2010 Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to prospectively monitor the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic pathogens, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was established in 1996 by the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Veterinary Medicine in collaboration with the Centers for Di...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance: from global agenda to national strategic plan, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sattayawutthipong, Wanchai; Kanjanapimai, Sukhum; Kanpravidth, Wantanee; Brown, Richard; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2017-08-01

    In Thailand, antimicrobial resistance has formed a small component of national drug policies and strategies on emerging infectious diseases. However, poor coordination and a lack of national goals and monitoring and evaluation platforms have reduced the effectiveness of the corresponding national actions. On the basis of local evidence and with the strong participation of relevant stakeholders, the first national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance has been developed in Thailand. Before the development of the plan, ineffective coordination meant that antimicrobial resistance profiles produced at sentinel hospitals were not used effectively for clinical decision-making. There was no integrated system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, no system for monitoring consumption of antimicrobial drugs by humans, livestock and pets and little public awareness of antimicrobial resistance. In August 2016, the Thai government endorsed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance that comprised six strategic actions and five targets. A national steering committee guides the plan's implementation and a module to assess the prevalence of household antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance awareness has been embedded into the biennial national health survey. A national system for the surveillance of antimicrobial consumption has also been initiated. Strong political commitment, national ownership and adequate multisectoral institutional capacities will be essential for the effective implementation of the national plan. A robust monitoring and evaluation platform now contributes to evidence-based interventions. An integrated system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance still needs to be established.

  1. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Newfound Creek watershed, western North Carolina, during a high and low streamflow condition, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise M.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality in the Newfound Creek watershed has been shown to be affected by bacteria, sediment, and nutrients. In this study, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were sampled at five sites in Newfound Creek and five tributary sites during low flow on May 28, 2003, and high flow on November 19, 2003. In addition, a subset of five sites was sampled for fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli bacteria in streambed sediments (low flow only), and coliphage virus for serotyping. Coliphage virus serotyping has been used to identify human and animal sources of bacterial contamination. A streamflow gage was installed and operated to support ongoing water-quality studies in the watershed. Fecal coliform densities ranged from 92 to 27,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water for E. coli and 140 to an estimated 29,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water for fecal coliform during the two sampling visits. Ninety percent of the E. coli and fecal coliform samples exceeded corresponding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or North Carolina water-quality criteria for recreational and ambient waters. During low flow, the middle part of the Newfound Creek watershed and the Dix Creek tributary had the highest densities of E. coli bacteria. During the high-flow sampling, all tributaries contained high densities of E. coli bacteria, although Dix Creek and Round Hill Branch were the largest contributors of these bacteria to Newfound Creek. Coliphage virus serotyping results were inconclusive because most samples did not contain the male-specific RNA coliphage needed for serotyping. Positive results indicated, however, that during low flow, non-human sources of bacteria were present in Sluder Branch, and during high flow, human sources of bacteria were present in Round Hill Branch. Sampling of bacteria in streambed sediments during low flow indicated that sediments do not appear to be a substantial source of bacteria relative to the water column, with the exception

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970–2011 using the terms ‘antibiotic resistance in Libya’, ‘antimicrobial resistance in Libya’, ‘tuberculosis in Libya’, and ‘primary and acquired resistance in Libya’ in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54–68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984–1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-03-27

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  5. Detection of human-derived fecal contamination in Puerto Rico using carbamazepine, HF183 Bacteroides, and fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wade, Christina; Otero, Ernesto; Poon-Kwong, Brennan; Rozier, Ralph; Bachoon, Dave

    2015-12-30

    The level of fecal pollution in 17 sites in Puerto Rico was determined by Escherichia coli (E.coli) enumeration using an enzyme substrate medium and Quanti-Tray®/2000. Human fecal pollution was identified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of carbamazepine (CBZ) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of the human Bacteroides marker, HF183. Carbamazepine was detected in 16 out of 17 sites, including Condado Lagoon, a popular recreational area. Elevated E.coli levels (>410 CFU 100 mL(-1)) were detected in 13 sites. Average CBZ concentrations ranged from 0.005 μg L(-1) to 0.482 μg L(-1) and 7 sites were positive for HF183. Higher CBZ concentrations were associated with the detection of HF183 (Mann-Whitney test; U=42.0; df=7; 1-tailed P value=0.013). This was the second study to determine surface water concentrations of CBZ in the Caribbean and the first in Puerto Rico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and distribution of commensal fecal Escherichia coli bacteria in beef cattle administered selected subtherapeutic antimicrobials in a feedlot setting.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-10-01

    -specific strains is crucial for determining antimicrobial resistance in cattle.

  7. Contamination of Canadian private drinking water sources with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Brenda L; Louie, Marie; Salvadori, Marina I; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman; Sibley, Kristen; Irwin, Rebecca J; Jamieson, Frances B; Daignault, Danielle; Majury, Anna; Braithwaite, Shannon; Crago, Bryanne; McGeer, Allison J

    2013-06-01

    Surface and ground water across the world, including North America, is contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The consumption of water contaminated with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli in people who drink it. To describe the proportion of drinking water samples submitted from private sources for bacteriological testing that were contaminated with E. coli resistant to antibiotics and to determine risk factors for the contamination of these water sources with resistant and multi-class resistant E. coli. Water samples submitted for bacteriological testing in Ontario and Alberta Canada were tested for E. coli contamination, with a portion of the positive isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance. Households were invited to complete questionnaires to determine putative risk factors for well contamination. Using multinomial logistic regression, the risk of contamination with E. coli resistant to one or two classes of antibiotics compared to susceptible E. coli was higher for shore wells than drilled wells (odds ratio [OR] 2.8) and higher for farms housing chickens or turkeys (OR 3.0) than properties without poultry. The risk of contamination with multi-class resistant E. coli (3 or more classes) was higher if the properties housed swine (OR 5.5) or cattle (OR 2.2) than properties without these livestock and higher if the wells were located in gravel (OR 2.4) or clay (OR 2.1) than in loam. Housing livestock on the property, using a shore well, and having a well located in gravel or clay soil increases the risk of having antimicrobial resistant E. coli in E. coli contaminated wells. To reduce the incidence of water borne disease and the transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, owners of private wells need to take measures to prevent contamination of their drinking water, routinely test their wells for contamination, and use treatments that eliminate bacteria. Copyright

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals: 2002-2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitor System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial susceptibility in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats and food animals. We analyzed changes in ceftiofur resistance (TioR), nalidixic acid resistance (NalR) and multidrug resistance (MDR-AmpC, define...

  9. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  10. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal ... Results There are no abnormal bacteria or other organisms in the sample. Talk to your provider about ...

  11. The Risk of Some Veterinary Antimicrobial Agents on Public Health Associated with Antimicrobial Resistance and their Molecular Basis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Sander, Pascal; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Yulian; Cheng, Guyue; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. In the present review, resistance monitoring data, and risk assessment results of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in humans. From the selected examples, it was apparent from reviewing the published scientific literature that the ban on use of some antimicrobial agents (e.g., avoparcin, fluoroquinolone, tetracyclines) did not change drug resistance patterns and did not mitigate the intended goal of minimizing antimicrobial resistance. The use of some antimicrobial agents (e.g., virginiamycin, macrolides, and cephalosporins) in food animals may have an impact on the antimicrobial resistance in humans, but it was largely depended on the pattern of drug usage in different geographical regions. The epidemiological characteristics of resistant bacteria were closely related to molecular mechanisms involved in the development, fitness, and transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27803693

  12. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  13. Epistasis and the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The fitness effects of a mutation can depend, sometimes dramatically, on genetic background; this phenomenon is often referred to as “epistasis.” Epistasis can have important practical consequences in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). For example, genetic background plays an important role in determining the costs of resistance, and hence in whether resistance will persist in the absence of antibiotic pressure. Furthermore, interactions between resistance mutations can have important implications for the evolution of multi-drug resistance. I argue that there is a need to better characterize the extent and nature of epistasis for mutations and horizontally transferred elements conferring AMR, particularly in clinical contexts. Furthermore, I suggest that epistasis should be an important consideration in attempts to slow or limit the evolution of AMR. PMID:28261193

  14. Epistasis and the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The fitness effects of a mutation can depend, sometimes dramatically, on genetic background; this phenomenon is often referred to as "epistasis." Epistasis can have important practical consequences in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). For example, genetic background plays an important role in determining the costs of resistance, and hence in whether resistance will persist in the absence of antibiotic pressure. Furthermore, interactions between resistance mutations can have important implications for the evolution of multi-drug resistance. I argue that there is a need to better characterize the extent and nature of epistasis for mutations and horizontally transferred elements conferring AMR, particularly in clinical contexts. Furthermore, I suggest that epistasis should be an important consideration in attempts to slow or limit the evolution of AMR.

  15. The Ethical Significance of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the ethical challenges that arise in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which includes an introduction to the contributions to the symposium in this issue. We begin by discussing why AMR is a distinct ethical issue, and should not be viewed purely as a technical or medical problem. In the second section, we expand on some of these arguments and argue that AMR presents us with a broad range of ethical problems that must be addressed as part of a successful policy response to emerging drug resistance. In the third section, we discuss how some of these ethical challenges should be addressed, and we argue that this requires contributions from citizens, ethicists, policy makers, practitioners and industry. We conclude with an overview of steps that should be taken in moving forward and addressing the ethical problems of AMR. PMID:26566395

  16. Quantifying Antimicrobial Resistance at Veal Calf Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Angela B.; Wagenaar, Jaap; Stegeman, Arjan; Vernooij, Hans; Mevius, Dik

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s) by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution) and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p≤0.05). Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which 90 isolates are

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term.

  18. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time pcr protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, O.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Peed, L.; Kelty, C.A.; Blackwood, A.D.; Greene, M.R.; Noble, R.T.; Bushon, R.N.; Stelzer, E.A.; Kinzelman, J.; Anan'Eva, T.; Sinigalliano, C.; Wanless, D.; Griffith, J.; Cao, Y.; Weisberg, S.; Harwood, V.J.; Staley, C.; Oshima, K.H.; Varma, M.; Haugland, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Efficacy of Vegetated Buffers in Preventing Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from Pasturelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Moore, James A.; Thomas, David R.; Mallery, Eric; Snyder, Kai U.; Wustenberg, Mark; Wustenberg, Judith; Mackey, Sam D.; Moore, Deian L.

    2007-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted in Tillamook, Oregon, USA, to quantify the effectiveness of edge-of-field vegetated buffers for reducing transport of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from agricultural fields amended with dairy cow manure. Installation of vegetated buffers on loamy soils dramatically reduced the bacterial contamination of runoff water from manure-treated pasturelands, but the size of the vegetated buffer was not an important determinant of bacterial removal efficiency. Only 10% of the runoff samples collected from treatment cells having vegetated buffers exhibited FCB concentrations >200 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL (a common water quality standard value), and the median concentration for all cells containing vegetated buffers was only 6 cfu/100 mL. The presence of a vegetated buffer of any size, from 1 to 25 m, generally reduced the median FCB concentration in runoff by more than 99%. Results for FCB load calculations were similar. Our results suggest that where substantial FCB contamination of runoff occurs from manure-treated pasturelands, it might be disproportionately associated with specific field or management conditions, such as the presence of soils that exhibit low water infiltration and generate larger volumes of runoff or the absence of a vegetated buffer. Buffer size regulations that do not consider such differences might not be efficient or effective in reducing bacterial contamination of runoff.

  20. Stratification and loading of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in a tidally muted urban salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karina K; Dorsey, John H; Saez, Jose A

    2015-03-01

    Stratification and loading of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were assessed in the main tidal channel of the Ballona Wetlands, an urban salt marsh receiving muted tidal flows, to (1) determine FIB concentration versus loading within the water column at differing tidal flows, (2) identify associations of FIB with other water quality parameters, and (3) compare wetland FIB concentrations to the adjacent estuary. Sampling was conducted four times during spring-tide events; samples were analyzed for FIB and turbidity (NTU) four times over a tidal cycle at pre-allocated depths, depending on the water level. Additional water quality parameters measured included temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH. Loadings were calculated by integrating the stratified FIB concentrations with water column cross-sectional volumes corresponding to each depth. Enterococci and Escherichia coli were stratified both by concentration and loading, although these variables portrayed different patterns over a tidal cycle. Greatest concentrations occurred in surface to mid-strata levels, during flood tides when contaminated water flowed in from the estuary, and during ebb flows when sediments were suspended. Loading was greatest during flood flows and diminished during low tide periods. FIB concentrations within the estuary often were significantly greater than those within the wetland tide channel, supporting previous studies that the wetlands act as a sink for FIB. For public health water quality monitoring, these results indicate that more accurate estimates of FIB concentrations would be obtained by sampling a number of points within a water column rather than relying only on single surface samples.

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time PCR protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Sivaganesan, Mano; Peed, Lindsay; Kelty, Catherine A; Blackwood, A Denene; Greene, Monica R; Noble, Rachel T; Bushon, Rebecca N; Stelzer, Erin A; Kinzelman, Julie; Anan'eva, Tamara; Sinigalliano, Christopher; Wanless, David; Griffith, John; Cao, Yiping; Weisberg, Steve; Harwood, Valarie J; Staley, Christopher; Oshima, Kevin H; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2012-01-17

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol.

  2. Predictive Power of Clean Bed Filtration Theory for Fecal Indicator Bacteria Removal in Stormwater Biofilters.

    PubMed

    Parker, Emily A; Rippy, Megan A; Mehring, Andrew S; Winfrey, Brandon K; Ambrose, Richard F; Levin, Lisa A; Grant, Stanley B

    2017-05-16

    Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%). Our analysis suggests that, with the exception of shrubs, plants affect FIB removal indirectly by changing the infiltration rate, not directly by changing the FIB removal mechanisms or altering filtration rates in ways not already accounted for by CBFT. The analysis presented here represents a significant step forward in our understanding of how physicochemical theories (such as CBFT) can be melded with hydrology, engineering design, and ecology to improve the water quality benefits of green infrastructure.

  3. Groundwater discharge: potential association with fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Paytan, Adina

    2004-07-01

    Short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) are used to investigate the potential association between groundwater discharge and microbial pollution at Huntington Beach, CA. We establish the tidally driven exchange of groundwater from the surficial beach aquifer across the beach face. Groundwater is found to be a source of nutrients (silica, inorganic nitrogen, and orthophosphate) to the surf zone, and these nutrients could possibly provide an environment for enhanced growth or increased persistence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Ammonium and ortho-phosphate explain up to 12-20% of the variance in FIB levels in the surf zone. Elevated levels of FIB were only found in 1 of the 26 groundwater samples. However, FIB in the surf zone covary with radium at fortnightly, diurnal, and semi-diurnal tidal periods. In addition, radium accounts for up to 38% of the variance in log-FIB levels in the surf zone. A column experiment illustrates that Enterococcus suspended in Huntington Beach saline groundwater is not significantly filtered by sand collected from the field. This work establishes a mechanism for the subterranean delivery of FIB pollution to the surf zone from the surficial aquifer and presents evidence that supports an association between groundwater discharge and FIB.

  4. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and fecal indicator bacteria in five North American rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, M.A.; Ashen, J.B.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a predictor of the presence of Helicobacter spp. A combination of standard culture and molecular techniques were used to detect and quantify FIB, Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori from five North American rivers of different size and with different land use characteristics. Primers designed to amplify genes specific to Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori were evaluated for their efficacy in detection and quantification in environmental samples. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 18/33 (55%) of river samples. H. pylori was detected in 11/33 (33%) of river samples. FIB were found in 32/33 (96%) of river samples. When FIB abundance exceeded USEPA water quality standards for single samples, Helicobacter or H. pylori were detected in 7/15 (47%) cases. No numerical correlation was found between the presence of FIB and either Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori. This suggests that the presence of FIB will be of limited use for detection of Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori by public health agencies.

  5. Treating Stormwater with Green Infrastructure: Plants, Residence Time Distributions, and the Removal of Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Winfrey, B.; Mehring, A.

    2015-12-01

    In many cities, green infrastructure is increasingly used to capture and treat stormwater runoff, due to the many opportunities these systems afford for protecting receiving water quality and ecology while mitigating water scarcity. Here, we focus on how plants affect the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in newly-constructed stormwater biofilters, a type of green infrastructure consisting of unconsolidated granular media containing one or more plant species. Input-response experiments were carried out using both non-reactive (salt) and reactive (sewage) tracers on six laboratory-scale (~1m long by 24 cm diameter) biofilters, half of which were planted with the sedge Carex appressa (treatment replicates) and half of which were unplanted (control replicates). C. appressa modifies the residence time distribution (RTD) in a biofilter by creating preferential flow paths along which water and mass can move quickly, but does not appear to alter the intrinsic rate at which FIB are removed. Thus, the "green" component of green infrastructure can alter pollutant removal by changing the RTD, with or without a concomitant change in pollutant reactivity.

  6. Associations between fecal indicator bacteria prevalence and demographic data in private water supplies in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tamara; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Lawrence, Annie H; Benham, Brian; Ling, Erin; Ziegler, Peter; Marmagas, Susan West

    2014-12-01

    Over 1.7 million Virginians rely on private water sources to provide household water. The heaviest reliance on these systems occurs in rural areas, which are often underserved with respect to available financial resources and access to environmental health education. This study aimed to identify potential associations between concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (coliforms, Escherichia coli) in over 800 samples collected at the point-of-use from homes with private water supply systems and homeowner-provided demographic data (household income and education). Of the 828 samples tested, 349 (42%) of samples tested positive for total coliform and 55 (6.6%) tested positive for E. coli. Source tracking efforts targeting optical brightener concentrations via fluorometry and the presence of a human-specific Bacteroides marker via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) suggest possible contamination from human septage in over 20 samples. Statistical methods implied that household income has an association with the proportion of samples positive for total coliform, though the relationship between education level and FIB is less clear. Further exploration of links between demographic data and private water quality will be helpful in building effective strategies to improve rural drinking water quality.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations at Huntington Beach: Connections to Physical Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippy, M. A.; Feddersen, F.; Leichter, J.; Omand, M.; Moore, D. F.; McGee, C.; Franks, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    Two major factors determine the spatial and temporal distributions of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at a given beach: local circulation & mixing patterns, and bacterial inactivation rates. High frequency and spatial resolution bacterial sampling combined with measurements of physical processes can be used to infer inactivation rates, enabling differentiation between dilution & mortality as factors driving variability in nearshore FIB abundance. A FIB sampling experiment (HB06) took place on 16 October 2006, at Huntington State Beach, a site selected due to its persistent problems with FIB pollution. Water samples were taken at 20-minute intervals (from 6:50am to 11:50am) at ten locations; four in an alongshore transect spanning 1 km at the shoreline, and the remainder in a 300-m long cross-shore transect. All samples were analyzed for FIB concentration (Total Coliforms, E. coli & Enterococci) and, for a subset, species level Enterococcus composition was determined. As part of the HB06 experiment, currents, temperature, waves, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously in the cross-shore direction with rapid CTD casts 300 m offshore. Results indicate that E. coli and Enterococcus concentrations exhibit exponential decreases with time, with smaller decay rates associated with depth and with sites in the Talbert Marsh and Santa Ana River. FIB concentrations are also noticeably lower farther offshore (300 m). Spatio-temporal patterns in FIB concentration will be presented in conjunction with the nearshore physical data allowing the relationship between physical dynamics and biological variability to be addressed.

  8. Oral biofilms: a reservoir of transferable, bacterial, antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam P; Mullany, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Oral microbes are responsible for dental caries and periodontal diseases and have also been implicated in a range of other diseases beyond the oral cavity. These bacteria live primarily as complex, polymicrobial biofilms commonly called dental plaque. Cells growing within a biofilm often exhibit altered phenotypes, such as increased antibiotic resistance. The stable structural properties and close proximity of the bacterial cells within the biofilm appears to be an excellent environment for horizontal gene transfer, which can lead to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes amongst the biofilm inhabitants. This article will present an overview of the different types and amount of resistance to antibiotics that have been found in the human oral microbiota and will discuss the oral inhabitants' role as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. In addition, data on the genetic support for these resistance genes will be detailed and the evidence for horizontal gene transfer reviewed, demonstrating that the bacteria inhabiting the oral cavity are a reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance: action to combat the rising microbial challenges.

    PubMed

    Paphitou, Niki I

    2013-06-01

    Antimicrobial therapy transformed medical practice from a merely diagnosis-focused approach 80 years ago to a treatment-focused approach, saving millions of lives in the years to follow. Today, numerous medical advances made possible by effective antibiotics are being threatened by the relentlessly rising rates of bacteria resistant to all currently available antibiotics. This phenomenon is a consequence of antibiotic misuse, which exerts undue selective pressure on micro-organisms, combined with defective infection control practices that accelerate their spread. Its impact on societies worldwide is immense, resulting in loss of human life and money. An alarming pattern of resistance involving multidrug-resistant and sometimes pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is currently emerging. In response to the global public health threat posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a number of national and international actions and initiatives have been developed in recent years to address this issue. Although the optimally effective and cost-effective strategy to reduce AMR is not known, a multifaceted approach is most likely to be successful. It should include actions aiming at optimising antibiotic use, strengthening surveillance and infection control, and improving healthcare worker and public education with regard to antibiotics. Research efforts to bring new effective antibiotics to patients need to be fostered in order to negate the consequences of the current lack of antimicrobial therapy options. A holistic view of AMR as well as intersectoral collaboration between human and veterinary medicine is required to best address the problem.

  10. Modeling fecal bacteria transport and retention in agricultural and urban soils under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Balkhair, Khaled S

    2017-03-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, that enter surface water bodies and groundwater systems through unmanaged wastewater land application, pose a great risk to human health. In this study, six soil column experiments were conducted to simulate the vulnerability of agricultural and urban field soils for fecal bacteria transport and retention under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. HYDRUS-1D kinetic attachment and kinetic attachment-detachment models were used to simulate the breakthrough curves of the experimental data by fitting model parameters. Results indicated significant differences in the retention and drainage of bacteria between saturated and unsaturated flow condition in the two studied soils. Flow under unsaturated condition retained more bacteria than the saturated flow case. The high bacteria retention in the urban soil compared to agricultural soil is ascribed not only to the dynamic attachment and sorption mechanisms but also to the greater surface area of fine particles and low flow rate. All models simulated experimental data satisfactorily under saturated flow conditions; however, under variably saturated flow, the peak concentrations were overestimated by the attachment-detachment model and underestimated by the attachment model with blocking. The good match between observed data and simulated concentrations by the attachment model which was supported by the Akaike information criterion (AIC) for model selection indicates that the first-order attachment coefficient was sufficient to represent the quantitative and temporal distribution of bacteria in the soil column. On the other hand, the total mass balance of the drained and retained bacteria in all transport experiments was in the range of values commonly found in the literature. Regardless of flow conditions and soil texture, most of the bacteria were retained in the top 12 cm of the soil column. The approaches and the models used in this study have proven to be a good tool for simulating fecal

  11. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  12. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  13. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  14. Comparison and continuous estimates of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in selected Kansas streams, May 1999 through April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2003-01-01

    The sanitary quality of water and its use as a public-water supply and for recreational activities, such as swimming, wading, boating, and fishing, can be evaluated on the basis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria densities. This report describes the overall sanitary quality of surface water in selected Kansas streams, the relation between fecal coliform and E. coli, the relation between turbidity and bacteria densities, and how continuous bacteria estimates can be used to evaluate the water-quality conditions in selected Kansas streams. Samples for fecal coliform and E. coli were collected at 28 surface-water sites in Kansas. Of the 318 samples collected, 18 percent exceeded the current Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) secondary contact recreational, single-sample criterion for fecal coliform (2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water). Of the 219 samples collected during the recreation months (April 1 through October 31), 21 percent exceeded the current (2003) KDHE single-sample fecal coliform criterion for secondary contact rec-reation (2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) and 36 percent exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended single-sample primary contact recreational criterion for E. coli (576 colonies per 100 milliliters of water). Comparisons of fecal coliform and E. coli criteria indicated that more than one-half of the streams sampled could exceed USEPA recommended E. coli criteria more frequently than the current KDHE fecal coliform criteria. In addition, the ratios of E. coli to fecal coliform (EC/FC) were smallest for sites with slightly saline water (specific conductance greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius), indicating that E. coli may not be a good indicator of sanitary quality for those streams. Enterococci bacteria may provide a more accurate assessment of the potential for swimming-related illnesses in these streams. Ratios of EC/FC and

  15. Supranational surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: The legacy of the last decade and proposals for the future.

    PubMed

    Giske, Christian G; Cornaglia, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance among clinically important bacteria is widely acknowledged as a major global public health threat. A decade ago, several supranational surveillance initiatives were introduced. Few of them are still ongoing, and only one features an interactive database in the public domain. No public surveillance system monitors resistance trends among non-invasive isolates on a supranational level. Although the relevance of measuring antimicrobial resistance in invasive isolates is undisputable and there is a large consensus on sampling techniques for these isolates, surveillance systems monitoring invasive infections will only have low sensitivity for early detection of emerging resistance trends, also missing an important opportunity for intervention. Surveillance of resistance patterns should ideally include characterization of important clones involved in the dissemination of resistance. This review also emphasizes important methodological issues to be considered whenever performing surveillance, and provides general recommendations applicable to surveillance at all levels.

  16. Validation of the H2S method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Lanakila; Devine, Anthony A; Grunden, Amy M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    Using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the H(2)S test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive H(2)S test results. For the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential and selective media for Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli, sulfite-reducing clostridia, H(2)S-producing bacteria, and Salmonella/Shigella spp. The isolates were then: (1) tested to determine whether they were H(2)S-producing organisms and (2) identified to the genus and species level using biochemical methods. The molecular method used to characterize the microbial populations of select samples was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These experiments on sewage provided evidence that positive H(2)S tests consistently contained fecal bacteria and pathogens. There were strong relationships of agreement between the organisms identified by both methods tested. This study is an important advance in microbial water quality detection since it is focused on the evaluation of a novel, low-cost, water microbiology test that has the potential to provide millions of people worldwide access to water quality detection technology. Of prime consideration in evaluating water quality tests is the determination of the test's accuracy and specificity, and this article is a fundamental step in providing that information.

  17. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary quality of recreational waters is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); organisms present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, hence providing no information about the pollution source. Micro...

  18. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary quality of recreational waters is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); organisms present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, hence providing no information about the pollution source. Micro...

  19. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  20. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  1. Community structure of cattle fecal bacteria from different animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provide adequate detail ab...

  2. Fecal indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ponds managed as bird habitat, San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Athearn, Nicole D; Takekawa, John Y; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2008-06-01

    Throughout the world, coastal resource managers are encouraging the restoration of previously modified coastal habitats back into wetlands and managed ponds for their ecosystem value. Because many coastal wetlands are adjacent to urban centers and waters used for human recreation, it is important to understand how wildlife can affect water quality. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, presence/absence of Salmonella, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters in two coastal, managed ponds and adjacent sloughs for 4 weeks during the summer and winter in 2006. We characterized the microbial water quality in these waters relative to state water-quality standards and examined the relationship between FIB, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters. A box model approach was utilized to determine the net source or sink of FIB in the ponds during the study periods. FIB concentrations often exceeded state standards, particularly in the summer, and microbial water quality in the sloughs was generally lower than in ponds during both seasons. Specifically, the inflow of water from the sloughs to the ponds during the summer, more so than waterfowl use, appeared to increase the FIB concentrations in the ponds. The box model results suggested that the ponds served as net wetland sources and sinks for FIB, and high bird abundances in the winter likely contributed to net winter source terms for two of the three FIB in both ponds. Eight serovars of the human pathogen Salmonella were isolated from slough and pond waters, although the source of the pathogen to these wetlands was not identified. Thus, it appeared that factors other than bird abundance were most important in modulating FIB concentrations in these ponds.

  3. Fecal indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ponds managed as bird habitat, San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Athearn, N.D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Boehm, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal resource managers are encouraging the restoration of previously modified coastal habitats back into wetlands and managed ponds for their ecosystem value. Because many coastal wetlands are adjacent to urban centers and waters used for human recreation, it is important to understand how wildlife can affect water quality. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, presence/absence of Salmonella, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters in two coastal, managed ponds and adjacent sloughs for 4 weeks during the summer and winter in 2006. We characterized the microbial water quality in these waters relative to state water-quality standards and examined the relationship between FIB, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters. A box model approach was utilized to determine the net source or sink of FIB in the ponds during the study periods. FIB concentrations often exceeded state standards, particularly in the summer, and microbial water quality in the sloughs was generally lower than in ponds during both seasons. Specifically, the inflow of water from the sloughs to the ponds during the summer, more so than waterfowl use, appeared to increase the FIB concentrations in the ponds. The box model results suggested that the ponds served as net wetland sources and sinks for FIB, and high bird abundances in the winter likely contributed to net winter source terms for two of the three FIB in both ponds. Eight serovars of the human pathogen Salmonella were isolated from slough and pond waters, although the source of the pathogen to these wetlands was not identified. Thus, it appeared that factors other than bird abundance were most important in modulating FIB concentrations in these ponds.

  4. Holding-time and method comparisons for the analysis of fecal-indicator bacteria in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Bushon, Rebecca N; Brady, Amie M G; Lindsey, Bruce D

    2015-11-01

    As part of the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, groundwater samples from domestic- and public-supply wells were collected and analyzed for fecal-indicator bacteria. A holding time comparison for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci was done by analyzing samples within 8 h using presence/absence methods and within 18-30 h using quantitative methods. The data indicate that results obtained within 18-30 h were not significantly different from those obtained within 8 h for total coliforms and enterococci, by Colilert® and Enterolert® methods (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME), respectively. Quantitative laboratory methods for samples analyzed within 18-30 h showed a statistically significant higher detection frequency when compared to presence/absence methods done within 8 h for the following methods, E. coli by Colilert and enterococci by membrane filtration on mEI agar. Additionally, a comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterococci was done. Using non-parametric statistical analyses, results from the two methods were statistically different. In this study, the membrane filtration method on mEI agar was more sensitive, resulted in more detections of enterococci, and results were easier to interpret than with the quantitative Enterolert method. The quantitative Enterolert method produced varying levels of fluorescence, which required additional verification steps to eliminate false-positive results. It may be more advantageous to analyze untreated groundwater for enterococci using the membrane filtration method on mEI agar.

  5. Narrowing the Search for Sources of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with a Simple Salinity Mixing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, K.; Ahn, J.; Litton, R.; Grant, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    Newport Bay, the second largest estuarine embayment in Southern California, provides critical natural habitat for terrestrial and aquatic species and is a regionally important recreational area. Unfortunately, the beneficial uses of Newport Bay are threatened by numerous sources of pollutant loading, either through direct discharge into the bay or through its tributaries. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are associated with human pathogens and are present in high concentrations in sewage and urban runoff. Standardized and inexpensive assays used for the detection of FIB have allowed their concentrations to be used as a common test of water quality. In order to assess FIB impairment in Newport Bay, weekly transects of FIB concentrations were conducted, specifically Total Coliform, Escherichia coli and Enterococci spp., as well as salinity, temperature, and transmissivity, from the upper reaches of the estuary to an offshore control site. Using salinity as a conservative tracer for water mass mixing and determining the end-member values of FIB and transmissivity in both the creek sites and the offshore control site, we created a simple, two end-member mixing model of FIB and transmissivity within Newport Bay. Deviations from the mixing model would suggest either an additional source of FIB to the bay (e.g. bird feces) or regrowth of FIB within the bay. Our results indicate that, with a few notable exceptions, salinity is a good tracer for FIB concentrations along the transect, but is not particularly effective for transmissivity. This suggests that the largest contributor of FIB loading to Newport Bay comes from the discharge of creeks into the upper reaches of the estuary.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance profiles in pathogens isolated from chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles are frequently studied from the perspective of epidemiology and not so often from the perspective of population genetics. The population geneticist assumes that gene flow, vertically (generation to generation), horizontally (individual to individual) or migratory (...

  7. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Alison H; Moore, Luke S P; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Steinbakk, Martin; Regmi, Sadie; Karkey, Abhilasha; Guerin, Philippe J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2016-01-09

    To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment. Onward transmission is affected by standards of infection control, sanitation, access to clean water, access to assured quality antimicrobials and diagnostics, travel, and migration. Strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance by removing antimicrobial selective pressure alone rely upon resistance imparting a fitness cost, an effect not always apparent. Minimising resistance should therefore be considered comprehensively, by resistance mechanism, microorganism, antimicrobial drug, host, and context; parallel to new drug discovery, broad ranging, multidisciplinary research is needed across these five levels, interlinked across the health-care, agriculture, and environment sectors. Intelligent, integrated approaches, mindful of potential unintended results, are needed to ensure sustained, worldwide access to effective antimicrobials.

  8. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Dongfang; Liu, Kunyao; Suolang, Sizhu; He, Tao; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; Lin, Degui

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%), ampicillin (27.9%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%), nalidixic acid (19.4%), streptomycin (16.2%) and ceftiofur (10.9%), and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%), gentamicin (6.9%), and spectinomycin (2.3%) were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%), clindamycin (82.1%), tetracycline (64.3%), and erythromycin (48.8%). Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%), penicillin (6.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.6%), levofloxacin (1.2%), and ampicillin (1.2%) were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are used. These results also revealed that free

  9. Antimicrobial resistance: A global emerging threat to public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Maurizio; Ranucci, Elena; Romagnoli, Paola; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-09-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine have accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This article presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link between food producing-animals and humans and on the legal framework and policies currently implemented at the EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strengthening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena; and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around a holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

  10. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the Bushehr, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, O; Zangene, S; Mohammadi, N; Mirzaei, K; Karimi, A; Gharibi, A; Khajehiean, A

    2012-02-01

    Antibiotics are drugs used for treatment of infections caused by bacteria. Misuse and overuse of these drugs have contributed to phenomena known as antibiotic resistance. In this research, the antimicrobial resistance of the Shigella has been determined. This descriptive research analyzed registered laboratory data of patients referred to Fatemeh Zahra Hospital of the Bushehr, Iran. Shigella was isolated from their cultured sample from the year 2002-2008. In this study, the total of 121 registered Shigella collected from 2002-2008 were analyzed. There were 62 cases of S. sonnei, 46 cases of S. flexneri, eight cases of S. boydii and five cases of S. dysenteriae among them. Furthermore, two cases of Shigella sonnei were collected from the blood and the rest from the watery stools of the infected patients. The following is the resistance pattern of these organisms; to ciprofloxacin, 4.25%; ceftizoxime, 8.62%; nalidixic acid, 12.12%; co-trimoxazole, 86.13% and to tetracycline, 93.02%. Results ofantibiogram showed that highest rate of drug resistance belongs to tetracycline and co-trimoxazole and the lowest belongs to ciprofloxacin and ceftizoxime. One of the important issue for clinicians, now a day is drug resistance of microorganisms. This phenomenon is increasing due to some factors such as improper use of antibiotics and irrational prescribing. These factors lead to development of new drug resistant species.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and the current refugee crisis.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Theodoridou, Maria; Daikos, George L

    2017-09-01

    In the past few years, Europe has experienced an enormous influx of refugees and migrants owing to the ongoing civil war in Syria as well as conflicts, violence and instability in other Asian and African countries. Available data suggest that refugees carry a significant burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, which is attributed to the rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates in their countries of origin, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Transmission of MDR pathogens among refugees is facilitated by the collapsed housing, hygiene and healthcare infrastructures in several communities as well as poor hygiene conditions during their trip to destination countries. These findings highlight the fact that refugees may serve as vehicles of AMR mechanisms from their countries of origin along the immigration route. Following risk assessment, routine microbiological screening for MDR organism carriage of refugees and migrants as well as effective infection control measures should be considered upon admission. This will on the one hand address the possibility of dissemination of novel AMR mechanisms in non- or low-endemic countries and on the other will ensure safety for all patients. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sebastien; Brettin, Thomas; ...

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned bymore » their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. Lastly, this set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.« less

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Prediction in PATRIC and RAST.

    PubMed

    Davis, James J; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88-99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71-88%. This set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sebastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W.; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R.; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. Lastly, this set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W.; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R.; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. This set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services. PMID:27297683

  16. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Ha; Grant, Stanley B; McGee, Charles D; Sanders, Brett F; Largier, John L

    2004-05-01

    The surf zone is the unique environment where ocean meets land and a place of critical ecological, economic, and recreational importance. In the United States, this natural resource is increasingly off-limits to the public due to elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and other contaminants, the sources of which are often unknown. In this paper, we describe an approach for calculating mass budgets of pollutants in the surf zone from shoreline monitoring data. The analysis reveals that fecal indicator bacteria pollution in the surf zone at several contiguous beaches in Orange County, California, originates from well-defined locations along the shore, including the tidal outlets of the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh. Fecal pollution flows into the ocean from the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets during ebb tides and from there is transported parallel to the shoreline by wave-driven surf zone currents and/or offshore tidal currents, frequently contaminating >5 km of the surf zone. The methodology developed here for locating and quantifying sources of surf zone pollution should be applicable to a wide array of contaminants and coastal settings.

  17. Effect of Tulathromycin on Colonization Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence of Human Gut Microbiota in Chemostats

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Zhou, Shengxi; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate microbiological safety of tulathromycin on human intestinal bacteria, tulathromycin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL) was added into Chemostats. Before and after drug exposure, we monitored (1) population, SCFA products, antimicrobial resistance, and colonization resistance of gut microbiota, and (2) the antimicrobial resistance genes, transferability, virulent genes, pathogenicity of Enterococus faecalis. Results showed that low level of tulathromycin did not exhibit microbiological hazard on resistance selection and colonization resistance. However, high level of tulathromycin (10 and 100 μg/mL) may disturb colonization resistance of human gut microbiota and select antimicrobial resistant E. faecalis. Most of the selected resistant E. faecalis carried resistant gene of ermB, transferable element of Tn1545 and three virulence genes (esp, cylA, and ace). One of them (E. faecalis 143) was confirmed to have higher horizontal transfer risk and higher pathogenicity. The calculated no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) and microbiological acceptable daily intake (mADI) in our study was 1 μg/mL and 14.66 μg/kg.bw/day, respectively. PMID:27092131

  18. The Rising Tide of Antimicrobial Resistance in Aquaculture: Sources, Sinks and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Joy E. M.; Schreier, Harold J.; Lanska, Lauma; Hale, Michelle S.

    2017-01-01

    As the human population increases there is an increasing reliance on aquaculture to supply a safe, reliable, and economic supply of food. Although food production is essential for a healthy population, an increasing threat to global human health is antimicrobial resistance. Extensive antibiotic resistant strains are now being detected; the spread of these strains could greatly reduce medical treatment options available and increase deaths from previously curable infections. Antibiotic resistance is widespread due in part to clinical overuse and misuse; however, the natural processes of horizontal gene transfer and mutation events that allow genetic exchange within microbial populations have been ongoing since ancient times. By their nature, aquaculture systems contain high numbers of diverse bacteria, which exist in combination with the current and past use of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and other treatment regimens—singularly or in combination. These systems have been designated as “genetic hotspots” for gene transfer. As our reliance on aquaculture grows, it is essential that we identify the sources and sinks of antimicrobial resistance, and monitor and analyse the transfer of antimicrobial resistance between the microbial community, the environment, and the farmed product, in order to better understand the implications to human and environmental health. PMID:28587172

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Pigeons from Public Parks in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Peña, K; Esperón, F; Torres-Mejía, A M; de la Torre, A; de la Cruz, E; Jiménez-Soto, M

    2017-02-24

    Antimicrobial resistance is known to be an emerging problem, but the extent of the issue remains incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of nine resistance genes (blaTEM , catI, mecA, qnrS, sulI, sulII, tet(A), tet(Q), vanA) in the faeces of 141 pigeons from four urban parks in Alajuela, Guadalupe, Tres Ríos and San José in Costa Rica. The genes were identified by real-time PCR directly from enema samples. About 30% of the samples were positive for genes catI and sulI; between 13% and 17% were positive for qnrS, sulII, tet(A) and tet(Q); and 4% were positive for blaTEM . The mecA and vanA genes were not detected. The average of antimicrobial resistance genes detected per pigeon was 2. Eight different patterns of resistance were identified, without differences in the sampling areas, being the most common pattern 2 (sulII positive samples). During rainy season, the genes more frequently found were sulI and tet(A). In conclusion, the urban inhabiting pigeons tested are currently carrying antimicrobial resistance genes, potentially acting as reservoirs of resistant bacteria and vectors to humans. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study carried out on direct detection of resistance genes in the digestive metagenomes of pigeons.

  20. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  1. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, Summer 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1999-01-01

    Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were determined in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway to assess whether pathogenic organisms pose a potential problem for recreational use. Samples were collected from May through September 1999 at 22 locations on the St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers. No concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria or standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Maximum fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were measured in the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Median fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were greater in the St. Croix River near Woodland Corner, Wisconsin, and at Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota than at other locations sampled. There were no consistent short-term variations in fecal coliform or E. coli concentrations during the summer period or any significant relations between concentrations and stream discharge, based on these results.

  2. Fecal indicator bacteria contamination of fomites and household demand for surface disinfection products: a case study from Peru.

    PubMed

    Julian, Timothy R; MacDonald, Luke H; Guo, Yayi; Marks, Sara J; Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2013-11-01

    Surface-mediated disease transmission is understudied in developing countries, particularly in light of the evidence that surface concentrations of fecal bacteria typically exceed concentrations in developed countries by 10- to 100-fold. In this study, we examined fecal indicator bacterial contamination of dinner plates at 21 households in four peri-urban communities in the Peruvian Amazon. We also used surveys to estimate household use of and demand for surface disinfectants at 280 households. Despite detecting total coliform, enterococci, and Escherichia coli on 86%, 43%, and 24% of plates sampled, respectively, less than one-third of households were regularly using bleach to disinfect surfaces. Among non-users of bleach, only 3.2% of respondents reported a new demand for bleach, defined as a high likelihood of using bleach within the next year. This study highlights the potential for marketing approaches to increase use of and demand for surface disinfectants to improve domestic hygiene.

  3. Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination of Fomites and Household Demand for Surface Disinfection Products: A Case Study from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Timothy R.; MacDonald, Luke H.; Guo, Yayi; Marks, Sara J.; Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P.; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-mediated disease transmission is understudied in developing countries, particularly in light of the evidence that surface concentrations of fecal bacteria typically exceed concentrations in developed countries by 10- to 100-fold. In this study, we examined fecal indicator bacterial contamination of dinner plates at 21 households in four peri-urban communities in the Peruvian Amazon. We also used surveys to estimate household use of and demand for surface disinfectants at 280 households. Despite detecting total coliform, enterococci, and Escherichia coli on 86%, 43%, and 24% of plates sampled, respectively, less than one-third of households were regularly using bleach to disinfect surfaces. Among non-users of bleach, only 3.2% of respondents reported a new demand for bleach, defined as a high likelihood of using bleach within the next year. This study highlights the potential for marketing approaches to increase use of and demand for surface disinfectants to improve domestic hygiene. PMID:24019431

  4. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Weingarden, Alexa R; Unno, Tatsuya; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a more widely used technology for treatment of recurrent Clostridum difficile infection (CDI). While previous treatments used fresh fecal slurries as a source of microbiota for FMT, we recently reported the successful use of standardized, partially purified and frozen fecal microbiota to treat CDI. Here we report that high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed stable engraftment of gut microbiota following FMT using frozen fecal bacteria from a healthy donor. Similar bacterial taxa were found in post-transplantation samples obtained from the recipients and donor samples, but the relative abundance varied considerably between patients and time points. Post FMT samples from patients showed an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, representing 75-80% of the total sequence reads. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were less abundant (< 5%) than that found in patients prior to FMT. Post FMT samples from two patients were very similar to donor samples, with the Bacteroidetes phylum represented by a great abundance of members of the families Bacteroidaceae, Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, and were largely comprised of Bacteroides, Alistipes and Parabacteroides genera. Members of the phylum Firmicutes were represented by Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae and unclassified Clostridiales and members of the Firmicutes. One patient subsequently received antibiotics for an unrelated infection, resulting in an increase in the number of intestinal Proteobacteria, primarily Enterobacteriaceae. Our results demonstrate that frozen fecal microbiota from a healthy donor can be used to effectively treat recurrent CDI resulting in restoration of the structure of gut microbiota and clearing of Clostridum difficile.

  5. Risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario, Canada, in 2005 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

  6. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected in MDR Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium animal isolates from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The presence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella in food animals is concerning. To understand how antimicrobial resistance (AR) develops, the genetic elements responsible for MDR phenotypes in Salmonella animal isolates were investigated. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring...

  7. Genetic Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance identified in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Enteroccocus spp. isolated from U.S. food animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria are a global concern for humans and animals. Infections by organisms carrying AR and multi-drug resistance (MDR) can be difficult to treat and lead to serious complications. Since the mid 1990’s, the prevalence of AR in bacteria...

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Cattle Feces in United States Feedlots in 2011.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Kopral, Christine A; Erdman, Matthew M; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from feces of cattle in feedlots in the United States. Fecal samples were collected from up to three pens of cattle in each of 68 feedlots in 12 states. Samples included up to 25 individual fecal pats from the pen floors and up to five composite samples from the floors of the same pens. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 9.1% (460/5050) and 11.3% (114/1009) for individual and composite samples, respectively. The prevalences of Salmonella at the pen level were 35.6% (72/202) and 22.8% (46/202) for individual and composite samples, respectively. Dietary factors, including inclusion of cottonseed hulls, coccidiostats, and antimicrobial drugs, were associated with differences in prevalence of Salmonella isolation. Overall, 32 serotypes of Salmonella were identified, but six serotypes accounted for 69.1% (495/716) of the isolates. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%, 44/68) of feedlots had at least one positive sample. All isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. Most isolates (74.4%, 533/716) were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs in the panel. When resistance was detected, it was most commonly to tetracycline (21.7%, 155/716 of isolates) or sulfisoxazole (12.4%, 89/716 of isolates). Less than 10% of the isolates were resistant to any other antimicrobials in the panel. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in individual fecal samples was less than 10%, but that Salmonella is widely distributed among feedlot cattle. Furthermore, when Salmonella is present in feedlot cattle, there is a low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance with the exception of tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. More research is indicated to understand the ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance, when present, in cattle-feeding operations.

  9. Management of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam: diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein and newborn scale of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance pattern of etiological bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mkony, Martha Franklin; Mizinduko, Mucho Michael; Massawe, Augustine; Matee, Mecky

    2014-12-05

    We determined the accuracy of Rubarth's newborn scale of sepsis and C- reactive protein in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and assessed antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of etiological bacteria. This cross sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July 2012 and March 2013. Neonates suspected to have sepsis underwent physical examination using Rubarth's newborn scale of sepsis (RNSOS). Blood was taken for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing, full blood picture and C - reactive protein (CRP) performed 12 hours apart. The efficacy of RNSOS and serial CRP was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as well as likelihood ratios (LHR) with blood culture result used as a gold standard. Out of 208 blood samples, 19.2% had a positive blood culture. Single CRP had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 70.9% respectively, while RNSOS had sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 79.7%. Serial CRP had sensitivity of 69.0% and specificity of 92.9%. Combination of CRP and RNSOS increased sensitivity to 95.6% and specificity of 56.4%. Combination of two CRP and RNSOS decreased sensitivity to 89.1% but increased specificity to 74%. ROC for CRP was 0.86; and for RNSOS was 0.81. For CRP the LHR for positive test was 3 while for negative test was 0.18, while for RNSOS the corresponding values were 3.24 and for negative test was 0.43. Isolated bacteria were Klebsiella spp 14 (35%), Escherichia coli 12 (22.5%), Coagulase negative staphlococci 9 (30%), Staphylococcus aureus 4 (10%), and Pseudomonas spp 1 (2.5%). The overall resistance to the WHO recommended first line antibiotics was 100%, 92% and 42% for cloxacillin, ampicillin and gentamicin, respectively. For the second line drugs resistance was 45%, 40%, and 7% for ceftriaxone, vancomycin and amikacin respectively. Single CRP in combination with RNSOS can be used for rapid

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  11. Carbapenem susceptibilities and non-susceptibility concordance to different carbapenems amongst clinically important Gram-negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units in Taiwan: results from the Surveillance of Multicentre Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART) in 2009.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Wen-Sen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chang, Feng-Yi; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Yao-Shen; Liu, Jien-Wei; Lu, Min-Chi; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Lam, Carlos; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the in vitro susceptibilities to various carbapenems amongst clinical Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients in intensive care units of ten major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2009, a survey was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem and doripenem against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 594), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 185), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 192) and Burkholderia cepacia (n = 23) using the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities were determined according to 2009, 2011 and 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by the CLSI as well as 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by EUCAST. Based on CLSI 2012 criteria, the ertapenem susceptible rate was 93%, 81%, 68% and 92% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens, respectively. All Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolates were susceptible to ertapenem; however, 64% of P. mirabilis and all M. morganii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem. Meropenem and doripenem had better activities than imipenem against ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae with ertapenem MICs≥4 mg/L were synchronously not susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and doripenem. Imipenem susceptibility was 65% and 29% for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. Additionally, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates with imipenem MICs≥8 mg/L were also not susceptible to meropenem and doripenem. These data provide a better understanding of choosing appropriate carbapenem agents to treat infections caused by ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae as well as P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates with imipenem MICs≥4 mg/L.

  12. Effects of feeding elevated concentrations of copper and zinc on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, J Trent; Nagaraja, T G; Drouillard, James S; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2010-06-01

    Cattle are fed elevated concentrations of copper and zinc for growth promotion. The potential mechanisms of growth promotional effects of these elements are attributed to their antimicrobial activities, similar to that of antibiotics, in that gut microbial flora are altered to reduce fermentation loss of nutrients and to suppress gut pathogens. Copper and zinc fed at elevated concentrations may select for bacteria that are resistant not only to heavy metals but also to antibiotics. Our objectives were to determine the effects of feeding elevated copper and zinc on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal bacteria in feedlot cattle. Twenty heifers, fed corn-based high-grain diets, were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 1X or 10X National Research Council recommended copper and/or zinc. Feces, collected on days 0, 14, and 32, were cultured for commensal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) to determine their susceptibilities to copper, zinc, and antibiotics. Fecal DNA was extracted to detect tcrB gene and quantify erm(B) and tet(M) genes. In E. coli and Enterococcus sp., minimal differences in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of copper, zinc, and antibiotics were noticed. The mean copper MIC for E. coli increased (p < 0.05) between days 0 and 32 and days 14 and 32. The only treatment effect detected was increased zinc MIC of E. coli isolates (p < 0.01). The tcrB gene was not detected in feces or in enterococcal isolates. Proportions of erm(B) and tet(M) were unaffected by copper or zinc supplementation. However, the proportion of tet(M) increased (p < 0.05) between days 0 and 14. Feeding elevated copper and/or zinc to feedlot cattle had marginal effects on antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal E. coli and enterococci.

  13. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of total and propidium monoazide-resistant fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Field, R; Stinson, M; Rukovets, B; Wymer, L; Haugland, R

    2009-11-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. These methods were used in the analyses of wastewater samples to investigate their feasibility as alternatives to current fecal indicator bacteria culture methods for predicting the efficiency of viral pathogen removal by standard treatment processes. PMA treatment was effective in preventing qPCR detection of target sequences from non-viable cells. Concentrates of small volume, secondary-treated wastewater samples, collected from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) under normal operating conditions, had little influence on this effectiveness. Higher levels of total suspended solids, such as those associated with normal primary treatment and all treatment stages during storm flow events, appeared to interfere with PMA effectiveness under the sample preparation conditions employed. During normal operating conditions at three different POTWs, greater reductions were observed in PMA-qPCR detectable target sequences of both Enterococcus and Bacteroidales than in total qPCR detectable sequences. These reductions were not as great as those observed for cultivable fecal indicator bacteria in response to wastewater disinfection. Reductions of PMA-qPCR as well as total qPCR detectable target sequences from enterococci and, to a lesser extent, Bacteroidales correlated well with reductions in infectious viruses during both normal and storm flow operating conditions and therefore may have predictive value in determining the efficiency at which these pathogens are removed.

  14. Sunlight Inactivation of Fecal Bacteriophages and Bacteria in Sewage-Polluted Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Lester W.; Finlay, Rochelle K.; Lynch, Philippa A.

    1999-01-01

    Sunlight inactivation rates of somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages (F-RNA phages), and fecal coliforms were compared in seven summer and three winter survival experiments. Experiments were conducted outdoors, using 300-liter 2% (vol/vol) sewage-seawater mixtures held in open-top chambers. Dark inactivation rates (kDs), measured from exponential survival curves in enclosed (control) chambers, were higher in summer (temperature range: 14 to 20°C) than in winter (temperature range: 8 to 10°C). Winter kDs were highest for fecal coliforms and lowest for F-RNA phages but were the same or similar for all three indicators in summer. Sunlight inactivation rates (kS), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were all higher than the kDs with a consistent kS ranking (from greatest to least) as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages. Phage inactivation was exponential, but bacterial curves typically exhibited a shoulder. Phages from raw sewage exhibited kSs similar to those from waste stabilization pond effluent, but raw sewage fecal coliforms were inactivated faster than pond effluent fecal coliforms. In an experiment which included F-DNA phages and Bacteroides fragilis phages, the kS ranking (from greatest to least) was as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, B. fragilis phages, F-DNA phages, and somatic coliphages. In a 2-day experiment which included enterococci, the initial concentration ranking (from greatest to least: fecal coliforms, enterococci, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages) was reversed during sunlight exposure, with only the phages remaining detectable by the end of day 2. Inactivation rates under different optical filters decreased with the increase in spectral cutoff wavelength (50% light transmission) and indicated that F-RNA phages and fecal coliforms are more susceptible than somatic coliphages to longer solar wavelengths, which predominate in seawater. The consistently superior survival

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence: a Successful or Deleterious Association in the Bacterial World?

    PubMed Central

    Beceiro, Alejandro; Tomás, María

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hosts and bacteria have coevolved over millions of years, during which pathogenic bacteria have modified their virulence mechanisms to adapt to host defense systems. Although the spread of pathogens has been hindered by the discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance has increased globally. The emergence of resistant bacteria has accelerated in recent years, mainly as a result of increased selective pressure. However, although antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence have developed on different timescales, they share some common characteristics. This review considers how bacterial virulence and fitness are affected by antibiotic resistance and also how the relationship between virulence and resistance is affected by different genetic mechanisms (e.g., coselection and compensatory mutations) and by the most prevalent global responses. The interplay between these factors and the associated biological costs depend on four main factors: the bacterial species involved, virulence and resistance mechanisms, the ecological niche, and the host. The development of new strategies involving new antimicrobials or nonantimicrobial compounds and of novel diagnostic methods that focus on high-risk clones and rapid tests to detect virulence markers may help to resolve the increasing problem of the association between virulence and resistance, which is becoming more beneficial for pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23554414

  16. Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-05-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters.

  17. Longitudinal Poisson Regression To Evaluate the Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Coastal California Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A.; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters. PMID:22427504

  18. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples were analyzed for the presence of FIB concentrations (FIB; fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli [E. coli], and enterococci) by using membrane filtration and serial dilution methods. The resulting enrichments from standard culturing of the samples were then analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the occurrence of pathogen gene markers for Shigella species, Campylobacter jejuni and coli, Salmonellaspecies, and pathogenic E. coli, including Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).

  19. The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in two species of invasive alien mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Obi, Takeshi; Sakemi, Yoko; Nakayama, Ayano; Miyazaki, Kei; Ogura, Go; Tamaki, Masanobu; Oka, Tatsuzo; Takase, Kozo; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 128 Escherichia coli isolates was investigated in two species of invasive alien mammals (IAMs): the small Asian mongoose (SAM) and Japanese weasel (JW). The SAM is found on the main island of Okinawa, Japan, where a large number of livestock is available, and the JW is present on a small island, where is isolated from the main island, and have a small number of livestock. We focused on the two IAMs, inhabiting under the different environments, and compared their prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. In the comparison of the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates between the SAM and JW, JW showed significantly higher prevalence of resistance against three drugs, ampicillin, chlortetracycline and nalidixic acid, compared with SAM's test results (P<0.05). The bla(TEM) gene and the aph1 gene were detected in 35 subjects (91%) of ampicillin-resistant isolates and 6 subjects (100%) of kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively. The tet (A) gene was detected in 62 subjects (46%) of CTC-resistant isolates, and the tet (B) gene was detected in 25 subjects (8%) of those in IAM. The present results suggest that some IAMs were the carrier of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their genes, and the frequencies of these resistances were different between two IAM species.

  20. Characterization of fecal indicator bacteria in sediments cores from the largest freshwater lake of Western Europe (Lake Geneva, Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Florian; Regier, Nicole; Benagli, Cinzia; Tonolla, Mauro; Adatte, Thierry; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2012-04-01

    This study characterized the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enteroccocus (ENT), disseminated over time in the Bay of Vidy, which is the most contaminated area of Lake Geneva. Sediments were collected from a site located at ∼500 m from the present waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outlet pipe, in front of the former WWTP outlet pipe, which was located at only 300 m from the coastal recreational area (before 2001). E. coli and ENT were enumerated in sediment suspension using the membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for human Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and human specific bacteroides by PCR using specific primers and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bacterial cultures revealed that maximum values of 35.2 × 10(8) and 6.6 × 10(6)CFU g(-1) dry sediment for E. coli and ENT, respectively, were found in the sediments deposited following eutrophication of Lake Geneva in the 1970s, whereas the WWTP started operating in 1964. The same tendency was observed for the presence of human fecal pollution: the percentage of PCR amplification with primers ESP-1/ESP-2 for E. faecalis and E. faecium indicated that more than 90% of these bacteria were from human origin. Interestingly, the PCR assays for specific-human bacteroides HF183/HF134 were positive for DNA extracted from all isolated strains of sediment surrounding WWPT outlet pipe discharge. The MALDI-TOF MS confirmed the presence of general E. coli and predominance E. faecium in isolated strains. Our results demonstrated that human fecal bacteria highly increased in the sediments contaminated with WWTP effluent following the eutrophication of Lake Geneva. Additionally, other FIB cultivable strains from animals or adapted environmental strains were detected in the sediment of the bay. The approaches used in this research are valuable to assess the

  1. FECAL BACTERIA SOURCE TRACKING AND BACTEROIDES SPP. HOST SPECIES SPECIFICITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the po...

  2. Influence of weaning on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of the current research were to determine the effect of weaning on fecal shedding of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in dairy calves and to examine cultured isolates (to include Enterococcus) for antimicrobial susceptibility. This research was conducted on one large commercial dairy (...

  3. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods for the identification of fecal microorganisms in surface waters has the potential to revolutionize water quality monitoring worldwide. Unlike traditional cultivation methods, qPCR estimates the concentration of gen...

  4. FECAL BACTERIA SOURCE TRACKING AND BACTEROIDES SPP. HOST SPECIES SPECIFICITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the po...

  5. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods for the identification of fecal microorganisms in surface waters has the potential to revolutionize water quality monitoring worldwide. Unlike traditional cultivation methods, qPCR estimates the concentration of gen...

  6. Within-House Spatial Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Poultry Litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land application of poultry litter is often considered to be a major source of water pollutants in poultry-producing regions. However, reported levels of fecal indicator microorganisms in litter vary widely with considerable variation possible within houses and across farms depending upon management...

  7. Engineering solutions to improve the removal of fecal indicator bacteria by bioinfiltration systems during intermittent flow of stormwater.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Torkelson, Andrew A; Dodd, Hanna; Nelson, Kara L; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-01

    Bioinfiltration systems facilitate the infiltration of urban stormwater into soil and reduce high flow events and flooding. Stormwater carries a myriad of pollutants including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Significant knowledge gaps exist about the ability of bioinfiltration systems to remove and retain FIB. The present study investigates the ability of model, simplified bioinfiltration systems containing quartz sand and iron oxide-coated quartz sand (IOCS) to remove two FIB (Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli) suspended in synthetic stormwater with and without natural organic matter (NOM) as well as the potential for accumulated FIB to be remobilized during intermittent flow. The experiments were conducted in two phases: (1) the saturated columns packed with either sand or IOCS were contaminated by injecting stormwater with bacteria followed by injection of sterile stormwater and (2) the contaminated columns were subjected to intermittent infiltration of sterile stormwater preceded by a pause during which columns were either kept saturated or drained by gravity. During intermittent flow, fewer bacteria were released from the saturated column compared to the column drained by gravity: 12% of attached E. coli and 3% of attached Ent. faecalis were mobilized from the drained sand column compared to 3% of attached E. coli and 2% attached Ent. faecalis mobilized from the saturated sand column. Dry and wet cycles introduce moving air-water interfaces that can scour bacteria from grain surfaces. During intermittent flows, less than 0.2% of attached bacteria were mobilized from IOCS, which bound both bacteria irreversibly in the absence of NOM. Addition of NOM, however, increased bacterial mobilization from IOCS: 50% of attached E. coli and 8% of attached Ent. faecalis were released from IOCS columns during draining and rewetting. Results indicate that using geomedia such as IOCS that promote irreversible attachment of bacteria, and maintaining saturated

  8. Measuring and modeling the flux of fecal bacteria across the sediment-water interface in a turbulent stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Stanley B.; Litton-Mueller, Rachel M.; Ahn, Jong H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediments are a pervasive source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and oceans and may constitute a long-term reservoir of human disease. Previous attempts to quantify the flux of FIB across the sediment-water interface (SWI) are limited to extreme flow events, for which the primary mechanism of bacterial release is disruption and/or erosion of the sediment substrate. Here we report measurements of FIB flux across the SWI in a turbulent stream that is not undergoing significant erosion. The stream is formed by the steady discharge of bacteria-free disinfected and highly treated wastewater effluent to an earthen channel harboring high concentrations of FIB in the sediment from in situ growth. The flux j″ of FIB across the SWI, estimated from mass balance on FIB measurements in the water column, scales linearly with the concentration of bacteria in sediment po